Science.gov

Sample records for nonlactating cows submitted

  1. [Amino acid composition and peptide maps of udder and serum albumins in lactating and nonlactating cows].

    PubMed

    Lagodiuk, P Z; Klos, Iu S; Charkin, V A; Kisil', I O

    1983-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides of albumin hydrolyzates from the mammary gland and blood serum were studied for lactating and nonlactating (dry, pregnant 1-4.5 and 4.5-9 months) black-and-white cows. Most pronounced difference between the content of certain amino acids of the mammary gland and blood serum albumins are established for lactating cows and least pronounced for nonlactating dry cows. Dactylography detected 55-57 fragments of products resulted from trypsin hydrolysis of the mammary gland and blood serum albumins of the animals under study. Differences are found in the content and mobility of certain peptides. PMID:6829076

  2. Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain weight per unit of DMI and days to reach weight equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weight and DM intake data were recorded for mature, non-pregnant and non-lactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Heref...

  3. Effects of supplemental protein on acid-base status and calcium metabolism of nonlactating Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Beede, D K

    1990-11-01

    The objective was to study effects of 11, 15, and 19% dietary CP on acid-base status, Ca balance, and metabolic responses to intravenous infusion of disodium EDTA. Dietary protein content was increased by supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal and distillers dried grains with solubles to a concentrate combined with cottonseed hulls (40:60). Six nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Jersey cows (average 6.7 yr old) were used in two balanced 3 x 3 Latin squares with 24-d periods. Increasing supplemental CP decreased blood base excess, urinary titratable base, and net base excretion, but increased urinary ammonium excretion. Calcium excretion and balance were not affected by supplemental CP. Analysis to detect heterogeneity of regression showed that response of plasma EDTA-free Ca to EDTA infusion over time was not different among treatments. Increasing supplemental protein induced mild acidosis but did not affect Ca balance or responses to Ca removal from blood (via EDTA infusion) of non-lactating cows.

  4. Monitoring nonlactating cow intramammary infection dynamics using DHI somatic cell count data.

    PubMed

    Cook, N B; Bennett, T B; Emery, K M; Nordlund, K V

    2002-05-01

    Although the nonlactating period presents a risk for intramammary infection, efficient systems to monitor infection status of recently calved cows have not been developed, and benchmarks for interpretation have not been established. Individual cow somatic cell count (SCC) data for the current and previous six monthly Dairy Herd Improvement milk tests and the last SCC of the previous lactation and first SCC of the current lactation were summarized for all milking cows in a selection of Wisconsin dairy herds. Prevalence of infection, herd new infection rate, fresh cow contribution to herd new infection rate, dry cow new infection rate, heifer new infection rate, and dry cow cure rate were estimated using a threshold of 200,000/ml. In 145 herds, mean (range) heifer new infection rate was 21.3% (0 to 58%). The cut-point for the 10th percentile of herds was 8%. Mean (range) dry cow new infection rate in cows that were uninfected at the last test before dry off was 22.4% (0 to 71%), and the cut-point for the 10th percentile of herds was 9%. Although nonlactating cow and heifer new infection rates increased with weighted 6-mo mean herd SCC, the between-herd variation was large, suggesting that on-farm factors are important in determining the rates of infection. In a subset of 51 Wisconsin dairy herds, significant monthly variation in weighted SCC, prevalence, herd new infection rate, and fresh cow contribution to herd new infection rate were detected. Elevations in SCC and prevalence of infection during the summer (July through September) were associated with significant increases in fresh cow and herd new infection rates.

  5. The influence of body condition on the fasting energy metabolism of nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Birnie, J W; Agnew, R E; Gordon, F J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of cow body condition score on fasting heat production. Twelve nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows were selected from within the dairy herd at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland. Six of these animals (group A) had condition scores > or = 4.5, and the remainder (group B) had condition scores <2. All cows were offered dried grass pellets at estimated maintenance energy level (0.58 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg(0.75)) for a minimum of 21 d. The diet also supplied 2.5 times the metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance. Following this, each cow underwent a 5-d fast in open circuit respiration calorimeters during which fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. On completion of measurement, group A was fed to reduce condition score (CS) below 2, while group B was fed to raise each individual condition score above 4.5. When the appropriate condition scores were achieved, dried grass pellets were again offered at maintenance for a minimum of 21 d, and fasting heat production was measured. It was observed that fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was significantly higher for cows with low body condition (<2; ultrasonic fat depth < or = 2.9 mm) compared with cows displaying high body condition (> or = 4.5; ultrasonic fat depth > or = 8.2 mm). A linear relationship between condition score and fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was defined by regression analysis as; FHP (MJ/kg(0.75)) = 0.501(SE 0.0121) - 0.030CS (SE 0.0035). PMID:10877386

  6. Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    2007-07-01

    To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain BW per unit of DMI (BW stasis), and days to reach BW equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weekly individual cow BW and DMI data were recorded for mature, nonpregnant, and nonlactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds. Within each breed, cows were assigned to receive 1 of 4 daily DM allowances (56, 76, 93, or 111 g.BW(-0.75, kg)) of a ground alfalfa hay-corn grain-based diet. Cows were housed in pens (space for 4 animals/pen) in open-front barns and fed individually using head gates. During the first 60 d of the experiment, BW were recorded every 28 d, after which BW were recorded on a weekly basis until the cows were determined to have attained BW equilibrium. Individual cows were determined to be at BW equilibrium when the rate of weekly BW change did not differ from 0 over an 8-wk period. The number of days to reach BW equilibrium was not affected (P > 0.79) by breed but was affected by the daily DM allowance (P < 0.003). The number of days required to attain BW equilibrium was greater as the rate of feeding (g of DM fed.BW(-0.75)) increased and ranged from 103 to 136 d. Within breed linear and the pooled quadratic regressions were significant for BW. Observed breed differences varied with feeding rate. Weight stasis estimates for mature Red Poll cows (68.3 +/- 3.8) differed (P < 0.05) from estimates for all the breeds, with the exception of Limousin (72.0 +/- 3.8), Braunvieh (74.0 +/- 4.8), and Pinzgauer (75.5 +/- 3.8) cows at the lowest feeding rate. At the 111 g.BW(-0.75) daily DM allowance, the estimates for Limousin (82.2 +/- 3.8) were greater (P < 0.05) than for the other breeds, with the exception of the Pinzgauer (81.0 +/- 4.3) and Braunvieh (75.7 +/- 3.9), which were similar to the remaining breeds in the study (P > 0.05). The change in rank of breed estimates for BW stasis suggests a breed

  7. Visceral adipose tissue mass in nonlactating dairy cows fed diets differing in energy density(1).

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Wallace, R L; Graugnard, D; Vasquez, J; Richards, B F; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine dietary energy effects on feed intake, internal fat deposition, body condition score (BCS), visceral organ mass, and blood analytes in Holstein cows. Eighteen nonpregnant, nonlactating cows (BCS = 3.04 ± 0.25) were blocked based on initial BCS and were randomly assigned within each block to 2 treatments. Treatments were either high energy [HE; net energy for lactation (NEL)=1.62 Mcal/kg] or low energy (LE; NEL = 1.35 Mcal/kg) diets fed as total mixed rations for 8 wk. The LE diet consisted of 81.7% forage, including 40.5% wheat straw and 28.3% corn silage, whereas the HE diet contained 73.8% forage with no straw and 49.9% corn silage (dry matter basis). Cows were fed for ad libitum intake once daily at 0800 h. Feed intake was recorded daily, blood was sampled at wk 1, 4, and 7, and BCS was assigned at wk 1, 4, and 7. Cows were killed following the 8-wk period, and visceral organs, mammary gland, and internal adipose tissues were weighed and sampled. The HE group had greater dry matter intake (15.9 vs. 11.2 ± 0.5 kg/d) and energy intakes than cows fed LE, but neutral detergent fiber intake did not differ (5.8 vs. 5.6 ± 0.25 kg/d for HE and LE). Final body weight was greater for cows fed HE (807 vs. 750 kg), but BCS did not differ between groups (3.52 vs. 3.47 for HE and LE). Omental (26.8 vs. 15.2 ± 1.6 kg/d), mesenteric (21.5 vs. 11.2 ± 1.9 kg), and perirenal (8.9 vs. 5.4 ± 0.9 kg) adipose tissue masses were larger in HE cows than in LE cows. Although subcutaneous adipose mass was not measured, carcass weight (including hide and subcutaneous fat) did not differ between HE (511 kg) and LE (496 kg). Liver weight tended to be greater for cows fed HE, but weights of gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidney did not differ. Serum insulin tended to be greater and the glucose to insulin ratio was lower for cows fed HE. Serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and cholesterol were greater for HE cows than for LE cows but

  8. Nitrate but not tea saponin feed additives decreased enteric methane emissions in nonlactating cows.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-11-01

    Tea saponin is considered a promising natural compound for reducing enteric methane emissions in ruminants. A trial was conducted to study the effect of this plant extract fed alone or in combination with nitrate on methane emissions, total tract digestive processes, and ruminal characteristics in cattle. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 ruminally cannulated nonlactating dairy cows. Feed offer was restricted to 90% of voluntary intake and diets consisted of (DM basis): 1) control (CON; 50% hay and 50% pelleted concentrates), 2) CON with 0.5% tea saponin (TEA), 3) CON with 2.3% nitrate (NIT), and 4) CON with 0.5% tea saponin and 2.3% nitrate (TEA+NIT). Tea saponin and nitrate were included in pelleted concentrates. Diets contained similar amounts of CP (12.2%), starch (26.0%), and NDF (40.1%). Experimental periods lasted 5 wk including 2 wk of measurement (wk 4 and 5), during which intake was measured daily. In wk 4, daily methane emissions were quantified for 4 d using open circuit respiratory chambers. In wk 5, total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were determined from total feces and urine collected separately for 6 d. Ruminal fermentation products and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding for 2 nonconsecutive days in wk 5. Tea saponin and nitrate supplementation decreased feed intake ( < 0.05), with an additive effect when fed in combination. Compared with CON, tea saponin did not modify methane emissions (g/kg DMI; > 0.05), whereas nitrate-containing diets (NIT and TEA+NIT) decreased methanogenesis by 28%, on average ( < 0.001). Total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were similar among diets. Ruminal fermentation products were not affected by tea saponin, whereas nitrate-containing diets increased acetate proportion and decreased butyrate proportion and ammonia concentration ( < 0.05). Under the

  9. Requirements for zero energy balance of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed fresh autumn pasture are greater than currently estimated.

    PubMed

    Mandok, K S; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Edwards, G R; Roche, J R

    2013-06-01

    Fifty-three nonlactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cross dairy cows were grouped into 4 cohorts (n=15, 12, 13, and 13) and offered 1 of 3 allowances of fresh, cut pasture indoors for 38 ± 2 d (mean ± SD). Cows were released onto a bare paddock after their meal until the following morning. Animals were blocked by age (6 ± 2 yr), day of gestation (208 ± 17 d), and body weight (BW; 526 ± 55 kg). The 3 pasture allowances [low: 7.5 kg of dry matter (DM), medium: 10.1 kg of DM, or high: 12.4 kg of DM/cow per day] were offered in individual stalls to determine the estimated DM and metabolizable energy (ME) intake required for zero energy balance. Individual cow DM intake was determined daily and body condition score was assessed once per week. Cow BW was recorded once per week in cohorts 1 and 2, and 3 times per week in cohorts 3 and 4. Low, medium, and high allowance treatments consumed 7.5, 9.4, and 10.6 kg of DM/cow per day [standard error of the difference (SED)=0.26 kg of DM], and BW gain, including the conceptus, was 0.2, 0.6, and 0.9 kg/cow per day (SED=0.12 kg), respectively. The ME content of the pasture was estimated from in vitro true digestibility and by near infrared spectroscopy. Total ME requirements for maintenance, pregnancy, and limited activity were 1.07 MJ of ME/kg of measured metabolic BW per day. This is more than 45% greater than current recommendations. Differences may be due to an underestimation of ME requirements for maintenance or pregnancy, an overestimation of diet metabolizability, or a combination of these. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for the greater ME requirements measured in the present study, but the results are important for on-farm decisions regarding feed allocation for nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

  10. Differing effects of 2 active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains on ruminal acidosis and methane production in nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Walker, N D; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-05-01

    Fifteen ruminally cannulated, nonlactating Holstein cows were used to measure the effects of 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fed as active dried yeasts, on ruminal pH and fermentation and enteric methane (CH(4)) emissions. Nonlactating cows were blocked by total duration (h) that their ruminal pH was below 5.8 during a 6-d pre-experimental period. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to control (no yeast), yeast strain 1 (Levucell SC), or yeast strain 2 (a novel strain selected for enhanced in vitro fiber degradation), with both strains (Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montréal, QC, Canada) providing 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day. Cows were fed once daily a total mixed ration consisting of a 50:50 forage to concentrate ratio (dry matter basis). The yeast strains were dosed via the rumen cannula daily at the time of feeding. During the 35-d experiment, ruminal pH was measured continuously for 7 d (d 22 to 28) by using an indwelling system, and CH(4) gas was measured for 4 d (d 32 to 35) using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique (with halters and yokes). Rumen contents were sampled on 2 d (d 22 and 26) at 0, 3, and 6h after feeding. Dry matter intake, body weight, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients were not affected by yeast feeding. Strain 2 decreased the average daily minimum (5.35 vs. 5.65 or 5.66), mean (5.98 vs. 6.24 or 6.34), and maximum ruminal pH (6.71 vs. 6.86 or 6.86), and prolonged the time that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (7.5 vs. 3.3 or 1.0 h/d) compared with the control or strain 1, respectively. The molar percentage of acetate was lower and that of propionate was greater in the ruminal fluid of cows receiving strain 2 compared with cows receiving no yeast or strain 1. Enteric CH(4) production adjusted for intake of dry matter or gross energy, however, did not differ between either yeast strain compared with the control but it tended to be reduced by 10% when strain 2 was compared with strain 1. The study shows that

  11. Superstimulation prior to the ovum pick-up to improve in vitro embryo production in lactating and non-lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Castro Netto, A; Guerreiro, B M; Silveira, C R A; Moreira, R J C; Sá Filho, M F; Bó, G A; Mapletoft, R J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-07-15

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of superstimulation with p-FSH (Folltropin) before the ovum pick-up (OPU) on IVP in lactating and nonlactating Holstein donors. A total of 30 Holstein cows (15 lactating and 15 nonlactating) were blocked by lactation status to one of two groups (control or p-FSH), in a cross-over design. On a random day of the estrous cycle, all cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and 2.0 mg IM of estradiol benzoate (Day 0). Cows in the control group received no further treatment, whereas cows in the p-FSH group received a total dosage of 200 mg of p-FSH on Days 4 and 5 in four decreasing doses 12 hours apart (57, 57, 43, and 43 mg). On Day 7, the progesterone device was removed, and OPU was conducted in both groups (40 hours after the last p-FSH injection in the p-FSH-treated group). There was no difference between groups (P = 0.92) in the numbers of follicles that were aspirated per OPU session (17.2 ± 1.3 vs. 17.1 ± 1.1 in control and p-FSH-treated cows, respectively); however, p-FSH-treated cows had a higher (P < 0.001) percentage of medium-sized follicles (6-10 mm) at the time of the OPU (55.1%; 285/517) than control cows (20.8%; 107/514). Although recovery rate was lower (60.0%, 310/517 vs. 69.8%, 359/514; P = 0.002), p-FSH-treated cows had a higher blastocyst production rate (34.5%, 89/258 vs. 19.8%, 55/278; P < 0.001) and more transferable embryos per OPU session were produced in the p-FSH group (3.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4; P = 0.02). Regardless of treatment, non-lactating cows had a higher blastocyst rate (41.9%, 106/253 vs. 13.4%, 38/283; P = 0.001) and produced more transferable embryos per OPU session (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3; P = 0.003) than lactating cows. Thus, superstimulation of Holstein donors with p-FSH before OPU increased the efficiency of IVP. In addition, non-lactating donors had higher percentage of in vitro blastocyst development and produced more embryos per OPU session than lactating cows.

  12. Source of metabolizable energy affects gene transcription in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crookenden, M A; Mandok, K S; Grala, T M; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Roche, J R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue could provide some explanation for the low efficiency with which ME in autumn pasture is used for BW gain. Nonlactating, pregnant (208 ± 19 d of gestation or approximately 75 d precalving) dairy cows (n = 90) were randomly allocated to either a control diet (i.e., offered fresh autumn pasture to maintenance requirements: 0.55 MJ ME/kg of measured metabolic BW [BW0.75] per day) or, in addition to the control diet, 1 of 2 supplement amounts (2.5 and 5.0 kg DM/d) of autumn pasture or 1 of 4 supplementary feeds (i.e., a control and 2 levels of feeding for each of 5 feeds: 11 groups of cows). Along with autumn pasture, evaluated feeds included spring pasture silage, maize silage, maize grain, and palm kernel expeller. Adipose and liver tissues were biopsied in wk 4 of the experiment and transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways associated with energy metabolism, lipolysis, and lipogenesis was determined. Additional feed, irrespective of type, increased BW gain (P < 0.01) and this effect was reflected in the expression of genes in adipose and liver tissue. However, autumn pasture had lower energy-use efficiency than the other feeds. Genes involved in both lipogenesis (ACACA, THRSP, GPAM, GPD1, and LPL) and lipolysis (PNPLA2) were upregulated (P < 0.05) in adipose tissue in response to increased ME intake/kilogram BW0.75. Hepatic expression of APOA1 decreased and that of APOB increased (P < 0.05) in cows offered maize grain and maize silage (i.e., starch-containing feeds). In comparison, pasture-fed cows demonstrated a degree of uncoupling of the somatotropic axis, with lower hepatic transcript abundance of both GHR1A and IGF-1 compared with cows offered any of the other 4 feeds. Changes to gene transcription indicate a possible molecular mechanism for the poor BW gain evident in ruminants consuming autumn

  13. Dry matter intake and blood parameters of nonlactating Holstein and Jersey cows in late gestation.

    PubMed

    French, P D

    2006-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using 14 multiparous Holstein and 14 multiparous Jersey cows to determine if dry matter intake (DMI), specifically the decline in prepartum DMI and plasma parameters differed between breeds. Cows were blocked by expected calving date and received a dry cow total mixed ration (15% crude protein and 39% neutral detergent fiber) beginning 30 d before expected calving date. At calving, cows were switched to a lactation total mixed ration (17% crude protein and 33% neutral detergent fiber). Data were collected from d 23 prepartum to d 1 postpartum. Body weight was greater for Holsteins compared with Jerseys, but body condition score did not differ between breeds. Dry matter intake decreased for both Holsteins and Jerseys as parturition approached. The interaction of breed x day prepartum was significant for DMI with the magnitude of depression being greater for Holsteins compared with Jerseys. Plasma glucose and beta-hydroxy-butyrate was similar between breeds. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were similar for the two breeds up to d 5 prepartum, but greater for Holsteins compared with Jerseys thereafter. The decline in prepartum DMI was positively correlated to plasma NEFA for Holsteins, but not for Jerseys. These results indicate that breed differences exist for the decline in prepartum DMI and plasma NEFA. In addition, these data show an association between prepartum DMI depression and plasma NEFA but do not suggest a causal relationship.

  14. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  15. Efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for body weight gain in pasture-based, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mandok, K M; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; McNamara, J P; Crookenden, M; White, R; Shields, S; Edwards, G R; Roche, J R

    2014-07-01

    Four cohorts of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows (n=50, 47, 45, and 42) were individually fed indoors to determine the amount of feed required for body weight (BW) gain from autumn pasture and commonly used supplementary feeds. These results were used to estimate the apparent efficiency with which metabolizable energy (ME) is used for BW gain (app_kg). Control cows were offered autumn pasture to estimated maintenance requirements (~0.55 MJ of ME/kg of BW(0.75)), with an additional 20 MJ of ME/d allocated for pregnancy and activity. All other cows received the same allowance of autumn pasture and an additional allowance (2.5 or 5.0 kg of dry matter/d) of autumn pasture (Past), spring pasture silage (Psil), maize silage (Msil), cracked maize grain (Mgr), or palm kernel expeller (PKE), resulting in a total of 11 treatments. Individual cow dry matter intake was determined daily; BW was recorded once per week for cohorts 1 and 2, and 3 times per week for cohorts 3 and 4. The ME contents of feeds were estimated from feed quality assays. Regression analyses were used on each feed to determine the ME requirement for 1 kg of BW gain. The app_kg of Past and Msil was 0.34 and 0.47, respectively; these estimates are in line with published literature. The app_kg of Psil (0.50) was consistent with the published kg for spring pasture, from which the silage was made. Palm kernel expeller had the greatest app_kg (0.61). The reasons for this cannot be deduced from the current study but may reflect the relatively high fat content of the feed and the high kg of fat. The app_kg for Mgr was low (0.38) in comparison with the other supplementary feeds and, in particular, relative to its feed ME and published kg estimates. Although the reason for the low app_kg cannot be deduced from the current data, the most plausible reason is the preferential use of propionate-derived glucose for conceptus metabolism rather than BW gain, a factor not accounted for in previous experimental models that

  16. Cardiac autonomic activity has a circadian rhythm in summer but not in winter in non-lactating pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Levente; Kézér, Fruzsina Luca; Ruff, Ferenc; Szenci, Ottó

    2016-03-01

    This investigation was conducted to examine circadian and seasonal rhythms of heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) by means of hour-by-hour recordings over 24h in a large population of non-lactating Holstein-Friesian pregnant cows [N=56, summer (June-July); N=61, winter (November-December)]. Data were collected during a 5-day period from each animal. Besides parameters of cardiac autonomic function [the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low-frequency (LF) and the HF components (LF/HF ratio)], the RR triangular index and Lmax were calculated. A clear circadian profile was observed for every parameter in summer. Heart rate elevated gradually with the course of the day from 7:00 to 17:00 o'clock and then slightly decreased from 18:00 to 6:00. Sympathovagal balance shifted towards sympathetic dominance during the daytime (increased LF/HF ratio), whereas parasympathetic activity was predominant during the night (increased HF). Lmax reflected a chaotic behavior of heart rate fluctuations during the afternoon in summer. Decreased values of RR triangular index indicated a sensitive period for cows between 14:00 and 16:00 o'clock in summer. During winter, except for the RR triangular (RRtri) index reflecting a high overall variability in R-R intervals between 12:00 and 23:00 o'clock, heart rate and HRV showed no periodicity over the 24-h period. The results suggest an impaired cardiac autonomic function during daytime in summer. HF, Lmax and RRtri index showed seasonal differences for both daytime and nighttime. Heart rate was higher in summer than in winter during the daytime, whereas the LF/HF ratio was higher in winter during the nighttime. Circadian and seasonal rhythms of cardiovascular function are presumably related to the differing temperature, and animal activity associated with summer and winter. As all of the investigated parameters are commonly used in bovine HRV research, these findings have practical implications for

  17. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system. PMID:26654380

  18. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system.

  19. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    IRSHAD, Abdul Razaq; SASAKI, Taihei; KUBO, Tomoaki; ODASHIMA, Naoyuki; KATANO, Keiji; OSAWA, Takeshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3– < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively). PMID:26052155

  20. The effect of a negative energy balance status on β-carotene availability in serum and follicular fluid of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Bie, J; Langbeen, A; Verlaet, A A J; Florizoone, F; Immig, I; Hermans, N; Fransen, E; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolic pressure due to a cow's negative energy balance (NEB) has a negative effect on oocyte quality as a result of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we hypothesized that a NEB status may negatively affect the availability of β-carotene (bC, an antioxidant) in the micro-environment of the oocyte or follicular fluid (FF) and that daily bC supplementation can increase bC availability. We aimed to (1) determine the effect of a nutritionally induced NEB on bC concentrations in serum and FF as well as on the presence of bC metabolites, oxidative stress levels, and follicular growth in a nonlactating dairy cow model, and (2) investigate how this effect could be altered by dietary bC supplementation. Six multiparous nonlactating Holstein Friesian cows were subjected to 4 consecutive dietary treatments, 28 d each: (1) 1.2 × maintenance (M) or positive energy balance (PEB) without bC supplement (PEB-bC), (2) 1.2 × M with daily supplement of 2,000mg of bC comparable to the level of bC intake at grazing (PEB+bC), (3) 0.6 × M with 2,000mg of bC (NEB+bC), and (4) 0.6 × M (NEB-bC). At the end of each treatment, estrous cycles were synchronized and blood and FF of the largest follicle were sampled and analyzed for bC, retinol, α-tocopherol, free fatty acids, estradiol, and progesterone. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, insulin growth factor 1, growth hormone, total antioxidant status (TAS), and red blood cell glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined as well. All cows lost body weight during both energy restriction periods and showed increased serum free fatty acid concentrations, illustrating a NEB. A dietary induced NEB reduced FF bC, but not plasma bC or plasma and FF retinol concentrations. However, bC and retinol concentrations drastically increased in both fluid compartments after bC supplementation. Follicular diameter was increased in supplemented PEB cows. Energy restriction reduced the TAS and red blood cell GSH, whereas daily b

  1. The effect of a negative energy balance status on β-carotene availability in serum and follicular fluid of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Bie, J; Langbeen, A; Verlaet, A A J; Florizoone, F; Immig, I; Hermans, N; Fransen, E; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolic pressure due to a cow's negative energy balance (NEB) has a negative effect on oocyte quality as a result of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we hypothesized that a NEB status may negatively affect the availability of β-carotene (bC, an antioxidant) in the micro-environment of the oocyte or follicular fluid (FF) and that daily bC supplementation can increase bC availability. We aimed to (1) determine the effect of a nutritionally induced NEB on bC concentrations in serum and FF as well as on the presence of bC metabolites, oxidative stress levels, and follicular growth in a nonlactating dairy cow model, and (2) investigate how this effect could be altered by dietary bC supplementation. Six multiparous nonlactating Holstein Friesian cows were subjected to 4 consecutive dietary treatments, 28 d each: (1) 1.2 × maintenance (M) or positive energy balance (PEB) without bC supplement (PEB-bC), (2) 1.2 × M with daily supplement of 2,000mg of bC comparable to the level of bC intake at grazing (PEB+bC), (3) 0.6 × M with 2,000mg of bC (NEB+bC), and (4) 0.6 × M (NEB-bC). At the end of each treatment, estrous cycles were synchronized and blood and FF of the largest follicle were sampled and analyzed for bC, retinol, α-tocopherol, free fatty acids, estradiol, and progesterone. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, insulin growth factor 1, growth hormone, total antioxidant status (TAS), and red blood cell glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined as well. All cows lost body weight during both energy restriction periods and showed increased serum free fatty acid concentrations, illustrating a NEB. A dietary induced NEB reduced FF bC, but not plasma bC or plasma and FF retinol concentrations. However, bC and retinol concentrations drastically increased in both fluid compartments after bC supplementation. Follicular diameter was increased in supplemented PEB cows. Energy restriction reduced the TAS and red blood cell GSH, whereas daily b

  2. Prediction of metabolisable energy concentrations of fresh-cut grass using digestibility data measured with non-pregnant non-lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Allen, Michelle; Chen, Xianjiang; Wills, David; Yan, Tianhai

    2015-05-28

    Pasture-based ruminant production systems are common in certain areas of the world, but energy evaluation in grazing cattle is performed with equations developed, in their majority, with sheep or cattle fed total mixed rations. The aim of the current study was to develop predictions of metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations in fresh-cut grass offered to non-pregnant non-lactating cows at maintenance energy level, which may be more suitable for grazing cattle. Data were collected from three digestibility trials performed over consecutive grazing seasons. In order to cover a range of commercial conditions and data availability in pasture-based systems, thirty-eight equations for the prediction of energy concentrations and ratios were developed. An internal validation was performed for all equations and also for existing predictions of grass ME. Prediction error for ME using nutrient digestibility was lowest when gross energy (GE) or organic matter digestibilities were used as sole predictors, while the addition of grass nutrient contents reduced the difference between predicted and actual values, and explained more variation. Addition of N, GE and diethyl ether extract (EE) contents improved accuracy when digestible organic matter in DM was the primary predictor. When digestible energy was the primary explanatory variable, prediction error was relatively low, but addition of water-soluble carbohydrates, EE and acid-detergent fibre contents of grass decreased prediction error. Equations developed in the current study showed lower prediction errors when compared with those of existing equations, and may thus allow for an improved prediction of ME in practice, which is critical for the sustainability of pasture-based systems.

