Science.gov

Sample records for nonlactating cows submitted

  1. Strategies to improve fertility in Bos indicus postpubertal heifers and nonlactating cows submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Peres, R F G; Claro, I; Sá Filho, O G; Nogueira, G P; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-09-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate strategies to increase fertility of Bos indicus postpubertal heifers and nonlactating cows submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol consisting of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone (CIDR) insertion+estradiol benzoate on Day 0, CIDR withdrawal+estradiol cypionate on Day 9, and TAI on Day 11. In Experiment 1, heifers (n=1153) received a new or an 18-d previously used CIDR and, on Day 9, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha))+0, 200, or 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Heifers treated with a new CIDR had greater (least squares means+/-SEM) serum concentration of progesterone on Day 9 (3.06+/-0.09 ng/mL vs. 2.53+/-0.09 ng/mL; P<0.05) and a smaller follicle at TAI (11.61+/-0.11 mm vs. 12.05+/-0.12 mm; P<0.05). Heifers with smaller follicles at TAI had lesser serum progesterone concentrations on Day 18 and reduced rates of ovulation, conception, and pregnancy (P<0.05). Treatment with eCG improved (P<0.05) follicle diameter at TAI (11.50+/-0.10mm, 11.90+/-0.11 mm, and 12.00+/-0.10mm for 0, 100, and 200 IU, respectively), serum progesterone concentration on Day 18 (2.77+/-0.11 ng/mL, 3.81+/-0.11 ng/mL, and 4.87+/-0.11 ng/mL), and rates of ovulation (83.8%, 88.5%, and 94.3%) and pregnancy (41.3%, 47.0%, and 46.7%). In Experiment 2, nonlactating Nelore cows (n=702) received PGF(2 alpha) treatment on Days 7 or 9 and, on Day 9, 0 or 300 IU eCG. Cows receiving PGF(2 alpha) on Day 7 had lesser serum progesterone concentrations on Day 9 (3.05+/-0.21 ng/mL vs. 4.58+/-0.21 ng/mL; P<0.05), a larger follicle at TAI (11.54+/-0.21 mm vs. 10.84+/-0.21 mm; P<0.05), and improved (P<0.05) rates of ovulation (85.4% vs. 77.0%), conception (60.9% vs. 47.2%), and pregnancy (52.0% vs. 36.4%). Treatment with eCG improved (P<0.05) serum progesterone concentration on Day 18 (3.24+/-0.14 ng/mL vs. 4.55+/-0.14 ng/mL) and the rates of ovulation (72.4% vs. 90.0%) and pregnancy (37.5% vs. 50.8%). In

  2. Effect of anionic salts on selenium metabolism in nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gant, R G; Sanchez, W; Kincaid, R L

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine whether anionic salts in the diets of nonlactating, pregnant cows for 14 to 21 d prepartum affected measures of Se status. One of three dietary treatments (control, anionic salts, and anionic salts plus Se) was administered to 34 nonlactating, pregnant cows using a completely randomized design with repeated measures. The anionic salts were delivered via gelatin capsules that were administered orally in two equal amounts per day, and the Se (3 mg/d) was administered via an intraruminal bolus. The incidence of milk fever among cows was not significantly different across dietary treatments. The severity of hypocalcemia as indicated by concentrations of ionized Ca in serum collected < 2 h postpartum was significantly lessened by dietary anionic salts. Supplementation of anionic salts to the diet did not significantly affect serum Ca concentrations at either 7 d prepartum or 7 d postpartum. Anionic salts did not affect concentrations of Se in blood; however, Se supplementation of the diets of cows significantly increased postpartum concentrations of Se in serum. No treatment effects were detected for concentrations of Se in either serum or whole blood of newborn calves. In conclusion, these data indicate that diets supplemented with anionic salts for 14 to 21 d prepartum and the supplementation of diets with Se had independent effects on concentrations of minerals in blood. Thus, anionic salts administered to prevent milk fever without danger of significantly reducing the transfer of Se from the dam to the calf and without compromising the Se status of the cow when the anionic salts are limited to administration for 14 to 21 d before calving.

  3. Nitrate but not tea saponin feed additives decreased enteric methane emissions in nonlactating cows.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-11-01

    Tea saponin is considered a promising natural compound for reducing enteric methane emissions in ruminants. A trial was conducted to study the effect of this plant extract fed alone or in combination with nitrate on methane emissions, total tract digestive processes, and ruminal characteristics in cattle. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 ruminally cannulated nonlactating dairy cows. Feed offer was restricted to 90% of voluntary intake and diets consisted of (DM basis): 1) control (CON; 50% hay and 50% pelleted concentrates), 2) CON with 0.5% tea saponin (TEA), 3) CON with 2.3% nitrate (NIT), and 4) CON with 0.5% tea saponin and 2.3% nitrate (TEA+NIT). Tea saponin and nitrate were included in pelleted concentrates. Diets contained similar amounts of CP (12.2%), starch (26.0%), and NDF (40.1%). Experimental periods lasted 5 wk including 2 wk of measurement (wk 4 and 5), during which intake was measured daily. In wk 4, daily methane emissions were quantified for 4 d using open circuit respiratory chambers. In wk 5, total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were determined from total feces and urine collected separately for 6 d. Ruminal fermentation products and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding for 2 nonconsecutive days in wk 5. Tea saponin and nitrate supplementation decreased feed intake ( < 0.05), with an additive effect when fed in combination. Compared with CON, tea saponin did not modify methane emissions (g/kg DMI; > 0.05), whereas nitrate-containing diets (NIT and TEA+NIT) decreased methanogenesis by 28%, on average ( < 0.001). Total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were similar among diets. Ruminal fermentation products were not affected by tea saponin, whereas nitrate-containing diets increased acetate proportion and decreased butyrate proportion and ammonia concentration ( < 0.05). Under the

  4. Effect of increasing body condition on oxidative stress and mitochondrial biogenesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laubenthal, L; Ruda, L; Sultana, N; Winkler, J; Rehage, J; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2017-06-01

    With the onset of lactation, dairy cows with a body condition score >3.5 are sensitive to oxidative stress and metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue (AT) can adapt to varying metabolic demands and energy requirements by the plasticity of its size during lactation. In AT, angiogenesis is necessary to guarantee sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply for adipocytes. Cellular energy metabolism is reflected mainly by mitochondria, which can be quantified by the mitochondrial DNA copy number per cell. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of overconditioning on angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in AT of nonlactating cows, irrespective of the physiological influences of lactation and pregnancy. Eight nonpregnant, nonlactating cows received a ration of increasing energy density for 15 wk, during which body weight and body condition increased substantially. Subcutaneous AT was biopsied every 8 wk, and blood was sampled monthly. The blood concentrations of indicators of oxidative stress increased continuously throughout the experimental period, possibly damaging mitochondrial DNA. Concomitantly, HIF-1α, a major marker for hypoxia, increased until wk 8, indicating insufficient angiogenesis in the rapidly expanding AT. Based on the observation that the number of apoptotic cells decreased with increasing hypoxia, the increasing mitochondrial DNA copy numbers might compensate for the hypoxia, reinforcing the production of oxidative stressors. Key transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis were largely unaffected. Thus, increased oxidative stress does not impair mitochondrial DNA. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transport of fatty acids within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows fed on fish oil and hydrogenated palm oil.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Íñiguez-González, G; Garnsworthy, P C; Loor, J J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary fish oil (FO) and a blend of FO and hydrogenated palm oil (FOPO) on transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Two trials were conducted (one with lactating and another with non-lactating dairy cows) in two 3 × 3 Latin squares that included three periods of 21 days. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (Control; no fat supplement), and fat-supplemented diets containing FO (500 g/day/cow) and FOPO (250 FO + 250 g/day/cow hydrogenated palm oil). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (Control; no fat supplement), and fat-supplemented diets containing FO (170 g/day/cow) and FOPO (85 FO + 85 hydrogenated palm oil g/day/cow). In lactating cows, compared with control and FOPO, FO increased C16:0, C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in plasma and increased C16:0, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, total polyunsaturated and total polyunsaturated n-6 in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas in non-lactating cows, compared with control and FOPO, FO increased C16:0, C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 trans-9, 12, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, C20:5 n-3 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in plasma; C16:0, C18:1 trans-11, C18:1 cis-9, C18:2 trans-9, 12, C20:5 n-3 and total monounsaturated FA in HDL; and C18:1 trans-6-8, C18:1 trans-9, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15 and C20:5 n-3 in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). FO increased C20:5 n-3 in plasma and lipoproteins in non-lactating cows and increased C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15 in plasma (in lactating cows) and LDL (in non-lactating cows). We concluded from results of this study that in bovine plasma, the LDL fraction appears to be the main lipoprotein transporting C18:1 trans isomers and is more responsive than other lipoprotein fractions to variation in supply of dietary lipids. Journal of Animal Physiology and

  6. The effect of porcine luteinizing hormone in the synchronization of ovulation and corpus luteum development in nonlactating cows.

    PubMed

    Ree, T O; Colazo, M G; Lamont, A G A; Kastelic, J P; Dyck, M K; Mapletoft, R J; Ametaj, B N; Ambrose, D J

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) versus 100 microg gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on ovulatory response (during diestrus and proestrus) and corpus luteum (CL) development in nonlactating cows. In Experiment 1, 75 cows received an intravaginal insert containing 1.9 g progesterone (P4) for 10 d to synchronize estrus (Day 0), with prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF) at insert removal. On Day 5, all follicles >or=8mm were ablated, and on Day 12, cows received 8, 12.5, or 25mg pLH or 100 microg GnRH. Mean (+/-SEM) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 12 did not differ among treatments (5.6+/-0.2 ng/mL). Mean plasma LH concentration was greatest (P<0.01) in cows given 25mg pLH (4.3+/-0.4 ng/mL). The ovulatory response to 25mg pLH (84%) or 100 microg GnRH (72%) was greater (P<0.05) than that to 8 mg pLH (32%), but not different from that of 12.5mg pLH (58%). In Experiment 2, 68 cows were given two injections of PGF 10d apart to synchronize estrus (Day 0). On Day 7, cows received PGF, and, 36 h later, pLH or GnRH (as in Experiment 1). The interval from treatment to ovulation was most variable in cows given 8 mg pLH; only 65% of these cows ovulated during the initial 27 h versus 88% of cows given 25mg pLH (P<0.05). Cows given 25mg pLH or 100 microg GnRH had larger CL area and greater plasma P4 concentrations (P<0.05) than that of those given 8 mg pLH. In summary, diestrous cows given 25mg pLH had the greatest plasma luteinizing hormone concentrations, but ovulatory response did not differ from that of those given 100 microg GnRH. Proestrous cows given 25mg pLH or 100 microg GnRH had greater CL area and P4 concentrations than that of those given 8 mg pLH.

  7. Differing effects of 2 active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains on ruminal acidosis and methane production in nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Walker, N D; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-05-01

    Fifteen ruminally cannulated, nonlactating Holstein cows were used to measure the effects of 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fed as active dried yeasts, on ruminal pH and fermentation and enteric methane (CH(4)) emissions. Nonlactating cows were blocked by total duration (h) that their ruminal pH was below 5.8 during a 6-d pre-experimental period. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to control (no yeast), yeast strain 1 (Levucell SC), or yeast strain 2 (a novel strain selected for enhanced in vitro fiber degradation), with both strains (Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montréal, QC, Canada) providing 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day. Cows were fed once daily a total mixed ration consisting of a 50:50 forage to concentrate ratio (dry matter basis). The yeast strains were dosed via the rumen cannula daily at the time of feeding. During the 35-d experiment, ruminal pH was measured continuously for 7 d (d 22 to 28) by using an indwelling system, and CH(4) gas was measured for 4 d (d 32 to 35) using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique (with halters and yokes). Rumen contents were sampled on 2 d (d 22 and 26) at 0, 3, and 6h after feeding. Dry matter intake, body weight, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients were not affected by yeast feeding. Strain 2 decreased the average daily minimum (5.35 vs. 5.65 or 5.66), mean (5.98 vs. 6.24 or 6.34), and maximum ruminal pH (6.71 vs. 6.86 or 6.86), and prolonged the time that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (7.5 vs. 3.3 or 1.0 h/d) compared with the control or strain 1, respectively. The molar percentage of acetate was lower and that of propionate was greater in the ruminal fluid of cows receiving strain 2 compared with cows receiving no yeast or strain 1. Enteric CH(4) production adjusted for intake of dry matter or gross energy, however, did not differ between either yeast strain compared with the control but it tended to be reduced by 10% when strain 2 was compared with strain 1. The study shows that

  8. Superstimulation prior to the ovum pick-up to improve in vitro embryo production in lactating and non-lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Castro Netto, A; Guerreiro, B M; Silveira, C R A; Moreira, R J C; Sá Filho, M F; Bó, G A; Mapletoft, R J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-07-15

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of superstimulation with p-FSH (Folltropin) before the ovum pick-up (OPU) on IVP in lactating and nonlactating Holstein donors. A total of 30 Holstein cows (15 lactating and 15 nonlactating) were blocked by lactation status to one of two groups (control or p-FSH), in a cross-over design. On a random day of the estrous cycle, all cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and 2.0 mg IM of estradiol benzoate (Day 0). Cows in the control group received no further treatment, whereas cows in the p-FSH group received a total dosage of 200 mg of p-FSH on Days 4 and 5 in four decreasing doses 12 hours apart (57, 57, 43, and 43 mg). On Day 7, the progesterone device was removed, and OPU was conducted in both groups (40 hours after the last p-FSH injection in the p-FSH-treated group). There was no difference between groups (P = 0.92) in the numbers of follicles that were aspirated per OPU session (17.2 ± 1.3 vs. 17.1 ± 1.1 in control and p-FSH-treated cows, respectively); however, p-FSH-treated cows had a higher (P < 0.001) percentage of medium-sized follicles (6-10 mm) at the time of the OPU (55.1%; 285/517) than control cows (20.8%; 107/514). Although recovery rate was lower (60.0%, 310/517 vs. 69.8%, 359/514; P = 0.002), p-FSH-treated cows had a higher blastocyst production rate (34.5%, 89/258 vs. 19.8%, 55/278; P < 0.001) and more transferable embryos per OPU session were produced in the p-FSH group (3.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4; P = 0.02). Regardless of treatment, non-lactating cows had a higher blastocyst rate (41.9%, 106/253 vs. 13.4%, 38/283; P = 0.001) and produced more transferable embryos per OPU session (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3; P = 0.003) than lactating cows. Thus, superstimulation of Holstein donors with p-FSH before OPU increased the efficiency of IVP. In addition, non-lactating donors had higher percentage of in vitro blastocyst development and produced more embryos per OPU session than lactating cows.

  9. Source of metabolizable energy affects gene transcription in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crookenden, M A; Mandok, K S; Grala, T M; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Roche, J R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue could provide some explanation for the low efficiency with which ME in autumn pasture is used for BW gain. Nonlactating, pregnant (208 ± 19 d of gestation or approximately 75 d precalving) dairy cows (n = 90) were randomly allocated to either a control diet (i.e., offered fresh autumn pasture to maintenance requirements: 0.55 MJ ME/kg of measured metabolic BW [BW0.75] per day) or, in addition to the control diet, 1 of 2 supplement amounts (2.5 and 5.0 kg DM/d) of autumn pasture or 1 of 4 supplementary feeds (i.e., a control and 2 levels of feeding for each of 5 feeds: 11 groups of cows). Along with autumn pasture, evaluated feeds included spring pasture silage, maize silage, maize grain, and palm kernel expeller. Adipose and liver tissues were biopsied in wk 4 of the experiment and transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways associated with energy metabolism, lipolysis, and lipogenesis was determined. Additional feed, irrespective of type, increased BW gain (P < 0.01) and this effect was reflected in the expression of genes in adipose and liver tissue. However, autumn pasture had lower energy-use efficiency than the other feeds. Genes involved in both lipogenesis (ACACA, THRSP, GPAM, GPD1, and LPL) and lipolysis (PNPLA2) were upregulated (P < 0.05) in adipose tissue in response to increased ME intake/kilogram BW0.75. Hepatic expression of APOA1 decreased and that of APOB increased (P < 0.05) in cows offered maize grain and maize silage (i.e., starch-containing feeds). In comparison, pasture-fed cows demonstrated a degree of uncoupling of the somatotropic axis, with lower hepatic transcript abundance of both GHR1A and IGF-1 compared with cows offered any of the other 4 feeds. Changes to gene transcription indicate a possible molecular mechanism for the poor BW gain evident in ruminants consuming autumn

  10. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  11. Effect of feeding rumen protected rice bran on calcium homeostasis of non-lactating multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; van Puijenbroek, R; van Vuuren, A M; van Laar, H; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2011-04-01

    Milk fever in dairy cows can be prevented by activating Ca homeostasis before calving. Homeostatic adaptation can be achieved by reducing dietary Ca availability. Formaldehyde-treated rice bran was studied to supply rumen protected phytic acid to reduce Ca availability. Twelve multiparous dry cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square change-over design with 5-day periods to test three dietary treatments. Diets consisted of a forage mix (maize silage, grass silage and hay), being 77% of ration dry matter, supplemented with three concentrates: Control (no formaldehyde-treated rice bran), T1 (100% formaldehyde-treated rice bran) and T2 (99.5% formaldehyde-treated rice bran with 0.6% Ca carbonate, to equal Ca content of Control). Dietary treatments did not affect urine pH (8.14, 8.13 and 8.11 for Control, T1 and T2 respectively) or dry matter intake (13.9, 13.7 and 13.8 kg for Control, T1 and T2 respectively). Including formaldehyde-treated rice bran in the diet resulted in lower urinary Ca/creatinine ratio (0.970, 0.457 and 0.618 for Control, T1 and T2 respectively). A sudden increase of urinary Ca excretion took place after withdrawal of T1 and T2 at introduction of Control, peaking on the first day and coming back down progressively in the second and third days. Peak was greatest after T1 and was not observed in transitions between rice bran treatments. This is understood as indirect evidence of activation of intestinal Ca absorption during formaldehyde-treated rice bran feeding, because renal adaptations to changes in blood Ca clearance are immediate and intestinal adaptations delay 2 days. It was concluded that including formaldehyde-treated rice bran in rations before calving may represent a dietary strategy to prevent milk fever without reducing dry matter intake. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  13. Feed degradability, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in response to essential oil addition to fistulated non-lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Nanon, Atitthan; Meeprom, Chayapol; Lounglawan, Pipat

    2017-02-09

    The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day. The results demonstrated that EOs increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradabilities at 48 and 72 h, but had no effect on acid detergent fiber and CP degradabilities. EOs did not change ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa, volatile fatty acid concentrations and blood glucose but reduced blood urea nitrogen at 4 h.

  14. Evaluation of an alternative dosing regimen of a J-5 mastitis vaccine against intramammary Escherichia coli challenge in nonlactating late-gestation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Abhijit A; Klaessig, Suzanne; Salmon, Sarah A; Yancey, Robert J; Schukken, Ynte H

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative vaccination regimen of a J-5 bacterin against intramammary Escherichia coli challenge in nonlactating late-gestation dairy cows. The parameters analyzed to assess the effect of vaccination were milk yield, milk conductivity, somatic cell count, J-5-specific serum IgG titers, and clinical signs. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows from the Cornell teaching and research dairy herd were paired by days in milk and were randomly selected to receive either the alternative off-label regimen of commercial J-5 bacterin or act as nonvaccinated controls. Cows received a first dose of bacterin 15 d before dry off, a second dose with the same product at the day of dry off, and the third dose 2 wk after dry off. The cows in both groups were challenged 10 d before the expected calving date. Serum IgG (total, IgG1 and IgG2) levels were higher in vaccinates compared with control cows. Eighty-five percent of challenged quarters became infected between both groups of animals. Eight of the 10 vaccinated and 9 of the 10 control cows showed signs of clinical mastitis postfreshening. A non-severe clinical mastitis was observed 24 to 48 h postparturition, characterized by flakes or clots in milk and mild swelling or pain. Off-label vaccination did reduce the clinical severity of clinical mastitis in the vaccinated group of cows as evidenced by reduced California mastitis test score, fewer flakes and lower overall clinical mastitis score. No significant differences between vaccinated and control groups were detected for rectal temperature. In conclusion, the alternative off-label vaccination scheme used in our study and evaluated in a novel E. coli challenge model did not prevent new intramammary infections but reduced clinical severity of experimentally induced E. coli mastitis. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of a metabolically created systemic acidosis on calcium homeostasis and the diurnal variation in urine pH in the non-lactating pregnant dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Roche, John R; Dalley, Dawn E; O'Mara, Frank P

    2007-02-01

    Reducing the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been shown to be an effective means of preventing parturient paresis in confinement systems where cows are offered a total mixed ration containing DCAD-reducing mineral compounds (anionic salts). Such a supplementation strategy is not possible in cows being group fed forages precalving, and little is known about the effect of supplementing these cows with large amounts of anionic salts twice daily. Eight non-lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows were allocated to two levels of DCAD (-20 and +18 meq/100 g DM) for 24 d, with an intensive Ca balance undertaken in metabolism stalls following a 2-week acclimatization to diet. The basal diet was 3 kg DM of crushed barley and 7 kg DM of pasture-hay. Urine and faeces were collected separately, weighed daily for 5 d and analysed for Ca content. Urinary Ca, creatinine and hydroxyproline concentration and plasma Ca concentration were determined during the period of the balance study. The diurnal pattern in urine and rumen pH was determined over 2 d. Decreasing DCAD reduced (P<0.001) the pH of urine, and increased (P<0.05) Ca absorption. Plasma Ca concentration was not affected by DCAD, and DCAD did not affect the output of urinary hydroxyproline, a marker of bone resorption. Twice-daily supplementation of anionic salts was sufficient to reduce the pH of blood and increase gastrointestinal Ca absorption. There was no diurnal variation in the pH of urine, suggesting that time of sampling to determine efficacy of DCAD in reducing systemic pH was not important.

  16. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    IRSHAD, Abdul Razaq; SASAKI, Taihei; KUBO, Tomoaki; ODASHIMA, Naoyuki; KATANO, Keiji; OSAWA, Takeshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3– < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively). PMID:26052155

  17. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Abdul Razaq; Sasaki, Taihei; Kubo, Tomoaki; Odashima, Naoyuki; Katano, Keiji; Osawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toru; Izaike, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3- < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively).

  18. The effect of a negative energy balance status on β-carotene availability in serum and follicular fluid of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Bie, J; Langbeen, A; Verlaet, A A J; Florizoone, F; Immig, I; Hermans, N; Fransen, E; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolic pressure due to a cow's negative energy balance (NEB) has a negative effect on oocyte quality as a result of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we hypothesized that a NEB status may negatively affect the availability of β-carotene (bC, an antioxidant) in the micro-environment of the oocyte or follicular fluid (FF) and that daily bC supplementation can increase bC availability. We aimed to (1) determine the effect of a nutritionally induced NEB on bC concentrations in serum and FF as well as on the presence of bC metabolites, oxidative stress levels, and follicular growth in a nonlactating dairy cow model, and (2) investigate how this effect could be altered by dietary bC supplementation. Six multiparous nonlactating Holstein Friesian cows were subjected to 4 consecutive dietary treatments, 28 d each: (1) 1.2 × maintenance (M) or positive energy balance (PEB) without bC supplement (PEB-bC), (2) 1.2 × M with daily supplement of 2,000mg of bC comparable to the level of bC intake at grazing (PEB+bC), (3) 0.6 × M with 2,000mg of bC (NEB+bC), and (4) 0.6 × M (NEB-bC). At the end of each treatment, estrous cycles were synchronized and blood and FF of the largest follicle were sampled and analyzed for bC, retinol, α-tocopherol, free fatty acids, estradiol, and progesterone. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, insulin growth factor 1, growth hormone, total antioxidant status (TAS), and red blood cell glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined as well. All cows lost body weight during both energy restriction periods and showed increased serum free fatty acid concentrations, illustrating a NEB. A dietary induced NEB reduced FF bC, but not plasma bC or plasma and FF retinol concentrations. However, bC and retinol concentrations drastically increased in both fluid compartments after bC supplementation. Follicular diameter was increased in supplemented PEB cows. Energy restriction reduced the TAS and red blood cell GSH, whereas daily b

  19. Prediction of metabolisable energy concentrations of fresh-cut grass using digestibility data measured with non-pregnant non-lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Allen, Michelle; Chen, Xianjiang; Wills, David; Yan, Tianhai

    2015-05-28

    Pasture-based ruminant production systems are common in certain areas of the world, but energy evaluation in grazing cattle is performed with equations developed, in their majority, with sheep or cattle fed total mixed rations. The aim of the current study was to develop predictions of metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations in fresh-cut grass offered to non-pregnant non-lactating cows at maintenance energy level, which may be more suitable for grazing cattle. Data were collected from three digestibility trials performed over consecutive grazing seasons. In order to cover a range of commercial conditions and data availability in pasture-based systems, thirty-eight equations for the prediction of energy concentrations and ratios were developed. An internal validation was performed for all equations and also for existing predictions of grass ME. Prediction error for ME using nutrient digestibility was lowest when gross energy (GE) or organic matter digestibilities were used as sole predictors, while the addition of grass nutrient contents reduced the difference between predicted and actual values, and explained more variation. Addition of N, GE and diethyl ether extract (EE) contents improved accuracy when digestible organic matter in DM was the primary predictor. When digestible energy was the primary explanatory variable, prediction error was relatively low, but addition of water-soluble carbohydrates, EE and acid-detergent fibre contents of grass decreased prediction error. Equations developed in the current study showed lower prediction errors when compared with those of existing equations, and may thus allow for an improved prediction of ME in practice, which is critical for the sustainability of pasture-based systems.

  20. Effects of the replacement of concentrate and fibre-rich hay by high-quality hay on chewing, rumination and nutrient digestibility in non-lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Kleefisch, Maria-Theresia; Zebeli, Qendrim; Humer, Elke; Kröger, Iris; Ertl, Paul; Klevenhusen, Fenja

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-quality hay with an elevated sugar content alone or with graded amounts of concentrate feed on chewing and ruminating activity, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and ruminal pH at different time points after feeding in the free ruminal liquid (FRL) and the particle-associated ruminal liquid (PARL). Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating Holstein cows were arranged in a Latin square design in four experimental runs lasting 25 d each. The four diets tested were 60NQ (60% normal-quality hay + 40% concentrate), 60HQ (60% high-quality hay + 40% concentrate), 75HQ (75% high-quality hay + 25% concentrate) and 100HQ (100% high-quality hay). Normal and high-quality hays differed in sugar contents (11.3% vs. 18.7% in dry matter [DM]), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; 57.7% vs. 46.3% in DM), acid detergent fibre (ADF, 35.0% vs. 23.5% in DM) and crude protein (CP, 11.3% vs. 23.5% in DM). Data showed that ATTD of DM, CP, NDF and ADF was higher with the high-quality hay diets. Time spent eating was reduced with high-quality hay. However, time spent ruminating was longest in Group 100HQ. In all groups, ruminal pH of FRL and PARL decreased with time after the morning feeding. But 10 h later, pH of Group 100HQ was higher again compared with the other groups. Considering the average pH in FRL over all measured time points, cows in Groups 60NQ and 100HQ had higher pH values of 6.85 and 6.83, respectively. Regarding pH values in PARL, animals of Group 60NQ displayed the highest pH value (6.68), whereas the lowest value of 6.21 was found in Group 60HQ. Overall, results suggest that high-quality hay maintains the diet's structural effectiveness by stimulating rumination and stabilising ruminal pH while greatly improving ATTD. However, the structural effectiveness of the high-quality hay gets impaired with increasing proportion of concentrate feed in the diet.

  1. Effect of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes as feed additive on the rumen bacterial population in non-lactating cows quantified by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Guertler, P; Pfaffl, M W; Eisenreich, R; Wiedemann, S; Schwarz, F J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, added to a maize silage- and grass silage-based total mixed ration (TMR) at least 14 h before feeding, on the rumen bacterial population were investigated. Six non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were allocated to three treatment groups using a duplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 31-day periods (29 days of adaptation and 2 days of sampling). Treatments were control TMR [69% forage and 31% concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis] or TMR with 13.8 or 27.7 ml/kg of feed DM of Roxazyme G2 liquid with activities (U/ml enzyme preparation) of xylanase 260 000, β-glucanase 180 000 and cellulase 8000 (DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland). The concentrations of 16S rDNA of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Selenomonas ruminantium and Treponema bryantii, and their relative percentage of total bacteria in rumen samples obtained before feeding and 3 and 7 h after feeding and from two rumen fractions were determined using real-time PCR. Sampling time had only little influence, but bacterial numbers and the composition of the population differed between the transition layer between rumen fluid and the fibre mat (fraction A) and the rumen fluid (fraction B) highlighting the importance to standardize sampling. The 16S rDNA copies of total bacteria and the six bacterial species as well as the population composition were mainly unaffected by the high levels of exogenous enzymes supplemented at all sampling times and in both rumen fractions. Occasionally, the percentages of the non-fibrolytic species P. ruminicola and A. lipolytica changed in response to enzyme supplementation. Some increases in the potential degradability of the diet and decreases in lag time which occurred collaterally indicate that other factors than changes in numbers of non-particle-associated bacteria are mainly responsible for the effects of

  2. Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

  3. The impact of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) on the acid-base balance and calcium metabolism of non-lactating, non-pregnant dairy cows fed equal amounts of different anionic salts.

    PubMed

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Leonie Loeffler, S; Frömer, Sven; Engel, Maike; Hartmann, Helmut; Männer, Klaus; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated the impact of the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the influence of anionic salts (AS) on the metabolism of dairy cows using a study-design that included control of feed intake. Ten mature, non-lactating, non-pregnant, Holstein-Friesian-crossbreed cows received 2000 mEq of either one of the seven anionic salts tested, two combinations of the anionic salts or water as control via a rumen cannula. Salts and controls were assigned in a 10x10 Latin square design. Whole blood, serum and urine samples were taken during treatment (TP) and washout period. Samples of whole blood were tested for pH, base-excess and bicarbonate concentrations. In urine, pH and net acid-base excretion (NABE) were analysed. Calcium was measured in serum and urine. According to the different batches of hay, five groups of DCAD were created regarding cluster analysis. Changes in urine and blood parameters were statistically analysed for each DCAD group separately. The different DCAD had an impact on the amount of change in acid-base balance (ABB) and calcium metabolism and for how long these changes lasted. In the DCAD group receiving the highest amount of AS (239 mEq/kg dry matter with AS), changes of ABB were only noticeable in urine and these changes only differed from day zero in the first week of TP (P<0.05). In the other four groups changes of ABB were also visible in blood parameters, but only on a few days of TP did the deviations differ significantly (P<0.05) from day zero. Changes of ABB parameters in urine samples were more pronounced than those in blood and differed clearly from day zero (P<0.05). Parallel to the changes of ABB, calcium concentrations in these samples were significantly increased (P<0.001) in all DCAD groups. Except for the highest DCAD group, ionized calcium concentrations changed over time (P<0.020). However, the differences were very small and only differed from day zero on a few TP days. We conclude that the DCAD of a dairy cow's diet has an

  4. Production of Antibody in Mammary Gland of Pregnant, Non-Lactating and Lactating Cows, Evoked by Polyvalent Antigen with Reference to Dosage and Frequency of Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, M.; Campbell, B.; Petersen, W. E.

    1964-01-01

    Sixteen cows were used in a series of experiments to test dose, route and frequency responses in the production of milk and serum agglutinins to a spectrum of 9 proven bovine pathogens. The bacterial species were: Pasteurella multocida (2 isolates), Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Salmonella enteriditis, and Aerobacter aerogenes. Primary immunizations were made either through the teat canal or intramuscularly. “Booster” injections were made through the teat canal. Agglutinins in the blood appeared only after a week or more. In the milk, titers were recorded in 1 or 2 days following primary immunization. Variation of titer in the blood and milk was somewhat independent. In all but 1 cow, antibody was produced against each organism in milk and blood serum. Udder inflammation was observed in the experiments when a 15-day interval separated immunizations. Inflammation was minimal in the experiments employing the 7-day interval of immunization. A positive Whiteside test was observed following most injections, even where no other clinical signs of reaction were seen. The findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature. PMID:17649521

  5. Effect of forage particle length on rumen fermentation, sorting and chewing activity of late-lactation and non-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying forage particle length on chewing activity, sorting behavior, rumen pH and rumen fill in late lactation and dry dairy cattle, fed rations with similar physically effective NDF but different mean particle length. Treatments consisted of three diets differing only in geometric mean length of forage: hay (5.40, 8.96 and 77.90 mm, for short (S), medium (M) and long (L) diets, respectively) for Experiment 1 (E1), and straw (10.16, 24.68 and 80.37 mm) for S, M and L diets, respectively, for Experiment 2 (E2). Hay or straw comprised the sole source of forage (50% and 75% of ration dry matter (DM) for E1 and E2, respectively). Both experiments used three rumen cannulated Holstein dairy cows, in late lactation for E1 and dry in E2, with 3 × 3 Latin square designs with 14 day periods. In E1, DM intake (DMI; 18.3 ± 2.1 kg/day; mean ± s.e.), pH (6.4 ± 0.1), time spent eating (280 ± 22.5 min/day), time spent ruminating (487 ± 17 min/day), and total time spent chewing (767 ± 34 min/day) were not different, whereas eating minutes per kilogram of DMI and NDF intake (NDFI) tended to increase linearly as forage length increased. Rumen digesta volume (l; 113.3 S, 117.8 M and 114.4 L ± 17.1) had a quadratic response, and rumen digesta weight tended to respond quadratically; however, differences were numerically small. In E2, DMI (8.3 ± 1.3 kg/day), pH (6.7 ± 0.1), time spent eating (236 ± 23.5 min/day), time spent ruminating (468 ± 45.2 min/day), total time spent chewing (704 ± 67.7 min/day) and minutes per kilogram NDFI were not different, whereas minutes per kilogram of DMI had a trend for a quadratic effect. Rumen digesta volume (111 ± 18.8 l) and weight (103 ± 17.4 kg) were not different. In both experiments, cows sorted against longer particles as determined by a particle length selection index; this behavior increased linearly as particle length increased. Greater forage particle length increased

  6. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  7. Lipid profiles of follicular fluid from cows submitted to ovarian superstimulation.

    PubMed

    Santos, P H; Fontes, P K; Franchi, F F; Nogueira, M F G; Belaz, K R A; Tata, A; Eberlin, M N; Sudano, M J; Barros, C M; Castilho, A C S

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian superstimulation with exogenous gonadotropins has been extensively used to produce in vivo-derived embryos for embryo transfer in cattle. This process modifies the antral follicle microenvironment and affects oocyte and embryo quality as well the differentiation of granulosa cells. Lipids play significant roles in the cell, such as energy storage, cell structure, and fine-tuning of the physical properties and functions of biological membranes. The phospholipid (PL) contents as well as the effects of superstimulatory treatments on the PL profile of follicular fluid from cows, however, remain unknown. Therefore, to gain insight into the effects of superstimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; P-36 protocol) or FSH combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; P-36/eCG protocol) on the profile and abundance of PL from cows submitted or not submitted to superstimulatory protocols, were treated with these two superstimulatory protocols. As a control, non-superstimulated cows were only submitted to estrous synchronization. The follicular fluid was aspirated, the remaining cells removed and the follicular fluid stored at -80 °C until extraction. The lipid screening was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and this technique allowed the identification of sphingomyelins (SM) and phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphoethanolamines (PE). The relative abundance of the ions observed in the three experimental groups was analyzed by multivariate and univariate statistical models. The phospholipid SM (16:0) and PC (36:4) and/or PC (34:1) were less (P < 0.05) abundant in the P-36 group compared to the control or P-36/eCG groups. However, the PC (34:2) was more (P < 0.05) abundant in both group of superstimulated cows compared to the control. In summary, ovarian superstimulation seems to modulate the PL content of bovine follicular fluid with a significant increase in PC (34:2), which jointly with others

  8. Effects of eCG are more pronounced in primiparous than multiparous Bos indicus cows submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Bottino, M P; Silva, L A C L; Girotto, R W; Massoneto, J P M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2016-12-01

    The effects of eCG on follicular growth, ovulation, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in multiparous and primiparous Bos indicus beef cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) were evaluated in three experiments. In experiments 1 (follicular responses; n = 64), 2 (follicular growth and ovulation rate; n = 662), and 3 (P/AI; n = 2092), cows submitted to TAI were assigned to receive one of two treatments on Day 8 of the synchronization protocol: control (no additional treatment) or eCG (300-IU of eCG intramuscularly). In experiment 1, largest follicle (LF) diameter on Day 8 (P = 0.56) and the interval from progesterone (P4)-device removal to ovulation (P = 0.79) did not differ between treatments. However, the maximum diameter of the LF (P = 0.05) and ovulation rate (P = 0.03) were greater in cows that received eCG. In experiment 2, the diameter of the LF on Day 10, follicular growth, and ovulation rate were greater in eCG-treated cows (P < 0.01). However, CL diameter was similar between treatments (P = 0.11). In experiment 3, there was a treatment-by-parity interaction (P = 0.003) on P/AI, such that treatment with eCG was more effective in primiparous cows. In conclusion, eCG treatment resulted in increased final follicular growth, ovulation rate, and fertility in B indicus cows submitted to TAI protocols, especially in primiparous cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast infections in non-lactating women.

    PubMed

    Abdelhadi, Maha S A; Bukharie, Huda A

    2005-09-01

    Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia between 1991-2003. All patients presenting with breast infections were included. Medical records, operative notes, cultures, histopathology reports and outcome were reviewed. The number of patients presenting with breast infections accounted for 179(3.5%) out of the total number of patients 6314 with variable breast complaints. Infection occurred in 136(76%) lactating women (Group I) ,while Non lactating (Group II) breast infections accounted for 43(24%). Age ranged from 24 years to 52 years. Underlying clinical conditions were found in 26 patients(60%) in Group II namely granulomatous mastitis13(50%), duct ectasia4 (15.3%), pregnancy3(11.5%), fat necrosis1(3.8%), diabetes3 (11.5%) and breast cancer 2(7.6%). The pattern of culture results was different in the two groups, from differing causative organisms namely staphylococcus aureus as the commonest organism in both groups, in comparison to such uncommon organisms as Klebsiella pneumonae, Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus group B, Entro-bacter cloacae, Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurring in group II only. Fortunately, all organisms were sensitive to antimicrobial therapy. Breast infection in non-lactating women is an infrequent but recognized clinical entity that deserves special attention. An underlying clinical condition should always be sought and treated. Indeed, in addition to cultures, radiological modalities such as ultrasonographic imaging may provide specific diagnosis and aid the management.

  10. BREAST INFECTIONS IN NON-LACTATING WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    AbdelHadi, Maha S.A; Bukharie, Huda A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. Materials and Methods: This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia between 1991-2003. All patients presenting with breast infections were included. Medical records, operative notes, cultures, histopathology reports and outcome were reviewed. Results: The number of patients presenting with breast infections accounted for 179(3.5%) out of the total number of patients 6314 with variable breast complaints. Infection occurred in 136(76%) lactating women (Group I) ,while Non lactating (Group II) breast infections accounted for 43(24%). Age ranged from 24 years to 52 years. Underlying clinical conditions were found in 26 patients(60%) in Group II namely granulomatous mastitis13(50%), duct ectasia4 (15.3%), pregnancy3(11.5%), fat necrosis1(3.8%), diabetes3 (11.5%) and breast cancer 2(7.6%). The pattern of culture results was different in the two groups, from differing causative organisms namely staphylococcus aureus as the commonest organism in both groups, in comparison to such uncommon organisms as Klebsiella pneumonae, Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus group B, Entro-bacter cloacae, Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurring in group II only. Fortunately, all organisms were sensitive to antimicrobial therapy. Conclusion: Breast infection in non-lactating women is an infrequent but recognized clinical entity that deserves special attention. An underlying clinical condition should always be sought and treated. Indeed, in addition to cultures, radiological modalities such as ultrasonographic imaging may

  11. Fertility of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination versus artificial insemination after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range.

    PubMed

    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Fricke, P M

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to compare the AI submission rate and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination (TAI) versus artificial insemination (AI) to a detected estrus after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range. Lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive their first TAI after a Double-Ovsynch protocol (DO; n = 294) or to receive their first AI after a synchronized estrus (EST; n = 284). Pregnancy status was determined 33 ± 3 d after insemination and was reconfirmed 63 ± 3 d after insemination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). By design, days in milk at first insemination did not differ between treatments (76.9 ± 0.2 vs. 76.7 ± 0.3 for DO vs. EST cows, respectively), but more DO cows were inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period than EST cows (100.0 vs. 77.5%). Overall, DO cows had more P/AI than EST cows at both 33 d (49.0 vs. 38.6%) and 63 d (44.6 vs. 36.4%) after insemination, but pregnancy loss from 33 to 63 d after insemination did not differ between treatments. Primiparous cows had more P/AI than multiparous cows 33 and 63 d after insemination, but the treatment by parity interaction was not significant. Synchronization rate to the hormonal protocols was 85.3%, which did not differ between treatments; however, synchronized DO cows had more P/AI 33 d after insemination than synchronized EST cows (54.7 vs. 44.5%). In summary, submission of lactating Holstein cows to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and TAI for first insemination increased the percentage of cows inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period and increased P/AI at 33 and 63 d after first insemination resulting in 64 and 58% more pregnant cows, respectively, than submission of cows for first AI after detection

  12. Effects of two estradiol esters (benzoate and cypionate) on the induction of synchronized ovulations in Bos indicus cows submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Cipriano, R S; Jacomini, J O; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Nogueira, G P; Baruselli, P S

    2012-08-01

    The effects of estradiol benzoate (EB) and estradiol cypionate (EC) on induction of ovulation after a synchronized LH surge and on fertility of Bos indicus females submitted to timed AI (TAI) were evaluated. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized Nelore heifers were used to evaluate the effect of EB (n = 5) and EC (n = 5) on the circulating LH profile. The LH surge timing (19.6 and 50.5 h; P = 0.001), magnitude (20.5 and 9.4 ng/mL; P = 0.005), duration (8.6 and 16.5 h; P = 0.001), and area under the LH curve (158.6 and 339.4 ng/mL; P = 0.01) differed between the EB and EC treatments, respectively. In Experiment 2 (follicular responses; n = 60) and 3 (pregnancy per AI; P/AI; n = 953) suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to an estradiol/progesterone-based synchronization protocol were assigned to receive one of two treatments to induce synchronized ovulation: 1 mg of EB im 24 h after progesterone (P4) device removal or 1 mg of EC im at P4 device removal. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between EB and EC treatments on follicular responses (maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle, 13.1 vs. 13.9 mm; interval from progesterone device removal to ovulation, 70.2 vs. 68.5 h; and ovulation rate, 77.8 vs. 82.8%, respectively). In addition, P/AI was similar (P < 0.22) between the cows treated with EB (57.5%; 277/482) and EC (61.8%; 291/471). In conclusion, despite pharmacologic differences, both esters of estradiol administered either at P4 device removal (EC) or 24 h later (EB) were effective in inducing an LH surge which resulted in synchronized ovulations and similar P/AI in suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to TAI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO.

  14. Evaluating the interaction between progesterone, TNF alpha and cortisol on early loss of transferred embryos in beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-eight non-lactating cows previously synchronized for estrus were assigned to two treatments to assess the effects of progesterone supplementation and its correlation with TNF-a and cortisol on the survival of the transferred embryos. On day 7 after exhibiting estrus (day 0), cows in both group...

