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Sample records for nonlactating cows submitted

  1. Effect of anionic salts on selenium metabolism in nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gant, R G; Sanchez, W; Kincaid, R L

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine whether anionic salts in the diets of nonlactating, pregnant cows for 14 to 21 d prepartum affected measures of Se status. One of three dietary treatments (control, anionic salts, and anionic salts plus Se) was administered to 34 nonlactating, pregnant cows using a completely randomized design with repeated measures. The anionic salts were delivered via gelatin capsules that were administered orally in two equal amounts per day, and the Se (3 mg/d) was administered via an intraruminal bolus. The incidence of milk fever among cows was not significantly different across dietary treatments. The severity of hypocalcemia as indicated by concentrations of ionized Ca in serum collected < 2 h postpartum was significantly lessened by dietary anionic salts. Supplementation of anionic salts to the diet did not significantly affect serum Ca concentrations at either 7 d prepartum or 7 d postpartum. Anionic salts did not affect concentrations of Se in blood; however, Se supplementation of the diets of cows significantly increased postpartum concentrations of Se in serum. No treatment effects were detected for concentrations of Se in either serum or whole blood of newborn calves. In conclusion, these data indicate that diets supplemented with anionic salts for 14 to 21 d prepartum and the supplementation of diets with Se had independent effects on concentrations of minerals in blood. Thus, anionic salts administered to prevent milk fever without danger of significantly reducing the transfer of Se from the dam to the calf and without compromising the Se status of the cow when the anionic salts are limited to administration for 14 to 21 d before calving.

  2. Nitrate but not tea saponin feed additives decreased enteric methane emissions in nonlactating cows.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-11-01

    Tea saponin is considered a promising natural compound for reducing enteric methane emissions in ruminants. A trial was conducted to study the effect of this plant extract fed alone or in combination with nitrate on methane emissions, total tract digestive processes, and ruminal characteristics in cattle. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 ruminally cannulated nonlactating dairy cows. Feed offer was restricted to 90% of voluntary intake and diets consisted of (DM basis): 1) control (CON; 50% hay and 50% pelleted concentrates), 2) CON with 0.5% tea saponin (TEA), 3) CON with 2.3% nitrate (NIT), and 4) CON with 0.5% tea saponin and 2.3% nitrate (TEA+NIT). Tea saponin and nitrate were included in pelleted concentrates. Diets contained similar amounts of CP (12.2%), starch (26.0%), and NDF (40.1%). Experimental periods lasted 5 wk including 2 wk of measurement (wk 4 and 5), during which intake was measured daily. In wk 4, daily methane emissions were quantified for 4 d using open circuit respiratory chambers. In wk 5, total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were determined from total feces and urine collected separately for 6 d. Ruminal fermentation products and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding for 2 nonconsecutive days in wk 5. Tea saponin and nitrate supplementation decreased feed intake ( < 0.05), with an additive effect when fed in combination. Compared with CON, tea saponin did not modify methane emissions (g/kg DMI; > 0.05), whereas nitrate-containing diets (NIT and TEA+NIT) decreased methanogenesis by 28%, on average ( < 0.001). Total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were similar among diets. Ruminal fermentation products were not affected by tea saponin, whereas nitrate-containing diets increased acetate proportion and decreased butyrate proportion and ammonia concentration ( < 0.05). Under the

  3. Transport of fatty acids within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows fed on fish oil and hydrogenated palm oil.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Íñiguez-González, G; Garnsworthy, P C; Loor, J J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary fish oil (FO) and a blend of FO and hydrogenated palm oil (FOPO) on transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Two trials were conducted (one with lactating and another with non-lactating dairy cows) in two 3 × 3 Latin squares that included three periods of 21 days. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (Control; no fat supplement), and fat-supplemented diets containing FO (500 g/day/cow) and FOPO (250 FO + 250 g/day/cow hydrogenated palm oil). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (Control; no fat supplement), and fat-supplemented diets containing FO (170 g/day/cow) and FOPO (85 FO + 85 hydrogenated palm oil g/day/cow). In lactating cows, compared with control and FOPO, FO increased C16:0, C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in plasma and increased C16:0, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, total polyunsaturated and total polyunsaturated n-6 in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas in non-lactating cows, compared with control and FOPO, FO increased C16:0, C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 trans-9, 12, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, C20:5 n-3 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in plasma; C16:0, C18:1 trans-11, C18:1 cis-9, C18:2 trans-9, 12, C20:5 n-3 and total monounsaturated FA in HDL; and C18:1 trans-6-8, C18:1 trans-9, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15 and C20:5 n-3 in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). FO increased C20:5 n-3 in plasma and lipoproteins in non-lactating cows and increased C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15 in plasma (in lactating cows) and LDL (in non-lactating cows). We concluded from results of this study that in bovine plasma, the LDL fraction appears to be the main lipoprotein transporting C18:1 trans isomers and is more responsive than other lipoprotein fractions to variation in supply of dietary lipids.

  4. The effect of porcine luteinizing hormone in the synchronization of ovulation and corpus luteum development in nonlactating cows.

    PubMed

    Ree, T O; Colazo, M G; Lamont, A G A; Kastelic, J P; Dyck, M K; Mapletoft, R J; Ametaj, B N; Ambrose, D J

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) versus 100 microg gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on ovulatory response (during diestrus and proestrus) and corpus luteum (CL) development in nonlactating cows. In Experiment 1, 75 cows received an intravaginal insert containing 1.9 g progesterone (P4) for 10 d to synchronize estrus (Day 0), with prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF) at insert removal. On Day 5, all follicles >or=8mm were ablated, and on Day 12, cows received 8, 12.5, or 25mg pLH or 100 microg GnRH. Mean (+/-SEM) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 12 did not differ among treatments (5.6+/-0.2 ng/mL). Mean plasma LH concentration was greatest (P<0.01) in cows given 25mg pLH (4.3+/-0.4 ng/mL). The ovulatory response to 25mg pLH (84%) or 100 microg GnRH (72%) was greater (P<0.05) than that to 8 mg pLH (32%), but not different from that of 12.5mg pLH (58%). In Experiment 2, 68 cows were given two injections of PGF 10d apart to synchronize estrus (Day 0). On Day 7, cows received PGF, and, 36 h later, pLH or GnRH (as in Experiment 1). The interval from treatment to ovulation was most variable in cows given 8 mg pLH; only 65% of these cows ovulated during the initial 27 h versus 88% of cows given 25mg pLH (P<0.05). Cows given 25mg pLH or 100 microg GnRH had larger CL area and greater plasma P4 concentrations (P<0.05) than that of those given 8 mg pLH. In summary, diestrous cows given 25mg pLH had the greatest plasma luteinizing hormone concentrations, but ovulatory response did not differ from that of those given 100 microg GnRH. Proestrous cows given 25mg pLH or 100 microg GnRH had greater CL area and P4 concentrations than that of those given 8 mg pLH.

  5. Differing effects of 2 active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains on ruminal acidosis and methane production in nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Walker, N D; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-05-01

    Fifteen ruminally cannulated, nonlactating Holstein cows were used to measure the effects of 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fed as active dried yeasts, on ruminal pH and fermentation and enteric methane (CH(4)) emissions. Nonlactating cows were blocked by total duration (h) that their ruminal pH was below 5.8 during a 6-d pre-experimental period. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to control (no yeast), yeast strain 1 (Levucell SC), or yeast strain 2 (a novel strain selected for enhanced in vitro fiber degradation), with both strains (Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montréal, QC, Canada) providing 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day. Cows were fed once daily a total mixed ration consisting of a 50:50 forage to concentrate ratio (dry matter basis). The yeast strains were dosed via the rumen cannula daily at the time of feeding. During the 35-d experiment, ruminal pH was measured continuously for 7 d (d 22 to 28) by using an indwelling system, and CH(4) gas was measured for 4 d (d 32 to 35) using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique (with halters and yokes). Rumen contents were sampled on 2 d (d 22 and 26) at 0, 3, and 6h after feeding. Dry matter intake, body weight, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients were not affected by yeast feeding. Strain 2 decreased the average daily minimum (5.35 vs. 5.65 or 5.66), mean (5.98 vs. 6.24 or 6.34), and maximum ruminal pH (6.71 vs. 6.86 or 6.86), and prolonged the time that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (7.5 vs. 3.3 or 1.0 h/d) compared with the control or strain 1, respectively. The molar percentage of acetate was lower and that of propionate was greater in the ruminal fluid of cows receiving strain 2 compared with cows receiving no yeast or strain 1. Enteric CH(4) production adjusted for intake of dry matter or gross energy, however, did not differ between either yeast strain compared with the control but it tended to be reduced by 10% when strain 2 was compared with strain 1. The study shows that

  6. Superstimulation prior to the ovum pick-up to improve in vitro embryo production in lactating and non-lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Castro Netto, A; Guerreiro, B M; Silveira, C R A; Moreira, R J C; Sá Filho, M F; Bó, G A; Mapletoft, R J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-07-15

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of superstimulation with p-FSH (Folltropin) before the ovum pick-up (OPU) on IVP in lactating and nonlactating Holstein donors. A total of 30 Holstein cows (15 lactating and 15 nonlactating) were blocked by lactation status to one of two groups (control or p-FSH), in a cross-over design. On a random day of the estrous cycle, all cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and 2.0 mg IM of estradiol benzoate (Day 0). Cows in the control group received no further treatment, whereas cows in the p-FSH group received a total dosage of 200 mg of p-FSH on Days 4 and 5 in four decreasing doses 12 hours apart (57, 57, 43, and 43 mg). On Day 7, the progesterone device was removed, and OPU was conducted in both groups (40 hours after the last p-FSH injection in the p-FSH-treated group). There was no difference between groups (P = 0.92) in the numbers of follicles that were aspirated per OPU session (17.2 ± 1.3 vs. 17.1 ± 1.1 in control and p-FSH-treated cows, respectively); however, p-FSH-treated cows had a higher (P < 0.001) percentage of medium-sized follicles (6-10 mm) at the time of the OPU (55.1%; 285/517) than control cows (20.8%; 107/514). Although recovery rate was lower (60.0%, 310/517 vs. 69.8%, 359/514; P = 0.002), p-FSH-treated cows had a higher blastocyst production rate (34.5%, 89/258 vs. 19.8%, 55/278; P < 0.001) and more transferable embryos per OPU session were produced in the p-FSH group (3.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4; P = 0.02). Regardless of treatment, non-lactating cows had a higher blastocyst rate (41.9%, 106/253 vs. 13.4%, 38/283; P = 0.001) and produced more transferable embryos per OPU session (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3; P = 0.003) than lactating cows. Thus, superstimulation of Holstein donors with p-FSH before OPU increased the efficiency of IVP. In addition, non-lactating donors had higher percentage of in vitro blastocyst development and produced more embryos per OPU session than lactating cows.

  7. Source of metabolizable energy affects gene transcription in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crookenden, M A; Mandok, K S; Grala, T M; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Roche, J R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways in adipose and liver tissue could provide some explanation for the low efficiency with which ME in autumn pasture is used for BW gain. Nonlactating, pregnant (208 ± 19 d of gestation or approximately 75 d precalving) dairy cows (n = 90) were randomly allocated to either a control diet (i.e., offered fresh autumn pasture to maintenance requirements: 0.55 MJ ME/kg of measured metabolic BW [BW0.75] per day) or, in addition to the control diet, 1 of 2 supplement amounts (2.5 and 5.0 kg DM/d) of autumn pasture or 1 of 4 supplementary feeds (i.e., a control and 2 levels of feeding for each of 5 feeds: 11 groups of cows). Along with autumn pasture, evaluated feeds included spring pasture silage, maize silage, maize grain, and palm kernel expeller. Adipose and liver tissues were biopsied in wk 4 of the experiment and transcript abundance of genes involved in metabolic pathways associated with energy metabolism, lipolysis, and lipogenesis was determined. Additional feed, irrespective of type, increased BW gain (P < 0.01) and this effect was reflected in the expression of genes in adipose and liver tissue. However, autumn pasture had lower energy-use efficiency than the other feeds. Genes involved in both lipogenesis (ACACA, THRSP, GPAM, GPD1, and LPL) and lipolysis (PNPLA2) were upregulated (P < 0.05) in adipose tissue in response to increased ME intake/kilogram BW0.75. Hepatic expression of APOA1 decreased and that of APOB increased (P < 0.05) in cows offered maize grain and maize silage (i.e., starch-containing feeds). In comparison, pasture-fed cows demonstrated a degree of uncoupling of the somatotropic axis, with lower hepatic transcript abundance of both GHR1A and IGF-1 compared with cows offered any of the other 4 feeds. Changes to gene transcription indicate a possible molecular mechanism for the poor BW gain evident in ruminants consuming autumn

  8. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  9. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  10. Feed degradability, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in response to essential oil addition to fistulated non-lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Nanon, Atitthan; Meeprom, Chayapol; Lounglawan, Pipat

    2017-02-09

    The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day. The results demonstrated that EOs increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradabilities at 48 and 72 h, but had no effect on acid detergent fiber and CP degradabilities. EOs did not change ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa, volatile fatty acid concentrations and blood glucose but reduced blood urea nitrogen at 4 h.