  3. Prediction of metabolisable energy concentrations of fresh-cut grass using digestibility data measured with non-pregnant non-lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Allen, Michelle; Chen, Xianjiang; Wills, David; Yan, Tianhai

    2015-05-28

    Pasture-based ruminant production systems are common in certain areas of the world, but energy evaluation in grazing cattle is performed with equations developed, in their majority, with sheep or cattle fed total mixed rations. The aim of the current study was to develop predictions of metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations in fresh-cut grass offered to non-pregnant non-lactating cows at maintenance energy level, which may be more suitable for grazing cattle. Data were collected from three digestibility trials performed over consecutive grazing seasons. In order to cover a range of commercial conditions and data availability in pasture-based systems, thirty-eight equations for the prediction of energy concentrations and ratios were developed. An internal validation was performed for all equations and also for existing predictions of grass ME. Prediction error for ME using nutrient digestibility was lowest when gross energy (GE) or organic matter digestibilities were used as sole predictors, while the addition of grass nutrient contents reduced the difference between predicted and actual values, and explained more variation. Addition of N, GE and diethyl ether extract (EE) contents improved accuracy when digestible organic matter in DM was the primary predictor. When digestible energy was the primary explanatory variable, prediction error was relatively low, but addition of water-soluble carbohydrates, EE and acid-detergent fibre contents of grass decreased prediction error. Equations developed in the current study showed lower prediction errors when compared with those of existing equations, and may thus allow for an improved prediction of ME in practice, which is critical for the sustainability of pasture-based systems. PMID:25864464

  4. Effect of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes as feed additive on the rumen bacterial population in non-lactating cows quantified by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Guertler, P; Pfaffl, M W; Eisenreich, R; Wiedemann, S; Schwarz, F J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, added to a maize silage- and grass silage-based total mixed ration (TMR) at least 14 h before feeding, on the rumen bacterial population were investigated. Six non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were allocated to three treatment groups using a duplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 31-day periods (29 days of adaptation and 2 days of sampling). Treatments were control TMR [69% forage and 31% concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis] or TMR with 13.8 or 27.7 ml/kg of feed DM of Roxazyme G2 liquid with activities (U/ml enzyme preparation) of xylanase 260 000, β-glucanase 180 000 and cellulase 8000 (DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland). The concentrations of 16S rDNA of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Selenomonas ruminantium and Treponema bryantii, and their relative percentage of total bacteria in rumen samples obtained before feeding and 3 and 7 h after feeding and from two rumen fractions were determined using real-time PCR. Sampling time had only little influence, but bacterial numbers and the composition of the population differed between the transition layer between rumen fluid and the fibre mat (fraction A) and the rumen fluid (fraction B) highlighting the importance to standardize sampling. The 16S rDNA copies of total bacteria and the six bacterial species as well as the population composition were mainly unaffected by the high levels of exogenous enzymes supplemented at all sampling times and in both rumen fractions. Occasionally, the percentages of the non-fibrolytic species P. ruminicola and A. lipolytica changed in response to enzyme supplementation. Some increases in the potential degradability of the diet and decreases in lag time which occurred collaterally indicate that other factors than changes in numbers of non-particle-associated bacteria are mainly responsible for the effects of

  5. Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

  6. Milk traits of lactating cows submitted to feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Alexandre Mossate; McManus, Concepta Margareth; Zanela, Maira Balbinotti; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Barbosa, Rosângela Silveira; Fruscalso, Vilmar; Thaler Neto, André; Schmidt, Fernando André; Fischer, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Data from five experiments with dairy cows where feed was restricted to 0, 40, and 50% of the ad libitum amount, with 259 observations, were subjected to multivariate analyses to determine the effects of severity and duration of feed restriction on production, physical-chemical characteristics, ethanol stability, and somatic cell score of milk. A negative relationship was seen between the severity and duration of feed restriction with milk production, lactose content, titratable acidity, and milk stability to the ethanol test. The milk stability to the ethanol test, protein content, milk yield, and somatic cells score were the most important attributes retained by the discriminant analysis. Milk stability to the ethanol test, live weight, days in restriction, and pH were the most important characteristics explaining the variance within the different levels of feed restriction. Milk production and ethanol stability were significantly lower in both levels of feed restriction compared with the group fed ad libitum. When feed restriction was followed by refeeding, the difference observed in ethanol stability was the first discriminant variable, followed by the difference in unstable milk frequency and titratable acidity. Increments in the severity and duration of feed restriction negatively affect milk production and milk ethanol stability.

  7. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  8. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  9. Effects of vaccination against reproductive diseases on reproductive performance of beef cows submitted to fixed-timed AI in Brazilian cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Aono, F H; Cooke, R F; Alfieri, A A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2013-01-15

    The objectives were to assess incidence of pregnancy losses, associate this outcome with immunization programs against reproductive diseases, and evaluate the effects of vaccination against bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Leptospira spp., on reproductive efficiency of Brazilian cow-calf operations. In experiment 1, 7614 lactating Nelore cows from 18 ranches were assigned to the same estrus synchronization and fixed-time AI protocol (ESFTAI; Days -11 to 0). Pregnancy status was determined with transrectal ultrasonography on Days 30 and 120 after AI. Pregnancy loss was deemed to have occurred when cows were pregnant on Day 30 but nonpregnant on Day 120. Incidence of pregnancy loss across all ranches was 4.1%; pregnancy losses were detected (P < 0.10) in 14 ranches but not detected (P > 0.11) in four ranches. Pregnancy loss was lower (P ≤ 0.02) in ranches that vaccinated against BoHV-1, BVDV, and Leptospira spp. compared with ranches that did not vaccinate, or only vaccinated against Leptospira spp. In experiments 2 and 3, lactating Nelore cows (N = 1950 and 2793, respectively) from ranches that did not have a history of vaccinating against reproductive diseases (experiment 2), or only vaccinated against Leptospira spp. (experiment 3), were assigned to the same ESFTAI used in experiment 1. Within each ranch, cows received (VAC) or not (CON) vaccination against BoHV-1, BVDV, and Leptospira spp. at the beginning of the ESFTAI (Day -11) and 30 days after (Day 41) AI. In experiment 2, VAC cows had greater (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rates compared with CON on Days 30 and 120. In experiments 2 and 3, pregnancy loss was reduced (P ≤ 0.03) in primiparous VAC cows compared with CON cohorts. In experiment 4, 367 primiparous, lactating Nelore cows previously vaccinated against Leptospira spp. were assigned to the same ESFTAI used in experiment 1. Cows received VAC, or the same vaccine 30 days before (Day -41) and at the beginning (Day -11

  10. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO. PMID:27216557

  11. Hypocalcemic effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the dairy cow.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, L M; Campbell, D L; Harvey, T

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the parenteral administration of aminoglycoside antibiotics on the blood calcium concentration in dairy cows was investigated. Gentamicin was tested in vitro in blood drawn from cows, dihydrostreptomycin was tested in nonlactating cows and neomycin was tested in postpartum cows. The total and bound calcium fractions were significantly reduced by all three antibiotics. No change occurred in the unbound calcium fractions. Caution is advised in the use of these drugs in postpartum cows, especially those with a history of milk fever. PMID:71189

  12. Evaluating the interaction between progesterone, TNF alpha and cortisol on early loss of transferred embryos in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-eight non-lactating cows previously synchronized for estrus were assigned to two treatments to assess the effects of progesterone supplementation and its correlation with TNF-a and cortisol on the survival of the transferred embryos. On day 7 after exhibiting estrus (day 0), cows in both group...

  13. Influence of ruminal methane on digesta retention and digestive physiology in non-lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Hammond, Kirsty J; Kirton, Paul; Humphries, David J; Crompton, Les A; Ortmann, Sylvia; Misselbrook, Tom H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Reynolds, Christopher K; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Enteric methane (CH4) production is a side-effect of herbivore digestion, but it is unknown whether CH4 itself influences digestive physiology. We investigated the effect of adding CH4 to, or reducing it in, the reticulorumen (RR) in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with rumen-fistulated, non-lactating cows, with four treatments: (i) control, (ii) insufflation of CH4 (iCH4), (iii) N via rumen fistula, (iv) reduction of CH4 via administration of bromochloromethane (BCM). DM intake (DMI), apparent total tract digestibility, digesta mean retention times (MRT), rumen motility and chewing activity, spot breath CH4 emission (CH4exhal, litre/kg DMI) as well as CH4 dissolved in rumen fluid (CH4RRf, µg/ml) were measured. Data were analysed using mixed models, including treatment (or, alternatively, CH4exhal or CH4RRf) and DMI relative to body mass0·85 (rDMI) as covariates. rDMI was the lowest on the BCM treatment. CH4exhal was highest for iCH4 and lowest for BCM treatments, whereas only BCM affected (reduced) CH4RRf. After adjusting for rDMI, CH4RRf had a negative association with MRT in the gastrointestinal tract but not in the RR, and negative associations with fibre digestibility and measures of rumination activity. Adjusting for rDMI, CH4exhal had additionally a negative association with particle MRT in the RR and a positive association with rumen motility. Thus, higher rumen levels of CH4 (CH4exhal or CH4RRf) were associated with shorter MRT and increased motility. These findings are tentatively interpreted as a feedback mechanism in the ruminant digestive tract that aims at mitigating CH4 losses by shortening MRT at higher CH4. PMID:27452637

  14. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  15. Effects of ammonium chloride and sulfate on acid-base status and calcium metabolism of dry Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Beede, D K

    1992-03-01

    Eight nonlactating, nonpregnant Jersey cows were used in a crossover experiment with two 28-d periods. The control diet consisted of corn silage plus a concentrate mix (68:32, DM basis). The treatment diet was the same, except that NH4Cl and (NH4)2SO4 (98 g of each/d per cow) were added to the concentrate. Cows fed the treatment diet had lower blood pH, higher ionized Ca in blood, and more urinary excretion of Ca, titratable acid, and ammonium than cows fed the control diet. For cows fed the treatment diet, ionized Ca in blood was greater after equal amounts of Na2-EDTA were infused to both treatment groups, and treatment cows recovered faster after infusion of Na2-EDTA was stopped than did control cows. The treatment diet induced mild metabolic acidosis and increased the cows' ability to maintain normal blood Ca concentrations; it potentially could reduce incidence of milk fever.

  16. The effect of high-starch diets fed to beef cows during late gestation on the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fetus requires glucose as an energy source; hence, it was hypothesized that diets rich in glycogenic substrates during late gestation would yield offspring that have a greater potential to produce a high quality carcass. In November of 2005 and 2006, 54 and 59, respectively, non-lactating cows o...

  17. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets

    PubMed Central

    Qumar, Muhammad; Khiaosa-ard, Ratchaneewan; Pourazad, Poulad; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Kandler, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline) and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8) or interruptedly (Int; n = 8). Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1) and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4). Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline), while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides evidence of

  18. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum.

  19. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L.; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S.

    2013-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring. PMID:17963759

  20. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring.

  1. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration.

  2. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

  3. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huawei; Trabue, Steven L; Scoggin, Kenwood; Jackson, Wendi A; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Malkina, Irina L; Koziel, Jacek A; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their manure as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). We report measurements of alcohols, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and methane (CH4) emitted from nonlactating (dry) and lactating dairy cows and their manure under controlled conditions. The experiment was conducted in an environmental chamber that simulates commercial concrete-floored freestall cow housing conditions. The fluxes of methanol, ethanol, and CH4 were measured from cows and/or their fresh manure. The average estimated methanol and ethanol emissions were 0.33 and 0.51 g cow(-1) h(-1) from dry cows and manure and 0.7 and 1.27 g cow(-1) h(-1) from lactating cows and manure, respectively. Both alcohols increased over time, coinciding with increasing accumulation of manure on the chamber floor. Volatile fatty acids and phenols were emitted at concentrations close to their detection limit. Average estimated CH4 emissions were predominantly associated with enteric fermentation from cows rather than manure and were 12.35 and 18.23 g cow(-1) h(-1) for dry and lactating cows, respectively. Lactating cows produced considerably more gaseous VOCs and GHGs emissions than dry cows (P < 0.001). Dairy cows and fresh manure have the potential to emit considerable amounts of alcohols and CH4 and research is needed to determine effective mitigation.

  4. [NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IN THE SECRETORY CELLS OF MAMMARY GLANDS IN LACTATING AND NON-LACTATING RATS].

    PubMed

    Tyutina, K V; Skopichev, V G; Bogolyubov, D S; Bogolyubova, I O

    2016-01-01

    The features of structural and functional organization of the main nuclear compartments and distribution of their key molecular components (chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX, RNA polymerase I and II, and the splicing factor SC35) has been studied in the nuclei of mammary gland cells at different functional states. No significant differences between the nuclei of the cells in the lactating and non-lactating mammary glands have been revealed at the ultrastructural level. At the same time, photometric analysis has revealed higher intensity of nucleoplasmic immunofluorescent staining of mammary glands in the lactating animals when antibodies against the proteins ATRX and SC35 were used. Apparently, this observation reflects the changes of the structural and functional status of chromatin as well as the redistribution of splicing factors between the sites of their deposition and transcription. PMID:27228661

  5. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  6. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    PubMed Central

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized. PMID:24489391

  7. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... owner or operator of a foreign tank vessel that is to be inspected must submit to the Coast...

  8. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... owner or operator of a foreign tank vessel that is to be inspected must submit to the Coast...

  9. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte. PMID:12487447

  10. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  11. Respiratory effects of pregnancy and progesterone in Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Keith, I M; Bisgard, G E; Manohar, M; Klein, J; Bullard, V A

    1982-12-01

    Unanesthetized Jersey cows were studied during both pregnant (5-9 months) nonlactating states, and nonpregnant lactating states; and also following treatment with progesterone (Pr). The pH, PCO2 and PO2 of aortic blood, VE and f were measured and the mixed expired gas was analyzed. The following significant changes from the nonpregnant state occurred during pregnancy: PaCO2 = -3.2 mm Hg, pHa = +0.02 unit, VT = -0.44 L, f = +7 breaths/min, and VE/VCO2 = +9.7. Concomitant with the respiratory studies, serum Pr levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 11 nonpregnant and 5 pregnant cows, and in 6 nonpregnant, lactating cows prior to and on days 3, 5 and 10 of treatment with Pr (500 mg, i.m., twice daily). Minute ventilation (VE, L X min-1 X kg-1, BTPS) was positively correlated (r = +0.59) and PaCO2 was negatively correlated (r = -0.64) with endogenous serum Pr levels of non-pregnant and pregnant cows. However, exogenous Pr did not significantly alter these parameters or pHa, despite mean serum levels nearly twice (23.6 +/- 10.2 ng/ml) those observed in pregnant cows (12.7 +/- 3.7 ng/ml). The increased ventilation during pregnancy in Jersey cows, shown in this study, does not appear to be related to Pr as exogenous Pr failed to induce hyperventilation. The correlation of increased ventilation with endogenous Pr levels therefore suggests that the mode of in vivo Pr release, or different compound, simultaneously released, could be the stimulus.

  12. Stem/progenitor cells in non-lactating versus lactating equine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Spaas, Jan H; Chiers, Koen; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2012-11-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Based on the facts that (i) mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSC) are proposed to be the driving forces behind mammary growth and function and (ii) variation exists between mammalian species with regard to physiological and pathological functioning of this organ, we believe that studying MaSC from different mammals is of great comparative interest. Over the years, important data has been gathered on MaSC of men and mice, although knowledge on MaSC in other mammals remains limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate and characterize MaSC from the mammary gland of horses. Hereby, our salient findings were that the isolated equine cells met the 2 in vitro hallmark properties of stem cells, namely the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, the cells were immunophenotyped using markers for CD29, CD44, CD49f, and Ki67. Finally, we propose the mammosphere assay as a valuable in vitro assay to study MaSC during different physiological phases since it was observed that equine lactating mammary gland contains significantly more mammosphere-initiating cells than the inactive, nonlactating gland (a reflection of MaSC self-renewal) and, moreover, that these spheres were significantly larger in size upon initial cultivation (a reflection of progenitor cell proliferation). Taken together, this study not only extends the current knowledge of mammary gland biology, but also benefits the comparative approach to study and compare MaSC in different mammalian species.

  13. Influence of intramammary infusion of calcium on the calcium status of periparturient lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M; Tucker, W B

    1998-07-01

    Sixteen multiparous pregnant cows (14 Holsteins and 2 Jerseys) were arranged in a randomized complete block design and assigned to intramammary infusion of Ca (8 cows) or intramammary infusion of distilled, deionized water (8 cows). Beginning 1 wk before expected calving, plasma Ca concentration was monitored daily until calving. Immediately after the first milking postpartum, an initial (0-h) blood sample was collected via a jugular catheter; then 40 ml of either a 50% Ca borogluconate solution containing 1.6 g of Ca or 40 ml of distilled, deionized water were infused in the right forequarter of the udder. Changes in plasma Ca concentration were monitored every 10 min for the 1st h and then hourly thereafter until the next milking. This infusion and sampling protocol was applied for three consecutive milkings (36 h). Milk Ca concentration from individual quarters for each milking also was monitored. Cows infused with water had lower milk Ca concentration in the infused quarter than in the uninfused quarters during the third and fourth milkings postpartum. Milk Ca for cows infused with Ca was higher in infused quarters than in uninfused quarters at the second milking postpartum. However, this difference lessened during the third milking and was reversed during the fourth milking. Plasma Ca concentration of control cows decreased toward the end of each 12-h sampling interval but was much more stable for cows infused with Ca. The enhanced ability of cows infused with Ca to maintain plasma Ca concentration postpartum might translate into improved transition from nonlactating to lactating diets and could potentially reduce the incidence of metabolic disorders during the periparturient period. However, this response and potential side effects, such as the possibility that mastitis could accompany intramammary infusion of Ca, should be evaluated further before adopting this procedure.

  14. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  15. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  16. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  17. Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis in a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Cable, C S; Rebhun, W C; Fortier, L A

    1997-10-01

    A 9-year-old Holstein cow was evaluated for colic and decreased milk production of 2 days' duration. Preoperative serum biochemical results suggested hepatic damage and cholestasis. On the basis of persistent signs of abdominal pain that were nonresponsive to analgesics, exploratory laparotomy was performed. The cow was found to have choleliths. Cholecystocentesis was performed, and samples were submitted for cytologic examination and bacterial culture. Bacterial culture yielded Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Using digital pressure, choleliths were reduced until they could be passed through the bile duct into the duodenum. The cow recovered from surgery without complications, and all serum biochemical test results returned to reference ranges. Cholelithiasis is rare in cattle but can result in signs of abdominal pain.

  18. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  19. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  20. In vivo embryo production in cows superovulated 1 or 2 days after ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Surjus, Ricardo S; Prata, Alexandre B; Borsato, Marta; Mattos, Fernanda C S Z; Martins da Silveira, Mariana C; Mourão, Gerson B; Pires, Alexandre V; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated superovulatory responses and in vivo embryo production in cows treated with FSH starting 1 or 2 days after ovum pick-up (OPU). Thirty-three non-lactating Nelore cows were subjected to aspiration of all follicles ≥3mm for OPU. After OPU, cows were randomly divided into two groups in which the follicle superstimulatory treatments with FSH started 1 or 2 days after OPU (Groups D1 and D2, respectively). Data are presented as the least squares mean±s.e.m. The number of follicles ≥3mm before OPU was similar between groups (~34); however, cows in Group D2 had more follicles ≥3mm on the first day of FSH (15.2±2.3 vs 7.6±1.7; P=0.04) and a higher ratio of the number of follicles at first FSH/number of follicles before OPU (0.41±0.04 vs 0.24±0.02; P=0.01). In addition, Group D2 cows had a greater superovulatory response than did cows in Group D1 (18.9±2.8 vs 9.1±1.9 corpora lutea, respectively; P<0.03). However, there was no difference in the total number of recovered ova and embryos from cows in Groups D2 and D1 (5.1±1.4 vs 4.9±1.3, respectively; P>0.10). Nevertheless Group D2 cows had more freezable embryos than Group D1 cows (3.2±1.1 vs 1.3±0.5, respectively; P<0.05). Cows from Group D2 had a much higher proportion (P<0.001) of follicles ≥8mm compared with follicles ≥6mm and <8mm at the time of the last treatment with FSH. In conclusion, to obtain a greater production of viable embryos in superovulated cows after OPU, it is recommended to wait at least 2 days before starting FSH treatment.

  1. A new tracer experiment to estimate the methane emissions from a dairy cow shed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marik, Thomas; Levin, Ingeborg

    1996-09-01

    Methane emission from livestock and agricultural wastes contribute globally more than 30% to the anthropogenic atmospheric methane source. Estimates of this number have been derived from respiration chamber experiments. We determined methane emission rates from a tracer experiment in a modern cow shed hosting 43 dairy cows in their accustomed environment. During a 24-hour period the concentrations of CH4, CO2, and SF6, a trace gas which has been released at a constant rate into the stable air, have been measured. The ratio between SF6 release rate and measured SF6 concentration was then used to estimate the ventilation rate of the stable air during the course of the experiment. The respective ratio between CH4 or CO2 and SF6 concentration together with the known SF6 release rate allows us to calculate the CH4 (and CO2) emissions in the stable. From our experiment we derive a total daily mean CH4 emission of 441 LSTP per cow (9 cows nonlactating), which is about 15% higher than previous estimates for German cows with comparable milk production obtained during respiration chamber experiments. The higher emission in our stable experiment is attributed to the contribution of CH4 release from about 50 m3 of liquid manure present in the cow shed in underground channels. Also, considering measurements we made directly on a liquid manure tank, we obtained an estimate of the total CH4 production from manure: The normalized contribution of methane from manure amounts to 12-30% of the direct methane release of a dairy cow during rumination. The total CH4 release per dairy cow, including manure, is 521-530 LSTP CH4 per day.

  2. pH-, Lactic Acid-, and Non-Lactic Acid-Dependent Activities of Probiotic Lactobacilli against Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Fayol-Messaoudi, Domitille; Berger, Cédric N.; Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélène; Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism(s) underlying the antibacterial activity of probiotic Lactobacillus strains appears to be multifactorial and includes lowering of the pH and the production of lactic acid and of antibacterial compounds, including bacteriocins and nonbacteriocin, non-lactic acid molecules. Addition of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimum essential medium to the incubating medium delays the killing activity of lactic acid. We found that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, and L. rhamnosus GR1 induced a dramatic decrease in the viability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 mainly attributable to non-lactic acid molecule(s) present in the cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS). These molecules were more active against serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in the exponential growth phase than in the stationary growth phase. We also showed that the production of the non-lactic acid substance(s) responsible for the killing activity was dependent on growth temperature and that both unstable and stable substances with killing activity were present in the CFCSs. We found that the complete inhibition of serovar Typhimurium SL1344 growth results from a pH-lowering effect. PMID:16204515

  3. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  4. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-10-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touchpanel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  5. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  6. Non-lactating versus lactating females: a comparison of sex steroids, sexual coloration, and sexual behavior in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Bernard; Aspernig, Doris; Millesi, Eva; Machatschke, Ivo H

    2011-01-01

    Female Japanese macaques are seasonal breeders distinguished by their red-colored hindquarters, face, and nipple skin areas. Intensity of coloration seems to be associated with sexual attractiveness, behavior, and fluctuating sex steroids. Our aim was to investigate whether the color intensity of these regions differed between lactating (LA) and non-lactating (NLA) females during sexually inactive (SI) and active (SA) phases. Coloration scores of 19 adult females were classified using color tables. Estrogen and progesterone metabolites were determined in fecal samples. Weekly comparison between both groups revealed significantly increased coloration of the hindquarters area from week 13 (SI) until the end of the observation period, and for the nipple skin throughout the SI and SA periods. Face coloration differed marginally. Hormonally, NLA females showed significantly increased excretion rates of sex steroids at the end of the SI phase and throughout the whole SA period. Logistic regression analyses between elevated fecal steroids and nipple coloration disclosed a significant relationship for NLA females during the SI period. This connection persisted and included hindquarter coloration during the SA period. NLA females showed increased intromission with ejaculation, but no difference was found for intromission without ejaculation. In conclusion, results demonstrate increased endocrine excretion rates for NLA females during the whole observation period, paralleled by an enhanced, fertility-signaling sexual attractiveness.

  7. Haematological profile on non-lactating Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, P; Corona, M; Ambrosio, R; Consalvo, F; Persechino, A

    2005-08-01

    Haematological studies were performed on 100 clinically normal non-lactating Mediterranean buffalo species ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years, to determinate the range of normal haematological values for this ruminant species. The animals were divided in 5 groups according to age: Group I, 2-3 years old which had never calved, Group II, 3-4 years old (primipara buffaloes), Group III, 5-7 years old, Group IV 8-10 years old and Group V over 10 years of age. All the haematological values obtained were comparable with the normal values found in adult cattle, and similar to those reported in Indian water buffalo species. The heifer buffalo showed an higher values for packed cell volume (PCV) compared with the older animals, but lower values for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P 0.01). In animals above 8 years of age, the white cell count was lower with a significant reduction in absolute values of lymphocytes (P 0.01). Higher absolute values of eosinophils levels was found in the group V (P 0.01). PMID:15894028

  8. Haematological profile on non-lactating Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, P; Corona, M; Ambrosio, R; Consalvo, F; Persechino, A

    2005-08-01

    Haematological studies were performed on 100 clinically normal non-lactating Mediterranean buffalo species ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years, to determinate the range of normal haematological values for this ruminant species. The animals were divided in 5 groups according to age: Group I, 2-3 years old which had never calved, Group II, 3-4 years old (primipara buffaloes), Group III, 5-7 years old, Group IV 8-10 years old and Group V over 10 years of age. All the haematological values obtained were comparable with the normal values found in adult cattle, and similar to those reported in Indian water buffalo species. The heifer buffalo showed an higher values for packed cell volume (PCV) compared with the older animals, but lower values for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P 0.01). In animals above 8 years of age, the white cell count was lower with a significant reduction in absolute values of lymphocytes (P 0.01). Higher absolute values of eosinophils levels was found in the group V (P 0.01).