  15. Histological examination of non-lactating bovine udders inoculated with Lactobacillus perolens CRL 1724.

    PubMed

    Frola, Ignacio D; Pellegrino, Matías S; Magnano, Gabriel; Giraudo, José A; Espeche, María C; Nader-Macias, María E F; Bogni, Cristina I

    2013-02-01

    The effect of intramammary inoculation of Lactobacillus perolens CRL 1724 on bovine udders at drying off was evaluated through histological examination of the canal and cistern tissues. The persistence of the strain in the udder 7 d post inoculation was also determined. Lb. perolens CRL 1724 was recovered from all mammary quarters and no clinical signs or teat damage were observed after inoculation of 10(6) cfu/ml. The udders showed a normal structural aspect and there were no modifications of the milk appearance. Lb. perolens CRL 1724 cells were evidenced on the surface of the epithelial cells of the cistern without causing any morphological modifications or cell alterations. Lb. perolens CRL 1724 produces a mild inflammatory reaction, characterized by recruitment of neutrophils to the epithelial zone and a slight hyperaemia into blood vessels. This preliminary study provides important information for further studies directed towards the inclusion of Lb. perolens CRL 1724 in the design of probiotic products for preventing bovine mastitis in non-lactating dairy cows.

  16. Influence of ruminal methane on digesta retention and digestive physiology in non-lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Hammond, Kirsty J; Kirton, Paul; Humphries, David J; Crompton, Les A; Ortmann, Sylvia; Misselbrook, Tom H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Reynolds, Christopher K; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Enteric methane (CH4) production is a side-effect of herbivore digestion, but it is unknown whether CH4 itself influences digestive physiology. We investigated the effect of adding CH4 to, or reducing it in, the reticulorumen (RR) in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with rumen-fistulated, non-lactating cows, with four treatments: (i) control, (ii) insufflation of CH4 (iCH4), (iii) N via rumen fistula, (iv) reduction of CH4 via administration of bromochloromethane (BCM). DM intake (DMI), apparent total tract digestibility, digesta mean retention times (MRT), rumen motility and chewing activity, spot breath CH4 emission (CH4exhal, litre/kg DMI) as well as CH4 dissolved in rumen fluid (CH4RRf, µg/ml) were measured. Data were analysed using mixed models, including treatment (or, alternatively, CH4exhal or CH4RRf) and DMI relative to body mass0·85 (rDMI) as covariates. rDMI was the lowest on the BCM treatment. CH4exhal was highest for iCH4 and lowest for BCM treatments, whereas only BCM affected (reduced) CH4RRf. After adjusting for rDMI, CH4RRf had a negative association with MRT in the gastrointestinal tract but not in the RR, and negative associations with fibre digestibility and measures of rumination activity. Adjusting for rDMI, CH4exhal had additionally a negative association with particle MRT in the RR and a positive association with rumen motility. Thus, higher rumen levels of CH4 (CH4exhal or CH4RRf) were associated with shorter MRT and increased motility. These findings are tentatively interpreted as a feedback mechanism in the ruminant digestive tract that aims at mitigating CH4 losses by shortening MRT at higher CH4.

  17. Comparative efficacy of exogenous eCG and progesterone on endogenous progesterone and pregnancy in Holstein cows submitted to timed artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, P C; Alves, N G; Souza, J C; Sales, J N S; Carvalho, R J; Lima, R R; Teixeira, A A; Nogueira, G P; Ascari, I J

    2015-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of the administration of either eCG or progesterone (P4) alone or combined on endogenous P4 concentrations and pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows. Cows received a P4-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) and estradiol benzoate on D-8. The PRID was removed and a PGF2α injection was given on D-3. An estradiol cypionate was given on D-2 and TAI was performed on D0. On D-2, cows were randomly allocated to treatments in a 2×2 factorial design: Control-saline solution on the D-2 and D+3 (n=104), eCG - 400IU eCG on D-2 (n=93), P4 - 600mg of P4 on D+3 (n=106), and eCG+P4 - 400IU eCG on D-2 and 600mg of P4 on D+3 (n=95). Blood samples were collected on days three, four, and thirteen and pregnancy diagnoses were performed at 32 and 46 days after AI. There was no interaction between eCG and P4 injection. Cows treated with eCG and with P4 injection had higher serum P4 on Day +4. On Day +13 serum P4 was lower in eCG-untreated primiparous cows (Interaction eCG×parity). Cows with serum P4<4.57ng/mL on Day +13 had lower probability to be pregnant on day 32. P/AI on days 32 and 46 and embryonic losses were not influenced by eCG and P4 injection. In conclusion, the addition of 400IU of eCG on D-2 and/or 600mg of P4 on D+3 to the present TAI protocol did not increase P/AI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Ovulatory Folicle Size and Expression of Estrus on Progesterone Secretion in Beef Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of ovulatory follicle size at GnRH-induced or spontaneous ovulation on serum concentrations of progesterone in nonlactating beef cows (Exp. 1), and to determine the effect of ovulatory follicle size at GnRH-induced or spontaneous ovulation on...

  19. Strategies to improve fertility in post partum Bos indicus cows submitted to a fixed-time insemination protocol with GnRH and PGF2a

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of two lengths of progesterone exposure (CIDR; 7 vs. 14 d) prior to a modified CO-Synch protocol, with or without temporary weaning (TW) before GnRH treatments, on fertility of suckled Bos indicus Nelore cows (n = 283) and on calf performance. Timed AI (TAI)...

  20. Bilateral Breast Abscess Caused by E. coli in a Non-lactating Woman: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Gürcan; Gündeş, Ebubekir; Tekin, Şakir; Tavlı, Şakir

    2014-01-01

    Breast abscess usually occurs during lactation and the responsible organism is often S. Aureus. Breast abscess in non-lactating women is extremely rare and limited data is available in the literature regarding this entity. In our study, a 36-year-old non-lactating female patient who developed bilateral breast abscess due to E. coli infection without any predisposing factors has been discussed in light of the literature.

  1. Pregnancy development from day 28 to 42 of gestation in postpartum Holstein cows that were either milked (lactating) or not milked (not lactating) after calving.

    PubMed

    Green, Jacob C; Meyer, Joseph P; Williams, Amanda M; Newsom, Emily M; Keisler, Duane H; Lucy, Matthew C

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to determine if lactation affects fetal and placental development from day 28 to 42 of gestation. Bos taurus Holstein cows were assigned to one of the two treatments immediately after parturition (lactating (n=23) or nonlactating (dried off immediately after calving; n=20)). Cows were inseminated at ~60 days postpartum with semen from a single ejaculate. Pregnant cows were slaughtered at 1 of 3 days of gestation (day 28, 35, or 42) and tissues were collected. The interval to first insemination, services per conception, and days to pregnancy were similar for lactating and nonlactating cows. Lactating cows had greater plasma GH and nonesterified fatty acids. Nonlactating cows had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and IGF1. There was no effect of lactation on plasma progesterone or estradiol concentrations. Lactation had a negative effect on the weight of the fetus and placenta (weights were less in lactating cows). Fetuses collected from cows that became pregnant after first insemination were heavier than fetuses collected from cows that became pregnant after second or third insemination. Pregnancy after first insemination was associated with greater blood glucose and IGF1 during the first 30 days postpartum. The conclusions were that lactation negatively affects the growth of fetal and placental tissues perhaps through a mechanism that involves hormones and metabolites that are affected by lactation. Fetal growth within cows conceiving at first insemination compared to second or third insemination was more rapid and was associated with greater blood glucose and IGF1 early postpartum (before day 30).

  2. Serum Calcium Response Following Oral Zinc Oxide Administrations in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, RJ

    2001-01-01

    Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12–24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium of the lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth of the hypocalcaemic response decreased with the number of zinc oxide dosings. This effect was explained as a response from the stimulation of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. In the Zn dosed non-lactating cows responses were similar but less clear. The perspective of these findings is discussed in relation to resistance towards parturient hypocalcaemia. PMID:11503372

  3. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  4. Residues in colostrum following antibiotic dry cow therapy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, S P; Duby, R T; Prange, R W; Tritschler, J P

    1984-12-01

    Cows from five dairy herds were used to determine persistence of antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy. Cows were treated in all quarters at drying off with antibiotics approved for use for nonlactating cows. Antibiotics procaine penicillin G plus dihydrostreptomycin, novobiocin, cloxacillin, or cephapirin were compared with no treatment. Composite colostrum samples were collected from each cow at first milking after parturition. Samples were screened for residues by Delvotest P. Colostrum samples positive by Delvotest also were tested by Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay. Four of 186 colostrum samples from cows treated with antibiotics at drying off were positive for residues by Delvotest. Only one was confirmed positive by disc assay following heat treatment. All colostrum samples from 48 cows not treated were negative. Samples of first marketable milk also were collected. Over 96% of milk samples from cows treated at drying off and 100% of milk samples from cows not treated were negative for residues by Delvotest. If manufacturer's recommendations are followed, antibiotic residues in colostrum and milk following dry cow therapy with products in our study should not be a significant problem.

  5. Plasma disposition and faecal excretion of eprinomectin following topical and subcutaneous administration in non-lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Aksit, D; Korkut, O; Aksoz, E; Gokbulut, C

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the plasma disposition and faecal excretion of eprinomectin (EPM) in non-lactating dairy cattle following topical and S/C administration. Holstein dairy cows, 3.5-5 years-old, were selected 20-25 days after being dried off and were randomly allocated to receive EPM either topically (n=5) or S/C (n=5) at dose rates of 0.5 and 0.2 mg/kg bodyweight, respectively. Heparinised blood and faecal samples were collected at various times between 1 hour and 30 days after treatment, and were analysed for concentrations of EPM using high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The maximum concentration of EPM in plasma (Cmax) and the time to reach Cmax were both greater after S/C administration (59.70 (SD 12.90) ng/mL and 1.30 (SD 0.27) days, respectively) than after topical administration (20.73 (SD 4.04) ng/mL and 4.40 (SD 0.89) days, respectively) (p<0.001). In addition, S/C administration resulted in greater plasma availability (area under the curve; AUC), and a shorter terminal half-life and mean residence time (295.9 (SD 61.47) ng.day/mL; 2.95 (SD 0.74) days and 4.69 (SD 1.01) days, respectively) compared with topical administration (168.2 (SD15.67) ng.day/mL; 4.63 (SD 0.32) days, and 8.23 (SD 0.57) days, respectively) (p<0.01). EPM was detected in faeces between 0.80 (SD 0.45) and 13.6 (SD 4.16) days following S/C administration, and between 1 (SD 0.5) and 20.0 (SD 3.54) days following topical administration. Subcutaneous administration resulted in greater faecal excretion than topical administration, expressed as AUC adjusted for dose (1188.9 (SD 491.64) vs. 311.5 (SD 46.90) ng.day/g; p<0.05). Maximum concentration in faeces was also higher following S/C than topical administration (223.0 (SD 63.96) vs. 99.47 (SD 43.24) ng/g; p<0.01). Subcutaneous administration of EPM generated higher plasma concentrations and greater plasma availability compared with topical administration in non-lactating cattle. Although the S/C route

  6. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum.

  7. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets.

    PubMed

    Qumar, Muhammad; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Pourazad, Poulad; Wetzels, Stefanie U; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Kandler, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline) and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8) or interruptedly (Int; n = 8). Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1) and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4). Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline), while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides evidence of

  8. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets

    PubMed Central

    Qumar, Muhammad; Khiaosa-ard, Ratchaneewan; Pourazad, Poulad; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Kandler, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline) and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8) or interruptedly (Int; n = 8). Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1) and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4). Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline), while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides evidence of

  9. Influence of lactation on metabolic characteristics and embryo development in postpartum Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maillo, V; Rizos, D; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Kelly, A K; Garrett, M; Lonergan, P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct effect of lactation on the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows to support early embryo development. Twenty-one primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Immediately after calving, half of the cows were dried off (i.e., never milked), and the other half entered the milking herd and were milked twice daily. Jugular blood samples were taken twice per week from 15 d before calving to approximately 100 d postpartum to measure nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. At the same time, body weight and body condition score were recorded for each cow. At approximately 60 d postpartum (experiment 1), approximately 65 two- to four-cell embryos, produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization, were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of all cows on d 2 of the estrous cycle. Five days later (d 7), the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically and the number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded. At approximately 90 d postpartum (experiment 2), the estrous cycles of the same cows were resynchronized and 15 to 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to the uterus of each recipient on d 7. All cows were slaughtered on d 14 to assess embryo survival and dimensions. Body weight and body condition score were significantly different between groups for the entire postpartum period of the study. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I were lower in lactating compared with nonlactating cows. Embryo recovery rates from lactating and dry cows were similar. In experiment 1, fewer embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the lactating cows compared with the nonlactating cows. In experiment 2, embryo survival and conceptus dimensions were not different between lactating and

  10. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L.; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S.

    2013-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring. PMID:17963759

  11. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring.

  12. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration.

  13. Short-term dietary concentrate supplementation during estrus synchronization treatment in beef cows increased IGF-I serum concentration but did not affect the reproductive response.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Torres, A M; López-Cedillo, Z B; Hernández-Coronado, C G; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Mendoza, G D; Guzmán, A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if short-term dietary concentrate supplementation increased IGF-I serum concentration and resulted in a reproductive response during estrus synchronization treatment in non-lactating beef cows. Thirty non-lactating beef cows (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) were allocated to the same pastureland and fed native tropical grasses as a basal diet. Cows were synchronized using a 7-day CO-Synch plus controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and received fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). Cows were divided into two groups; the control group (n = 16) received 0.5 kg of concentrate/cow/day, whereas the supplemented group (n = 14) received 4.0 kg of concentrate/cow/day. The period of supplementation was 10 days from the day of CIDR insert to FTAI. The concentration of IGF-I increased (P < 0.05) in the supplemented group, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. Moreover, at the time of insemination, IGF-I serum concentrations were higher in supplemented cows compared with control cows (P < 0.05). Notably, metabolite and insulin concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatment groups or sampling day. The response to estrus induction, measured as estrus presentation, ovulation rate, and pregnancy rate, was similar between experimental groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that supplementation with dietary concentrate for 10 days in non-lactating beef cows changed the endocrine milieu, specifically increasing IGF-I serum concentration. However, these endocrine changes did not affect response to estrous induction treatment.

  14. Beef donor cows with high number of retrieved COC produce more in vitro embryos compared with cows with low number of COC after repeated ovum pick-up sessions.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, F M; Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Bayeux, B M; Accorsi, M; Campanholi, S P; Dias, E A R; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated ovum pick-up (OPU) procedures may affect the efficiency of OPU programs for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in Bos indicus (Nelore) donors. In addition, the repeatability (r) efficiency of IVEP was also assessed. Data available were from 432 OPU-IVEP sessions that were performed at random stages of the estrous cycle in 36 cycling, nonlactating Nelore donors. Semen from three Nelore bulls was used for the IVF. Donors were submitted to 12 consecutive OPU procedures, with an interval of approximately 30 days between sessions. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS 9.3. Cows yielding ≥15 COCs were defined as "high" COCs and cows with less than 15 COCs were defined as "low" COCs donors. The number of COCs retrieved decreased over time in donors classified with high COCs and remained fairly steady in cows with low COCs at the beginning of the program (Psession*COC retrieved groups = 0.02). Moreover, the number of COCs retrieved (P < 0.0001), and number of blastocysts produced per OPU (P = 0.001) was greater for the high COCs donors compared with the low COCs category, and these results were consistent across OPU sessions. Interestingly, there was no effect of COCs category on the rate of blastocyst development (P = 0.83). In addition, number of blastocysts produced were not affected by repeated OPU (P = 0.37) and interactions between time and COC category (P = 0.72). Similarly, blastocyst rate was not affected by repeated OPU (P = 0.21) and interactions between time and COC category (P = 0.58). Despite of COC category of the donor cows, repeatability was high for the number of COCs retrieved (r = 0.81), number of blastocysts produced per OPU (r = 0.79), and blastocyst rate (0.69). In conclusion, overall numbers of COCs decreased over time in donors classified as having high COCs. However, cumulative amounts of produced blastocysts were greater in

  15. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency.

  16. Lactating and nonlactating rats differ to renal toxicity induced by mercuric chloride: the preventive effect of zinc chloride.

    PubMed

    Favero, Alexandre M; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Franciscato, Carina; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Juliana S F; Bertoncheli, Claudia M; da Luz, Sônia C A; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M; Pereira, Maria E

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of HgCl2 on renal parameters in nonlactating and lactating rats and their pups, as well as the preventive role of ZnCl2 . Rats received 27 mg kg(-1) ZnCl2 for five consecutive days and 5 mg kg(-1) HgCl2 for five subsequent days (s.c.). A decrease in δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in the blood and an increase in urine protein content in renal weight as well as in blood and urine Hg levels were observed in lactating and nonlactating rats from Sal-Hg and Zn-Hg groups. ZnCl2 prevented partially the δ-ALA-D inhibition and the proteinuria in nonlactating rats. Renal Hg levels were increased in all HgCl2 groups, and the ZnCl2 exposure potentiated this effect in lactating rats. Nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 exhibited an increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels, δ-ALA-D activity inhibition and histopathological alterations (necrosis, atrophic tubules and collagen deposition) in the kidneys. ZnCl2 exposure prevented the biochemical alterations. Hg-exposed pups showed lower body and renal weight and an increase in the renal Hg levels. In conclusion, mercury-induced nephrotoxicity differs considerably between lactating and nonlactating rats. Moreover, prior exposure with ZnCl2 may provide protection to individuals who get exposed to mercury occupationally or accidentally. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Emotionally induced galactorrhoea in a non-lactating female--"Pseudo- Lactation"?

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Harsha; Keerthisena, Sisil; Dematapitiya, Chinthana; Katulanda, Prasad

    2014-12-17

    Galactorrhoea is a common clinical problem in endocrinology. Visual and auditory cues from the newborn are known to stimulate prolactin secretion in lactating women. However, hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea in a non-lactating female due to visual and auditory stimuli from an unrelated newborn has not been reported in the past. We report the first such case of 'pseudo-lactation'. An 18-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus presented with galactorrhoea. Apparently galactorrhoea was preceded by seeing the baby, hearing her cries or when remembering her memories. Her menstrual cycles were normal and did not complain of any headache or visual disturbances. She was only on metformin and insulin. Symptoms have rapidly resolved after the newborn was shifted to another location. Examination revealed scanty nipple discharge with gentle pressure. Investigations revealed an elevated serum prolactin of 62.5 ng/mL (2717.4 pmol/L) and fasting plasma glucose of 142 mg/dL (7.9 mmol/L) and HbA1c of 7.6%. Her thyroid function was normal and MRI at the time of galactorrhoea was not available. At 3 months prolactin was normal and MRI revealed only a slight asymmetry of the pituitary without evidence of microadenoma. The strong temporal relationship between her symptoms and emotional attachment to the newborn with exclusion of other causes on clinical, biochemical and radiological evidence, raise the possibility that transient hyperprolactinaemia was due to a transient lactotroph hyperplasia and hyper function which had been triggered by the stimulatory cues from the newborn.Emotionally induced "pseudo lactation" may be a rare but important cause for transient hyperprolactinaemia in a non-lactating female.

  18. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-02-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized.

  19. Blood flow and nutrient exchange across the liver and gut of the dairy cow. Effects of lactation and fasting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, M A; Baird, G D

    1983-05-01

    The rate of blood flow in the portal and hepatic veins, and the net exchange across the gut and liver of volatile fatty acids (VFA), glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, ketone bodies, glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and oxygen, were measured in lactating and non-lactating cows (a) in the normal, fed state and (b) before, during and after 6 d of fasting. Blood flow rate through the liver was 52% higher in normal, fed, lactating cows as compared with non-lactating cows, and was decreased by fasting in both groups of cows. Portal blood flow rate increased with an increase in metabolizable energy (ME) intake. Lactating, as compared with non-lactating, cows exhibited lower arterial concentrations of glucose and lactate, higher net portal outputs of VFA and ketone bodies, a higher net hepatic output of glucose, and higher net hepatic uptake of propionate and lactate. The splanchnic outputs of acetate, glucose and hydroxybutyrate were all apparently greater in the lactating cows. Fasting caused a rapid decrease in the blood concentrations of the VFA and an increase in those of glycerol and NEFA. The portal, i.e. gut, outputs of VFA, lactate, ketone bodies, alanine and (serine + threonine), and the portal uptake of O2, were all decreased by fasting. Fasting for 6 h also decreased the hepatic output of glucose and acetate by 77 and 95% respectively, increased the hepatic uptake of pyruvate, glycerol and NEFA, and doubled hepatic ketone-body output. The splanchnic output of acetate and glucose and the splanchnic uptake of O2 were also decreased by fasting. The net portal outputs of VFA, lactate and hydroxybutyrate, and the net hepatic output of glucose, were all correlated with ME intake in fed and fasted cows. Hepatic glucose output was also correlated with milk yield. The net hepatic uptake of gluconeogenic precursors measured in this study could account for net hepatic glucose output in the fasted cows, but not in the fed cows. The net hepatic uptake of

  20. The monitoring, prevention, and treatment of milk fever and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2008-04-01

    The periparturient cow undergoes a transition from non-lactating to lactating at calving. The animal is tremendously challenged to maintain calcium homeostasis. Those that fail can develop milk fever, a clinical disorder that is life threatening to the cow and predisposes the animal to a variety of other disorders. Guidelines for monitoring the incidence of hypocalcemia and methods for treating milk fever are reviewed. The physiological factors that cause milk fever and strategies for prevention of milk fever are discussed, focusing on the effects diet cation-anion difference can have on tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Another major risk factor for milk fever is hypomagnesemia, which is observed when animals are fed inadequate amounts of magnesium, or some factor is present in the diet that prevents adequate absorption of magnesium. Moderate hypomagnesemia impairs the ability of the cow to maintain calcium homeostasis and hypocalcemia occurs.

  1. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  2. Decreased insulin response in dairy cows following a four-day fast to induce hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, S; Oetzel, G R

    2006-08-01

    Negative energy balance has been implicated in the development of fatty liver, insulin resistance, and impaired health in dairy cows. A 4-d fasting model previously was reported to increase liver triglycerides more than 2.5-fold. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate insulin response in this fasting model. Nonlactating, nonpregnant Holstein cows were fasted for 4 d (6 cows) or fed continuously as control cows (4 cows). Samples were collected 5 d before fasting, during fasting, and immediately after the 4-d fast, 8 d after the fast, and 16 d after the fast. Fasted cows had greater liver triglyceride content (49.4 vs. 16.2 mg/g, wet-weight basis) at the end of the fasting period compared with control cows. Fasted cows also had increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations (1.24 vs. 0.21 mmol/L) and increased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at the end of the fasting period. Liver triglyceride, plasma NEFA, and plasma BHBA in fasted cows returned to prefasting concentrations by the end of the experiment. Plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by fasting. Plasma insulin concentrations were decreased (6.3 vs. 14.1 microU/mL) and insulin-stimulated blood glucose reduction was decreased (24.9 vs. 48.6%) in the fasted cows compared with control cows at the end of the fast, indicating reduced insulin response. Insulin response was negatively correlated with plasma NEFA and liver triglycerides. Decreased insulin response may be an important complication of negative energy balance and hepatic lipidosis.

  3. Expression, localization, and functional model of cholesterol transporters in lactating and nonlactating mammary tissues of murine, bovine, and human origin.

    PubMed

    Mani, Orlando; Körner, Meike; Sorensen, Martin T; Sejrsen, Kristen; Wotzkow, Carlos; Ontsouka, Corneille E; Friis, Robert R; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Albrecht, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a pivotal role in cellular lipid efflux. To identify candidate cholesterol transporters implicated in lipid homeostasis and mammary gland (MG) physiology, we compared expression and localization of ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 and their regulatory genes in mammary tissues of different species during the pregnancy-lactation cycle. Murine and bovine mammary glands (MGs) were investigated during different functional stages. The abundance of mRNAs was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, transporter proteins were localized in murine, bovine, and human MGs by immunohistochemistry. In the murine MG, ABCA1 mRNA abundance was elevated during nonlactating compared with lactating stages, whereas ABCA7 and ABCA1 mRNA profiles were not altered. In the bovine MG, ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 mRNAs abundances were increased during nonlactating stages compared with lactation. Furthermore, associations between mRNA levels of transporters and their regulatory genes LXRalpha, PPARgamma, and SREBPs were found. ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 proteins were localized in glandular MG epithelial cells (MEC) during lactation, whereas during nonlactating stages, depending on species, the proteins showed distinct localization patterns in MEC and adipocytes. Our results demonstrate that ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 are differentially expressed between lactation and nonlactating stages and in association with regulatory genes. Combined expression and localization data suggest that the selected cholesterol transporters are universal MG transporters involved in transport and storage of cholesterol and in lipid homeostasis of MEC. Because of the species-specific expression patterns of transporters in mammary tissue, mechanisms of cholesterol homeostasis seem to be differentially regulated between species.

  4. Detergent fiber traits to predict productive energy of forages fed free choice to nonlactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Harlan, D W; Holter, J B; Hayes, H H

    1991-04-01

    Hay crops that were predominantly alfalfa, clover or grass, and silage corn were harvested at early and late maturities to give a wide range in fiber contents. Hay crops were stored as field-cured hay and wilted silage. Each was fed for ad libitum intake to three or more nonlactating Holstein animals using total collection digestibility and calorimetry to measure DM intake, TDN, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy. Various fiber components (ADF, NDF, lignin), and expressions computed from them, were used to estimate TDN and digestible energy of forages or groups of forages having homogenous relationships. Stepwise backward elimination procedure was employed to discard independent variables or their squared terms at 5% probability to develop significant, biologically sound, practical predictive relationships. Standard NRC equations were used to extend energy densities to NEL. Free choice DM intake of forages (fed alone) was not closely related to NDF percentages. Estimates of NEL generally were higher when computed via TDN as opposed to digestible energy or metabolizable energy, which did not differ. We present equations to predict NEL from ADF via digestible energy for legumes, grasses, and corn silage, which differ markedly, in some cases, from those in current use. Equations for grasses had low r2, but these could not be compared with published ones, which apparently are based on treatment means rather than individual-animal observations. The NEL of hay crops and corn silages also were predicted from an expression of lignified NDF in DM with moderate precision.

  5. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad Cow Disease? A A A You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...

  6. Effect of water-soluble carbohydrate content in orchardgrass pasture on grazing time and rumen fermentation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to clarify the effect of water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in orchardgrass pasture on the diurnal distribution of grazing time. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on either of two pastures with different orchardgrass cultivars containing low WSC (LWSC; cultivar: 'Hokkai 28') or high WSC (HWSC; cultivar: 'Harunemidori'). The cows were grazed in morning and evening sessions in experiment 1, whereas the cows were grazed throughout the day in experiment 2. In experiment 1, grazing time of the cows on HWSC was longer than that of the cows on LWSC (P < 0.01). This difference was larger in the morning session than in the evening session (pasture × grazing session: P < 0.05). Effects on herbage intake were similar to those on grazing time. In experiment 2, daily total grazing time was longer for the cows on HWSC than for those on LWSC (P < 0.05). The cows on HWSC spent a longer time grazing than those on LWSC in the morning between 03.00 and 09.00 hours (P < 0.01). The results indicated that prolonged grazing time in the period between dawn and early morning could increase daily herbage intake in cows grazed on pastures of orchardgrass cultivars with high-WSC content. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  8. Respiratory effects of pregnancy and progesterone in Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Keith, I M; Bisgard, G E; Manohar, M; Klein, J; Bullard, V A

    1982-12-01

    Unanesthetized Jersey cows were studied during both pregnant (5-9 months) nonlactating states, and nonpregnant lactating states; and also following treatment with progesterone (Pr). The pH, PCO2 and PO2 of aortic blood, VE and f were measured and the mixed expired gas was analyzed. The following significant changes from the nonpregnant state occurred during pregnancy: PaCO2 = -3.2 mm Hg, pHa = +0.02 unit, VT = -0.44 L, f = +7 breaths/min, and VE/VCO2 = +9.7. Concomitant with the respiratory studies, serum Pr levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 11 nonpregnant and 5 pregnant cows, and in 6 nonpregnant, lactating cows prior to and on days 3, 5 and 10 of treatment with Pr (500 mg, i.m., twice daily). Minute ventilation (VE, L X min-1 X kg-1, BTPS) was positively correlated (r = +0.59) and PaCO2 was negatively correlated (r = -0.64) with endogenous serum Pr levels of non-pregnant and pregnant cows. However, exogenous Pr did not significantly alter these parameters or pHa, despite mean serum levels nearly twice (23.6 +/- 10.2 ng/ml) those observed in pregnant cows (12.7 +/- 3.7 ng/ml). The increased ventilation during pregnancy in Jersey cows, shown in this study, does not appear to be related to Pr as exogenous Pr failed to induce hyperventilation. The correlation of increased ventilation with endogenous Pr levels therefore suggests that the mode of in vivo Pr release, or different compound, simultaneously released, could be the stimulus.

  9. Flexible and fixed partitions in freestalls--effects on lying behavior and cow preference.

    PubMed

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of stall partition design on total lying time, lying position, and stall cleanliness, and to evaluate the preferences of cows regarding stalls with traditional fixed stall dividers or flexible stall dividers. Using a crossover design, 16 nonlactating dairy cows were housed singly for 9 d in pens with 2 freestalls, 1 with fixed cantilever dividers and 1 with flexible dividers. The cows were first given access to one stall type, and then to the other type of stall, and finally to both in a preference test. Type of stall divider did not influence lying behavior (13.5h for fixed versus 14.0 h for flexible, ± 0.4h), lying positions, or stall cleanliness; however, the cows showed a preference for lying in the flexible stalls (65.2 for flexible vs. 34.8 for fixed ± 8.2%). This indicated that cows are able to distinguish between type of stall divider and that it is important to them; however, it is not clear if the reason for this is the shape or the properties of the dividers. We concluded that cattle chose a flexible stall divider over a fixed one, but the long-term consequences of this preference are not clear, because no obvious changes in stall usage were observed when cows were only given access to one type of divider. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on rumen epithelial metabolism of nonlactating heifers.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, N; Eshel, O; Moallem, U; Lehrer, H; Uni, Z; Arieli, A

    2012-07-01

    Ruminal wall metabolism was studied in nonlactating heifers by altering the carbohydrate (CHO) digestion site between rumen and intestine. The CHO digestion site was estimated from in situ and total-tract digestibility of control (CONT) diets and diets supplemented with corn (CRN), barley (BARL), or soy hulls (SOYH). Ruminal epithelial metabolism regulating gene expression, morphology, and nutrient delivery was assessed from a combination of rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, biopsies for papilla morphology, and expression of putative metabolic regulatory genes encoding enzymes that facilitate VFA utilization. Digestible dry matter and CHO intake were 25 and 45% higher, respectively, in the supplemented diets than in CONT diets. Fiber supplementation increased the intestinal and decreased ruminal CHO digestion. Ruminal nonfiber CHO digestibility was 10% lower in CRN than with the high rumen-degradable supplement. The CONT heifers had lowest total ruminal VFA and highest acetate concentration relative to the other treatments. Total VFA concentration in BARL and CRN diets tended to be higher than in SOYH. The SOYH diet tended to reduce papilla dimension relative to CRN and BARL. The CRN diet tended to increase papilla surface area relative to BARL and SOYH. Gene expression of propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase was higher in CRN and BARL than in SOYH diets, and tended to be higher in CRN than in BARL and SOYH diets. Lactate dehydrogenase and butyryl coenzyme A synthase gene transcripts tended to be higher in CONT than in the supplemented treatments. Thus, rumen epithelial expression of genes involved in VFA metabolism and ruminal wall-structure development are influenced by other regulatory mechanism that is not directly affected by local signals. The in situ methods used are a useful tool for differentiating ruminal from extraruminal nutrient supply. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellular thermotolerance is independent of HSF 1 expression in zebu and crossbred non-lactating cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Jaspreet Kaur; Arora, J. S.; Sunil Kumar, B. V.; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kashyap, Neeraj

    2017-04-01

    Heat stress is an important domain of research in livestock due to its negative impact on production and disease resistance. The augmentation of stress in the body stimulates the antioxidative activity comprising various enzymes (viz., catalase, superoxide dismutase), metabolites (reduced glutathione, etc.), vitamins, minerals, etc. to combat the situation. The major key players involved in regulation of heat shock response in eukaryotes are the transcription factors, called as heat shock factors (HSF). They activate the heat shock protein (HSP) genes by binding to their promoters. Lymphocytes are considered to be the best model to evaluate the immunity in any living body as it contains plethora of white blood cells (WBCs).In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from non-lactating Sahiwal vis-à-vis crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) cattle with 75% or more exotic inheritance were subjected to heat shock at 39, 41, and 43 °C in three different incubators, in vitro. The cell count and viability test of pre and post heat stress of concerned PBMCs indicated that the crossbreeds are more prone to heat stress as compared to Sahiwal. The reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) expression data revealed an increment in HSF1 expression at 41 °C which subsequently declined (non-significantly) at 43 °C in both breeds post 1 h heat shock. However, the association between the HSF 1 expression and antioxidative activity through correlation analysis was found to be non-significant (P < 0.05), though enzymatic activity appeared to behave in a similar fashion in both breeds at 5% level of significance (P < 0.05). This rule out the role of HSF1 expression level on the activity of enzymes involved in oxidative stress in vitro in zebu and crossbred cattle.

  12. Stem/progenitor cells in non-lactating versus lactating equine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Spaas, Jan H; Chiers, Koen; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2012-11-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Based on the facts that (i) mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSC) are proposed to be the driving forces behind mammary growth and function and (ii) variation exists between mammalian species with regard to physiological and pathological functioning of this organ, we believe that studying MaSC from different mammals is of great comparative interest. Over the years, important data has been gathered on MaSC of men and mice, although knowledge on MaSC in other mammals remains limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate and characterize MaSC from the mammary gland of horses. Hereby, our salient findings were that the isolated equine cells met the 2 in vitro hallmark properties of stem cells, namely the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, the cells were immunophenotyped using markers for CD29, CD44, CD49f, and Ki67. Finally, we propose the mammosphere assay as a valuable in vitro assay to study MaSC during different physiological phases since it was observed that equine lactating mammary gland contains significantly more mammosphere-initiating cells than the inactive, nonlactating gland (a reflection of MaSC self-renewal) and, moreover, that these spheres were significantly larger in size upon initial cultivation (a reflection of progenitor cell proliferation). Taken together, this study not only extends the current knowledge of mammary gland biology, but also benefits the comparative approach to study and compare MaSC in different mammalian species.

  13. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a cow.

    PubMed

    Rissi, D R; Barros, C S L

    2013-09-01

    An 18-month-old Charolais cow developed depression and drooling and was submitted for necropsy after euthanasia. The cow was 1 of 50 moved between 2 farms approximately 5 days before the onset of clinical disease. Gross findings included swollen and hemorrhagic areas of malacia in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Microscopically there was a necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intranuclear astrocytic and neuronal eosinophilic viral inclusions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex as well as in the basal nuclei and thalamus. The gross and microscopic findings were consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1 or BHV-5), and the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of bovine herpesviral antigen on fresh samples of brain via fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody against BHV-1 glycoprotein C.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline free acid after single subcutaneous administration in lactating and nonlactating domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    PubMed

    Doré, Elizabeth; Angelos, John A; Rowe, Joan D; Carlson, Jan L; Wetzlich, Scott E; Kieu, Hung T; Tell, Lisa A

    2011-02-01

    Six nonlactating and six lactating adult female goats received a single subcutaneous injection of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) at a dosage of 6.6 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before and at multiple time points after CCFA administration. Milk samples were collected twice daily. Concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed using compartmental and noncompartmental approaches. The pharmacokinetics of CCFA in the domestic goat was best described by a one compartment model. Mean (±SD) pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows for the nonlactating goats: area under the concentration time curve(0-∞) (159 h·μg/mL ± 19), maximum observed serum concentration (2.3 μg/mL ± 1.1), time of maximal observed serum concentration (26.7 h ± 16.5) and terminal elimination half life (36.9 h; harmonic). For the lactating goats, the pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: area under the concentration time curve(0-∞) (156 h·μg/mL ± 14), maximum observed serum concentration (1.5 μg/mL ± 0.4), time of maximal observed serum concentration (46 h ± 15.9) and terminal elimination half life (37.3 h; harmonic). Ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolites were only detectable in one milk sample at 36 h following treatment. There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameter between the nonlactating and lactating goats. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Effects of bedding quality on lying behavior of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, J A; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2007-12-01

    Cows prefer to spend more time lying down in free stalls with more bedding, but no research to date has addressed the effects of bedding quality. Bedding in stalls often becomes wet either from exposure to the elements or from feces and urine. The aim of this study was to test the effect of wet bedding on stall preference and use. Four groups of 6 nonlactating Holstein cows were housed in free stalls bedded daily with approximately 0.1 m of fresh sawdust. Following a 5-d adaptation period, each group of cows was tested sequentially with access to stalls with either dry or wet sawdust bedding (86.4 +/- 2.1 vs. 26.5 +/- 2.1% dry matter), each for 2 d. These no-choice phases were followed by a 2-d free-choice phase during which cows had simultaneous access to stalls containing either wet or dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by using 24-h video recordings scanned at 10-min intervals, and responses were analyzed by using a mixed model, with group (n = 4) as the observational unit. The minimum and maximum environmental temperatures during the experiment were 3.4 +/- 2.2 and 6.8 +/- 2.5 degrees C, respectively. When cows had access only to stalls with wet bedding, they spent 8.8 +/- 0.8 h/d lying down, which increased to 13.8 +/- 0.8 h/d when stalls with dry bedding were provided. Cows spent more time standing with their front 2 hooves in the stall when provided with wet vs. dry bedding (92 +/- 10 vs. 32 +/- 10 min/d). During the free-choice phase, all cows spent more time lying down in the dry stalls, spending 12.5 +/- 0.3 h/d in the dry stalls vs. 0.9 +/- 0.3 h/ d in stalls with wet bedding. In conclusion, dairy cows show a clear preference for a dry lying surface, and they spend much more time standing outside the stall when only wet bedding is available.

  16. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  17. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  18. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  19. Short communication: Follicle superstimulation before ovum pick-up for in vitro embryo production in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Louise H; Sanches, Carlos P; Seddon, Adriano S; Veras, Marcio B; Lima, Flávio A; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in nonlactating Holstein cows after ovarian superstimulation. Cows were randomly assigned in a crossover design to 1 of 2 groups: control (n=35), which was not synchronized and not treated with hormones before ovum pick-up (OPU), or hormone-treated (n=35), in which wave emergence was synchronized and animals treated with porcine (p)-FSH in the presence of norgestomet before OPU. In the hormone-treated group, all follicles ≥7mm in diameter were aspirated for synchronization of wave emergence and cows received a norgestomet ear implant. After 36h, treatment with p-FSH (6 doses of 40mg each, 12h apart, i.m.) started. Ovum pick-up from follicles >2mm in diameter was performed 44h after the last p-FSH (coasting). Then, IVEP was performed. The total number of cumulus-oocyte complexes recovered (16.0 vs. 20.5±2.2) and number of grades I to III (viable) oocytes (10.7 vs. 12.3±1.6) did not differ between hormone-treated and control groups Additionally, no differences were found in the number of blastocysts per cow per OPU (3.0 vs. 2.6±0.5) or in blastocyst rates (17.1 vs. 12.2±2.4%) between hormone-treated and control, respectively. Thus, in this study, ovarian follicle superstimulation with p-FSH followed by coasting in nonlactating Holstein cows that had synchronization of wave emergence and progestin supplementation did not improve oocyte quality or IVEP compared to no hormonal treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The transcriptome of the endometrium and placenta is associated with pregnancy development but not lactation status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen G; McCabe, Matthew S; Green, Jacob C; Newsom, Emily M; Lucy, Matthew C

    2017-07-01

    Infertility in lactating dairy cows is explained partially by the metabolic state associated with high milk production. The hypothesis was that lactating and nonlactating cows would differ in endometrial and placental transcriptomes during early pregnancy (day 28 to 42) and this difference would explain the predisposition for lactating cows to have embryonic loss at that time. Cows were either milked or not milked after calving. Reproductive [endometrium (caruncular and intercaruncular) and placenta] and liver tissues were collected on day 28, 35, and 42 of pregnancy. The hypothesis was rejected because no effect of lactation on mRNA abundance within reproductive tissues was found. Large differences within liver demonstrated the utility of the model to test an effect of lactation on tissue gene expression. Major changes in gene expression in reproductive tissues across time were found. Greater activation of the transcriptome for the recruitment and activation of macrophages was found in the endometrium and placenta. Changes in glucose metabolism between day 28 and 42 included greater mRNA abundance of rate-limiting genes for gluconeogenesis in intercaruncular endometrium and evidence for the establishment of aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in the placenta. Temporal changes were predicted to be controlled by CSF1, PDGFB, TGFB1, and JUN. Production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species by macrophages was identified as a mechanism to promote angiogenesis in the endometrium. Reported differences in pregnancy development for lactating vs. nonlactating cows could be explained by systemic glucose availability to the conceptus and appeared to be independent of the endometrial and placental transcriptomes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  2. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  3. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( < 0.01) liver Co concentrations at birth compared with calves from CON cows. Liver Cu and Zn concentrations at birth were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows. Weaning BW was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows, and this difference was maintained until slaughter. In the growing lot

  4. Effect of season and exposure to heat stress on oocyte competence in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Al-Katanani, Y M; Paula-Lopes, F F; Hansen, P J

    2002-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate seasonal variation in oocyte competence in Holstein cows and to test whether oocyte quality in summer is affected by the magnitude of heat stress. In the first experiment, ovaries of Holstein cows were collected from a slaughterhouse and used to harvest oocytes over 1 yr (n = 18 replicates). After in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture, proportions of oocytes and cleaved embryos that developed to blastocysts by d 8 were lower in the warm season compared with the cool season. In the second experiment, nonlactating Holstein cows were housed in one of the following three environments for 42 d before slaughter: heat stressed (housed with shade cloth in summer; n = 14); cooled (housed in a free-stall barn with foggers and fans in summer; n = 14); and winter (housed similar to the heat-stressed group; n = 12). Cows were slaughtered at d 18 to 19 of the estrous cycle. Oocytes from the two largest follicles per cow were aspirated and cultured individually. Ovaries were then dissected to collect additional oocytes that were processed in a group for in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Cleavage rates were similar among treatments, but none of the individually cultured oocytes developed to blastocysts. For other oocytes cultured in groups, proportions of oocytes and cleaved embryos that developed to blastocysts by d 8 were lower in summer than winter with no difference between the heat-stressed and the cooled treatment groups. Summer depression in oocyte quality in Holstein cows was evident, but cooling cows for 42 d did not alleviate that seasonal effect.

  5. Achieving body weight adjustments for feeding status and pregnant or non-pregnant condition in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gionbelli, Mateus P; Duarte, Marcio S; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L; Rodrigues, Felipe C; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R S; Machado, Marcelo G

    2015-01-01

    Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status.