  11. Effect of a metabolically created systemic acidosis on calcium homeostasis and the diurnal variation in urine pH in the non-lactating pregnant dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Roche, John R; Dalley, Dawn E; O'Mara, Frank P

    2007-02-01

    Reducing the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been shown to be an effective means of preventing parturient paresis in confinement systems where cows are offered a total mixed ration containing DCAD-reducing mineral compounds (anionic salts). Such a supplementation strategy is not possible in cows being group fed forages precalving, and little is known about the effect of supplementing these cows with large amounts of anionic salts twice daily. Eight non-lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows were allocated to two levels of DCAD (-20 and +18 meq/100 g DM) for 24 d, with an intensive Ca balance undertaken in metabolism stalls following a 2-week acclimatization to diet. The basal diet was 3 kg DM of crushed barley and 7 kg DM of pasture-hay. Urine and faeces were collected separately, weighed daily for 5 d and analysed for Ca content. Urinary Ca, creatinine and hydroxyproline concentration and plasma Ca concentration were determined during the period of the balance study. The diurnal pattern in urine and rumen pH was determined over 2 d. Decreasing DCAD reduced (P<0.001) the pH of urine, and increased (P<0.05) Ca absorption. Plasma Ca concentration was not affected by DCAD, and DCAD did not affect the output of urinary hydroxyproline, a marker of bone resorption. Twice-daily supplementation of anionic salts was sufficient to reduce the pH of blood and increase gastrointestinal Ca absorption. There was no diurnal variation in the pH of urine, suggesting that time of sampling to determine efficacy of DCAD in reducing systemic pH was not important.

  12. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    IRSHAD, Abdul Razaq; SASAKI, Taihei; KUBO, Tomoaki; ODASHIMA, Naoyuki; KATANO, Keiji; OSAWA, Takeshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3– < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively). PMID:26052155

  13. The effect of a negative energy balance status on β-carotene availability in serum and follicular fluid of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Bie, J; Langbeen, A; Verlaet, A A J; Florizoone, F; Immig, I; Hermans, N; Fransen, E; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolic pressure due to a cow's negative energy balance (NEB) has a negative effect on oocyte quality as a result of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we hypothesized that a NEB status may negatively affect the availability of β-carotene (bC, an antioxidant) in the micro-environment of the oocyte or follicular fluid (FF) and that daily bC supplementation can increase bC availability. We aimed to (1) determine the effect of a nutritionally induced NEB on bC concentrations in serum and FF as well as on the presence of bC metabolites, oxidative stress levels, and follicular growth in a nonlactating dairy cow model, and (2) investigate how this effect could be altered by dietary bC supplementation. Six multiparous nonlactating Holstein Friesian cows were subjected to 4 consecutive dietary treatments, 28 d each: (1) 1.2 × maintenance (M) or positive energy balance (PEB) without bC supplement (PEB-bC), (2) 1.2 × M with daily supplement of 2,000mg of bC comparable to the level of bC intake at grazing (PEB+bC), (3) 0.6 × M with 2,000mg of bC (NEB+bC), and (4) 0.6 × M (NEB-bC). At the end of each treatment, estrous cycles were synchronized and blood and FF of the largest follicle were sampled and analyzed for bC, retinol, α-tocopherol, free fatty acids, estradiol, and progesterone. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, insulin growth factor 1, growth hormone, total antioxidant status (TAS), and red blood cell glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined as well. All cows lost body weight during both energy restriction periods and showed increased serum free fatty acid concentrations, illustrating a NEB. A dietary induced NEB reduced FF bC, but not plasma bC or plasma and FF retinol concentrations. However, bC and retinol concentrations drastically increased in both fluid compartments after bC supplementation. Follicular diameter was increased in supplemented PEB cows. Energy restriction reduced the TAS and red blood cell GSH, whereas daily b

  14. Prediction of metabolisable energy concentrations of fresh-cut grass using digestibility data measured with non-pregnant non-lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Allen, Michelle; Chen, Xianjiang; Wills, David; Yan, Tianhai

    2015-05-28

    Pasture-based ruminant production systems are common in certain areas of the world, but energy evaluation in grazing cattle is performed with equations developed, in their majority, with sheep or cattle fed total mixed rations. The aim of the current study was to develop predictions of metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations in fresh-cut grass offered to non-pregnant non-lactating cows at maintenance energy level, which may be more suitable for grazing cattle. Data were collected from three digestibility trials performed over consecutive grazing seasons. In order to cover a range of commercial conditions and data availability in pasture-based systems, thirty-eight equations for the prediction of energy concentrations and ratios were developed. An internal validation was performed for all equations and also for existing predictions of grass ME. Prediction error for ME using nutrient digestibility was lowest when gross energy (GE) or organic matter digestibilities were used as sole predictors, while the addition of grass nutrient contents reduced the difference between predicted and actual values, and explained more variation. Addition of N, GE and diethyl ether extract (EE) contents improved accuracy when digestible organic matter in DM was the primary predictor. When digestible energy was the primary explanatory variable, prediction error was relatively low, but addition of water-soluble carbohydrates, EE and acid-detergent fibre contents of grass decreased prediction error. Equations developed in the current study showed lower prediction errors when compared with those of existing equations, and may thus allow for an improved prediction of ME in practice, which is critical for the sustainability of pasture-based systems.

  15. Effects of the replacement of concentrate and fibre-rich hay by high-quality hay on chewing, rumination and nutrient digestibility in non-lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Kleefisch, Maria-Theresia; Zebeli, Qendrim; Humer, Elke; Kröger, Iris; Ertl, Paul; Klevenhusen, Fenja

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-quality hay with an elevated sugar content alone or with graded amounts of concentrate feed on chewing and ruminating activity, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and ruminal pH at different time points after feeding in the free ruminal liquid (FRL) and the particle-associated ruminal liquid (PARL). Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating Holstein cows were arranged in a Latin square design in four experimental runs lasting 25 d each. The four diets tested were 60NQ (60% normal-quality hay + 40% concentrate), 60HQ (60% high-quality hay + 40% concentrate), 75HQ (75% high-quality hay + 25% concentrate) and 100HQ (100% high-quality hay). Normal and high-quality hays differed in sugar contents (11.3% vs. 18.7% in dry matter [DM]), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; 57.7% vs. 46.3% in DM), acid detergent fibre (ADF, 35.0% vs. 23.5% in DM) and crude protein (CP, 11.3% vs. 23.5% in DM). Data showed that ATTD of DM, CP, NDF and ADF was higher with the high-quality hay diets. Time spent eating was reduced with high-quality hay. However, time spent ruminating was longest in Group 100HQ. In all groups, ruminal pH of FRL and PARL decreased with time after the morning feeding. But 10 h later, pH of Group 100HQ was higher again compared with the other groups. Considering the average pH in FRL over all measured time points, cows in Groups 60NQ and 100HQ had higher pH values of 6.85 and 6.83, respectively. Regarding pH values in PARL, animals of Group 60NQ displayed the highest pH value (6.68), whereas the lowest value of 6.21 was found in Group 60HQ. Overall, results suggest that high-quality hay maintains the diet's structural effectiveness by stimulating rumination and stabilising ruminal pH while greatly improving ATTD. However, the structural effectiveness of the high-quality hay gets impaired with increasing proportion of concentrate feed in the diet.

  16. Effect of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes as feed additive on the rumen bacterial population in non-lactating cows quantified by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Guertler, P; Pfaffl, M W; Eisenreich, R; Wiedemann, S; Schwarz, F J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, added to a maize silage- and grass silage-based total mixed ration (TMR) at least 14 h before feeding, on the rumen bacterial population were investigated. Six non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were allocated to three treatment groups using a duplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 31-day periods (29 days of adaptation and 2 days of sampling). Treatments were control TMR [69% forage and 31% concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis] or TMR with 13.8 or 27.7 ml/kg of feed DM of Roxazyme G2 liquid with activities (U/ml enzyme preparation) of xylanase 260 000, β-glucanase 180 000 and cellulase 8000 (DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland). The concentrations of 16S rDNA of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Selenomonas ruminantium and Treponema bryantii, and their relative percentage of total bacteria in rumen samples obtained before feeding and 3 and 7 h after feeding and from two rumen fractions were determined using real-time PCR. Sampling time had only little influence, but bacterial numbers and the composition of the population differed between the transition layer between rumen fluid and the fibre mat (fraction A) and the rumen fluid (fraction B) highlighting the importance to standardize sampling. The 16S rDNA copies of total bacteria and the six bacterial species as well as the population composition were mainly unaffected by the high levels of exogenous enzymes supplemented at all sampling times and in both rumen fractions. Occasionally, the percentages of the non-fibrolytic species P. ruminicola and A. lipolytica changed in response to enzyme supplementation. Some increases in the potential degradability of the diet and decreases in lag time which occurred collaterally indicate that other factors than changes in numbers of non-particle-associated bacteria are mainly responsible for the effects of

  17. Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

  18. The impact of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) on the acid-base balance and calcium metabolism of non-lactating, non-pregnant dairy cows fed equal amounts of different anionic salts.

    PubMed

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Leonie Loeffler, S; Frömer, Sven; Engel, Maike; Hartmann, Helmut; Männer, Klaus; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated the impact of the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the influence of anionic salts (AS) on the metabolism of dairy cows using a study-design that included control of feed intake. Ten mature, non-lactating, non-pregnant, Holstein-Friesian-crossbreed cows received 2000 mEq of either one of the seven anionic salts tested, two combinations of the anionic salts or water as control via a rumen cannula. Salts and controls were assigned in a 10x10 Latin square design. Whole blood, serum and urine samples were taken during treatment (TP) and washout period. Samples of whole blood were tested for pH, base-excess and bicarbonate concentrations. In urine, pH and net acid-base excretion (NABE) were analysed. Calcium was measured in serum and urine. According to the different batches of hay, five groups of DCAD were created regarding cluster analysis. Changes in urine and blood parameters were statistically analysed for each DCAD group separately. The different DCAD had an impact on the amount of change in acid-base balance (ABB) and calcium metabolism and for how long these changes lasted. In the DCAD group receiving the highest amount of AS (239 mEq/kg dry matter with AS), changes of ABB were only noticeable in urine and these changes only differed from day zero in the first week of TP (P<0.05). In the other four groups changes of ABB were also visible in blood parameters, but only on a few days of TP did the deviations differ significantly (P<0.05) from day zero. Changes of ABB parameters in urine samples were more pronounced than those in blood and differed clearly from day zero (P<0.05). Parallel to the changes of ABB, calcium concentrations in these samples were significantly increased (P<0.001) in all DCAD groups. Except for the highest DCAD group, ionized calcium concentrations changed over time (P<0.020). However, the differences were very small and only differed from day zero on a few TP days. We conclude that the DCAD of a dairy cow's diet has an

  19. Production of Antibody in Mammary Gland of Pregnant, Non-Lactating and Lactating Cows, Evoked by Polyvalent Antigen with Reference to Dosage and Frequency of Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, M.; Campbell, B.; Petersen, W. E.

    1964-01-01

    Sixteen cows were used in a series of experiments to test dose, route and frequency responses in the production of milk and serum agglutinins to a spectrum of 9 proven bovine pathogens. The bacterial species were: Pasteurella multocida (2 isolates), Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Salmonella enteriditis, and Aerobacter aerogenes. Primary immunizations were made either through the teat canal or intramuscularly. “Booster” injections were made through the teat canal. Agglutinins in the blood appeared only after a week or more. In the milk, titers were recorded in 1 or 2 days following primary immunization. Variation of titer in the blood and milk was somewhat independent. In all but 1 cow, antibody was produced against each organism in milk and blood serum. Udder inflammation was observed in the experiments when a 15-day interval separated immunizations. Inflammation was minimal in the experiments employing the 7-day interval of immunization. A positive Whiteside test was observed following most injections, even where no other clinical signs of reaction were seen. The findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature. PMID:17649521

  20. Evaluating the interaction between progesterone, TNF alpha and cortisol on early loss of transferred embryos in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-eight non-lactating cows previously synchronized for estrus were assigned to two treatments to assess the effects of progesterone supplementation and its correlation with TNF-a and cortisol on the survival of the transferred embryos. On day 7 after exhibiting estrus (day 0), cows in both group...