  9. Flooring in front of the feed bunk affects feeding behavior and use of freestalls by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M; de Passillé, A M; Campbell, B; Rushen, J

    2006-06-01

    In 2 experiments we assessed how preferences, time budgets, and feeding behavior of dairy cows change in response to flooring surfaces in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, 12 nonlactating dairy cattle were individually housed with access to 2 standing platforms filled with either concrete or sawdust. In Experiment 2, 24 nonlactating dairy cattle were given access to either concrete or Animat rubber flooring in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, cows preferred the sawdust to the concrete flooring. In both experiments, cows provided with a softer floor in front of the feed bunk spent more time standing near the feed bunk without eating (Experiment 1: 67 vs. 40 min/d on sawdust vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 5.6 min/d; Experiment 2: 176 vs. 115 min/d on Animat vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 20.5 min/d) compared with when they were kept on concrete. The increased time spent at the feed bunk was due to a combination of more frequent eating and standing bouts, indicating that cows were more willing to move on nonconcrete flooring. Total time spent eating was significantly greater on the softer floor in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1 (Exp. 1: 289 vs. 275 min/d on sawdust and concrete, respectively, SEM = 7.3 min/d; Exp. 2: 330 vs. 289 min/d on Animat and concrete, respectively, SEM = 15.4), although feed intake was increased on the sawdust treatment in Experiment 1. Cows spent significantly more time lying in the feed alley when the flooring was rubber (219 vs. 53 min/d on Animat and concrete, SEM = 53.6 min/d), perhaps because the lying area in Experiment 2 was inadequate. In conclusion, cows prefer to stand on softer flooring in front of the feed bunk, and are more willing to move on and spend more time standing in front of the feed bunk when provided with softer flooring. These results indicate that cows find softer flooring surfaces more comfortable to stand on than concrete, and highlight the importance of evaluating the comfort of the

  10. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  11. Hypomagnesaemia in suckler cows.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Hypomagnesaemia in housed and grazing suckler cows. Coronavirus infection in cows. Suspected nitrite toxicity in lambs associated with feeding broccoli. Maedi visna in ewes. Mycotic pneumonia in a wildcat. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  12. Timing of follicular phase events and the postovulatory progesterone rise following synchronisation of oestrus in cows.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, G R; Gutierrez, C G; Peters, A R; Mann, G E

    2006-07-01

    In cows the timing of both ovulation and the subsequent postovulatory progesterone rise are critical to successful fertilisation and early embryo development. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of variability in the timing of ovulation relative to other follicular phase events and to determine how variations in the timing of follicular phase events contribute to the timing of the postovulatory progesterone rise. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol and luteinising hormone (LH) and the timing of oestrus and ovulation were determined following induction of luteolysis were determined in 18 mature, non-lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four cows were excluded on the basis of abnormal reproductive function. In the remaining 14 cows oestrus occurred at 57.4+/-4.3h and the LH surge at 54.6+/-4.0h following luteolysis (progesterone <1ngmL(-1)) followed by a fall in circulating oestradiol concentration at 64.6+/-4.4h. Cows ovulated at 88.0+/-4.7h with the postovulatory progesterone rise (to >1ngmL(-1)) occurring 159+/-7.2h after luteolysis. There was considerable variation in the timing of ovulation following luteolysis (range 64-136h) onset of oestrus (range 24-40h) and onset of the LH surge (range 24-44h). Cows were then split on the basis of interval from progesterone fall to progesterone rise giving groups (n=7 per group) with intervals of 180.6+/-6.7 and 138.3+/-5.7h (P<0.001). Between groups, both the intervals from luteolysis to ovulation (98.3+/-6.9 vs 77.7+/-3.4h; P<0.05) and ovulation to progesterone rise (82.3+/-4.2 vs. 60.6+/-5.5h; P<0.01) were longer in late rise cows. There was no difference between groups in the interval from oestrus or LH surge to ovulation. In conclusion the results of this study further highlight the high variability that exists in the timing and interrelationships of follicular phase events in the modern dairy cow, reemphasising the challenges that exist in optimising mating strategies. However, the data do

  13. Strategic supplementation of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C N; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Peres, R F G; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2011-10-01

    Five experiments evaluated the effects of supplemental Ca salts of PUFA on reproductive function of Bos indicus beef cows. In Exp. 1, nonlactating and multiparous grazing cows (n = 51) were assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 0.1 kg of a protein-mineral mix + 0.1 kg of ground corn per cow/d, in addition to 0.1 kg per cow/d of 1) Ca salts of PUFA (PF), 2) Ca salts of SFA (SF), or 3) kaolin (control). Treatments were offered from d 0 to 20 of the estrous cycle. No treatment effects were detected on serum progesterone concentrations (P = 0.83), day of luteolysis (P = 0.86), or incidence of short cycles (P = 0.84). In Exp. 2, nonlactating and multiparous grazing cows (n = 43) were assigned to receive PF, SF, or control from d 0 to 8 of the estrous cycle. On d 6, all cows received (intramuscularly) 25 mg of PGF(2α). No treatment effects were detected on serum progesterone concentrations on d 6 (P = 0.37), and incidence (P = 0.67) or estimated time of luteolysis (P = 0.44). In Exp. 3, twenty-seven lactating and multiparous grazing cows, approximately 30 to 40 d postpartum, were assigned to receive PF or control for 10 d beginning at the first postpartum ovulation. No treatment effects were detected (P = 0.85) on incidence of short cycles. In Exp. 4, lactating and multiparous grazing cows (n = 1,454), approximately 40 to 60 d postpartum, were assigned to receive 1 of the 7 treatments for 28 d after timed AI (TAI; d 0): 1) control from d 0 to 28, 2) SF from d 0 to 14 and then control, 3) PF from d 0 to 14 and then control, 4) SF from d 0 to 21 and then control, 5) PF from d 0 to 21 and then control, 6) SF from d 0 to 28, and 7) PF from d 0 to 28. Cows receiving PF for more than 21 d after TAI had greater (P < 0.01) pregnancy to TAI compared with all other treatments combined (50.4 vs. 42.4%, respectively). In Exp. 5, lactating and multiparous grazing cows (n = 501), approximately 40 to 60 d postpartum, were assigned to receive 1 of the 4 treatments for 21 d after TAI (d 0

  14. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  15. Responses of the mammary transcriptome of dairy cows to altered photoperiod during late gestation

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, P. A.; Wall, E. H.; Dahl, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Cows exposed to short day photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) during the 60-day nonlactating period prior to parturition produce more milk in their subsequent lactation compared with cows exposed to long day photoperiod (LD, 16L:8D). Although this response is well established in dairy cows, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We hypothesized that differential gene expression in cows exposed to SD or LD photoperiods during the dry period could be used to identify the functional basis for the subsequent increase in milk production during lactation. Pregnant, multiparous cows were maintained on an SD or LD photoperiod for 60 days prior to parturition. Mammary biopsies were obtained on days −24 and −9 relative to parturition and Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays were used to quantify gene expression. Sixty-four genes were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05 and fold-change ≥ |1.5|) between SD and LD treatments. Many of these genes were associated with cell growth and proliferation, or immune function. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted upstream regulators to include TNF, TGF-β1, interferon-γ, and several interleukins. In addition, expression of 125 genes was significantly different between day −24 and day −9; those genes were associated with milk component metabolism and immune function. The interaction of photoperiod and time affected 32 genes associated with insulin-like growth factor I signaling. Genes differentially expressed in response to photoperiod were associated with mammary development and immune function consistent with the enhancement of milk yield in the ensuing lactation. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms by which photoperiod affects the mammary gland and subsequently lactation. PMID:26175502

  16. Responses of the mammary transcriptome of dairy cows to altered photoperiod during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Bentley, P A; Wall, E H; Dahl, G E; McFadden, T B

    2015-10-01

    Cows exposed to short day photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) during the 60-day nonlactating period prior to parturition produce more milk in their subsequent lactation compared with cows exposed to long day photoperiod (LD, 16L:8D). Although this response is well established in dairy cows, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We hypothesized that differential gene expression in cows exposed to SD or LD photoperiods during the dry period could be used to identify the functional basis for the subsequent increase in milk production during lactation. Pregnant, multiparous cows were maintained on an SD or LD photoperiod for 60 days prior to parturition. Mammary biopsies were obtained on days -24 and -9 relative to parturition and Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays were used to quantify gene expression. Sixty-four genes were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05 and fold-change ≥ |1.5|) between SD and LD treatments. Many of these genes were associated with cell growth and proliferation, or immune function. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted upstream regulators to include TNF, TGF-β1, interferon-γ, and several interleukins. In addition, expression of 125 genes was significantly different between day -24 and day -9; those genes were associated with milk component metabolism and immune function. The interaction of photoperiod and time affected 32 genes associated with insulin-like growth factor I signaling. Genes differentially expressed in response to photoperiod were associated with mammary development and immune function consistent with the enhancement of milk yield in the ensuing lactation. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms by which photoperiod affects the mammary gland and subsequently lactation. PMID:26175502

  17. Effect of prolactin acting on the coeliac ganglion via the superior ovarian nerve on ovarian function in the postpartum lactating and non-lactating rat.

    PubMed

    Vallcaneras, Sandra S; Delgado, Silvia M; Motta, Alicia; Telleria, Carlos M; Rastrilla, Ana M; Casais, Marilina

    2013-04-01

    Whether prolactin (PRL) has a luteotrophic or luteolytic effect in the rat ovary depends on the nature of the corpora lutea present in the ovaries and the hormonal environment to which they are exposed. The aim was to investigate the effect of PRL acting on the coeliac ganglion (CG) on the function of the corpora lutea on day 4 postpartum under either lactating or non-lactating conditions, using the CG-superior ovarian nerve-ovary system. The ovarian release of progesterone (P), estradiol, PGF2α, and nitrites was assessed in the ovarian compartment at different incubation times. Luteal mRNA expression of 3β-HSD, 20α-HSD, aromatase, PGF2α receptor, iNOS, Bcl-2, Bax, Fas and FasL was analysed in the corpus luteum of pregnancy at the end of the experiments. Comparative analysis of control groups showed that the ovarian release of P, nitrites, and PGF2α, the expression of PGF2α receptor, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were lower in non-lactating rats, with increased release of estradiol, and higher expression of aromatase, Fas and FasL, demonstrating the higher luteal functionality in ovaries of lactating animals. PRL added to the CG compartment increased the ovarian release of P, estradiol, nitrites and PGF2α, and decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in non-lactating rats; yet, with the exception of a reduction in the release of nitrites, such parameters were not modified in lactating animals. Together, these data suggest that the CG is able to respond to the effect of PRL and, via a neural pathway, fine-tune the physiology of the ovary under different hormonal conditions.

  18. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  19. Response of the Cholesterol Metabolism to a Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Cows Depends on the Lactational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  20. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    PubMed

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  1. A field study of culling and mortality in beef cows from western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Kennedy, Richard I; Rosengren, Leigh; Clark, Edward G

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to describe the pattern of losses through culling, sales of breeding stock, mortality, and disappearance, and to characterize the causes of mortality of cows and replacement heifers of breeding age from Western Canadian beef herds. Cows and replacement heifers from 203 herds were observed for a 1-year period starting June 1, 2001. Veterinarians examined dead animals on-farm using a standard postmortem protocol. The incidence of culling in cows and replacements heifers was 14.3 per 100 cow-years at risk, and the frequencies of sales for breeding stock, mortality, and cows reported missing per cow-years at risk were 4.0, 1.1, and 0.4, respectively. During the study, 355 animals died or were euthanized, 209 were examined postmortem, and the requested tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination from 184. A cause of death was determined for 70% (128/184) of the cows with complete gross postmortem and histopathologic examinations. Hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis), malignant neoplasia (cancer), calving-associated injury, rumen tympany (bloat), myopathy, and pneumonia accounted for 56% (72/128) of the animals where a cause of death was determined. Twenty-three other causes of death accounted for the remaining 44% (56/128). Factors relating to cow nutrition accounted for 25% of the deaths, emphasizing the importance of feeding management as a determinant of cow health in western Canada. PMID:19436634

  2. A field study of culling and mortality in beef cows from western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Waldner, Cheryl L.; Kennedy, Richard I.; Rosengren, Leigh; Clark, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to describe the pattern of losses through culling, sales of breeding stock, mortality, and disappearance, and to characterize the causes of mortality of cows and replacement heifers of breeding age from Western Canadian beef herds. Cows and replacement heifers from 203 herds were observed for a 1-year period starting June 1, 2001. Veterinarians examined dead animals on-farm using a standard postmortem protocol. The incidence of culling in cows and replacements heifers was 14.3 per 100 cow-years at risk, and the frequencies of sales for breeding stock, mortality, and cows reported missing per cow-years at risk were 4.0, 1.1, and 0.4, respectively. During the study, 355 animals died or were euthanized, 209 were examined postmortem, and the requested tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination from 184. A cause of death was determined for 70% (128/184) of the cows with complete gross postmortem and histopathologic examinations. Hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis), malignant neoplasia (cancer), calving-associated injury, rumen tympany (bloat), myopathy, and pneumonia accounted for 56% (72/128) of the animals where a cause of death was determined. Twenty-three other causes of death accounted for the remaining 44% (56/128). Factors relating to cow nutrition accounted for 25% of the deaths, emphasizing the importance of feeding management as a determinant of cow health in western Canada. PMID:19436634

  3. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, P<0.05) and produced more CH4 per kg BW0.75 than LIMx cows (1.30 v. 1.05 g CH4/kg BW0.75; P<0.01). Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P<0.001) and propionate and butyrate lower (P<0.01) in rumen fluid samples from BG-fed compared with GS-fed cows. This study demonstrated that replacing GS with BG in barley straw-based diets can effectively reduce CH4

  4. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of fat metabolism genes in mammary tissue of lactating and non-lactating water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Poonam; Mukesh, Manishi; Kataria, Ranjit Singh; Yadav, Anita; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and secretion is important for dairy industry, as the nature of the cream fraction influences the manufacturing properties and organoleptic qualities of milk and dairy products. So, there is a need to understand the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and to elucidate the key genes regulating milk fat synthesis by studying the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis. Present manuscript reports the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis and metabolism in buffalo mammary tissue. The expression of lipogenic genes was studied in lactating and non-lactating mammary tissue of water buffalo by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR expression analysis. The genes studied were acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), 3 hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH), LIPIN, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBF). The expression of ACACA, BDH, LIPIN, PPARG, LPL, and SREBF was higher in lactating as compared to non-lactating buffalo whereas no difference was found in the expression of SCD between both the stages.

  5. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  6. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K.; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  7. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  8. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (P<0.001). There was an acute increase in vaginal temperature at the onset of estrus during winter but such an increase was not observed during summer. Walking activity during estrus decreased dramatically in the summer compared to the winter. Duration of estrous cycle was longer in summer (23.4 days, P<0.05) than winter (21.5 days), and the subsequent rise in progesterone concentrations following estrus tended to be delayed in summer. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in peripheral blood cells was higher during summer (P<0.05), while the levels of superoixde dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione were lower (P<0.05). These results indicate that high ambient temperature during summer increases both body temperature and oxidative stress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows.

  9. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants.

  10. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants. PMID:26585483

  11. Heart rate and heart rate variability in pregnant dairy cows and their fetuses determined by fetomaternal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Trenk, Lisa; Kuhl, Juliane; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine; Nagel, Christina

    2015-11-01

    In this study, fetomaternal electrocardiograms were recorded once weekly in cattle during the last 14 weeks of gestation. From the recorded beat-to-beat (RR) intervals, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR) and root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD) were calculated. To differentiate between effects of lactation and gestation, pregnant lactating (PL) cows (n = 7) and pregnant nonlactating (PNL) heifers (n = 8) were included. We hypothesized that lactation is associated with stress detectable by HRV analysis. We also followed the hypothesis that heart rate and HRV are influenced by growth and maturation of the fetus toward term. Maternal heart rate changed over time in both groups, and in PL cows, it decreased with drying-off. During the last 5 weeks of gestation, maternal heart rate increased in both groups but was lower in PL cows than in PNL heifers. Maternal HRV did not change over time, but SDRR was significantly higher in PL cows than in PNL heifers, and significant interactions of group × time existed. On the basis of HRV, undisturbed pregnancies are thus no stressor for the dam in cattle. Fetal heart rate decreased from week 14 to week 1 before birth with no difference between groups. Gestational age thus determines heart rate in the bovine fetus. The HRV variables SDRR and RMSSD increased toward the end of gestation in fetuses carried by cows but not in those carried by heifers. The increase in HRV indicates maturation of fetal cardiac regulation which may be overrun by high sympathoadrenal activity in fetuses carried by heifers as suggested by their low HRV. PMID:26279313

  12. Physiologic, health, and production responses of dairy cows supplemented with an immunomodulatory feed ingredient during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Brandão, A P; Cooke, R F; Corrá, F N; Piccolo, M B; Gennari, R; Leiva, T; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-07-01

    This study compared physiological, health, and productive parameters in dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (OMN; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the transition period. Thirty-eight nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (n=19) or not (CON; n=19) OMN at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis) beginning 35 d before expected date of calving. Before calving, cows were maintained in single drylot pen with ad libitum access to corn silage, and received (as-fed basis) 3kg/cow daily of a concentrate. After calving, cows were moved to an adjacent drylot pen, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after both milkings. Cows received OMN individually as top-dressing in the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -35 relative to expected calving date. After calving and until 46 d in milk, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded, and milk samples were collected daily for total solids and somatic cell count analyses. Blood was sampled daily from 0 to 7 d in milk, every other day from 9 to 21 d in milk, and every 5 d from 26 to 46 d in milk. On 30 and 46 d in milk, cows were evaluated for endometritis via cytobrush technique, based on % of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in 100 total cell count (PMN + endometrial cells). On 48.7±1.6 d in milk, 9 cows/treatment received a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (0.25μg/kg of BW), and blood was sampled hourly from -2 to 8 h, at 12-h intervals from 12 to 72 h, and at 24-h intervals form 96 to 120 h relative to LPS administration. No treatment differences were detected on BW, BCS, serum concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose, haptoglobin, cortisol, and

  13. Cool Cow Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  14. Effect of energy restriction and re-alimentation in Belgian Blue double-muscled beef cows on digestibility and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Fiems, L O; Vanacker, J M; De Boever, J L; van Caelenbergh, W; Aerts, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2007-02-01

    Four groups of five non-lactating and non-pregnant Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) cows were used to investigate the effect of energy level (E) on digestion, and blood and urine metabolites. The energy levels of the groups, applied indoors during a 140-day restriction period, were 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements (E100, E90, E80, E70) respectively. Afterwards, animals grazed on the same swards for 203 days (re-alimentation period). Balance trials were conducted at the end of the restriction period (BT1) and at the end of the re-alimentation period (BT2). Blood was sampled at the end of these trials. Diets consisted of maize silage and straw (80/20 on a dry matter basis) and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at the appropriate E during BT1, or maize silage and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at 125% of the maintenance requirements, during BT2. Significant increases of the digestibility coefficients were found during BT1 when E decreased, resulting in a better net energy capture of 7% for E70 compared with E100 (p < 0.05). Slightly, but non-significantly higher digestibility coefficients were observed for decreasing E during BT2. Plasma concentrations of glucose and creatinine did not differ between treatments during BT1, while differences were found for triacylglycerols and alpha-amino nitrogen. A tendency for a linear increase was observed for non-esterified fatty acids with decreasing E. Differences in blood metabolite concentrations disappeared in BT2. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by E, while body nitrogen loss increased linearly with energy restriction in BT1. No differences were found during BT2, suggesting that non-lactating and non-pregnant BBDM cows are able to adapt to a cyclic change of body weight and body reserves. These data show that restricted cows mobilized body fat as well as body protein. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of metabolism during energy restriction are comparable in double-muscled cows with

  15. Transporter gene expression in lactating and nonlactating human mammary epithelial cells using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, J; Lu, X; Moscow, J A; McNamara, P J

    2002-11-01

    Transporter-mediated processes in the lactating mammary gland may explain the significant accumulation of certain drugs in breast milk. The purpose of this study was to identify potential candidate drug transport proteins involved in drug accumulation in milk. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were developed to determine the relative RNA levels of 30 different drug transporter genes. Transporter gene RNA levels in lactating mammary epithelial cells (MEC) purified from pooled fresh breast milk samples were compared with levels in nonlactating MEC, liver, and kidney tissue. Transcripts were detected in lactating MEC for OCT1, OCT3, OCTN1, OCTN2, OATP-A, OATP-B, OATP-D, OATP-E, MRP1, MRP2, MRP5, MDR1, CNT1, CNT3, ENT1, ENT3, NCBT1, PEPT1, and PEPT2. No transcripts were detected for OCT2, OAT1, OAT2, OAT3, OAT4, OATP-C, MRP3, MRP4, CNT2, ENT2, and NCBT2. Lactating MEC demonstrated more than 4-fold higher RNA levels of OCT1, OCTN1, PEPT2, CNT1, CNT3, and ENT3, and more than 4-fold lower RNA levels of MDR1 and OCTN2 relative to nonlactating MEC. Lactating MEC showed significantly higher RNA levels of CNT3 relative to liver and kidney, increased PEPT2 RNA levels relative to liver, and increased OATP-A RNA levels relative to kidney. These data imply CNT3 may play a specialized role in nucleoside accumulation in milk and may identify an important role for PEPT2 and OATP-A transporters at the lactating mammary epithelium. Furthermore, transporters expressed in lactating MEC identify a potential role for these transporters in drug disposition at the mammary gland.

  16. Effect of rumen-protected niacin on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and performance of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yuan, K; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J; Espineira, M; Grummer, R R

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a rumen-protected niacin product (RPN; 65% nicotinic acid; NiaShure, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY) on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and performance of transition dairy cows. Thirty nonlactating multiparous Holstein cows in late gestation were paired according to expected calving date and randomly assigned to 12 g/cow per day of RPN product or to an unsupplemented control (CON) diet. Treatment diets were fed from 21 d before expected calving through 21 d after parturition. Blood samples were taken on d -21, -14, -7, 1, 7, 14, and 21 relative to calving for plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) analyses. Liver samples were taken by biopsy on d 1 and 21 relative to calving for triglyceride (TG) analysis. Data were analyzed for a randomized complete block design with repeated measures. Pre- and postpartum dry matter intake, milk yield, and protein were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat percentage (5.08 vs. 4.44%) and somatic cell score (3.93 vs. 2.48) were reduced for RPN. Treatment × time interactions were observed for energy-corrected milk (ECM) and fat-corrected milk (FCM) yields; RPN reduced ECM and FCM yields by 8.5 and 8.9 kg/cow per day, respectively, in the first week of lactation. Although body weight and condition score decreased during the experimental period, no differences due to treatment were observed. However, calculated postpartum energy balance tended to be improved for RPN because of the reduction in ECM yield. Time and treatment × time effects were observed for plasma NEFA. On d 1 postpartum, NEFA reached 1,138±80 μEq/L for CON compared with 698±80 μEq/L for RPN. Cows supplemented with RPN tended to have lower plasma NEFA concentrations than CON cows on d 7 and 14 postpartum. Plasma BHBA, glucose, and SOD and liver TG concentrations were unaffected by treatment. In conclusion, supplementation with 12 g/cow per

  17. Evaluation of a new approach for the estimation of the time of the LH surge in dairy cows using vaginal temperature and electrodeless conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A D; Morton, R; Dempsey, J M A; Henshall, J M; Hill, J R

    2008-10-15

    The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of a new type of conductivity sensor, along with vaginal temperature, at identifying the LH peak associated with estrus in dairy cows. Twelve mature non-lactating Holstein-Friesian cows had their estrous cycles synchronized on two occasions, and then data were collected for the following spontaneous cycles. An indwelling electrodeless plastic-coated toroidal conductivity sensor, which also recorded temperature, was placed in the vagina throughout the cycle. Blood samples were collected for LH measurement, and ultrasound scanning used to confirm ovulation. Although there was a relationship between vaginal mucus conductivity measured by the toroidal sensor and the timing of the LH surge, it was not sufficiently robust in individual cows to be able to identify the time of the LH surge. The mean increase in vaginal temperature at estrus was 0.48 degrees C. An algorithm was developed which used the detected individual cow temperature peak to test the relationship with the LH peak. In 16 out of 21 cases where ovulation was confirmed and data existed, the estimated individual peak was within 4h of the LH surge, in three cases it was +/-6h, and in two instances it was early. In conclusion, the temperature algorithm was able to identify the time of the LH surge and thus predict time of ovulation in a way that would allow effective AI, although this result needs to be tested in lactating cows. However, the toroidal conductivity sensing method was not able to produce data of sufficient quality to develop a predictive relationship in individual cows.

  18. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C.; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross‐over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose‐dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  19. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross-over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  20. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  1. Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during early and midgestation on beef cows. I. Maternal performance and organ weights at different stages of gestation.

    PubMed

    Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Van Emon, M L; Caton, J S; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of nutrient restriction during early to midgestation followed by realimentation on maternal performance and organ mass in pregnant beef cows. On d 30 of pregnancy, multiparous, nonlactating cows (initial BW = 620.5 ± 11.3 kg and BCS = 5.1 ± 0.1) were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: control (CON; 100% NRC; n = 18) and restricted (RES; 60% NRC; n = 30). On d 85, cows were slaughtered (CON, n = 6; R, n = 6), remained on control (CC; n = 12) and restricted (RR; n = 12), or were realimented to control (RC; n = 11). On d 140, cows were slaughtered (CC, n = 6; RR, n = 6; RC, n = 5), remained on control (CCC, n = 6; RCC, n = 5), or were realimented to control (RRC, n = 6). On d 254, all remaining cows were slaughtered. Cows were weighed before slaughter and all maternal organs were dissected and weighed. The diet consisted of grass hay to meet 100 or 60% NEm recommendations for fetal growth and to meet or exceed recommendations for other nutrients. At d 85 slaughters, BW and empty BW (EBW) were not affected (P ≥ 0.84) by maternal nutrition. However back fat was decreased (P = 0.05) in RES vs. CON cows. Large intestine and abomasum mass were increased (P ≤ 0.05) in RES cows vs. CON. At d 140, BW was decreased (P = 0.05) and EBW tended to be decreased (P = 0.10) in RRC cows vs. CCC and RCC being intermediate. Liver mass was decreased (P = 0.02) in RR vs. CC with RC being intermediate. Ruminal mass was decreased (P = 0.003) in RR vs. CC and RC cows. At d 254, BW and EBW were similar (P ≥ 0.78) across treatments. We observed partial changes in maternal weight and organ masses due to different lengths of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation. It appears that the dam undergoes some adaptations during an early to midgestation nutrient restriction and becomes more efficient in the utilization of nutrients after being realimented and as gestation advances.

  2. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    PubMed

    Fourrier, E

    1997-07-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types. Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migrane of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly. It is better, finally, to keep the eczema, rather than die with it healed.

  3. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    PubMed

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  4. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present.

  5. Relationships among various body components of mature cows.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1984-01-01

    Mature (9-yr-old), nonpregnant, nonlactating Angus X Hereford and the reciprocal cross (AHX, 12), Charolais X Angus or Hereford (CX, 11), Jersey X Angus or Hereford (JX, 11) and Simmental X Angus or Hereford (SX, 12) cows that had been fed either a low (112 kcal X kg-.75 X d-1), medium (178 kcal X kg-.75 X d-1) or high (ad libitum) level of metabolizable energy (ME) intake for 140 d were used to evaluate relationships among various body components. Live weight, hip height, backfat and condition score were determined on d 140. Before slaughter, each cow was infused with deuterium oxide (D2O; .25 g/kg live weight) and serial blood samples were taken. Traits evaluated after slaughter were hot weight of each carcass half, hide weight, viscera weight, longissimus muscle area, fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat percentage and marbling score. Offal and carcass chemical compositions were determined and empty body composition was calculated. Moderate to high (R2 = .82 to .97) coefficients of determination were obtained when weight of empty body chemical components were regressed on live animal or carcass cooler measures. Correlations between percentage carcass or empty body water and percentage of fat, fat-free organic matter or energy, or between amount of carcass or empty body water and amount of fat-free organic matter were high (R2 = .83 to .99). Weight of carcass or empty body water was not highly related (R2 = .05 to .22) to the total amount of fat or energy. Similar results were obtained when amount of empty body components were regressed on D2O spaces alone. Inclusion of empty body weight (or live weight) in equations relating D2O spaces to weight of the empty body or chemical components resulted in R2 values of .86 to .99. Carcass composition, as expected, was more highly related to empty body composition than was offal composition. Empty body composition was not highly related to empty body weight.