  6. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  7. Absorption, retention, and utilization of two forms of selenium given simultaneously as stable isotope tracers to lactating and nonlactating women

    SciTech Connect

    Mangels, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated absorption, retention, and utilization of selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}) in 6 lactating and 6 nonlactating women, 2 to 3 mo postpartum, and 7 never pregnant women. Subjects were maintained on controlled diets for 3 wk. After 1 wk equilibration, subjects received simultaneous oral doses of {sup 74}Se L-SeMet and {sup 76}Se SeO{sub 3}. Complete urine and fecal collections were made for 1 d prior to and 2 wk after isotope dosing. Lactating women collected milk samples from all feedings for 24 h before and 48 h after isotopes. Blood was collected from subjects before isotope dosing and 2,24, 168, and 336 h later. All samples were analyzed for natural Se, {sup 74}Se, and {sup 76}Se by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

  8. Effects of a simulated wolf encounter on brain and blood biomarkers of stress-related psychological disorders in beef cows with or without previous exposure to wolves.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Mehrkam, L R; Marques, R S; Lippolis, K D; Bohnert, D W

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2015. After a 60-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were allocated to groups A or B (d -1; 5 CON and 5 WLF cows in each group). On d 0, cows from group A were sampled for blood and immediately slaughtered, and samples were analyzed to evaluate inherent differences between CON and WLF cows. On d 1, cows from group B were exposed in pairs (1 CON and 1 WLF cow) to experimental procedures. Cows were sampled for blood, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (1 WLF and 1 CON cow/pen) and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min. The encounter consisted of (1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, (2) reproduction of wolf howls, and (3) three leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, another blood sample was collected and cows were slaughtered. Upon slaughter, the brain was removed and dissected for collection of the hypothalamus, and one longitudinal slice of the medial pre-frontal cortex, amygdala, and Cornu Ammonis (1 region of the hippocampus from both hemispheres). Within cows from group A, expression of in hippocampus and amygdala were greater ( < 0.01) in WLF vs. CON cows. Within cows from group B, expression of hippocampal mRNA and expression of c m

  9. Stage of lactation and corresponding diets affect in situ protein degradation by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schadt, I; Mertens, D R; Van Soest, P J; Azzaro, G; Licitra, G

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stage of lactation and corresponding diets on rates of protein degradation (kd) is largely unstudied. Study objectives were to measure and compare in situ ruminal kd of crude protein (CP) and estimate rumen CP escape (rumen-undegradable protein; RUP) of selected feeds by cows at 3 stages of lactation fed corresponding diets, and to determine the incubation times needed in an enzymatic in vitro procedure, using 0.2 units of Streptomyces griseus protease per percent of true CP, that predicted in situ RUP. Residue CP was measured after in situ fermentation for 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h of 5 protein sources and 3 total mixed rations, which were fed to the in situ cows. Two nonlactating (dry) cows and 2 cows each at 190 (mid) and 90 (peak) days of lactation were used. Each pair of cows was offered free-choice diets that differed in composition to meet their corresponding nutrient requirements. Diets had decreasing proportions of forages and contained (dry matter basis) 11.9, 15.1 and 16.4% CP and 54.3, 40.3 and 35.3% neutral detergent fiber, for dry, mid, and peak TMR (TMR1, TMR2, and TMR3), respectively. Intakes were 10.3, 21.4, and 23.8kg of dry matter/d, respectively. Kinetic CP fractions (extractable, potentially degradable, undegradable, or slowly degradable) were unaffected by treatment. Lag time and kd varied among feeds. The kd was faster for all feeds (0.136/h) when incubated in dry-TMR1 cows compared with mid-TMR2 (0.097/h) or peak-TMR3 (0.098/h) cows, and no differences in lag time were detected. Calculated RUP, using estimated passage rates for each cow based on intake, differed between dry-TMR1 (0.382) and mid-TMR2 (0.559) or peak-TMR3 (0.626) cows, with a tendency for mid-TMR2 to be different from peak-TMR3. Using the average kd and lag time obtained from dry-TMR1 to calculate RUP for mid-TMR2 and peak-TMR3 cows using their passage rates reduced RUP values by 6.3 and 9.5 percentage units, respectively. Except for that of herring meal

  10. In vivo embryo production in cows superovulated 1 or 2 days after ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Surjus, Ricardo S; Prata, Alexandre B; Borsato, Marta; Mattos, Fernanda C S Z; Martins da Silveira, Mariana C; Mourão, Gerson B; Pires, Alexandre V; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated superovulatory responses and in vivo embryo production in cows treated with FSH starting 1 or 2 days after ovum pick-up (OPU). Thirty-three non-lactating Nelore cows were subjected to aspiration of all follicles ≥3mm for OPU. After OPU, cows were randomly divided into two groups in which the follicle superstimulatory treatments with FSH started 1 or 2 days after OPU (Groups D1 and D2, respectively). Data are presented as the least squares mean±s.e.m. The number of follicles ≥3mm before OPU was similar between groups (~34); however, cows in Group D2 had more follicles ≥3mm on the first day of FSH (15.2±2.3 vs 7.6±1.7; P=0.04) and a higher ratio of the number of follicles at first FSH/number of follicles before OPU (0.41±0.04 vs 0.24±0.02; P=0.01). In addition, Group D2 cows had a greater superovulatory response than did cows in Group D1 (18.9±2.8 vs 9.1±1.9 corpora lutea, respectively; P<0.03). However, there was no difference in the total number of recovered ova and embryos from cows in Groups D2 and D1 (5.1±1.4 vs 4.9±1.3, respectively; P>0.10). Nevertheless Group D2 cows had more freezable embryos than Group D1 cows (3.2±1.1 vs 1.3±0.5, respectively; P<0.05). Cows from Group D2 had a much higher proportion (P<0.001) of follicles ≥8mm compared with follicles ≥6mm and <8mm at the time of the last treatment with FSH. In conclusion, to obtain a greater production of viable embryos in superovulated cows after OPU, it is recommended to wait at least 2 days before starting FSH treatment.

  11. Metabolism of water, sodium, potassium, and chlorine by high yielding dairy cows at the onset of lactation.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, N; Maltz, E; Halevi, A; Shinder, D

    1997-05-01

    We studied the balance of Na+, K+, Cl-, and water in six high yielding (> 39 kg/d of milk) cows between wk 2 to 1 prepartum and at 2 and 7 wk postpartum during winter in Israel. Cows were fed complete diets; Na+ and Cl- contents exceeded dietary recommendations, and K+ content was equal to dietary recommendations. Milk yield was related positively and significantly to retention of Cl- and K+, indicating that ions that are the main constituents of sweat can limit the ability of cows to express full genetic potential. The highest ion retention was recorded for cows that had the highest dry matter intake and, hence, the highest ion intake. Retention of Cl- was highest for cows that were most efficient in retaining Cl- in the kidney. In hot climates, increasing the concentrations of ions in the diet of early lactation cows according to the actual dry matter intake could prevent or reduce the severity of ion deficiencies. Water turnover rate of the cows was dependent on dry matter intake, milk yield, and respiratory-cutaneous water loss. The milk-free water balance (water turnover rate minus water secreted in milk) could be very efficiently predicted for lactating and nonlactating cows by the following equation: milk-free water balance (kilograms per day) = digestible energy intake (megacalories per day) x 0.58 + respiratory-cutaneous loss (kilograms per day) x 0.97 (n = 18; R2 = 0.97). This formula provides a tool to assess the evaporative-cutaneous water loss from feed and water intake measurements to evaluate the severity of heat stress.

  12. Effect of moderate dietary restriction on visceral organ weight, hepatic oxygen consumption, and metabolic proteins associated with energy balance in mature pregnant beef cows.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-two nonlactating multiparous pregnant beef cows (639 ± 68 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary restriction on the abundance of selected proteins regulating cellular energy metabolism. Cows were fed at either 85% (n = 11; LOW) or 140% (n = 11; HIGH) of total NE requirements. The diet consisted of a haylage-based total mixed ration containing 20% wheat straw. Cows were slaughtered by block (predicted date of parturition), beginning 83 d after the initiation of dietary treatments and every week thereafter for 6 wk, such that each block was slaughtered at approximately 250 d of gestation. Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papilli (ventral sac), pancreas, and small intestinal muscosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N2. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α), and 5´-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the activated form phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Statistical analysis was conducted using Proc Mixed in SAS and included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, cow age, block, and the random effect of pen. Dietary treatments resulted in cows fed HIGH having greater (P ≤ 0.04) ADG and final BW than cows fed LOW. Abundance of ubiquitin in muscle was greater (P = 0.009) in cows fed LOW, and PCG-1 α in liver was greater (P = 0.03) in cows fed HIGH. Hepatic O2 consumption was greater in HIGH (P ≤ 0.04). Feed intake can influence the abundance of important metabolic proteins and suggest that protein degradation may increase in muscle from moderately nutrient restricted cows and that energy metabolism in liver increases in cows fed above NE requirements.

  13. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting.

  14. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-10-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touchpanel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  15. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  16. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  17. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  18. Non-lactating versus lactating females: a comparison of sex steroids, sexual coloration, and sexual behavior in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Bernard; Aspernig, Doris; Millesi, Eva; Machatschke, Ivo H

    2011-01-01

    Female Japanese macaques are seasonal breeders distinguished by their red-colored hindquarters, face, and nipple skin areas. Intensity of coloration seems to be associated with sexual attractiveness, behavior, and fluctuating sex steroids. Our aim was to investigate whether the color intensity of these regions differed between lactating (LA) and non-lactating (NLA) females during sexually inactive (SI) and active (SA) phases. Coloration scores of 19 adult females were classified using color tables. Estrogen and progesterone metabolites were determined in fecal samples. Weekly comparison between both groups revealed significantly increased coloration of the hindquarters area from week 13 (SI) until the end of the observation period, and for the nipple skin throughout the SI and SA periods. Face coloration differed marginally. Hormonally, NLA females showed significantly increased excretion rates of sex steroids at the end of the SI phase and throughout the whole SA period. Logistic regression analyses between elevated fecal steroids and nipple coloration disclosed a significant relationship for NLA females during the SI period. This connection persisted and included hindquarter coloration during the SA period. NLA females showed increased intromission with ejaculation, but no difference was found for intromission without ejaculation. In conclusion, results demonstrate increased endocrine excretion rates for NLA females during the whole observation period, paralleled by an enhanced, fertility-signaling sexual attractiveness.

  19. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

  20. Fitting Cows to Your Operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic diversity in cattle can be used to improve efficiency of the cow herd. A cow that is optimum in one production system may not be the best cow for another production system. To improve cow efficiency, we need to optimize the ratio of output to inputs. The optimum ratio on biological bases ...

  1. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2α) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P < 0.01) by ACTH, time, and the interaction of ACTH × time, but not by flunixin meglumine (P ≥ 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P < 0.01) in the serum of ACTH-treated cows immediately after ACTH treatment and remained increased (P < 0.01) throughout the 4-h sampling period. Serum PGFM concentration was not affected by ACTH (P = 0.97) or by any interactions (P > 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P < 0.01) by flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P < 0.01) serum PGFM concentrations in both ACTH-treated and control cows for

  2. Temporal dynamics in the ruminal microbiome of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Pitta, D W; Kumar, S; Vecchiarelli, B; Shirley, D J; Bittinger, K; Baker, L D; Ferguson, J D; Thomsen, N

    2014-09-01

    The transition period in dairy cows refers to the period from 3 wk before calving to 3 wk post-calving and is a critical time for influencing milk production and cow health. We hypothesize that the ruminal microbiome shifts as dairy cows transition from a non-lactation period into lactation due to changes in dietary regimen. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the ruminal microbiome of primiparous and multiparous (study group) cows during the transition period. Five primiparous and 5 multiparous cows were randomly selected from a herd, and ruminal contents were sampled, via stomach tube, 4 times (study day) at 3 wk before calving date (S1), 1 to 3 d post-calving (S2), and 4 (S3) and 8 wk (S4) into lactation and were evaluated for bacterial diversity using 16S pyrotags. Both groups received the same pre-fresh diet (14.6% CP, 44.0% NDF, 21.9% starch) and 3 different lactation diets (L1, L2, and L3) varying in forage base but not amount and formulated to have similar nutrient specifications (16.8% to 17.7% CP; 32.5% to 33.6% NDF; 26.2% to 29.1% starch) post-calving. Forty bacterial communities were analyzed on the basis of annotations of 100,000 reads, resulting in 15,861 operational taxonomic units grouped into 17 bacterial phyla. The UniFrac distance metric revealed that both study group and study day had an effect on the community compositions (P < 0.05; permutational multivariate ANOVA test). The most abundant phyla observed were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes across all the communities. As the cows transitioned into lactation, the ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes increased from 6:1 to 12:1 (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test), and this ratio was greater in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows (P < 0.05). This report is the first to explore the effect of parity on dynamics in the ruminal microbiome of cows during the transition period.

  3. Macrophage infiltration in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of dairy cows with displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Kabara, Ed; Brester, Jill; Neuder, Louis; Kiupel, Matti

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), a direct measure of lipolysis, are considered a risk factor for displaced abomasum (DA) and other clinical diseases. In nonruminants, uncontrolled lipolysis is commonly associated with adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration. In dairy cows, recent studies report ATM infiltration in specific adipose depots during the first week of lactation. Depending on their phenotype, ATM can be broadly classified as classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2). The M1 ATM are considered pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 ATM enhance inflammation resolution. Currently, it is not known whether multiparous transition cows with DA have increased ATM infiltration, and the predominant phenotype of these mononuclear cells remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize ATM infiltration into different adipose tissue depots in transition cows with DA (days in milk=7.8±4.6 d; body condition score=2.95±0.10; n=6). Serum samples and biopsies from omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat depots were obtained during corrective surgery for DA. In an effort to compare ATM infiltration in DA cows with that of healthy cows in anabolic state (AS), adipose biopsies and blood samples were collected from nonlactating, nongestating dairy cows at the time of slaughter (body condition score=3.75±0.12; n=6). Adipose tissues were digested and cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were analyzed using flow cytometry to establish cell surface expression of specific macrophage markers including CD14, CD11c, CD163, and CD172a. Tissue sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to assess ATM localization. Cows with DA were ketotic and had plasma NEFA above 1.0 mEq/L. The same group of cows had significant infiltration of ATM in OM characterized by increased numbers of SVF cells expressing CD14 and CD172a. At the same time, expression of CD11c, and CD163 was significantly higher in SVF from OM and SC of DA

  4. Responses of the mammary transcriptome of dairy cows to altered photoperiod during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Bentley, P A; Wall, E H; Dahl, G E; McFadden, T B

    2015-10-01

    Cows exposed to short day photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) during the 60-day nonlactating period prior to parturition produce more milk in their subsequent lactation compared with cows exposed to long day photoperiod (LD, 16L:8D). Although this response is well established in dairy cows, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We hypothesized that differential gene expression in cows exposed to SD or LD photoperiods during the dry period could be used to identify the functional basis for the subsequent increase in milk production during lactation. Pregnant, multiparous cows were maintained on an SD or LD photoperiod for 60 days prior to parturition. Mammary biopsies were obtained on days -24 and -9 relative to parturition and Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays were used to quantify gene expression. Sixty-four genes were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05 and fold-change ≥ |1.5|) between SD and LD treatments. Many of these genes were associated with cell growth and proliferation, or immune function. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted upstream regulators to include TNF, TGF-β1, interferon-γ, and several interleukins. In addition, expression of 125 genes was significantly different between day -24 and day -9; those genes were associated with milk component metabolism and immune function. The interaction of photoperiod and time affected 32 genes associated with insulin-like growth factor I signaling. Genes differentially expressed in response to photoperiod were associated with mammary development and immune function consistent with the enhancement of milk yield in the ensuing lactation. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms by which photoperiod affects the mammary gland and subsequently lactation.

  5. Bedding on geotextile mattresses: how much is needed to improve cow comfort?

    PubMed

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M

    2004-09-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate how the amount of sawdust bedding on mattresses affects dairy cattle behavior and preferences. Eleven nonlactating, multiparous cows were housed individually in pens with access to 3 free stalls. Each stall was fitted with a geotextile mattress covered with either 0, 1, or 7.5 kg of kiln-dried sawdust. The experiment began with 7 d of acclimatization to all 3 stalls. Cows were then allowed access to only 1 of the 3 stalls at a time, each for 3 d (restriction phase). At the end of this restriction phase, cows were allowed free access to all 3 stalls for 3 d (free-choice phase). Time spent lying and the number of lying bouts increased significantly with the amount of bedding, from 12.3 +/- 0.53 h lying and 8.5 +/- 0.62 bouts per 24 h on bare mattresses to 13.8 +/- 0.53 h lying and 10.0 +/- 0.62 bouts per 24 h on mattresses with 7.5 kg of sawdust. In addition, the animals spent less time standing with only the front hooves in the stalls when more sawdust was present. When allowed free access to all 3 options, all 11 animals spent a majority of their time lying and standing in the 7.5-kg option. In conclusion, cows preferred mattresses bedded with 7.5 kg of sawdust, on which they spent more time lying down and less time standing with only the front hooves in stalls. These results indicate that more sawdust bedding improves cow comfort in stalls with geotextile mattresses.

  6. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  7. Non-lactic acid, contaminating microbial flora in ready-to-eat foods: a potential food-quality index.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, A S; Chronis, E N; Papageorgiou, D K; Kazakis, I I; Arsenoglou, K C; Stathopoulos, G A

    2006-02-01

    The bacteriological profile of 87 samples of commercially available ready-to-eat (RTE) dairy and meat-products, packaged sandwiches and salads was obtained by testing for aerobic colony count, for lactic acid bacterial (LAB) count, for the presence and the extent of non-LAB microflora (contaminating microflora), and by testing for certain food-borne pathogens. The pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and sulfite-reducing clostridia were not detected in any of the analysed samples. Whereas only three samples (3.4%) were deemed unacceptable for consumption for exceeding the established pathogen tolerance levels (for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), several samples were found to contain non-lactic acid contaminating microflora of considerable magnitude. The log10 cfu g(-1) counts for contaminating microflora in the food categories examined were as follows: hard cheeses 4.85 (SD 1.17); semi-hard cheeses 5.39 (SD 1.37); soft cheeses 5.13 (SD 1.03); whey cheeses 6.55 (1.24); fermented meat-products 4.18 (SD 1.48); heat-treated meat-products 3.47 (SD 1.99); salads 3.37 (SD 1.56) and sandwiches 5.04 (SD 0.96). Approximately 1 in every 30 to 80 bacterial cells found on different types of cheeses and salads was a non-LAB microorganism; the respective ratios for fermented meat-products, heat-treated meat-products and sandwiches were 1 in 6, 2.5 and 15. The assessment of the contaminating microflora magnitude at various steps during the manufacture and distribution of RTE foods can serve as an index for monitoring the microbiological quality of the starting materials, the sanitation efficacy during processing and possible temperature abuse during processing, transportation or storage.

  8. Effect of increased concentrate allotment before evening grazing on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and rumen fermentation in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the effect of increased concentrate allotment before evening grazing on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and rumen fermentation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, nine lactating cows were grazed in the morning and evening sessions (2.5 h each). The cows were allocated to treatments of three concentrate allotment levels before the evening grazing session by altering proportions to daily total offered; 25%, 50% and 75%. Daily herbage dry matter intake quadratically decreased with increasing the concentrate allotment levels (P < 0.05). Nitrogen utilization was similar among treatments. To investigate diurnal changes in rumen fermentation, a second experiment was conducted where six ruminally cannulated non-lactating dairy cows grazed in the morning and evening sessions (3 h each) were subjected to the same treatments as experiment 1. Total volatile fatty acid concentration in the rumen linearly increased with increasing the concentrate allotment levels throughout the pre-evening grazing session to the post-morning grazing session (P < 0.01). The results indicate that dairy cows reduce daily herbage intake but do not alter nitrogen utilization with increasing concentrate allotment before evening grazing. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  10. Response of the Cholesterol Metabolism to a Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Cows Depends on the Lactational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  11. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    PubMed

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation.

  12. Identification and analysis of the expression of microRNA from lactating and nonlactating mammary glands of the Chinese swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qingyou; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Ren, Yanping; Lei, Xiaocan; Li, Sheng; Chen, Qiuping; Deng, Kai; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Haihang; Shi, Deshun

    2017-03-01

    To study the role of microRNA (miR) in the lactation physiology of water buffalo, 2 multiparous dairy buffaloes (including an 8-yr-old buffalo that had been lactating for 3 mo, as well as a 10-yr-old nonlactating, nonpregnant buffalo) were used for miR library construction. The profile of differentially expressed miR in lactating and nonlactating mammary gland tissues of these water buffalo were investigated using Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The data identified 259 miR families, 359 mature miR, 363 pre-miR, 230 novel buffalo miR, and 5 buffalo-specific miR that were expressed in mammary tissues. Some highly significantly differentially expressed miR were explored, including bbu-miR-497, bbu-miR-30a-5p, bbu-miR-148a, bbu-miR-29a, bbu-miR-125a, bbu-miR-125b, and bbu-miR-103. The expression patterns of 18 miR were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR in both tissues, and the expression of bbu miR-103 and novel miR-57 constituted the largest differences between lactating and nonlactating tissues. Further functional analysis indicated that the overexpression or suppression of miR-103 in buffalo mammary epithelial cells downregulated or upregulated the expression of pantothenate kinase 3, and also significantly increased the transcription factor steroid regulatory element binding protein, followed by the acceleration of de novo synthesis of fatty acids by upregulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase α expression. The expression levels of 34 predicted target genes of novel-miR-57 in lactating and nonlactating mammary gland tissues were all analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, only the expression of docking protein 4 could be upregulated or downregulated selectively by bbu-novel-miR-57 in buffalo mammary epithelial cells and the Bcap-37 cell line. This study provides an overview of the miR expression profile of water buffalo and the interaction between some key miR and their target genes, which may

  13. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, P<0.05) and produced more CH4 per kg BW0.75 than LIMx cows (1.30 v. 1.05 g CH4/kg BW0.75; P<0.01). Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P<0.001) and propionate and butyrate lower (P<0.01) in rumen fluid samples from BG-fed compared with GS-fed cows. This study demonstrated that replacing GS with BG in barley straw-based diets can effectively reduce CH4

  14. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  15. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K.; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  16. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  17. Do bells affect behaviour and heart rate variability in grazing dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare.

  18. Contribution of the female reproductive tract to low fertility in postpartum lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rizos, D; Carter, F; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Lonergan, P

    2010-03-01

    Infertility in dairy cattle is a multifactorial problem that may be linked to follicle development and the quality of the ovulated oocyte, to sperm transport and fertilization, to the reproductive tract environment, or to a combination of these factors. Using a state-of-the-art endoscopic embryo transfer technique, the aim of this study was to compare the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows and nulliparous heifers to support the development of early embryos to the blastocyst stage. Bovine embryos of 2 to 4 cells (n=1,800) were produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes derived from the ovaries of slaughtered cattle. The estrus cycles of nulliparous Holstein heifers (n=10) and postpartum Holstein cows (n=8, approximately 60 d postpartum) were synchronized using an 8-d controlled internal drug release device coupled with prostaglandin injection. On d 2, one hundred 2- to 4-cell embryos were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum. Five days later, on d 7, the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically to recover the embryos. The number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded immediately at recovery and following overnight culture in vitro. A representative number of blastocysts from heifers and cows were stained to assess cell number. Progesterone concentrations were lower in cows than in heifers on d 5, 6, and 7 (d 7=2.39+/-0.33 vs. 5.34+/-0.77ng/mL, respectively). More embryos were recovered from heifers than cows (79.0+/-7.0 vs. 57.2+/-11.4%). Of the embryos recovered, 33.9+/-3.6% had developed to the blastocyst stage in the heifer oviduct compared with 18.3+/-7.9% in the postpartum cow oviduct. There was no evidence of a difference in blastocyst quality as evidenced by total cell number in the blastocysts (71.2+/-5.7 vs. 67.0+/-5.3, respectively). In conclusion, the reproductive tract of the postpartum lactating dairy cow may be less capable of supporting early

  19. Induction of hyperlipidemia by intravenous infusion of tallow emulsion causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Souza, A H; Grummer, R R

    2007-06-01

    The objective was to test whether the induction of elevated blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by i.v. infusion of a tallow emulsion altered glucose tolerance and responsiveness to insulin in Holstein cows. Six non-lactating, nongestating Holstein cows were assigned to a crossover design. One cow was excluded before initiation of the experiment because of complications from mastitis. Treatments consisted of 11-h i.v. infusions of saline (control) or a 20% (wt/vol) triacylglycerol (TG) emulsion derived from tallow (tallow) to elevate plasma NEFA. Each period consisted of two 11-h infusions (INF1 and INF2), separated by 1 d in which cows were not infused. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed 8 h after initiation of INF1 and INF2, respectively. The infusion of treatments continued during the 3 h of sampling for IVGTT and IC. Cows were fed every 4 h at a rate to meet energy requirements for 5 d prior to each period, and every 2 h during the first 8 h of infusions. Infusion of tallow induced hyperlipidemia by increasing plasma NEFA (295 +/- 9 vs. 79 +/- 7 microEq/L), serum TG (41.0 +/- 6 vs. 11.4 +/- 4.4 mg/dL), and glycerol (0.81 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.1 mg/dL) concentrations during INF1. During INF2, tallow treatment increased plasma NEFA (347 vs. 139 +/- 18 microEq/L), serum TG (20.8 +/- 4.6 vs. 13.1 +/- 2.3 mg/dL), and glycerol (0.88 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.02 mg/dL) concentrations. Induction of hyperlipidemia impaired glucose clearance during IVGTT, despite the greater endogenous insulin response to the glucose infusion, leading to a lower insulin sensitivity index [0.29 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.31 x 10(-4) min(-1)/(microIU/mL)]. Accordingly, hyperlipidemia impaired glucose clearance during IC (1.58 vs. 2.72 %/min), reflecting lower responsiveness to insulin. These data show that induction of hyperlipidemia causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows by impairing both sensitivity and maximum responsiveness to insulin. The

  20. Effects of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SRIF) and glucose on growth hormone (GH) secretion in lactating dairy cows

    SciTech Connect

    Sartin, J.L.; Kemppainen, R.J.; Cummins, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    Lactation in dairy cows is associated with increased GH concentrations and high milk production. This study was begun to examine hypothalamic and pituitary sensitivity to GH secretory stimuli. In experiment 1, cows (nonlactating, NL; days 30 and 90 postpartum, pp) fitted with jugular cannulas were administered GRF (n = 10; .08 or .4 ug/kg BW) on successive days or were administered a loading dose of glucose and infused with the same .56 mmol/kg dose for 20 min. In experiment 2, cows (n = 5; days 5 and 30 pp) were infused with saline or SRIF (.2 or .8 mg/kg). After 15 min of infusion, cows were injected with GRF (.1 ug/kg). Plasma was collected and assayed for GH by radioimmunoassay. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. In experiment 1, glucose had no effect on GH in NL or day 90 cows but increased GH in day 30 cows (p < .05). GRF stimulated GH in all groups but no dose effect was seen at day 30. There was a greater GRF effect at day 90 than in NL cows (p < .05). In experiment 2, GRF had a greater effect at day 30 than day 5 (p < .05). SRIF at both doses slightly blocked GRF actions at day 30 but only the .8 dose blocked GRF actions at day 5 (p < .05). Greater pulses of SRIF with greater sensitivity to suppression by glucose in early lactation could explain the glucose and GRF data. Increased pituitary sensitivity to SRIF but lower SRIF levels may be present in late lactation.

  1. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (P<0.001). There was an acute increase in vaginal temperature at the onset of estrus during winter but such an increase was not observed during summer. Walking activity during estrus decreased dramatically in the summer compared to the winter. Duration of estrous cycle was longer in summer (23.4 days, P<0.05) than winter (21.5 days), and the subsequent rise in progesterone concentrations following estrus tended to be delayed in summer. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in peripheral blood cells was higher during summer (P<0.05), while the levels of superoixde dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione were lower (P<0.05). These results indicate that high ambient temperature during summer increases both body temperature and oxidative stress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Effect of feeding rumen-protected rice bran on mineral status of non-lactating dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; Distefano, C; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2011-02-01

    Adapting Ca homeostasis of dairy cows before calving can prevent milk fever. Rice bran, treated with formaldehyde to prevent ruminal degradation of phytic acid, was fed to heifers to study its effect on Ca homeostasis. For 3 weeks 18 heifers were supplemented 3 kg of two feeds: placebo (PF) and rice bran (RBF), defining three treatments: control (CRT), low dose (LD) and high dose (HD). In weeks 1 and 3, all animals received 3 kg of PF and in week 2: CRT received 3 kg of PF, LD received 1.5 kg of PF and 1.5 kg of RBF and HD received 3 kg of RBF. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake (DMI). Feed intakes and growth rates indicated that all heifers had nutritional requirements that exceeded their Ca intakes. Serum Ca, urinary Ca, calcitriol or hydroxyproline remained unaffected. Urinary Ca was consistently low indicating high renal Ca reabsorption, which is indicative of insufficient Ca supply. Rice bran feed influenced P, Mg and Zn intakes and serum and urine presence of these minerals. Most heifers already presented an upregulated Ca metabolism, being inadequate to study adaptive changes in Ca homeostasis of multiparous dry cows. This metabolic difference can be explanatory to the very low susceptibility of heifers to milk fever, further supporting the induction of homeostatic adaptation before calving to prevent milk fever. Rice bran feed did not reduce DMI, and was not detrimental to P, Mg or Zn status.

  3. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants.

  4. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo O; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-02-13

    Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW(0.75)/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  5. Liver x receptors stimulate lipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cell culture but do not appear to be involved in diet‐induced milk fat depression in cows

    PubMed Central

    Harvatine, Kevin J.; Boisclair, Yves R.; Bauman, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Milk fat synthesis of ruminants can be inhibited by intermediates of ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation including trans‐10, cis‐12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). These biohydrogenation intermediates signal a coordinated downregulation of genes involved in mammary FA synthesis, transport, and esterification. We have previously reported decreased mammary expression of sterol response element‐binding protein 1 (SREBP1), SREBP1‐activating proteins, and thyroid hormone‐responsive spot 14 (S14) in the cow during diet‐induced milk fat depression (MFD), and treatment with trans‐10, cis‐12 CLA. Liver x receptors (LXR) and retinoid x receptors (RXR) regulate lipogenesis and are known to bind polyunsaturated FA and LXR agonist increases lipid synthesis in mammary epithelial cell culture. The current studies investigated if biohydrogenation products of rumen origin inhibit mammary lipogenesis through LXR and/or RXR. Expression of LXRs was not different in lactating compared to nonlactating bovine mammary tissue, and expression of LXRs, RXRα, and selected LXR and RXR target genes was not changed in mammary tissue during diet‐induced or CLA‐induced MFD in the cow. In bovine mammary epithelial cell culture, LXR agonist stimulated lipogenesis and expression of LXRß, ATP‐binding cassette 1 (ABCA1), SREBP1c, and S14, but LXR activation did not overcome CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and downregulation of LXRß, SREBP1c, and S14 expression. Lastly, expression of the LXR‐regulated carbohydrate‐responsive element‐binding protein (ChREBP) was higher in lactating than nonlactating tissue and was decreased during CLA‐induced MFD. We conclude that changes in mammary LXR expression in dairy cows are not involved in MFD and that trans‐10, cis‐12 CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and diet‐induced MFD appears independent of direct LXR signaling. PMID:24760520

  6. Physiologic, health, and production responses of dairy cows supplemented with an immunomodulatory feed ingredient during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Brandão, A P; Cooke, R F; Corrá, F N; Piccolo, M B; Gennari, R; Leiva, T; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-07-01

    This study compared physiological, health, and productive parameters in dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (OMN; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the transition period. Thirty-eight nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (n=19) or not (CON; n=19) OMN at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis) beginning 35 d before expected date of calving. Before calving, cows were maintained in single drylot pen with ad libitum access to corn silage, and received (as-fed basis) 3kg/cow daily of a concentrate. After calving, cows were moved to an adjacent drylot pen, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after both milkings. Cows received OMN individually as top-dressing in the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -35 relative to expected calving date. After calving and until 46 d in milk, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded, and milk samples were collected daily for total solids and somatic cell count analyses. Blood was sampled daily from 0 to 7 d in milk, every other day from 9 to 21 d in milk, and every 5 d from 26 to 46 d in milk. On 30 and 46 d in milk, cows were evaluated for endometritis via cytobrush technique, based on % of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in 100 total cell count (PMN + endometrial cells). On 48.7±1.6 d in milk, 9 cows/treatment received a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (0.25μg/kg of BW), and blood was sampled hourly from -2 to 8 h, at 12-h intervals from 12 to 72 h, and at 24-h intervals form 96 to 120 h relative to LPS administration. No treatment differences were detected on BW, BCS, serum concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose, haptoglobin, cortisol, and

  7. Heart rate and heart rate variability in pregnant dairy cows and their fetuses determined by fetomaternal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Trenk, Lisa; Kuhl, Juliane; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine; Nagel, Christina

    2015-11-01

    In this study, fetomaternal electrocardiograms were recorded once weekly in cattle during the last 14 weeks of gestation. From the recorded beat-to-beat (RR) intervals, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR) and root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD) were calculated. To differentiate between effects of lactation and gestation, pregnant lactating (PL) cows (n = 7) and pregnant nonlactating (PNL) heifers (n = 8) were included. We hypothesized that lactation is associated with stress detectable by HRV analysis. We also followed the hypothesis that heart rate and HRV are influenced by growth and maturation of the fetus toward term. Maternal heart rate changed over time in both groups, and in PL cows, it decreased with drying-off. During the last 5 weeks of gestation, maternal heart rate increased in both groups but was lower in PL cows than in PNL heifers. Maternal HRV did not change over time, but SDRR was significantly higher in PL cows than in PNL heifers, and significant interactions of group × time existed. On the basis of HRV, undisturbed pregnancies are thus no stressor for the dam in cattle. Fetal heart rate decreased from week 14 to week 1 before birth with no difference between groups. Gestational age thus determines heart rate in the bovine fetus. The HRV variables SDRR and RMSSD increased toward the end of gestation in fetuses carried by cows but not in those carried by heifers. The increase in HRV indicates maturation of fetal cardiac regulation which may be overrun by high sympathoadrenal activity in fetuses carried by heifers as suggested by their low HRV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: a dose-dependent response.

    PubMed

    Reich, L J; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (+/-SD) 89.8+/-3.7, 74.2+/-6.4, 62.2+/-6.3, 43.9+/-4.0, and 34.7+/-3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6+/-2.0 and 6.8+/-2.2 degrees C in the winter and 13.3+/-2.5 and 22.6+/-4.1 degrees C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n=5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4+/-0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5+/-0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1+/-0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9+/-0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows.

  9. Effect of a non-forage fiber of red bean hulls on ruminal mat characteristics, chewing activity and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kenichi; Miwa, Junpei; Ishizuka, Kenta

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation of red bean hulls (RBH) as a non-forage fiber source on ruminal mat formation, chewing activity and milk production was determined using two experiments. In experiment 1, four non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were offered a control diet of 60.1% forage, and an RBH diet of 51.6% forage and 9.4% RBH. Although the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake was higher with the RBH diet than the control diet, the physically effective NDF (peNDF) intake was lower. The rumination period tended to be longer with the RBH diet than with the control diet and the ruminal mat was formed even when the RBH diet was consumed. Ruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by treatment. In experiment 2, 40 lactating cows were fed a control diet of 53.4% forage or an RBH diet of 50.3% forage and 8.1% RBH. Dry matter intake, chewing activity and milk production were not affected by diet. Cows sorted against NDF in the control diet, but not in the RBH diet. It is concluded that normal ruminal function can be maintained because the ruminal mat was stratified and rumination activity was not reduced even when a low peNDF diet that contained RBH was given to dairy cows.

  10. Cool Cow Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  11. Criteria for submitting photos.

    PubMed

    Vallarelli, Andrelou Fralete Ayres

    2011-01-01

    Dermatological photography is used as a supplement to dermatological examination with the function of providing additional knowledge and information. Its quality depends on the expertise of the photographer-dermatologist in recording the relevant elements present. Therefore, the dermatologist should know basic principles of photography and the journal editors should ensure that the articles have high-quality images. This article suggests criteria to improve the quality of photographs submitted to journals for publication.

  12. Effects of excess metabolizable protein on ovarian function and circulating amino acids of beef cows: 1. Excessive supply from corn gluten meal or soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Geppert, T C; Meyer, A M; Perry, G A; Gunn, P J

    2017-04-01

    In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, the source from which excess CP is derived and how it affects reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding excess metabolizable protein (MP) from feedstuffs differing in rumen degradability on ovulatory follicular dynamics, subsequent corpus luteum (CL) development, steroid hormone production and circulating amino acids (AA) in beef cows. Non-pregnant, non-lactating mature beef cows (n=18) were assigned to 1 of 2 isonitrogenous diets (150% of MP requirements) designed to maintain similar BW and body condition score (BCS) between treatments. Diets consisted of ad libitum corn stalks supplemented with corn gluten meal (moderate rumen undegradable protein (RUP); CGM) or soybean meal (low RUP; SBM). After a 20-day supplement adaptation period, cows were synchronized for ovulation. After 10 days of synchronization, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) was administered to reset ovarian follicular growth. Starting at GnRH administration and daily thereafter until spontaneous ovulation, transrectal ultrasonography was used to diagram ovarian follicular growth, and blood samples were collected for hormone, metabolite and AA analyses. After 7 days of visual detection of estrus, CL size was determined via ultrasound. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS. As designed, cow BW and BCS were not different (P⩾0.33). Ovulatory follicular wavelength, antral follicle count, ovulatory follicle size at dominance and duration of dominance were not different (P>0.13) between treatments. Cows supplemented with CGM had greater post-dominance ovulatory follicle growth, larger dominant follicles at spontaneous luteolysis, shorter proestrus, and larger ovulatory follicles (P⩽0.03) than SBM cows. No differences (P⩾0.44) in peak estradiol, ratio of estradiol to ovulatory follicle

  13. Effect of energy restriction and re-alimentation in Belgian Blue double-muscled beef cows on digestibility and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Fiems, L O; Vanacker, J M; De Boever, J L; van Caelenbergh, W; Aerts, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2007-02-01

    Four groups of five non-lactating and non-pregnant Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) cows were used to investigate the effect of energy level (E) on digestion, and blood and urine metabolites. The energy levels of the groups, applied indoors during a 140-day restriction period, were 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements (E100, E90, E80, E70) respectively. Afterwards, animals grazed on the same swards for 203 days (re-alimentation period). Balance trials were conducted at the end of the restriction period (BT1) and at the end of the re-alimentation period (BT2). Blood was sampled at the end of these trials. Diets consisted of maize silage and straw (80/20 on a dry matter basis) and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at the appropriate E during BT1, or maize silage and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at 125% of the maintenance requirements, during BT2. Significant increases of the digestibility coefficients were found during BT1 when E decreased, resulting in a better net energy capture of 7% for E70 compared with E100 (p < 0.05). Slightly, but non-significantly higher digestibility coefficients were observed for decreasing E during BT2. Plasma concentrations of glucose and creatinine did not differ between treatments during BT1, while differences were found for triacylglycerols and alpha-amino nitrogen. A tendency for a linear increase was observed for non-esterified fatty acids with decreasing E. Differences in blood metabolite concentrations disappeared in BT2. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by E, while body nitrogen loss increased linearly with energy restriction in BT1. No differences were found during BT2, suggesting that non-lactating and non-pregnant BBDM cows are able to adapt to a cyclic change of body weight and body reserves. These data show that restricted cows mobilized body fat as well as body protein. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of metabolism during energy restriction are comparable in double-muscled cows with

  14. Development of Fibroblast Cell Lines From the Cow Used to Sequence the Bovine Genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.BGCF.2 and MARC.BGCF.1-3, were initiated from skin biopsies obtained from the Hereford cow whose DNA was used in sequencing the bovine genome. These cell lines were submitted to American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) and will be made publicly avai...

  15. Experimental studies on the impact of an increased dose of anionic salts on the metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gelfert, C C; Passfeld, M; Löptien, A; Montag, N; Baumgartner, W; Staufenbiel, R

    2006-12-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the influence of a daily dose of anionic salts (AS) above the valid upper limit at present on metabolism of dairy cows. Eleven non-pregnant and non-lactating Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows with a permanent rumen cannula were used in a study with a controlled feeding design. The initial daily dose was 2500 meq/day, which resulted in a Dietary Cation Anion Difference (DCAD) of -211 meq/kg dry matter. Every seven days,the daily dose was raised by 500 meq. If a cow stopped eating, the application of AS was stopped and these cows were monitored over the next seven days. On day 30 another batch of hay, having the same DCAD but higher concentrations of minerals and energy, was fed. Blood and urine samples were taken to monitor acid-base balance and calcium concentrations. Acid-base balance was strongly influenced by AS. Blood pH dropped steadily and reached values around 7.23. Urine pH dropped quickly below 6 and remained at that level regardless of the increased dosage of AS. Net acid base excretion (NABE) fell continuously with the increase of the dosage of AS and reached values below -200 mmol/l. Calcium concentrations in the serum were nearly stable, but those in urine increased sharply and remained on an elevated level with increasing doses of AS. A few days before the individual cow's refusal of feed intake, calcium excretion in urine decreased. The majority of cows stopped eating while consuming a diet containing 3500 to 4000 meq AS except two animals who consumed up to 6000 meq/day AS but they received the better hay in the second half of the treatment period. In this time pH in blood increased slowly. NABE remained stable on a low level at -100 mmol/l. The results showed that with an increasing amount of AS fed the risk of clinical acidosis increased. The decreasing urine concentrations of calcium indicate a breakdown of the compensation capability of the single cow. Besides the dose of AS fed, the quality of the feed

  16. Application of an ELISA Milk Pregnancy Test in Beef Cows.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J N; Byrem, T M; Grooms, D L

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are secreted by the binucleate giant cells of the ruminant placenta and enter maternal circulation at the time of placental attachment. The IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Test (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME) detects a subset of PAG in milk. Although designed as a management tool for dairy cows, there is potential for using the milk PAG test in beef cows. Our objective was to compare the performance of the milk PAG ELISA with a gold standard method for pregnancy diagnosis and determine the agreement between milk and serum PAG analysis in lactating beef cows. Angus and Angus-crossed cows (n = 332) from two Michigan beef herds were enrolled in this study. Cows were subjected either to timed artificial insemination followed by exposure to a bull or exclusively exposed to a bull. The bulls and cows were separated 30 days prior to examination. Serum and milk samples were collected and submitted within 24 h of collection to a commercial laboratory for PAG analysis using the IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Assay (milk) and the IDEXX Bovine Pregnancy Assay (serum). Concurrently with milk and serum collection, each cow was examined transrectally by palpation or ultrasonography. When compared to transrectal examination, the performance (and 95% confidence intervals) of the milk PAG ELISA was sensitivity of 99.7% (99.0-100.0%) and specificity of 80.8% (65.6-95.9%). The lower specificity is likely due to the low prevalence (9.9%) of open cows (n = 30) in the herds examined. Of the 332 cows examined, 1.8% (n = 6) were classified as rechecks using the milk PAG ELISA. Results of the milk and serum PAG ELISA were in high agreement (kappa coefficient = 0.91). The milk PAG ELISA was accurate in predicting pregnancy status using milk collected from beef cattle between days 37 and 125 post-insemination and may be useful for aiding management decisions in beef herds. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effect of exogenous progesterone administration on luteal sensitivity to PGF during the early development of the corpus luteum in mares and cows.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Muñoz, A; Valldecabres-Torres, X; Newcombe, J R; Cuervo-Arango, J; Garcia-Rosello, E

    2017-07-25

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous progesterone administration at ovulation and during the early development of the CL, on its future sensitivity to a single administration of PGF2a in mares and cows. Horse Retrospective reproductive data from an equine clinic in the UK during three breeding seasons were used. Mares were divided into: control group, cycles with single ovulations; double ovulation group cycles with asynchronous double ovulations; and PRID group: cycles with single ovulations and treatment with intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR) immediately after the ovulation. All mares were treated with d-cloprostenol (PGF) at either: (i) 88 hr; (ii) 96 hr; (iii) 104 hr; or (iv) 112 hr after the last ovulation. Cattle A total of nine non-lactating Holstein cows were used. All cows were administered PGF14 d apart and allocated to one of two groups control group GnRH was administered 56 hr after the second PGF administration. CIDR group CIDR was inserted at the same time of GnRH administration. All cows were administered PGF at 120 hr post-ovulation. The complete luteolysis rate of mares with double ovulation (66.7%) and those treated with exogenous progesterone (68.4%) was significantly higher than the rate of mares with single ovulation (35.6%) at 104 hr. In the cow, however, the treatment with CIDR did not increase the luteolytic response in cows treated at 120 hr post-ovulation. In conclusion, the degree of complete luteolysis can be influenced by increasing the concentration of progesterone during the early luteal development in mares. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross-over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms.