  1. Influence of ruminal methane on digesta retention and digestive physiology in non-lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Hammond, Kirsty J; Kirton, Paul; Humphries, David J; Crompton, Les A; Ortmann, Sylvia; Misselbrook, Tom H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Reynolds, Christopher K; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Enteric methane (CH4) production is a side-effect of herbivore digestion, but it is unknown whether CH4 itself influences digestive physiology. We investigated the effect of adding CH4 to, or reducing it in, the reticulorumen (RR) in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with rumen-fistulated, non-lactating cows, with four treatments: (i) control, (ii) insufflation of CH4 (iCH4), (iii) N via rumen fistula, (iv) reduction of CH4 via administration of bromochloromethane (BCM). DM intake (DMI), apparent total tract digestibility, digesta mean retention times (MRT), rumen motility and chewing activity, spot breath CH4 emission (CH4exhal, litre/kg DMI) as well as CH4 dissolved in rumen fluid (CH4RRf, µg/ml) were measured. Data were analysed using mixed models, including treatment (or, alternatively, CH4exhal or CH4RRf) and DMI relative to body mass0·85 (rDMI) as covariates. rDMI was the lowest on the BCM treatment. CH4exhal was highest for iCH4 and lowest for BCM treatments, whereas only BCM affected (reduced) CH4RRf. After adjusting for rDMI, CH4RRf had a negative association with MRT in the gastrointestinal tract but not in the RR, and negative associations with fibre digestibility and measures of rumination activity. Adjusting for rDMI, CH4exhal had additionally a negative association with particle MRT in the RR and a positive association with rumen motility. Thus, higher rumen levels of CH4 (CH4exhal or CH4RRf) were associated with shorter MRT and increased motility. These findings are tentatively interpreted as a feedback mechanism in the ruminant digestive tract that aims at mitigating CH4 losses by shortening MRT at higher CH4.

  2. Effect of Ovulatory Folicle Size and Expression of Estrus on Progesterone Secretion in Beef Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of ovulatory follicle size at GnRH-induced or spontaneous ovulation on serum concentrations of progesterone in nonlactating beef cows (Exp. 1), and to determine the effect of ovulatory follicle size at GnRH-induced or spontaneous ovulation on...

  3. Bilateral Breast Abscess Caused by E. coli in a Non-lactating Woman: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Gürcan; Gündeş, Ebubekir; Tekin, Şakir; Tavlı, Şakir

    2014-01-01

    Breast abscess usually occurs during lactation and the responsible organism is often S. Aureus. Breast abscess in non-lactating women is extremely rare and limited data is available in the literature regarding this entity. In our study, a 36-year-old non-lactating female patient who developed bilateral breast abscess due to E. coli infection without any predisposing factors has been discussed in light of the literature.

  4. Comparative efficacy of exogenous eCG and progesterone on endogenous progesterone and pregnancy in Holstein cows submitted to timed artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, P C; Alves, N G; Souza, J C; Sales, J N S; Carvalho, R J; Lima, R R; Teixeira, A A; Nogueira, G P; Ascari, I J

    2015-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of the administration of either eCG or progesterone (P4) alone or combined on endogenous P4 concentrations and pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows. Cows received a P4-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) and estradiol benzoate on D-8. The PRID was removed and a PGF2α injection was given on D-3. An estradiol cypionate was given on D-2 and TAI was performed on D0. On D-2, cows were randomly allocated to treatments in a 2×2 factorial design: Control-saline solution on the D-2 and D+3 (n=104), eCG - 400IU eCG on D-2 (n=93), P4 - 600mg of P4 on D+3 (n=106), and eCG+P4 - 400IU eCG on D-2 and 600mg of P4 on D+3 (n=95). Blood samples were collected on days three, four, and thirteen and pregnancy diagnoses were performed at 32 and 46 days after AI. There was no interaction between eCG and P4 injection. Cows treated with eCG and with P4 injection had higher serum P4 on Day +4. On Day +13 serum P4 was lower in eCG-untreated primiparous cows (Interaction eCG×parity). Cows with serum P4<4.57ng/mL on Day +13 had lower probability to be pregnant on day 32. P/AI on days 32 and 46 and embryonic losses were not influenced by eCG and P4 injection. In conclusion, the addition of 400IU of eCG on D-2 and/or 600mg of P4 on D+3 to the present TAI protocol did not increase P/AI.

  5. Strategies to improve fertility in post partum Bos indicus cows submitted to a fixed-time insemination protocol with GnRH and PGF2a

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of two lengths of progesterone exposure (CIDR; 7 vs. 14 d) prior to a modified CO-Synch protocol, with or without temporary weaning (TW) before GnRH treatments, on fertility of suckled Bos indicus Nelore cows (n = 283) and on calf performance. Timed AI (TAI)...

  6. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum.

  7. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets

    PubMed Central

    Qumar, Muhammad; Khiaosa-ard, Ratchaneewan; Pourazad, Poulad; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Kandler, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline) and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8) or interruptedly (Int; n = 8). Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1) and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4). Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline), while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides evidence of

  8. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets.

    PubMed

    Qumar, Muhammad; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Pourazad, Poulad; Wetzels, Stefanie U; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Kandler, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline) and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8) or interruptedly (Int; n = 8). Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1) and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4). Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline), while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides evidence of

  9. Influence of lactation on metabolic characteristics and embryo development in postpartum Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maillo, V; Rizos, D; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Kelly, A K; Garrett, M; Lonergan, P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct effect of lactation on the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows to support early embryo development. Twenty-one primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Immediately after calving, half of the cows were dried off (i.e., never milked), and the other half entered the milking herd and were milked twice daily. Jugular blood samples were taken twice per week from 15 d before calving to approximately 100 d postpartum to measure nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. At the same time, body weight and body condition score were recorded for each cow. At approximately 60 d postpartum (experiment 1), approximately 65 two- to four-cell embryos, produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization, were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of all cows on d 2 of the estrous cycle. Five days later (d 7), the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically and the number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded. At approximately 90 d postpartum (experiment 2), the estrous cycles of the same cows were resynchronized and 15 to 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to the uterus of each recipient on d 7. All cows were slaughtered on d 14 to assess embryo survival and dimensions. Body weight and body condition score were significantly different between groups for the entire postpartum period of the study. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I were lower in lactating compared with nonlactating cows. Embryo recovery rates from lactating and dry cows were similar. In experiment 1, fewer embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the lactating cows compared with the nonlactating cows. In experiment 2, embryo survival and conceptus dimensions were not different between lactating and

  10. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration.

  11. Short-term dietary concentrate supplementation during estrus synchronization treatment in beef cows increased IGF-I serum concentration but did not affect the reproductive response.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Torres, A M; López-Cedillo, Z B; Hernández-Coronado, C G; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Mendoza, G D; Guzmán, A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if short-term dietary concentrate supplementation increased IGF-I serum concentration and resulted in a reproductive response during estrus synchronization treatment in non-lactating beef cows. Thirty non-lactating beef cows (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) were allocated to the same pastureland and fed native tropical grasses as a basal diet. Cows were synchronized using a 7-day CO-Synch plus controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and received fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). Cows were divided into two groups; the control group (n = 16) received 0.5 kg of concentrate/cow/day, whereas the supplemented group (n = 14) received 4.0 kg of concentrate/cow/day. The period of supplementation was 10 days from the day of CIDR insert to FTAI. The concentration of IGF-I increased (P < 0.05) in the supplemented group, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. Moreover, at the time of insemination, IGF-I serum concentrations were higher in supplemented cows compared with control cows (P < 0.05). Notably, metabolite and insulin concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatment groups or sampling day. The response to estrus induction, measured as estrus presentation, ovulation rate, and pregnancy rate, was similar between experimental groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that supplementation with dietary concentrate for 10 days in non-lactating beef cows changed the endocrine milieu, specifically increasing IGF-I serum concentration. However, these endocrine changes did not affect response to estrous induction treatment.

  12. Lactating and nonlactating rats differ to renal toxicity induced by mercuric chloride: the preventive effect of zinc chloride.

    PubMed

    Favero, Alexandre M; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Franciscato, Carina; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Juliana S F; Bertoncheli, Claudia M; da Luz, Sônia C A; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M; Pereira, Maria E

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of HgCl2 on renal parameters in nonlactating and lactating rats and their pups, as well as the preventive role of ZnCl2 . Rats received 27 mg kg(-1) ZnCl2 for five consecutive days and 5 mg kg(-1) HgCl2 for five subsequent days (s.c.). A decrease in δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in the blood and an increase in urine protein content in renal weight as well as in blood and urine Hg levels were observed in lactating and nonlactating rats from Sal-Hg and Zn-Hg groups. ZnCl2 prevented partially the δ-ALA-D inhibition and the proteinuria in nonlactating rats. Renal Hg levels were increased in all HgCl2 groups, and the ZnCl2 exposure potentiated this effect in lactating rats. Nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 exhibited an increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels, δ-ALA-D activity inhibition and histopathological alterations (necrosis, atrophic tubules and collagen deposition) in the kidneys. ZnCl2 exposure prevented the biochemical alterations. Hg-exposed pups showed lower body and renal weight and an increase in the renal Hg levels. In conclusion, mercury-induced nephrotoxicity differs considerably between lactating and nonlactating rats. Moreover, prior exposure with ZnCl2 may provide protection to individuals who get exposed to mercury occupationally or accidentally.

  13. Beef donor cows with high number of retrieved COC produce more in vitro embryos compared with cows with low number of COC after repeated ovum pick-up sessions.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, F M; Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Bayeux, B M; Accorsi, M; Campanholi, S P; Dias, E A R; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated ovum pick-up (OPU) procedures may affect the efficiency of OPU programs for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in Bos indicus (Nelore) donors. In addition, the repeatability (r) efficiency of IVEP was also assessed. Data available were from 432 OPU-IVEP sessions that were performed at random stages of the estrous cycle in 36 cycling, nonlactating Nelore donors. Semen from three Nelore bulls was used for the IVF. Donors were submitted to 12 consecutive OPU procedures, with an interval of approximately 30 days between sessions. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS 9.3. Cows yielding ≥15 COCs were defined as "high" COCs and cows with less than 15 COCs were defined as "low" COCs donors. The number of COCs retrieved decreased over time in donors classified with high COCs and remained fairly steady in cows with low COCs at the beginning of the program (Psession*COC retrieved groups = 0.02). Moreover, the number of COCs retrieved (P < 0.0001), and number of blastocysts produced per OPU (P = 0.001) was greater for the high COCs donors compared with the low COCs category, and these results were consistent across OPU sessions. Interestingly, there was no effect of COCs category on the rate of blastocyst development (P = 0.83). In addition, number of blastocysts produced were not affected by repeated OPU (P = 0.37) and interactions between time and COC category (P = 0.72). Similarly, blastocyst rate was not affected by repeated OPU (P = 0.21) and interactions between time and COC category (P = 0.58). Despite of COC category of the donor cows, repeatability was high for the number of COCs retrieved (r = 0.81), number of blastocysts produced per OPU (r = 0.79), and blastocyst rate (0.69). In conclusion, overall numbers of COCs decreased over time in donors classified as having high COCs. However, cumulative amounts of produced blastocysts were greater in

  14. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency.

  15. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that ...

  16. Blood flow and nutrient exchange across the liver and gut of the dairy cow. Effects of lactation and fasting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, M A; Baird, G D

    1983-05-01

    The rate of blood flow in the portal and hepatic veins, and the net exchange across the gut and liver of volatile fatty acids (VFA), glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, ketone bodies, glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and oxygen, were measured in lactating and non-lactating cows (a) in the normal, fed state and (b) before, during and after 6 d of fasting. Blood flow rate through the liver was 52% higher in normal, fed, lactating cows as compared with non-lactating cows, and was decreased by fasting in both groups of cows. Portal blood flow rate increased with an increase in metabolizable energy (ME) intake. Lactating, as compared with non-lactating, cows exhibited lower arterial concentrations of glucose and lactate, higher net portal outputs of VFA and ketone bodies, a higher net hepatic output of glucose, and higher net hepatic uptake of propionate and lactate. The splanchnic outputs of acetate, glucose and hydroxybutyrate were all apparently greater in the lactating cows. Fasting caused a rapid decrease in the blood concentrations of the VFA and an increase in those of glycerol and NEFA. The portal, i.e. gut, outputs of VFA, lactate, ketone bodies, alanine and (serine + threonine), and the portal uptake of O2, were all decreased by fasting. Fasting for 6 h also decreased the hepatic output of glucose and acetate by 77 and 95% respectively, increased the hepatic uptake of pyruvate, glycerol and NEFA, and doubled hepatic ketone-body output. The splanchnic output of acetate and glucose and the splanchnic uptake of O2 were also decreased by fasting. The net portal outputs of VFA, lactate and hydroxybutyrate, and the net hepatic output of glucose, were all correlated with ME intake in fed and fasted cows. Hepatic glucose output was also correlated with milk yield. The net hepatic uptake of gluconeogenic precursors measured in this study could account for net hepatic glucose output in the fasted cows, but not in the fed cows. The net hepatic uptake of

  17. The monitoring, prevention, and treatment of milk fever and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2008-04-01

    The periparturient cow undergoes a transition from non-lactating to lactating at calving. The animal is tremendously challenged to maintain calcium homeostasis. Those that fail can develop milk fever, a clinical disorder that is life threatening to the cow and predisposes the animal to a variety of other disorders. Guidelines for monitoring the incidence of hypocalcemia and methods for treating milk fever are reviewed. The physiological factors that cause milk fever and strategies for prevention of milk fever are discussed, focusing on the effects diet cation-anion difference can have on tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Another major risk factor for milk fever is hypomagnesemia, which is observed when animals are fed inadequate amounts of magnesium, or some factor is present in the diet that prevents adequate absorption of magnesium. Moderate hypomagnesemia impairs the ability of the cow to maintain calcium homeostasis and hypocalcemia occurs.