  6. Impact of antibiotic use in adult dairy cows on antimicrobial resistance of veterinary and human pathogens: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2011-03-01

    Antibiotics have saved millions of human lives, and their use has contributed significantly to improving human and animal health and well-being. Use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has resulted in healthier, more productive animals; lower disease incidence and reduced morbidity and mortality in humans and animals; and production of abundant quantities of nutritious, high-quality, and low-cost food for human consumption. In spite of these benefits, there is considerable concern from public health, food safety, and regulatory perspectives about the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Over the last two decades, development of antimicrobial resistance resulting from agricultural use of antibiotics that could impact treatment of diseases affecting the human population that require antibiotic intervention has become a significant global public health concern. In the present review, we focus on antibiotic use in lactating and nonlactating cows in U.S. dairy herds, and address four key questions: (1) Are science-based data available to demonstrate antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in dairy cows associated with use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows? (2) Are science-based data available to demonstrate that antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in adult dairy cows impacts pathogens that cause disease in humans? (3) Does antimicrobial resistance impact the outcome of therapy? (4) Are antibiotics used prudently in the dairy industry? On the basis of this review, we conclude that scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among pathogens isolated from dairy cows to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows and other food-producing animals does contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance

  7. Antilipolytic and lipolytic effects of administering free or ruminally protected nicotinic acid to feed-restricted Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Pescara, J B; Pires, J A A; Grummer, R R

    2010-11-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of 12 hourly infusions of different quantities of nicotinic acid (NA) on plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA; experiment 1) and whether longer (108 h) continuous infusions of NA could induce sustained reductions of plasma NEFA (experiment 2) in nonlactating, nongestating Holstein cows that were feed restricted. Experiment 1 was a 5×5 Latin square with 6-d periods and 9 recovery days between each period. Each period consisted of 5 d of partial feed restriction to increase plasma NEFA concentration. Treatments were abomasal infusions of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 3 mg of NA/h per kilogram of body weight (BW), infused as hourly boluses for 12 h, starting 4 d after initiation of partial feed restriction. Plasma NEFA was decreased for the highest dose: from 448 μEq/L to 138±75 μEq/L at 1 h after the first bolus of 3mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW. This initial reduction in plasma NEFA concentration was followed by an increase in concentration at 2, 3, and 4 h relative to initiation of infusions. Plasma NEFA then decreased to 243 μEq/L 6h after initiation of treatments and remained low until termination of infusions. A rebound in plasma NEFA concentration occurred at 3 and 4 h after termination of infusion for cows that received 3 mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW. Experiment 2 was a 5×5 Latin square with 7-d periods and 9 recovery days between each period. Each period consisted of 5 d of partial feed restriction to increase plasma NEFA concentration. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of 0, 0.5, 1, or 3 mg of free NA/h per kilogram of BW for 4.5 d starting at feed restriction or 0.5 mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW infused directly into the rumen in a form protected from microbial degradation. The ruminal administration of protected NA was initiated 2 d before abomasal infusions and initiation of feed restriction to establish steady postruminal delivery of NA by start of abomasal infusions. Plasma NEFA was approximately 70

  8. Comparison of two intravaginal progesterone releasing devices (PRID-Delta vs CIDR) in dairy cows: blood progesterone profile and field fertility.

    PubMed

    van Werven, T; Waldeck, F; Souza, A H; Floch, S; Englebienne, M

    2013-05-01

    Objectives were to compare circulating progesterone (P4) profile and pregnancies per AI (P/AI) of two commercial intravaginal P4 devices (PRID-Delta(®) vs CIDR(®)). In Experiment 1, ovariectomized dairy cows (PRID-Delta, n=6 vs CIDR, n=6) were sampled throughout 7 days to measure circulating P4. In Experiment 2 (PRID-Delta, n=399 vs CIDR, n=375), cows were assigned to treatments, as follows: D0, an intravaginal P4 device containing 1.38g of P4 (CIDR) or 1.55g of P4 (PRID-Delta); D6: 25mg PGF2α (Dinoprost) and P4 devices were removed 24h later. Insemination was performed at 56h after P4 removal. Cows visually detected in estrus between days 18 and 24 after 1st synchronized AI were re-inseminated. PRID-Delta produced greater circulating P4 compared to CIDR, particularly within 4 days after insertion (P<0.01). The logistic regression analysis indicated a tendency for improved P/AI at 1st AI in PRID-Delta cows compared to CIDR (36% vs 31%, P=0.10). More cows were detected in estrus in the following cycle nearly 21d after 1st AI when treated with PRID-Delta (28% vs 16%), but P/AI in the returning-natural estrus breedings did not differ (PRID-Delta=56% vs CIDR=55%; P=0.91). As a result, final cumulative P/AI was greater in cows receiving PRID-Delta (46% vs 37%, P=0.02). These results indicate that PRID-Delta seem to maintain greater circulating P4 levels as compared to CIDR in non-lactating dairy cows. This might explain potential benefits in fertility of dairy cows found in Experiment 2. Underlying physiological consequence of greater circulating P4 during synchronization programs in lactating cows in terms of oocyte quality and other reproductive structures warrants further investigation. PMID:23523234

  9. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  10. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA. PMID:27582492

  11. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  12. Bioavailability of the flavonol quercetin in cows after intraruminal application of quercetin aglycone and rutin.

    PubMed

    Berger, L M; Wein, S; Blank, R; Metges, C C; Wolffram, S

    2012-09-01

    The bioavailability of quercetin has been intensively investigated in monogastric species, but knowledge about its bioavailability in ruminants does not exist. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the bioavailability of quercetin in nonlactating cows equipped with indwelling catheters placed in one jugular vein after intraruminal and additionally after i.v. application, respectively. Quercetin was administered intraruminally in equimolar amounts, either in the aglycone form or as its glucorhamnoside rutin, each at 2 dosages [10 and 50 mg of quercetin/kg of body weight (BW)]. In a second trial, 0.8 mg of quercetin aglycone/kg of BW was applied i.v. Blood samples were drawn 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h after intraruminal application and every 5 min (first hour), every 10 min(second hour), and at 3 and 6h after i.v. bolus application, respectively. Quercetin and quercetin metabolites with an intact flavonol structure (isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and kaempferol) in plasma samples were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. After intraruminal application of quercetin and rutin, respectively, quercetin and its methylated (isorhamnetin, tamarixetin) and dehydroxylated (kaempferol) derivatives were present in plasma mainly as conjugated forms, whereas free quercetin and its derivatives were scarcely detected. For rutin, the relative bioavailability of total flavonols (sum of conjugated and nonconjugated quercetin and its conjugated and nonconjugated derivatives after intake of 50 mg/kg of BW) was 767.3% compared with quercetin aglycone (100%). Absolute bioavailability of total flavonols was only 0.1 and 0.5% after quercetin aglycone and rutin applications, respectively. Our data demonstrate that bioavailability of quercetin from rutin is substantially higher compared with that from quercetin aglycone in cows after intraruminal (or oral) application, unlike in monogastric species. PMID:22916908

  13. Long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate fed to dairy cows on enteric methane emission and nitrate and nitrite residuals in milk.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2016-07-01

    A previous study showed the additive methane (CH4)-mitigating effect of nitrate and linseed fed to non-lactating cows. Before practical application, the use of this new strategy in dairy cows requires further investigation in terms of persistency of methanogenesis reduction and absence of residuals in milk products. The objective of this experiment was to study the long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate on enteric CH4 emission and performance in dairy cows. We also assessed the effect of this feeding strategy on the presence of nitrate residuals in milk products, total tract digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and rumen fermentation. A total of 16 lactating Holstein cows were allocated to two groups in a randomised design conducted in parallel for 17 weeks. Diets were on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) control (54% maize silage, 6% hay and 40% concentrate; CON) or (2) control plus 3.5% added fat from linseed and 1.8% nitrate (LIN+NIT). Diets were equivalent in terms of CP (16%), starch (28%) and NDF (33%), and were offered twice daily. Cows were fed ad libitum, except during weeks 5, 16 and 17 in which feed was restricted to 95% of dry matter intake (DMI) to ensure complete consumption of meals during measurement periods. Milk production and DMI were measured weekly. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in milk and milk products were determined monthly. Daily CH4 emission was quantified in open circuit respiration chambers (weeks 5 and 16). Total tract apparent digestibility, N balance and rumen fermentation parameters were determined in week 17. Daily DMI tended to be lower with LIN+NIT from week 4 to 16 (-5.1 kg/day on average). The LIN+NIT diet decreased milk production during 6 non-consecutive weeks (-2.5 kg/day on average). Nitrate or nitrite residuals were not detected in milk and associated products. The LIN+NIT diet reduced CH4 emission to a similar extent at the beginning and end of the trial (-47%, g/day; -30%, g/kg DMI; -33%, g/kg fat- and protein

  14. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... versions of the disease can affect certain other animals, like goats and sheep. BSE is an incurable ... it affects a cow's nervous system, causing the animal to act strangely and lose control of its ...

  15. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  16. Alopecia areata in Eringer cows.

    PubMed

    Timm, Katrin; Rüfenacht, Silvia; von Tscharner, Claudia; Bornand, Valérie F; Doherr, Marcus G; Oevermann, Anna; Flury, Christine; Rieder, Stefan; Hirsbrunner, Gaby; Drögemüller, Cord; Roosje, Petra J

    2010-12-01

    Alopecia areata is a hair loss disorder in humans, dogs and horses with a suspected autoimmune aetiology targeting anagen hair follicles. Alopecia areata is only sporadically reported in cows. Recently, we observed several cases of suspected alopecia areata in Eringer cows. The aim of this study was to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of alopecia areata and to define the clinical phenotype and histopathological patterns, including characterization of the infiltrating inflammatory cells. Twenty Eringer cows with alopecia and 11 Eringer cows without skin problems were included in this study. Affected cows had either generalized or multifocal alopecia or hypotrichosis. The tail, forehead and distal extremities were usually spared. Punch biopsies were obtained from the centre and margin of alopecic lesions and normal haired skin. Histological examination revealed several alterations in anagen hair bulbs. These included peri- and intrabulbar lymphocytic infiltration, peribulbar fibrosis, degenerate matrix cells with clumped melanosomes and pigmentary incontinence. Mild lymphocytic infiltrative mural folliculitis was seen in the inferior segment and isthmus of the hair follicles. Hair shafts were often unpigmented and dysplastic. The large majority of infiltrating lymphocytes were CD3(+) T cells, whereas only occasional CD20(+) lymphocytes were present in the peribulbar infiltrate. Our findings confirm the diagnosis of T-cell-mediated alopecia areata in these cows. Alopecia areata appears to occur with increased frequency in the Eringer breed, but distinct predisposing factors could not be identified. PMID:20626715

  17. Luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations and induction of estrus after use of norgestomet ear implants or constant infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in anestrous, nonlactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Bretzlaff, K N; Nuti, L C; Scarfe, A D; Elmore, R G; Capehart, J; Varner, D D; Weston, P G

    1991-09-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations, time to onset of estrus, and pregnancy rates were determined in nonlactating anestrous does given 1 of 4 treatments: subcutaneous ear implants containing 3 mg of norgestomet for 9 days (NOR; n = 6); subcutaneous administration, using osmotic minipumps, of 250 ng of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/h for 48 hours (GnRH; n = 6); 3 mg of NOR for 9 days, followed immediately by 250 ng of GnRH/h for 48 hours (NOR + GnRH; n = 6); or no treatment (control; n = 6). During the 72-hour period after removal of NOR or insertion of GnRH pumps, 6 of 6, 0 of 6, 6 of 6, and 3 of 6 does were observed in estrus at a mean (+/- 13.8) hours in groups NOR, GnRH, NOR + GnRH, and control, respectively. Time from end of treatment to peak concentrations of luteinizing hormone were 56 +/- 4.0, 28 +/- 4.7, 34 +/- 4.3, and 41 +/- 9.7 hours (mean +/- SE) for NOR, GnRH, NOR +/- GnRH, and control, respectively. Peak concentrations of luteinizing hormone were significantly greater and occurred significantly later in does given NOR. Progesterone concentrations in does that became pregnant increased to concentrations greater than or equal to 1.0 ng/ml 3 to 5 days after breeding and remained high. Functional corpora lutea (CL) was found in 6 does that did not become pregnant, 1 CL was associated with pseudopregnancy and 1 CL was associated with ovulation prior to placement of the GnRH pumps. Functional CL failed to form in 10 of the 12 doses in groups GnRH and control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1952326

  18. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Non-Lactating Women with Post-Partum Thyroiditis: The Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kowalska, Beata; Okopien, Bogusław

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency seems to be implicated in the onset and progression of some autoimmune disorders. No previous study has investigated vitamin D homeostasis in post-partum thyroiditis. We compared 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels between four groups of non-lactating women who gave birth within 12 months before the beginning of the study: hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis (group A; n = 14), euthyroid females with post-partum thyroiditis (group B; n = 14), women with non-autoimmune hypothyroidism (group C; n = 16) and healthy euthyroid females without thyroid autoimmunity (group D; n = 15). In the second part of the study, groups A and C were treated for 6 months with L-thyroxine. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower, while PTH higher in patients with post-partum thyroiditis than in patients without thyroid autoimmunity. They were also lower (25-hydroxyvitamin D) or higher (PTH) in group A than in group B, as well as in group C in comparison with group D. L-thyroxine treatment increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced PTH levels only in hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis. Baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlated with thyroid antibody titres, thyroid function and circulating PTH levels, while the effect of L-thyroxine on serum levels of this vitamin correlated with the changes in thyroid antibody titres and PTH levels. The results of our study suggest the association of vitamin D status with post-partum thyroiditis and L-thyroxine treatment of this disorder.

  19. [Impact of a simultaneous application of anionic salts and rumen buffer on acid-base-balance and mineral metabolism in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Hauser, Simone; Löptien, Antje; Montag, Nicole; Passmann, Mareike; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of simultaneous application of anionic salts (AS) and rumen buffer (RB) on the metabolism of dairy cows was examined. Eleven rumen fistulated, non-pregnant and non-lactating dairy cows received equal amounts of one AS (CaCl2 or CaSO4) and one RB (NaHCO3 or KHCO3) via rumen cannula during feeding time over a period of eight days. Before the first application of AS and RB and on day eight of the treatment period, blood, urine and rumen fluid samples were taken. The following parameters were measured: whole blood: pH, base excess, bicarbonate; serum: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; urine: pH, net acid base excretion, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; rumen fluid: pH. The changes of each parameter were compared via ANOVA. The changes in acid-base balance on day eight were very small, although significant. But p-values showed that the statistical evidence was low. The most changes occurred when NaHCO3 was fed in combination with one of the AS used. In this case a small acidogenic load was seen in blood (p < 0.05), and calcium concentrations increased slightly (p < 0.05). No alkalotic reaction could be detected when any combination of AS and RB were given to the cows. Simultaneous application of AS and RB results in a loss of effectivity of AS. Neither an adequate acidification of blood nor an activation of calcium metabolism occurred. In feed ration for cows in the last weeks of pregnancy, rumen buffer must not be fed, if anionic salts are given for prevention of parturient paresis.

  20. Rumen degradability characteristics of normal maize stover and silage, and quality protein maize silage-based diets offered to cows.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Berhan; Gebrehawariat, Ephrem; Tegegne, Azage; Kortu, Mohammed Y

    2012-10-01

    Rumen degradability characteristics of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) of normal maize (NM) stover (T1)-, NM silage (T2)- and quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3)-based diets were studied using three rumen-fistulated Boran × Friesian non-lactating cows (371 ± 32.00 kg) in 3 × 3 Latin Square Design. Cows were supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. In sacco degradability of DM and OM indicated that the (a) values of DM (128) and OM (114) for NM stover were lower (P < 0.001) than that for NM silage (268 and 253) and for QPM silage (323 and 303), respectively. The (a) value for CP was lower (P < 0.05) for QPM silage (286) than for NM stover (404) and NM silage (326). The (b) values of DM in NM stover (597) and NM silage (535) were higher (P < 0.05) than in QPM silage (499). The (b) value of CP in NM stover (372) was lower (P < 0.05) than in NM silage (655) and in QPM silage (608). Rate of degradation of OM in NM stover and NM silage, each with 0.03, was faster (P < 0.01) than in QPM silage (0.02). Moreover, QPM silage had higher potentially degradable fraction for DM (821) (P < 0.05) and OM (840) (P < 0.01) than DM (725) and OM (712) in NM stover. The mean rumen ammonia concentration (209 mg/l) of QPM silage was higher (P < 0.05) than that of NM stover (179 mg/l) and NM silage (170 mg/l). The average rumen pH (6.1) in cows fed QPM silage was lowest (P < 0.05) compared to pH (6.3) in cows fed either NM stover or silage. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids (116 mmol/l) in the rumen of cows incubated with QPM silage was higher (P < 0.001) than in those incubated with NM stover (113 mmol/l) and NM silage (110 mmol/l). It was concluded that QPM silage-based diet was superior in DM and OM degradability, and had higher ammonia and VFA concentration than NM stover-based diet. No differences have been observed in all parameters measured between QPM and NM silages. PMID:22366928

  1. Technical note: Data loggers are a valid method for assessing the feeding behavior of dairy cows using the Calan Broadbent Feeding System.

    PubMed

    Krawczel, P D; Klaiber, L M; Thibeau, S S; Dann, H M

    2012-08-01

    Assessing feeding behavior is important in understanding the effects of nutrition and management on the well-being of dairy cows. Historically, collection of these data from cows fed with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH) required the labor-intensive practices of direct observation or video review. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the output of a HOBO change-of-state data logger (Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA), mounted to the door shell and latch plate, and video data summarized with continuous sampling. Data (number of feed bin visits per day and feeding time in minutes per day) were recorded with both methods from 26 lactating cows and 10 nonlactating cows for 3 d per cow (n=108). The agreement of the data logger and video methods was evaluated using the REG procedure of SAS to compare the mean response of the methods against the difference between the methods. The maximum allowable difference (MAD) was set at ±3 for bin visits and ±20 min for feeding time. Ranges for feed bin visits (2 to 140 per d) and feeding time (28 to 267 min/d) were established from video data. Using the complete data set, agreement was partially established between the data logger and video methods for feed bin visits, but not established for feeding time. The complete data set generated by the data logger was screened to remove visits of a duration ≤3 s, reflecting a cow unable to enter a feed bin (representing 7% of all data) and ≥5,400 s, reflecting a failure of the data logger to align properly with its corresponding magnetic field (representing <1% of all data). Using the resulting screened data set, agreement was established for feed bin visits and feeding time. For bin visits, 4% of the data was beyond the MAD. For feeding time, 3% of the data was beyond the MAD and 74% of the data was ±1 min. The insignificant P-value, low coefficient of determination, and concentration of the data within the MAD

  2. RMP*Submit{trademark}: Risk Management Plans Submit software

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    RMP*Submit is the official EPA personal computer software for RCRA facilities to use in submitting Risk Management Plans (RMP) required under the Risk Management Program. Portions of RMPs submitted to EPA will be publicly available on the Internet via RMP*Info. The information is intended to stimulate the dialogue between industry, state and local officials, and the public to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices. RMP*Submit has all the data elements identified in the RMP regulations; helps avoid common reporting errors by verifying all required data elements have been completed using the same completeness check that will be used at the RMP Reporting Center; allows errors to be corrected before submission of the RMP; and provides on-line help. RMP*Submit is based on the requirements of PART 68, Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, of the Code of Federal Regulations, and the RMP amendments proposed on April 17, 1998 which were published in the Federal Register on January 6, 1999.

  3. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  4. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows.

  5. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  6. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows managed for first service using timed artificial insemination with or without detection of estrus using an activity-monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C; Carvalho, P D

    2014-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=1,025) on a commercial dairy farm were randomly assigned at 10 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to 1 of 3 treatments for submitting cows to first artificial insemination (AI) and were fitted with activity-monitoring tags (Heatime; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 24 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=339) in treatment 1 were inseminated based on increased activity from the end of the voluntary waiting period (50 DIM) until submission to an Ovsynch protocol; cows without increased activity from 21 to 65 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM, whereas cows without increased activity from 21 to 50 DIM but not from 51 to 79 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 79 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=340) in treatment 2 were inseminated based on activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol at 50 DIM, and cows without increased activity began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=346) in treatment 3 were monitored for activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, but all cows received timed AI (TAI) at 75 ± 3 DIM after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. The activity-monitoring system detected increased activity in 56, 69, and 70% of cows in treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Treatment-2 cows had the fewest average days to first AI (62.5), treatment-3 cows had the most average days to first AI (74.9), and treatment-1 cows had intermediate average days to first AI (67.4). Treatment-1 and -2 cows in which inseminations occurred as a combination between increased activity and TAI had fewer overall pregnancies per AI (P/AI) 35 d after AI (32% for both treatments) compared with treatment-3 cows, all of which received TAI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (40%). Based on survival analysis, although the rate at which cows were inseminated differed among treatments, treatment did not affect the proportion of cows pregnant by 300 DIM. Thus, use of an activity-monitoring system to inseminate cows based on

  7. Genetic evaluation for cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When genetic evaluations for Productive Life were introduced by USDA in 1994, U.S. dairy producers had an opportunity to produce healthier cows, and it happened. The genetic evaluations were incorporated into selection programs and the deterioration occurring in pregnancy rate and somatic cell score...

  8. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submitting complaints. 4.3... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a...

  9. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submitting complaints. 4.3... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a...

  10. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submitting complaints. 4.3... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a...

  11. Effects of species-diverse high-alpine forage on in vitro ruminal fermentation when used as donor cow's feed or directly incubated.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Soliva, C R; Kreuzer, M; Leiber, F

    2012-11-01

    Alpine forages are assumed to have specific effects on ruminal digestion when fed to cattle. These effects were investigated in an experiment from two perspectives, either by using such forages as a substrate for incubation or as feed for a rumen fluid donor cow. In total, six 24-h in vitro batch culture runs were performed. Rumen fluid was collected from a non-lactating donor cow after having grazed pastures at ∼2000 m above sea level for 2, 6 and 10 weeks. These 'alpine runs' were compared with three lowland samplings from before and 2 and 6 weeks after the alpine grazing where a silage-concentrate mix was fed. In each run, nine replicates of four forages each were incubated. These forages differed in type and origin (alpine hay, lowland ryegrass hay, grass-maize silage mix, pure hemicellulose) as well as in the content of nutrients. Concentrations of phenolic compounds in the incubated forages were (g/kg dry matter (DM)): 20 (tannin proportion: 0.47), 8 (0.27), 15 (0.52) and 0 (0), respectively. Crude protein was highest in the silage mix and lowest with hemicellulose, whereas the opposite was the case for fiber. The total phenol contents (g/kg DM) for the high altitude and the lowland diet of the donor cow were 27 (tannins: 0.50 of phenols) and 12 (0.27), respectively. Independent of the origin of the rumen fluid, the incubation with alpine hay decreased (P < 0.05) bacterial counts, fermentation gas amount, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production as well as ammonia and methane concentrations in fermentation gas (the latter two being not lower when compared with hemicellulose). Alpine grazing of the cow in turn increased (P < 0.001) bacterial counts and, to a lesser extent, acetate proportion compared with lowland feeding. Further, alpine grazing decreased protozoal count (P < 0.05) and VFA production (P < 0.001) to a small extent, whereas methane remained widely unchanged. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between forage type incubated and feeding period of the

  12. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species.