  19. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C.; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross‐over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose‐dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  20. Short communication: The diurnal intake and behavior of dairy cows when access to a feed of consistent nutritive value is restricted.

    PubMed

    John, A J; Garcia, S C; Kerrisk, K L; Freeman, M J; Islam, M R; Clark, C E F

    2017-09-06

    The diurnal variation in pasture nutritive value adds a confounding factor to studies elucidating the effect of time of day on behavior. Our work separates the effect of time of day on both feeding and lying patterns for cows outdoors to enable the alignment of feeding behavior with feed management. We determined the diurnal intake patterns and behavior of dairy cows when the nutritive value of feed remained constant throughout 24 h in an outdoor environment, and when feed access was restricted. Nine nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows (live weight 626 ± 53 kg, age 96 ± 33 mo; mean ± SD) were split into 3 groups of 3 and offered lucerne hay cubes (cube volume 32 mm(3)) ad libitum according to 3 treatments: full access (FA, feed access 24 h), day access (DA, feed access between 0600 and 1800 h), and night access (NA, feed access between 1800 and 0600 h). Treatments were applied to individual cows in a crossover design with 7-d periods. During the last 4 d of each period, data were collected on feed intake, as well as feeding and lying behaviors. Total daily intake was greater for cows on the FA treatment (3.5% of BW) compared with the DA and NA treatments at 3.1 and 2.9% of BW, respectively. The cows with FA consumed 69% of their total intake during the day (0600-1800 h), with the greatest intake (39%) occurring during 1200 to 1800 h and only 12% of intake occurring during 2400 to 0600 h. Cows with DA consumed 56% of feed during 0600 to 1200 h and 44% during 1200 to 1800 h. In contrast, NA cows consumed more feed (74%) during the first 6 h period (1800-2400 h), thus maximizing lying time between 2400 and 0600 h. The time spent lying throughout daylight periods varied between treatments; however, total daily lying time was similar across the 3 treatments. This experiment shows the feeding and lying behaviors of cows when feed quality remains constant throughout 24 h, which will assist the formulation of variable feed allocation strategies for future testing in

  1. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole cow's milk in infancy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander Kc; Sauve, Reginald S

    2003-09-01

    Early introduction of whole cow's milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia. From a nutritional point of view, it is best to delay the introduction of whole cow's milk until the infant is one year old. While there is no evidence to suggest adverse clinical sequelae associated with the increased renal solute load in healthy infants, feeding with whole cow's milk would narrow the margin of safety in situations that may lead to dehydration. Early exposure to cow's milk proteins increases the risk of developing allergy to milk proteins. Because of the possible association between early exposure to cow's milk proteins and risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus, breast-feeding and avoidance of commercially available cow's milk and products containing intact cow's milk protein during the first year of life are strongly encouraged in families with a strong history of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The authors suggest that the optimal food in infancy is human breast milk. If human milk is not available, it is preferred that iron-fortified formulas rather than whole cow's milk be used during the first year of life.

  3. Hay to reduce dietary cation-anion difference for dry dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Tremblay, G F; Allard, G; Pellerin, D

    2008-04-01

    Timothy grass has a lower dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD = (Na + K) - (Cl + S)] than other cool-season grass species. Growing timothy on low-K soils and fertilizing it with CaCl2 could further decrease its DCAD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding low-DCAD timothy hay on dry dairy cows. Six nonpregnant and nonlactating cows were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Treatments were as follows: 1) control diet (control; DCAD = 296 mEq/kg of dry matter); 2) low-DCAD diet based on low-DCAD timothy hay (L-HAY; DCAD = - 24 mEq/kg of dry matter); and 3) low-DCAD diet using HCl (L-HCl; DCAD = - 19 mEq/kg of dry matter). Decreasing DCAD with L-HAY had no effect on dry matter intake (11.8 kg/d) or dry matter digestibility (71.5%). Urine pH decreased from 8.21 to 5.89 when L-HAY was fed instead of the control. Blood parameters that decreased with L-HAY were base excess (- 0.4 vs. 3.8 mM) and HCO3- (23 vs. 27 mM), and blood parameters that increased were Ca2+ (5.3 vs. 5.1 mg/dL), Cl- (30.5 vs. 29.5 mg/dL), and Na+ (60.8 vs. 60.1 mg/dL). Compared with the control, L-HAY resulted in more Ca in urine (13.4 vs. 1.2 g/d). Comparing L-HAY with L-HCl, cow dry matter intake tended to be higher (11.5 vs. 9.8 kg/d), and blood pH was higher (7.37 vs. 7.31). Urine pH; total dry matter; Ca, K, P, and Mg apparent absorption; and Ca, K, Na, Cl, S, P, and Mg apparent retention were similar. Absorption as a percentage of intake of Na and Cl was lower for L-HAY as compared with L-HCl. In an EDTA-challenge test, cows fed L-HAY regained their initial level of blood Ca2+ twice as quickly as the control treatment (339 vs. 708 min); there were no differences between L-HAY and L-HCl. This experiment confirms that feeding low-DCAD hay is an effective means of decreasing the DCAD of rations and obtaining a metabolic response in dry dairy cows.

  4. Impact of antibiotic use in adult dairy cows on antimicrobial resistance of veterinary and human pathogens: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2011-03-01

    Antibiotics have saved millions of human lives, and their use has contributed significantly to improving human and animal health and well-being. Use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has resulted in healthier, more productive animals; lower disease incidence and reduced morbidity and mortality in humans and animals; and production of abundant quantities of nutritious, high-quality, and low-cost food for human consumption. In spite of these benefits, there is considerable concern from public health, food safety, and regulatory perspectives about the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Over the last two decades, development of antimicrobial resistance resulting from agricultural use of antibiotics that could impact treatment of diseases affecting the human population that require antibiotic intervention has become a significant global public health concern. In the present review, we focus on antibiotic use in lactating and nonlactating cows in U.S. dairy herds, and address four key questions: (1) Are science-based data available to demonstrate antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in dairy cows associated with use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows? (2) Are science-based data available to demonstrate that antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in adult dairy cows impacts pathogens that cause disease in humans? (3) Does antimicrobial resistance impact the outcome of therapy? (4) Are antibiotics used prudently in the dairy industry? On the basis of this review, we conclude that scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among pathogens isolated from dairy cows to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows and other food-producing animals does contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance

  5. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  6. Anti-Neospora caninum antibody detection and vertical transmission rate in pregnant zebu beef cows (Bos indicus): Neospora caninum in pregnant beef cows (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Eudes Esteves do; Sammi, Ana Sue; Santos, Joeleni Rosa Dos; Nino, Beatriz de Souza Lima; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; Taroda, Alessandra; Vidotto, Odilon; Garcia, João Luis

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and the vertical transmission rate in naturally infected pregnant zebu beef cows (Bos indicus) reared on pasture. The present study began with 200 cows from four farms (50 cows from each farm), and these animals were submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI). After ultrasonography, 76 pregnant cows were selected, 22, 15, 22, and 17, respectively, from farms 1, 2, 3, and 4. Blood samples were taken from cows thrice during the first, second, and third trimester of gestation, and a blood sample was collected from 31 calves before colostrum milking. From 76 cows 23 (30.3%) had anti-N. caninum antibodies detected by indirect ELISA (Idexx), and 53 (69.7%) did not. Sixty-four cows that initiated the experiment were negative to N. caninum and 11 became positive either during the second or third trimester of gestation, this mean an infection incidence of 17.2% (11/64). OD for ELISA was higher (OD=2.08) during the second and third (OD=2.10) trimesters of pregnancy when compared with the first (OD=1.81), however, there were no statistical differences (P=0.45). The vertical transmission was calculated to be 29.0% (9/31), and the risk of vertical transmission of N. caninum in seropositive dams was 26.25 times higher than seronegative animals (OR=26.25, 2.38cows was 29%, and the risk was 26.25 higher in seropositive dams relative to than seronegative animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How the COW happened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, R.; Overhauser, A. W.

    2006-11-01

    In the course of a casual conversation during a social gathering, in the spring of 1974, we were discussing some recent developments in the area of diffraction from perfect crystals, namely, interferometry in the Angstrom region. I (R.C.) was asked by Al Overhauser whether or not I knew anything about the subject. “Not much” was my answer, “but I can read some papers”. Al then proceeded to describe a possible experiment, namely, the effect of gravity on the quantum mechanical phase of the neutron, in essence, what later was called the COW experiment (Colella, Overhauser, Werner).

  8. Screening of anionic salts for palatability, effects on acid-base status, and urinary calcium excretion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, G R; Fettman, M J; Hamar, D W; Olson, J D

    1991-03-01

    Six anionic salts [MgCl2.6H2O, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2.2H2O, CaSO4.2H2O, NH4Cl, and (NH4)2SO4] were evaluated for their effects on dietary DM intake, systemic acid-base balance, and urinary excretion of Ca. Each of the six salts was fed to 12 nonlactating, nonpregnant Holstein cows for 1-wk periods in two replicates of a 6 x 6 Latin square design. All salts were fed at the rate of two equivalents cow-1 d-1. Anionic salt treatments did not decrease DM intake compared with the control diet fed without salts. Blood pH was not affected by any of the salt treatments; however, mild, compensated metabolic acidosis was evidenced by decreased blood bicarbonate concentrations and decreased blood base excess when any of the salts was fed. Urinary pH and urinary base excess also were lowered by all of the salts. Fractional excretion of urinary Ca was increased by all salt treatments. All six anionic salts tested were of similar value in their acidifying effects and in their ability to increase urinary excretion of Ca.

  9. Effect of estradiol benzoate used at the start of a progestagen treatment on superovulatory response and embryo yield in lactating and non-lactating llamas.

    PubMed

    Aller, J F; Cancino, A K; Rebuffi, G E; Alberio, R H

    2010-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of estradiol benzoate (EB) and intravaginal progestagen treatment on ovarian follicular dynamics and superstimulatory response in eCG-treated llamas. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to evaluate the effect of EB and progestagen treatment starting at different phases of dominant follicle (DF1) development on regression pattern and subsequent follicle wave emergence (WE2) in lactating and non-lactating llamas. Early lactating (n=24, 30+/-4 days postpartum) and non-lactating (n=24) females were assigned in equal numbers (n=8) to one of three groups according to the phase of DF1 (growing, static or regressing) determined by ultrasonography from day -3 to day 0. At day 0, llamas received an intravaginal sponge (MPA, 150 mg) and 5mg of MPA (i.m.). Half of the females (n=4) of each group were injected with 2mg (i.m.) of EB and half were not (control group). A 2 x 2 x 3 (lactational status, EB treatment and follicular phases) factorial design was used. Each sponge was removed 8 days later. Ovaries were monitored from day 0 to day 12. Daily blood samples were taken to determine 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) profiles from day 0 to day 8. The DF1 regression pattern was not affected (P>0.05) by the phase of follicle wave at the start of the treatment or any interactions among main effects. Follicle wave emergence in EB-treated llamas was delayed (P<0.05) by 2.3 days compared with non-treated llamas. Following EB treatment, plasma concentrations of E(2) were greater (P<0.05) from day 1 to day 5 in the treated than in non-treated females, but not from day 6 onward (P>0.05). Experiment 2 was designed to evaluate the effect of this treatment on the ovarian superovulatory response and embryo yield following eCG treatment administered on day of follicular wave emergence as determined in the Experiment 1. The same lactating (n=18, 61+/-4 days postpartum) and non-lactating (n=18) llamas at random stages of follicle wave were treated as

  10. Evaluation of electrical broad bandwidth impedance spectroscopy as a tool for body composition measurement in cows in comparison with body measurements and the deuterium oxide dilution method.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C T; Pliquett, U; Tuchscherer, A; Pfuhl, R; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M; Kröger-Koch, C

    2017-05-01

    Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements. Charolais × Holstein Friesian (HF; = 18; 30 d in milk) crossbred cows and 2 HF (lactating and nonlactating) cows were assessed by body conformation measurements, BIS, and the DO dilution method. The BCS of cows was a mean of 3.68 (SE 0.64). For the DO dilution method, a bolus of 0.23 g/kg BW DO (60 atom%) was intravenously injected and deuterium (D) enrichment was analyzed in plasma and whey by stabile isotope mass spectrometry, and total body water content was calculated. Impedance measurement was performed using a 4-electrode interface and time domain-based measurement system consisting of a voltage/current converter for applying current stimulus and an amplifier for monitoring voltage across the sensor electrodes. For the BIS, we used complex impedances over three frequency decades that delivers information on intra- and extracellular water and capacity of cell membranes. Impedance data (resistance of extra- and intracellular space, cell membrane capacity, and phase angle) were extracted 1) by simple curve fit to extract the resistance at direct current and high frequency and 2) by using an electrical equivalent circuit. Cows were slaughtered 7 d after BIS and D enrichment measurements and dissected for the measurement of FDM. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to predict FDM based on data obtained from body conformation measurements, BIS, and D enrichment, and applied

  11. Antilipolytic and lipolytic effects of administering free or ruminally protected nicotinic acid to feed-restricted Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Pescara, J B; Pires, J A A; Grummer, R R

    2010-11-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of 12 hourly infusions of different quantities of nicotinic acid (NA) on plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA; experiment 1) and whether longer (108 h) continuous infusions of NA could induce sustained reductions of plasma NEFA (experiment 2) in nonlactating, nongestating Holstein cows that were feed restricted. Experiment 1 was a 5×5 Latin square with 6-d periods and 9 recovery days between each period. Each period consisted of 5 d of partial feed restriction to increase plasma NEFA concentration. Treatments were abomasal infusions of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 3 mg of NA/h per kilogram of body weight (BW), infused as hourly boluses for 12 h, starting 4 d after initiation of partial feed restriction. Plasma NEFA was decreased for the highest dose: from 448 μEq/L to 138±75 μEq/L at 1 h after the first bolus of 3mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW. This initial reduction in plasma NEFA concentration was followed by an increase in concentration at 2, 3, and 4 h relative to initiation of infusions. Plasma NEFA then decreased to 243 μEq/L 6h after initiation of treatments and remained low until termination of infusions. A rebound in plasma NEFA concentration occurred at 3 and 4 h after termination of infusion for cows that received 3 mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW. Experiment 2 was a 5×5 Latin square with 7-d periods and 9 recovery days between each period. Each period consisted of 5 d of partial feed restriction to increase plasma NEFA concentration. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of 0, 0.5, 1, or 3 mg of free NA/h per kilogram of BW for 4.5 d starting at feed restriction or 0.5 mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW infused directly into the rumen in a form protected from microbial degradation. The ruminal administration of protected NA was initiated 2 d before abomasal infusions and initiation of feed restriction to establish steady postruminal delivery of NA by start of abomasal infusions. Plasma NEFA was approximately 70

  12. Using water to cool cattle: behavioral and physiological changes associated with voluntary use of cow showers.

    PubMed

    Legrand, A; Schütz, K E; Tucker, C B

    2011-07-01

    Water is commonly used to cool cattle in summer either at milking or over the feed bunk, but little research has examined how dairy cows voluntarily use water separate from these locations. The objectives were to describe how and when dairy cattle voluntarily used an overhead water source separate from other resources, such as feed, and how use of this water affected behavioral and physiological indicators of heat stress. Half of the 24 nonlactating cattle tested had access to a "cow shower" composed of 2 shower heads activated by a pressure-sensitive floor. All animals were individually housed to prevent competition for access to the shower. Over 5 d in summer (air temperature=25.3±3.3°C, mean ± standard deviation), cattle spent 3.0±2.1 h/24h in the shower, but considerable variability existed between animals (individual daily values ranged from 0.0 to 8.2 h/24h). A portion of this variation can be explained by weather; shower use increased by 0.3h for every 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Cows preferentially used the shower during the daytime, with 89±12% of the time spent in the shower between 1000 and 1900 h. Respiration rate and skin temperature did not differ between treatments [53 vs. 61 breaths/min and 35.0 vs. 35.4°C in shower and control cows, respectively; standard error of the difference (SED)=5.6 breaths/min and 0.49°C]. In contrast, body temperature of cows provided with a shower was 0.2°C lower than control cows in the evening (i.e., 1800 to 2100h; SED=0.11°C). Cows with access to a shower spent half as much time near the water trough than control animals, and this pattern became more pronounced as the temperature-humidity index increased. In addition, cattle showed other behavioral changes to increasing heat load; they spent less time lying when heat load index increased, but the time spent lying, feeding, and standing without feeding did not differ between treatments. Cows had higher respiration rate, skin temperature, and body

  13. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  14. Effects of prepartum roughage neutral detergent fiber levels on periparturient dry matter intake, metabolism, and lactation in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Homwong, N; Buatong, N

    2010-06-01

    Heat stress of lactating cattle results in dramatic reductions in dry matter intake (DMI). As a result, energy input cannot satisfy energy needs and thus accelerates body fat mobilization. Decreasing the level of roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in prepartum diets, and thereby increasing the amount of nonfiber carbohydrates, may provide an adequate supply of energy and glucose precursors to maintain and minimize the decrease in DMI while reducing mobilization of adipose tissue. The effects of 3-wk prepartum diets containing different amounts of roughage NDF on DMI, blood metabolites, and lactation performance of dairy cows were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Thirty cross-bred cows (87.5% Holstein x 12.5% Sahiwal) were dried off 60 d before their expected calving date and were assigned immediately to a nonlactating cow diet containing the net energy for lactation recommended by the National Research Council (2001) model. The treatment diets contained 17.4, 19.2, and 21.0% DM as roughage NDF from bana grass (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum glaucum) silage. Levels of concentrate NDF were 39.8, 40.2, and 38.6% of dietary NDF, so the levels of dietary NDF were 28.9, 32.1, and 34.2% of DM. After parturition, all cows received a lactating cow diet containing 12.7% roughage NDF and 23% dietary NDF. During the entire experiment, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity index averaged 77.7 and 86.8, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for the induction of extreme heat stress. As parturition approached, DMI decreased steadily, resulting in a 12.9, 25, and 32.8% decrease in DMI from d -21 until calving for nonlactating cows fed prepartum diets containing 17.4, 19.2, and 21% roughage NDF, respectively. During the 3-wk prepartum period, intakes of DM and net energy for lactation and concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin were higher for cows fed diets containing less roughage NDF. In cows fed the 3-wk prepartum diets

  15. The fate of glycerol entering the rumen of dairy cows and sheep.

    PubMed

    Werner Omazic, A; Kronqvist, C; Zhongyan, L; Martens, H; Holtenius, K

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the fate of glycerol entering the rumen, in particular whether glycerol could be absorbed across the rumen epithelium. Three non-lactating rumen-fistulated cows were used to calculate the overall disappearance rate of glycerol in vivo and evaluate the rate of ruminal glycerol absorption. Rumen epithelial tissues isolated from sheep were used to characterise glycerol transport properties. The rate of rumen microbial degradation of glycerol was then studied in an in vitro system under anaerobic and thermo-regulated conditions. The results showed that glycerol can be absorbed from the rumen in significant amounts. The fractional rate of absorption of glycerol was not affected by variations in glycerol concentration in the buffer solution in the in vivo study. The glycerol absorption apparently occurred largely by passive diffusion and was probably not facilitated by carriers. Glycerol also disappeared via microbial digestion and outflow from the rumen through the omasal orifice. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  17. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage.

    PubMed

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The period of observation was three weeks. During the first week (period 1) cows were maintained on basic ration for the purpose of recording baseline values. During the second week (period 2) control cows were fed a basic diet (grass silage), while cows in the experimental group were fed the basic diet and supplemented with 1 kg zeolite pellets once daily. During the third week (period 3) both groups were fed the basic ration only and observed for any persistent effects after zeolite withdraw. Daily sampling included blood and urine. Selected physiological parameters were compared between groups during period 2 and 3, whereas mean values from period 1, 2 and 3 were compared within the groups. Zeolite supplementation revealed a significant influence on calcium homeostasis. A slight decrease in serum Ca and in renal excretion of calcium was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited an activation of calcium mobilisation. The influence of zeolite on calcium homeostasis was not evident from monitoring serum concentration of calcium regulating hormones (PTH, 1,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)VitD) or renal excretion of markers of bone resorption. Enhanced active intestinal calcium absorption and bone resorption was therefore considered insignificant in the calcium mobilisation under the conditions of this experiment. The origin of the increased amount of Ca, which was observed

  18. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... there is a system in which samples of animals are tested. This is one way to help prevent contaminated meat from reaching the shelves. The testing system helped officials identify a contaminated cow in ...

  19. Chondrosarcoma in a cow.

    PubMed

    Acland, H M

    1983-10-01

    Chondrosarcomas are rare in cattle and none has been described in detail. A 30 cm diameter chondrosarcoma centred upon the costochondral junctions of the left 9th to 12th ribs of a 5-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow is described. In areas with a cartilaginous matrix the chondrocytes were plump, sometimes binucleate, sometimes bizarre, with occasionally 2 or more cells per lacuna. The other major matrix was loose and fibrillar, and the cells were spindle-shaped or stellate, with a moderate mitotic rate. Small areas appeared fibrosarcomatous. Both major types of matrix were present in the metastases, which extensively involved the pleura, intrathoracic lymph nodes and lungs. Less numerous and smaller metastases were present on the peritoneal surfaces and within several abdominal and pelvic organs. It is postulated that local extension of the tumour from the primary mass was followed by lymphatic spread to the lungs.

  20. Effects of intravenous triacylglycerol emulsions on hepatic metabolism and blood metabolites in fasted dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mashek, D G; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of intravenous infusion of triacylglycerol (TAG) emulsions derived from different lipid sources on energy metabolism during a 4-d fast. Six nonpregnant, nonlactating multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square design. Treatments included intravenous infusion of tallow, linseed oil, or fish oil emulsions at a rate of 0.54 g of TAG/kg of body weight per day; infusions were concurrent with a 4-d fast. The emulsions were administered for 20 to 30 min every 4 h throughout the 4-d fast. Cows were fed ad libitum for 24 d between the fast/infusion periods. Infusion of tallow, linseed oil, or fish oil emulsions increased plasma concentrations of palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, respectively. Infusion of linseed oil emulsion decreased plasma TAG concentrations compared with tallow and fish oil treatments, which were similar. Infusion of the tallow emulsion resulted in the highest concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), insulin, and glucose, whereas the infusion derived from linseed oil had the lowest NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations. The different TAG emulsions had no effect on total or peroxisomal oxidation of [1-(14C)]oleic acid in liver homogenates. Liver TAG content increased 12.0, 7.8, and 14.1 microg/microg of DNA during the fast for tallow, linseed oil, and fish oil treatments, respectively; linseed oil was different from fish oil and tended to be different from tallow.

  1. Effects of dietary cation-anion difference on the acid-base status of dry cows.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, D B; Oetzel, G R

    1998-06-01

    Responses in dry matter intake (DMI) and acidbase balance to three sources of anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference = -63 to -40 meq/kg of dry matter), an acidified fermentation by-product, MgSO4.7H2O + NH4Cl, and MgSO4.7H2O + CaCl2.2H2O + CaSO4, were evaluated relative to the responses of cows fed a control diet (dietary cationanion difference = 203 meq/kg of dry matter) that did not contain anionic salts. Diets were fed for 1-wk periods to eight nonlactating Holsteins assigned to two replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares. Daily DMI increased as time of access to the diet increased up to d 5; mean DMI over d 5 to 7 was reduced by dietary anionic salts. Diets containing anionic salts induced a mild metabolic acidosis that was completely compensated by nonrespiratory mechanisms (decreased blood bicarbonate and base excess; pCO2 and pH values were unaffected). Urinary pH values and bicarbonate excretion were reduced, and urinary NH4+ and titratable acidity excretion were increased, for cows fed diets containing anionic salts. Strong ion difference in urine was decreased by dietary anionic salts because of the relatively greater excretions of Cl- and S2- versus Na+ and K+ by cows fed these diets. Dietary anionic salts decreased mean ruminal pH by 0.12 units, possibly because of the reduced strong ion difference of ruminal fluid. Dietary anionic salts increased mean ruminal NH3 concentration by 2.2 mM, probably because of the higher nonprotein N content of these diets. The strong negative relationship (r2 = 0.95) between urinary pH and net acid excretion by cows fed the diets containing anionic salts suggested that urinary pH measurement might be a useful tool to assess the degree of metabolic acidosis that was imposed by dietary anionic salts.

  2. Long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate fed to dairy cows on enteric methane emission and nitrate and nitrite residuals in milk.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2016-07-01

    A previous study showed the additive methane (CH4)-mitigating effect of nitrate and linseed fed to non-lactating cows. Before practical application, the use of this new strategy in dairy cows requires further investigation in terms of persistency of methanogenesis reduction and absence of residuals in milk products. The objective of this experiment was to study the long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate on enteric CH4 emission and performance in dairy cows. We also assessed the effect of this feeding strategy on the presence of nitrate residuals in milk products, total tract digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and rumen fermentation. A total of 16 lactating Holstein cows were allocated to two groups in a randomised design conducted in parallel for 17 weeks. Diets were on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) control (54% maize silage, 6% hay and 40% concentrate; CON) or (2) control plus 3.5% added fat from linseed and 1.8% nitrate (LIN+NIT). Diets were equivalent in terms of CP (16%), starch (28%) and NDF (33%), and were offered twice daily. Cows were fed ad libitum, except during weeks 5, 16 and 17 in which feed was restricted to 95% of dry matter intake (DMI) to ensure complete consumption of meals during measurement periods. Milk production and DMI were measured weekly. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in milk and milk products were determined monthly. Daily CH4 emission was quantified in open circuit respiration chambers (weeks 5 and 16). Total tract apparent digestibility, N balance and rumen fermentation parameters were determined in week 17. Daily DMI tended to be lower with LIN+NIT from week 4 to 16 (-5.1 kg/day on average). The LIN+NIT diet decreased milk production during 6 non-consecutive weeks (-2.5 kg/day on average). Nitrate or nitrite residuals were not detected in milk and associated products. The LIN+NIT diet reduced CH4 emission to a similar extent at the beginning and end of the trial (-47%, g/day; -30%, g/kg DMI; -33%, g/kg fat- and protein

  3. Alterations in bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and gene expression in granulosa cells in preovulatory follicles of dairy cows given porcine LH.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Amir; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Ambrose, Divakar Justus

    2016-04-15

    In a previous work, using porcine LH (pLH) in lieu of GnRH for synchronizing ovulation in dairy cows improved pregnancy rates without increasing plasma progesterone concentrations after ovulation. The LH profile is known to remain elevated above basal concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) for up to 20 hours in pLH-treated cows compared to less than 6 hours in GnRH-treated cows. Because LH triggers a cascade of signaling networks in the preovulatory follicle to promote final maturation and support oocyte competence, we hypothesized that dissimilar LH profiles will differentially regulate the intrafollicular factors and expression of downstream genes associated with improved oocyte competence. Specific objectives were to determine differences in the abundance of oocyte-secreted factors in the preovulatory follicular fluid and target genes in granulosa cells associated with oocyte competence, in response to exogenous porcine LH or GnRH-induced endogenous bovine LH exposure, in dairy cows. Follicular contents were aspirated by a transvaginal ultrasound-guided procedure from the preovulatory follicle of cyclic, nonlactating Holstein cows 21 ± 1 hour after administration of either pLH (25-mg) or GnRH (100-μg). Mature forms of bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and transforming growth factorβ1 were approximately 2-fold more abundant in pLH-treated cows which were exposed to an extended, low LH profile, than in GnRH-treated cows that had a short, high LH profile. The relative abundance of messenger RNA for cyclooxygenase-2, LH receptor, and progesterone receptor in granulosa cells, was about two-, eight-, and two-fold higher, respectively, in cows subjected to pLH than GnRH treatment. We infer that the improved pregnancy rate after pLH-induced ovulation reported previously, occurred through greater activation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-β1 superfamily members, as these proteins promote cumulus expansion and oocyte competence.

  4. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  5. Glutamine synthetase and alanine transaminase expression are decreased in livers of aged vs. young beef cows and GS can be upregulated by 17β-estradiol implants.

    PubMed

    Miles, E D; McBride, B W; Jia, Y; Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Bridges, P J; Matthews, J C

    2015-09-01

    Aged beef cows (≥ 8 yr of age) produce calves with lower birth and weaning weights. In mammals, aging is associated with reduced hepatic expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) and alanine transaminase (ALT), thus impaired hepatic Gln-Glu cycle function. To determine if the relative protein content of GS, ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST), glutamate transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1), and their regulating protein (GTRAP3-18) differed in biopsied liver tissue of (a) aged vs. young (3 to 4 yr old) nonlactating, nongestating Angus cows (Exp. 1 and 2) and (b) aged mixed-breed cows with and without COMPUDOSE (17β-estradiol) ear implants (Exp. 3), Western blot analyses were performed. In Exp. 1, 12 young (3.62 ± 0.01 yr) and 13 aged (10.08 ± 0.42 yr) cows grazed the same mixed forage for 42 d (August-October). In Exp. 2, 12 young (3.36 ± 0.01 yr) and 12 aged (10.38 ± 0.47 yr) cows were individually fed (1.03% of BW) a corn-silage-based diet to maintain BW for 20 d. For both Exp. 1 and 2, the effect of cow age was assessed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Cow BW did not change ( ≥ 0.17). Hepatic ALT (78% and 61%) and GS (52% and 71%) protein content (Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) was decreased ( ≤ 0.01), whereas GTRAP3-18 (an inhibitor of EAAC1 activity) increased ( ≤ 0.01; 170% and 136%) and AST, GLT-1, and EAAC1 contents did not differ ( ≥ 0.17) in aged vs. young cows. In Exp. 2, free concentrations (nmol/g) of Glu, Ala, Gln, Arg, and Orn in liver homogenates were determined. Aged cows tended to have less ( = 0.10) free Gln (15.0%) than young cows, whereas other AA concentrations did not differ ( 0.26). In Exp. 3, 14 aged (> 10 yr) cows were randomly allotted ( = 7) to sham or COMPUDOSE (25.7 mg of 17β-estradiol) implant treatment (TRT), and had ad libitum access to alfalfa hay for 28 d. Blood and liver biopsies were collected 14 and 28 d after implant treatment. Treatment, time after implant (DAY), and TRT × DAY effects were assessed by ANOVA using

  6. Use of FSH in two different regimens for ovarian superstimulation prior to ovum pick up and in vitro embryo production in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Júlio César Barboza; Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Maturana Filho, Milton; Naves, Julianne de Rezende; Santin, Thiago; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Madureira, Ed Hoffmann

    2017-03-01

    We aimed with the present study to evaluate the effects of FSH treatment (200 mg) split in four or six administrations on ovarian follicle stimulation and in vitro oocyte competence for embryo production in dairy cows with synchronized follicular wave emergence. On random days of the estrous cycle (Day 0), non-lactating Holstein cows received a progesterone (P4)-releasing intravaginal device and 2 mg estradiol benzoate IM. On Day 3, they received 0.530 mg sodium cloprostenol (PGF2α) IM. Control cows (n = 35) received no further treatments, whereas FSH-treated cows received 200 mg FSH split in four (FSH4 group; n = 33) or six (FSH6 group; n = 33) administration regimens. Starting on Day 4, cows in FSH4 group received 200 mg FSH split in four equivalent doses of 50 mg 12 h apart. Cows in FSH6 group received the same total FSH dose split in six equivalent doses of 33.3 mg 12 h apart, but treatments started on Day 3. On Day 7 AM (36 h of "coasting" period for FSH-treated groups), the P4 devices were removed and cows were subjected to ovum pick up (OPU). Viable oocytes were in vitro fertilized using sexed-sorted semen. Although FSH treatment did not (P > 0.1) increase the total number of follicles (Control, 53.2 ± 4.5 vs. FSH-treated, 51.4 ± 3.1), the two hormonal stimulation regimens, FSH4 and FSH6, increased the number of medium follicles (6-10 mm; 5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 18.1 ± 1.4; P < 0.0001) and reduced the number of small follicles (2-5.9 mm; 46.3 ± 5.1 vs. 31.0 ± 2.4 P < 0.0001). Also, FSH treatment or regimen did not increase (P > 0.1) the number of viable oocytes (Control, 12.6 ± 1.26 vs. FSH-treated, 12.70 ± 1.03), recovery rate (Control, 36.5% vs. FSH-treated, 36%) and the number of in vitro produced blastocyst (Control, 4.1 ± 0.52 vs. FSH-treated 4.3 ± 0.5). We concluded that FSH stimulation protocol proposed herein is effective to stimulate the growth of small antral follicle population prior to OPU, but it

  7. Dairy cow disability weights.

    PubMed

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  8. Ovulation timing and conception risk after automated activity monitoring in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Hill, S L; Nebel, R L; DeJarnette, J M

    2014-07-01

    Using 1 market-available activity monitor, 3 experiments were conducted in dairy cows to determine timing of ovulation, compare within-herd conception risk of cows inseminated based on activity monitors versus timed artificial insemination (AI), and determine conception risk of cows inseminated at various intervals after achieving an activity threshold. In experiment 1, ovaries were scanned every 3h by transrectal ultrasonography to determine the time of ovulation beginning 14 ± 0.5 h after the achieved activity threshold (n=132) or first standing event (n=59), or both (n=59). Progesterone at the first ovarian scan (0.1 ± 0.01 ng/mL) and ovarian structures [1 or 2 preovulatory-sized follicles (16.5 ± 0.2 mm)] confirmed that 88.6% of cows identified by activity were in estrus. The remaining 15 cows (11.4%) with a corpus luteum and elevated progesterone concentration (5.3 ± 0.5 ng/mL) were classified as false positives. The average interval from first standing event to ovulation (n=59) differed slightly from the interval after the achieved threshold (26.4 ± 0.7 vs. 24.6 ± 0.7 h, respectively). In 97 cows fitted with activity monitors, that interval was 25.7 ± 0.4 h. In experiment 2, the conception risk in 394 cows in 1 herd fitted with activity monitors was compared with that of 413 cows submitted to a timed AI program through 3 AI services. Days to first AI were reduced in cows fitted with activity monitors, and conception risk after activity threshold was less than that for timed AI at first service because of differing days in milk at first AI. Both median and mean days to pregnancy, however, were reduced in activity-group cows by 10 and 24 d, respectively, compared with timed AI cows. In experiment 3, 4,019 cows in 19 herds were inseminated after achieving the activity threshold. Conception risk was determined for cows inseminated at various intervals after the achieved activity threshold. A curvilinear conception risk curve peaked at 47.9% for primiparous

  9. The effects of dietary nitrogen to water-soluble carbohydrate ratio on isotopic fractionation and partitioning of nitrogen in non-lactating sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Nicol, A M; Dewhurst, R J; Edwards, G R

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between partitioning and isotopic fractionation of nitrogen (N) in sheep consuming diets with varying ratios of N to water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Six non-lactating sheep were offered a constant dry matter (DM) allowance with one of three ratios of dietary N/WSC, achieved by adding sucrose and urea to lucerne pellets. A replicated 3 dietary treatments (Low, Medium and High N/WSC) × 3 (collection periods) and a Latin square design was used, with two sheep assigned to each treatment in each period. Feed, faeces, urine, plasma, wool, muscle and liver samples were collected and analysed for ¹⁵N concentration. Nitrogen intake and outputs in faeces and urine were measured for each sheep using 6-day total collections. Blood urea N (BUN) and urinary excretion of purine derivative were also measured. Treatment effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between measured variables were analysed by linear regression. BUN and N intake increased by 46% and 35%, respectively, when N/WSC increased 2.5-fold. However, no indication of change in microbial protein synthesis was detected. Results indicated effects of dietary treatments on urinary N/faecal N, faecal N/N intake and retained N/N intake. In addition, the linear relationships between plasma δ¹⁵N and urinary N/N intake and muscle δ¹⁵N and retained N/N intake based on individual measurements showed the potential of using N isotopic fractionation as an easy-to-use indicator of N partitioning when N supply exceeds that required to match energy supply in the diet.

  10. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Non-Lactating Women with Post-Partum Thyroiditis: The Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kowalska, Beata; Okopien, Bogusław

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency seems to be implicated in the onset and progression of some autoimmune disorders. No previous study has investigated vitamin D homeostasis in post-partum thyroiditis. We compared 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels between four groups of non-lactating women who gave birth within 12 months before the beginning of the study: hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis (group A; n = 14), euthyroid females with post-partum thyroiditis (group B; n = 14), women with non-autoimmune hypothyroidism (group C; n = 16) and healthy euthyroid females without thyroid autoimmunity (group D; n = 15). In the second part of the study, groups A and C were treated for 6 months with L-thyroxine. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower, while PTH higher in patients with post-partum thyroiditis than in patients without thyroid autoimmunity. They were also lower (25-hydroxyvitamin D) or higher (PTH) in group A than in group B, as well as in group C in comparison with group D. L-thyroxine treatment increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced PTH levels only in hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis. Baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlated with thyroid antibody titres, thyroid function and circulating PTH levels, while the effect of L-thyroxine on serum levels of this vitamin correlated with the changes in thyroid antibody titres and PTH levels. The results of our study suggest the association of vitamin D status with post-partum thyroiditis and L-thyroxine treatment of this disorder.

  11. Timothy hays differing in dietary cation-anion difference affect the capability of dairy cows to maintain their calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Heron, V S; Tremblay, G F; Oba, M

    2009-01-01

    Forages low in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can be used to decrease the DCAD in prepartum diet but the extent to which DCAD needs to be reduced is of recent interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of timothy hays differing in DCAD at maintaining Ca homeostasis. Six nonlactating and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay with DCAD values of 4.1 +/- 3.6 (LOW), 14.1 +/- 3.0 (MED), or 25.1 +/- 2.5 (HIGH) mEq per 100 g of DM in a duplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 14-d experimental periods. The LOW and MED hays were produced by fertilizing established timothy fields at a rate of 224 kg CaCl(2) per ha, and HIGH hay was obtained from the same field where LOW hay was produced, but from a section not fertilized with CaCl(2). Experimental diets, containing LOW, MED, or HIGH timothy hay at 71% of dietary DM, had DCAD values of 0.7, 7.3, and 14.4 mEq per 100 g of DM, respectively. Animals were fed at 6% of metabolic body weight, which provided 108% of their daily energy requirement. For each period, after a 12 d diet adaptation, cows were subjected to an EDTA challenge (3 cows each on d 13 and 14). Infusion of EDTA solution into the jugular vein decreases the concentration of blood ionized Ca, and the EDTA challenge protocol determined the resistance time and recovery time: the time required for the blood ionized Ca concentration to decrease to 60%, and the time required to recover to 90% of the prechallenge concentrations, respectively. Urine pH was lower when cows were fed LOW compared with HIGH diet (6.88 vs. 7.83), but urine pH when cows were fed MED diet (7.15) did not differ from that when cows received the LOW or HIGH diet. However, immediately before the EDTA challenge, blood pH was lower when cows were fed LOW or MED compared with HIGH diet (7.44 vs. 7.47). Although the resistance time was not affected by treatments, the recovery time was shorter when cows were

  12. Effect of injectable trace mineral complex supplementation on development of ovarian structures and serum copper and zinc concentrations in over-conditioned Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    González-Maldonado, Juan; Rangel-Santos, Raymundo; Rodríguez-de Lara, Raymundo; García-Peña, Oswaldo

    2017-03-28

    This study evaluated the effect of injecting trace minerals on reproductive performance in over-conditioned Holstein cows before synchronized estrus. Multiparous non-lactating, over-conditioned repeat breeder cows (n=20) were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: 1) control (n=10), and 2) supplementation with an injectable trace mineral complex 25days before expected synchronized estrus (n=10). Follicular waves were synchronized by intravaginal insertion of a CIDR for eight days and an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of a GnRH analogue. Estrus was induced at CIDR removal by an i.m. injection of PGF2α. Blood samples were collected before and after synchronized estrus. The response variables were follicle population (FP), diameter of the preovulatory follicle at CIDR removal (DFP0) and at estrus detection (DFP1), time of estrus after CIDR removal (TE), area of corpus luteum (ACL), pregnancy rate and copper and zinc serum concentrations. The statistical analysis of the variables was carried out with SAS. The FP, DFP0, DFP1, TE, ACL and serum concentrations of copper and zinc were not affected by the trace mineral injection (P>0.05). Even though pregnancy rate at 40 (77.78±13.46 vs 44.44±16.56%) and 60days after AI (66.67±15.71 vs 33.33±15.71%) was numerically higher for cows injected with trace minerals than for the control group, the differences were not significant (P>0.05). In conclusion, while follicular and corpus luteum development were not affected by trace mineral injection, it may be a feasible way to increase the pregnancy rate in over-conditioned cows.

  13. Consider a spherical cow

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.

    1985-01-01

    Consider a Spherical Cow describes relatively simple mathematical methods for developing quantitative answers to often complex environmental problems. Early chapters provide systematic insights into problem solving and identifying mathematical tools and models that lead to back of the envelope answers. Subsequent chapters treat increasingly complex problems. Solutions are sought at different levels, e.g., informed guesses, quantitative solutions based on detailed analytical models, and ultimately, critical evaluation of the consequences of removing simplifying assumptions from the models. The vehicle employed is a collection of 44 challenging problems, with clearly worked out solutions, plus ample exercises. The book, though directed at environmentalists, should appeal to chemists. Many of the problems are rooted in chemistry, including acid rain, the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect, chemical contamination, and the disturbing of cyclical chemical balances. Readers feeling a civic responsibility to think and speak more clearly on environmental issues will find the essential modeling and quantitative approaches valuable assets beyond the help provided by the usual courses in science and mathematics. In fact, the techniques of problem solving have broad applicability beyond the specific environmental examples covered in this text.

  14. Amyloidosis in six dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R; Jamison, K

    1984-12-15

    Amyloidosis was diagnosed in 6 Holstein cows that were examined because of chronic intractable diarrhea. Besides diarrhea, the chief finding was a nephrotic-like syndrome, in that there was edema, hypoproteinemia, and proteinuria. Other consistent clinicopathologic abnormalities were hyperfibrinogenemia, low-normal serum calcium content or hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged bromosulphalein half time, high serum urea nitrogen concentration, high serum creatinine concentration, and low urine specific gravity. Foci of inflammation including traumatic reticuloperitonitis, traumatic pericarditis, salpingitis, mastitis, and metritis were found. There was histologic evidence of amyloid in the kidneys, liver, adrenal glands, and spleen. The iodine-sulfuric acid test for amyloid was positive in 2 cows. The Congo red dye test for amyloid was positive in 2 other cows. In spite of supportive care, all the cows either died naturally or were euthanatized. Because foci of inflammation were found in each cow, it was concluded that the most likely classification of amyloidosis in these cases would be reactive systemic amyloidosis and that the major amyloid fibril protein would be type AA.