  18. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-02-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized.

  19. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  20. Expression, localization, and functional model of cholesterol transporters in lactating and nonlactating mammary tissues of murine, bovine, and human origin.

    PubMed

    Mani, Orlando; Körner, Meike; Sorensen, Martin T; Sejrsen, Kristen; Wotzkow, Carlos; Ontsouka, Corneille E; Friis, Robert R; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Albrecht, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a pivotal role in cellular lipid efflux. To identify candidate cholesterol transporters implicated in lipid homeostasis and mammary gland (MG) physiology, we compared expression and localization of ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 and their regulatory genes in mammary tissues of different species during the pregnancy-lactation cycle. Murine and bovine mammary glands (MGs) were investigated during different functional stages. The abundance of mRNAs was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, transporter proteins were localized in murine, bovine, and human MGs by immunohistochemistry. In the murine MG, ABCA1 mRNA abundance was elevated during nonlactating compared with lactating stages, whereas ABCA7 and ABCA1 mRNA profiles were not altered. In the bovine MG, ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 mRNAs abundances were increased during nonlactating stages compared with lactation. Furthermore, associations between mRNA levels of transporters and their regulatory genes LXRalpha, PPARgamma, and SREBPs were found. ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 proteins were localized in glandular MG epithelial cells (MEC) during lactation, whereas during nonlactating stages, depending on species, the proteins showed distinct localization patterns in MEC and adipocytes. Our results demonstrate that ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 are differentially expressed between lactation and nonlactating stages and in association with regulatory genes. Combined expression and localization data suggest that the selected cholesterol transporters are universal MG transporters involved in transport and storage of cholesterol and in lipid homeostasis of MEC. Because of the species-specific expression patterns of transporters in mammary tissue, mechanisms of cholesterol homeostasis seem to be differentially regulated between species.

  1. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad Cow Disease? A A A You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...

  2. Stem/progenitor cells in non-lactating versus lactating equine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Spaas, Jan H; Chiers, Koen; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2012-11-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Based on the facts that (i) mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSC) are proposed to be the driving forces behind mammary growth and function and (ii) variation exists between mammalian species with regard to physiological and pathological functioning of this organ, we believe that studying MaSC from different mammals is of great comparative interest. Over the years, important data has been gathered on MaSC of men and mice, although knowledge on MaSC in other mammals remains limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate and characterize MaSC from the mammary gland of horses. Hereby, our salient findings were that the isolated equine cells met the 2 in vitro hallmark properties of stem cells, namely the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, the cells were immunophenotyped using markers for CD29, CD44, CD49f, and Ki67. Finally, we propose the mammosphere assay as a valuable in vitro assay to study MaSC during different physiological phases since it was observed that equine lactating mammary gland contains significantly more mammosphere-initiating cells than the inactive, nonlactating gland (a reflection of MaSC self-renewal) and, moreover, that these spheres were significantly larger in size upon initial cultivation (a reflection of progenitor cell proliferation). Taken together, this study not only extends the current knowledge of mammary gland biology, but also benefits the comparative approach to study and compare MaSC in different mammalian species.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline free acid after single subcutaneous administration in lactating and nonlactating domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    PubMed

    Doré, Elizabeth; Angelos, John A; Rowe, Joan D; Carlson, Jan L; Wetzlich, Scott E; Kieu, Hung T; Tell, Lisa A

    2011-02-01

    Six nonlactating and six lactating adult female goats received a single subcutaneous injection of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) at a dosage of 6.6 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before and at multiple time points after CCFA administration. Milk samples were collected twice daily. Concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed using compartmental and noncompartmental approaches. The pharmacokinetics of CCFA in the domestic goat was best described by a one compartment model. Mean (±SD) pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows for the nonlactating goats: area under the concentration time curve(0-∞) (159 h·μg/mL ± 19), maximum observed serum concentration (2.3 μg/mL ± 1.1), time of maximal observed serum concentration (26.7 h ± 16.5) and terminal elimination half life (36.9 h; harmonic). For the lactating goats, the pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: area under the concentration time curve(0-∞) (156 h·μg/mL ± 14), maximum observed serum concentration (1.5 μg/mL ± 0.4), time of maximal observed serum concentration (46 h ± 15.9) and terminal elimination half life (37.3 h; harmonic). Ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolites were only detectable in one milk sample at 36 h following treatment. There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameter between the nonlactating and lactating goats.

  4. Effects of bedding quality on lying behavior of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, J A; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2007-12-01

    Cows prefer to spend more time lying down in free stalls with more bedding, but no research to date has addressed the effects of bedding quality. Bedding in stalls often becomes wet either from exposure to the elements or from feces and urine. The aim of this study was to test the effect of wet bedding on stall preference and use. Four groups of 6 nonlactating Holstein cows were housed in free stalls bedded daily with approximately 0.1 m of fresh sawdust. Following a 5-d adaptation period, each group of cows was tested sequentially with access to stalls with either dry or wet sawdust bedding (86.4 +/- 2.1 vs. 26.5 +/- 2.1% dry matter), each for 2 d. These no-choice phases were followed by a 2-d free-choice phase during which cows had simultaneous access to stalls containing either wet or dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by using 24-h video recordings scanned at 10-min intervals, and responses were analyzed by using a mixed model, with group (n = 4) as the observational unit. The minimum and maximum environmental temperatures during the experiment were 3.4 +/- 2.2 and 6.8 +/- 2.5 degrees C, respectively. When cows had access only to stalls with wet bedding, they spent 8.8 +/- 0.8 h/d lying down, which increased to 13.8 +/- 0.8 h/d when stalls with dry bedding were provided. Cows spent more time standing with their front 2 hooves in the stall when provided with wet vs. dry bedding (92 +/- 10 vs. 32 +/- 10 min/d). During the free-choice phase, all cows spent more time lying down in the dry stalls, spending 12.5 +/- 0.3 h/d in the dry stalls vs. 0.9 +/- 0.3 h/ d in stalls with wet bedding. In conclusion, dairy cows show a clear preference for a dry lying surface, and they spend much more time standing outside the stall when only wet bedding is available.

  5. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  6. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  7. Short communication: Follicle superstimulation before ovum pick-up for in vitro embryo production in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Louise H; Sanches, Carlos P; Seddon, Adriano S; Veras, Marcio B; Lima, Flávio A; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in nonlactating Holstein cows after ovarian superstimulation. Cows were randomly assigned in a crossover design to 1 of 2 groups: control (n=35), which was not synchronized and not treated with hormones before ovum pick-up (OPU), or hormone-treated (n=35), in which wave emergence was synchronized and animals treated with porcine (p)-FSH in the presence of norgestomet before OPU. In the hormone-treated group, all follicles ≥7mm in diameter were aspirated for synchronization of wave emergence and cows received a norgestomet ear implant. After 36h, treatment with p-FSH (6 doses of 40mg each, 12h apart, i.m.) started. Ovum pick-up from follicles >2mm in diameter was performed 44h after the last p-FSH (coasting). Then, IVEP was performed. The total number of cumulus-oocyte complexes recovered (16.0 vs. 20.5±2.2) and number of grades I to III (viable) oocytes (10.7 vs. 12.3±1.6) did not differ between hormone-treated and control groups Additionally, no differences were found in the number of blastocysts per cow per OPU (3.0 vs. 2.6±0.5) or in blastocyst rates (17.1 vs. 12.2±2.4%) between hormone-treated and control, respectively. Thus, in this study, ovarian follicle superstimulation with p-FSH followed by coasting in nonlactating Holstein cows that had synchronization of wave emergence and progestin supplementation did not improve oocyte quality or IVEP compared to no hormonal treatment.

  8. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  9. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  10. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( < 0.01) liver Co concentrations at birth compared with calves from CON cows. Liver Cu and Zn concentrations at birth were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows. Weaning BW was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows, and this difference was maintained until slaughter. In the growing lot

  11. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  12. Effect of season and exposure to heat stress on oocyte competence in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Al-Katanani, Y M; Paula-Lopes, F F; Hansen, P J

    2002-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate seasonal variation in oocyte competence in Holstein cows and to test whether oocyte quality in summer is affected by the magnitude of heat stress. In the first experiment, ovaries of Holstein cows were collected from a slaughterhouse and used to harvest oocytes over 1 yr (n = 18 replicates). After in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture, proportions of oocytes and cleaved embryos that developed to blastocysts by d 8 were lower in the warm season compared with the cool season. In the second experiment, nonlactating Holstein cows were housed in one of the following three environments for 42 d before slaughter: heat stressed (housed with shade cloth in summer; n = 14); cooled (housed in a free-stall barn with foggers and fans in summer; n = 14); and winter (housed similar to the heat-stressed group; n = 12). Cows were slaughtered at d 18 to 19 of the estrous cycle. Oocytes from the two largest follicles per cow were aspirated and cultured individually. Ovaries were then dissected to collect additional oocytes that were processed in a group for in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Cleavage rates were similar among treatments, but none of the individually cultured oocytes developed to blastocysts. For other oocytes cultured in groups, proportions of oocytes and cleaved embryos that developed to blastocysts by d 8 were lower in summer than winter with no difference between the heat-stressed and the cooled treatment groups. Summer depression in oocyte quality in Holstein cows was evident, but cooling cows for 42 d did not alleviate that seasonal effect.

  13. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  14. Absorption, retention, and utilization of two forms of selenium given simultaneously as stable isotope tracers to lactating and nonlactating women

    SciTech Connect

    Mangels, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated absorption, retention, and utilization of selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}) in 6 lactating and 6 nonlactating women, 2 to 3 mo postpartum, and 7 never pregnant women. Subjects were maintained on controlled diets for 3 wk. After 1 wk equilibration, subjects received simultaneous oral doses of {sup 74}Se L-SeMet and {sup 76}Se SeO{sub 3}. Complete urine and fecal collections were made for 1 d prior to and 2 wk after isotope dosing. Lactating women collected milk samples from all feedings for 24 h before and 48 h after isotopes. Blood was collected from subjects before isotope dosing and 2,24, 168, and 336 h later. All samples were analyzed for natural Se, {sup 74}Se, and {sup 76}Se by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

  15. In vivo embryo production in cows superovulated 1 or 2 days after ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Surjus, Ricardo S; Prata, Alexandre B; Borsato, Marta; Mattos, Fernanda C S Z; Martins da Silveira, Mariana C; Mourão, Gerson B; Pires, Alexandre V; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated superovulatory responses and in vivo embryo production in cows treated with FSH starting 1 or 2 days after ovum pick-up (OPU). Thirty-three non-lactating Nelore cows were subjected to aspiration of all follicles ≥3mm for OPU. After OPU, cows were randomly divided into two groups in which the follicle superstimulatory treatments with FSH started 1 or 2 days after OPU (Groups D1 and D2, respectively). Data are presented as the least squares mean±s.e.m. The number of follicles ≥3mm before OPU was similar between groups (~34); however, cows in Group D2 had more follicles ≥3mm on the first day of FSH (15.2±2.3 vs 7.6±1.7; P=0.04) and a higher ratio of the number of follicles at first FSH/number of follicles before OPU (0.41±0.04 vs 0.24±0.02; P=0.01). In addition, Group D2 cows had a greater superovulatory response than did cows in Group D1 (18.9±2.8 vs 9.1±1.9 corpora lutea, respectively; P<0.03). However, there was no difference in the total number of recovered ova and embryos from cows in Groups D2 and D1 (5.1±1.4 vs 4.9±1.3, respectively; P>0.10). Nevertheless Group D2 cows had more freezable embryos than Group D1 cows (3.2±1.1 vs 1.3±0.5, respectively; P<0.05). Cows from Group D2 had a much higher proportion (P<0.001) of follicles ≥8mm compared with follicles ≥6mm and <8mm at the time of the last treatment with FSH. In conclusion, to obtain a greater production of viable embryos in superovulated cows after OPU, it is recommended to wait at least 2 days before starting FSH treatment.