  13. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species. PMID:27221255

  14. Inflammation- and lipid metabolism-related gene network expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of energy overfeeding on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a controlled energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or moderate energy-overfed group (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lactate signaling, hepatokine signaling, lipolysis, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and adipose depot was not significant for any gene analyzed except LPL, which indicated a consistent response to diet. Expression of ACACA and FASN was greater in SAT than MAT, whereas expression of SCD and ADFP were greatest in SAT, intermediate in OAT, and lowest in MAT. However, the 2 visceral depots had greater expression of THRSP, ACLY, LPL, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1 compared with SAT. The transcription factor SREBF1 was more highly expressed in MAT and SAT than in OAT. The expression of PNPLA2 was greater in visceral AT sites than in SAT, but other lipolysis-related genes were not differentially expressed among AT depots. Visceral AT depots had greater expression of LEP, ADIPOQ, and SAA3 compared with SAT. Moreover, MAT had greater expression than SAT of proinflammatory cytokines (IL1B and IL6), IL6 receptor (IL6R), and chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5). However, TNF expression was greatest in SAT, lowest in OAT, and intermediate in MAT. Overall, results indicated that visceral AT might be more active in uptake of preformed long-chain fatty acids than SAT, whereas de novo fatty acid synthesis could make a greater contribution to the intracellular pool of fatty acids in SAT than in visceral AT. The visceral AT compared

  15. Supplementation of progesterone via controlled internal drug release inserts during ovulation synchronization protocols in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chebel, R C; Al-Hassan, M J; Fricke, P M; Santos, J E P; Lima, J R; Martel, C A; Stevenson, J S; Garcia, R; Ax, R L

    2010-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of exogenous progesterone (P4) during a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol on pregnancies per AI (P/AI) in dairy cows not previously detected in estrus. Lactating cows (n=3,248) from 7 commercial dairy herds were submitted to a presynchronization protocol (2 injections of PGF(2alpha) 14 d apart; Presynch), and cows in estrus after the second PGF(2alpha) received AI (EDAI; n=1,583). Cows not inseminated by 12 to 14 d after the second PGF(2alpha) injection were submitted to a TAI protocol (GnRH on d 0, PGF(2alpha) on d 7, and GnRH+TAI 72h after PGF(2alpha)). At onset of the TAI protocol, cows were balanced by parity and days in milk and assigned randomly to receive no exogenous P4 (control, n=803) or a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert containing 1.38g of P4 from d 0 to 7 (CIDR, n=862). Blood samples were collected at the second PGF(2alpha) injection of the Presynch and on the day of the first GnRH injection of the TAI protocol for P4 determination. When P4 in both samples was <1 ng/mL, cows were classified as anovular, whereas cows having at least 1 sample >or=1 ng/mL were classified as cyclic. Concentration of P4 at 11 to 14 d after AI was determined in a subgroup of cows (n=453) from 2 herds. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-5 and 65+/-5 d after AI. Proportion of cows inseminated on estrus after the second PGF(2alpha) injection of the Presynch protocol differed among herds (range=26.7 to 59.8%). Overall P/AI for EDAI cows at 40+/-5 and 65+/-5 d were 36.2 and 33.7%, respectively, and pregnancy loss was 8.8%. Proportion of cyclic cows at the onset of the TAI protocol differed among herds (range from 66.5 to 86.3%), but did not differ between treatments (control=72.4%, CIDR=74.1%). Treatment affected P/AI at 40+/-5 (control=33.3%, CIDR=38.1%) and 65+/-5 (control=30.0%, CIDR=35.1%) d after AI but did not affect pregnancy loss (8.6%). Cyclic cows had greater P/AI at 40+/-5 (38.2 vs. 29.3%) and 65+/-5 d (35

  16. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Epithelial and Stromal Contributions to Mammogenesis in Three Week Prepartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Theresa; Dover, Heather; Liesman, James; DeVries, Lindsey; Kiupel, Matti; VandeHaar, Michael; Plaut, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary development has provided insight into regulation of mammogenesis. However, previous studies primarily examined expression of epithelial and stromal tissues combined, and consequently did not account for tissue specific contribution to mammary development. Our objective was to identify differences in gene expression in epithelial and intralobular stromal compartments. Tissue was biopsied from non-lactating dairy cows 3 weeks prepartum, cut into explants and incubated for 2 hr with insulin and hydrocortisone. Epithelial and intralobular stromal tissues were isolated with laser capture microdissection. Global gene expression was measured with Bovine Affymetrix GeneChips, and data were preprocessed using RMA method. Moderated t-tests from gene-specific linear model analysis with cell type as a fixed effect showed more than 3,000 genes were differentially expressed between tissues (P<0.05; FDR<0.17). Analysis of epithelial and stromal transcriptomes using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that epithelial and stromal cells contributed distinct molecular signatures. Epithelial signatures were enriched with gene sets for protein synthesis, metabolism and secretion. Stromal signatures were enriched with genes that encoded molecules important to signaling, extracellular matrix composition and remodeling. Transcriptome differences also showed evidence for paracrine interactions between tissues in stimulation of IGF1 signaling pathway, stromal reaction, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and immune response. Molecular signatures point to the dynamic role the stroma plays in prepartum mammogenesis and highlight the importance of examining the roles of cell types within the mammary gland when targeting therapies and studying mechanisms that affect milk production. PMID:21829467

  18. Effects of protein supplementation frequency on physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Perry, G A; Jump, D B; Lytle, K A; Bohnert, D W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if frequency of protein supplementation impacts physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows. Fourteen nonpregnant, nonlactating beef cows were ranked by age and BW and allocated to 3 groups. Groups were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design, containing 3 periods of 21 d and the following treatments: 1) soybean meal supplementation daily (D), 2) soybean meal supplementation 3 times/week (3WK), and 3) soybean meal supplementation once/week (1WK). Within each period, cows were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol: 100 μg of GnRH + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone (P4) on d 1, 25 mg of PGF2α on d 8, and CIDR removal + 100 μg of GnRH on d 11. Grass-seed straw was offered for ad libitum consumption. Soybean meal was individually supplemented at a daily rate of 1 kg/cow (as-fed basis). Moreover, 3WK was supplemented on d 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 18 whereas 1WK was supplemented on d 4, 11, and 18. Blood samples were collected from 0 (before) to 72 h after supplementation on d 11 and 18 and analyzed for plasma urea-N (PUN). Samples collected from 0 to 12 h were also analyzed for plasma glucose, insulin, and P4 (d 18 only). Uterine flushing fluid was collected concurrently with blood sampling at 28 h for pH evaluation. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood sampling at 0, 4, and 28 h and analyzed for mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS-I; h 28) and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (h 0 and 4 on d 18). Plasma urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. 3WK from 20 to 72 h and greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D from 16 to 48 h and at 72 h after supplementation (treatment × hour interaction, P < 0.01). Moreover, PUN concentrations peaked at 28 h after supplementation for 3WK and 1WK (P < 0.01) and were greater (P < 0.01) at this time for 1WK vs. 3WK and D and for 3WK vs. D. Expression of CPS-I was

  19. Evaluation of the udder health status in subclinical mastitis affected dairy cows through bacteriological culture, somatic cell count and thermographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bortolami, A; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Corrò, M; Catania, S; Morgante, M

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is a big economic loss for farmers. The monitoring of subclinical mastitis is usually performed through Somatic Cell Count (SCC) in farm but there is the need of new diagnostic systems able to quickly identify cows affected by subclinical infections of the udder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of thermographic imaging compared to SCC and bacteriological culture for infection detection in cow affected by subclinical mastitis and possibly to discriminate between different pathogens. In this study we evaluated the udder health status of 98 Holstein Friesian dairy cows with high SCC in 4 farms. From each cow a sample of milk was collected from all the functional quarters and submitted to bacteriological culture, SCC and Mycoplasma spp. culture. A thermographic image was taken from each functional udder quarter and nipple. Pearson's correlations and Analysis of Variance were performed in order to evaluate the different diagnostic techniques. The most frequent pathogen isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae and others. The Somatic Cell Score (SCS) was able to discriminate (p<0.05) cows positive for a pathogen from cows negative at the bacteriological culture except for cows with infection caused by CNS. Infrared thermography was correlated to SCS (p<0.05) but was not able to discriminate between positive and negative cows. Thermographic imaging seems to be promising in evaluating the inflammation status of cows affected by subclinical mastitis but seems to have a poor diagnostic value. PMID:26812823

  20. Effect of manipulating progesterone before timed artificial insemination on reproductive and endocrine parameters in seasonal-calving, pasture-based Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Lucy, M C; Curran, F; Herlihy, M M; Waters, S M; Larkin, J A; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T

    2016-08-01

    Fertility to timed AI (TAI) is profoundly affected by progesterone (P4) levels during hormonal synchronization protocols. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows managed in a seasonal-calving, pasture-based production system were randomly assigned to 2 treatments to manipulate P4 before TAI during growth of the preovulatory follicle. Cows in the first treatment (High P4; n=30) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol {Pre-Ovsynch [GnRH; 7 d, PGF2α; 3 d, GnRH] followed 7 d later by Breeding-Ovsynch [GnRH (G1); 7 d PGF2α; 24 h, PGF2α; 32 h, GnRH (G2); 16 h, TAI]}. Cows in the second treatment (n=30; Low P4) received the same Double-Ovsynch protocol but with an additional PGF2α treatment 24 h after G1. Overall, synchronization rate did not differ between treatments and was 92% (55/60). Unexpectedly, 37% of Low P4 cows were detected in estrus ~24 h before scheduled TAI and were inseminated ~16 h before scheduled TAI. Overall, P4 did not differ between treatments at G1, whereas High P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at PGF2α and G2 than Low P4 cows. High P4 cows had the smallest mean follicle diameter at G2, whereas Low P4 cows with no estrus before TAI had intermediate mean follicle diameter at G2, and Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had the largest mean follicle diameter. Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had larger corpora lutea 15 d after TAI than Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI or High P4 cows. In accordance with corpus luteum size on d 15, High P4 cows and Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI had lower P4 from 4 to 46 d after TAI than Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI. Relative mRNA levels of the interferon-stimulated genes ISG15, MX1, MX2, and OAS1 were greater for Low P4 than for High P4 cows, whereas relative mRNA levels of RTP4 were greater for High P4 than for Low P4 cows 18 d after TAI. Treatment did not affect plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations after TAI; however, pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations were

  1. Expression of estrus modifies the gene expression profile in reproductive tissues on Day 19 of gestation in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, S; Cooke, R F; Fernandes, A C C; Cappellozza, B I; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of expression of estrus at artificial insemination (AI) on endometrium, conceptus, and CL gene expression of beef cows. Thirty-six multiparous nonlactating Nelore cows were enrolled on an estradiol- and progesterone (P4)-based timed AI protocol (AI = Day 0) and then slaughtered for the endometrium, CL, and conceptus collection on Day 19. The animals were retrospectively grouped on the basis of cows that (1) showed signs of estrus near AI (n = 19; estrus) and (2) did not show any signs of estrus (n = 17; nonestrus). Body condition score, blood sampling, and ultrasound examination were performed on Days 0, 7, and 18 of the experiment followed by messenger RNA extraction and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of 58 target genes. Data were checked for normality and analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures using proc GLM, MIXED, and UNIVARIATE of SAS. Only pregnant cows were included in the analyses (n = 12; nonestrus, n = 11). Estrous expression had no correlation with parameters such as body condition score, preovulatory follicle and CL diameter, P4 concentration in plasma on Days 7 and 18 after AI, and interferon-tau concentration in the uterine flushing (P > 0.15); however, a significant increase was observed in conceptus size from cows that expressed estrus (P = 0.02; 38.3 ± 2.8 vs. 28.2 ± 2.9 mm). The majority of transcripts affected by estrous expression in the endometrium belong to the immune system and adhesion molecule family (MX1, MX2, MYL12A, MMP19, CXCL10, IGLL1, and SLPI; P ≤ 0.05), as well as those related with prostaglandin synthesis (OTR and COX-2; P ≤ 0.05). Genes related to apoptosis, P4 synthesis, and prostaglandin receptor were downregulated (CYP11A, BAX, and FPr; P < 0.05) in the CL tissue of cows that expressed estrus. In addition, four genes were identified as differentially expressed in the 19-day-old conceptus from cows that expressed estrus (ISG15, PLAU, BMP15

  2. Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. by dairy cows on farm and at cull cow markets.

    PubMed

    Wells, S J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Dargatz, D A; Ferris, K; Green, A

    2001-01-01

    As part of a national study of the U.S. dairy cow population, fecal samples were collected from representative cows on 91 dairies and 97 cull dairy cow markets in 19 states. Salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.4% of milk cows, 18.1% of milk cows expected to be culled within 7 days, and 14.9% of culled dairy cows at markets. On a premise basis, Salmonella shedding in milk cows was detected on 21.1% of dairies and 66% of cull dairy cow markets. The percentage of herds with at least one cow with detectable Salmonella fecal shedding was higher during the sampling period from May through July, in herds with at least 100 milk cows, and in herds in the South region. The most common Salmonella serogroups isolated were E (30.8% of isolates) and C1 (28.6%); the most common serotypes isolated were Salmonella Montevideo (21.5% of isolates), Salmonella Cerro (13.3%), and Salmonella Kentucky (8.5%). Fecal shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Typhimurium var. copenhagen was infrequent (2.8% of isolates). Most isolates (88.9%) were susceptible to all 17 antimicrobials evaluated; multiple resistance was an infrequent occurrence. This study provides information describing the distribution of Salmonella fecal shedding from dairy cows on farm and at markets and will serve as a baseline for future studies.

  3. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  4. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  5. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  6. 7 CFR 75.37 - Submitted samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submitted samples. 75.37 Section 75.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 75.37 Submitted samples. Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested...

  7. 20 CFR 405.333 - Submitting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Submitting documents. 405.333 Section 405.333... DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405.333 Submitting documents. All documents prepared and submitted by you, i.e., not including medical or other evidence that is prepared by persons other than...

  8. 15 CFR 325.14 - Submitting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submitting reports. 325.14 Section 325... OF REVIEW § 325.14 Submitting reports. (a) Not later than each anniversary of a certificate's... certificate holder shall submit its annual report to the Secretary. The Secretary shall deliver a copy of...

  9. 15 CFR 325.14 - Submitting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting reports. 325.14 Section 325... OF REVIEW § 325.14 Submitting reports. (a) Not later than each anniversary of a certificate's... certificate holder shall submit its annual report to the Secretary. The Secretary shall deliver a copy of...

  10. 7 CFR 701.13 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submitting requests. 701.13 Section 701.13 Agriculture... CERTAIN RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART General § 701.13 Submitting requests. (a... submitting ECP or EFRP cost-share requests. (b) Requests may be accepted after the announced...

  11. 7 CFR 75.37 - Submitted samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submitted samples. 75.37 Section 75.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 75.37 Submitted samples. Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested...

  12. 7 CFR 701.13 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting requests. 701.13 Section 701.13 Agriculture... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.13 Submitting requests. (a) Subject to the availability of funds, the Deputy Administrator shall provide for an enrollment period for submitting ECP cost-share requests. (b) Requests may...

  13. 15 CFR 325.14 - Submitting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submitting reports. 325.14 Section 325... OF REVIEW § 325.14 Submitting reports. (a) Not later than each anniversary of a certificate's... certificate holder shall submit its annual report to the Secretary. The Secretary shall deliver a copy of...

  14. 20 CFR 405.333 - Submitting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Submitting documents. 405.333 Section 405.333... DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405.333 Submitting documents. All documents prepared and submitted by you, i.e., not including medical or other evidence that is prepared by persons other than...

  15. 7 CFR 75.37 - Submitted samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submitted samples. 75.37 Section 75.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 75.37 Submitted samples. Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested...

  16. 7 CFR 701.13 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submitting requests. 701.13 Section 701.13 Agriculture... CERTAIN RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART General § 701.13 Submitting requests. (a... submitting ECP or EFRP cost-share requests. (b) Requests may be accepted after the announced...

  17. 20 CFR 405.333 - Submitting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submitting documents. 405.333 Section 405.333... DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405.333 Submitting documents. All documents prepared and submitted by you, i.e., not including medical or other evidence that is prepared by persons other than...

  18. 7 CFR 701.13 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submitting requests. 701.13 Section 701.13 Agriculture... CERTAIN RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART General § 701.13 Submitting requests. (a... submitting ECP or EFRP cost-share requests. (b) Requests may be accepted after the announced...

  19. 15 CFR 325.14 - Submitting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submitting reports. 325.14 Section 325... OF REVIEW § 325.14 Submitting reports. (a) Not later than each anniversary of a certificate's... certificate holder shall submit its annual report to the Secretary. The Secretary shall deliver a copy of...

  20. 15 CFR 325.14 - Submitting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submitting reports. 325.14 Section 325... OF REVIEW § 325.14 Submitting reports. (a) Not later than each anniversary of a certificate's... certificate holder shall submit its annual report to the Secretary. The Secretary shall deliver a copy of...

  1. 7 CFR 75.37 - Submitted samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitted samples. 75.37 Section 75.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 75.37 Submitted samples. Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested...

  2. 7 CFR 701.13 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submitting requests. 701.13 Section 701.13 Agriculture... CERTAIN RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART General § 701.13 Submitting requests. (a... submitting ECP or EFRP cost-share requests. (b) Requests may be accepted after the announced...

  3. 20 CFR 405.333 - Submitting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Submitting documents. 405.333 Section 405.333... DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405.333 Submitting documents. All documents prepared and submitted by you, i.e., not including medical or other evidence that is prepared by persons other than...

  4. 7 CFR 75.37 - Submitted samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submitted samples. 75.37 Section 75.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 75.37 Submitted samples. Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested...

  5. 20 CFR 405.333 - Submitting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Submitting documents. 405.333 Section 405.333... DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405.333 Submitting documents. All documents prepared and submitted by you, i.e., not including medical or other evidence that is prepared by persons other than...

  6. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  7. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  8. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  9. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  10. Effect of a single intrauterine administration of recombinant bovine interferon-τ on day 7 of the estrous cycle on the luteal phase length and blood profile in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, S; Osawa, T; Geshi, M; Takahashi, H; Inumaru, S; Yokomizo, Y; Miyake, Y-I

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the effect of recombinant bovine interferon-tau (rboIFN-τ) on the length of estrous cycle, luteal lifespan and side effects of rboIFN-τ in the cow. A normal estrous cycle in six non-lactating cycling Holstein cows was observed (non-treated cycle), and either 2.0 mg of liposomalized rboIFN-τ (treated cycle) or bovine serum albumin (BSA; placebo cycle) was infused in the uterus on day 7 of the estrous cycle (day 0=day of ovulation). Rectal temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate were recorded and blood samples were collected before and after the treatments. The length of the estrous cycle and corpus luteum lifespan in rboIFN-τ treated cycles were not significantly different from those of the non-treated and placebo cycles. In contrast, the rboIFN-τ treatment caused a transient increase in rectal temperature and a decrease in the number of peripheral lymphocytes and neutrophils after the treatment.

  11. Managing the dairy cow at calving time.

    PubMed

    Mee, John F

    2004-11-01

    Managing the dairy cow at calving, unlike artificial insemination or transrectal ultrasonography, is often perceived as an unskilled task, not requiring specialist training. This article presents the argument for the financial and welfare costs associated with poor periparturient management, and how to address them by veterinarian-led education and upskilling of herd personnel. Successful management of the dairy cow at calving will result in the birth of a healthy calf and a smooth transition of the cow into the milking string with minimal calving problems and their sequelae. The tenets of good calving management are predicting accurately when calving is due, moving cows to the maternity unit on time, discrete calving supervision, knowing when and how to intervene, and ensuring the calf is vigorous and fed colostrum and the cow is healthy postpartum. PMID:15471623

  12. [Methods of treating puerperal endometritis in cows].

    PubMed

    Radoslavov, V

    1976-01-01

    Tested were two methods for the treatment of cows affected with acute endometritis after giving birth. The experiments were carried out with a total of 92 cows of the Bulgarian Brown breed kept under equal condtions of feeding and management. Two tests and one control groups were formed. The first group of cows (48) were treated with a bilateral epipleural block after Mossin. As a result 66.7 per cent of the cows conceived up to the 80th day after calving and 43.7 per cent at the first insemination. The service period of the impregnated cows of this group was 73.3 +/- 4.94 days, on an average. The second group of cows (25) were treated muscularly with a combination of 1 per cent magnesium sulphuricum solution (40 cu. cm), vitamin C (10 cu. cum), norsulphasol (5 g), and chloramphenicol (2 g). The treatment was repeated at a three-day interval. The results of the treatment accounted for 68 per cent impregnated cows up to an 80-day service period, and 48 per cent--at first insemination. The service period of the cows of this group lasted 69.3 +/- 6.0 days, on an average. The control group cows were treated at random with penicillin and streptomycin, muscularly. The conception rate at first insemination was 36.7 per cent, and within the range of an 80-day service period--47.02 per cent of the treated cows. The average service period for this group lasted 91.80 +/- 9.28 days. PMID:1030875

  13. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  14. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  15. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  16. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  17. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  18. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  19. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  20. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  1. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  2. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  3. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  4. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  5. Whole cow's milk in early life.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorisdottir, Asa V

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk is a major food for young children. Whole cow's milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content. The negative association with iron status led to recommending the introduction of formula feeding in infancy during the weaning period or when breastfeeding ceased. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow's milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood. These issues are discussed in the following chapter. Other suggested reasons for the avoidance of whole cow's milk in infancy are touched upon, such as milk protein allergy and high renal solute load. The hypothesis about early cow's milk introduction in the pathology of certain diseases, mainly through the peptide β-casomorphin-7, is briefly reviewed, showing that there is no clear evidence for the suggested associations. The chapter gives a recent example of introducing formula at 6 months of age instead of whole cow's milk in infants' diet in Iceland. Several aspects of consuming whole cow's milk in infancy can be found in recent reviews. PMID:21335988

  6. Excretion of Brucella abortus vaccine B19 strain during a reproductive cycle in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, W. A.; Genovez, M. E.; Pozzi, C. R.; Silva, L. M. P.; Azevedo, S. S.; Did, C. C.; Piatti, R. M.; Pinheiro, E. S.; Castro, V.; Miyashiro, S.; Gambarini, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the excretion period of B19 vaccine strain during a complete reproductive cycle (from estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, pregnancy and until 30 days after parturition) of dairy cows from 3 to 9 years old that were previously vaccinated from 3 to 8 months. Three groups were monitored with monthly milk and urine collection during 12 months: G1 with seven cows from 3 to 4 years old; G2 with three cows from 5 to 6 years old; and G3 with four cows from 7 to 9 years old. Urine and milk samples were submitted to bacteriological culture and urine and PCR reactions for detection of Brucella spp. and PCR-multiplex for B19 strain identification. Ring test (RT) was also performed in the milk samples, and serum samples were tested by buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPA). All animals were serologically negative at BAPA and Brucella spp. was not isolated from both urine and milk samples. RT revealed 13/210 (6.2%) positive milk samples. PCR reactions detected DNA of Brucella spp. in 86/420 (20.5%) samples. In urine it was found a significantly higher frequency (35.2%; 74/210) than in milk (5.7%; 12/210), more frequently from the estrus to 150 days of pregnancy and after parturition (6.7%; 10/150), and from 150 days of pregnancy to parturition (3.4%; 2/60), and they were all identified as B19 strain. In three groups, intermittent excretion of B19 strain was detected mainly in urine samples, which confirmed its multiplication and persistence in cows for until 9 years. PMID:24031869

  7. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  8. Cow's Milk Allergy with Severe Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mariko; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2016-02-01

    Because the role of eosinophils in neonates is not well understood, the clinical significance of eosinophilia in neonates is unclear. We encountered a rare case of cow's milk allergy in a premature male infant with severe eosinophilia in the neonatal period. The peripheral blood eosinophil count in this infant was 7,404/μL at birth, and he produced stools with fresh blood immediately after birth and prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk. Although the patient's eosinophil count normalized without specific treatment within 6 weeks after birth, it is possible that the causes of the eosinophilia in this infant prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk were different from those after the first feedings. Cow's milk allergy was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's positivity for this allergy in the challenge test and subsequent allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test performed at 6 months of age. PMID:24094685

  9. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  10. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  11. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established. PMID:8746959

  12. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  13. Hydrogen fermentation properties of undiluted cow dung.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Ogino, Akifumi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of undiluted cow dung (15% total solids), so-called dry fermentation, produced hydrogen (743 ml-H(2)/kg-cow dung) at an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C, with butyrate and acetate formation. The hydrogen production was inhibited by the addition of NH(4)(+) in a dose-dependent manner. A bacterium with similarity to Clostridium cellulosi was detected in the fermented dung by a 16S rDNA analysis.

  14. Comparison of fertility, regular returns-to-estrus, and calving interval between Ovsynch and CO-synch + CIDR protocols in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, C; Maia, I; Canada, N; Simões, J

    2014-10-01

    The main aims of the present study were to compare the pregnancy rate (PR), regular returns-to-estrus, and calving interval of a CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device, commonly used to synchronize ovulations in beef cows, with the classical Ovsynch protocol in high-producing dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 128) from six commercial dairy herds, ≥40 days postpartum and not previously inseminated, were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Cows submitted to Ovsynch protocol (group OS as control group; n = 66) received 10 μg of a GnRH analogue 7 days before and 48 hours after 25 mg PGF2α, followed by artificial insemination (AI) 16 hours after the second GnRH administration. Cows submitted to CO-Synch + CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) inserted for 7 days beginning at the first GnRH administration (group CoS + CD; n = 62) had the second administration of GnRH concurrent with AI, 64 hours after CIDR removal/PGF2α administration. Nonpregnant cows with return-to-estrus between 18 and 24 days after first AI were reinseminated (second AI). Logistic regressions were used to analyze PR and returns-to-estrus. No effect of group or herd was observed in PR at first timed AI. However, the sum of cows pregnant at first AI and nonpregnant cows with regular returns-to-estrus and the total PR (first + second AI) were influenced by group treatment. Overall, cows of group CoS + CD (total PR = 56.5%) were 2.1 times more likely to became pregnant after AI and until first regular returns-to-estrus than cows of group OS. The calving interval was lower in group CoS + CD (425.9 ± 78.8 days; ±SD) than in group OS (475.3 ± 83.7 days). The CO-Synch + CIDR protocol was reliable to use in dairy herds and provided reproductive advantages when compared with Ovsynch protocol.

  15. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  16. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submitting appeal. 1205.31 Section 1205.31 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the...

  17. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting appeal. 1205.31 Section 1205.31 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the...

  18. 25 CFR 1001.6 - Submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Submitting applications. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.6 Submitting applications. (a) Applications for inclusion in the applicant pool will be...

  19. 25 CFR 1001.6 - Submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submitting applications. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.6 Submitting applications. (a) Applications for inclusion in the applicant pool will be...

  20. 25 CFR 1001.6 - Submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Submitting applications. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.6 Submitting applications. (a) Applications for inclusion in the applicant pool will be...

  1. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submitting appeal. 1205.31 Section 1205.31 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the...

  2. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submitting appeal. 1205.31 Section 1205.31 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the...

  3. 25 CFR 1001.6 - Submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Submitting applications. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.6 Submitting applications. (a) Applications for inclusion in the applicant pool will be...

  4. 25 CFR 1001.6 - Submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Submitting applications. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.6 Submitting applications. (a) Applications for inclusion in the applicant pool will be...

  5. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submitting appeal. 1205.31 Section 1205.31 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the...

  6. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  7. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26867520

  8. Leukotriene B4 in cows with normal calving, and in cows with retained fetal membranes and/or uterine subinvolution.

    PubMed Central

    Slama, H; Vaillancourt, D; Goff, A K

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the relationship between leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis and placental separation and uterine involution in the cow. In experiment I, the concentration and synthesis of LTB4 by caruncular tissue was lower in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM cows, n = 11) than in cows that expelled the fetal membranes normally (NFM cows, n = 19). The presence of bacterial cell wall, especially of alpha-hemolytic streptococci and coagulase positive staphylococci enhanced LTB4 synthesis by allantochorion only in NFM cows. In the RFM group, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide decreased allantochorionic LTB4 synthesis. With caruncle, only epidermal growth factor increased LTB4 production in NFM cows. In experiment II, the caruncular and endometrial secretion of LTB4 was lower in cows with subuterine involution (SUI cows, n = 5) or cows with SUI and RFM (SUI+RFM cows, n = 4) than in cows with normal uterine involution (NUI cows, n = 8). This decrease was especially noticeable in the previously gravid horn. In the three uterine involution groups, there were no differences in LTB4 synthesis by caruncular tissue taken from the previously gravid horn. However, progesterone and a bacterial suspension of E. coli reduced the synthesis of LTB4. Estradiol had no effect on LTB4 synthesis at the end of the postpartum period. These results suggest that LTB4 may play an important role in both placental separation and uterine involution in cattle and LTB4 synthesis may be modulated by endocrine and bacterial factors. PMID:8269369

  9. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  10. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  11. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract. PMID:26986087

  12. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract.

  13. Effects of abomasal lipid infusion on liver triglyceride accumulation and adipose lipolysis during fatty liver induction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brickner, A E; Pires, J A A; Gressley, T F; Grummer, R R

    2009-10-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of abomasal infusion of linseed oil on liver triglyceride (TG) accumulation and adipose tissue lipolysis during an experimental protocol for induction of fatty liver. Eight nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. Treatments were abomasal infusion of water (W), tallow (T), linseed oil (LO), or half linseed oil and half tallow (LOT) at a rate of 0.56 g/kg of body weight per day. Each experimental period consisted of a 4-d fast concurrent with administration of treatments into the abomasum in 6 equal doses per day (every 4 h). Cows were fed ad libitum for 24 d between periods of fasting and lipid infusion. Infusion of linseed oil (LO and LOT) increased alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) content in serum (12.2, 10.4, 4.2, and 4.6 g/100 g of fatty acids for LO, LOT, T, and W, respectively), but not in the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) fraction of plasma. Treatments had no effect on plasma NEFA concentrations. Abomasal infusion of lipid increased in vitro stimulated lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue, compared with W (4,294, 3,809, 4,231, and 3,293 nmol of glycerol released x g(-1) tissue x 2 h(-1) for LO, LOT, T, and W, respectively), but there was no difference between fat sources. Hepatic TG accumulation over 4-d fast was 2.52, 2.60, 2.64, and 2.09 +/- 0.75 microg of TG/microg of DNA for W, LO, LOT, and T, respectively, which did not differ. Abomasal infusion of LO did not reduce liver TG accumulation, plasma NEFA concentration, or alter in vitro adipose tissue lipolysis when compared with T. These results contrast with a previous study involving i.v. infusion of lipid emulsion derived from LO. Discrepancies might be explained by the use of different administration routes and a relatively modest induction of liver TG accumulation in the current experiment.