  15. Fixed-time AI protocols replacing eCG with a single dose of FSH were less effective in stimulating follicular growth, ovulation, and fertility in suckled-anestrus Nelore beef cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Crepaldi, G A; Girotto, R W; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a single treatment with FSH on diameter of the largest follicle and on conception rates of suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI). Four hundred fifty-six suckled anestrous Nelore beef cows at 30-60 days postpartum were assigned to treatments. At the first day of the estrous synchronization protocol (Day 0), all cows received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device plus 2mg of estradiol benzoate. On Day 8, cows were assigned to blocks according to the diameter of the largest follicle and then allocated to one of three treatment groups (Control, FSH, or eCG) within each block. Simultaneously to progesterone device withdrawal on Day 8, cows in the eCG treatment group (n=150) received 300 IU of eCG and cows in FSH treatment group (n=153) received 10mg of FSH, and Control cows (n=153) did not receive any additional treatment. Additional treatments with 150 μg of cloprostenol and 1mg of estradiol cypionate (EC) were also administered concurrently to progesterone device removal in all cows on Day 8. Two days later (D10), TAI and ovarian ultrasonic examinations to evaluate follicle size were performed in all cows. On Day 12, a subset of cows (n=389) were submitted a second ultrasonic exam to confirm ovulation. Final follicular growth (mm/day) was less (P=0.006) in both Control (0.95±0.11) and in FSH-treated cows (0.90±0.10) than in eCG-treated cows (1.40±0.13). Interestingly, there was a treatment-by-BCS interaction in ovulation results (P=0.03), in which, eCG treatment increased percentage of cows having ovulations with a lesser BCS. Similarly, there was a treatment-by-BCS interaction for conception (P=0.04), where the eCG treatment increased fertility in cows with a lesser BCS. In conclusion, FSH failed to stimulate final follicular growth, ovulation, and conception rate in sucked-anestrous beef cows submitted to TAI as effectively as eCG. However, physiological

  16. Rumen degradability characteristics of normal maize stover and silage, and quality protein maize silage-based diets offered to cows.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Berhan; Gebrehawariat, Ephrem; Tegegne, Azage; Kortu, Mohammed Y

    2012-10-01

    Rumen degradability characteristics of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) of normal maize (NM) stover (T1)-, NM silage (T2)- and quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3)-based diets were studied using three rumen-fistulated Boran × Friesian non-lactating cows (371 ± 32.00 kg) in 3 × 3 Latin Square Design. Cows were supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. In sacco degradability of DM and OM indicated that the (a) values of DM (128) and OM (114) for NM stover were lower (P < 0.001) than that for NM silage (268 and 253) and for QPM silage (323 and 303), respectively. The (a) value for CP was lower (P < 0.05) for QPM silage (286) than for NM stover (404) and NM silage (326). The (b) values of DM in NM stover (597) and NM silage (535) were higher (P < 0.05) than in QPM silage (499). The (b) value of CP in NM stover (372) was lower (P < 0.05) than in NM silage (655) and in QPM silage (608). Rate of degradation of OM in NM stover and NM silage, each with 0.03, was faster (P < 0.01) than in QPM silage (0.02). Moreover, QPM silage had higher potentially degradable fraction for DM (821) (P < 0.05) and OM (840) (P < 0.01) than DM (725) and OM (712) in NM stover. The mean rumen ammonia concentration (209 mg/l) of QPM silage was higher (P < 0.05) than that of NM stover (179 mg/l) and NM silage (170 mg/l). The average rumen pH (6.1) in cows fed QPM silage was lowest (P < 0.05) compared to pH (6.3) in cows fed either NM stover or silage. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids (116 mmol/l) in the rumen of cows incubated with QPM silage was higher (P < 0.001) than in those incubated with NM stover (113 mmol/l) and NM silage (110 mmol/l). It was concluded that QPM silage-based diet was superior in DM and OM degradability, and had higher ammonia and VFA concentration than NM stover-based diet. No differences have been observed in all parameters measured between QPM and NM silages.

  17. Technical note: Data loggers are a valid method for assessing the feeding behavior of dairy cows using the Calan Broadbent Feeding System.

    PubMed

    Krawczel, P D; Klaiber, L M; Thibeau, S S; Dann, H M

    2012-08-01

    Assessing feeding behavior is important in understanding the effects of nutrition and management on the well-being of dairy cows. Historically, collection of these data from cows fed with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH) required the labor-intensive practices of direct observation or video review. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the output of a HOBO change-of-state data logger (Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA), mounted to the door shell and latch plate, and video data summarized with continuous sampling. Data (number of feed bin visits per day and feeding time in minutes per day) were recorded with both methods from 26 lactating cows and 10 nonlactating cows for 3 d per cow (n=108). The agreement of the data logger and video methods was evaluated using the REG procedure of SAS to compare the mean response of the methods against the difference between the methods. The maximum allowable difference (MAD) was set at ±3 for bin visits and ±20 min for feeding time. Ranges for feed bin visits (2 to 140 per d) and feeding time (28 to 267 min/d) were established from video data. Using the complete data set, agreement was partially established between the data logger and video methods for feed bin visits, but not established for feeding time. The complete data set generated by the data logger was screened to remove visits of a duration ≤3 s, reflecting a cow unable to enter a feed bin (representing 7% of all data) and ≥5,400 s, reflecting a failure of the data logger to align properly with its corresponding magnetic field (representing <1% of all data). Using the resulting screened data set, agreement was established for feed bin visits and feeding time. For bin visits, 4% of the data was beyond the MAD. For feeding time, 3% of the data was beyond the MAD and 74% of the data was ±1 min. The insignificant P-value, low coefficient of determination, and concentration of the data within the MAD

  18. Metabolic and productive response to ruminal protein degradability in early lactation cows fed untreated or xylose-treated soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Amanlou, H; Nikkhah, A

    2009-12-01

    Effects of different dietary rumen undegradable (RUP) to degradable (RDP) protein ratios on ruminal nutrient degradation, feed intake, blood metabolites and milk production were determined in early lactation cows. Four multiparous (43 ± 5 days in milk) and four primiparous (40 ± 6 days in milk) tie-stall-housed Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-day periods. Each period had 14-day of adaptation and 7-day of sampling. Diets contained on a dry matter (DM) basis, 23.3% alfalfa hay, 20% corn silage and 56.7% concentrate. Cows were first offered alfalfa hay at 7:00, 15:00 and 23:00 hours, and 30 min after each alfalfa hay delivery were offered a mixture of corn silage and concentrate. Treatments were diets with RUP:RDP ratios of (i) 5.2:11.6 (control), (ii) 6.1:10.6, (iii) 7.1:9.5 and (iv) 8.1:8.5, on a dietary DM% basis. Different RUP:RDP ratios were obtained by partial and total replacement of untreated soybean meal (SBM) with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM). In situ study using three rumen-cannulated non-lactating cows showed that DM and crude protein (CP) of SBM had greater rapidly degradable fractions. The potentially degradable fractions were degraded more slowly in XSBM. Treatment cows produced greater milk, protein, lactose, solids-non-fat and total solids than control cows. Increasing RUP:RDP reduced blood urea linearly. Feed costs dropped at RUP:RDP ratios of 6.1:10.6 and 7.1:9.5, but not at 8.1:8.5, compared with the 5.2:11.6 ratio. Intake of DM and CP, rumen pH, blood glucose, albumin and total protein, faecal and urine pH, changes in body weight and body condition score, and milk lactose and solids-non-fat percentages did not differ among treatments. Results provide evidence that increasing dietary RUP:RDP ratio from 5.2:11.6 to 7.1:9.5 optimizes nitrogen metabolism and milk production and reduces feed costs in early lactation cows. Reduced blood urea suggests reprodutive benefits.

  19. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows.

  20. Neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered beef cows (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Marques, F A C; Headley, A S; Figueredo-Pereira, V; Taroda, A; Barros, L D; Cunha, I A L; Munhoz, K; Bugni, F M; Zulpo, D L; Igarashi, M; Vidotto, O; Guimarães, J S; Garcia, João Luis

    2011-04-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes the most important reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of vertical transmission of N. caninum in zebus breed beef cows (Bos indicus) submitted for slaughter at an abattoir in the northern region of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. One hundred and fifty-nine cows were evaluated: 83 pregnant (in different stages of gestation) and 76 non-pregnant. Serum determination of N. caninum was evaluated by indirect ELISA (Idexx). Blood (with EDTA) from pregnant cows and tissue samples (brain and heart) from their fetuses were collected and used for PCR analyses. Antibodies against N. caninum were observed in 14.6% (12/83) of pregnant and in 15.8% (12/76) of non-pregnant cows. Antibodies against the parasites were detected in one fetus (1.4%). The PCR analyses revealed that 6.0% (5/83) of cows and 4.8% (4/83) of fetuses evaluated were positive to specific N. caninum primers. These positive fetuses were between 4 and 6 months of age. Thus, considering PCR and serology as an indicative of vertical transmission in fetuses, 4.8% of fetuses were infected by N. caninum during gestation.

  1. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  2. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows managed for first service using timed artificial insemination with or without detection of estrus using an activity-monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C; Carvalho, P D

    2014-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=1,025) on a commercial dairy farm were randomly assigned at 10 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to 1 of 3 treatments for submitting cows to first artificial insemination (AI) and were fitted with activity-monitoring tags (Heatime; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 24 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=339) in treatment 1 were inseminated based on increased activity from the end of the voluntary waiting period (50 DIM) until submission to an Ovsynch protocol; cows without increased activity from 21 to 65 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM, whereas cows without increased activity from 21 to 50 DIM but not from 51 to 79 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 79 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=340) in treatment 2 were inseminated based on activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol at 50 DIM, and cows without increased activity began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=346) in treatment 3 were monitored for activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, but all cows received timed AI (TAI) at 75 ± 3 DIM after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. The activity-monitoring system detected increased activity in 56, 69, and 70% of cows in treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Treatment-2 cows had the fewest average days to first AI (62.5), treatment-3 cows had the most average days to first AI (74.9), and treatment-1 cows had intermediate average days to first AI (67.4). Treatment-1 and -2 cows in which inseminations occurred as a combination between increased activity and TAI had fewer overall pregnancies per AI (P/AI) 35 d after AI (32% for both treatments) compared with treatment-3 cows, all of which received TAI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (40%). Based on survival analysis, although the rate at which cows were inseminated differed among treatments, treatment did not affect the proportion of cows pregnant by 300 DIM. Thus, use of an activity-monitoring system to inseminate cows based on

  3. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting complaints. 4.3... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a...

  4. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  6. Genetic evaluation for cow livability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When genetic evaluations for Productive Life were introduced by USDA in 1994, U.S. dairy producers had an opportunity to produce healthier cows, and it happened. The genetic evaluations were incorporated into selection programs and the deterioration occurring in pregnancy rate and somatic cell score...

  7. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effect of pelleting on in situ rumen degradability of compound feed containing brown rice for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Norio; Iino, Yukihiro; Horiguchi, Ken-Ichi; Takahashi, Toshiyoshi; Watanabe, Maria; Takemura, Kei; Ito, Syuhei; Mikami, Toyoji

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of pelleting on in situ dry matter degradability of pelleted compound feed containing brown rice for dairy cows. Mash feed of the same composition was used as a control and the in situ study was conducted using three non-lactating Holstein steers fitted with a rumen cannula. The feeds contained 32.3% brown rice, 19.4% rapeseed meal, 11.4% wheat bran and 10.6% soybean meal (fresh weight basis). Except for moisture content, the chemical composition of the feed was not affected by pelleting. In situ dry matter disappearance of the feed increased from 0 to 2 h and after 72 h of incubation with pellet processing. Integration of the dry matter disappearance values over time revealed that degradability parameter a (soluble fraction) increased with pellet processing, whereas parameter b (potentially degradable fraction) decreased. Parameter c (fractional rate of degradation) and effective degradability (5% passage rate) were not affected by pellet processing. We concluded that pellet processing promotes rumen degradability at early incubation hours when the pelleted feed contains brown rice. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Characterization of luteal dynamics in lactating Holstein cows for 32 days after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Ricci, A; Carvalho, P D; Amundson, M C; Fricke, P M

    2017-10-04

    Approximately 20 to 30% of cows diagnosed not pregnant 32 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI) lack a corpus luteum (CL), and cows submitted to a resynchronization protocol in the absence of a CL have about 10% fewer pregnancies per AI (P/AI) than cows with a CL. An understanding of luteal dynamics after synchronization of ovulation and TAI may help refine strategies for reinseminating cows failing to conceive. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 141) were synchronized for first TAI using a Double-Ovsynch protocol. Thrice weekly from 4 to 32 d after TAI, blood samples were collected for evaluation of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations, and CL diameter was measured using transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy status was determined using transrectal ultrasonography 32 d after TAI. Nonsynchronized cows (n = 4) were removed from the study. For cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI (n = 57), P4 increased from 4 to 15 d and then remained constant until 32 d after TAI, whereas CL volume increased from 4 to 11 d and then remained constant until 32 d after TAI. For cows diagnosed not pregnant 32 d after TAI (n = 80), P4 profiles were evaluated using statistical cluster analysis based on the day after TAI that P4 decreased to <1 ng/mL, resulting in 5 clusters: (1) CL regression 15 d after TAI (1.3%), (2) CL regression 18 to 22 d after TAI (55.0%), (3) CL regression 25 to 27 d after TAI (17.5%), (4) CL regression 29 to 32 d after TAI (5.0%), and (5) CL maintained until 32 d after TAI (21.3%). Plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) levels at 25 and 32 d after TAI differed among clusters and were below the cut-off value of the assay for the classification of cows as not pregnant for cows in clusters 2, 3, and 4, whereas more than half of the cows in cluster 5 had increased plasma PAG levels. We conclude that at least half of the nonpregnant cows that maintained their CL until 32 d after TAI were initially pregnant but underwent early pregnancy loss based on

  10. Hypocalcemia induced by intravenous administration of disodium ethylenediaminotetraacetate and its effects on excretion of calcium in urine of cows fed a high chloride diet.

    PubMed

    Schonewille, J T; Van't Klooster, A T; Wouterse, H; Beynen, A C

    1999-06-01

    Evidence supports the theory that a diet that is rich in nonmetabolizable anions fed to dairy cows during the dry period reduces the risk of hypocalcemic paresis puerperalis. When cows are fed a diet that is rich in anions instead of cations, more Ca is absorbed in the intestine and excreted in urine. We hypothesized that, in cows fed a diet that was rich in anions, the increased flow of Ca through the body could be drained to support the maintenance of plasma Ca concentration around parturition. The hypothesis was tested by binding plasma Ca through intravenous administration of Na2-EDTA and measuring excretion of Ca in urine. In a 2-period x 14-d crossover study, six, nonpregnant, nonlactating, multiparous cows were fed either a diet that was rich in cations (dietary cation-anion difference = +332 meq/kg of dry matter) or rich in anions (dietary cation-anion difference = -230 meq/kg of dry matter). On the last day of each feeding period, Na2-EDTA was infused intravenously until the amount of plasma Ca that was not bound to EDTA reached approximately 1 mmol/L. The amount of EDTA that could be infused was significantly greater when the cows were fed the diet that was rich in anions. During the infusion of Na2-EDTA the rate of Ca excretion in urine dropped to almost 0 when the diet that was rich in anions was fed. After feeding the diet that was rich in cations, excretion of Ca in urine was negligible and was not reduced further by Na2-EDTA infusion. Thus, in cows fed a diet that was rich in anions, the Ca intended for excretion with urine can be used when plasma Ca is under stress as would occur at the onset of lactation. However, the amount of Ca derived from plasma, interstitial fluid, and the skeleton during Na2-EDTA infusion was quantitatively much more important to the supply of Ca than was the reduction in excretion of Ca in urine. Most likely, this relationship would also be true when the production of colostrum begins.

  11. Effects of lactation and pregnancy on gene expression of endometrium of Holstein cows at day 17 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cerri, R L A; Thompson, I M; Kim, I H; Ealy, A D; Hansen, P J; Staples, C R; Li, J L; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W

    2012-10-01

    Objectives were to determine effects of lactation and pregnancy on endometrial gene expression on d 17 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Heifers (n=33) were assigned randomly after parturition to lactating (L, n=17) or nonlactating (NL, n=16) groups. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization program for a timed artificial insemination (TAI); 10 cows in L and 12 in NL were inseminated. Slaughter occurred 17 d after the day equivalent to TAI, and intercaruncular endometrial tissues were collected. Gene expression was determined by DNA microarray analysis for pregnant (L, n=8; NL, n=6) and noninseminated cyclic (L, n=7; NL, n=4) cows. Differentially expressed genes were selected with a P-value <0.01 and absolute expression >40. In addition, a fold effect >1.5 was used as a criterion for genes affected by pregnancy. In total, 210 genes were differentially regulated by lactation (136 downregulated and 74 upregulated), and 702 genes were differentially regulated by pregnancy (407 downregulated and 295 upregulated). The interaction effect of pregnancy and lactation affected 61 genes. Genes up- and downregulated in pregnant cows were associated with several gene ontology terms, such as defense response and interferon regulatory factor, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix. The gene ontology analyses of up- and downregulated genes of lactating cows revealed terms related to immunoglobulin-like fold, immune response, COMM domain, and non-membrane-bounded organelle. Several genes upregulated by lactation, such as IGHG1, IGLL1, IGK, and TRD, were related to immune function, particularly for B cells and γδ T cells. Developmental genes related to limb and neural development and glucose homeostasis (e.g., DKK1, RELN, PDK4) were downregulated by lactation, whereas an interaction was also detected for RELN. The stated genes associated with immune function and developmental genes expressed in the endometrium affected by lactational state are possible candidate genes

  12. Effects of species-diverse high-alpine forage on in vitro ruminal fermentation when used as donor cow's feed or directly incubated.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Soliva, C R; Kreuzer, M; Leiber, F

    2012-11-01

    Alpine forages are assumed to have specific effects on ruminal digestion when fed to cattle. These effects were investigated in an experiment from two perspectives, either by using such forages as a substrate for incubation or as feed for a rumen fluid donor cow. In total, six 24-h in vitro batch culture runs were performed. Rumen fluid was collected from a non-lactating donor cow after having grazed pastures at ∼2000 m above sea level for 2, 6 and 10 weeks. These 'alpine runs' were compared with three lowland samplings from before and 2 and 6 weeks after the alpine grazing where a silage-concentrate mix was fed. In each run, nine replicates of four forages each were incubated. These forages differed in type and origin (alpine hay, lowland ryegrass hay, grass-maize silage mix, pure hemicellulose) as well as in the content of nutrients. Concentrations of phenolic compounds in the incubated forages were (g/kg dry matter (DM)): 20 (tannin proportion: 0.47), 8 (0.27), 15 (0.52) and 0 (0), respectively. Crude protein was highest in the silage mix and lowest with hemicellulose, whereas the opposite was the case for fiber. The total phenol contents (g/kg DM) for the high altitude and the lowland diet of the donor cow were 27 (tannins: 0.50 of phenols) and 12 (0.27), respectively. Independent of the origin of the rumen fluid, the incubation with alpine hay decreased (P < 0.05) bacterial counts, fermentation gas amount, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production as well as ammonia and methane concentrations in fermentation gas (the latter two being not lower when compared with hemicellulose). Alpine grazing of the cow in turn increased (P < 0.001) bacterial counts and, to a lesser extent, acetate proportion compared with lowland feeding. Further, alpine grazing decreased protozoal count (P < 0.05) and VFA production (P < 0.001) to a small extent, whereas methane remained widely unchanged. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between forage type incubated and feeding period of the

  13. Quantitative analysis of ruminal bacterial populations involved in lipid metabolism in dairy cows fed different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Cancino-Padilla, N; Romero, J; Garnsworthy, P C

    2016-11-01

    Vegetable oils are used to increase energy density of dairy cow diets, although they can provoke changes in rumen bacteria populations and have repercussions on the biohydrogenation process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of dietary lipids: soybean oil (SO, an unsaturated source) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO, a saturated source) on bacterial populations and the fatty acid profile of ruminal digesta. Three non-lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with three periods consisting of 21 days. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (Control, no fat supplement) and the basal diet supplemented with SO (2.7% of dry matter (DM)) or HPO (2.7% of DM). Ruminal digesta pH, NH3-N and volatile fatty acids were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with control and HPO, total bacteria measured as copies of 16S ribosomal DNA/ml by quantitative PCR was decreased (P<0.05) by SO. Fibrobacter succinogenes, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus and Anaerovibrio lipolytica loads were not affected by dietary treatments. In contrast, compared with control, load of Prevotella bryantii was increased (P<0.05) with HPO diet. Compared with control and SO, HPO decreased (P<0.05) C18:2 cis n-6 in ruminal digesta. Contents of C15:0 iso, C18:11 trans-11 and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 were increased (P<0.05) in ruminal digesta by SO compared with control and HPO. In conclusion, supplementation of SO or HPO do not affect ruminal fermentation parameters, whereas HPO can increase load of ruminal P. bryantii. Also, results observed in our targeted bacteria may have depended on the saturation degree of dietary oils.

  14. The relationship between Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 and characteristic parameters related to energy balance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2015-10-24

    Negative energy balance (NEB) is a common pathological foundation of ketosis and fatty liver. Liver and fat tissue are the major organs of lipid metabolism and take part in modulating lipid oxidative capacity and energy demands, which is also a key metabolic pathway that regulates NEB develop during perinatal period. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a recently discovered protein hormone that plays an important and specific regulating role in adipose lipid metabolism and liver gluconeogenesis for human and mouse. Our aim is to investigate the variation and relationship between serum FGF-21 concentration and characteristic parameters related to negative energy balance in different energy metabolism state. In this research, five non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly allocated into two groups. The interventions were a controlled-energy diet (30% of maintenance energy requirements) and a moderate-energy diet (120% of predicted energy requirements) that lasted for the duration of the experiment. We measured biochemical parameters, serum FGF-21, leptin and insulin levels by commercial ELISA kits. The results showed that serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in both groups treated with a controlled-energy diet, while FGF-21 levels in both groups treated with moderate-energy diet were low. FGF-21 levels exhibited a significant positive correlation with serum leptin levels, while an inverse relationship was found between FGF-21 and blood glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate acid (BHBA) levels. An increase in FGF-21 levels after a controlled-energy diet treatment may contribute to a positive metabolic effect which could result in a new theoretical and practical basis for the preventive strategy of dairy cows with NEB.

  15. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  16. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  17. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  18. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  19. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  20. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species.

  1. The effect of strain of Holstein-Friesian cow on size of ovarian structures, periovulatory circulating steroid concentrations, and embryo quality following superovulation.

    PubMed

    de Feu, M A; Patton, J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2008-10-15

    When managed under grass-based systems of production, the New Zealand (NZ) strain of Holstein-Friesian cow has superior reproductive performance compared to the North American (NA) strain despite having similar solids-corrected milk (SCM) yields. This study compared the ontogeny of early pregnancy events in NZ and NA cows. Ten NZ and 10 NA cows were submitted to a superovulation protocol on three occasions. Blood samples were collected daily from every cow from days -3 to +7 relative to a synchronized oestrus during each superovulation protocol. Pre-ovulatory oestradiol concentrations, follicle diameter, post-ovulatory progesterone concentrations, corpus luteum (CL) diameter, and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations did not differ between the two strains. Uteri were non-surgically flushed 7 days post-AI, embryos were isolated and graded. The proportion of transferable embryos recovered was higher (P<0.01) in the NZ cows compared with the NA cows. A greater (P=0.01) proportion of the recovered structures were at the blastocyst stage in the NZ cows. Peak SCM yield and body condition score (BCS) at the time of peak SCM yield were not different between strains. However, during the experimental period the NA cows maintained significantly higher daily SCM yields, whereas the NZ cows replenished significantly greater levels of BCS. The results indicate that differences in periovulatory steroid concentrations and size of ovarian structures do not explain the differences in embryo quality between the two strains. However, strain differences in nutrient partitioning from the time of peak SCM yield through late lactation may provide the key signals responsible for superior embryo quality in NZ cows.

  2. Effect of manipulating progesterone before timed artificial insemination on reproductive and endocrine parameters in seasonal-calving, pasture-based Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Lucy, M C; Curran, F; Herlihy, M M; Waters, S M; Larkin, J A; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T

    2016-08-01

    Fertility to timed AI (TAI) is profoundly affected by progesterone (P4) levels during hormonal synchronization protocols. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows managed in a seasonal-calving, pasture-based production system were randomly assigned to 2 treatments to manipulate P4 before TAI during growth of the preovulatory follicle. Cows in the first treatment (High P4; n=30) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol {Pre-Ovsynch [GnRH; 7 d, PGF2α; 3 d, GnRH] followed 7 d later by Breeding-Ovsynch [GnRH (G1); 7 d PGF2α; 24 h, PGF2α; 32 h, GnRH (G2); 16 h, TAI]}. Cows in the second treatment (n=30; Low P4) received the same Double-Ovsynch protocol but with an additional PGF2α treatment 24 h after G1. Overall, synchronization rate did not differ between treatments and was 92% (55/60). Unexpectedly, 37% of Low P4 cows were detected in estrus ~24 h before scheduled TAI and were inseminated ~16 h before scheduled TAI. Overall, P4 did not differ between treatments at G1, whereas High P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at PGF2α and G2 than Low P4 cows. High P4 cows had the smallest mean follicle diameter at G2, whereas Low P4 cows with no estrus before TAI had intermediate mean follicle diameter at G2, and Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had the largest mean follicle diameter. Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had larger corpora lutea 15 d after TAI than Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI or High P4 cows. In accordance with corpus luteum size on d 15, High P4 cows and Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI had lower P4 from 4 to 46 d after TAI than Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI. Relative mRNA levels of the interferon-stimulated genes ISG15, MX1, MX2, and OAS1 were greater for Low P4 than for High P4 cows, whereas relative mRNA levels of RTP4 were greater for High P4 than for Low P4 cows 18 d after TAI. Treatment did not affect plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations after TAI; however, pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations were

  3. Transcriptome analysis of epithelial and stromal contributions to mammogenesis in three week prepartum cows.

    PubMed

    Casey, Theresa; Dover, Heather; Liesman, James; DeVries, Lindsey; Kiupel, Matti; Vandehaar, Michael; Plaut, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary development has provided insight into regulation of mammogenesis. However, previous studies primarily examined expression of epithelial and stromal tissues combined, and consequently did not account for tissue specific contribution to mammary development. Our objective was to identify differences in gene expression in epithelial and intralobular stromal compartments. Tissue was biopsied from non-lactating dairy cows 3 weeks prepartum, cut into explants and incubated for 2 hr with insulin and hydrocortisone. Epithelial and intralobular stromal tissues were isolated with laser capture microdissection. Global gene expression was measured with Bovine Affymetrix GeneChips, and data were preprocessed using RMA method. Moderated t-tests from gene-specific linear model analysis with cell type as a fixed effect showed more than 3,000 genes were differentially expressed between tissues (P<0.05; FDR<0.17). Analysis of epithelial and stromal transcriptomes using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that epithelial and stromal cells contributed distinct molecular signatures. Epithelial signatures were enriched with gene sets for protein synthesis, metabolism and secretion. Stromal signatures were enriched with genes that encoded molecules important to signaling, extracellular matrix composition and remodeling. Transcriptome differences also showed evidence for paracrine interactions between tissues in stimulation of IGF1 signaling pathway, stromal reaction, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and immune response. Molecular signatures point to the dynamic role the stroma plays in prepartum mammogenesis and highlight the importance of examining the roles of cell types within the mammary gland when targeting therapies and studying mechanisms that affect milk production.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Epithelial and Stromal Contributions to Mammogenesis in Three Week Prepartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Theresa; Dover, Heather; Liesman, James; DeVries, Lindsey; Kiupel, Matti; VandeHaar, Michael; Plaut, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary development has provided insight into regulation of mammogenesis. However, previous studies primarily examined expression of epithelial and stromal tissues combined, and consequently did not account for tissue specific contribution to mammary development. Our objective was to identify differences in gene expression in epithelial and intralobular stromal compartments. Tissue was biopsied from non-lactating dairy cows 3 weeks prepartum, cut into explants and incubated for 2 hr with insulin and hydrocortisone. Epithelial and intralobular stromal tissues were isolated with laser capture microdissection. Global gene expression was measured with Bovine Affymetrix GeneChips, and data were preprocessed using RMA method. Moderated t-tests from gene-specific linear model analysis with cell type as a fixed effect showed more than 3,000 genes were differentially expressed between tissues (P<0.05; FDR<0.17). Analysis of epithelial and stromal transcriptomes using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that epithelial and stromal cells contributed distinct molecular signatures. Epithelial signatures were enriched with gene sets for protein synthesis, metabolism and secretion. Stromal signatures were enriched with genes that encoded molecules important to signaling, extracellular matrix composition and remodeling. Transcriptome differences also showed evidence for paracrine interactions between tissues in stimulation of IGF1 signaling pathway, stromal reaction, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and immune response. Molecular signatures point to the dynamic role the stroma plays in prepartum mammogenesis and highlight the importance of examining the roles of cell types within the mammary gland when targeting therapies and studying mechanisms that affect milk production. PMID:21829467

  5. Effects of protein supplementation frequency on physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Perry, G A; Jump, D B; Lytle, K A; Bohnert, D W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if frequency of protein supplementation impacts physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows. Fourteen nonpregnant, nonlactating beef cows were ranked by age and BW and allocated to 3 groups. Groups were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design, containing 3 periods of 21 d and the following treatments: 1) soybean meal supplementation daily (D), 2) soybean meal supplementation 3 times/week (3WK), and 3) soybean meal supplementation once/week (1WK). Within each period, cows were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol: 100 μg of GnRH + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone (P4) on d 1, 25 mg of PGF2α on d 8, and CIDR removal + 100 μg of GnRH on d 11. Grass-seed straw was offered for ad libitum consumption. Soybean meal was individually supplemented at a daily rate of 1 kg/cow (as-fed basis). Moreover, 3WK was supplemented on d 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 18 whereas 1WK was supplemented on d 4, 11, and 18. Blood samples were collected from 0 (before) to 72 h after supplementation on d 11 and 18 and analyzed for plasma urea-N (PUN). Samples collected from 0 to 12 h were also analyzed for plasma glucose, insulin, and P4 (d 18 only). Uterine flushing fluid was collected concurrently with blood sampling at 28 h for pH evaluation. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood sampling at 0, 4, and 28 h and analyzed for mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS-I; h 28) and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (h 0 and 4 on d 18). Plasma urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. 3WK from 20 to 72 h and greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D from 16 to 48 h and at 72 h after supplementation (treatment × hour interaction, P < 0.01). Moreover, PUN concentrations peaked at 28 h after supplementation for 3WK and 1WK (P < 0.01) and were greater (P < 0.01) at this time for 1WK vs. 3WK and D and for 3WK vs. D. Expression of CPS-I was

  6. Effect of administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin on health and performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with hyperketonemia.

    PubMed

    Gohary, K; Leslie, K E; Ford, J; Capel, M; LeBlanc, S J; Duffield, T F

    2015-07-01

    The effect of administering recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to cows with hyperketonemia during the early postpartum period on health, metabolic parameters, milk production, and early reproductive performance was evaluated in a double-blinded clinical trial. Cows from 8 dairy herds in New York State were tested weekly between 3 and 16d in milk for elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows were enrolled in the study when blood β-hydroxybutyrate was ≥1.3mmol/L for the first time. Enrolled cows were randomly assigned to a treatment (n=273) or placebo control (n=270) group. Treated cows were given 325mg of rbST subcutaneously on the day of enrollment and again 14d later. Control cows received the same regimen except the syringe contained only the carrier without somatotropin. After enrollment, blood samples were collected weekly for 4wk and submitted to the laboratory to be analyzed for selected metabolites. Risk ratios for clinical diseases subsequent to treatment were calculated using Poisson regression. Continuous data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Time to first insemination was assessed with survival analysis. In the 42d following the first administration of rbST, incidence risks of displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, metritis, clinical mastitis, and lameness were not different between treatment groups. Cows treated with rbST had a slightly lower body condition score 28d after enrollment compared with control cows. In the 4wk following enrollment, serum nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate amino-transferase were slightly higher for treated than control cows, respectively. Serum glucose, calcium, haptoglobin, and β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between groups. Treatment had no effect on resolution of hyperketonemia in any of the 4wk after enrollment. Milk production in either of the 2-wk periods after each treatment was not different between treated and control cows. Furthermore, milk production was not different between groups from enrollment

  7. Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. by dairy cows on farm and at cull cow markets.

    PubMed

    Wells, S J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Dargatz, D A; Ferris, K; Green, A

    2001-01-01

    As part of a national study of the U.S. dairy cow population, fecal samples were collected from representative cows on 91 dairies and 97 cull dairy cow markets in 19 states. Salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.4% of milk cows, 18.1% of milk cows expected to be culled within 7 days, and 14.9% of culled dairy cows at markets. On a premise basis, Salmonella shedding in milk cows was detected on 21.1% of dairies and 66% of cull dairy cow markets. The percentage of herds with at least one cow with detectable Salmonella fecal shedding was higher during the sampling period from May through July, in herds with at least 100 milk cows, and in herds in the South region. The most common Salmonella serogroups isolated were E (30.8% of isolates) and C1 (28.6%); the most common serotypes isolated were Salmonella Montevideo (21.5% of isolates), Salmonella Cerro (13.3%), and Salmonella Kentucky (8.5%). Fecal shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Typhimurium var. copenhagen was infrequent (2.8% of isolates). Most isolates (88.9%) were susceptible to all 17 antimicrobials evaluated; multiple resistance was an infrequent occurrence. This study provides information describing the distribution of Salmonella fecal shedding from dairy cows on farm and at markets and will serve as a baseline for future studies.

  8. Vaccination of dairy cows with recombinant Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule induces antibodies that reduce adherence to and internalization of S. uberis into bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Prado, M E; Almeida, R A; Ozen, C; Luther, D A; Lewis, M J; Headrick, S J; Oliver, S P

    2011-06-15

    Streptococcus uberis is an important environmental mastitis pathogen that causes subclinical and clinical mastitis in lactating and nonlactating cows and heifers throughout the world. Previous work from our laboratory suggests that S. uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) is involved in S. uberis pathogenesis and may be an excellent target for vaccine development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibody response of cattle vaccinated with recombinant SUAM (rSUAM). Uninfected primiparous dairy cows (n=30) in late lactation were divided randomly into three groups of 10 cows each: control, 200 μg rSUAM, and 400 μg rSUAM. Cows in groups vaccinated with 200 μg and 400 μg rSUAM received an emulsion containing adjuvant, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and affinity purified rSUAM. Cows in the control group received an emulsion containing adjuvant and PBS. Cows were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck region at drying off (D-0), 28 d after drying off (D+28) and within 7 d after calving. Serum was collected at D-0, D+28, at calving (C-0), calving vaccination (CV), and during early lactation (CV+14). Serum antibody responses were measured by an ELISA against rSUAM. Following the first vaccination a significant increase in anti-rSUAM antibodies was detected at D+28 in cows from groups vaccinated with 200 μg and 400 μg rSUAM when compared to the control group. This increase in anti-rSUAM antibodies continued following the second immunization at D+28; reaching the highest levels in the post-parturient sampling period (C0), after which antibodies appeared to plateau. S. uberis UT888 pretreated with several dilutions of heat-inactivated serum from cows vaccinated with rSUAM, affinity purified antibodies against rSUAM, and to a 17 amino acid long peptide from the N terminus of SUAM (pep-SUAM) were co-cultured with bovine mammary epithelial cells and adherence to and internalization of S. uberis into epithelial cells was measured. Compared to untreated controls

  9. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.

  10. Expression of estrus modifies the gene expression profile in reproductive tissues on Day 19 of gestation in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, S; Cooke, R F; Fernandes, A C C; Cappellozza, B I; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of expression of estrus at artificial insemination (AI) on endometrium, conceptus, and CL gene expression of beef cows. Thirty-six multiparous nonlactating Nelore cows were enrolled on an estradiol- and progesterone (P4)-based timed AI protocol (AI = Day 0) and then slaughtered for the endometrium, CL, and conceptus collection on Day 19. The animals were retrospectively grouped on the basis of cows that (1) showed signs of estrus near AI (n = 19; estrus) and (2) did not show any signs of estrus (n = 17; nonestrus). Body condition score, blood sampling, and ultrasound examination were performed on Days 0, 7, and 18 of the experiment followed by messenger RNA extraction and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of 58 target genes. Data were checked for normality and analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures using proc GLM, MIXED, and UNIVARIATE of SAS. Only pregnant cows were included in the analyses (n = 12; nonestrus, n = 11). Estrous expression had no correlation with parameters such as body condition score, preovulatory follicle and CL diameter, P4 concentration in plasma on Days 7 and 18 after AI, and interferon-tau concentration in the uterine flushing (P > 0.15); however, a significant increase was observed in conceptus size from cows that expressed estrus (P = 0.02; 38.3 ± 2.8 vs. 28.2 ± 2.9 mm). The majority of transcripts affected by estrous expression in the endometrium belong to the immune system and adhesion molecule family (MX1, MX2, MYL12A, MMP19, CXCL10, IGLL1, and SLPI; P ≤ 0.05), as well as those related with prostaglandin synthesis (OTR and COX-2; P ≤ 0.05). Genes related to apoptosis, P4 synthesis, and prostaglandin receptor were downregulated (CYP11A, BAX, and FPr; P < 0.05) in the CL tissue of cows that expressed estrus. In addition, four genes were identified as differentially expressed in the 19-day-old conceptus from cows that expressed estrus (ISG15, PLAU, BMP15

  11. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  12. Mycoplasma wenyonii infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2016-12-17

    Mycoplasma wenyonii infection in two dairy herdsHypomagnesaemia in suckler cowsLeptospiral milk drop in dairy cowsNon-resolving orf in six-month-old lambsHepatosis dietetica in a five-month-old giltThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for September 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  13. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  14. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  15. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  16. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  17. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  18. Effect of prepartum dry cow antibiotic treatment in dairy heifers on udder health and milk production.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, O C; De Vliegher, S; Barkema, H W; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M

    2009-09-01

    A high percentage of heifers calve with intramammary infections. One of the measures available to control intramammary infections is treatment with antibiotics before calving. In this study, the effects of prepartum treatment of nonlactating heifers with a 600-mg cloxacillin dry cow treatment on the prevalence of culture-positive milk samples at calving and 10 to 14 d in milk (DIM), the incidence of clinical mastitis, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk production during first lactation were quantified. A total of 184 heifers on 13 dairy farms were treated with antibiotics 8 to 10 wk before the expected calving date. Another 185 heifers served as untreated controls. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated group of bacteria in the treatment and control groups at calving (32 and 42%), and at 10 to 14 DIM (15 and 19%), respectively. The prevalence of minor pathogens at calving was lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (34 and 43%, respectively). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated major pathogen in the treated and control heifers at calving (4 and 5%) and at 10 to 14 DIM (2 and 3%), respectively. The prevalence of major pathogens was lower in the treated heifers at 10 to 14 DIM compared with the control group (4 and 6%, respectively). Cumulative incidence risk of clinical mastitis during the lactation was 9 and 18% in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Treatment with cloxacillin 8 to 10 wk before calving resulted in a lower prevalence of culture-positive milk samples at calving and lower quarter milk SCC in early lactation [30,000 +/- 4,600 (standard deviation) cells/mL in treated heifers versus 40,000 +/- 4,600 cells/mL in control heifers], and was associated with lower average test-day SCC (55,000 +/- 1,400 cells/mL in treated heifers versus 71,000 +/- 1,500 cells/mL in control heifers) and lower incidence of clinical mastitis throughout lactation. The improved udder health resulted in

  19. The use of infrared thermography and accelerometers for remote monitoring of dairy cow health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M; Wilson, M T; Schaefer, A L; Huddart, F; Sutherland, M A

    2017-05-01

    Increasing reliance on automated systems on-farm has led to a need for remote monitoring of health and welfare. We aimed to validate 2 methods that could be integrated into automated systems currently in use: infrared thermography (IRT) to measure respiration rate (RR), and accelerometers to measure the flinch, step, kick (FSK) response and assessing stress and discomfort. We monitored 22 multiparous, nonlactating, Friesian and Friesian × Jersey cows (average 5.1 yr of age) during a baseline period (2 min), a restraint in a crush (2 min), and then a recovery period after exposure to a startle (2 min). We measured RR with continuous IRT imaging of airflow through the nostrils and by counting flank movements from video and live recordings. We recorded heart rate (HR) and HR variability using HR monitors, and we recorded FSK from continuous video analysis of leg movements and indirectly using accelerometers attached to both hind legs. The FSK response was scored between 1 and 4 based on the height and direction of each leg movement. We observed no change in RR, HR variability, or FSK in response to the startle; however, HR increased briefly by 10 bpm. Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement between the different methods of measuring RR, with average differences of -0.01 ± 0.87, 0.83 ± 0.57, and 0.37 ± 1.02 breaths/min for video versus live, IRT versus live and IRT versus video, respectively. Acceleration was also highly correlated with FSK scores of ≤3 (R(2) = 0.96) and ≤2 (R(2) = 0.89) and moderately correlated with FSK scores of 1 (R(2) = 0.66) over the 4-min sampling period. The results show that accelerometers can provide an indirect measure of the FSK response, and IRT can be used reliably to measure RR. With further development, both technologies could be integrated into existing systems for remote monitoring of dairy cows' health and welfare on-farm. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural influence of season on follicular, luteal, and endocrinological turnover in Indian crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, S; Brindha, K; Roy, A; Devanathan, T G; Kathiresan, D; Kumanan, K

    2015-07-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the effect of seasonal changes on follicular and luteal dynamics in vivo in normally cycling crossbred cows during summer and winter months of the year. Six healthy regularly cycling Jersey crossbred nonlactating pluriparous cows were used for the study. Follicular and luteal developmental pattern was studied every other day throughout the estrous cycle by scanning the ovaries during two periods of a year viz., hot season (April to June; n = 16) and cold season (December to February; n = 12). Plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured on Days 0 (estrus), 6, and 12 of the estrous cycle. Among the 12 cycles studied during the cold season, 11 (91.7%) had three waves and one had two waves. Of 16 cycles studied during the hot season, eight (50%) had two waves, four (25%) had three waves, and the remaining four cycles had single (n = 2) and four waves (n = 2). High P4 concentrations during the midcycle would have suppressed the dominant follicle of the second follicular wave and induced the emergence of the third wave during the cold season. The first follicular wave (wave I) of the cycle emerged much earlier (Day 0.5 ± 0.3) during the cold season than that in the hot season (Day 1.7 ± 0.4). The ovulatory wave emerged significantly earlier during the hot season (Day 11.5 ± 1.3) than in the cold season (Day 14.8 ± 0.4), and hence, the growth phase of ovulatory follicle significantly increased during the former season (11.0 ± 1.4 days) than the latter (5.8 ± 0.2 days). The ovulatory follicle attained a significantly larger diameter (12.8 ± 0.8 mm) to express the estrus during the hot season when compared to the cold season (11.3 ± 0.4 mm), which might be indicative of alterations in steroidogenic activity within the follicular microenvironment. During the midphase of the cycle, a period critical for embryonic sustenance, the P4 level was significantly reduced in the hot months indicating suppression of luteal activity

  1. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  2. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working pressure...