  16. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting.

  17. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-10-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touchpanel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  18. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  19. The fate of glycerol entering the rumen of dairy cows and sheep.

    PubMed

    Werner Omazic, A; Kronqvist, C; Zhongyan, L; Martens, H; Holtenius, K

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the fate of glycerol entering the rumen, in particular whether glycerol could be absorbed across the rumen epithelium. Three non-lactating rumen-fistulated cows were used to calculate the overall disappearance rate of glycerol in vivo and evaluate the rate of ruminal glycerol absorption. Rumen epithelial tissues isolated from sheep were used to characterise glycerol transport properties. The rate of rumen microbial degradation of glycerol was then studied in an in vitro system under anaerobic and thermo-regulated conditions. The results showed that glycerol can be absorbed from the rumen in significant amounts. The fractional rate of absorption of glycerol was not affected by variations in glycerol concentration in the buffer solution in the in vivo study. The glycerol absorption apparently occurred largely by passive diffusion and was probably not facilitated by carriers. Glycerol also disappeared via microbial digestion and outflow from the rumen through the omasal orifice.

  20. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

  1. Non-lactating versus lactating females: a comparison of sex steroids, sexual coloration, and sexual behavior in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Bernard; Aspernig, Doris; Millesi, Eva; Machatschke, Ivo H

    2011-01-01

    Female Japanese macaques are seasonal breeders distinguished by their red-colored hindquarters, face, and nipple skin areas. Intensity of coloration seems to be associated with sexual attractiveness, behavior, and fluctuating sex steroids. Our aim was to investigate whether the color intensity of these regions differed between lactating (LA) and non-lactating (NLA) females during sexually inactive (SI) and active (SA) phases. Coloration scores of 19 adult females were classified using color tables. Estrogen and progesterone metabolites were determined in fecal samples. Weekly comparison between both groups revealed significantly increased coloration of the hindquarters area from week 13 (SI) until the end of the observation period, and for the nipple skin throughout the SI and SA periods. Face coloration differed marginally. Hormonally, NLA females showed significantly increased excretion rates of sex steroids at the end of the SI phase and throughout the whole SA period. Logistic regression analyses between elevated fecal steroids and nipple coloration disclosed a significant relationship for NLA females during the SI period. This connection persisted and included hindquarter coloration during the SA period. NLA females showed increased intromission with ejaculation, but no difference was found for intromission without ejaculation. In conclusion, results demonstrate increased endocrine excretion rates for NLA females during the whole observation period, paralleled by an enhanced, fertility-signaling sexual attractiveness.

  2. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  3. Using water to cool cattle: behavioral and physiological changes associated with voluntary use of cow showers.

    PubMed

    Legrand, A; Schütz, K E; Tucker, C B

    2011-07-01

    Water is commonly used to cool cattle in summer either at milking or over the feed bunk, but little research has examined how dairy cows voluntarily use water separate from these locations. The objectives were to describe how and when dairy cattle voluntarily used an overhead water source separate from other resources, such as feed, and how use of this water affected behavioral and physiological indicators of heat stress. Half of the 24 nonlactating cattle tested had access to a "cow shower" composed of 2 shower heads activated by a pressure-sensitive floor. All animals were individually housed to prevent competition for access to the shower. Over 5 d in summer (air temperature=25.3±3.3°C, mean ± standard deviation), cattle spent 3.0±2.1 h/24h in the shower, but considerable variability existed between animals (individual daily values ranged from 0.0 to 8.2 h/24h). A portion of this variation can be explained by weather; shower use increased by 0.3h for every 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Cows preferentially used the shower during the daytime, with 89±12% of the time spent in the shower between 1000 and 1900 h. Respiration rate and skin temperature did not differ between treatments [53 vs. 61 breaths/min and 35.0 vs. 35.4°C in shower and control cows, respectively; standard error of the difference (SED)=5.6 breaths/min and 0.49°C]. In contrast, body temperature of cows provided with a shower was 0.2°C lower than control cows in the evening (i.e., 1800 to 2100h; SED=0.11°C). Cows with access to a shower spent half as much time near the water trough than control animals, and this pattern became more pronounced as the temperature-humidity index increased. In addition, cattle showed other behavioral changes to increasing heat load; they spent less time lying when heat load index increased, but the time spent lying, feeding, and standing without feeding did not differ between treatments. Cows had higher respiration rate, skin temperature, and body

  4. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2α) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P < 0.01) by ACTH, time, and the interaction of ACTH × time, but not by flunixin meglumine (P ≥ 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P < 0.01) in the serum of ACTH-treated cows immediately after ACTH treatment and remained increased (P < 0.01) throughout the 4-h sampling period. Serum PGFM concentration was not affected by ACTH (P = 0.97) or by any interactions (P > 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P < 0.01) by flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P < 0.01) serum PGFM concentrations in both ACTH-treated and control cows for

  5. Fitting Cows to Your Operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in cattle can be used to improve efficiency of the cow herd. A cow that is optimum in one production system may not be the best cow for another production system. To improve cow efficiency, we need to optimize the ratio of output to inputs. The optimum ratio on biological bases ...

  6. Macrophage infiltration in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of dairy cows with displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Kabara, Ed; Brester, Jill; Neuder, Louis; Kiupel, Matti

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), a direct measure of lipolysis, are considered a risk factor for displaced abomasum (DA) and other clinical diseases. In nonruminants, uncontrolled lipolysis is commonly associated with adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration. In dairy cows, recent studies report ATM infiltration in specific adipose depots during the first week of lactation. Depending on their phenotype, ATM can be broadly classified as classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2). The M1 ATM are considered pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 ATM enhance inflammation resolution. Currently, it is not known whether multiparous transition cows with DA have increased ATM infiltration, and the predominant phenotype of these mononuclear cells remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize ATM infiltration into different adipose tissue depots in transition cows with DA (days in milk=7.8±4.6 d; body condition score=2.95±0.10; n=6). Serum samples and biopsies from omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat depots were obtained during corrective surgery for DA. In an effort to compare ATM infiltration in DA cows with that of healthy cows in anabolic state (AS), adipose biopsies and blood samples were collected from nonlactating, nongestating dairy cows at the time of slaughter (body condition score=3.75±0.12; n=6). Adipose tissues were digested and cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were analyzed using flow cytometry to establish cell surface expression of specific macrophage markers including CD14, CD11c, CD163, and CD172a. Tissue sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to assess ATM localization. Cows with DA were ketotic and had plasma NEFA above 1.0 mEq/L. The same group of cows had significant infiltration of ATM in OM characterized by increased numbers of SVF cells expressing CD14 and CD172a. At the same time, expression of CD11c, and CD163 was significantly higher in SVF from OM and SC of DA

  7. Responses of the mammary transcriptome of dairy cows to altered photoperiod during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Bentley, P A; Wall, E H; Dahl, G E; McFadden, T B

    2015-10-01

    Cows exposed to short day photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) during the 60-day nonlactating period prior to parturition produce more milk in their subsequent lactation compared with cows exposed to long day photoperiod (LD, 16L:8D). Although this response is well established in dairy cows, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We hypothesized that differential gene expression in cows exposed to SD or LD photoperiods during the dry period could be used to identify the functional basis for the subsequent increase in milk production during lactation. Pregnant, multiparous cows were maintained on an SD or LD photoperiod for 60 days prior to parturition. Mammary biopsies were obtained on days -24 and -9 relative to parturition and Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays were used to quantify gene expression. Sixty-four genes were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05 and fold-change ≥ |1.5|) between SD and LD treatments. Many of these genes were associated with cell growth and proliferation, or immune function. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted upstream regulators to include TNF, TGF-β1, interferon-γ, and several interleukins. In addition, expression of 125 genes was significantly different between day -24 and day -9; those genes were associated with milk component metabolism and immune function. The interaction of photoperiod and time affected 32 genes associated with insulin-like growth factor I signaling. Genes differentially expressed in response to photoperiod were associated with mammary development and immune function consistent with the enhancement of milk yield in the ensuing lactation. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms by which photoperiod affects the mammary gland and subsequently lactation.

  8. Bedding on geotextile mattresses: how much is needed to improve cow comfort?

    PubMed

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M

    2004-09-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate how the amount of sawdust bedding on mattresses affects dairy cattle behavior and preferences. Eleven nonlactating, multiparous cows were housed individually in pens with access to 3 free stalls. Each stall was fitted with a geotextile mattress covered with either 0, 1, or 7.5 kg of kiln-dried sawdust. The experiment began with 7 d of acclimatization to all 3 stalls. Cows were then allowed access to only 1 of the 3 stalls at a time, each for 3 d (restriction phase). At the end of this restriction phase, cows were allowed free access to all 3 stalls for 3 d (free-choice phase). Time spent lying and the number of lying bouts increased significantly with the amount of bedding, from 12.3 +/- 0.53 h lying and 8.5 +/- 0.62 bouts per 24 h on bare mattresses to 13.8 +/- 0.53 h lying and 10.0 +/- 0.62 bouts per 24 h on mattresses with 7.5 kg of sawdust. In addition, the animals spent less time standing with only the front hooves in the stalls when more sawdust was present. When allowed free access to all 3 options, all 11 animals spent a majority of their time lying and standing in the 7.5-kg option. In conclusion, cows preferred mattresses bedded with 7.5 kg of sawdust, on which they spent more time lying down and less time standing with only the front hooves in stalls. These results indicate that more sawdust bedding improves cow comfort in stalls with geotextile mattresses.

  9. Non-lactic acid, contaminating microbial flora in ready-to-eat foods: a potential food-quality index.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, A S; Chronis, E N; Papageorgiou, D K; Kazakis, I I; Arsenoglou, K C; Stathopoulos, G A

    2006-02-01

    The bacteriological profile of 87 samples of commercially available ready-to-eat (RTE) dairy and meat-products, packaged sandwiches and salads was obtained by testing for aerobic colony count, for lactic acid bacterial (LAB) count, for the presence and the extent of non-LAB microflora (contaminating microflora), and by testing for certain food-borne pathogens. The pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and sulfite-reducing clostridia were not detected in any of the analysed samples. Whereas only three samples (3.4%) were deemed unacceptable for consumption for exceeding the established pathogen tolerance levels (for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), several samples were found to contain non-lactic acid contaminating microflora of considerable magnitude. The log10 cfu g(-1) counts for contaminating microflora in the food categories examined were as follows: hard cheeses 4.85 (SD 1.17); semi-hard cheeses 5.39 (SD 1.37); soft cheeses 5.13 (SD 1.03); whey cheeses 6.55 (1.24); fermented meat-products 4.18 (SD 1.48); heat-treated meat-products 3.47 (SD 1.99); salads 3.37 (SD 1.56) and sandwiches 5.04 (SD 0.96). Approximately 1 in every 30 to 80 bacterial cells found on different types of cheeses and salads was a non-LAB microorganism; the respective ratios for fermented meat-products, heat-treated meat-products and sandwiches were 1 in 6, 2.5 and 15. The assessment of the contaminating microflora magnitude at various steps during the manufacture and distribution of RTE foods can serve as an index for monitoring the microbiological quality of the starting materials, the sanitation efficacy during processing and possible temperature abuse during processing, transportation or storage.

  10. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  11. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    PubMed

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation.