  14. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as ‘infinite’. PMID:17148336

  15. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'.

  16. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  17. Treatment of Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

    PubMed Central

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is still a challenge. A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials for the diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Since none of the symptoms of CMPA is specific and since there is no sensitive diagnostic test (except a challenge test), the diagnosis of CMPA remains difficult. A "symptom-based score" is useful in children with symptoms involving different organ systems. The recommended dietary treatment is an extensive cow milk based hydrolysate. Amino acid based formula is recommended in the most severe cases. However, soy infant formula and hydrolysates from other protein sources (rice) are gaining popularity, as they taste better and are cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Recent meta-analyses confirmed the safety of soy and estimate that not more than 10-15% of CMPA-infants become allergic to soy. An accurate diagnosis of CMA is still difficult. The revival of soy and the development of rice hydrolysates challenge the extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates as first option and amino acid formula. PMID:24749081

  18. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section... the customer and Western. (b) Method of submitting IRPs. Customers must submit IRPs to Western...

  19. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section... the customer and Western. (b) Method of submitting IRPs. Customers must submit IRPs to Western...

  20. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  1. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  2. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  3. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  4. Preparing, Submitting, and Tracking a Grant Application

    Cancer.gov

    Information compiled by NCI's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI information and policies related to writing and submitting new, resubmission, late, and renewal grant applications.

  5. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  6. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  7. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    .7% vs. 21.3% vs. 15.2%, for ET-Control, ET-CIDR-4, and ET-CIDR-14, respectively), with no effect on pregnancy loss. Therefore, although CIDR insertion on Day 3 after FTAI did not affect CL function and increased circulating P4, it did not increase pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows submitted to FTAI. Moreover, P4 supplementation decreased pregnancy per ET in lactating recipient cows.

  8. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  9. Effects of abomasal infusion of nicotinic acid on responses to glucose and β-agonist challenges in underfed lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Stumpf, L F; Soutullo, I D; Pescara, J B; Stocks, S E; Grummer, R R

    2016-03-01

    for energy and milk fat synthesis. Milk urea nitrogen was increased by NA on d 2 (12.8 vs. 19.1mg/dL) and d 3 (11.6 vs. 17.8 mg/dL), probably due to a greater reliance on mobilized amino acids. Somatic cell count was increased by NA on d 3 (187 vs. 848 × 1,000 cells/mL). Patterns of glucose and insulin concentration observed during 74 h of NA infusion reflect a state of insulin resistance, which contrasts with shorter-term responses in nonlactating cows. Data suggest that long-term supraphysiological infusion of NA affected intermediary metabolism beyond antilipolysis and did not inhibit acute lipolytic stimuli of ivBAC. PMID:26774717

  10. Priming the cow for mobilization in the periparturient period: effects of supplementing the dry cow with saturated fat or linseed.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J B; Ridder, C; Larsen, T

    2008-03-01

    High-producing dairy cows experience negative energy balance in early lactation. Dry-cow feeding management will affect the performance and metabolic status of dairy cows in the following early lactation. The present study evaluates dry-cow feeding strategies for priming lipid metabolism in the dairy cow to overcome the metabolic challenges in the following early lactation. Five weeks before expected calving, 27 cows were assigned to 1 of 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic dietary treatments: a low-fat control diet (dry-control); a high saturated fat diet (dry-HSF); and a high linseed diet (dry-HUF). The cows were fed the same TMR lactation diet after calving. The treatments were evaluated by performance and metabolic parameters in blood and liver. The cows fed dry-HSF and dry-HUF had significantly greater plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations compared with dry-control, and the dry-HUF cows had the greatest C18:3 concentrations in plasma in the prepartum period. Further, the cows fed dry-HSF and dry-HUF diets had a tendency for the greatest capacity for incomplete beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver in wk 3 prepartum. The plasma cholesterol concentration was greatest for cows fed dry-HSF in the prepartum period compared with those fed dry-control and dry-HUF. The cows fed dry-HSF had the lowest plasma nonesterified fatty acid and liver fat concentrations in early lactation compared with the cows fed dry-control and dry-HUF. Data in the literature and the present experiment indicate that supplementing dry cows with a saturated fatty acid source is a positive strategy for priming dairy cows for body fat mobilization in the following early lactation.

  11. Is downer cow syndrome related to chronic botulism?

    PubMed

    Rulff, R; Schrödl, W; Basiouni, S; Neuhaus, J; Krüger, M

    2015-01-01

    The present work was directed to investigate the relationship between Downer cow syndrome (DCS) and chronic botulism in dairy cattle. For this purpose, a total of 52 fresh calving downer cows and 206 apparently healthy cows at 14 dairy farms were investigated for Clostridium botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels, C. botulinum and botulinum neurotoxin in rumen fluids as well as in faeces. Results indicated that the downer cows had higher IgG titers for C. botulinum ABE and CD than the healthy cows. All tested rumen fluids were negative for BoNT and C. botulinum. BoNT/D, however, and C. botulinum type D spores were detected in faecal samples of healthy and downer cows in the selected farms. In conclusion, the presence of a significantly higher C. botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels in DCS cows than in the healthy animals suggests that chronic C. botulinum toxico-infection could be a predisposing factor for DCS. PMID:26812817

  12. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  13. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  14. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  15. Lactobezoar and cows' milk protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Lemoh, J N; Watt, J

    1980-02-01

    A baby girl of an atopic family who developed eczema, asthma, and cows' milk protein intolerance was found to have a gastric lactobezoar at age 9 1/2 months. She responded well to the removal of the bezoar and to the appropriate dietary treatment.

  16. Lactobezoar and cows' milk protein intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Lemoh, J N; Watt, J

    1980-01-01

    A baby girl of an atopic family who developed eczema, asthma, and cows' milk protein intolerance was found to have a gastric lactobezoar at age 9 1/2 months. She responded well to the removal of the bezoar and to the appropriate dietary treatment. Images Figure PMID:7189657

  17. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  18. Reproductive strategies to increase cow longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Choosing replacement beef heifers is a decision with long-term implications for profitability for the cow-calf producer. If a replacement heifer fails to wean the number of calves necessary to recoup her development costs then she incurs a net loss for the farm. To avoid such losses, it is imperativ...

  19. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... highway bridge, mile 2.9 at West Orange, and the S87 bridge, mile 4.5 at Bay City, shall open on signal if... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES...

  20. Cerebellar Disease in an Adult Cow

    PubMed Central

    Oz, H. H.; Nicholson, S. S.; Al-Bagdadi, F. K.; Zeman, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    This is the report of clinical signs and lesions of a cerebellar disorder in an adult four year old Limousin cow grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The most striking histopathological lesion was a marked paucity of Purkinje cells throughout the cerebellum. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422607

  1. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  2. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  3. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  4. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  5. 21 CFR 822.14 - May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again? 822.14 Section 822.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE...

  6. 20 CFR 10.335 - How are medical bills submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are medical bills submitted? 10.335... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.335 How are medical bills submitted? Usually, medical providers submit bills directly to OWCP. The rules for submitting and paying bills are stated...

  7. 20 CFR 10.335 - How are medical bills submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are medical bills submitted? 10.335... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.335 How are medical bills submitted? Usually, medical providers submit bills directly to OWCP. The rules for submitting and paying bills are stated...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 282 - Submitting a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting a Claim C Appendix C to Part 282.... 282, App. C Appendix C to Part 282—Submitting a Claim (a) Who May Submit a Claim. Any person (“claimant”) may submit a claim who has a demand for money or property against the Government under 31...

  9. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  10. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Submitting the initial IRP. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, customers that have not previously had an IRP approved by Western must submit the initial IRP to...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14464 - When must I submit reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must I submit reports? 62.14464... Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 62.14464 When must I submit reports? (a) You must submit the... test. (b) You must submit an annual report to the EPA Administrator (or delegated enforcement...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14464 - When must I submit reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must I submit reports? 62.14464... Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 62.14464 When must I submit reports? (a) You must submit the... test. (b) You must submit an annual report to the EPA Administrator (or delegated enforcement...

  13. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Submitting the initial IRP. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, customers that have not previously had an IRP approved by Western must submit the initial IRP to...

  14. 21 CFR 809.4 - Confidentiality of submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidentiality of submitted information. 809.4... Confidentiality of submitted information. Data and information submitted under § 809.10(c) that are shown to fall... Drug Administration will determine whether information submitted will be treated as confidential...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14464 - When must I submit reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit reports? 62.14464... Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 62.14464 When must I submit reports? (a) You must submit the... test. (b) You must submit an annual report to the EPA Administrator (or delegated enforcement...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 282 - Submitting a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submitting a Claim C Appendix C to Part 282.... 282, App. C Appendix C to Part 282—Submitting a Claim (a) Who May Submit a Claim. Any person (“claimant”) may submit a claim who has a demand for money or property against the Government under 31...

  17. 21 CFR 809.4 - Confidentiality of submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidentiality of submitted information. 809.4... Confidentiality of submitted information. Data and information submitted under § 809.10(c) that are shown to fall... Drug Administration will determine whether information submitted will be treated as confidential...

  18. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 282 - Submitting a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submitting a Claim C Appendix C to Part 282.... 282, App. C Appendix C to Part 282—Submitting a Claim (a) Who May Submit a Claim. Any person (“claimant”) may submit a claim who has a demand for money or property against the Government under 31...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 282 - Submitting a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submitting a Claim C Appendix C to Part 282.... 282, App. C Appendix C to Part 282—Submitting a Claim (a) Who May Submit a Claim. Any person (“claimant”) may submit a claim who has a demand for money or property against the Government under 31...

  1. 18 CFR 706.401 - Employees required to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit statements. 706.401 Section 706.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES... Employees required to submit statements. (a) Employees in the following named positions shall submit... and shall be submitted by the Director to the Chairman of the Council....

  2. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  3. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  4. 49 CFR 1332.3 - Manner of submitting contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manner of submitting contracts. 1332.3 Section... SURFACE MAIL TRANSPORTATION § 1332.3 Manner of submitting contracts. The U.S. Postal Service will submit... agreement(s) will be submitted by facsimile transmission or messenger service where feasible, and,...

  5. 21 CFR 809.4 - Confidentiality of submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of submitted information. 809.4... Confidentiality of submitted information. Data and information submitted under § 809.10(c) that are shown to fall... Drug Administration will determine whether information submitted will be treated as confidential...

  6. 49 CFR 1332.3 - Manner of submitting contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manner of submitting contracts. 1332.3 Section... SURFACE MAIL TRANSPORTATION § 1332.3 Manner of submitting contracts. The U.S. Postal Service will submit... agreement(s) will be submitted by facsimile transmission or messenger service where feasible, and,...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3510 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63..., Reports, and Records § 63.3510 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the... notification. You must submit the Initial Notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or...

  8. 49 CFR 1332.3 - Manner of submitting contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manner of submitting contracts. 1332.3 Section... SURFACE MAIL TRANSPORTATION § 1332.3 Manner of submitting contracts. The U.S. Postal Service will submit... agreement(s) will be submitted by facsimile transmission or messenger service where feasible, and,...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14464 - When must I submit reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I submit reports? 62.14464... Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 62.14464 When must I submit reports? (a) You must submit the... test. (b) You must submit an annual report to the EPA Administrator (or delegated enforcement...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4110 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What notifications must I submit? 63..., Reports, and Records § 63.4110 What notifications must I submit? (a) You must submit the notifications in... submit the Initial Notification required by § 63.9(b) for an existing affected source no later than...

  11. 24 CFR 902.62 - Failure to submit data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to submit data. 902.62... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Scoring § 902.62 Failure to submit data. (a) Failure to submit data by due date. (1) If a PHA without a finding of good cause by HUD does not submit its...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3510 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What notifications must I submit? 63..., Reports, and Records § 63.3510 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the... notification. You must submit the Initial Notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or...

  13. 24 CFR 902.62 - Failure to submit data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Failure to submit data. 902.62... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Scoring § 902.62 Failure to submit data. (a) Failure to submit data by due date. (1) If a PHA without a finding of good cause by HUD does not submit its...

  14. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  15. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  16. 24 CFR 902.62 - Failure to submit data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to submit data. 902.62... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Scoring § 902.62 Failure to submit data. (a) Failure to submit data by due date. (1) If a PHA without a finding of good cause by HUD does not submit its...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14464 - When must I submit reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I submit reports? 62.14464... Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 62.14464 When must I submit reports? (a) You must submit the... test. (b) You must submit an annual report to the EPA Administrator (or delegated enforcement...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4110 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63..., Reports, and Records § 63.4110 What notifications must I submit? (a) You must submit the notifications in... submit the Initial Notification required by § 63.9(b) for an existing affected source no later than...

  19. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  20. 21 CFR 809.4 - Confidentiality of submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of submitted information. 809.4... Confidentiality of submitted information. Data and information submitted under § 809.10(c) that are shown to fall... Drug Administration will determine whether information submitted will be treated as confidential...

  1. 49 CFR 1332.3 - Manner of submitting contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manner of submitting contracts. 1332.3 Section... SURFACE MAIL TRANSPORTATION § 1332.3 Manner of submitting contracts. The U.S. Postal Service will submit... agreement(s) will be submitted by facsimile transmission or messenger service where feasible, and,...

  2. 17 CFR 165.3 - Procedures for submitting original information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for submitting... COMMISSION WHISTLEBLOWER RULES § 165.3 Procedures for submitting original information. A whistleblower's... need to submit the whistleblower's information to the Commission. The whistleblower may submit...

  3. 24 CFR 902.62 - Failure to submit data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to submit data. 902.62... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Scoring § 902.62 Failure to submit data. (a) Failure to submit data by due date. (1) If a PHA without a finding of good cause by HUD does not submit its...

  4. 49 CFR 1332.3 - Manner of submitting contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manner of submitting contracts. 1332.3 Section... SURFACE MAIL TRANSPORTATION § 1332.3 Manner of submitting contracts. The U.S. Postal Service will submit... agreement(s) will be submitted by facsimile transmission or messenger service where feasible, and,...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 282 - Submitting a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submitting a Claim C Appendix C to Part 282.... 282, App. C Appendix C to Part 282—Submitting a Claim (a) Who May Submit a Claim. Any person (“claimant”) may submit a claim who has a demand for money or property against the Government under 31...

  6. Breed effects on crossbred cow-calf performance.

    PubMed

    Setshwaelo, L L; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1990-06-01

    Effects of seven breeds of cow's sire and 12 breeds of cow's maternal grandsire on preweaning performance of crossbred cows and their calves were examined in data from two experiments conducted at the Roman L. Hruska U.S. Mean Animal Research Center. Data included 1,836 records over three to five parities for 516 cows by 143 sires and by 307 maternal grandsires. The statistical model fitted effects of calf sex, parity, cow birth-breeding year or cow-calf birth year, the breed effects and their interactions. Deviations of breed of sire or equivalent grandsire effects on each trait from the mean for Hereford x Angus cows ranged from -1.6 to 5.5 kg (P less than .001) for calf birth weights, -15 to 1% (P less than .001) for calving difficulty, nonsignificant for preweaning calf mortality and -2 to 27 kg (P less than .001) for calf weaning weight. Deviations were nonsignificant for conception rate and calves weaned per cow exposed to breeding, but -2 to 40 kg (P less than .001) for calf weight weaned per cow exposed for breeding, -7 to 78 kg (P less than .001) for cow weight and -20 to 2% (P less than .001) for body condition score. The advantages of Holstein and Brahman cross over Hereford x Angus cows of 23 and 13% in weight of calf weaned/cow-breeding exposure must be compared with the expected greater feed requirements from 7 or 8% heavier cows and at least 50% higher milk production, which emphasizes the need to include input measures and costs in breed evaluation schemes. PMID:2384359

  7. Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine

  8. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  9. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  10. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and submit a list of every HCT/P that your establishment manufactures within 5 days after...

  11. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and submit a list of every HCT/P that your establishment manufactures within 5 days after...

  12. Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Sumiko; Goto, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Ueo, Hiroshi; Komori, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Hitomi; Uchinuno, Yukinori

    2007-09-01

    An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.

  13. Glomerular filtration rate in cows estimated by a prediction formula.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Isao; Miyano, Anna; Sato, Tsubasa; Iwama, Ryosuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijyo, Toshihiro; Sato, Shigeru; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-01

    To testify the relevance of Jacobsson's equation for estimating bovine glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we prepared an integrated formula based on its equation using clinically healthy dairy (n=99) and beef (n=63) cows, and cows with reduced renal function (n=15). The isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol was utilized as a test tracer. The GFR values estimated from the integrated formula were well consistent with those from the standard multisample method in each cow strain, and the Holstein equation prepared by a single blood sample in Holstein dairy cows. The basal reference GFR value in healthy dairy cows was significantly higher than that in healthy beef cows, presumably due to a breed difference or physiological state difference. It is concluded that the validity for the application of Jacobsson's equation to estimate bovine GFR is proven and it can be used in bovine practices.

  14. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  15. [Ulcerative colitis and proctitis in two Swiss Braunvieh cows].

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Hilbe, M; Gerspach, C; Ruetten, M

    2015-04-01

    Two Swiss Braunvieh cows were referred to our clinic because of narrowing of the rectum and difficult rectal examination attributable to restricted arm movement within the pelvic cavity. Cow 1 also had perforation of the cranial rectum and cow 2 had multiple small funnel-shaped depressions in the rectal mucosa. Both cows had ultrasonographic evidence of peritonitis with thickening of the intestinal wall and fibrin and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. A diagnosis of peritonitis was made in both cows, most likely caused by rectal perforation; they were euthanized and a post-mortem examination was carried out. Both cows had proctitis and ulcerative colitis with three or four perforated ulcers which were associated with fibrinopurulent peritonitis. The final diagnosis was ulcerative colitis and proctitis of unknown aetiology. Infectious causes of colitis and proctitis, including bovine viral diarrhoea, adenovirus infection and salmonellosis, and trauma and poisoning were ruled out.

  16. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high.

  17. Effects of inorganic and organic copper supplemented to first-calf cows on cow reproduction and calf health and performance.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbein, E L; Brink, D R; Deutscher, G H; Carlson, M P; Johnson, A B

    2001-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the supplementation of Cu in the organic or inorganic form to 2-yr-old cows, before and after calving, affects reproduction rate, calf health and performance, passive transfer of immunoglobulin, or liver and serum Cu concentrations compared with unsupplemented controls. Cows (n = 75 in 1997; n = 120 in 1998) were randomly assigned by estimated calving date and body condition score to one of three treatments: 1) Control, control; 2) Inorganic, inorganic Cu supplement (200 mg Cu from CuSO4); 3) Organic, organic Cu supplement (100 mg Cu from AvailaCu). In 1998, a fourth treatment was added; 4) CU-ZN, organic Cu and Zn (400 mg Zn from AvailaZn in the Organic diet). Cows were fed a hay-based diet and individually fed supplements for approximately 45 d before and 60 d after calving (approximately January 15 to May 15 each year). Liver biopsies were obtained from cows before supplementation began, and from cows and calves at 10 and 30 d after calving. Blood samples were obtained from both cows and calves at calving, and colostrum samples were collected for IgG and mineral content. Cow liver Cu concentrations before supplementation began were 58 mg/kg in 1997 and 40 mg/kg (DM basis) in 1998. By 10 d after calving, liver Cu concentrations of Control cows had decreased (P < 0.05) to 24 mg/kg (Cu deficient) in both years, whereas liver Cu concentrations of Cu-supplemented cows increased (P < 0.05) in both years. Calf liver Cu concentrations at 10 d of age were similar (P > 0.10) for all treatment groups. No differences (P > 0.10) were found in colostrum Cu concentrations, or in calf health among treatments. No differences (P > 0.10) were found in cow BW change, calf serum Cu concentrations, calf weaning weights, or in cow 60-d pregnancy rates among treatments in either year. In 1998, cows in the Organic group had higher (P < 0.05) 30-d pregnancy rate than Control cows. Neither serum samples nor placental tissue were reliable

  18. Late gestation supplementation of beef cows differing in body condition score: effects on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Stalker, L A; Mills, R R; Nyman, A; Falck, S J; Cooke, R F

    2013-11-01

    A 2-yr study utilizing 120 mature, crossbred (Angus × Herford) cows/year, evaluated the influence of cow BCS and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplementation during late gestation on cow performance and productivity of subsequent offspring. Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 2 BCS and with or without DDGS supplementation. Cows were nutritionally managed to enter the last trimester of gestation with a BCS of approximately 4 (LBCS) or 6 (HBCS) and were thereafter managed in a single herd (initial BCS were 4.4 and 5.7 for LBCS and HBCS treatments, respectively). During the last trimester, 12.7 kg/cow of low quality meadow hay (6.4% CP; DM basis) was provided each day. Supplemented cows were gathered and sorted into pens (12 pens; 5 cows/pen; 6 pens/BCS) every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and received the equivalent of 0.9 kg/cow daily of DDGS (31% CP; DM basis; supplement was consumed within 30 min on each supplementation day). Calf birth weight was greater for HBCS compared to LBCS (P=0.001) and for supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.04). Cow weight at weaning was greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P<0.001); however, no differences were noted because of supplementation (P=0.16). Weaning weight was greater for the offspring of supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.02). There were no differences in postweaning calf performance (growing lot and feedlot) or carcass characteristics (P>0.05) due to treatments. Nevertheless, HBCS cows had approximately 10% more live calves at birth and at weaning (P≤0.01) compared to LBCS cows. Consequently, the total weaned calf weight per cow was 26 kg greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P=0.004). Pregnancy rate was greater (P=0.05) for HBCS than LBCS cows (92% vs. 79%, respectively) but not affected by supplementation (P=0.94). This research demonstrates the potential consequences of not maintaining cows in adequate BCS at calving

  19. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  20. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study.

  1. Abnormal regurgitation in three cows caused by intrathoracic perioesophageal lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. Case presentation The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal space, and in the third, only saliva could be collected. In one cow, oesophagoscopy revealed a discoloured 10-cm mucosal area with fibrin deposits. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The cows were euthanased and examined postmortem. Cow 1 had a large perioesophageal abscess containing feed material at the level of the thoracic inlet, believed to be the result of a healed oesophageal injury. Cow 2 had an abscess between the oesophagus and trachea 25 cm caudal to the epiglottis with the same presumed aetiology as in cow 1. Cow 3 had a mediastinal carcinoma that enclosed and constricted the oesophagus. Conclusions Abnormal regurgitation in cattle is usually the result of an oesophageal disorder. Causes of oesophageal disorders vary widely and their identification can be difficult. PMID:24629042

  2. Clinical findings in cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Braun, U

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the clinical signs and course of disease in five lactating cows and in five dry cows after experimental infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Ten clinically healthy Swiss Braunvieh cows, seronegative for E. phagocytophila, were injected with 50 ml of whole blood containing E. phagocytophila. The cows were examined daily for 21 days, and blood samples were collected for microscopic examination of leukocytes for the infective agent. All cows became ill with symptoms of tick-borne fever after an incubation period of 5 to 9 days. The most important clinical signs were pyrexia (40.2-41.7 degrees C), decreased milk production and mildly to moderately disturbed general condition. In addition, there were respiratory symptoms such as polypnea, nasal discharge, cough and abnormal lung sounds. Clinical signs returned to normal in all cows without treatment after an average of 8 days. E. phagocytophila bodies were seen in leukocytes 5-8 days after infection and were present for 6-14 days. The course of disease was more severe in dry cows than in lactating cows. It can be concluded that experimental infection of cows with E. phagocytophila generally has a mild course. However, the associated decrease in milk production may be of economic importance.

  3. Electrostatic Radionuclide Separation: A New Version of Rutherford's "Thorium Cow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiswirth, Marcus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes three experiments (also useful as demonstrations) using a "thorium cow," a device which concentrates the daughter products from thorium compounds by precipitation on a charged electrode. (JN)

  4. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: "mad cow disease".

    PubMed

    1996-07-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease," is a fatal brain disease of cattle first recognized in the United Kingdom. In humans, the most common transmissible spongiform encephalopathy is Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD). Although no cases of CJD have been directly linked to beef consumption, an advisory committee has reported that 10 recent cases of a CJD variant may be associated with BSE. This announcement has alarmed consumers well beyond the borders of the United Kingdom.

  5. Weather and soil type affect incidence of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, N; Phelan, P; O'Kiely, P; Waal, T de

    2014-10-18

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can result in marked economic losses on Irish dairy farms. This study investigated the exposure to F hepatica in 237 dairy cow herds, using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) samples collected in the autumn of 2012. A total of 364 BTM samples were collected from 237 different herds, with 127 farmers submitting BTM samples in two consecutive months. Analysis of the BTM samples indicated that 67 per cent (n= 159) of the dairy herds had been exposed to F hepatica. Rainfall, temperature and soil types were significantly different between the exposed and non-exposed herds (P<0.05), highlighting the role of these variables to the exposure to F hepatica. Among the 127 herds that provided two monthly milk samples, 83 herds were exposed to F hepatica and 82 increased their F hepatica antibody levels at the later sampling time (P<0.01).The findings of this study confirm the high prevalence of F hepatica antibodies in Irish dairy herds and show the rise in antibody levels during autumn. This study is the first step towards assessing the spatiotemporal pattern of fasciolosis in dairy herds in Ireland.

  6. Diversity of Staphylococcus species and prevalence of enterotoxin genes isolated from milk of healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rall, V L M; Miranda, E S; Castilho, I G; Camargo, C H; Langoni, H; Guimarães, F F; Araújo Júnior, J P; Fernandes Júnior, A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus spp. in milk from healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis in Brazil and to examine the profile of enterotoxin genes and some enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus spp. A total of 280 individual mammary quarter milk samples from 70 healthy cows and 292 samples from 73 cows with subclinical mastitis were collected from 11 farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 63 (22.5%) samples from healthy cows and from 80 samples (27.4%) from cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly different between these 2 groups and was more prevalent in the cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus was also significantly different between these 2 groups, but this organism was more prevalent in healthy cows. No statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of other staphylococci in milk samples from the 2 groups. The sea gene was the most prevalent enterotoxin gene in both groups. Eight of 15 (53.3%) Staph. aureus carried this gene and all produced the SEA toxin. In the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) group, 61 of 128 (47.5%) had the same gene and just 1 (1.6%) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain produced the enterotoxin in vitro. Because CNS were isolated from both groups of cows and most CNS contained enterotoxin genes but did not produce toxins, the role of CNS in mastitis should be carefully defined.