  3. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  4. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  5. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  6. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  7. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  8. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  9. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  10. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  11. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  12. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  13. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  14. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  15. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  16. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  17. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  18. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  19. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  20. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  1. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  2. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  3. Excretion of Brucella abortus vaccine B19 strain during a reproductive cycle in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, W. A.; Genovez, M. E.; Pozzi, C. R.; Silva, L. M. P.; Azevedo, S. S.; Did, C. C.; Piatti, R. M.; Pinheiro, E. S.; Castro, V.; Miyashiro, S.; Gambarini, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the excretion period of B19 vaccine strain during a complete reproductive cycle (from estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, pregnancy and until 30 days after parturition) of dairy cows from 3 to 9 years old that were previously vaccinated from 3 to 8 months. Three groups were monitored with monthly milk and urine collection during 12 months: G1 with seven cows from 3 to 4 years old; G2 with three cows from 5 to 6 years old; and G3 with four cows from 7 to 9 years old. Urine and milk samples were submitted to bacteriological culture and urine and PCR reactions for detection of Brucella spp. and PCR-multiplex for B19 strain identification. Ring test (RT) was also performed in the milk samples, and serum samples were tested by buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPA). All animals were serologically negative at BAPA and Brucella spp. was not isolated from both urine and milk samples. RT revealed 13/210 (6.2%) positive milk samples. PCR reactions detected DNA of Brucella spp. in 86/420 (20.5%) samples. In urine it was found a significantly higher frequency (35.2%; 74/210) than in milk (5.7%; 12/210), more frequently from the estrus to 150 days of pregnancy and after parturition (6.7%; 10/150), and from 150 days of pregnancy to parturition (3.4%; 2/60), and they were all identified as B19 strain. In three groups, intermittent excretion of B19 strain was detected mainly in urine samples, which confirmed its multiplication and persistence in cows for until 9 years. PMID:24031869

  4. Excretion of Brucella abortus vaccine B19 strain during a reproductive cycle in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, W A; Genovez, M E; Pozzi, C R; Silva, L M P; Azevedo, S S; Did, C C; Piatti, R M; Pinheiro, E S; Castro, V; Miyashiro, S; Gambarini, M L

    2012-04-01

    This paper aimed to determine the excretion period of B19 vaccine strain during a complete reproductive cycle (from estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, pregnancy and until 30 days after parturition) of dairy cows from 3 to 9 years old that were previously vaccinated from 3 to 8 months. Three groups were monitored with monthly milk and urine collection during 12 months: G1 with seven cows from 3 to 4 years old; G2 with three cows from 5 to 6 years old; and G3 with four cows from 7 to 9 years old. Urine and milk samples were submitted to bacteriological culture and urine and PCR reactions for detection of Brucella spp. and PCR-multiplex for B19 strain identification. Ring test (RT) was also performed in the milk samples, and serum samples were tested by buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPA). All animals were serologically negative at BAPA and Brucella spp. was not isolated from both urine and milk samples. RT revealed 13/210 (6.2%) positive milk samples. PCR reactions detected DNA of Brucella spp. in 86/420 (20.5%) samples. In urine it was found a significantly higher frequency (35.2%; 74/210) than in milk (5.7%; 12/210), more frequently from the estrus to 150 days of pregnancy and after parturition (6.7%; 10/150), and from 150 days of pregnancy to parturition (3.4%; 2/60), and they were all identified as B19 strain. In three groups, intermittent excretion of B19 strain was detected mainly in urine samples, which confirmed its multiplication and persistence in cows for until 9 years.

  5. Whole cow's milk in early life.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorisdottir, Asa V

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk is a major food for young children. Whole cow's milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content. The negative association with iron status led to recommending the introduction of formula feeding in infancy during the weaning period or when breastfeeding ceased. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow's milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood. These issues are discussed in the following chapter. Other suggested reasons for the avoidance of whole cow's milk in infancy are touched upon, such as milk protein allergy and high renal solute load. The hypothesis about early cow's milk introduction in the pathology of certain diseases, mainly through the peptide β-casomorphin-7, is briefly reviewed, showing that there is no clear evidence for the suggested associations. The chapter gives a recent example of introducing formula at 6 months of age instead of whole cow's milk in infants' diet in Iceland. Several aspects of consuming whole cow's milk in infancy can be found in recent reviews. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effects of postbreeding gonadotropin treatments on conception rates of lactating dairy cows subjected to timed artificial insemination or embryo transfer in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Sá Filho, O G; Justolin, P L T; Morelli, P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Soriano, S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to evaluate the effects of treatments with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or GnRH 7 d after induced ovulation on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET). A total of 834 potential breedings were used from 661 lactating Holstein cows (37.3±0.3 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned randomly to receive TAI on d 0 or TET on d 7. Within each group, cows were assigned randomly to receive on d 7 no additional treatment (control; nTAI=156; nTET=126), a 100 μg i.m. injection of GnRH (nTAI=155; nTET=124), or a 2,500 IU i.m. injection of hCG (nTAI=151; nTET=122). Postbreeding treatment affected the percentages of pregnant cows at TET on d 28 (control: 38.1%; GnRH: 52.4%; hCG: 45.1%) and on d 60 (control: 32.5%; GnRH: 41.1%; hCG: 38.5%), but postbreeding treatment did not affect percentages of pregnant cows at TAI on d 28 (control: 30.1%; GnRH: 32.2%; hCG: 32.4%) or on d 60 (control: 25.6%; GnRH: 27.1%; hCG: 29.8%). The objective of experiment 2 was to evaluate the effect of a treatment with GnRH 7 d after TET on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows that received a previous GnRH treatment at TET. A total of 285 potential breedings were used from 257 lactating Holstein cows (35.1±0.8 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned for TET on d 7. Immediately after TET, all cows were treated with a 100 μg i.m. injection of GnRH. On d 14, cows were assigned randomly to receive (G7-14; n=147) or not (G7; n=138) an additional injection of GnRH. Pregnancy diagnosis were performed on d 28 and 60. The additional treatment with GnRH on d 14 did not affect the percentages of pregnant cows on d 28 (G7: 48.5%; G7-14: 42.9%) or on d 60 (G7: 39.8%; G7-14: 37.4%). In conclusion, treatment with GnRH or hCG 7 d after induced ovulation increased conception rates in lactating dairy cows submitted to TET, but not

  7. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  8. Epidemiology of reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gröhn, Y T; Rajala-Schultz, P J

    2000-07-02

    The objectives of this presentation are to review results of our previous and on-going research with respect to the risk factors and consequences of poor reproductive performance in dairy cows, and to develop an economic framework to optimize decisions related to dairy cow reproductive performance. To make profitable breeding and replacement decisions, the farmer must account for factors including age, production level, lactation stage, pregnancy status, and disease history of the cows in the herd. Establishing the interrelationships among disease, milk yield, reproduction, and herd management is necessary for developing a decision model for disease treatment, insemination, and replacement. The data for the studies reviewed in this presentation incorporate health, production, and management components from Holsteins in the Northeast USA and Ayrshires from Finland. Data were analyzed using the Cornell Theory Center Supercomputer. The effect of risk factors on reproductive disorders was modeled with logistic regression, and on conception, insemination, and culling with survival analysis. The effect of reproductive disorders on milk yield was analyzed with mixed models. Economic optimization of reproductive performance was done with dynamic programming (DP). High milk yield, high parity, and calving in winter were risk factors for several reproductive disorders. These disorders, in turn, delayed insemination and conception in dairy cows, and some of them increased the risk of culling. Dystocia, retained placenta, and early metritis led to a short-term drop in milk production. High milk yield was not a major factor in delaying conception, except in first parity cows. However, higher yielders were more likely to be inseminated, and less likely to be culled. Non-pregnant cows had a higher risk of being culled. Reproductive performance of dairy cows influenced a herd's profitability, and good heat detection and conception rates provided opportunities for management

  9. 31 CFR 1010.711 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submitting requests. 1010.711 Section 1010.711 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL....711 Submitting requests. (a) Each request for an administrative ruling must be in writing and contain...

  10. 31 CFR 1010.711 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submitting requests. 1010.711 Section 1010.711 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL....711 Submitting requests. (a) Each request for an administrative ruling must be in writing and contain...

  11. 31 CFR 1010.711 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submitting requests. 1010.711 Section 1010.711 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL....711 Submitting requests. (a) Each request for an administrative ruling must be in writing and contain...

  12. 31 CFR 1010.711 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submitting requests. 1010.711 Section 1010.711 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL....711 Submitting requests. (a) Each request for an administrative ruling must be in writing and contain...

  13. 21 CFR 822.14 - May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again? 822.14 Section 822.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., you may reference information that you have submitted in premarket submissions as well as...

  14. Comparison of fertility, regular returns-to-estrus, and calving interval between Ovsynch and CO-synch + CIDR protocols in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, C; Maia, I; Canada, N; Simões, J

    2014-10-01

    The main aims of the present study were to compare the pregnancy rate (PR), regular returns-to-estrus, and calving interval of a CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device, commonly used to synchronize ovulations in beef cows, with the classical Ovsynch protocol in high-producing dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 128) from six commercial dairy herds, ≥40 days postpartum and not previously inseminated, were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Cows submitted to Ovsynch protocol (group OS as control group; n = 66) received 10 μg of a GnRH analogue 7 days before and 48 hours after 25 mg PGF2α, followed by artificial insemination (AI) 16 hours after the second GnRH administration. Cows submitted to CO-Synch + CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) inserted for 7 days beginning at the first GnRH administration (group CoS + CD; n = 62) had the second administration of GnRH concurrent with AI, 64 hours after CIDR removal/PGF2α administration. Nonpregnant cows with return-to-estrus between 18 and 24 days after first AI were reinseminated (second AI). Logistic regressions were used to analyze PR and returns-to-estrus. No effect of group or herd was observed in PR at first timed AI. However, the sum of cows pregnant at first AI and nonpregnant cows with regular returns-to-estrus and the total PR (first + second AI) were influenced by group treatment. Overall, cows of group CoS + CD (total PR = 56.5%) were 2.1 times more likely to became pregnant after AI and until first regular returns-to-estrus than cows of group OS. The calving interval was lower in group CoS + CD (425.9 ± 78.8 days; ±SD) than in group OS (475.3 ± 83.7 days). The CO-Synch + CIDR protocol was reliable to use in dairy herds and provided reproductive advantages when compared with Ovsynch protocol.

  15. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  16. Cow's milk allergy in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dahdah, Lamia; Albarini, Marco; Martelli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy is among the more frequent food allergies in infants and children. Because its suspicion stems from a plethora of symptoms, it is frequently reported. However, the development of a rigorous diagnostic pathway will reduce the diagnosed children to less than 50% of those reported. Cow's milk allergy is the only specific food allergy for which an EBM guideline exists. According to the guidelines (Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow's Milk Allergy), a diagnostic process based on the pre-test probability of this condition is available. Treatments include avoidance, the substitution of cow's milk with an appropriate formula, and in some cases, oral immunotherapy. Treatment choice is also guided by these guidelines. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  18. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  19. Cow's Milk Allergy with Severe Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mariko; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2016-02-01

    Because the role of eosinophils in neonates is not well understood, the clinical significance of eosinophilia in neonates is unclear. We encountered a rare case of cow's milk allergy in a premature male infant with severe eosinophilia in the neonatal period. The peripheral blood eosinophil count in this infant was 7,404/μL at birth, and he produced stools with fresh blood immediately after birth and prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk. Although the patient's eosinophil count normalized without specific treatment within 6 weeks after birth, it is possible that the causes of the eosinophilia in this infant prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk were different from those after the first feedings. Cow's milk allergy was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's positivity for this allergy in the challenge test and subsequent allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test performed at 6 months of age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Immunotherapy for cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Masaya; Soejima, Kazukiko; Hatano, Yasuko; Minami, Hirotaka

    2017-08-21

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is used regularly for young children with cow's milk (CM) allergy and has been shown to be effective in several studies. However, adverse events occur frequently during OIT. Furthermore, there are only five randomized controlled trial studies of CM-OIT and these are low-powered single center trials. Therefore, evidence levels are also low and sometimes frequent and severe allergic events occur during the OIT. Furthermore, there are no standardized protocols in pediatric allergy guidelines from several countries and studies with long-term follow-up observations and clinical tolerance defined as sustained unresponsiveness are rare. Additionally, clinical tolerance by OIT is generally not well defined and obscure. Thus, several problems remain to be resolved, however we hope OIT in combination with omalizumab and less allergenic heated CM products will resolve these problems in the future.

  1. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established.

  2. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum cow performance.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Day, M L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2010-08-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 144) were used to determine effects of late gestation dietary energy source on pre- and postpartum cow performance in a complete randomized block design experiment. Cows were adapted to diets starting at 167 +/- 9 d of gestation and fed until 1 wk before expected calving date. Cows were fed 1 of 3 dietary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried distillers grains (DDGS). Cows allotted to HY were allowed ad libitum access to round-bale grass hay, and average hay disappearance was 12.4 kg/d. Limit-fed corn and DDGS diets contained 5.3 kg of whole-shelled corn or 4.1 kg of DDGS, respectively, plus 2.1 kg of hay, and 1.0 kg of supplement to meet cow nutritional needs during late gestation and to allow for an energy intake similar to HY. Every 21 d, BW, BCS, and ultrasound measurement of backfat between the 12th and 13th ribs were collected. At 210 d in gestation, jugular blood samples were collected from cows at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea N (BUN) concentrations. After parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed similarly. Milk production was determined by weigh-suckle-weigh procedure on d 31, 100, and 176 postpartum. Cows fed DDGS during late gestation gained more (P = 0.04) BW than cows fed HY or CN; however, no difference in BCS change was detected (P = 0.28) among treatments. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar among treatments (P = 0.64), whereas insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding were greater (P = 0.002) for cows fed DDGS than those fed HY or CN. Plasma BUN concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.02) for cows fed DDGS vs. CN or HY up to 6 h postfeeding. Birth weight was greater (P < 0.001) for calves from cows fed CN and DDGS than for those fed HY, but this did not result in any differences in frequency of dystocia (P = 0.21). Prepartum energy source did not affect conception rates (P = 0.79), milk production (P > or = 0.51), or milk

  3. Cow's milk and immune-mediated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, H E; Kolb, H

    2000-11-01

    Cow's milk-based infant formulas and cow's milk consumption in childhood have been suggested to promote the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus and other immune-mediated or neurological diseases. Epidemiological studies in man have led to the hypothesis that introduction of cow's milk-based infant formula within the first 3 months of life is associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, in animal models of type 1 diabetes mellitus, cow's milk proteins have been proven to be 'diabetogenic'. However, the issue seems far from being resolved. Several epidemiological studies and, more importantly, the first prospective trials did not show an association between early exposure to cow's milk and type 1 diabetes mellitus. In animal models, cow's milk proteins are modestly and variably diabetogenic, wheat or soybean proteins in the diet cause higher rates of autoimmune diabetes. In both man and rodents there is increasing evidence that the gut-associated immune system plays a major role in disease development, probably because of disturbed oral tolerance mechanisms. Oral tolerance depends on immunological homeostasis and normal maturation of the gut. These factors are influenced by growth factors and cytokines from breast milk, normal bacterial colonization, infections and diet. All these factors have been proposed as risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Hence, cow's milk proteins may provide mimicry epitopes relevant in autoimmunity, as well as destabilizing oral tolerance mechanisms by biologically active peptides. The concept of dietary regulation of autoimmunity does not apply only to cow's milk protein, but also to other dietary proteins.

  4. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, Garrett R

    2013-07-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reticulo-rumen mass, epithelium gene expression, and systemic biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation in Holstein dairy cows fed a high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J M; Hosseini, A; Zhou, Z; Alharthi, A; Trevisi, E; Osorio, J S; Loor, J J

    2017-09-13

    Feeding a higher-energy diet by increasing cereal grains at the expense of forage during the last 3 to 4 wk prepartum is a traditional approach to help the rumen "adapt" to the traditional diets fed at the onset of lactation. Increasing grain/concentrate in the diet changes ruminal fermentation and in sheep and goats elicits marked changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ruminal epithelium. Whether such changes at the epithelial and systemic levels occur in dairy cows when the dietary energy content increases at a fixed level of concentrate is unknown. Fourteen nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein cows were fed a control lower-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg of dry matter) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 wk, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg of dry matter) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 wk. Levels of forage and concentrate for CON and OVE were 80 and 79% and 20 and 21%, respectively. Plasma samples were collected 1 d before slaughter to examine biomarkers of metabolism, liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The reticulo-rumen mass was recorded at slaughter, and samples of epithelium were harvested from all cows. The expression of 29 genes associated with tight junctions, immune function, and nutrient transport (volatile fatty acids, urea, and trace minerals) was examined. Overfeeding energy led to consistently greater dry matter intake over time, and lowered plasma concentrations of haptoglobin, paraoxonase, bilirubin, fatty acids, and myeloperoxidase (secreted by neutrophils). In contrast, OVE resulted in greater hydroxybutyrate and cholesterol concentrations. A greater reticulo-rumen mass in cows fed OVE did not alter genes associated with tight junctions (CDLN1, CDNL4, OCLN, TJP1), immune function (IL1B, IL10, NFKB1, TLR2, TLR4, TNF), oxidative stress (SOD1, SOD2), or most nutrient transporters. However, feeding OVE upregulated the acute-phase protein

  6. Effects of excess metabolizable protein on ovarian function and circulating amino acids of beef cows: 2. Excessive supply in varying concentrations from corn gluten meal.

    PubMed

    Geppert, T C; Meyer, A M; Perry, G A; Gunn, P J

    2017-04-01

    In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, amount of excess CP effects on reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of excess metabolizable protein (MP) supplementation from a moderately abundant rumen undegradable protein (RUP) source (corn gluten meal: 62% RUP) on ovarian function and circulating amino acid (AA) concentrations in beef cows consuming low quality forage. Non-pregnant, non-lactating beef cows (n=16) were allocated by age, BW and body condition score (BCS) to 1 of 2 isocaloric supplements designed to maintain BW for 60 days. Cows had ad libitum access to corn stalks and were individually offered a corn gluten meal-based supplement daily at 125% (MP125) or 150% (MP150) of National Research Council (NRC) MP requirements. After a 20-day supplement adaptation period, cows were synchronized for ovulation. After 10 days of synchronization, follicular growth was reset with gonadotropin releasing hormone. Daily thereafter, transrectal ultrasonography was performed to diagram ovarian follicular waves, and blood samples were collected for hormone, metabolite and AA analyses. After 7 days of observation of estrus, corpus luteum (CL) size was determined via ultrasound. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS. No differences (P⩾0.21) in BW and BCS existed throughout the study; however, plasma urea N at ovulation was greater (P=0.04) in MP150. Preovulatory ovarian follicle size at dominance, duration of dominance, size at spontaneous luteolysis, length of proestrus and wavelength were not different (P⩾0.11) between treatments. However, ovulatory follicles were larger (P=0.04) and average antral follicle count was greater (P=0.01) in MP150 than MP125. Estradiol concentration and ratio of estradiol to ovulatory follicle volume were not different due to treatment (P⩾0.25). While CL volume 7 days post

  7. Nutritional Models of Experimentally-Induced Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) Differ in Their Impact on Rumen and Hindgut Bacterial Communities in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Plaizier, Jan C.; Li, Shucong; Tun, Hein M.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenges on the bacteria in rumen fluid, cecal digesta, and feces of dairy cows were determined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR. Six non-lactating Holstein cows with cannulas in the rumen and cecum were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments. During the first 3 wk of each experimental period, cows received a control diet containing 70% forages on a dry matter (DM) basis. In wk 4 of each period, cows received one of three diets: (1) the control diet; (2) a diet in which 34% of the dietary DM was replaced with pellets of ground wheat and barley (GBSC); or (3) a diet in which 37% of dietary DM was replaced with pellets of ground alfalfa (APSC). Rumen fluid, cecal digesta and feces were collected on d 5 of wk 4 of each period and the composition of the bacterial community was studied. Rumen fermentation responses were reported in a companion study. Both SARA-inducing challenges resulted in similar digesta pH depressions (as shown by the companion study), and reduced bacterial richness and diversity in rumen fluid, but GBSC had the larger effect. None of the challenges affected these measures in cecal digesta, and only GBSC reduced bacterial richness and diversity in feces. Only GBSC reduced the abundance of Bacteroidetes in rumen fluid. Abundances of limited number of bacterial genera identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in the rumen, cecum and feces were affected by the GBSC. The APSC did not affect any of these abundances. Both challenges increased the abundances of several starch, pectin, xylan, dextrin, lactate, succinate, and sugar fermenting bacterial species in the rumen, cecum, and feces as determined by qPCR. Only GBSC increased that of Megasphaera elsdenii in the rumen. Both challenges decreased the abundance of Streptococcus bovis, and increased that of Escherichia coli, in cecal digesta and feces, with GBSC having the larger effect. These results showed that

  8. Epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of Holstein cows with different responses to a long-term subacute ruminal acidosis diet challenge.

    PubMed

    Wetzels, S U; Mann, E; Pourazad, P; Qumar, M; Pinior, B; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Wagner, M; Schmitz-Esser, S; Zebeli, Q

    2017-03-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a prevalent metabolic disorder in cattle, characterized by intermittent drops in ruminal pH. This study investigated the effect of a gradual adaptation and continuously induced long-term SARA challenge diet on the epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of cows. Eight rumen-cannulated nonlactating Holstein cows were transitioned over 1 wk from a forage-based baseline feeding diet (grass silage-hay mix) to a SARA challenge diet, which they were fed for 4 wk. The SARA challenge diet consisted of 60% concentrates (dry matter basis) and 40% grass silage-hay mix. Rumen papillae biopsies were taken at the baseline, on the last day of the 1-wk adaptation, and on the last day of the 4-wk SARA challenge period; ruminal pH was measured using wireless sensors. We isolated DNA from papillae samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing results of most abundant key phylotypes were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Although they were fed similar amounts of concentrate, cows responded differently in terms of ruminal pH during the SARA feeding challenge. Cows were therefore classified as responders (n = 4) and nonresponders (n = 4): only responders met the SARA criterion of a ruminal pH drop below 5.8 for longer than 330 min/d. Data showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla, and at genus level, Campylobacter and Kingella showed highest relative abundance, at 15.5 and 7.8%, respectively. Diversity analyses revealed a significant increase of diversity after the 1-wk adaptation but a decrease of diversity and species richness after the 4-wk SARA feeding challenge, although without distinction between responders and nonresponders. At the level of the operational taxonomic unit, we detected diet-specific shifts in epimural community structure, but in the overall epimural bacterial community structure, we found no differences between responders and nonresponders

  9. Mastitis in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S

    2008-07-01

    Transition from the dry period to lactation is a high risk period for the modern dairy cow. The biggest challenge at that time is mastitis. Environmental bacteria are the most problematic pathogens around parturition. Coliforms are able to cause severe infections in multiparous cows, and heifers are likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci. During the periparturient period, hormonal and other factors make the dairy cows more or less immunocompromised. A successful mastitis control programme is focused on the management of dry and calving cows and heifers. Clean and comfortable environment, proper feeding and adequate supplementation of the diet with vitamins and trace elements are essential for maintaining good udder health. Strategies which would enhance closure of the teat canal in the beginning of the dry period and would protect teat end from bacteria until the keratin plug has formed decrease the risk for mastitis after calving. Dry cow therapy has been used with considerable success. Yet, a selective approach could be recommended rather than blanket therapy. Non-antibiotic approaches can be useful tools to prevent new infections during the dry period, in herds where the risk for environmental mastitis is high. Vaccination has been suggested as a means to support the immune defence of the dairy cow around parturition. In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving.

  10. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  11. Use of serum amyloid A and milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Gabriele; Bernardini, Daniele; Azzurra Elia, Carla; Ferrari, Vanni; Iob, Luciano; Segato, Severino

    2009-11-01

    Mastitis is the most frequent and costly disease in dairy herds, as it negatively affects yield and milk quality. The presence of clinical mastitis is quite easy to asses, whereas the diagnosis of the subclinical form can be more difficult and requires laboratory assays. Somatic cell count (SCC) is widely used as a rapid and low-cost indicator of mastitis, even if is not useful in discriminating between the clinical and subclinical form. As amyloid A has been investigated as a marker of mastitis, the aim of this study was to assess the potential value of measuring amyloid A in serum and milk and the correlation with SCC in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. The reliability of two different ELISA kits for the measurement of amyloid A in milk was also tested. During a 1-month trial period, 21 cows were assigned to three experimental groups according to their health status: 6 cows with clinical mastitis (CM), 10 cows with subclinical mastitis (SM) and 5 healthy cows (HE). Amyloid A was measured both in serum (SAA) and in quarter milk samples (mAA) with a serum ELISA kit, and in quarter milk samples (MAA) with a milk ELISA kit. SCC, total microbial count (TMC) and bacterial examination of the milk were also carried out. After a log transformation, the data were submitted to ANOVA and linear regression. TMC was significantly higher in cows with clinical mastitis, while no differences were observed between the other two experimental groups. SCC and MAA levels were significantly different among the three groups. mAA concentrations were similar between cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, and SAA was not affected by mastitis. A significant correlation between SCC and MAA or mAA was detected, while no correlation was recorded between SAA and mAA. A close relationship between MAA and mAA was noticeable even at low concentrations, suggesting MAA as a potential physiological marker of subclinical mastitis.

  12. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  14. Isolation of Haemophilus somnus from dairy cattle in kwaZulu-Natal. An emerging cause of 'dirty cow syndrome' and infertility?

    PubMed

    Last, R D; Macfarlane, M D; Jarvis, C J

    2001-06-01

    Haemophilus somnus was consistently isolated from vaginal discharges of dairy cows submitted from field cases of vaginitis, cervicitis and/or metritis in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands during the period July 1995 - December 2000 and from the East Griqualand area in November/December 2000. The purulent vaginal discharges, red granular vaginitis and cervicitis, and pain on palpation described in these cases was very similar to that reported in outbreaks of H.somnus endometritis syndrome in Australia, Europe and North America. In all the herds involved in these outbreaks, natural breeding with bulls was employed. Although there was a good cure rate in clinically-affected animals treated with tetracyclines, culling rates for chronic infertility were unacceptably high. Employment of artificial insemination in these herds improved pregnancy rates in cows that had calved previously, but many cows that had formerly been infected failed to conceive.

  15. Cholesterol metabolism, transport, and hepatic regulation in dairy cows during transition and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kessler, E C; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Albrecht, C

    2014-09-01

    The transition from the nonlactating to the lactating state represents a critical period for dairy cow lipid metabolism because body reserves have to be mobilized to meet the increasing energy requirements for the initiation of milk production. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview on cholesterol homeostasis in transition dairy cows by assessing in parallel plasma, milk, and hepatic tissue for key factors of cholesterol metabolism, transport, and regulation. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken from 50 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in wk 3 antepartum (a.p.), wk 1 postpartum (p.p.), wk 4 p.p., and wk 14 p.p. Milk sampling was performed in wk 1, 4, and 14 p.p. Blood and milk lipid concentrations [triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, and lipoproteins], enzyme activities (phospholipid transfer protein and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) were analyzed using enzymatic assays. Hepatic gene expression patterns of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGC) synthase 1 (HMGCS1) and HMGC reductase (HMGCR), sterol regulatory element-binding factor (SREBF)-1 and -2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1, liver X receptor (LXR) α and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Plasma TG, cholesterol, and lipoprotein concentrations decreased from wk 3 a.p. to a minimum in wk 1 p.p., and then gradually increased until wk 14 p.p. Compared with wk 4 p.p., phospholipid transfer protein activity was increased in wk 1 p.p., whereas lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was lowest at this period. Total cholesterol concentration and mass, and cholesterol concentration in the milk fat fraction decreased from wk 1 p.p. to wk 4 p.p. Both total and milk fat cholesterol concentration were decreased in wk 4 p.p. compared with wk 1 and 14 p.p. The mRNA abundance of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (SREBF-2, HMGCS1, and

  16. Preparing, Submitting, and Tracking a Grant Application

    Cancer.gov

    Information compiled by NCI's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI information and policies related to writing and submitting new, resubmission, late, and renewal grant applications.

  17. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the Board... appealed to the Chairman, Merit Systems Protection Board, 1615 M Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  18. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the Board... appealed to the Chairman, Merit Systems Protection Board, 1615 M Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  19. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the Board... appealed to the Chairman, Merit Systems Protection Board, 1615 M Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  20. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the Board... appealed to the Chairman, Merit Systems Protection Board, 1615 M Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  1. RMP*eSubmit Users' Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RMP*eSubmit facilitates secure online Risk Management Plan updates/resubmissions, required at least every 5 years. Reporting requirements have not changed since 2004, but the 2012 version of North American Industry Classification System has been integrated

  2. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract.

  3. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  4. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  5. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  6. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    PubMed

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is <30% for BCS decreases over one unit). A serious energy deficit reduces (or suppresses) pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophins (ovarian dysfunction and/or smaller follicles): IGF-I and insulin plasma levels (slower follicle growth and higher embryonic mortality); and progesterone production from the corpus luteum (higher rate of embryonic abortions). The diet influences fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  7. Associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of freestall-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of high-producing dairy cows housed in freestall barns. Lying behavior of approximately 40 focal cows in one high-producing pen was monitored on each of 40 farms in the northeastern United States (NE) and 39 farms in California (CA). All cows within the pen were gait scored using a 1-to-5 scale to calculate the prevalence of clinical lameness (score ≥3) and severe lameness (score ≥4). Facility and management measures, including stall design, bedding, and flooring type within the pen, were collected. Herd-level factors associated with daily lying time, standard deviation (SD) of daily lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and lying bout duration at the univariate level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In the NE, daily lying time increased with the use of deep bedding (estimate = 0.80±0.31h/d) and as average days in milk (DIM) of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.04h/d for a 10-d increase in DIM). The SD of daily lying time decreased as stall stocking density increased (estimate = -0.08±0.03h/d for a 10% increase), and increased with the presence of rubber flooring in the pen (estimate = 0.16±0.08h/d) and percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (estimate = 0.04±0.01h/d for a 10% increase). Frequency of lying bouts decreased (estimate = -1.90±0.63 bouts/d) and average bout duration increased (estimate = 15.44±3.02 min) with the use of deep bedding. In CA, where all farms used deep bedding, daily lying time increased as average DIM of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.03h/d for a 10-d increase). The SD of daily lying time decreased when feed was delivered more than once per day (estimate = -0.24±0.08h/d). The percentage of lame cows was correlated with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (r=0.45), which in turn was associated with fewer (estimate = -0.25±0.06 bouts/d) and longer lying bouts (estimate

  8. Investigation of bovine venereal campyloacteriosis in beef cow herds in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McFadden, A M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; West, D M; Parkinson, T J

    2005-02-01

    assess bulls, or the quality of samples submitted to the laboratory. Campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis was not cultured from any of the 54 bulls sampled. Four other species of Campylobacter and related organisms were cultured, viz Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter fetus subsp fetus and Helicobacter cinaedi. The specificity of the IgA ELISA as a diagnostic test for C. fetus subsp venerealis was found to be unsatisfactory under New Zealand conditions. It is possible that an immunological response by cows to Campylobacter species other than C. fetus subsp venerealis caused cross-reactivity in the IgA ELISA. The results do not support the hypothesis that C. fetus subsp venerealis is widespread in New Zealand.

  9. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  10. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as ‘infinite’. PMID:17148336

  11. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'.

  12. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  13. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  14. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  15. Effect of rubber flooring on cow locomotion and gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed-f...

  16. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  17. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  18. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  19. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  20. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  1. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  2. 2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical cow house opposite from the one pictured. In the background are: Robinson-Aiken Slave Building and Kitchens (SC-276) on left, and Robinson-Aiken Service Building and Stable (SC-275) on right. - Robinson-Aiken Cow House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  3. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  4. Transition cow nutrition and feeding management for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J; Sniffen, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    In this article, an overview is presented of nutrient modeling to define energy and protein requirements of the late pregnant cow, and metabolic relationships between fetus and cow as they relate to nutrient utilization and risk for postparturient disease are discussed. Recommendations for formulating dry cow diets are provided, with emphasis on opportunities to minimize variation and risk for postparturient disease events.

  5. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  6. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  7. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  8. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  9. Cow effects and estimation of success of first and following inseminations in Dutch dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Inchaisri, C; Jorritsma, R; Vernooij, J C M; Vos, P L A M; van der Weijden, G C; Hogeveen, H

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101,297 insemination records in 51,525 lactations of different cows from 1368 herds obtained from the Dutch milk production recording database. Cows that had a first insemination (AI) between 40 and 150 days post-partum with one or more inseminations (≤6 inseminations) were selected. An insemination was defined successful when not followed by another insemination and when the cow calved between 267 and 295 days after insemination, or when the cow was culled between 135 and 295 days after the last insemination. Breed, parity, days in milk, lactation curve characteristics, milk production traits, moment of AI related to peak milk yield time (before or after peak milk yield), the last calf (female, male, twin or stillbirth) and season of insemination were selected as independent parameters for a model with successful rate of insemination as dependent parameter. A multivariable logistic regression model was used within cow and farm as a random effect. The probability of successful insemination was the highest in the first insemination and decreased in the following inseminations. However, the success rate of all inseminations increased in a later stage of lactation. The improvement in the successful inseminations in a later stage of lactation was better in multiparous cows than in first parity cows. Insemination in summer and before peak milk yield time reduced the success of insemination. The success rate was the lowest in 100% Holstein Friesian cows compared with other breeds and was the highest when the last calf was a female calf compared to a male calf, twin or stillbirth. In conclusion, the success of first and following inseminations depended on parity, breed, season of insemination, last calf status, daily milk yield at insemination date

  10. Specific antibodies to cow's milk proteins in infants: effect of early feeding and diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Savilahti, Emma Merike; Saarinen, Kristiina Mertta; Savilahti, Erkki

    2010-12-01

    To investigate whether specific IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 responses to cow's milk proteins differ between infants with cow's milk allergy and infants with cow's milk related symptoms (control subjects), and whether early feeding affects these responses as well as specific IgE. A cohort of 6,209 healthy, full-term infants in a double-blind randomized trial received, as supplementary feeding at maternity hospitals (mean duration 4 days), either cow's milk formula, extensively hydrolyzed whey formula or donor breast milk. Infants who developed cow's milk associated symptoms (n = 223) underwent an open oral cow's milk challenge (mean age 7 months), which confirmed cow's milk allergy in 111 and was negative in 112. We measured in sera cow's milk specific IgE levels with UniCAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden), and β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgA, IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy had lower β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels (p < 0.05) than infants with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy or control subjects. Within the group of infants with cow's milk allergy, exposure to cow's milk during the first few days after birth led to higher β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG4 levels (p < 0.005) compared to infants fed with either breast milk or extensively hydrolyzed formula. Subdued IgG class responses to cow's milk proteins characterized IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. In infants who developed cow's milk allergy early exposure to cow's milk resulted in a heightened specific IgG4 response.

  11. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    .7% vs. 21.3% vs. 15.2%, for ET-Control, ET-CIDR-4, and ET-CIDR-14, respectively), with no effect on pregnancy loss. Therefore, although CIDR insertion on Day 3 after FTAI did not affect CL function and increased circulating P4, it did not increase pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows submitted to FTAI. Moreover, P4 supplementation decreased pregnancy per ET in lactating recipient cows.

  12. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  13. Cow-level prevalence of paratuberculosis in culled dairy cows in Atlantic Canada and Maine.

    PubMed

    McKenna, S L B; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W; McClure, J; Vanleeuwen, J A; Hanna, P; Sockett, D C

    2004-11-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Mptb) in culled dairy cattle in Eastern Canada and Maine was determined to be 16.1% (95% confidence interval 13.8 to 18.3%) based on a systematic random sample of abattoir cattle. Mesenteric lymph nodes and ileum from 984 cows were examined by histologic and bacteriologic methods. Histological testing was far less sensitive than bacteriologic methods for detecting infected cattle. A seasonal pattern of positive cows was also detected, with the highest proportion of cows being Mptb-positive in June (42.5%). Overall, body condition score was not associated with prevalence of Mptb isolation.

  14. [Haemoplasma infection in a dairy cow].

    PubMed

    Baggenstos, R; Wenzinger, B; Meli, M L; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Knubben-Schweizer, G

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the clinical and laboratory examination as well as the treatment of a 7-year-old local dairy breed cow presented with reduced appetite, decreasing milk yield and striking yellowish discoloured skin and mucosa. The laboratory examination revealed a high degree regenerative anaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. The bovine haemotrophic mycoplasma species Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' were detected in the blood by PCR. Treatment with oxytetracycline rapidly improved the general condition, and milk production was increased. In a follow-up study, blood samples of all 23 animals from the same herd were examined. Fifteen cows were found to be infected with both haemoplasma species, three animals were only infected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' and one animal only with Mycoplasma wenyonii. Two out of three tested calves were positive for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos'. Except for the above described anaemic cow, all other animals were clinically healthy.

  15. Cow Urine Keratopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2017-04-01

    Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.

  16. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  17. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  18. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  19. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  20. Is downer cow syndrome related to chronic botulism?

    PubMed

    Rulff, R; Schrödl, W; Basiouni, S; Neuhaus, J; Krüger, M

    2015-01-01

    The present work was directed to investigate the relationship between Downer cow syndrome (DCS) and chronic botulism in dairy cattle. For this purpose, a total of 52 fresh calving downer cows and 206 apparently healthy cows at 14 dairy farms were investigated for Clostridium botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels, C. botulinum and botulinum neurotoxin in rumen fluids as well as in faeces. Results indicated that the downer cows had higher IgG titers for C. botulinum ABE and CD than the healthy cows. All tested rumen fluids were negative for BoNT and C. botulinum. BoNT/D, however, and C. botulinum type D spores were detected in faecal samples of healthy and downer cows in the selected farms. In conclusion, the presence of a significantly higher C. botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels in DCS cows than in the healthy animals suggests that chronic C. botulinum toxico-infection could be a predisposing factor for DCS.

  1. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H

    2005-11-01

    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  2. Effects of abomasal infusion of nicotinic acid on responses to glucose and β-agonist challenges in underfed lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Stumpf, L F; Soutullo, I D; Pescara, J B; Stocks, S E; Grummer, R R

    2016-03-01

    for energy and milk fat synthesis. Milk urea nitrogen was increased by NA on d 2 (12.8 vs. 19.1mg/dL) and d 3 (11.6 vs. 17.8 mg/dL), probably due to a greater reliance on mobilized amino acids. Somatic cell count was increased by NA on d 3 (187 vs. 848 × 1,000 cells/mL). Patterns of glucose and insulin concentration observed during 74 h of NA infusion reflect a state of insulin resistance, which contrasts with shorter-term responses in nonlactating cows. Data suggest that long-term supraphysiological infusion of NA affected intermediary metabolism beyond antilipolysis and did not inhibit acute lipolytic stimuli of ivBAC. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dietary phosphorus on performance of lactating dairy cows: milk production and cow health.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H; Kanitz, F D; Moreira, V R; Wiltbank, M C; Satter, L D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure cow response to feeding of two dietary concentrations of P, one of which was close to recent National Research Council requirements, and the other of which was well in excess of the requirement. Diets containing 0.37 or 0.57% P (dry basis) were fed to Holstein cows for the first 165 d of lactation, and occasionally longer until cows were confirmed pregnant approximately 60 d after insemination. At calving, cows were randomly assigned to experimental diets. The number of cows completing a minimum of 165 d of lactation was 123 for the 0.37 and 124 for the 0.57% P groups. Cows were housed in a stanchion barn and fed one of two transition diets, each formulated to contain one of the P treatments for the first 3 wk of lactation, and then cows were moved to a free-stall barn where the experimental diets were group fed. Milk production, milk fat, and milk protein averaged 35.1 kg/d, 3.92%, and 2.90% for the 0.37% P diet, and 34.9 kg/d, 3.98%, and 2.91% for the 0.57% P diet. None of these measures were different between treatments. Blood serum P concentrations on d 50 and 100 of lactation averaged 6.1 and 6.2 mg/dL for the 0.37% P diet, and 6.8 and 6.9 mg/dL for the 0.57% P diet. No treatment differences were detected in milk production, cow health, or body condition score.

  4. How to Submit a Risk Management Plan (RMP) to EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RMP*eSubmit software is the only way to submit RMPs. After you have prepared your plan using RMP*eSubmit, you may also re-submit, correct, or withdraw an RMP. Another electronic tool, RMP*Comp, performs the required off-site consequence analysis.

  5. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  6. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  7. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  8. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  9. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  10. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  11. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  12. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  13. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  14. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  15. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  16. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  17. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  18. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  19. Effects of alternate-day feeding of dried distiller's grain plus solubles to forage-fed beef cows in mid- to late gestation.

    PubMed

    Klein, S I; Steichen, P L; Islas, A; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Dahlen, C R

    2014-06-01

    Forty-six nonlactating beef cows were used to examine effects of dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DG) supplementation strategies to cows fed grass hay during mid- to late gestation on BW, ultrasound body composition characteristics, concentrations of serum NEFA and urea, feeding behavior, and calf birth weight. Cows were assigned to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) control, where hay was fed each day of the week (CON), 2) both hay and DG fed daily during the week (DG7), 3) hay fed daily but DG fed 3 d of the week (DG3), and 4) hay fed 4 d of the week alternating with DG fed on the remaining 3 d (DGA). Hay was offered ad libitum on days it was fed. The DG were fed at 0.40% of BW when offered daily and 0.93% of BW when offered 3 d per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday). Feed intake was monitored continuously over the 84-d feeding period. Hay intake and total DMI were reduced (P < 0.05) in DGA compared with DG7 and DG3. Gain and G:F were decreased (P < 0.05) for CON compared with other treatments. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed among treatments for change in BCS, intramuscular fat, rib fat, or rump fat from d 1 to 84. On a day when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG (Friday), DGA had reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of urea compared with DG3 and DG7. On a day when only DG7 received DG (Saturday), urea was greater (P < 0.01) for DG3 and DGA compared with DG7, and concentrations of NEFA were greater (P < 0.01) in CON and DGA compared with DG7. On the second consecutive day when only DG7 received DG (Sunday), concentrations of NEFA were less (P < 0.001) for DG7 compared with other treatments. On days when all cows received hay, DGA spent more time eating (P < 0.05) compared with DG7 and DG3. Cows fed DGA had greater (P < 0.05) hay intake per meal and time per meal compared with other treatments. On days when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG, cows in the DG3 and DGA treatments had greater (P < 0.05) number of DG meals, time spent

  20. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  1. Arsenic exposure to dairy cows in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Majumder, Shankar; Awal, Md Abdul; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2013-01-01

    Food-chain contamination by arsenic (As) is a newly uncovered disaster. Effects of As-contaminated drinking water and paddy straw on the excretion of As through milk, urine, and dung of dairy cows (n = 240) were studied in As-prone areas of Bangladesh. Mean (±SEM) total As (inorganic plus organic) concentration in drinking water, paddy straw [dry weight dw)], cow's urine (specific gravity adjusted to 1.035), dung (dw), and milk (wet weight) were 89.6 ± 6.5 μg/l, 1,114.4 ± 57.3 μg/kg, 123.6 ± 7.6 μg/l, 1,693.0 ± 65.1 μg/kg, and 26.2 ± 2.8 μg/l, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) greater As was in Boro straw (1,386.9 ± 71.8 μg/kg) than Aus (702.4 ± 67.1 μg/kg) and Aman (431.7 ± 28.8 μg/kg) straw and in straw irrigated with shallow (1,697.3 ± 81.9 μg/kg) than deep well water (583.6 ± 62.7 μg/kg) and surface water (511.8 ± 30.0 μg/kg). Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between As contents of cow's urine and drinking water (r = 0.92) as well as cow dung and straw (r = 0.82). Concentrations of As in cow urine, dung, and milk were increased with the relative increment of As in drinking water and/or straw. These results provide evidence that dairy cows excrete ingested As mainly through urine and dung; thus, As biotransformation through milk remains low. This low concentration of As in milk may be of concern when humans are exposed to multiple sources of As simultaneously. Moreover, As in cow dung could be an environmental issue in Bangladesh.