  12. Identification and analysis of the expression of microRNA from lactating and nonlactating mammary glands of the Chinese swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qingyou; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Ren, Yanping; Lei, Xiaocan; Li, Sheng; Chen, Qiuping; Deng, Kai; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Haihang; Shi, Deshun

    2017-03-01

    To study the role of microRNA (miR) in the lactation physiology of water buffalo, 2 multiparous dairy buffaloes (including an 8-yr-old buffalo that had been lactating for 3 mo, as well as a 10-yr-old nonlactating, nonpregnant buffalo) were used for miR library construction. The profile of differentially expressed miR in lactating and nonlactating mammary gland tissues of these water buffalo were investigated using Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The data identified 259 miR families, 359 mature miR, 363 pre-miR, 230 novel buffalo miR, and 5 buffalo-specific miR that were expressed in mammary tissues. Some highly significantly differentially expressed miR were explored, including bbu-miR-497, bbu-miR-30a-5p, bbu-miR-148a, bbu-miR-29a, bbu-miR-125a, bbu-miR-125b, and bbu-miR-103. The expression patterns of 18 miR were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR in both tissues, and the expression of bbu miR-103 and novel miR-57 constituted the largest differences between lactating and nonlactating tissues. Further functional analysis indicated that the overexpression or suppression of miR-103 in buffalo mammary epithelial cells downregulated or upregulated the expression of pantothenate kinase 3, and also significantly increased the transcription factor steroid regulatory element binding protein, followed by the acceleration of de novo synthesis of fatty acids by upregulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase α expression. The expression levels of 34 predicted target genes of novel-miR-57 in lactating and nonlactating mammary gland tissues were all analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, only the expression of docking protein 4 could be upregulated or downregulated selectively by bbu-novel-miR-57 in buffalo mammary epithelial cells and the Bcap-37 cell line. This study provides an overview of the miR expression profile of water buffalo and the interaction between some key miR and their target genes, which may

  13. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K.; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  14. Induction of hyperlipidemia by intravenous infusion of tallow emulsion causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Souza, A H; Grummer, R R

    2007-06-01

    The objective was to test whether the induction of elevated blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by i.v. infusion of a tallow emulsion altered glucose tolerance and responsiveness to insulin in Holstein cows. Six non-lactating, nongestating Holstein cows were assigned to a crossover design. One cow was excluded before initiation of the experiment because of complications from mastitis. Treatments consisted of 11-h i.v. infusions of saline (control) or a 20% (wt/vol) triacylglycerol (TG) emulsion derived from tallow (tallow) to elevate plasma NEFA. Each period consisted of two 11-h infusions (INF1 and INF2), separated by 1 d in which cows were not infused. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed 8 h after initiation of INF1 and INF2, respectively. The infusion of treatments continued during the 3 h of sampling for IVGTT and IC. Cows were fed every 4 h at a rate to meet energy requirements for 5 d prior to each period, and every 2 h during the first 8 h of infusions. Infusion of tallow induced hyperlipidemia by increasing plasma NEFA (295 +/- 9 vs. 79 +/- 7 microEq/L), serum TG (41.0 +/- 6 vs. 11.4 +/- 4.4 mg/dL), and glycerol (0.81 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.1 mg/dL) concentrations during INF1. During INF2, tallow treatment increased plasma NEFA (347 vs. 139 +/- 18 microEq/L), serum TG (20.8 +/- 4.6 vs. 13.1 +/- 2.3 mg/dL), and glycerol (0.88 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.02 mg/dL) concentrations. Induction of hyperlipidemia impaired glucose clearance during IVGTT, despite the greater endogenous insulin response to the glucose infusion, leading to a lower insulin sensitivity index [0.29 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.31 x 10(-4) min(-1)/(microIU/mL)]. Accordingly, hyperlipidemia impaired glucose clearance during IC (1.58 vs. 2.72 %/min), reflecting lower responsiveness to insulin. These data show that induction of hyperlipidemia causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows by impairing both sensitivity and maximum responsiveness to insulin. The

  15. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  16. Effects of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SRIF) and glucose on growth hormone (GH) secretion in lactating dairy cows

    SciTech Connect

    Sartin, J.L.; Kemppainen, R.J.; Cummins, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    Lactation in dairy cows is associated with increased GH concentrations and high milk production. This study was begun to examine hypothalamic and pituitary sensitivity to GH secretory stimuli. In experiment 1, cows (nonlactating, NL; days 30 and 90 postpartum, pp) fitted with jugular cannulas were administered GRF (n = 10; .08 or .4 ug/kg BW) on successive days or were administered a loading dose of glucose and infused with the same .56 mmol/kg dose for 20 min. In experiment 2, cows (n = 5; days 5 and 30 pp) were infused with saline or SRIF (.2 or .8 mg/kg). After 15 min of infusion, cows were injected with GRF (.1 ug/kg). Plasma was collected and assayed for GH by radioimmunoassay. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. In experiment 1, glucose had no effect on GH in NL or day 90 cows but increased GH in day 30 cows (p < .05). GRF stimulated GH in all groups but no dose effect was seen at day 30. There was a greater GRF effect at day 90 than in NL cows (p < .05). In experiment 2, GRF had a greater effect at day 30 than day 5 (p < .05). SRIF at both doses slightly blocked GRF actions at day 30 but only the .8 dose blocked GRF actions at day 5 (p < .05). Greater pulses of SRIF with greater sensitivity to suppression by glucose in early lactation could explain the glucose and GRF data. Increased pituitary sensitivity to SRIF but lower SRIF levels may be present in late lactation.

  17. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (P<0.001). There was an acute increase in vaginal temperature at the onset of estrus during winter but such an increase was not observed during summer. Walking activity during estrus decreased dramatically in the summer compared to the winter. Duration of estrous cycle was longer in summer (23.4 days, P<0.05) than winter (21.5 days), and the subsequent rise in progesterone concentrations following estrus tended to be delayed in summer. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in peripheral blood cells was higher during summer (P<0.05), while the levels of superoixde dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione were lower (P<0.05). These results indicate that high ambient temperature during summer increases both body temperature and oxidative stress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows.

  18. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants.

  19. Effect of feeding rumen-protected rice bran on mineral status of non-lactating dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; Distefano, C; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2011-02-01

    Adapting Ca homeostasis of dairy cows before calving can prevent milk fever. Rice bran, treated with formaldehyde to prevent ruminal degradation of phytic acid, was fed to heifers to study its effect on Ca homeostasis. For 3 weeks 18 heifers were supplemented 3 kg of two feeds: placebo (PF) and rice bran (RBF), defining three treatments: control (CRT), low dose (LD) and high dose (HD). In weeks 1 and 3, all animals received 3 kg of PF and in week 2: CRT received 3 kg of PF, LD received 1.5 kg of PF and 1.5 kg of RBF and HD received 3 kg of RBF. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake (DMI). Feed intakes and growth rates indicated that all heifers had nutritional requirements that exceeded their Ca intakes. Serum Ca, urinary Ca, calcitriol or hydroxyproline remained unaffected. Urinary Ca was consistently low indicating high renal Ca reabsorption, which is indicative of insufficient Ca supply. Rice bran feed influenced P, Mg and Zn intakes and serum and urine presence of these minerals. Most heifers already presented an upregulated Ca metabolism, being inadequate to study adaptive changes in Ca homeostasis of multiparous dry cows. This metabolic difference can be explanatory to the very low susceptibility of heifers to milk fever, further supporting the induction of homeostatic adaptation before calving to prevent milk fever. Rice bran feed did not reduce DMI, and was not detrimental to P, Mg or Zn status.

  20. Effect of a non-forage fiber of red bean hulls on ruminal mat characteristics, chewing activity and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kenichi; Miwa, Junpei; Ishizuka, Kenta

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation of red bean hulls (RBH) as a non-forage fiber source on ruminal mat formation, chewing activity and milk production was determined using two experiments. In experiment 1, four non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were offered a control diet of 60.1% forage, and an RBH diet of 51.6% forage and 9.4% RBH. Although the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake was higher with the RBH diet than the control diet, the physically effective NDF (peNDF) intake was lower. The rumination period tended to be longer with the RBH diet than with the control diet and the ruminal mat was formed even when the RBH diet was consumed. Ruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by treatment. In experiment 2, 40 lactating cows were fed a control diet of 53.4% forage or an RBH diet of 50.3% forage and 8.1% RBH. Dry matter intake, chewing activity and milk production were not affected by diet. Cows sorted against NDF in the control diet, but not in the RBH diet. It is concluded that normal ruminal function can be maintained because the ruminal mat was stratified and rumination activity was not reduced even when a low peNDF diet that contained RBH was given to dairy cows.

  1. Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: a dose-dependent response.

    PubMed

    Reich, L J; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (+/-SD) 89.8+/-3.7, 74.2+/-6.4, 62.2+/-6.3, 43.9+/-4.0, and 34.7+/-3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6+/-2.0 and 6.8+/-2.2 degrees C in the winter and 13.3+/-2.5 and 22.6+/-4.1 degrees C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n=5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4+/-0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5+/-0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1+/-0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9+/-0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows.

  2. Effects of excess metabolizable protein on ovarian function and circulating amino acids of beef cows: 1. Excessive supply from corn gluten meal or soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Geppert, T C; Meyer, A M; Perry, G A; Gunn, P J

    2017-04-01

    In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, the source from which excess CP is derived and how it affects reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding excess metabolizable protein (MP) from feedstuffs differing in rumen degradability on ovulatory follicular dynamics, subsequent corpus luteum (CL) development, steroid hormone production and circulating amino acids (AA) in beef cows. Non-pregnant, non-lactating mature beef cows (n=18) were assigned to 1 of 2 isonitrogenous diets (150% of MP requirements) designed to maintain similar BW and body condition score (BCS) between treatments. Diets consisted of ad libitum corn stalks supplemented with corn gluten meal (moderate rumen undegradable protein (RUP); CGM) or soybean meal (low RUP; SBM). After a 20-day supplement adaptation period, cows were synchronized for ovulation. After 10 days of synchronization, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) was administered to reset ovarian follicular growth. Starting at GnRH administration and daily thereafter until spontaneous ovulation, transrectal ultrasonography was used to diagram ovarian follicular growth, and blood samples were collected for hormone, metabolite and AA analyses. After 7 days of visual detection of estrus, CL size was determined via ultrasound. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS. As designed, cow BW and BCS were not different (P⩾0.33). Ovulatory follicular wavelength, antral follicle count, ovulatory follicle size at dominance and duration of dominance were not different (P>0.13) between treatments. Cows supplemented with CGM had greater post-dominance ovulatory follicle growth, larger dominant follicles at spontaneous luteolysis, shorter proestrus, and larger ovulatory follicles (P⩽0.03) than SBM cows. No differences (P⩾0.44) in peak estradiol, ratio of estradiol to ovulatory follicle

  3. Effect of energy restriction and re-alimentation in Belgian Blue double-muscled beef cows on digestibility and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Fiems, L O; Vanacker, J M; De Boever, J L; van Caelenbergh, W; Aerts, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2007-02-01

    Four groups of five non-lactating and non-pregnant Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) cows were used to investigate the effect of energy level (E) on digestion, and blood and urine metabolites. The energy levels of the groups, applied indoors during a 140-day restriction period, were 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements (E100, E90, E80, E70) respectively. Afterwards, animals grazed on the same swards for 203 days (re-alimentation period). Balance trials were conducted at the end of the restriction period (BT1) and at the end of the re-alimentation period (BT2). Blood was sampled at the end of these trials. Diets consisted of maize silage and straw (80/20 on a dry matter basis) and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at the appropriate E during BT1, or maize silage and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at 125% of the maintenance requirements, during BT2. Significant increases of the digestibility coefficients were found during BT1 when E decreased, resulting in a better net energy capture of 7% for E70 compared with E100 (p < 0.05). Slightly, but non-significantly higher digestibility coefficients were observed for decreasing E during BT2. Plasma concentrations of glucose and creatinine did not differ between treatments during BT1, while differences were found for triacylglycerols and alpha-amino nitrogen. A tendency for a linear increase was observed for non-esterified fatty acids with decreasing E. Differences in blood metabolite concentrations disappeared in BT2. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by E, while body nitrogen loss increased linearly with energy restriction in BT1. No differences were found during BT2, suggesting that non-lactating and non-pregnant BBDM cows are able to adapt to a cyclic change of body weight and body reserves. These data show that restricted cows mobilized body fat as well as body protein. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of metabolism during energy restriction are comparable in double-muscled cows with

  4. Experimental studies on the impact of an increased dose of anionic salts on the metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gelfert, C C; Passfeld, M; Löptien, A; Montag, N; Baumgartner, W; Staufenbiel, R

    2006-12-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the influence of a daily dose of anionic salts (AS) above the valid upper limit at present on metabolism of dairy cows. Eleven non-pregnant and non-lactating Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows with a permanent rumen cannula were used in a study with a controlled feeding design. The initial daily dose was 2500 meq/day, which resulted in a Dietary Cation Anion Difference (DCAD) of -211 meq/kg dry matter. Every seven days,the daily dose was raised by 500 meq. If a cow stopped eating, the application of AS was stopped and these cows were monitored over the next seven days. On day 30 another batch of hay, having the same DCAD but higher concentrations of minerals and energy, was fed. Blood and urine samples were taken to monitor acid-base balance and calcium concentrations. Acid-base balance was strongly influenced by AS. Blood pH dropped steadily and reached values around 7.23. Urine pH dropped quickly below 6 and remained at that level regardless of the increased dosage of AS. Net acid base excretion (NABE) fell continuously with the increase of the dosage of AS and reached values below -200 mmol/l. Calcium concentrations in the serum were nearly stable, but those in urine increased sharply and remained on an elevated level with increasing doses of AS. A few days before the individual cow's refusal of feed intake, calcium excretion in urine decreased. The majority of cows stopped eating while consuming a diet containing 3500 to 4000 meq AS except two animals who consumed up to 6000 meq/day AS but they received the better hay in the second half of the treatment period. In this time pH in blood increased slowly. NABE remained stable on a low level at -100 mmol/l. The results showed that with an increasing amount of AS fed the risk of clinical acidosis increased. The decreasing urine concentrations of calcium indicate a breakdown of the compensation capability of the single cow. Besides the dose of AS fed, the quality of the feed

  5. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross-over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms.