  7. Comparison of milk produced by cows cloned by nuclear transfer with milk from non-cloned cows.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Marie K; Lucey, John A; Govindasamy-Lucey, Selvarani; Pace, Marvin M; Bishop, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    Cloning technologies, including embryo splitting and nuclear transfer, were introduced into dairy cattle breeding in the early 1980s. With the recent worldwide attention on the cloning of sheep ("Dolly") and cows ("Gene"), the potential food safety concerns for food products derived from cloned animals needs to be addressed. There has been no study of the composition of milk produced by cloned cows. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the composition of milk from 15 lactating non-embryonic cell cloned cows and six non-cloned lactating cows over a single season. The cloned cows came from five unique genetic lines and three distinct breeds. Milk samples were analyzed for total solids, fat, fatty acid profile, lactose, protein and compared to non-cloned and literature values. Gross chemical composition of milk from cloned cows was similar to that of the non-cloned cows and literature values. Our results lead us to conclude that there are no obvious differences in milk composition produced from cloned cows compared to non-cloned cows. PMID:14588139

  8. Ultrasonography of the rumen of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the ultrasonographic findings of the rumen in 45 healthy dairy cows. Results The cows were scanned on both sides using a 5.0 MHz transducer. The dorsal visible margin of the rumen ran parallel to the lung from cranioventral to caudodorsal. It was furthest from the dorsal midline at the 9th intercostal space (48.3 ± 9.24 cm) and closest at the 12th intercostal space (22.4 ± 3.27 cm). The longitudinal groove, which could be clearly identified at all examination sites because it appeared as a triangular notch, formed the ventral margin of the dorsal sac of the rumen. The dorsal sac of the rumen was largest at the caudal flank (40.3 ± 6.33 cm), where it was adjacent to the abdominal wall. The ventral sac of the rumen extended across the ventral midline into the right hemiabdomen and its ventral margin had a largely horizontal craniocaudal course. The height of the ventral sac of the rumen exceeded that of the dorsal sac at all examination sites; the maximum height was measured at the 12th intercostal space (62.6 ± 9.53 cm). The dorsal gas cap, characterised ultrasonographically by typical reverberation artifacts, was visible in all cows from the 12th intercostal space to the caudal flank. It was largest at the 12th intercostal space (20.5 ± 7.03 cm). The transition from the gas cap to the fibre mat was marked by the abrupt cessation of the reverberation artifacts. It was not possible to differentiate a fibre mat and a ventral fluid phase. The rumen could be imaged from the right side in 21 cows (47%). Conclusions Ultrasonography is well suited for the detailed examination of the rumen of cows. The reference values obtained from this study add to the diagnostic tools that are available for the assessment of bovine patients. PMID:23497545

  9. How to submit your revalidation application.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn; Llewellyn, Denise

    2016-08-01

    Rationale and key points This is the final in a series of eight articles providing information about the Nursing and Midwifery Council revalidation process. This article focuses on submitting a revalidation application to the NMC. » Nurses and midwives must demonstrate that they have: completed 450 hours of practice, or 900 hours if revalidating as both a nurse and midwife; undertaken 35 hours of continuing professional development, 20 hours of which must be participatory; recorded five examples of feedback on their practice; written five reflective accounts; had a reflective discussion with an NMC registrant; and sought confirmation that they have met these requirements. » Nurses and midwives who fail to submit their revalidation application by the stated date will put the renewal of their registration at risk. Reflective activity 'How to' revalidate articles can help to update your practice and provide information about the revalidation process, including how you can submit your revalidation application. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The professional accountability associated with declaring that you have met the revalidation requirements. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27484566

  10. How to submit your revalidation application.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn; Llewellyn, Denise

    2016-08-01

    Rationale and key points This is the final in a series of eight articles providing information about the Nursing and Midwifery Council revalidation process. This article focuses on submitting a revalidation application to the NMC. » Nurses and midwives must demonstrate that they have: completed 450 hours of practice, or 900 hours if revalidating as both a nurse and midwife; undertaken 35 hours of continuing professional development, 20 hours of which must be participatory; recorded five examples of feedback on their practice; written five reflective accounts; had a reflective discussion with an NMC registrant; and sought confirmation that they have met these requirements. » Nurses and midwives who fail to submit their revalidation application by the stated date will put the renewal of their registration at risk. Reflective activity 'How to' revalidate articles can help to update your practice and provide information about the revalidation process, including how you can submit your revalidation application. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The professional accountability associated with declaring that you have met the revalidation requirements. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  11. Economic and environmental feasibility of a perennial cow dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Zartman, D L; Crandall, K L

    2005-08-01

    More efficient and economical production systems are needed to improve the sustainability of dairy farms. One concept to consider is using perennial cows. Perennial cows are those that maintain a relatively high milk production for >or=2 yr without going through the typical dry period followed by calving. Farm records show that some cows have produced over 20 kg/d after 4 yr of continuous lactation. A farm simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term performance, environmental impact, and economics of a conceptual perennial cow production system on a typical dairy farm in Pennsylvania. Compared with a traditional 100-cow farm with replacement heifers produced on the farm, a perennial herd of 100 cows and purchased replacements provided environmental benefit but sustained a substantial economic loss. However, increasing the perennial herd to 128 cows better utilized the feed produced on the farm. Compared with the traditional 100-cow farm, use of the perennial 128-cow herd reduced supplemental protein and mineral feed purchases by 38%, increased annual milk sales by 21%, reduced nitrogen losses by 17%, maintained a phosphorus balance, and increased annual net return to farm management by 3200 dollars. A traditional 120-cow dairy farm with purchased replacements also used a similar amount of farm-produced feed. Compared with this option, the farm with 128 perennial cows reduced protein and mineral feed purchases by 36%, maintained similar annual milk sales, increased manure production by 7%, reduced N losses by 10%, and increased annual net return by 12,700 dollars. The economic feasibility of the perennial-cow dairy farm was very sensitive to the milk production maintained by the perennial herd and market prices for milk and perennial replacement animals. The analysis was relatively insensitive to the assumed useful life of perennial cows as long as they could be maintained in the herd for at least 3 yr. Thus, a perennial cow production system can improve the

  12. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications.

  13. Behaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a straw yard.

    PubMed

    Singh, S S; Ward, W R; Lautenbach, K; Murray, R D

    1993-08-28

    The behaviour of normal cows in cubicles was compared with that of normal cows in a straw yard and that of lame cows in cubicles. The normal cows in a straw yard lay down for longer in total (9.6 hours vs 6.8 hours) and during the night (8.55 hours vs 4.75 hours) and for significantly longer at a time (3.95 hours vs 2.45 hours) than normal cows in cubicles. The normal cows in a straw yard spent more time lying down and ruminating (5.1 hours) than normal cows in cubicles (3.3 hours). Lame cows in cubicles lay down for significantly longer during the day (3.3 hours) than normal cows in cubicles (2.1 hours). Although lameness did not affect the total time the cows spent in feeding and rumination, lame cows moved about less, and they adopted abnormal postures suggesting discomfort.

  14. Ovum pick up and in vitro embryo production in cows superstimulated with an individually adapted superstimulation protocol.

    PubMed

    De Roover, R; Genicot, G; Leonard, S; Bols, P; Dessy, F

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this experiment was to apply an ovarian superstimulation protocol prior to ovum pick up (OPU), tailored to the individual donor response, to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages in terms of follicle numbers and diameters, the numbers of retrieved oocytes and day 7 cultured blastocysts. Ten adult non-lactating dairy cows were superstimulated with pFSH and subjected to ovum pick up-in vitro fertilisation (OPU-IVF) 6 times at 2-week intervals. On day 0 of each 2-week period, all follicles >8mm were ablated and an ear implant (Crestar, Intervet, Belgium) was inserted. On day 2, 48 h after follicle ablation the animals were administered six equal doses of pFSH, divided into morning and evening doses for 3 days. On day 7, 48 h following the last pFSH injection, follicle diameters were measured by ultrasound and all follicles were subjected to OPU. All cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), regardless of their quality, were subjected to in vitro maturation-in vitro fertilisation-in vitro culture (IVM-IVF-IVC). The total dose of pFSH prior to the first OPU session was 300 microg per animal. During the following OPU sessions, the total pFSH dose was either kept unchanged, increased or reduced (+/-50 microg), according to the percentage of follicles of more than 11 mm in diameter, present in the previous session of that particular donor. The mean number of punctured follicles per session was 11.9 +/- 7.7 (mean +/- S.D.), with 16% of follicles exceeding 11 mm. These follicles yielded a mean of 5.6 +/- 4.1 cumulus oocyte complexes (COC), 32% of which had >/=3 layers of cumulus cells (quality 1 and 2). The recovery rate was 47%. Finally, all COC were subjected to IVM-IVF-IVC, which resulted in a mean of 2.0 +/- 2.3 blastocysts on day 7 postinsemination. The subtle changes in pFSH dose influenced the sizes but not the numbers of follicles, the latter parameter was influenced by the individual donor and the OPU session.

  15. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  16. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  17. Low protein silage associated with rumen impaction in suckler cows.

    PubMed

    2016-04-23

    Rumen impaction associated with low protein diets in a suckler cowCampylobacteriosis in suckler cowsPlant toxicity in ewesListerial encephalitis in ewes ITALIC! Chorioptes bovis-associated infertility in ramsThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for January 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  18. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  19. Milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. Systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. Encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. Biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2014 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:25748187

  20. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  1. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  2. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  3. Segmental aplasia of the left paramesonephric duct in the cow.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, L H; Fairles, J; Chenier, T; Johnson, W H

    1999-01-01

    Segmental aplasia of the left uterine horn in a multiparous Holstein cow was diagnosed by palpation and ultrasonography. Treatment with prostaglandin was unsuccessful in eliminating the fluid from the distended uterine horn. Segmental aplasia should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for cows with nonresponsive uterine enlargement. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10646066

  4. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows.

  5. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  6. Winter-annual pasture as a supplement for beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gunter, S A; Cassida, K A; Beck, P A; Phillips, J M

    2002-05-01

    In each of two experiments, 120 pregnant beef cows were stratified by body condition score, BW, breed, and age, randomly divided into six groups of 20, and assigned to one of six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures (two replicates/ treatment) in early January to evaluate the use of winter-annual pasture as a supplement. All cows in Exp. 1 and 2 had ad libitum access to bermudagrass/dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) hay plus three treatments: 1) a concentrate-based supplement fed 3 d/wk, 2) limit grazing on winter-annual pasture 2 d/wk (7 hr/ d; 0.04 ha x cow(-1) x grazing d(-1)), or 3) limit grazing on winter-annual pasture 3 d/wk (7 hr/d; 0.04 ha x cow(-1) x grazing d(-1)) sod-seeded into a portion of the pasture until mid-May. The seeded portion of pastures in Exp. 1 was planted with a mixture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), but annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was added to the seed mixture in Exp. 2. In mid-May, cows were blocked by treatment and the previous sorting factors, randomly assigned to six new groups of 20, and placed on the six perennial pastures until calves were weaned. Groups of cows were exposed to a bull for 60 d beginning in mid-May. In Exp. 1 and 2, limit-grazing winter-annual pasture compared to the concentrate-based supplement or limit grazing 2 vs 3 d/wk did not affect (P > 0.15) cow BW. In Exp. 1, cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture had a lower (P = 0.05) body condition score than cows fed the concentrate-based supplement in the early spring. However, in Exp. 2, cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture had higher (P < or = 0.07) body condition score than cows fed the concentrate-based supplement. The conception rate of cows in Exp. 1 and 2 did not differ (P > 0.22) between cows fed concentrate-based supplements and cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture. In Exp. 2, cows limit grazed 2 d/wk tended to have a greater (P = 0.10) conception rate than cows limit

  7. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.13 When must IRPs be submitted? (a) Submitting the initial IRP. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  8. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... one of the following options: (1) Customers may submit IRPs individually. (2) MBAs may submit IRPs for... an MBA must specify the responsibilities and participation levels of individual members and the MBA. Any member of an MBA may submit an individual IRP to Western instead of being included in an MBA...

  9. 20 CFR 10.335 - How are medical bills submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How are medical bills submitted? 10.335... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.335 How are medical bills submitted? Usually, medical providers submit bills directly to OWCP or to a bill processing agent designated by OWCP....

  10. 20 CFR 10.335 - How are medical bills submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How are medical bills submitted? 10.335... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.335 How are medical bills submitted? Usually, medical providers submit bills directly to OWCP or to a bill processing agent designated by OWCP....

  11. 20 CFR 10.335 - How are medical bills submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How are medical bills submitted? 10.335... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.335 How are medical bills submitted? Usually, medical providers submit bills directly to OWCP or to a bill processing agent designated by OWCP....

  12. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  13. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  14. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  15. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  16. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  17. 40 CFR 10.4 - Evidence to be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence to be submitted. 10.4 Section... FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.4 Evidence to be submitted. (a) Death. In support of a claim based on death, the claimant may be required to submit the following evidence or information: (1)...

  18. 40 CFR 10.4 - Evidence to be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence to be submitted. 10.4 Section... FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.4 Evidence to be submitted. (a) Death. In support of a claim based on death, the claimant may be required to submit the following evidence or information: (1)...

  19. 42 CFR 411.372 - Procedure for submitting a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedure for submitting a request. 411.372 Section 411.372 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... submitting a request. (a) Format for a request. A party or parties must submit a request for an...

  20. 33 CFR 173.59 - Where to submit report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where to submit report. 173.59 Section 173.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED....59 Where to submit report. A report required by § 173.55 must be submitted to: (a) The...

  1. 75 FR 55351 - Agency Form Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... COMMISSION Agency Form Submitted for OMB Review AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Commission has submitted a request for approval of a questionnaire to the Office of Management and Budget for..., 2011. Summary of Proposal (1) Number of forms submitted: 1. (2) Title of form: Intellectual...

  2. 15 CFR 782.6 - Where to submit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where to submit reports. 782.6 Section... REGARDING REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES § 782.6 Where to submit reports. Reports required by the APR must be sent to BIS via facsimile to (202) 482-1731 or hand delivered , submitted by courier, or...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4375 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What reports must I submit? 60.4375... Combustion Turbines Reporting § 60.4375 What reports must I submit? (a) For each affected unit required to... subpart, you must submit reports of excess emissions and monitor downtime, in accordance with §...

  4. 46 CFR 164.013-4 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.013-4 Section 164... Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-4 Samples submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required by § 164.019-7(c)(4) must consist of at least one square foot by...

  5. 25 CFR 273.23 - Submitting application to Area Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Submitting application to Area Office. 273.23 Section 273... Submitting application to Area Office. When services under the proposed contract will be provided to Indian children within the jurisdiction of a single Area Office, the completed application shall be submitted...

  6. 18 CFR 4.33 - Limitations on submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submitting applications. 4.33 Section 4.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...: General Provisions § 4.33 Limitations on submitting applications. (a) Limitations on submission and..., unless the permittee has submitted an application for license; or (2) An unexpired license, except...

  7. 10 CFR 600.504 - Information an applicant must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information an applicant must submit. 600.504 Section 600... Information an applicant must submit. (a) Any applicant for financial assistance under a covered program shall submit with the application for financial assistance, or at such later time as may be specified by...

  8. 42 CFR 110.43 - Deadlines for submitting documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deadlines for submitting documentation. 110.43... submitting documentation. (a) Documentation for eligibility determinations. A requester will satisfy the... submitted within the governing filing deadline described in § 110.42. The Secretary generally will not...

  9. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFT information submitted by offerors. 32.1109 Section 32.1109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  10. 18 CFR 4.33 - Limitations on submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submitting applications. 4.33 Section 4.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...: General Provisions § 4.33 Limitations on submitting applications. (a) Limitations on submission and..., unless the permittee has submitted an application for license; or (2) An unexpired license, except...

  11. 42 CFR 423.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 423.586 Section 423... Determinations, Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The Part D plan... submitting the evidence....

  12. 33 CFR 173.59 - Where to submit report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where to submit report. 173.59 Section 173.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED....59 Where to submit report. A report required by § 173.55 must be submitted to: (a) The...

  13. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  14. 15 CFR 711.5 - Numerical precision of submitted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Numerical precision of submitted data... ELECTRONIC FILING OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.5 Numerical precision of submitted data. Numerical information submitted in declarations and reports is to be provided per applicable rounding rules in each...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3511 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authority has established dates for submitting semiannual reports pursuant to 40 CFR 70.6(a)(3)(iii)(A) or 40 CFR 71.6(a)(3)(iii)(A), you may submit the first and subsequent compliance reports according to... CFR 71.6(a)(3)(iii)(A). If an affected source submits a semiannual compliance report pursuant to...

  16. 78 FR 34604 - Submitting Complete and Accurate Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 Submitting Complete and Accurate Information AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... accurate information as would a licensee or an applicant for a license.'' DATES: Submit comments by August... may submit comments by any of the following methods (unless this document describes a different...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4375 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What reports must I submit? 60.4375... Combustion Turbines Reporting § 60.4375 What reports must I submit? (a) For each affected unit required to... subpart, you must submit reports of excess emissions and monitor downtime, in accordance with §...

  18. 7 CFR 75.20 - Submitted sample inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submitted sample inspection. 75.20 Section 75.20... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Inspection § 75.20 Submitted sample inspection. A sample inspection shall be made by testing a sample of seed submitted by an applicant...

  19. 32 CFR 644.360 - Reports submitted for screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reports submitted for screening. 644.360 Section... General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.360 Reports submitted for screening. Excess leaseholds and... completed, appropriate certification will be submitted to GSA.” Screening against defense...

  20. 5 CFR 178.102 - Procedures for submitting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for submitting claims. 178.102... for submitting claims. (a) Content of claims. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a claim shall be submitted by the claimant in writing and must be signed by the claimant or by...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4910 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR 70.5(d) or 40 CFR 71.5(d). (3) Date of the report and beginning and ending dates of the... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63..., Reports, and Records § 63.4910 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit...

  2. 42 CFR 422.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 422.586 Section 422... and Appeals § 422.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The MA organization must provide the parties to.... Therefore, the MA organization must inform the parties of the conditions for submitting the evidence....

  3. 42 CFR 422.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 422.586 Section 422... § 422.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The MA organization must provide the parties to the... organization must inform the parties of the conditions for submitting the evidence....

  4. 18 CFR 344.2 - Manner of submitting quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of submitting.... GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS AT REDUCED RATES § 344.2 Manner of submitting quotations. (a) The quotation or tender must be submitted to the Commission concurrently with the submittal of the quotation or tender to...

  5. 50 CFR 86.54 - How must I submit proposals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must I submit proposals? 86.54 Section...) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.54 How must I submit proposals? (a) You may apply for either Tier One funding or Tier Two funding or both. (b) You may submit more than one project proposal within...

  6. 32 CFR 644.360 - Reports submitted for screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reports submitted for screening. 644.360 Section... General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.360 Reports submitted for screening. Excess leaseholds and... completed, appropriate certification will be submitted to GSA.” Screening against defense...

  7. 30 CFR 1210.51 - Who must submit royalty reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who must submit royalty reports? 1210.51 Section 1210.51 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL... submit royalty reports? (a) Any person who pays royalty to ONRR must submit royalty reports to ONRR....

  8. 30 CFR 1210.101 - Who must submit production reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who must submit production reports? 1210.101... RESOURCES REVENUE FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 1210.101 Who must submit production... communitization agreement, you must submit production reports. (b) Before reporting production to ONRR, you...

  9. 18 CFR 344.2 - Manner of submitting quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of submitting.... GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS AT REDUCED RATES § 344.2 Manner of submitting quotations. (a) The quotation or tender must be submitted to the Commission concurrently with the submittal of the quotation or tender to...

  10. 42 CFR 110.43 - Deadlines for submitting documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deadlines for submitting documentation. 110.43... submitting documentation. (a) Documentation for eligibility determinations. A requester will satisfy the... submitted within the governing filing deadline described in § 110.42. The Secretary generally will not...

  11. 42 CFR 411.372 - Procedure for submitting a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure for submitting a request. 411.372 Section 411.372 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... submitting a request. (a) Format for a request. A party or parties must submit a request for an...

  12. 33 CFR 173.59 - Where to submit report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where to submit report. 173.59 Section 173.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED....59 Where to submit report. A report required by § 173.55 must be submitted to: (a) The...

  13. 7 CFR 75.20 - Submitted sample inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitted sample inspection. 75.20 Section 75.20... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Inspection § 75.20 Submitted sample inspection. A sample inspection shall be made by testing a sample of seed submitted by an applicant...

  14. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  15. 46 CFR 164.023-9 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.023-9 Section 164.023-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required...

  16. 25 CFR 273.26 - Submitting application to Central Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Submitting application to Central Office. 273.26 Section... Submitting application to Central Office. When services under the proposed contract will be provided to... submitted to the Commissioner through the respective Area Offices....

  17. 7 CFR 75.20 - Submitted sample inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submitted sample inspection. 75.20 Section 75.20... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Inspection § 75.20 Submitted sample inspection. A sample inspection shall be made by testing a sample of seed submitted by an applicant...

  18. 42 CFR 110.43 - Deadlines for submitting documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deadlines for submitting documentation. 110.43... submitting documentation. (a) Documentation for eligibility determinations. A requester will satisfy the... submitted within the governing filing deadline described in § 110.42. The Secretary generally will not...

  19. 33 CFR 173.59 - Where to submit report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where to submit report. 173.59 Section 173.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED....59 Where to submit report. A report required by § 173.55 must be submitted to: (a) The...

  20. 42 CFR 1008.11 - Who may submit a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may submit a request. 1008.11 Section 1008.11 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG... § 1008.11 Who may submit a request. Any individual or entity may submit a request to the OIG for...

  1. 5 CFR 178.102 - Procedures for submitting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for submitting claims. 178.102... for submitting claims. (a) Content of claims. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a claim shall be submitted by the claimant in writing and must be signed by the claimant or by...

  2. 42 CFR 422.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 422.586 Section 422... and Appeals § 422.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The MA organization must provide the parties to.... Therefore, the MA organization must inform the parties of the conditions for submitting the evidence....

  3. 34 CFR 401.10 - How are applications submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are applications submitted? 401.10 Section 401.10... Award? § 401.10 How are applications submitted? (a) An application from a tribal organization, other than a Bureau-funded school, must be submitted to the Secretary by the Indian tribe. (b) An...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3910 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... and Products Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.3910 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the notifications in §§ 63.7(b) and (c), 63.8(f)(4), and 63.9(b) through (e)...

  5. 46 CFR 164.023-9 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.023-9 Section 164.023-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required...

  6. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Previously submitted... Filed With Changes § 154.302 Previously submitted material. (a) If all, or any portion, of the information called for by this part has already been submitted to the Commission within six months of...

  7. 42 CFR 423.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 423.586 Section 423..., Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The Part D plan sponsor must... enrollee or the prescribing physician or other prescriber of the conditions for submitting the evidence....

  8. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4375 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What reports must I submit? 60.4375... Combustion Turbines Reporting § 60.4375 What reports must I submit? (a) For each affected unit required to... subpart, you must submit reports of excess emissions and monitor downtime, in accordance with §...

  10. 46 CFR 535.608 - Confidentiality of submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Confidentiality of submitted material. 535.608 Section... on Agreements § 535.608 Confidentiality of submitted material. (a) Except for an agreement filed under section 5 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40301(d)-(e), 40302-40303, 40305), all information submitted...

  11. 32 CFR 644.360 - Reports submitted for screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reports submitted for screening. 644.360 Section... General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.360 Reports submitted for screening. Excess leaseholds and... completed, appropriate certification will be submitted to GSA.” Screening against defense...

  12. 30 CFR 1210.101 - Who must submit production reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who must submit production reports? 1210.101... RESOURCES REVENUE FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 1210.101 Who must submit production... communitization agreement, you must submit production reports. (b) Before reporting production to ONRR, you...

  13. 46 CFR 164.023-9 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.023-9 Section 164.023-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required...

  14. 30 CFR 769.12 - Where to submit petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where to submit petitions. 769.12 Section 769... Where to submit petitions. Each petition to have an area of Federal lands designated as unsuitable or to terminate an existing designation shall be submitted to the Director of the OSM Field Office responsible...

  15. 42 CFR 423.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 423.586 Section 423... Determinations, Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The Part D plan... submitting the evidence....

  16. 47 CFR 68.604 - Requirements for submitting technical criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for submitting technical criteria... Terminal Attachments § 68.604 Requirements for submitting technical criteria. (a) Any standards development... procedures, and it may submit such criteria to the Administrative Council for Terminal Attachments. (b)...

  17. 15 CFR 782.6 - Where to submit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Where to submit reports. 782.6 Section... REGARDING REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES § 782.6 Where to submit reports. Reports required by the APR must be sent to BIS via facsimile to (202) 482-1731 or hand delivered , submitted by courier, or...

  18. 25 CFR 273.26 - Submitting application to Central Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Submitting application to Central Office. 273.26 Section... Submitting application to Central Office. When services under the proposed contract will be provided to... submitted to the Commissioner through the respective Area Offices....

  19. 32 CFR 644.360 - Reports submitted for screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reports submitted for screening. 644.360 Section... General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.360 Reports submitted for screening. Excess leaseholds and... completed, appropriate certification will be submitted to GSA.” Screening against defense...

  20. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFT information submitted by offerors. 32.1109 Section 32.1109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4375 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What reports must I submit? 60.4375... Combustion Turbines Reporting § 60.4375 What reports must I submit? (a) For each affected unit required to... subpart, you must submit reports of excess emissions and monitor downtime, in accordance with §...

  2. 18 CFR 344.2 - Manner of submitting quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of submitting.... GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS AT REDUCED RATES § 344.2 Manner of submitting quotations. (a) The quotation or tender must be submitted to the Commission concurrently with the submittal of the quotation or tender to...

  3. 42 CFR 1008.11 - Who may submit a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may submit a request. 1008.11 Section 1008.11 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG... § 1008.11 Who may submit a request. Any individual or entity may submit a request to the OIG for...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4375 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What reports must I submit? 60.4375... Combustion Turbines Reporting § 60.4375 What reports must I submit? (a) For each affected unit required to... subpart, you must submit reports of excess emissions and monitor downtime, in accordance with §...

  5. 7 CFR 75.20 - Submitted sample inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submitted sample inspection. 75.20 Section 75.20... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Inspection § 75.20 Submitted sample inspection. A sample inspection shall be made by testing a sample of seed submitted by an applicant...

  6. 18 CFR 4.33 - Limitations on submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submitting applications. 4.33 Section 4.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...: General Provisions § 4.33 Limitations on submitting applications. (a) Limitations on submission and..., unless the permittee has submitted an application for license; or (2) An unexpired license, except...

  7. 18 CFR 344.2 - Manner of submitting quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of submitting.... GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS AT REDUCED RATES § 344.2 Manner of submitting quotations. (a) The quotation or tender must be submitted to the Commission concurrently with the submittal of the quotation or tender to...

  8. 18 CFR 344.2 - Manner of submitting quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of submitting.... GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS AT REDUCED RATES § 344.2 Manner of submitting quotations. (a) The quotation or tender must be submitted to the Commission concurrently with the submittal of the quotation or tender to...

  9. 30 CFR 1210.101 - Who must submit production reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who must submit production reports? 1210.101... submit production reports? (a) If you operate a Federal or Indian oil and gas lease or federally approved unit or communitization agreement, you must submit production reports. (b) Before reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1193 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What reports must I submit? 63.1193 Section 63.1193 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., Recordkeeping, and Reporting § 63.1193 What reports must I submit? You must prepare and submit reports to...

  11. 29 CFR 4010.13 - Confidentiality of information submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confidentiality of information submitted. 4010.13 Section... Confidentiality of information submitted. In accordance with § 4901.21(a)(3) of this chapter and ERISA section 4010(c), any information or documentary material that is not publicly available and is submitted...

  12. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFT information submitted by offerors. 32.1109 Section 32.1109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  13. 30 CFR 769.12 - Where to submit petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where to submit petitions. 769.12 Section 769... Where to submit petitions. Each petition to have an area of Federal lands designated as unsuitable or to terminate an existing designation shall be submitted to the Director of the OSM Field Office responsible...

  14. 18 CFR 4.33 - Limitations on submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submitting applications. 4.33 Section 4.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...: General Provisions § 4.33 Limitations on submitting applications. (a) Limitations on submission and..., unless the permittee has submitted an application for license; or (2) An unexpired license, except...