  2. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and submit a list of every HCT/P that your establishment manufactures within 5 days after...

  3. 15 CFR 325.14 - Submitting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting reports. 325.14 Section 325.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS EXPORT TRADE CERTIFICATES...

  4. How to Submit | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    be submitted by a current NIH or FDA fellow. The work does not need to have been done at the NIH/FDA. However, the submitter must be an author on the document and be in compliance with the intended journal's authorship guidelines or general good authorship practices. 

  5. Guidance on submitting quality system information.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria E

    2004-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's final guidance document on the type of quality system information that should be submitted in some types of premarket submissions was published in February 2003. The final guidance replaces previous draft guidance. This article discusses the final guidance document.

  6. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immune response of pregnant cows to bovine rotavirus immunization.

    PubMed

    Saif, L J; Smith, K L; Landmeier, B J; Bohl, E H; Theil, K W; Todhunter, D A

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen pregnant Holstein cows were freely assigned to 3 experimental groups (5 cows in each group). Cows in group I were inoculated IM and intramammarily (IMm) with Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) tissue culture-propagated modified-live Nebraska calf diarrhea bovine rotavirus with added adjuvant (OARDC vaccine-immunized cows). Group II cows were given IM injections of a commercial modified-live rotavirus-coronavirus vaccine (commercial vaccine-immunized cows), and the remaining 5 cows were noninoculated controls (group III). Rotavirus antibody in colostrum and milk was mainly associated with immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, and less so with IgG2, IgA, and IgM, as analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using monospecific anti-bovine IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA sera. In serum, the rotavirus antibody was distributed almost equally between IgG1 and IgG2. The same relationships appeared in both immunized and nonvaccinated cows. All OARDC vaccine-injected cows had virus-neutralization (VN) and ELISA IgG1 rotavirus antibody titers in serum and mammary secretions at significantly increased levels (at least 100-fold; P less than 0.05) compared with the titers in groups II (commercial vaccine-immunized cows) and III (controls). Serum, colostrum, and milk antibody titers from these latter 2 groups did not differ statistically. The ELISA IgG2, IgA, and IgM rotavirus antibody titers also were significantly greater in mammary secretions from OARDC vaccine-immunized cows than in groups II and III cows. There was a high correlation between ELISA IgG1 and VN rotavirus antibody titers for all samples tested (r = 0.97, P less than 0.001), but ELISA IgG1 antibody titers were consistently higher than VN titers. The ELISA IgG1 and VN antibody titers of milk samples collected from cows 30 days after parturition were higher from the OARDC vaccine-immunized cows (ELISA IgG1, geometric mean titer (GMT) = 3,511; VN GMT = 1,689) than were titers from the

  8. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P<0.01). Post-calving, ketotic cows had increased serum amyloid A (4.2 and 1.8 fold in studies A and B, respectively; P=0.03 and P=0.04), haptoglobin (>6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; P<0.01 and P=0.02) compared with their healthy counterparts. Antepartum circulating LPS in ketotic cows was increased (2.3 fold; P=0.01) compared to healthy cows in Study B. In summary, increased biomarkers of inflammation appear to be closely associated with ketosis in transition dairy cows.

  9. Supplementation of grazing beef cows during gestation as a strategy to improve skeletal muscle development of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Marquez, D C; Paulino, M F; Rennó, L N; Villadiego, F C; Ortega, R M; Moreno, D S; Martins, L S; de Almeida, D M; Gionbelli, M P; Manso, M R; Melo, L P; Moura, F H; Duarte, M S

    2017-06-02

    The appropriate supply of nutrients in pregnant cows has been associated with the optimal development of foetal tissues, performance of their progeny and their meat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate supplementation effects of grazing cows in different stages of gestation on skeletal muscle development and performance of the progeny. Thereby, 27 Nellore cows were divided into three groups (n=9 for each group) and their progeny as follows: UNS, unsupplemented during gestation; MID, supplemented from 30 to 180 days of gestation; LATE, supplemented from 181 to 281 days of gestation. The percentage composition of the supplement provided for the matrices was the following: ground corn (26.25%), wheat bran (26.25%) and soya bean meal (47.5%). The supplement was formulated to contain 30% CP. Supplemented matrices received 150 kg of supplement (1 and 1.5 kg/day for cows in the MID and LATE groups, respectively). After birth, a biopsy was performed to obtain samples of skeletal muscle tissue from calves to determine number and size of muscle fibres and for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression analysis. The percentage composition of the supplement provided for the progeny was the following: ground corn grain (30%), wheat bran (30%), soya bean meal (35%) and molasses (5%). The supplement was formulated to contain 25% CP and offered in an amount of 6 g/kg BW. Performance of the progeny was monitored throughout the suckling period. Means were submitted to ANOVA and regression, and UNS, MID and LATE periods of supplementation were compared. Differences were considered at P0.10). Similarly, no differences were observed between calves for nutrient intake (P>0.10). However, greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P=0.006) was observed in the calves of LATE group. The ribeye area (P=0.077) was greater in calves born from supplemented compared with UNS cows. The supplementation of pregnant cows did not affect the muscle fibre size of their progeny (P=0.208). On the other hand

  10. Temporarily decreasing progesterone after timed artificial insemination decreased expression of interferon-tau stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in blood leukocytes, serum pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations, and embryo size in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Consentini, C C; Weaver, S R; Barleta, R V; Hernandez, L L; Fricke, P M

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of temporarily decreasing progesterone (P4) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on embryonic growth in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 80) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol for first TAI and were assigned randomly to receive 12.5 mg of PGF2α 5 d after the last GnRH treatment (LowP4) or remain untreated (control). Blood samples were collected thrice weekly from 5 to 29 d after TAI for all cows and from 32 to 67 d for pregnant cows, and were analyzed for P4 and pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations. Expression of interferon-tau stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed in blood leukocyte mRNA 18 and 20 d after TAI. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed weekly using ultrasound from 32 to 67 d after TAI, and embryonic crown-rump length was measured 32, 39, and 46 d after TAI. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. The LowP4 cows had less P4 than control cows from 6 to 11 d after TAI; however, pregnancy outcomes 32 d after TAI and pregnancy loss from 32 to 67 d after TAI did not differ between treatments. Control cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI had greater expression of ISG15 20 d after TAI than LowP4 cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI, and pregnant control cows had greater pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations from 25 to 67 d after TAI than pregnant LowP4 cows. Embryo size did not differ between treatments 32 and 39 d after TAI, but control cows had larger embryos 46 d after TAI. In conclusion, temporarily decreasing P4 after TAI decreased embryonic growth during early pregnancy in lactating Holstein cows but did not affect pregnancies per artificial insemination or pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  12. Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, S; Thomsen, P T; Burow, E

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis was that dairy cows housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate group with herd mates would produce more milk and would be healthier than cows integrated in a group of all lactating cows immediately after calving. The experiment was conducted with 489 cows in 6 commercial loose-housing dairy herds where cows were randomly selected for treatment (separate housing) or control. Cows selected for treatment were housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate section, and controls were housed in the remaining section of the barn for lactating cows. Data were compared for milk yield, somatic cell count, medical treatments, reproductive performance, culling, mortality, and clinical observation of scores for body condition, leg and udder hygiene, lameness, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, and condition of the hair coat. The analysis of the effect of separate housing showed that primiparous cows produced more milk [approximately 230 kg of energy-corrected milk from 0 to 305 d in milk (DIM)], whereas multiparous and especially parity 3+ cows produced less milk (approximately 394 kg of energy-corrected milk from 0 to 305 DIM) during the lactation. Separate housing had no effect on mortality or reproductive efficiency. In primiparous cows, the number of medical treatments for ketosis was reduced by separate housing [hazard ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.83]. Clinical evaluations showed that separate housing decreased the scores for hock lesions in cows at 0 to 30 DIM (odds ratio 0.41, CI: 0.19-0.91), whereas the scoring of leg cleanliness showed more dirty legs in separated cows at 0 to 30 DIM (odds ratio 3.61, CI: 2.01-6.47) compared with cows integrated into the herd immediately. The body condition score in separated cows was reduced from 0 to 30 DIM (score reduced by 0.16, CI: 0.07-0.25) and from 31 to 60 DIM (score reduced by 0.13, CI: 0.04-0.23) compared with cows integrated immediately. We concluded that separate

  13. Eating and rumination activities two weeks prepartum to one month postpartum in 100 healthy cows and cows with peripartum diseases.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Buchli, H; Hässig, M

    2017-10-01

    Eating and rumination activities were investigated in 100 cows from 14 days prepartum to 30 days postpartum. All cows were clinically healthy at the start of the study. A pressure sensor incorporated into the noseband of a halter was used to record jaw movements, which allowed the quantification of the daily duration of eating and rumination, number of regurgitated cuds and number of chewing cycles per cud. The cows were retrospectively divided into 2 main groups healthy (n = 24) and ill cows (n = 76), and the latter were further divided into the following subgroups: cows with periparturient paresis (n = 12), retained placenta (n = 13), metritis (n = 17), primary ketosis (n = 19) and lameness (n = 6). Healthy cows had the shortest eating and rumination times on the day of calving; duration of eating decreased continually before and increased steadily after calving. In contrast, duration of rumination varied little except for a significant drop on the days of calving. Compared with healthy cows, eating times of ill cows were significantly shorter before and after calving and rumination time was reduced on days 2 to 4 postpartum. The duration of eating differed between healthy and ill cows before calving, and therefore the usefulness of eating and rumination variables for early recognition of periparturient diseases in cows requires further investigation.

  14. Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine

  15. [Radiotelemetric studies of uterine motility in cows with acute endometritis].

    PubMed

    Kostov, I

    1980-01-01

    Thirty two cows with postpartum complication were radiotelemetrically studied to register uterine motility. The results were compared with those of the control group of 42 cows with normal calving and no complications. Enhanced uterine reactivity to oxytocin and other agents was established in all cows with complications in the postpartum period. It is manifested in the spring also by intensified motor activity of the uterus. Motor activity of the uterus is hardly registered during to summer months in cows with normal peurperium and complications following day 2 of calving. No essential difference was found in estradiol-17 beta content in the blood plasma of both groups of cows. Body temperature rises in cows with postpartum complications.

  16. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  17. Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Sumiko; Goto, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Ueo, Hiroshi; Komori, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Hitomi; Uchinuno, Yukinori

    2007-09-01

    An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.

  18. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (<200 d) and SCC (<100,000 cells/mL). Farms were followed for 4, 5-week periods. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC <100,000 cells/mL but whose next SCC exceeded 200,000 cells/mL. Lying behavior was recorded 5d after each milk sampling using data loggers. For these 5d, individual milking times and feeding times were also recorded. On d1 of each recording period 2 trained observers scored focal cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate

  19. How a submitted manuscript is processed.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-09-01

    Processing of a submitted manuscript is a complex and time-consuming process. Authors should be aware of items in the editorial office checklist. The journal editors and peer reviewers are an essential part of the manuscript processing system. Copy editors serve as a link between authors and the printer/publisher, and aim to adapt the accepted manuscript to the journal house style and to improve readability of the article.

  20. Cow Castle Creek, Orangeburg County, South Carolina. Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    woodlands, and drainage features. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Cow Castle Creek Basin is located within the larger Edisto River Basin in Orangeburg...about 47 inches of precipitation per year. Water Quality. Cow Castle Creek lies within the Edisto River drainage basin . The Edisto Basin is located... Edisto River . Several small tributaries enter Cow Castle Creek, adding to its flow during storms and hurricanes. Siltation and extensive litter and log

  1. Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-06

    foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) in...1 For additional details and background see CRS Report RS22345, BSE (“Mad Cow Disease:): A Brief Overview, and CRS Report RL32199, Bovine Spongiform ...rejection of three shipments of U.S. beef because of the presence of bone fragments. CRS-4 8 See also CRS Report RL32932, Bovine Spongiform

  2. Late gestation supplementation of beef cows differing in body condition score: effects on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Stalker, L A; Mills, R R; Nyman, A; Falck, S J; Cooke, R F

    2013-11-01

    A 2-yr study utilizing 120 mature, crossbred (Angus × Herford) cows/year, evaluated the influence of cow BCS and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplementation during late gestation on cow performance and productivity of subsequent offspring. Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 2 BCS and with or without DDGS supplementation. Cows were nutritionally managed to enter the last trimester of gestation with a BCS of approximately 4 (LBCS) or 6 (HBCS) and were thereafter managed in a single herd (initial BCS were 4.4 and 5.7 for LBCS and HBCS treatments, respectively). During the last trimester, 12.7 kg/cow of low quality meadow hay (6.4% CP; DM basis) was provided each day. Supplemented cows were gathered and sorted into pens (12 pens; 5 cows/pen; 6 pens/BCS) every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and received the equivalent of 0.9 kg/cow daily of DDGS (31% CP; DM basis; supplement was consumed within 30 min on each supplementation day). Calf birth weight was greater for HBCS compared to LBCS (P=0.001) and for supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.04). Cow weight at weaning was greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P<0.001); however, no differences were noted because of supplementation (P=0.16). Weaning weight was greater for the offspring of supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.02). There were no differences in postweaning calf performance (growing lot and feedlot) or carcass characteristics (P>0.05) due to treatments. Nevertheless, HBCS cows had approximately 10% more live calves at birth and at weaning (P≤0.01) compared to LBCS cows. Consequently, the total weaned calf weight per cow was 26 kg greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P=0.004). Pregnancy rate was greater (P=0.05) for HBCS than LBCS cows (92% vs. 79%, respectively) but not affected by supplementation (P=0.94). This research demonstrates the potential consequences of not maintaining cows in adequate BCS at calving

  3. How to submit your revalidation application.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn; Llewellyn, Denise

    2016-08-03

    Rationale and key points This is the final in a series of eight articles providing information about the Nursing and Midwifery Council revalidation process. This article focuses on submitting a revalidation application to the NMC. » Nurses and midwives must demonstrate that they have: completed 450 hours of practice, or 900 hours if revalidating as both a nurse and midwife; undertaken 35 hours of continuing professional development, 20 hours of which must be participatory; recorded five examples of feedback on their practice; written five reflective accounts; had a reflective discussion with an NMC registrant; and sought confirmation that they have met these requirements. » Nurses and midwives who fail to submit their revalidation application by the stated date will put the renewal of their registration at risk. Reflective activity 'How to' revalidate articles can help to update your practice and provide information about the revalidation process, including how you can submit your revalidation application. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The professional accountability associated with declaring that you have met the revalidation requirements. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  4. Electrostatic Radionuclide Separation: A New Version of Rutherford's "Thorium Cow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiswirth, Marcus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes three experiments (also useful as demonstrations) using a "thorium cow," a device which concentrates the daughter products from thorium compounds by precipitation on a charged electrode. (JN)

  5. Involvement of the plasminogen activation system in cow endometritis.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, S; Taitzoglou, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Boscos, C M; Kaldrimidou, E; Saratsis, Ph

    2004-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the: (a) presence and activity of components of the "plasminogen activators/plasmin" system in dairy cows with or without endometritis; (b) variations in enzyme activity according to the degree of endometritis; and (c) associations between these enzymes and changes in endometrial histology after intrauterine antibiotic treatment. Endometrial biopsies were collected from anestrus (no palpable ovarian structures and milk progesterone <1 ng/ml) Holstein cows, 30-40 days postpartum. On the basis of a vaginoscopic examination, rectal palpation of the cervix and uterus, and endometrial histology, there were 92 cows with endometritis and 20 cows without endometritis. After biopsy collection, each cow was given an intrauterine infusion of 1.5x10(6) IU of procaine penicillin G. In cows with endometritis, genital tract examinations and biopsies were repeated 2 weeks later. Both plasminogen activators (PAs), tissue type (t-PA) and urokinase (u-PA), were immunologically identified in all uterine biopsies. Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) increased, whereas plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) and plasmin inhibition (PI) decreased in proportion to the degree of inflammation. Two weeks after intrauterine treatment, PAA had decreased significantly in all cows that had reduced severity of endometrial inflammation and had increased significantly in all cows with increased severity of inflammation. The change in the degree of inflammation depended upon plasminogen activator activity; cows with higher PAA were more likely to improve. In conclusion, there was evidence for a role of the plasminogen activation proteolytic system in bovine endometritis.

  6. Abnormal regurgitation in three cows caused by intrathoracic perioesophageal lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. Case presentation The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal space, and in the third, only saliva could be collected. In one cow, oesophagoscopy revealed a discoloured 10-cm mucosal area with fibrin deposits. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The cows were euthanased and examined postmortem. Cow 1 had a large perioesophageal abscess containing feed material at the level of the thoracic inlet, believed to be the result of a healed oesophageal injury. Cow 2 had an abscess between the oesophagus and trachea 25 cm caudal to the epiglottis with the same presumed aetiology as in cow 1. Cow 3 had a mediastinal carcinoma that enclosed and constricted the oesophagus. Conclusions Abnormal regurgitation in cattle is usually the result of an oesophageal disorder. Causes of oesophageal disorders vary widely and their identification can be difficult. PMID:24629042

  7. Electrostatic Radionuclide Separation: A New Version of Rutherford's "Thorium Cow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiswirth, Marcus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes three experiments (also useful as demonstrations) using a "thorium cow," a device which concentrates the daughter products from thorium compounds by precipitation on a charged electrode. (JN)

  8. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    PubMed

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  9. Tilmicosin antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetics in cows.

    PubMed

    Ziv, G; Shem-Tov, M; Glickman, A; Winkler, M; Saran, A

    1995-10-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tilmicosin for 90% of 112 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the bovine udder was 0.78 microgram/mL and 149 of 164 (90.8%) other gram-positive udder pathogens were inhibited by tilmicosin concentrations < 3.12 micrograms/mL. The MIC of the drug for 19 of 22 S. aureus isolates was < 0.78 microgram/mL when the test was conducted using Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar or MH agar containing 7.5% skimmed milk. Acute cardiac toxicity followed intravenous (i.v.) injection of the drug at 10 mg/kg to 3 cows, but animals appeared clinically normal within 30 min after treatment. The pharmacokinetics of i.v.-administered tilmicosin is typical for the macrolide class of antibiotics, i.e. low serum drug concentrations and a large volume of distribution (> 2.0 L/kg). The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) values for 3 cows were 46.4, 56.0 and 72.8 min. The drug was administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to 5 cows at 10 mg/kg; the elimination half-life (t1/2el) was 4.18 +/- 0.55 h and the mean s.c. bioavailability was 22%. Rapid and extensive penetration of tilmicosin from blood into milk, and slow elimination from the milk were among the characteristic kinetic features of the drug after i.v. and s.c. administration. Tilmicosin was injected s.c. at 10 mg/kg once to 9 cows after the last milking of lactation; dry udder secretion samples were collected daily for 11 consecutive days and assayed microbiologically. Concentrations of drug > 0.78 microgram/mL were found in the secretion for 8-9 days after dosing. Systemic side-effects were not observed after s.c. drug administration.

  10. Weather and soil type affect incidence of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, N; Phelan, P; O'Kiely, P; Waal, T de

    2014-10-18

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can result in marked economic losses on Irish dairy farms. This study investigated the exposure to F hepatica in 237 dairy cow herds, using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) samples collected in the autumn of 2012. A total of 364 BTM samples were collected from 237 different herds, with 127 farmers submitting BTM samples in two consecutive months. Analysis of the BTM samples indicated that 67 per cent (n= 159) of the dairy herds had been exposed to F hepatica. Rainfall, temperature and soil types were significantly different between the exposed and non-exposed herds (P<0.05), highlighting the role of these variables to the exposure to F hepatica. Among the 127 herds that provided two monthly milk samples, 83 herds were exposed to F hepatica and 82 increased their F hepatica antibody levels at the later sampling time (P<0.01).The findings of this study confirm the high prevalence of F hepatica antibodies in Irish dairy herds and show the rise in antibody levels during autumn. This study is the first step towards assessing the spatiotemporal pattern of fasciolosis in dairy herds in Ireland. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on the concentrations of ammonia and insulin in peripheral blood of cows receiving an intraruminal infusion of urea.

    PubMed

    Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    1995-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that propionate can reduce hepatic capacity to detoxify ammonia, effects of the inclusion of propionate in intraruminal infusions of urea on the concentrations of ammonia, other metabolites and insulin in peripheral blood were investigated in two experiments with non-lactating dairy cows. Both experiments were of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four animals, four treatments and four experimental periods of 7 d; feed was given in two equal meals each day, all intraruminal infusions were given for 1 h at the time of the morning feed, and propionic acid was partly neutralized with NaOH. In Expt 1, the treatments were a basal diet of pelleted lucerne and chopped hay alone or with the following infusions (g/d): urea 80, propionic acid 350, urea 80 plus propionic acid 350. The inclusion of propionate in the urea infusion markedly increased (P < 0.001) the concentration of ammonia in plasma compared with infusion of urea alone. Moreover, the inclusion of urea with the propionate infusion abolished (P < 0.01) the increase in blood insulin level seen with the infusion of propionate alone. In Expt 2, less severe treatments were imposed, the aim being to reproduce metabolic loads of propionate and ammonia that might be expected from a diet of high-protein grass silage rich in lactic acid. The treatments were a basal diet of grass silage alone or with the following infusions (g/d): NaCl 145, NaCl 145 plus urea 50, propionic acid 200, urea 50 plus propionic acid 200. Effects were less pronounced than in Expt 1 but, in the period immediately after infusion, similar effects were seen. It is concluded that propionate-ammonia interactions may have potentially important effects on milk production especially for diets with high proportions of grass silage containing high levels of protein and lactic acid.

  12. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  13. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operator of an onshore pipeline facility shall prepare and submit a response plan to PHMSA as provided in... substantial harm. Operators of substantial harm pipeline facilities must prepare and submit plans to PHMSA...

  14. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operator of an onshore pipeline facility shall prepare and submit a response plan to PHMSA as provided in... substantial harm. Operators of substantial harm pipeline facilities must prepare and submit plans to PHMSA...

  15. A Checklist for Submitting Your Risk Management Plan (RMP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Important information about 2014 submissions and a checklist to consider in preparing and resubmitting a 5-year update, as required by 40 CFR part 68. Use the RMP*eSubmit software application, which replaced RMP*Submit.

  16. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award, the...

  17. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award, the...

  18. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... one of the following options: (1) Customers may submit IRPs individually. (2) MBAs may submit IRPs for... an MBA must specify the responsibilities and participation levels of individual members and the MBA. Any member of an MBA may submit an individual IRP to Western instead of being included in an MBA IRP...

  19. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  20. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  1. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  2. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.13 When must IRPs be submitted? (a) Submitting the initial IRP. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  3. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  4. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  5. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  6. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  7. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  8. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  9. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  10. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  11. 33 CFR 160.212 - When to submit an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When to submit an NOA. 160.212... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.212 When to submit an NOA. (a) Submission of NOA. (1) Except... and operating solely between ports or places in the continental United States, must submit an...

  12. 33 CFR 160.212 - When to submit an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When to submit an NOA. 160.212... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.212 When to submit an NOA. (a) Submission of NOA. (1) Except... and operating solely between ports or places in the continental United States, must submit an...

  13. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  14. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  15. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  16. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  17. Characteristics of patients suffering from cow milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Li; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Chao, Peng-Li; Tong, Man-Li; Liu, Gui-Li; Lin, Li-Rong; Fan-Liu; Zhang, Zhong-Ying; Yang, Tian-Ci

    2012-09-01

    The most frequent symptoms among the manifestations of cow milk allergy (CMA) are gastrointestinal. CMA pathogenesis involves immunological mechanisms with participation of immunocompetent cells, production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). We aim to determine whether cow milk-specific IgE antibodies coexist with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies in CMA patients with diarrhea symptom, and if there is any relationship between both antibody types. 65 CMA patients (average age of 17 years, ranging from 2 to 74 years), all of who had diarrhea symptom of CMA, were enrolled in this study. The total cow IgE and IgG subclass in serum were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and rate immune scatter turbidimetry, respectively. And also the cow milk-specific IgE was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of eosinophils in serum was calculated by Sysmex XE-2100 Hematology Analyzer. Our data showed that both cow milk-specific IgG and IgE levels were significantly elevated in CMA patients compared to those of age-matched control subjects. Out of the 65 CMA patients, 40 showed elevated cow milk-specific IgE antibody level, among which, 28 cases presented highly sensitive reaction to cow milk-specific IgG, along with each six of moderate and mild sensitive reaction to cow milk-specific IgG; while 20 showed elevated total IgG levels. The IgG3 positive rate was 16.9%, which was the highest. A moderate correlation between cow milk-specific IgE and cow milk-specific IgG was found in the CMA patients (r=0.415, P=0.001). The results indicated that cow milk-specific IgE antibodies could coexist with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies in patients suffering from CMA. The aberrant changes in the concentration of cow milk-specific IgE antibodies were associated with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies.

  18. How to submit a nail specimen.

    PubMed

    Reinig, Erica; Rich, Phoebe; Thompson, Curtis T

    2015-04-01

    The scarcity of specific submission protocols for nail unit biopsies presents many challenges for appropriate specimen processing. Many nail biopsies are received fragmented or without orientation, often resulting in less-than-ideal tissue embedding and poor histologic sections, which are difficult to interpret. Methods are described for proper nail matrix/bed biopsy and plate submission that incorporate aspects of previous submission protocols and include inking the biopsy specimen along with submitting the tissue on a drawing of the nail. Also described is a technique for maintaining adherence of nail plate to glass slides, a chronic challenge in the laboratory.

  19. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submit updates? 1271.21 Section 1271.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and... update your establishment registration annually in December, except as required by § 1271.26. You...

  20. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  1. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  2. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  3. Bovine leukemia virus and cow longevity in Michigan dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P C; Norby, B; Byrem, T M; Parmelee, A; Ledergerber, J T; Erskine, R J

    2013-03-01

    To determine the association between infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and cow longevity, a stratified random sample of 3,849 Holsteins in 112 Michigan dairy herds was followed for an average of 597 d following testing for BLV antibodies with an ELISA milk test. The hazard ratio of 1.23 indicates that BLV-positive cows were 23% more likely than their BLV-negative herd mates to die or be culled during the monitoring period. This result is adjusted for lactation number, which is also positively associated with an increased risk of leaving the herd. Because herd was included in models, the effect of BLV ELISA on cow longevity was a within-herd comparison in which BLV-infected cattle were compared with their uninfected herd mates. The analysis of 4 ELISA optical density (OD) groups demonstrated a dose response such that cows with higher OD values had decreased survival compared with cows with lower OD values. Cows with OD values above 0.5 were at 40% greater risk of dying or being culled than were their uninfected herd mates. These results support the contention that the association of BLV with cow longevity, when added to other economic impacts, may warrant the control of BLV in our US dairy cow population. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  5. Milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2015-03-07

    Leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. Systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. Encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. Biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2014 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  6. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  7. Endocrine patterns of the post-partum cow.

    PubMed

    Lamming, G E; Wathes, D C; Peters, A R

    1981-01-01

    Milked dairy cows generally have a shorter post-partum interval to ovarian cyclicity than suckling dairy or beef cows. In milked and suckling cows, there is a strong seasonal influence with spring-calving cows remaining anoestrous longer. Increasing the suckling intensity further delays the onset of ovarian cyclicity, probably by increasing the frequency or strength of its inhibitory influence on hypothalamic activity. Plasma FSH levels rise in most cows 5-10 days after calving and thereafter the random changes observed have little relationship to the onset of cycles. Recovery of FSH release therefore occurs earlier post partum than recovery of LH release. Hyperprolactinaemia is not a cause of reproductive failure in milked or suckling cows because there is no correlation between plasma prolactin levels and the onset of ovarian cycles. Plasma LH concentrations undergo significant changes directly related to the initiation of ovarian cycles, with low plasma levels immediately post partum, followed by an increase in basal secretion and the development of clear LH episodes. This pulsatile pattern appears earlier in dairy than in beef cows and is further delayed by suckling compared to milking. Before the first ovulation there is an increased frequency and peak height of LH episodes leading to a rise in plasma LH levels and eventually to a preovulatory-type LH surge which results in the first ovulation. These changes in the pattern of LH release appear definitive in the initiation of ovarian activity in post-partum cows.

  8. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  9. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  10. Ovum pick up and in vitro embryo production in cows superstimulated with an individually adapted superstimulation protocol.

    PubMed

    De Roover, R; Genicot, G; Leonard, S; Bols, P; Dessy, F

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this experiment was to apply an ovarian superstimulation protocol prior to ovum pick up (OPU), tailored to the individual donor response, to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages in terms of follicle numbers and diameters, the numbers of retrieved oocytes and day 7 cultured blastocysts. Ten adult non-lactating dairy cows were superstimulated with pFSH and subjected to ovum pick up-in vitro fertilisation (OPU-IVF) 6 times at 2-week intervals. On day 0 of each 2-week period, all follicles >8mm were ablated and an ear implant (Crestar, Intervet, Belgium) was inserted. On day 2, 48 h after follicle ablation the animals were administered six equal doses of pFSH, divided into morning and evening doses for 3 days. On day 7, 48 h following the last pFSH injection, follicle diameters were measured by ultrasound and all follicles were subjected to OPU. All cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), regardless of their quality, were subjected to in vitro maturation-in vitro fertilisation-in vitro culture (IVM-IVF-IVC). The total dose of pFSH prior to the first OPU session was 300 microg per animal. During the following OPU sessions, the total pFSH dose was either kept unchanged, increased or reduced (+/-50 microg), according to the percentage of follicles of more than 11 mm in diameter, present in the previous session of that particular donor. The mean number of punctured follicles per session was 11.9 +/- 7.7 (mean +/- S.D.), with 16% of follicles exceeding 11 mm. These follicles yielded a mean of 5.6 +/- 4.1 cumulus oocyte complexes (COC), 32% of which had >/=3 layers of cumulus cells (quality 1 and 2). The recovery rate was 47%. Finally, all COC were subjected to IVM-IVF-IVC, which resulted in a mean of 2.0 +/- 2.3 blastocysts on day 7 postinsemination. The subtle changes in pFSH dose influenced the sizes but not the numbers of follicles, the latter parameter was influenced by the individual donor and the OPU session.

  11. Identification of metabolites and thermal transformation products of quinolones in raw cow's milk by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Junza, Alexandra; Barbosa, Sergio; Codony, M Rosa; Jubert, Anna; Barbosa, José; Barrón, Dolores

    2014-02-26

    The presence of residues of antibiotics, metabolites, and thermal transformation products (TPs), produced during thermal treatment to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in milk, could represent a risk for people. Cow's milk samples spiked with enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF), and sarafloxacin (SAR) and milk samples from cows medicated with ENR were submitted to several thermal treatments. The milk samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to find and identify TPs and metabolites. In this work, 27 TPs of 4 quinolones and 24 metabolites of ENR were found. Some of these compounds had been reported previously, but others were characterized for the first time, including lactose-conjugated CIP, the formamidation reaction for CIP and SAR, and hydroxylation or ketone formation to produce three different isomers for all quinolones studied.

  12. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows. Copyright

  13. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  14. Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiliang; Chen, Liang; Huang, Dan; Peng, Zhicheng; Zhao, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuming; Zhu, Yiwei; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-09-21

    Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities and the haptoglobin (HP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30) concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively. Liver histology, TUNEL and Oil red O staining were performed in liver tissue samples. TG contents were measured using an enzymatic kit; Caspase 3 assays were carried out using the Caspase 3 activity assay kit; oxidation and antioxidant markers were measured using biochemical kits; apoptosis pathway were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Ketotic cows displayed hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, but the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were markedly decreased in ketotic cows compared with control cows, indicating that ketotic cows displayed severe oxidative stress. Significantly higher serum levels of the hepatic damage markers AST, ALT, GGT and GLDH were observed in ketotic cows than in control cows. The blood concentration of the apoptotic marker CK18 M30 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of ketotic cows were 1.19- and 2.61-fold, respectively, higher than the values observed in control cows. Besides, Caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the liver of ketosis cows. Importantly, the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) were significantly increased but the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) was markedly decreased, which

  15. Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.

    PubMed

    Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (<51d), and for cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We

  16. Winter-annual pasture as a supplement for beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gunter, S A; Cassida, K A; Beck, P A; Phillips, J M

    2002-05-01

    In each of two experiments, 120 pregnant beef cows were stratified by body condition score, BW, breed, and age, randomly divided into six groups of 20, and assigned to one of six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures (two replicates/ treatment) in early January to evaluate the use of winter-annual pasture as a supplement. All cows in Exp. 1 and 2 had ad libitum access to bermudagrass/dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) hay plus three treatments: 1) a concentrate-based supplement fed 3 d/wk, 2) limit grazing on winter-annual pasture 2 d/wk (7 hr/ d; 0.04 ha x cow(-1) x grazing d(-1)), or 3) limit grazing on winter-annual pasture 3 d/wk (7 hr/d; 0.04 ha x cow(-1) x grazing d(-1)) sod-seeded into a portion of the pasture until mid-May. The seeded portion of pastures in Exp. 1 was planted with a mixture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), but annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was added to the seed mixture in Exp. 2. In mid-May, cows were blocked by treatment and the previous sorting factors, randomly assigned to six new groups of 20, and placed on the six perennial pastures until calves were weaned. Groups of cows were exposed to a bull for 60 d beginning in mid-May. In Exp. 1 and 2, limit-grazing winter-annual pasture compared to the concentrate-based supplement or limit grazing 2 vs 3 d/wk did not affect (P > 0.15) cow BW. In Exp. 1, cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture had a lower (P = 0.05) body condition score than cows fed the concentrate-based supplement in the early spring. However, in Exp. 2, cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture had higher (P < or = 0.07) body condition score than cows fed the concentrate-based supplement. The conception rate of cows in Exp. 1 and 2 did not differ (P > 0.22) between cows fed concentrate-based supplements and cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture. In Exp. 2, cows limit grazed 2 d/wk tended to have a greater (P = 0.10) conception rate than cows limit

  17. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    PubMed

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  18. Lead absorption in cows: biological indicators of ambient lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Karacic, V.; Prpic-Majic, D.; Skender, L.

    1984-03-01

    In order to determine actual lead exposure from residual amounts of lead in the environmental soil following the introduction of effective engineering emission controls in a lead smeltery, the absorption of lead in cows grazing in the vicinity was investigated. Four groups of cows were examined: two groups of cows exposed to different ambient lead concentration, compared with two normal groups of cows. In each cow aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (Pb-B) were determined, two years prior to and four years after the technical sanitation of the lead emission source. The results demonstrated normalization of ALAD, EP and Pb-B after the technical sanitation. In spite of normalization, biological indicators ALAD and Pb-B determined four years after the technical sanitation showed increased lead absorption in comparison with the results of the control group. This indirectly indicates lead contamination of the environment from residual amounts of lead in the soil.

  19. Association of dry cow therapy with the antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal coliform bacteria in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Glendening, Candace; Wittum, Thomas E; Funk, Julie A; Tragesser, Lesley A; Morley, Paul S

    2010-08-01

    The prophylactic use of intramammary antimicrobial drugs at the end of lactation in dairy cows, known as dry cow therapy (DCT), is widely practiced in US dairy herds. This extremely common use of high-dose, slow-release antimicrobials may influence the ecology of bacterial flora on dairy farms. We investigated the association between the antimicrobial used for intramammary DCT and the relative number of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to three antimicrobial drugs in dairy cattle. Most probable number (MPN) data were estimated from 463 individual fecal samples collected from lactating cows in 15 dairy herds in Ohio, USA. These data were used to calculate the relative number of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalothin, streptomycin, and tetracycline for individual cow samples. The farms included in this project were classified based on DCT, with 8 farms using a cephalosporin-based product and the remaining 7 using a penicillin/streptomycin therapy. Results of a linear mixed model indicate that herds using a cephalosporin DCT had higher (P<0.01) relative numbers of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalothin and streptomycin compared to those using a penicillin/streptomycin intramammary therapy. Relative numbers of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to tetracycline was not associated with DCT. These results suggest that high-dose slow-release antimicrobials applied locally in the udder to populations of dairy cows might influence the antimicrobial susceptibility of the enteric flora. However, the potential animal and public health implications of this result are not clear.

  20. Intrauterine ozone treatment of retained fetal membrane in Simmental cows.

    PubMed

    Djuricic, D; Vince, S; Ablondi, M; Dobranic, T; Samardzija, M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of research was to determine influence of intrauterine application of two different ozone preparations on reproductive performance in Simmental cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM). The study was performed on 143 Simmental cows aged 2-8 years and divided in three groups. Group A (n=46) consisted of cows treated with foam spray ozone applied into the body of the uterus for 5s using a sterile catheter. Group B (n=50) consisted of cows treated using six ozone pearls intrauterinely at once, as deeply and hygienically possible. Cows were observed and treated during early puerperium, 24-36h after parturition. The third group (n=47) consisted of cows without RFM (control group). To assess the reproductive performance of cows, the interval from calving to first insemination (days not pregnant to first service, DOFS), interval from calving to pregnancy (days not pregnant to pregnancy, DOP), relative pregnancy rate (%), first service conception rate (FSCR, %) and all service conception rate (ASCR, %) were measured. The estimate of hazard ratio for the Groups A and B relative to control group with DOFS were 0.423 (P=0.0006) and 0.434 (P=0.0005), and with DOP were 0.701 (P=0.003) and 0.411 (P=0.0003), respectively, implying that cows in the control group were not pregnant longer until first insemination and pregnancy. Variables that had an influence on DOFS were postpartum fever (PPF) (HR=0.458; P=0.003) and milk yield (HR=0.999; P<0.0001) and an influence on DOP were PPF (HR=0.314; P=0.001) and milk yield (HR=0.999; P<0.0001). Cows with RFM treated with intrauterine Riger spray or Ripromed ovuli O(3) have similar or enhanced reproductive performance results compared to the control group of cows demonstrating the effectiveness of therapy with intrauterine ozone products.

  1. Eating and rumination behaviour in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Tschoner, T; Hässig, M; Nuss, K

    2017-02-01

    Eating and rumination behaviour in 22 cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis was recorded after the start of treatment. Based on the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic examinations, the cows were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 12 cows without an intramural or perforating foreign body and group B had 10 cows with an intramural or perforating foreign body. Cows of group A received amoxicillin, flunixin meglumine and a NaCl-glucose infusion, and cows of group B received the same treatment accompanied by foreign body removal via ruminotomy. All cows were fitted with a horse halter equipped with a pressure sensor integrated into the noseband, and eating and rumination activities were recorded continuously for 7 days. Additional 24-hour- recording periods occurred on days 14 and 30. Results obtained previously from 300 healthy cows were used for comparison. Median daily eating time in group A was 168 minutes (reference interval 211 to 319 min) on day 1 and increased to within the reference interval by day 3. Eating time on day 14 was 290 minutes and significantly longer than on day 1. Eating time was 294 minutes on day 30. Eating time in group B was comparable, and the patterns of normalisation for the number of chewing cycles related to eating, rumination time, the number of regurgitated cuds per day and the number of chewing cycles per cud were similar to that of group A: all variables were significantly reduced on day 1 and normalised within 3 to 5 days. The findings showed that eating and rumination are reduced in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and that successful treatment results in rapid normalisation. Monitoring eating and rumination behaviour using a pressure sensor integrated into a halter allows objective clinical assessment of cows recovering from traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

  2. Measures of daily distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using global positioning systems on both cows and calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...

  3. Analysis of feeding and drinking patterns of dairy cows in two cow traffic situations in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Melin, M; Wiktorsson, H; Norell, L

    2005-01-01

    With increasing possibilities for obtaining online information for individual cows, systems for individual management can be developed. Feeding and drinking patterns from automatically obtained records may be valuable input information in these systems. With the aim of evaluating appropriate mixed-distribution models for feeding and drinking events, records of 30 fresh cows from visits at feeding stations (n = 83,249) and water bowls (n = 67,525) were analyzed. Cows were either allowed a high-milking (HF) or a low-milking (LF) frequency by being subjected to controlled cow traffic with minimum milking intervals of 4 and 8 h, respectively. Milking frequency had significant effects on feeding patterns. The major part (84 to 98%) of the random variation in feeding patterns of the cows was due to individual differences between cows. It can be concluded that cows develop consistent feeding and drinking patterns over time that are characteristic for each individual cow. Based on this consistency, patterns of feeding and drinking activities have valuable potential for purposes of monitoring and decision making in individual control management systems. Use of a Weibull distribution to describe the population of intervals between meals increased the statistical fit, predicted biologically relevant starting probabilities, and estimated meal criteria that were closer to what has been published by others.

  4. Cows, ground surface potentials and earth resistivity.

    PubMed

    Polk, C

    2001-01-01

    The "stray voltage" problem on dairy farms is discussed briefly. By reference to published literature it is shown that a "step voltage" (SV), i.e., a potential difference between front and hind hooves of a dairy cow, much less than the often quoted threshold value of 0.5 V, when applied for long periods of time, could possibly affect cow health and milk production. Values as low as approximately 10 mV could conceivably be significant. A measurement program carried out on 19 representative Minnesota dairy farms during the summer of 1997 is described. Nine farms had above average (HP) and 10 below average (LP) milk production. Results show that SV was 4.2 times higher on the LP than HP. However, only three farms had SV greater than 9 mV, and low milk production on these farms could possibly be due to absence of recommended vaccinations rather than high SV. Soil resistivity rho measured in the farm fields was 3.4 times larger on the LP than on HP. The possible origin of SV in relation to electric distribution systems within and to farms is discussed. Relations between SV and rho are analyzed. Conditions are specified under which SV in the barn must be related to rho measured in the field, rather than the rho of the concrete floor of the barn. It is suggested that laboratory research is necessary to establish the significance for cow health and milk production of long term exposure to low SV levels. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  6. Environmental and cow-related factors affect cow locomotion and can cause misclassification in lameness detection systems.