  6. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C.; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross‐over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose‐dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  7. Development of Fibroblast Cell Lines From the Cow Used to Sequence the Bovine Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.BGCF.2 and MARC.BGCF.1-3, were initiated from skin biopsies obtained from the Hereford cow whose DNA was used in sequencing the bovine genome. These cell lines were submitted to American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) and will be made publicly avai...

  8. Criteria for submitting photos.

    PubMed

    Vallarelli, Andrelou Fralete Ayres

    2011-01-01

    Dermatological photography is used as a supplement to dermatological examination with the function of providing additional knowledge and information. Its quality depends on the expertise of the photographer-dermatologist in recording the relevant elements present. Therefore, the dermatologist should know basic principles of photography and the journal editors should ensure that the articles have high-quality images. This article suggests criteria to improve the quality of photographs submitted to journals for publication.

  9. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present.

  10. Impact of antibiotic use in adult dairy cows on antimicrobial resistance of veterinary and human pathogens: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2011-03-01

    Antibiotics have saved millions of human lives, and their use has contributed significantly to improving human and animal health and well-being. Use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has resulted in healthier, more productive animals; lower disease incidence and reduced morbidity and mortality in humans and animals; and production of abundant quantities of nutritious, high-quality, and low-cost food for human consumption. In spite of these benefits, there is considerable concern from public health, food safety, and regulatory perspectives about the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Over the last two decades, development of antimicrobial resistance resulting from agricultural use of antibiotics that could impact treatment of diseases affecting the human population that require antibiotic intervention has become a significant global public health concern. In the present review, we focus on antibiotic use in lactating and nonlactating cows in U.S. dairy herds, and address four key questions: (1) Are science-based data available to demonstrate antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in dairy cows associated with use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows? (2) Are science-based data available to demonstrate that antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in adult dairy cows impacts pathogens that cause disease in humans? (3) Does antimicrobial resistance impact the outcome of therapy? (4) Are antibiotics used prudently in the dairy industry? On the basis of this review, we conclude that scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among pathogens isolated from dairy cows to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows and other food-producing animals does contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance

  11. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  12. Effect of estradiol benzoate used at the start of a progestagen treatment on superovulatory response and embryo yield in lactating and non-lactating llamas.

    PubMed

    Aller, J F; Cancino, A K; Rebuffi, G E; Alberio, R H

    2010-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of estradiol benzoate (EB) and intravaginal progestagen treatment on ovarian follicular dynamics and superstimulatory response in eCG-treated llamas. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to evaluate the effect of EB and progestagen treatment starting at different phases of dominant follicle (DF1) development on regression pattern and subsequent follicle wave emergence (WE2) in lactating and non-lactating llamas. Early lactating (n=24, 30+/-4 days postpartum) and non-lactating (n=24) females were assigned in equal numbers (n=8) to one of three groups according to the phase of DF1 (growing, static or regressing) determined by ultrasonography from day -3 to day 0. At day 0, llamas received an intravaginal sponge (MPA, 150 mg) and 5mg of MPA (i.m.). Half of the females (n=4) of each group were injected with 2mg (i.m.) of EB and half were not (control group). A 2 x 2 x 3 (lactational status, EB treatment and follicular phases) factorial design was used. Each sponge was removed 8 days later. Ovaries were monitored from day 0 to day 12. Daily blood samples were taken to determine 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) profiles from day 0 to day 8. The DF1 regression pattern was not affected (P>0.05) by the phase of follicle wave at the start of the treatment or any interactions among main effects. Follicle wave emergence in EB-treated llamas was delayed (P<0.05) by 2.3 days compared with non-treated llamas. Following EB treatment, plasma concentrations of E(2) were greater (P<0.05) from day 1 to day 5 in the treated than in non-treated females, but not from day 6 onward (P>0.05). Experiment 2 was designed to evaluate the effect of this treatment on the ovarian superovulatory response and embryo yield following eCG treatment administered on day of follicular wave emergence as determined in the Experiment 1. The same lactating (n=18, 61+/-4 days postpartum) and non-lactating (n=18) llamas at random stages of follicle wave were treated as

  13. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  14. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage.

    PubMed

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The period of observation was three weeks. During the first week (period 1) cows were maintained on basic ration for the purpose of recording baseline values. During the second week (period 2) control cows were fed a basic diet (grass silage), while cows in the experimental group were fed the basic diet and supplemented with 1 kg zeolite pellets once daily. During the third week (period 3) both groups were fed the basic ration only and observed for any persistent effects after zeolite withdraw. Daily sampling included blood and urine. Selected physiological parameters were compared between groups during period 2 and 3, whereas mean values from period 1, 2 and 3 were compared within the groups. Zeolite supplementation revealed a significant influence on calcium homeostasis. A slight decrease in serum Ca and in renal excretion of calcium was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited an activation of calcium mobilisation. The influence of zeolite on calcium homeostasis was not evident from monitoring serum concentration of calcium regulating hormones (PTH, 1,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)VitD) or renal excretion of markers of bone resorption. Enhanced active intestinal calcium absorption and bone resorption was therefore considered insignificant in the calcium mobilisation under the conditions of this experiment. The origin of the increased amount of Ca, which was observed

  15. Effects of intravenous triacylglycerol emulsions on hepatic metabolism and blood metabolites in fasted dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mashek, D G; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of intravenous infusion of triacylglycerol (TAG) emulsions derived from different lipid sources on energy metabolism during a 4-d fast. Six nonpregnant, nonlactating multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square design. Treatments included intravenous infusion of tallow, linseed oil, or fish oil emulsions at a rate of 0.54 g of TAG/kg of body weight per day; infusions were concurrent with a 4-d fast. The emulsions were administered for 20 to 30 min every 4 h throughout the 4-d fast. Cows were fed ad libitum for 24 d between the fast/infusion periods. Infusion of tallow, linseed oil, or fish oil emulsions increased plasma concentrations of palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, respectively. Infusion of linseed oil emulsion decreased plasma TAG concentrations compared with tallow and fish oil treatments, which were similar. Infusion of the tallow emulsion resulted in the highest concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), insulin, and glucose, whereas the infusion derived from linseed oil had the lowest NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations. The different TAG emulsions had no effect on total or peroxisomal oxidation of [1-(14C)]oleic acid in liver homogenates. Liver TAG content increased 12.0, 7.8, and 14.1 microg/microg of DNA during the fast for tallow, linseed oil, and fish oil treatments, respectively; linseed oil was different from fish oil and tended to be different from tallow.

  16. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  17. Alterations in bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and gene expression in granulosa cells in preovulatory follicles of dairy cows given porcine LH.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Amir; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Ambrose, Divakar Justus

    2016-04-15

    In a previous work, using porcine LH (pLH) in lieu of GnRH for synchronizing ovulation in dairy cows improved pregnancy rates without increasing plasma progesterone concentrations after ovulation. The LH profile is known to remain elevated above basal concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) for up to 20 hours in pLH-treated cows compared to less than 6 hours in GnRH-treated cows. Because LH triggers a cascade of signaling networks in the preovulatory follicle to promote final maturation and support oocyte competence, we hypothesized that dissimilar LH profiles will differentially regulate the intrafollicular factors and expression of downstream genes associated with improved oocyte competence. Specific objectives were to determine differences in the abundance of oocyte-secreted factors in the preovulatory follicular fluid and target genes in granulosa cells associated with oocyte competence, in response to exogenous porcine LH or GnRH-induced endogenous bovine LH exposure, in dairy cows. Follicular contents were aspirated by a transvaginal ultrasound-guided procedure from the preovulatory follicle of cyclic, nonlactating Holstein cows 21 ± 1 hour after administration of either pLH (25-mg) or GnRH (100-μg). Mature forms of bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and transforming growth factorβ1 were approximately 2-fold more abundant in pLH-treated cows which were exposed to an extended, low LH profile, than in GnRH-treated cows that had a short, high LH profile. The relative abundance of messenger RNA for cyclooxygenase-2, LH receptor, and progesterone receptor in granulosa cells, was about two-, eight-, and two-fold higher, respectively, in cows subjected to pLH than GnRH treatment. We infer that the improved pregnancy rate after pLH-induced ovulation reported previously, occurred through greater activation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-β1 superfamily members, as these proteins promote cumulus expansion and oocyte competence.

  18. Long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate fed to dairy cows on enteric methane emission and nitrate and nitrite residuals in milk.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2016-07-01

    A previous study showed the additive methane (CH4)-mitigating effect of nitrate and linseed fed to non-lactating cows. Before practical application, the use of this new strategy in dairy cows requires further investigation in terms of persistency of methanogenesis reduction and absence of residuals in milk products. The objective of this experiment was to study the long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate on enteric CH4 emission and performance in dairy cows. We also assessed the effect of this feeding strategy on the presence of nitrate residuals in milk products, total tract digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and rumen fermentation. A total of 16 lactating Holstein cows were allocated to two groups in a randomised design conducted in parallel for 17 weeks. Diets were on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) control (54% maize silage, 6% hay and 40% concentrate; CON) or (2) control plus 3.5% added fat from linseed and 1.8% nitrate (LIN+NIT). Diets were equivalent in terms of CP (16%), starch (28%) and NDF (33%), and were offered twice daily. Cows were fed ad libitum, except during weeks 5, 16 and 17 in which feed was restricted to 95% of dry matter intake (DMI) to ensure complete consumption of meals during measurement periods. Milk production and DMI were measured weekly. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in milk and milk products were determined monthly. Daily CH4 emission was quantified in open circuit respiration chambers (weeks 5 and 16). Total tract apparent digestibility, N balance and rumen fermentation parameters were determined in week 17. Daily DMI tended to be lower with LIN+NIT from week 4 to 16 (-5.1 kg/day on average). The LIN+NIT diet decreased milk production during 6 non-consecutive weeks (-2.5 kg/day on average). Nitrate or nitrite residuals were not detected in milk and associated products. The LIN+NIT diet reduced CH4 emission to a similar extent at the beginning and end of the trial (-47%, g/day; -30%, g/kg DMI; -33%, g/kg fat- and protein

  19. Effects of dietary cation-anion difference on the acid-base status of dry cows.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, D B; Oetzel, G R

    1998-06-01

    Responses in dry matter intake (DMI) and acidbase balance to three sources of anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference = -63 to -40 meq/kg of dry matter), an acidified fermentation by-product, MgSO4.7H2O + NH4Cl, and MgSO4.7H2O + CaCl2.2H2O + CaSO4, were evaluated relative to the responses of cows fed a control diet (dietary cationanion difference = 203 meq/kg of dry matter) that did not contain anionic salts. Diets were fed for 1-wk periods to eight nonlactating Holsteins assigned to two replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares. Daily DMI increased as time of access to the diet increased up to d 5; mean DMI over d 5 to 7 was reduced by dietary anionic salts. Diets containing anionic salts induced a mild metabolic acidosis that was completely compensated by nonrespiratory mechanisms (decreased blood bicarbonate and base excess; pCO2 and pH values were unaffected). Urinary pH values and bicarbonate excretion were reduced, and urinary NH4+ and titratable acidity excretion were increased, for cows fed diets containing anionic salts. Strong ion difference in urine was decreased by dietary anionic salts because of the relatively greater excretions of Cl- and S2- versus Na+ and K+ by cows fed these diets. Dietary anionic salts decreased mean ruminal pH by 0.12 units, possibly because of the reduced strong ion difference of ruminal fluid. Dietary anionic salts increased mean ruminal NH3 concentration by 2.2 mM, probably because of the higher nonprotein N content of these diets. The strong negative relationship (r2 = 0.95) between urinary pH and net acid excretion by cows fed the diets containing anionic salts suggested that urinary pH measurement might be a useful tool to assess the degree of metabolic acidosis that was imposed by dietary anionic salts.

  20. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease can affect certain other animals, like goats and sheep. BSE is an incurable fatal brain ... to ruminant animals (such as cows, sheep, and goats), which was what was thought to have begun ...