  15. 42 CFR 423.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 423.586 Section 423... Determinations, Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The Part D plan... submitting the evidence....

  16. 47 CFR 68.604 - Requirements for submitting technical criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for submitting technical criteria... Terminal Attachments § 68.604 Requirements for submitting technical criteria. (a) Any standards development... procedures, and it may submit such criteria to the Administrative Council for Terminal Attachments. (b)...

  17. 5 CFR 178.102 - Procedures for submitting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for submitting claims. 178.102... for submitting claims. (a) Content of claims. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a claim shall be submitted by the claimant in writing and must be signed by the claimant or by...

  18. 42 CFR 422.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 422.586 Section 422... and Appeals § 422.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The MA organization must provide the parties to.... Therefore, the MA organization must inform the parties of the conditions for submitting the evidence....

  19. 34 CFR 401.10 - How are applications submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are applications submitted? 401.10 Section 401.10... Award? § 401.10 How are applications submitted? (a) An application from a tribal organization, other than a Bureau-funded school, must be submitted to the Secretary by the Indian tribe. (b) An...

  20. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Previously submitted... Filed With Changes § 154.302 Previously submitted material. (a) If all, or any portion, of the information called for by this part has already been submitted to the Commission within six months of...

  1. 42 CFR 110.43 - Deadlines for submitting documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deadlines for submitting documentation. 110.43... submitting documentation. (a) Documentation for eligibility determinations. A requester will satisfy the... submitted within the governing filing deadline described in § 110.42. The Secretary generally will not...

  2. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  3. 34 CFR 401.10 - How are applications submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are applications submitted? 401.10 Section 401.10... Award? § 401.10 How are applications submitted? (a) An application from a tribal organization, other than a Bureau-funded school, must be submitted to the Secretary by the Indian tribe. (b) An...

  4. 29 CFR 4010.13 - Confidentiality of information submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Confidentiality of information submitted. 4010.13 Section... Confidentiality of information submitted. In accordance with § 4901.21(a)(3) of this chapter and ERISA section 4010(c), any information or documentary material that is not publicly available and is submitted...

  5. 30 CFR 769.12 - Where to submit petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where to submit petitions. 769.12 Section 769... Where to submit petitions. Each petition to have an area of Federal lands designated as unsuitable or to terminate an existing designation shall be submitted to the Director of the OSM Field Office responsible...

  6. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Previously submitted... Filed With Changes § 154.302 Previously submitted material. (a) If all, or any portion, of the information called for by this part has already been submitted to the Commission within six months of...

  7. 46 CFR 164.013-4 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.013-4 Section 164... Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-4 Samples submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required by § 164.019-7(c)(4) must consist of at least one square foot by...

  8. 15 CFR 782.6 - Where to submit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where to submit reports. 782.6 Section... REGARDING REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES § 782.6 Where to submit reports. Reports required by the APR must be sent to BIS via facsimile to (202) 482-1731 or hand delivered , submitted by courier, or...

  9. 46 CFR 164.023-9 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.023-9 Section 164.023-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required...

  10. 30 CFR 769.12 - Where to submit petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where to submit petitions. 769.12 Section 769... Where to submit petitions. Each petition to have an area of Federal lands designated as unsuitable or to terminate an existing designation shall be submitted to the Director of the OSM Field Office responsible...

  11. 18 CFR 4.33 - Limitations on submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submitting applications. 4.33 Section 4.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...: General Provisions § 4.33 Limitations on submitting applications. (a) Limitations on submission and..., unless the permittee has submitted an application for license; or (2) An unexpired license, except...

  12. 33 CFR 173.59 - Where to submit report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where to submit report. 173.59 Section 173.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED....59 Where to submit report. A report required by § 173.55 must be submitted to: (a) The...

  13. 7 CFR 75.20 - Submitted sample inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submitted sample inspection. 75.20 Section 75.20... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Inspection § 75.20 Submitted sample inspection. A sample inspection shall be made by testing a sample of seed submitted by an applicant...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1191 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What notifications must I submit? 63.1191 Section 63.1191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., Recordkeeping, and Reporting § 63.1191 What notifications must I submit? You must submit written...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3511 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authority has established dates for submitting semiannual reports pursuant to 40 CFR 70.6(a)(3)(iii)(A) or 40 CFR 71.6(a)(3)(iii)(A), you may submit the first and subsequent compliance reports according to... CFR 71.6(a)(3)(iii)(A). If an affected source submits a semiannual compliance report pursuant to...

  16. 5 CFR 2417.204 - Where to submit a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where to submit a request. 2417.204... or Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 2417.204 Where to submit a request. (a...-public FLRA information under this part may submit a combined request for both to the Office of...

  17. 46 CFR 535.608 - Confidentiality of submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Confidentiality of submitted material. 535.608 Section... on Agreements § 535.608 Confidentiality of submitted material. (a) Except for an agreement filed under section 5 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40301(d)-(e), 40302-40303, 40305), all information submitted...

  18. 29 CFR 4010.13 - Confidentiality of information submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidentiality of information submitted. 4010.13 Section... Confidentiality of information submitted. In accordance with § 4901.21(a)(3) of this chapter and ERISA section 4010(c), any information or documentary material that is not publicly available and is submitted...

  19. 5 CFR 178.102 - Procedures for submitting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for submitting claims. 178.102... for submitting claims. (a) Content of claims. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a claim shall be submitted by the claimant in writing and must be signed by the claimant or by...

  20. 42 CFR 83.8 - How is a petition submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is a petition submitted? 83.8 Section 83.8... Procedures for Adding Classes of Employees to the Cohort § 83.8 How is a petition submitted? The petitioner(s... instructions for preparing and submitting a petition, including an optional petition form, are available...

  1. 5 CFR 2417.204 - Where to submit a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Where to submit a request. 2417.204... or Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 2417.204 Where to submit a request. (a...-public FLRA information under this part may submit a combined request for both to the Office of...

  2. 34 CFR 401.10 - How are applications submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are applications submitted? 401.10 Section 401.10... Award? § 401.10 How are applications submitted? (a) An application from a tribal organization, other than a Bureau-funded school, must be submitted to the Secretary by the Indian tribe. (b) An...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1191 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What notifications must I submit? 63.1191 Section 63.1191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., Recordkeeping, and Reporting § 63.1191 What notifications must I submit? You must submit written...

  4. 15 CFR 782.6 - Where to submit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where to submit reports. 782.6 Section... REGARDING REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES § 782.6 Where to submit reports. Reports required by the APR must be sent to BIS via facsimile to (202) 482-1731 or hand delivered , submitted by courier, or...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1193 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What reports must I submit? 63.1193 Section 63.1193 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., Recordkeeping, and Reporting § 63.1193 What reports must I submit? You must prepare and submit reports to...

  6. 50 CFR 86.54 - How must I submit proposals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How must I submit proposals? 86.54 Section...) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.54 How must I submit proposals? (a) You may apply for either Tier One funding or Tier Two funding or both. (b) You may submit more than one project proposal within...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4910 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR 70.5(d) or 40 CFR 71.5(d). (3) Date of the report and beginning and ending dates of the... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What notifications must I submit? 63..., Reports, and Records § 63.4910 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit...

  8. 42 CFR 405.809 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 405.809 Section 405... Program § 405.809 Opportunity to submit evidence. The parties to the review (as provided for in § 405.807(a)) shall have a reasonable opportunity to submit written evidence and contentions as to fact or...

  9. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EFT information submitted by offerors. 32.1109 Section 32.1109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  10. 5 CFR 178.102 - Procedures for submitting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for submitting claims. 178.102... for submitting claims. (a) Content of claims. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a claim shall be submitted by the claimant in writing and must be signed by the claimant or by...

  11. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Previously submitted... Filed With Changes § 154.302 Previously submitted material. (a) If all, or any portion, of the information called for by this part has already been submitted to the Commission within six months of...

  12. 46 CFR 535.608 - Confidentiality of submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Confidentiality of submitted material. 535.608 Section... on Agreements § 535.608 Confidentiality of submitted material. (a) Except for an agreement filed under section 5 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40301(d)-(e), 40302-40303, 40305), all information submitted...

  13. 42 CFR 1008.11 - Who may submit a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may submit a request. 1008.11 Section 1008.11 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG... § 1008.11 Who may submit a request. Any individual or entity may submit a request to the OIG for...

  14. 25 CFR 273.23 - Submitting application to Area Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Submitting application to Area Office. 273.23 Section 273... Submitting application to Area Office. When services under the proposed contract will be provided to Indian children within the jurisdiction of a single Area Office, the completed application shall be submitted...

  15. 29 CFR 551.5 - Information to be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information to be submitted. 551.5 Section 551.5 Labor... DELIVERY DRIVERS AND HELPERS; WAGE PAYMENT PLANS § 551.5 Information to be submitted. Every petition filed... payment plan submitted for consideration: (1) Applies to employees employed (i) as drivers or...

  16. 42 CFR 422.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 422.586 Section 422... § 422.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The MA organization must provide the parties to the... organization must inform the parties of the conditions for submitting the evidence....

  17. 42 CFR 423.586 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 423.586 Section 423..., Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.586 Opportunity to submit evidence. The Part D plan sponsor must... enrollee or the prescribing physician or other prescriber of the conditions for submitting the evidence....

  18. 46 CFR 164.013-4 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.013-4 Section 164... Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-4 Samples submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required by § 164.019-7(c)(4) must consist of at least one square foot by...

  19. 50 CFR 86.54 - How must I submit proposals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How must I submit proposals? 86.54 Section... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.54 How must I submit proposals? (a) You may apply for either Tier One funding or Tier Two funding or both. (b) You may submit more than one project...

  20. 46 CFR 164.023-9 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.023-9 Section 164.023-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3511 - What reports must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authority has established dates for submitting semiannual reports pursuant to 40 CFR 70.6(a)(3)(iii)(A) or 40 CFR 71.6(a)(3)(iii)(A), you may submit the first and subsequent compliance reports according to... CFR 71.6(a)(3)(iii)(A). If an affected source submits a semiannual compliance report pursuant to...

  2. 29 CFR 4010.13 - Confidentiality of information submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of information submitted. 4010.13 Section... Confidentiality of information submitted. In accordance with § 4901.21(a)(3) of this chapter and ERISA section 4010(c), any information or documentary material that is not publicly available and is submitted...

  3. 30 CFR 769.12 - Where to submit petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where to submit petitions. 769.12 Section 769... Where to submit petitions. Each petition to have an area of Federal lands designated as unsuitable or to terminate an existing designation shall be submitted to the Director of the OSM Field Office responsible...

  4. 75 FR 34481 - Agency Form Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Agency Form Submitted to OMB for Review AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...), the Commission has submitted a request for approval of survey forms to the Office of Management and... submitted: two (2) Title of form: 2010 USITC Survey Regarding Outstanding Sec. 337 Exclusion Orders (3)...

  5. 42 CFR 405.809 - Opportunity to submit evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opportunity to submit evidence. 405.809 Section 405... Program § 405.809 Opportunity to submit evidence. The parties to the review (as provided for in § 405.807(a)) shall have a reasonable opportunity to submit written evidence and contentions as to fact or...

  6. 32 CFR 644.360 - Reports submitted for screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reports submitted for screening. 644.360 Section... General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.360 Reports submitted for screening. Excess leaseholds and... completed, appropriate certification will be submitted to GSA.” Screening against defense...

  7. 50 CFR 86.54 - How must I submit proposals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How must I submit proposals? 86.54 Section... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.54 How must I submit proposals? (a) You may apply for either Tier One funding or Tier Two funding or both. (b) You may submit more than one project...

  8. 34 CFR 401.10 - How are applications submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are applications submitted? 401.10 Section 401.10... Award? § 401.10 How are applications submitted? (a) An application from a tribal organization, other than a Bureau-funded school, must be submitted to the Secretary by the Indian tribe. (b) An...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3910 - What notifications must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What notifications must I submit? 63... and Products Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.3910 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the notifications in §§ 63.7(b) and (c), 63.8(f)(4), and 63.9(b) through (e)...

  10. 5 CFR 2417.204 - Where to submit a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where to submit a request. 2417.204... or Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 2417.204 Where to submit a request. (a...-public FLRA information under this part may submit a combined request for both to the Office of...

  11. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted... Filed With Changes § 154.302 Previously submitted material. (a) If all, or any portion, of the information called for by this part has already been submitted to the Commission within six months of...

  12. 29 CFR 4010.13 - Confidentiality of information submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of information submitted. 4010.13 Section... Confidentiality of information submitted. In accordance with § 4901.21(a)(3) of this chapter and ERISA section 4010(c), any information or documentary material that is not publicly available and is submitted...

  13. 15 CFR 782.6 - Where to submit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where to submit reports. 782.6 Section... REGARDING REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES § 782.6 Where to submit reports. Reports required by the APR must be sent to BIS via facsimile to (202) 482-1731 or hand delivered , submitted by courier, or...

  14. Measures of daily distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using global positioning systems on both cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...

  15. The effects of calving to first service interval on reproductive performance in normal cows and cows with postpartal disease.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, I R

    1983-11-01

    The relationships between the calving to first service interval and several measures of reproductive performance were evaluated in 1738 lactation records from cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds. Lactation records were divided into three mutually exclusive health categories based on the cows' postpartal disease histories.Relationships between the calving to first service interval and the first service conception rate, number of services per conception and open interval were similar for all three health categories. The first service conception rate was lower and the average number of services per conception higher in cows first bred before 60 days when compared to cows first bred after 60 days. The relationship between the calving to first service interval and the open interval indicated that for each day that breeding was delayed the open interval was extended by 0.86 days.It appeared that overall conception rates may be lower for cows first bred very early or very late, but differences in the overall conception rate were only significant for cows experiencing a reproductive tract infection. Unless very expensive semen is being used, it is suggested that disease free cows be bred at the first heat occurring after 40 days postpartum, and that cows experiencing postpartal disease be bred at the first heat occurring after 60 days postpartum.

  16. Repeated pericardiocentesis as palliative treatment for tamponade associated with cardiac lymphoma in a Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Buczinski, Sébastien; Boulay, Guillaume; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining a good quality of life for cows with cardiac manifestation of lymphoma may be valuable, especially in high-producing cows. This report describes the medical management of cardiac lymphoma in a cow by means of repeated pericardiocentesis. The cow survived for 34 days and was productive. PMID:22131585

  17. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  18. [Case report: lymphosarcoma in a cow].

    PubMed

    Schell, M; Heckert, H P; Müller, K E

    2004-01-01

    A case of sporadic lymphosarcoma in a cow is described. The animal showed a tumorous mass in the area of the right orbita accompanied by conjunctival oedema. Clinical investigation showed an enlargement of a number of internal and external lymph nodes. Haematological and clinicochemical investigations revealed no alterations besides a slight shift to the right in the white blood picture. Blood serum was negative for antibodies directed against bovine leucosis virus. Necropsy showed leucotic and tumorous alterations in a number of organs. PMID:14983754

  19. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? 1271.21 Section 1271.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register...

  20. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? 1271.21 Section 1271.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register...

  1. 21 CFR 526.464a - Cloxacillin benzathine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae including penicillin resistant strains in dairy cows during... bovine mastitis in nonlactating cows due to S. agalactiae and S. aureus. (3) Limitations. For use in...

  2. 21 CFR 526.464a - Cloxacillin benzathine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae including penicillin resistant strains in dairy cows during... bovine mastitis in nonlactating cows due to S. agalactiae and S. aureus. (3) Limitations. For use in...

  3. 21 CFR 526.464a - Cloxacillin benzathine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae including penicillin resistant strains in dairy cows during... bovine mastitis in nonlactating cows due to S. agalactiae and S. aureus. (3) Limitations. For use in...

  4. 43 CFR 3504.12 - What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rentals and all other payments for leases to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). See 30 CFR part 218... payments do I submit to MMS? 3504.12 Section 3504.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... Information § 3504.12 What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS? (a) Fees...

  5. 43 CFR 3504.12 - What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rentals and all other payments for leases to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). See 30 CFR part 218... payments do I submit to MMS? 3504.12 Section 3504.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... Information § 3504.12 What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS? (a) Fees...

  6. 43 CFR 3504.12 - What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rentals and all other payments for leases to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). See 30 CFR part 218... payments do I submit to MMS? 3504.12 Section 3504.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... Information § 3504.12 What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS? (a) Fees...

  7. The influence of Borna disease viral infection on dairy cow reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Katsuro; Ando, Tatsuya; Koiwa, Masateru

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the influence of Borna disease virus (BDV) infection on the clinical state of dairy cows. Sera from 149 cows were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting detect antibodies to the BDV-nucleoprotein antigen. Among 149 investigated cows, 25 (16.8%) showed a positive reaction to BDV antigen. No significant difference existed in milk production or medical history between seropositive and seronegative cows. Although the estrus cycle appeared normal even in the seropositive cows, the frequency of artificial insemination and calving-to-conception intervals significantly increased in seropositive cows. Therefore, fertilization failure was recognized in the BDV-antibody positive cows. PMID:22123302

  8. Phosphate transporter expression in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Lambert, B D; Brady, J A; Muir, J P

    2011-04-01

    Phosphorus nutrition in cattle is increasingly becoming an important topic because excess dietary P is excreted in manure and can be washed into surface water, causing increased algal growth and eutrophication. However, little is known about the mechanism or regulation of P absorption in dairy cattle. Phosphorus transporters have been characterized in other species and homologous genes have been found to be expressed in bovine cell cultures. However, no other information is available regarding the active transport of phosphate in the digestive tract of cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the patterns of expression of a known phosphate transporter, NaPi-IIb, in 4 sections of the small intestine of Holstein cows. Ribonucleic acid was isolated from the duodenal, proximal jejunal, distal jejunal, and ileal mucosa of 20 Holstein cows. Relative amounts of NaPi-IIb mRNA expression were determined using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Expression of NaPi-IIb was highest in the 2 distal sections and almost absent in the proximal sections. Expression did not differ between the 2 proximal sections or the 2 distal sections. These data suggest that a Na+-dependent secondary active P transport system is not responsible for P absorption in the proximal portion of the bovine small intestine, whereas it does contribute to the P absorbed in the distal sections of the bovine small intestine.

  9. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages.

  10. Effects of roughness and compressibility of flooring on cow locomotion.

    PubMed

    Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2006-08-01

    We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially constructed walkways with materials that differed in surface roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to traverse the corridor. These effects were most apparent at difficult sections of the corridor, such as at the start, at a right-angle turn, and across a gutter. Covering the walkway with a thin layer of slurry increased frequency of slipping, number of strides, and time taken to traverse the walkway. Effects of adding slurry were not overcome by increasing surface roughness or compressibility. Placing more compressible materials under a slip-resistant material reduced the time and number of steps needed to traverse the corridor but did not reduce slips, and the effects on cow locomotion varied nonlinearly with the degree of compressibility of the floor. Use of commercially available rubber floors improved cow locomotion compared with concrete floors. However, standard engineering measures of the floor properties may not predict effects of the floor on cow behavior well. Increasing compressibility of the flooring on which cows walk, independently of the roughness of the surface, can improve cow locomotion.

  11. [Incidence and treatment of dermatitis digitalis in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Kyllar, V; Ryjácek, J; Sterc, J; Cech, S

    1985-10-01

    In dairy cows of the Black Pied Lowland, Bohemian Pied breeds and their crossbreds loosely in large cow houses VKK 900 on slatted floors, 24% incidence of dermatitis digitalis was recorded during the period of one year. Relations between the occurrence of this disease, age and efficiency of dairy cows, time of parturition and season of the year were studied. Therapeutical effects of several methods of treatment were evaluated and compared. No effect of age and efficiency of dairy cows, nor of the year season on the occurrence of this disease was observed. A significantly higher occurrence was proved in the period before and after parturition, when 80% of the total occurrence of digitalis dermatitis were diagnosed. During this period, however, the cows were housed in a stable with markedly worse environmental circumstance than those in production stable. 91% cases of dermatitis were diagnosed on the digits of pelvic limbs. Relapses were determined only in five dairy cows. There was no case of the disease occurring in calves reared in the prophylactorium of the calf house. Therapeutical results were best after repeated mass treatment of the digits of dairy cows in 5% formaldehyde baths. The results of this study point at a conclusion that probable pathogens of this disease are specific infection agents, or that there are more synergic pathogens. A significant pre-disposition factor are bad environmental circumstances. PMID:3933162

  12. Quantification of cow's milk percentage in dairy products - a myth?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Helmut K; Bürger, J; Kaar, N

    2012-07-01

    The substitution of ewe's and goat's milk for cheaper cow's milk is still a fraudulent practice in the dairy industry. Moreover, soy-based products (e.g., soy milk, yoghurt) have to be checked for cow's milk as they are an alternative for people suffering from an allergy against bovine milk proteins. This work reports the evaluation of different protein-based electrophoretic methods and DNA-based techniques for the qualitative detection as well as the quantitative determination of cow's milk percentage in dairy and soy milk products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of γ-caseins using an optimized pH gradient was appropriate not only for the detection of cow's milk, but also for an estimation of cow's milk percentage in mixed-milk cheese varieties. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) proved the method of choice to detect cow's milk in soy milk products, whereas IEF and SDS-PAGE of proteins were not applicable due to false-positive results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to confirm the results of protein-based electrophoretic methods. Problems inherent in quantitative analysis of cow's milk percentage using protein-based techniques and even more using DNA-based methods were emphasized. Applicability of quantitative real-time PCR for the determination of cow's milk percentage in mixed-milk cheese was shown to be hampered by several factors (e.g., somatic cell count of milk; technological parameters influencing the final DNA concentration in ripened commercial cheese samples). The implementation of certified reference standards (of major relevant cheese groups) containing 50% cow's milk was urgently recommended to enable at least a yes/no decision in commercial mixed-milk cheese samples. PMID:22349339

  13. Behavioral and hormonal pattern of repeat breeder cows around estrus.

    PubMed

    Sood, P; Zachut, M; Dube, H; Moallem, U

    2015-06-01

    Repeat breeder (RB) cows were compared with normal (CTRL) ones with respect to behavioral estrus intensity, endocrine patterns and concentrations of plasma estradiol, progesterone and LH around estrus, and ovulation timing. A total of 27 and 31 cycles in 12 RB and 18 CTRL cows, respectively, were synchronized by means of the Ovsynch protocol followed by a single PG injection after 7 days. Behavioral estrus and ovulation were observed in 81.5 and 83.8% of the synchronized cycles in the RB and CTRL cows respectively. The RB and CTRL groups had similar estrus durations of 21.4 and 19.6 h respectively, but estrus was more intense in the RB, as indicated by numerically higher overall activity indexes and higher peak neck activity. The interval from PG injection to estrus onset (considered as proestrus) was 8.2 h shorter in RB than in CTRL cows, at 47.9 and 56.1 h respectively (P<0.007), but the average preovulatory follicle size was similar. The estradiol concentration at peak was numerically higher (21%) and the AUC tended to be higher in the RB cows than in the CTRL cows. LH secretion during the period from 18 to 3 h before the LH peak was also lower in RB than in CTRL cows: 2.5 and 4.6 ng/ml respectively (P<0.01). In conclusion, the behavioral estrus was more intense in the RB cows; nevertheless, short proestrus and subdued LH concentrations before the LH peak, which could impair oocyte competence and development, were first reported in RB cows.

  14. Clinical ketosis and standing behavior in transition cows.

    PubMed

    Itle, A J; Huzzey, J M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis is a common disease in dairy cattle, especially in the days after calving, and it is often undiagnosed. The objective of this study was to compare the standing behavior of dairy cows with and without ketosis during the days around calving to determine if changes in this behavior could be useful in the early identification of sick cows. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was measured in 184 cows on a commercial dairy farm twice weekly from 2 to 21d after calving. Standing behavior was measured from 7d before calving to 21d after calving using data loggers. Retrospectively, 15 cows with clinical ketosis (3 consecutive BHBA samples >1.2mmol/L and at least one sample of BHBA >2.9mmol/L) were matched with 15 nonketotic cows (BHBA <1.2mmol/L). Five periods were defined for the statistical analyses: wk -1 (d -7 to -1), d 0 (day of calving), wk +1 (d 1 to 7), wk +2 (d 8 to 14), and wk +3 (d 15 to 21). The first signs of clinical ketosis occurred 4.5±2.1d after calving. Total daily standing time was longer for clinically ketotic cows compared with nonketotic cows during wk -1 (14.3±0.6 vs. 12.0±0.7h/d) and on d 0 (17.2±0.9 vs. 12.7±0.9h/d) but did not differ during the other periods. Clinically ketotic cows exhibited fewer standing bouts compared with nonketotic cows on d 0 only (14.6±1.9 vs. 20.9±1.8bouts/d). Average standing bout duration was also longer for clinically ketotic cows on d 0 compared with nonketotic cows [71.3min/bout (CI: 59.3 to 85.5) vs. 35.8min/bout (CI: 29.8 to 42.9)] but was not different during the other periods. Differences in standing behavior in the week before and on the day of calving may be useful for the early detection of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  15. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment.

    PubMed

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9-20 h) or the night (21-8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5+/-2.9 during the day and 70.1+/-4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal

  16. The high producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, H; Smith, RF; Royal, MD; Knight, CH; Sheldon, IM

    2009-01-01

    Contents: Intensive genetic selection has resulted in modern dairy cow with very high milk yields but reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to get enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation and the animals require considerable veterinary attention in the early period after calving. Both genetic and management changes to increase the persistency of lactations would reduce the number and intensity of clinical risk periods throughout a cow's life without compromising milk output. PMID:17688598

  17. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  18. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9 20 h) or the night (21 8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5±2.9 during the day and 70.1±4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes

  19. Experimental Staphylococcus aureus intramammary challenge in late lactation dairy cows: quarter and cow effects determining the probability of infection.

    PubMed

    Schukken, Y H; Leslie, K E; Barnum, D A; Mallard, B A; Lumsden, J H; Dick, P C; Vessie, G H; Kehrli, M E

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors at the quarter and cow level that determine whether a quarter remains infected after an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305. A total of 135 cows were studied. Information on animal characteristics, cow-conformation, cow somatic cell count (SCC), and bacteriology, blood vitamin E levels, serology for retro-viral infections, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency-carrier status, and the presence of bovine lymphocyte antigens class I alleles was collected on each animal. All quarters of all cows were then challenged with Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305. The challenge with S. aureus Newbould 305 resulted in 28 cows (20.7%) that did not establish infection in any of the quarters, 21 (15.6%) cows had 1 quarter infected, 35 (25.9%) had 2 quarters infected, 24 (17.8%) had 3 quarters infected, and 27 (20.0%) had all quarters infected. A higher prechallenge SCC decreased the risk of infection. An infection with Corynebacterium bovis prior to challenge decreased the risk of S.aureus infection. Of the bovine lymphocyte antigen alleles, the presence of the W20A allele proved to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of infection. No other factors proved to be significant. PMID:10575606

  20. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Webster defines history as "a chronological record of significant events." In wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step in establishing a diagnosis. You can greatly assist the diagnostic process by providing a thorough history with specimens yo submit. This information is also of value in understanding the natural history of disease outbreaks, and is difficult if not impossible to obtain after the event has occurred. Detailed field observations during the course of a die-off and investigation of significant events preceding it also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. Remember, the most helpful information is that which obtained at the time of the event by a sensitive and aware observer.