    PubMed

    Van Nuffel, A; Van De Gucht, T; Saeys, W; Sonck, B; Opsomer, G; Vangeyte, J; Mertens, K C; De Ketelaere, B; Van Weyenberg, S

    2016-09-01

    To tackle the high prevalence of lameness, techniques to monitor cow locomotion are being developed in order to detect changes in cows' locomotion due to lameness. Obviously, in such lameness detection systems, alerts should only respond to locomotion changes that are related to lameness. However, other environmental or cow factors can contribute to locomotion changes not related to lameness and hence, might cause false alerts. In this study the effects of wet surfaces, dark environment, age, production level, lactation and gestation stage on cow locomotion were investigated. Data was collected at Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research research farm (Melle, Belgium) during a 5-month period. The gait variables of 30 non-lame and healthy Holstein cows were automatically measured every day. In dark environments and on wet walking surfaces cows took shorter, more asymmetrical strides with less step overlap. In general, older cows had a more asymmetrical gait and they walked slower with more abduction. Lactation stage or gestation stage also showed significant association with asymmetrical and shorter gait and less step overlap probably due to the heavy calf in the uterus. Next, two lameness detection algorithms were developed to investigate the added value of environmental and cow data into detection models. One algorithm solely used locomotion variables and a second algorithm used the same locomotion variables and additional environmental and cow data. In the latter algorithm only age and lactation stage together with the locomotion variables were withheld during model building. When comparing the sensitivity for the detection of non-lame cows, sensitivity increased by 10% when the cow data was added in the algorithm (sensitivity was 70% and 80% for the first and second algorithm, respectively). Hence, the number of false alerts for lame cows that were actually non-lame, decreased. This pilot study shows that using knowledge on influencing factors on cow

  7. Risk factors for dirty dairy cows in Norwegian freestall systems.

    PubMed

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2010-11-01

    Cow cleanliness is important for ensuring hygienic milk production and the well-being of dairy cows. The aim of this cross-sectional field study was to describe cow cleanliness in freestall-housed dairy herds and to examine risk factors related to thigh cleanliness. Cow cleanliness (n=2,335), management-related variables (e.g., ventilation and use of sawdust-bedded stalls), and housing-related variables (e.g., freestall design and number of cows per stall) were recorded in 232 Norwegian freestall-housed dairy herds. Cleanliness was scored on a 4-point scale ranging from clean (1) to very dirty (4). The cows were relatively clean on the udder and belly, dirtier on thigh and the rear part of the body, and dirtiest on the legs, with cleanliness scores (mean ± SD) of 1.64±0.62, 1.62±0.65, 2.02±0.75, 1.77±0.58, and 2.30±0.59, respectively. With dirty thighs as the response variable, several variables were tested in a logistic regression mixed model and with repeated measurements within herd and cow. A high number of cows per freestall [odds ratio (OR)=3.45], no use of sawdust as bedding (OR=3.24) versus use of sawdust, and a low-positioned (<0.85 m above stall floor) upper head rail "enclosing" the front of the stall (OR=1.42 to 2.13) versus a position >0.85 m were all risk factors for dirty thighs on the cows. Furthermore, liquid manure (score 2) versus more consistent manure (score 1; OR=1.66) and less tame cows (score 2) versus tame cows (score 1) were associated with an increased risk of dirty thighs (OR=1.24). The cleanest cows were associated with indoor temperatures in the range from 10 to 15°C. For each 10-percentage-unit increase in relative air humidity, the risk of dirty thighs increased (OR=1.32). Freestalls with a construction hindering normal lying, rising, and standing movements should be avoided. Furthermore, focus is needed on indoor climate and manure consistency to obtain cows with clean thighs. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science

  8. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Webster defines history as "a chronological record of significant events." In wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step in establishing a diagnosis. You can greatly assist the diagnostic process by providing a thorough history with specimens yo submit. This information is also of value in understanding the natural history of disease outbreaks, and is difficult if not impossible to obtain after the event has occurred. Detailed field observations during the course of a die-off and investigation of significant events preceding it also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. Remember, the most helpful information is that which obtained at the time of the event by a sensitive and aware observer.

  9. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels.

  10. Chemotherapeutic potential of cow urine: A review.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Sharma, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for the treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of a cow with many benefits and without toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activity of cow's urine (CU) comparable with standard drugs such as ofloxacin, cefpodoxime, and gentamycin, against a vast number of pathogenic bacteria, more so against Gram-positive than negative bacteria. Interestingly antimicrobial activity has also been found against some resistant strains such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial action is enhanced still further by it being an immune-enhancer and bioenhancer of some antibiotic drugs. Antifungal activity was comparable to amphotericin B. CU also has anthelmintic and antineoplastic action. CU has, in addition, antioxidant properties, and it can prevent the damage to DNA caused by the environmental stress. In the management of infectious diseases, CU can be used alone or as an adjunctive to prevent the development of resistance and enhance the effect of standard antibiotics.

  11. Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows.

    PubMed

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; den Uijl, I E M; van Schaik, G; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Keurentjes, J M; Lam, T J G M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This study evaluated selective DCT in 1,657 cows with low somatic cell count (SCC) at the last milk recording before drying off in 97 Dutch dairy herds. Low SCC was defined as <150,000 cells/mL for primiparous and <250,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows. A split-udder design was used in which 2 quarters of each cow were treated with dry cow antibiotics and the other 2 quarters remained as untreated controls. The effect of DCT on clinical mastitis (CM), bacteriological status, SCC, and antibiotic use were determined at the quarter level using logistic regression and chi-squared tests. The incidence rate of CM was found to be 1.7 times (95% confidence interval = 1.4-2.1) higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics as compared with quarters dried off with antibiotics. Streptococcus uberis was the predominant organism causing CM in both groups. Somatic cell count at calving and 14 d in milk was significantly higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics (772,000 and 46,000 cells/mL, respectively) as compared with the quarters dried off with antibiotics (578,000 and 30,000 cells/mL, respectively). Quarters with an elevated SCC at drying off and quarters with a positive culture for major pathogens at drying off had a higher risk for an SCC above 200,000 cells/mL at 14 d in milk as compared with quarters with a low SCC at drying off and quarters with a negative culture for major pathogens at drying off. For quarters that were culture-positive for major pathogens at drying off, a trend for a higher risk on CM was also found. Selective DCT, not using DCT in cows that had a low SCC at the last milk recording before drying off, significantly increased the incidence rate of CM and

  12. Economic feasibility of cooling dry cows across the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F C; Gennari, R S; Dahl, G E; De Vries, A

    2016-12-01

    Heat stress during the dry period reduces milk yield in the subsequent lactation of dairy cows. Our objectives were to quantify the economic losses due to heat stress if dry cows are not cooled and to evaluate the economic feasibility of dry cow cooling. We used weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to calculate the number of heat stress days for each of the 50 US states. A heat stress day was declared when the daily average temperature-humidity index was ≥68. The number of dairy cows in each state in 2015 was obtained from the USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service. We assumed that 15% of the cows were dry at any time, a 60-d dry period, and a calving interval of 400d. Only cows in their second or greater parity (65%) benefitted from cooling during the dry period of the previous parity. Milk yield decreased by 5kg in the subsequent lactation (340d) if the cow experienced heat stress during the dry period based on a review of the literature. The default marginal value of milk minus feed cost was $0.33/kg of milk. The investment analysis included purchases of fans and soakers and use of water and electricity. Investment in a dry cow barn was considered separately. The average US dairy cow would experience 96 (26%) heat stress days during the year if not cooled and loses 447kg of milk in the subsequent lactation if not cooled when dry. Annual losses would be $810 million if dry cows were not cooled ($87/cow per yr). For the top 3 milk-producing states (California, Wisconsin, New York), and Florida and Texas, the average milk losses in the subsequent lactation were 522, 349, 387, 1,197, and 904kg, and reduced profit per cow per year would be $101, $68, $75, $233, and $176, respectively. The average benefit-cost ratio and payback periods of cooling dry cows in the United States were 3.15 and 0.27 yr (dry cow barn already present) and 1.45 and 5.68 yr (if investing in a dry cow barn) in the default scenario. To reach positive net

  13. Increasing estrus expression in the lactating dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Sauls, J A; Voelz, B E; Hill, S L; Mendonça, L G D; Stevenson, J S

    2017-01-01

    Using an activity monitoring system (AMS) equipped with an accelerometer, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that (1) enhancing progesterone before inducing luteolysis or (2) exposing cows to estradiol cypionate (ECP) or testosterone propionate (TP) after luteolysis would increase occurrence and intensity of estrus. Our goal was to determine if more cows could be detected in estrus by an AMS compared with other estrus-detection aids. In experiment 1, cows (n=154) were fitted with both an AMS collar and a pressure-sensitive, rump-mounted device (HeatWatch; HW) and assigned to 3 treatments: (1) no CL + progesterone insert (CIDR) for 5d, (2) CL only, or (3) CL + 2 CIDR inserts for 5d to achieve a range in concentrations of progesterone. Prostaglandin F2α was administered to all cows upon CIDR insert removal or its equivalent. Progesterone concentration up to 72h posttreatment was greatest in CL + 2 CIDR, followed by CL only, and no CL + CIDR cows. Estrus occurred 14 to 28h earlier in no CL + CIDR compared with CL-bearing cows. Estrus intensity was greater for CL + 2 CIDR than for CL-only cows. The AMS and HW detected 70 and 59% of cows defined to be in estrus, respectively. In experiment 2, cows (n=203) were equipped with both an AMS and a friction-activated, rump-mounted patch (Estrotect patch) and assigned to receive 1mg of ECP, 2mg of TP, or control 24h after PGF2α. Concentrations of estradiol 24 and 48h after treatment were greater in ECP cows compared with controls. Estrus expression detected by AMS or patches in cows defined to be in estrus tended to be greater or was greater for ECP compared with controls, respectively. Compared with controls and in response to TP or ECP, estrus occurred 8 to 18h earlier and was of greater intensity for ECP cows, respectively. The AMS and patches determined 73 and 76% of cows defined to be in estrus, respectively. Of cows exposed to the AMS, HW, or patches, 70, 61, and 75%, respectively, were detected in

  14. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  15. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  16. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  17. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  18. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  19. [Children who are allergic to cow's milk. Nutritional treatment].

    PubMed

    Casado Dones, M José; Cruz Martín, Rosa M; Moreno González, Cristina; Oya Luis, Isabel; Martin Rodríguez, María

    2008-09-01

    An allergy or intolerance to cow's milk protein (APLV-IPLV) is the most frequent food allergy among early childhood in our environment, related to genetic and environmental factors. This allergy tends to appear during the first few months of life, after the introduction of cow's milk protein in a child's diet and it manifests itself with symptoms which depend on foreign matter being introduced (immunological or otherwise). A diagnosis is made by means of the patient's case history and is completed by laboratory tests. Treatment consists of excluding cow's milk protein from the child's diet. Formulas derived from cow's milk are substituted by a hydrolyzed formula or one based on soybean. The prognosis is good: patients respond to this diet which does not include cow's milk protein and the majority of patients succeed in forming tolerance for cow's milk protein. A nurse's role is fundamental in educating parents and later on the child in order to achieve following a diet which completely eliminates cow's milk protein (PLV).

  20. Effect of relocation on locomotion and cleanliness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Crafton O; Pence, Kristen J; Hurt, Amanda M; Becvar, Ondrej; Knowlton, Katharine F; McGilliard, Michael L; Gwazdauskas, Francis C

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect that relocation to a new free stall barn had on locomotion and cleanliness of two breeds of dairy cows. The original facility before relocation had cows housed in an 8-row free stall barn. Cows were allocated in a new 4-row free stall facility: cows of two breeds (n=22 Holsteins and 22 Jerseys) were intermixed in the northwest section. Locomotion (scale 1-5) and cleanliness were scored (scale 1-4). Holsteins and Jerseys had no difference in locomotion score throughout 12 weeks following relocation. A lactation number by date interaction showed cows in third and greater lactations had significantly higher locomotion scores (more lameness) by day 86. Locomotion scores increased across breeds during the 86-d observation period, suggesting cows became lamer. Jerseys had cleaner lower legs than Holsteins (2.9+/-0.1 v. 3.5+/-0.1, respectively). Lactation number affected lower leg cleanliness, with scores decreasing as lactation number increased (3.4 v. 3.3 v. 2.9+/-0.10 for first, second and third and greater lactations, respectively; P<0.01). All cows were cleaner (lower scores) after relocation, suggesting that the new facility improved hygiene.

  1. Induction of parturition in dairy cows with dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Peters, A R; Poole, D A

    Sixty Holstein cows were paired by parity and sire, and one of each pair was allocated at random to treatment or control; 17 cows were injected with 7.5 mg/100 kg dexamethasone trioxa undecanoate 14 days before the predicted date of calving, 13 cows received the same dose five days before term and 30 cows were left untreated. The treatment significantly advanced parturition and 29 of the 30 induced cows calved within 72 hours of the injection. Induction at day 14 before term was safe for calf and dam, the calves were 3.2 kg lighter than control calves and there was a high incidence of retained placenta. Treatment for this condition resulted in increased veterinary costs of 14.50 pounds per cow exclusive of dexamethasone treatment. Treatment at this stage was also associated with low pregnancy rates in the next breeding season. Calves born after induction at five days before term were not significantly lighter than calves from control cows, the problem of retained placenta was less marked and there were no subsequent effects on fertility. There were no significant effects of induction on milk yield or milk quality up to 200 days of lactation.

  2. Infants who drink cows milk: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin W; Graham, Kathleen I; Scott, Jane A; Oddy, Wendy H

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document current practice in an Australia city regarding the introduction of whole cows milk to children under the age of 12 months. A cohort study of mothers and infants, recruited at birth was undertaken in Perth, Australia. A total of 587 mothers were interviewed on seven occasions over a period of 12 months using a structured questionnaire. At each interview infant feeding methods were recorded in detail. At 12 months 453 mothers (78%) remained in the study. In this study the median age of introduction of cows milk was 41.5 weeks, a behaviour that has not changed in the past 8 years. Infants who were given solids earlier than 4 months were more likely to be introduced to cows milk before 12 months (odds ratio (OR) 2.06, confidence interval (CI) 1.4-3.1). Mothers who had a lower score on the IOWA Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale were more likely to give cows milk earlier (OR 1.83, CI 1.21-1.77). Where fathers did not support breastfeeding or were ambivalent infants were more likely to be given cows milk (OR 1.70, CI 1.23-2.58) Despite recommendations that cows milk should not be given before 12 months of age, the majority of infants were given cows milk before this age. This suggests the need for further education programs.

  3. Associations between individual cow factors and milk-protein production.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Martin, S W; Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; Gibson, J P; Scott, H M; Kelton, D F

    1998-02-06

    Associations between stage of lactation, cow characteristics, and protein production were evaluated using data from a 2-year period on 75 Ontario, 5 Alberta, and 3 Nova Scotia dairy farms. Individual-cow protein production was defined by 305-day protein yield and by the estimated breeding value for protein yield. Lactation curves for average daily protein yield were computed by parity, breed, and season of calving. Mean protein yield was highest in early lactation. However, there was no pronounced peak in daily protein yield. Parity was positively associated with 305-day protein yield and negatively associated with the estimated breeding values for protein yield. First-calf heifers had lower protein yields in early lactation and a slower rate of decline in protein yield in late lactation, as compared to later parity cows. Holstein cows had higher unadjusted protein yields and lower protein yields after adjusting for milk yield than other breeds. Holstein cows had significantly higher protein yields early in lactation compared to other breeds, but the rate of decline in protein production in late lactation was also greater. Season was associated with 305-day protein yield; the highest protein yields occurred in cows calving in the fall and winter months, but these cows had the greatest rate of decline in protein production in late lactation.

  4. Dairy cow preference and usage of an alternative freestall design.

    PubMed

    Abade, C C; Fregonesi, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-02-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows was created to reduce the amount of bedding and labor needed to keep stalls clean. However, some aspects of stall design may restrict stall usage by cows. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cow preference and usage of a conventional stall (with a neck rail and metal stall dividers) and an alternative stall design with no neck rail or stall dividers other than a wooden board protruding slightly (8cm) above the lying surface. In the no-choice phase of the study, 48 cows were randomly assigned to 8 groups (of 6 cows each); groups were alternately allocated to the 2 treatments. Each group was observed for 7 d on one treatment and then switched to the alternate treatment for 7 d. For the choice phase (also 7 d), groups in adjacent pens were merged (to form 4 groups, each with 12 cows) and cows had free access to both treatments within the merged pen. In the no-choice phase, cows spent more time standing with 4 hooves in the alternative versus conventional freestall (0.60±0.06 vs. 0.05±0.06h/d), but stall designs had no effect on time spent lying down (13.2±0.4 vs. 12.9±0.4h/d). In the choice phase, cows spent more time lying down in the conventional freestall (9.4±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.8h/d) and more time standing with all 4 hooves in the alternative stall (0.24±0.03 vs. 0.02±0.03h/d). These results illustrate how different stall design features can affect different types of stall use; the more open design facilitated standing fully in the stall, but the protruding partitions likely made the stall less suitable for lying.

  5. Differences in CLA isomer distribution of cow's milk lipids.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Jana; Collomb, Marius; Möckel, Peter; Sieber, Robert; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    The uniqueness of ruminant milk lipids is based on their high concentration of CLA. Maximal CLA concentrations in milk lipids require optimal conditions of ruminal fermentation and substrate availability, conditions like those present in pasture-fed cows. Our previous work showed that farm management (indoor feeding vs. pasture feeding) markedly influenced the CLA concentration. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the farm management system as dependent on different locations. Milk samples from different locations (Thuringia and the Alps, representing diverse altitudes) were collected during the summer months and analyzed for FA profile and CLA isomer distribution. The proportion of PUFA and total CLA in milk fat was significantly lower in milk from indoor cows compared with the pasture cows in the Alps. The trans-11 18:1 in milk fat of Alpine cows was elevated, in contrast to lower values for trans-10 18:1. Milk from cows grazing pasture in the Alps was higher in EPA and lower in arachidonic acid than milk from indoor-fed cows. The proportion of cis,trans/trans,cis isomers of CLA was 10 times higher from the indoor cows than from the Alpine cows. In addition to the major isomer cis-9,trans-11, this difference also occurred for the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, which represented more than a fourth of the total CLA present in milk fat. This is the first report showing a special isomer distribution in the milk fat of cows living under very natural conditions. We hypothesize that the CLA isomer trans-11,cis-13 is formed in large quantity as a result of grazing mountain pasture, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid.

  6. Ovarian superstimulation using FSH combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) upregulates mRNA-encoding proteins involved with LH receptor intracellular signaling in granulosa cells from Nelore cows.

    PubMed

    Castilho, A C S; Nogueira, M F G; Fontes, P K; Machado, M F; Satrapa, R A; Razza, E M; Barros, C M

    2014-12-01

    The LH plays a key role in controlling physiological processes in the ovary acting via LH receptor (LHR). In general, the effects of LHR on the regulation of granulosa cell differentiation are mediated mainly via the Gs-protein/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP system; however, the LHR activation could also induce phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol trisphosphate (IP3) via Gq/11 system. Additionally, the expression of G-proteins (GNAS, GNAQ, and GNA11) and PLC β has been showed in bovine antral follicle, concomitant with an increase in LHR expression. To gain insight into the effects of superstimulation with FSH (P-36 protocol) or FSH combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; P-36/eCG protocol) on the mRNA expression of proteins involved in LHR signaling in bovine granulosa cells, Nelore cows (Bos indicus) were treated with two superstimulatory protocols: P-36 protocol or P-36/eCG protocol (replacement of the FSH by eCG administration on the last day of treatment). Nonsuperstimulated cows were only submitted to estrous synchronization without ovarian superstimulation. The granulosa cells were harvested from follicles and mRNA abundance of GNAS, GNAQ, GNA11, PLCB1, PLCB, PLCB4, and adenylyl cyclase isoforms (ADCY3, ADCY4, ADCY6, ADCY8, and ADCY9) was measured by real-time reserve transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction. No differences on mRNA abundance of target genes were observed in granulosa cells of cows submitted to P-36 protocol compared with control group. However, the cows submitted to P-36/eCG protocol showed upregulation on the mRNA abundance of target genes (except ADCY8) in granulosa cells. Although the P-36 protocol did not regulate mRNA expression of the proteins involved in the signaling mechanisms of the cAMP and IP3 systems, the constant presence of GNAS, GNAQ, GNA11, PLCB1, PLCB3, PLCB4, and adenylyl cyclase isoforms (ADCY3, ADCY4, ADCY6, and ADCY9) mRNA and the upregulation of these genes in granulosa cells from cows submitted to P-36/e

  7. Influence of cow breed type, age and previous lactation status on cow height, calf growth, and patterns of body weight, condition, and blood metabolites for cows grazing bahiagrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Williams, M J

    2017-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate performance and patterns of cow traits and blood metabolites of 3 breeds of cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) pastures in central Florida. Purebred cows (n = 411) of either Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), or Romosinuano (Bos taurus) breeding, rotationally grazed (moved twice weekly) bahiagrass pastures year-round, and received bahiagrass hay supplemented with molasses and soyhulls or legume hay supplemented with unfortified molasses from October to June each production year. At monthly intervals, all cows were weighed, measured at the hip (HH), scored for BCS, and blood samples collected by jugular puncture from 10 cows per cow breed/block group for plasma urea N (PUN), glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Data were analyzed on cows that calved with a statistical model that included fixed effects of year, cowage, cow breed, month, block, supplement group (n = 2, but not presented), and whether the cow weaned a calf the previous year. Cow was a repeated observation over mo. Three-way interactions involving monthly patterns for cowage x year, year x lactation status the previous year, cowage × cow breed, year × cow breed, and cow breed × lactation status the previous year were significant (P < 0.001) for BW and BCS. The interaction for cowage × month was also significant (P < 0.05) for glucose, and cow breed × month was important (P < 0.01) for PUN, glucose, and NEFA. Important differences included: 1) greater BW and BCS for older cows compared to 3-yr old cows; 2) greater BW and BCS before calving for cows that did not lactate the previous year; 3) PUN levels were above 11 mg/dl except for February, August and September, and was generally greater in tropically adapted breeds; 4) GLU was greatest in Brahman, lowest in Angus, and intermediate in Romosinuano cows; and 5) plasma levels of NEFA escalated at calving and then declined, but Brahman cows maintained greater (P < 0.05) levels from

  8. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9 20 h) or the night (21 8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5±2.9 during the day and 70.1±4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes

  9. [Ultrasonographic finding and treatment of a cow with pyelonephrosis].

    PubMed

    Lesser, M; Krüger, S; Nuss, K; Sydler, T; Braun, U

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonography of a six-year-old Simmental cow revealed an abscess like structure, approximately 15 cm in diameter, in place of the right kidney. The cow had a history of colic for 4 days and was referred to our clinic with a tentative diagnosis of caecal dilatation. The cow voided dark opaque urine with white floccules. Laboratory examination yielded increased haematocrit, leukocytosis with left shift, hyperbilirubinaemia and azotaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed, the caecum emptied surgically and the pus-filled structure at the site of the right kidney removed. A diagnosis of pyonephrosis was made after pathological examination of the pus-filled structure.

  10. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  11. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-04-05

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations.

  12. 49 CFR 1332.3 - Manner of submitting contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS FILING CONTRACTS FOR... agreement(s) will be submitted by facsimile transmission or messenger service where feasible, and,...

  13. 15 CFR 270.351 - Protection of voluntarily submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Protection of voluntarily submitted information. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a Team, NIST, any investigation participant, and any agency receiving information from a Team, NIST, or any...

  14. Loss of income from cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prior to calving compared with cows not shedding the organism on two Minnesota dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Raizman, E A; Fetrow, J P; Wells, S J

    2009-10-01

    Quantification of the financial effect of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on lactation performance is essential to encourage participation of dairy cattle producers in Johne's disease (JD) control programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in net income per lactation of cows shedding Mycobacterium paratuberculosis before calving compared with test-negative cows. Two Minnesota dairies were enrolled in the study and fecal samples were collected from 1,048 cows during the close-up period. Milk production, clinical diseases (other than clinical JD), and reproductive performance data were recorded for each cow. Overall, fecal-culture-positive (FCP) cows produced 1,355 kg less than fecal-culture-negative (FCN) cows. Fecal-culture-positive cows that survived their current lactation produced $276 less in milk income than cows that were FCN ($1,956 vs. $1,680; SD $526, $570). Fecal-culture-positive cows were 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.8) times more likely to be culled than FCN cows. The mean days open (number of days from calving to conception) was not statistically significant and the cost differences for clinical disease other than JD were small and neither statistically nor economically significant between FCP and FCN cows. Among all FCP cows, income over feed costs losses were $366 per cow per lactation compared with FCN cows. Among FCP nonculled cows, income over feed costs losses were $276 more compared with FCN cows and this difference was statistically significant. There was a total loss of $155 per lactation for nonculled FCP cows retained in the herd compared with FCN cows retained in the herd. Among culled cows, FCP cow losses were $50 less because of age at culling and $120 for reduced beef value. This totaled a loss of $441 for culled FCP cows compared with culled FCN cows. The losses as a result of lower lactation performance and early culling from the herd should alarm dairy producers and motivate them to implement

  15. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (P<0.001), timing of calving (P<0.001) relative to start of breeding, history of abnormal repeat intervals (P<0.001) and length of post partum interval (P<0.001) were each associated with lower six-week pregnancy rates. Timing of calving (P<0.001) and history of abnormal repeat intervals (P<0.001) were associated with higher not-in-calf rates. Herd size and cow parity were not associated (P>0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds.

  16. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    PubMed

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  17. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  18. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  19. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  20. Diversity of Staphylococcus species and prevalence of enterotoxin genes isolated from milk of healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rall, V L M; Miranda, E S; Castilho, I G; Camargo, C H; Langoni, H; Guimarães, F F; Araújo Júnior, J P; Fernandes Júnior, A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus spp. in milk from healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis in Brazil and to examine the profile of enterotoxin genes and some enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus spp. A total of 280 individual mammary quarter milk samples from 70 healthy cows and 292 samples from 73 cows with subclinical mastitis were collected from 11 farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 63 (22.5%) samples from healthy cows and from 80 samples (27.4%) from cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly different between these 2 groups and was more prevalent in the cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus was also significantly different between these 2 groups, but this organism was more prevalent in healthy cows. No statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of other staphylococci in milk samples from the 2 groups. The sea gene was the most prevalent enterotoxin gene in both groups. Eight of 15 (53.3%) Staph. aureus carried this gene and all produced the SEA toxin. In the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) group, 61 of 128 (47.5%) had the same gene and just 1 (1.6%) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain produced the enterotoxin in vitro. Because CNS were isolated from both groups of cows and most CNS contained enterotoxin genes but did not produce toxins, the role of CNS in mastitis should be carefully defined. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Culling of dairy cows. Part I. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T

    1999-07-20

    The effects of 15 diseases on time until culling were studied in 39,727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved during 1993 and were followed until the next calving or culling. The diseases studied were: dystocia, milk fever, retained placenta, displacement of the abomasum, metritis, non-parturient paresis, ketosis, rumen disorders, acute mastitis, hypomagnesemia, lameness, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, anestrus, ovarian cysts, and teat injuries. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed and diseases were modeled as time-dependent covariates. Different stages of lactation when culling can occur were also considered. Parity, calving season and herd were included as covariates in every model. Parity had a significant effect on culling, the risk of culling being four times higher for a cow in her sixth or higher parity than for a first parity cow. The effects of diseases varied according to when the diseases occurred and when culling occurred. Mastitis, teat injuries and lameness had a significant effect on culling throughout the whole lactation. Anestrus and ovarian cysts had a protective effect against culling at the time when they were diagnosed. In general, diseases affected culling decisions mostly at the time of their occurrence. The effect seemed to decrease with time from the diagnosis of the disease. However, milk fever, dystocia and metritis also had a significant effect on culling at the end of the lactation.

  2. The influence of genetic selection and feed system on the reproductive performance of spring-calving dairy cows within future pasture-based production systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2009-10-01

    Three genetic groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were established from within the Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland) dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of the Irish national average-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNA, high-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNZ, high-genetic-merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Genetic merit in this study was based on the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index. Animals from within each genetic group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible post-European Union-milk-quota pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark (MP) pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genetic group, FS, and the interaction between genetic group and FS on reproductive performance, body weight, body condition score, and blood metabolite concentrations were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genetic groups and FS. Odds ratios were used in the analysis of binary fertility traits, and survival analysis was used in the analysis of survival after first calving. When treatment means were compared, the HighNA and HighNZ genotypes (with greater genetic merit for fertility performance) had greater first-service pregnancy rates and had a greater proportion of cows pregnant after 42 d of the breeding season than the LowNA group. Both HighNA and HighNZ genotypes were submitted for artificial insemination earlier in the breeding season and had greater survival than the LowNA genotype. There was no significant FS or genotype by FS interactions for any of the reproductive

  3. Invited review: Matching forage systems with cow size and environment for sustainable cow-calf production in the southern region of the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to increasing red meat demand from the projected increase in world population coupled with reductions in available grazing lands, there has been increased interest in intensification of cow-calf production. Mature cow size has increased by over 30% since the mid-1970s, increasing cow ME requirem...

  4. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-06-14

    SummaryIn wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step toward establishing a diagnosis and aiding agencies with management considerations. The diagnostic process and overall investigation is often greatly expedited by a chronological record accompanying specimens submitted for laboratory evaluation. Knowing where and when the outbreak is taking place, what the environmental conditions and species involved are, and clinical signs in sick animals, along with necropsy findings and diagnostic test results are important for understanding the natural history or epizootiology of disease outbreaks. It becomes increasingly difficult to retrospectively obtain all of the pertinent history as time passes. The most helpful information is that which is obtained at the time of the die-off event by perceptive field biologists and other observers. Significant events preceding morbidity and/or mortality also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. In this chapter, readers will find information regarding what type of information should be recorded, how it should be recorded and why it is relevant to a disease investigation. A thoughtful approach in providing as much information as possible surrounding the situation including about host species and the biotic and abiotic environment, greatly aids in determining the most likely causative agent(s).

  5. [Buccal manifestations in patients submitted to chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Hespanhol, Fernando Luiz; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto; Teixeira, Henrique Guilherme de Castro; Falabella, Márcio Eduardo Vieira; Assis, Neuza Maria de Souza Picorelli

    2010-06-01

    Several changes in the oral cavity due to chemotherapy can be observed and can lead to important systemic complications, increasing the time of the patient in hospital and the costs of the treatment as well as affect the quality of life of the patients. The aim of this study was to assess the oral manifestation in patients treated with chemotherapy according to sex, age and tumor type. Data was collected in an oncology hospital in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, from patients' records that were submitted to oncologic treatment. It was possible to verify that mucositis, associated or not to other type of lesions, was the most common lesion in both sex of all ages (15.5%). Xerostomia and other lesions, such as Candida infection and aphthous lesions, were also present. It is possible to improve the quality of life of the patient during and after anti-neoplastic therapies through a protocol of odontological assistance that includes changes of the oral environment previous to chemotherapy such as profilaxis, caries removal, treatment of periodontal and periapical lesions, oral hygiene instructions, diet orientation and laser therapy. It is very important the insertion of the dentist in the oncologic medical team for the early diagnosis of the oral manifestation and follow-up during treatment time.

  6. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    PubMed

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA.

  7. 141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows on an agricultural lease in the foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Immobilization of phosphorus in cow manure during hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lichun; Tan, Furong; Wu, Bo; He, Mingxiong; Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Qichun; Zhang, Min

    2015-07-01

    The surplus of manure phosphorus (P) with increasing livestock production might pose a risk of P loss to the environment due to the high mobility of P in manure. Thus, there is an increasing need to mitigate P loss from manure. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) on the immobilization of P in cow manure. The results demonstrated that the P content in cow manure was increased substantially by ∼20% after HTC, while the water-extractable P (WEP) and Mehlich-3-extractable P (MEP) in manure was reduced significantly by >80% and 50%, respectively. The decrease in P solubility might result from the increased apatite P (increased by >85%) and decreased soluble Ca (decreased by ∼50%) after HTC. These results suggested that HTC could be an efficient strategy to immobilize P in cow manure, thereby potentially mitigating the P loss problem from cow manure.

  9. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  10. Sacred Cows That Should Be Put to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artley, A. Sterl

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with unquestioned teaching practices and theories ("sacred cows") in the field of reading. Topics discussed include phonics, pronunciation, oral reading, teacher accountability and behavioral objectives, individualized reading, and the open classroom. (KS)

  11. Sacred Cows That Should Be Put to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artley, A. Sterl

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with unquestioned teaching practices and theories ("sacred cows") in the field of reading. Topics discussed include phonics, pronunciation, oral reading, teacher accountability and behavioral objectives, individualized reading, and the open classroom. (KS)

  12. Hypomagnesemia among cows in a confinement-housed dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Donovan, G Arthur; Steenholdt, Christian; McGehee, Kerry; Lundquist, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Between January and March 2002, 55 cows in a 1,200-cow commercial dairy herd in south Florida died. Most of the cows that were found dead did not have any clinical signs of disease prior to death. Because of a history of a feed change, a bloom of blue-green algae in cow cooling ponds, and initial necropsy findings of moderate enteritis, the preliminary differential diagnosis included clostridial enteritis, blue-green algae toxicosis, and mycotoxicosis. Rumen acidosis, hypomagnesemia, and heavy metal toxicosis were included as secondary considerations. On the basis of physical examination and gross necropsy findings, results of clinicopathol ogic testing, and results of feed and water analyses, a diagnosis of hypomagnesemia was made. Control procedures that were implemented included changing the forage source and increasing the magnesium concentration in the diet.

  13. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    PubMed

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  14. Liver condition of Holstein cows affects mitochondrial function and fertilization ability of oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takeo, Shun; Abe, Takahito; Kin, Airi; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to examine the fertilization ability and mitochondrial function of oocytes derived from cows with or without liver damage. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of cows with damaged livers (DL) and those of cows with healthy livers (HL), subjected to in vitro maturation, and fertilized in vitro. A significantly high abnormal fertilization rate was observed for oocytes from DL cows compared to oocytes from HL cows. The time to dissolve the zona pellucida by protease before fertilization was similar between the two liver conditions, whereas after fertilization treatment this time was shorter for DL cows than for HL cows. The percentage of oocytes with equivalent cortical granule distributions underneath the membrane was greater for in vitro matured oocytes from HL cows, whereas an immature distribution pattern was observed for oocytes from DL cows. In addition, a greater percentage of oocytes derived from HL cows released cortical granules following fertilization compared with oocytes from DL cows. Mitochondrial function determined by ATP content and membrane potential were similar at the germinal vesicle stage, but post-in vitro maturation, the oocytes derived from HL cows showed higher values than DL cows. The mitochondrial DNA copy number in oocytes was similar between the two liver conditions for both the germinal vesicle and post-in vitro maturation oocytes. In conclusion, liver damage induces low fertilization, likely because of incomplete cortical granule distribution and release, and the maturation of oocytes from DL cows contain low-functioning mitochondria compared to their HL counterparts.

  15. The metabolism of four sulphonamides in cows

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Poul

    1973-01-01

    1. The metabolism of sulphanilamide, sulphadimidine (4,6-dimethyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine), sulphamethoxazole (5-methyl-3-sulphanilamidoisoxazole) and sulphadoxine (5,6-dimethoxy-4-sulphanilamidopyrimidine) given by intravenous injection has been examined in cows. 2. The sulphonamides were present mainly as unchanged drugs in blood samples collected 2h after administration. 3. The sulphonamides were excreted in the milk partly as unchanged drugs and partly as conjugated metabolites whereas only small amounts were excreted as the N4-acetyl derivatives. 4. The unchanged drug and the N4-acetyl derivative were the major constituents in urine samples after administration of sulphanilamide, sulphamethoxazole and sulphadoxine. 5. Besides the unchanged drug, the N4-acetyl derivative and the conjugated metabolites, three further metabolites of sulphadimidine were isolated from urine samples and identified. They were 5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine, 4-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine and sulphaguanidine. PMID:4786525

  16. Cow's milk allergy, asthma, and pediatric IBD.

    PubMed

    Virta, Lauri J; Ashorn, Merja; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2013-06-01

    We identified a total of 595 Finnish children born in 1994-2008 and diagnosed as having inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by October 2010 from the National Reimbursement Register (based on certificates including the diagnostic criteria) to determine whether the presence of cow's milk allergy (CMA) or asthma is associated with the risk of contracting IBD (altogether 2380 matched controls). A diagnosis of CMA in infancy was associated with Crohn disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.36, P < 0.05) and ulcerative colitis (OR 1.71, CI 1.04-2.83, P < 0.05), but childhood asthma only with Crohn disease (OR 2.33, CI 1.41-3.86, P = 0.001). Thus, CMA in infants is a risk factor for contracting pediatric IBD and accordingly, asthma for Crohn disease.

  17. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p < 0.01) and handling facility (p < 0.0001) and handling facility by temperament score interaction (p < 0.001), breeding season pregnancy rate was lower in excited versus calm cows [88.6% (798/901) vs 94.1% (607/645); p < 0.001]. Cows with an excitable temperament took 24 more days to become pregnant compared to calm cows (median days to pregnancy, 35 vs 59 days; p < 0.0001). In Experiment 2, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p < 0.05), pregnancy loss was higher in excited versus calm cows [5.5% (36/651) vs 3.2% (20/623), p < 0.0001]. In conclusion, beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring

  18. Is cow's milk harmful to a child's health?

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Turck, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Discussions and debates have recently emerged on the potential positive and negative effects of cow's milk in the paediatric community, also under the pressure of public opinion. The negative effects of cow's-milk consumption seem to be limited to iron status up to 9 to 12 months; then no negative effects are observed, provided that cow's milk, up to a maximum daily intake of 500 mL, is adequately complemented with iron-enriched foods. Lactose intolerance can be easily managed and up to 250 mL/day of milk can be consumed. Allergy to cow's-milk proteins is usually transient. Atopic children may independently be at risk for poor growth, and the contribution of dairy nutrients to their diet should be considered. The connection of cow's milk to autistic spectrum disorders is lacking, and even a cause-effect relation with type 1 diabetes mellitus has not been established because many factors may concur. Although it is true that cow's milk stimulates insulin-like growth factor-1 and may affect linear growth, association with chronic degenerative, noncommunicable diseases has not been established. Finally, fat-reduced milk, if needed, should be considered after 24 to 36 months. Cow's milk represents a major source of high nutritional quality protein as well as of calcium. Moreover, it has growth-promoting effects independent of specific compounds. Its protein and fat composition, together with the micronutrient content, is suggestive of a functional food, whose positive effects are emphasised by regular consumption, particularly under conditions of diets poor in some limiting nutrients, although in industrialised countries cow's milk's optimal daily intake should be around 500 mL, adequately complemented with other relevant nutrients.

  19. An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe sand abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of sand 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ≤ −110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed. PMID:17987969

  20. Weekly bull exchange shortens postpartum anestrus in suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, V; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-05-01

    The duration of anestrus in cattle was usually shortened when cows were exposed to bulls. The objective of the present experiment was to determine if weekly bull exchange accelerated the resumption of cyclicity in postpartum suckled beef cows. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of postpartum, anestrous, suckled beef cows (extensively managed) to weekly exchange of bulls, accelerates the resumption of cyclicity, compared to continuous exposure to the same bulls. Ninety-one multiparous suckled Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows, <60d postpartum, were assigned to two homogeneous groups. Beginning on December 1st (late spring), the control group (C, n=45) remained with one pair of bulls throughout the breeding period (7 weeks), whereas in the "exchanged" (E, n=46) group two pairs of bulls were exchanged weekly. Based on weekly ultrasonographic examinations of all cows, none had a CL at the start of the experiment and for 2 weeks after the start of bull exposure. However, the accumulated frequency of cows with a CL was greater in group E than in group C cows on week 4 (P=0.024), as well as on weeks 5-7 (P<0.001) after the start of bull exposure. Furthermore, in group E versus group C, there was a higher pregnancy rate 30d after the end of bull exposure (26 of 46, 56.2% vs. 16 of 45, 35.6%; P=0.045). In conclusion, weekly exchange of two pairs of bulls shortened postpartum anestrus in suckled multiparous cows, compared to continuous exposure to a single pair of bulls.

  1. The effect of Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with or without estrus detection on reproductive performance by parity, and the long-term effect of these different management strategies on milk production, reproduction, health and survivability of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Neves, R C; Lima, F S; Bicalho, R C

    2017-04-15

    During the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, at least half of the cows enrolled display signs of estrus, which can present as an opportunity for cows to be inseminated before the completion of the protocol. The primary objective of this study is to compare two management strategies for first service using the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol: insemination at completion of the Presynch-Ovsynch program (TAIonly) or insemination after estrus detection during the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, with the remainder of cows being inseminated at timed artificial insemination (ED + TAI). Cows inseminated at completion of the protocol have a longer voluntary waiting period, which could potentially extend their lactation length, allowing them to recover BCS at the end of their lactation and ultimately impacting their subsequent lactation. Therefore, this study has a secondary objective to evaluate the long term impact of these two strategies on reproductive outcomes, culling, milk production and health during the subsequent lactation. A total randomized field trial study design was used, and a total of 3489 cows were randomly enrolled to one of the treatment groups: ED + TAI or TAIonly. Cows enrolled in the TAIonly started the Presynch protocol receiving two injections of PGF2α at 55 ± 3 and 69 ± 3 DIM. They were subsequently submitted to the Ovsynch protocol: GnRH at 81 ± 3 DIM, PGF2α at 88 ± 3 DIM, and GnRH at 90 ± 3 DIM, and then inseminated at fixed time at 91 ± 3 DIM. Cows enrolled in the ED + TAI were submitted to the same synchronization protocol, but they were eligible to be inseminated at any time after the beginning of the synchronization protocol, if detected in estrous. During the experimental lactation, the effect of treatment on first service conception rate (FSCR) was conditional to parity: no difference among primiparous cows, but for multiparous cows, the FSCR was 41.2% and 35.3% for TAIonly and ED + TAI, respectively. Although TAIonly strategy

  2. 42 CFR 423.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 423.586 Section 423..., Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The Part D plan sponsor must... opportunity to present evidence and allegations of fact or law, related to the issue in dispute, in person as...

  3. 40 CFR 98.5 - How is the report submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How is the report submitted? 98.5 Section 98.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision § 98.5 How is the report submitted? Each GHG report and...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to submit...

  5. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to submit...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1605 - Information to be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Altitude Performance Adjustments for New and In-Use Motor Vehicles and Engines § 86.1605 Information to be submitted. (a) Manufacturers shall submit to the Administrator the text of the altitude performance adjustment instructions to be provided to vehicle owners and service establishments. Each set of...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1605 - Information to be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Altitude Performance Adjustments for New and In-Use Motor Vehicles and Engines § 86.1605 Information to be submitted. (a) Manufacturers shall submit to the Administrator the text of the altitude performance adjustment instructions to be provided to vehicle owners and service establishments. Each set of...

  8. 7 CFR 3405.12 - Intent to submit a proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intent to submit a proposal. 3405.12 Section 3405.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Submission of a Proposal § 3405.12 Intent to submit...

  9. 15 CFR 711.5 - Numerical precision of submitted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Numerical precision of submitted data. 711.5 Section 711.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... ELECTRONIC FILING OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.5 Numerical precision of submitted data. Numerical...

  10. 15 CFR 711.5 - Numerical precision of submitted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Numerical precision of submitted data. 711.5 Section 711.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... ELECTRONIC FILING OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.5 Numerical precision of submitted data. Numerical...

  11. 15 CFR 711.5 - Numerical precision of submitted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Numerical precision of submitted data. 711.5 Section 711.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... ELECTRONIC FILING OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.5 Numerical precision of submitted data. Numerical...

  12. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... Department's evaluation of all claims for reimbursement submitted by a licensee. (c) Each submitted claim... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  13. 42 CFR 102.43 - Deadlines for submitting documentation.