  1. Chondrosarcoma in a cow.

    PubMed

    Acland, H M

    1983-10-01

    Chondrosarcomas are rare in cattle and none has been described in detail. A 30 cm diameter chondrosarcoma centred upon the costochondral junctions of the left 9th to 12th ribs of a 5-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow is described. In areas with a cartilaginous matrix the chondrocytes were plump, sometimes binucleate, sometimes bizarre, with occasionally 2 or more cells per lacuna. The other major matrix was loose and fibrillar, and the cells were spindle-shaped or stellate, with a moderate mitotic rate. Small areas appeared fibrosarcomatous. Both major types of matrix were present in the metastases, which extensively involved the pleura, intrathoracic lymph nodes and lungs. Less numerous and smaller metastases were present on the peritoneal surfaces and within several abdominal and pelvic organs. It is postulated that local extension of the tumour from the primary mass was followed by lymphatic spread to the lungs.

  2. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  3. Use of FSH in two different regimens for ovarian superstimulation prior to ovum pick up and in vitro embryo production in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Júlio César Barboza; Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Maturana Filho, Milton; Naves, Julianne de Rezende; Santin, Thiago; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Madureira, Ed Hoffmann

    2017-03-01

    We aimed with the present study to evaluate the effects of FSH treatment (200 mg) split in four or six administrations on ovarian follicle stimulation and in vitro oocyte competence for embryo production in dairy cows with synchronized follicular wave emergence. On random days of the estrous cycle (Day 0), non-lactating Holstein cows received a progesterone (P4)-releasing intravaginal device and 2 mg estradiol benzoate IM. On Day 3, they received 0.530 mg sodium cloprostenol (PGF2α) IM. Control cows (n = 35) received no further treatments, whereas FSH-treated cows received 200 mg FSH split in four (FSH4 group; n = 33) or six (FSH6 group; n = 33) administration regimens. Starting on Day 4, cows in FSH4 group received 200 mg FSH split in four equivalent doses of 50 mg 12 h apart. Cows in FSH6 group received the same total FSH dose split in six equivalent doses of 33.3 mg 12 h apart, but treatments started on Day 3. On Day 7 AM (36 h of "coasting" period for FSH-treated groups), the P4 devices were removed and cows were subjected to ovum pick up (OPU). Viable oocytes were in vitro fertilized using sexed-sorted semen. Although FSH treatment did not (P > 0.1) increase the total number of follicles (Control, 53.2 ± 4.5 vs. FSH-treated, 51.4 ± 3.1), the two hormonal stimulation regimens, FSH4 and FSH6, increased the number of medium follicles (6-10 mm; 5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 18.1 ± 1.4; P < 0.0001) and reduced the number of small follicles (2-5.9 mm; 46.3 ± 5.1 vs. 31.0 ± 2.4 P < 0.0001). Also, FSH treatment or regimen did not increase (P > 0.1) the number of viable oocytes (Control, 12.6 ± 1.26 vs. FSH-treated, 12.70 ± 1.03), recovery rate (Control, 36.5% vs. FSH-treated, 36%) and the number of in vitro produced blastocyst (Control, 4.1 ± 0.52 vs. FSH-treated 4.3 ± 0.5). We concluded that FSH stimulation protocol proposed herein is effective to stimulate the growth of small antral follicle population prior to OPU, but it

  4. Effect of injectable trace mineral complex supplementation on development of ovarian structures and serum copper and zinc concentrations in over-conditioned Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    González-Maldonado, Juan; Rangel-Santos, Raymundo; Rodríguez-de Lara, Raymundo; García-Peña, Oswaldo

    2017-03-28

    This study evaluated the effect of injecting trace minerals on reproductive performance in over-conditioned Holstein cows before synchronized estrus. Multiparous non-lactating, over-conditioned repeat breeder cows (n=20) were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: 1) control (n=10), and 2) supplementation with an injectable trace mineral complex 25days before expected synchronized estrus (n=10). Follicular waves were synchronized by intravaginal insertion of a CIDR for eight days and an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of a GnRH analogue. Estrus was induced at CIDR removal by an i.m. injection of PGF2α. Blood samples were collected before and after synchronized estrus. The response variables were follicle population (FP), diameter of the preovulatory follicle at CIDR removal (DFP0) and at estrus detection (DFP1), time of estrus after CIDR removal (TE), area of corpus luteum (ACL), pregnancy rate and copper and zinc serum concentrations. The statistical analysis of the variables was carried out with SAS. The FP, DFP0, DFP1, TE, ACL and serum concentrations of copper and zinc were not affected by the trace mineral injection (P>0.05). Even though pregnancy rate at 40 (77.78±13.46 vs 44.44±16.56%) and 60days after AI (66.67±15.71 vs 33.33±15.71%) was numerically higher for cows injected with trace minerals than for the control group, the differences were not significant (P>0.05). In conclusion, while follicular and corpus luteum development were not affected by trace mineral injection, it may be a feasible way to increase the pregnancy rate in over-conditioned cows.

  5. Timothy hays differing in dietary cation-anion difference affect the capability of dairy cows to maintain their calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Heron, V S; Tremblay, G F; Oba, M

    2009-01-01

    Forages low in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can be used to decrease the DCAD in prepartum diet but the extent to which DCAD needs to be reduced is of recent interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of timothy hays differing in DCAD at maintaining Ca homeostasis. Six nonlactating and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay with DCAD values of 4.1 +/- 3.6 (LOW), 14.1 +/- 3.0 (MED), or 25.1 +/- 2.5 (HIGH) mEq per 100 g of DM in a duplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 14-d experimental periods. The LOW and MED hays were produced by fertilizing established timothy fields at a rate of 224 kg CaCl(2) per ha, and HIGH hay was obtained from the same field where LOW hay was produced, but from a section not fertilized with CaCl(2). Experimental diets, containing LOW, MED, or HIGH timothy hay at 71% of dietary DM, had DCAD values of 0.7, 7.3, and 14.4 mEq per 100 g of DM, respectively. Animals were fed at 6% of metabolic body weight, which provided 108% of their daily energy requirement. For each period, after a 12 d diet adaptation, cows were subjected to an EDTA challenge (3 cows each on d 13 and 14). Infusion of EDTA solution into the jugular vein decreases the concentration of blood ionized Ca, and the EDTA challenge protocol determined the resistance time and recovery time: the time required for the blood ionized Ca concentration to decrease to 60%, and the time required to recover to 90% of the prechallenge concentrations, respectively. Urine pH was lower when cows were fed LOW compared with HIGH diet (6.88 vs. 7.83), but urine pH when cows were fed MED diet (7.15) did not differ from that when cows received the LOW or HIGH diet. However, immediately before the EDTA challenge, blood pH was lower when cows were fed LOW or MED compared with HIGH diet (7.44 vs. 7.47). Although the resistance time was not affected by treatments, the recovery time was shorter when cows were

  6. The effects of dietary nitrogen to water-soluble carbohydrate ratio on isotopic fractionation and partitioning of nitrogen in non-lactating sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Nicol, A M; Dewhurst, R J; Edwards, G R

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between partitioning and isotopic fractionation of nitrogen (N) in sheep consuming diets with varying ratios of N to water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Six non-lactating sheep were offered a constant dry matter (DM) allowance with one of three ratios of dietary N/WSC, achieved by adding sucrose and urea to lucerne pellets. A replicated 3 dietary treatments (Low, Medium and High N/WSC) × 3 (collection periods) and a Latin square design was used, with two sheep assigned to each treatment in each period. Feed, faeces, urine, plasma, wool, muscle and liver samples were collected and analysed for ¹⁵N concentration. Nitrogen intake and outputs in faeces and urine were measured for each sheep using 6-day total collections. Blood urea N (BUN) and urinary excretion of purine derivative were also measured. Treatment effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between measured variables were analysed by linear regression. BUN and N intake increased by 46% and 35%, respectively, when N/WSC increased 2.5-fold. However, no indication of change in microbial protein synthesis was detected. Results indicated effects of dietary treatments on urinary N/faecal N, faecal N/N intake and retained N/N intake. In addition, the linear relationships between plasma δ¹⁵N and urinary N/N intake and muscle δ¹⁵N and retained N/N intake based on individual measurements showed the potential of using N isotopic fractionation as an easy-to-use indicator of N partitioning when N supply exceeds that required to match energy supply in the diet.

  7. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Non-Lactating Women with Post-Partum Thyroiditis: The Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kowalska, Beata; Okopien, Bogusław

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency seems to be implicated in the onset and progression of some autoimmune disorders. No previous study has investigated vitamin D homeostasis in post-partum thyroiditis. We compared 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels between four groups of non-lactating women who gave birth within 12 months before the beginning of the study: hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis (group A; n = 14), euthyroid females with post-partum thyroiditis (group B; n = 14), women with non-autoimmune hypothyroidism (group C; n = 16) and healthy euthyroid females without thyroid autoimmunity (group D; n = 15). In the second part of the study, groups A and C were treated for 6 months with L-thyroxine. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower, while PTH higher in patients with post-partum thyroiditis than in patients without thyroid autoimmunity. They were also lower (25-hydroxyvitamin D) or higher (PTH) in group A than in group B, as well as in group C in comparison with group D. L-thyroxine treatment increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced PTH levels only in hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis. Baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlated with thyroid antibody titres, thyroid function and circulating PTH levels, while the effect of L-thyroxine on serum levels of this vitamin correlated with the changes in thyroid antibody titres and PTH levels. The results of our study suggest the association of vitamin D status with post-partum thyroiditis and L-thyroxine treatment of this disorder.

  8. Relationship with BSE (Mad Cow Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links Prion Diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Chronic Wasting Disease ( ... Related Links Prion Diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Chronic Wasting Disease ( ...

  9. Rumen degradability characteristics of normal maize stover and silage, and quality protein maize silage-based diets offered to cows.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Berhan; Gebrehawariat, Ephrem; Tegegne, Azage; Kortu, Mohammed Y

    2012-10-01

    Rumen degradability characteristics of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) of normal maize (NM) stover (T1)-, NM silage (T2)- and quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3)-based diets were studied using three rumen-fistulated Boran × Friesian non-lactating cows (371 ± 32.00 kg) in 3 × 3 Latin Square Design. Cows were supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. In sacco degradability of DM and OM indicated that the (a) values of DM (128) and OM (114) for NM stover were lower (P < 0.001) than that for NM silage (268 and 253) and for QPM silage (323 and 303), respectively. The (a) value for CP was lower (P < 0.05) for QPM silage (286) than for NM stover (404) and NM silage (326). The (b) values of DM in NM stover (597) and NM silage (535) were higher (P < 0.05) than in QPM silage (499). The (b) value of CP in NM stover (372) was lower (P < 0.05) than in NM silage (655) and in QPM silage (608). Rate of degradation of OM in NM stover and NM silage, each with 0.03, was faster (P < 0.01) than in QPM silage (0.02). Moreover, QPM silage had higher potentially degradable fraction for DM (821) (P < 0.05) and OM (840) (P < 0.01) than DM (725) and OM (712) in NM stover. The mean rumen ammonia concentration (209 mg/l) of QPM silage was higher (P < 0.05) than that of NM stover (179 mg/l) and NM silage (170 mg/l). The average rumen pH (6.1) in cows fed QPM silage was lowest (P < 0.05) compared to pH (6.3) in cows fed either NM stover or silage. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids (116 mmol/l) in the rumen of cows incubated with QPM silage was higher (P < 0.001) than in those incubated with NM stover (113 mmol/l) and NM silage (110 mmol/l). It was concluded that QPM silage-based diet was superior in DM and OM degradability, and had higher ammonia and VFA concentration than NM stover-based diet. No differences have been observed in all parameters measured between QPM and NM silages.

  10. Consider a spherical cow

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.

    1985-01-01

    Consider a Spherical Cow describes relatively simple mathematical methods for developing quantitative answers to often complex environmental problems. Early chapters provide systematic insights into problem solving and identifying mathematical tools and models that lead to back of the envelope answers. Subsequent chapters treat increasingly complex problems. Solutions are sought at different levels, e.g., informed guesses, quantitative solutions based on detailed analytical models, and ultimately, critical evaluation of the consequences of removing simplifying assumptions from the models. The vehicle employed is a collection of 44 challenging problems, with clearly worked out solutions, plus ample exercises. The book, though directed at environmentalists, should appeal to chemists. Many of the problems are rooted in chemistry, including acid rain, the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect, chemical contamination, and the disturbing of cyclical chemical balances. Readers feeling a civic responsibility to think and speak more clearly on environmental issues will find the essential modeling and quantitative approaches valuable assets beyond the help provided by the usual courses in science and mathematics. In fact, the techniques of problem solving have broad applicability beyond the specific environmental examples covered in this text.

  11. Amyloidosis in six dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R; Jamison, K

    1984-12-15

    Amyloidosis was diagnosed in 6 Holstein cows that were examined because of chronic intractable diarrhea. Besides diarrhea, the chief finding was a nephrotic-like syndrome, in that there was edema, hypoproteinemia, and proteinuria. Other consistent clinicopathologic abnormalities were hyperfibrinogenemia, low-normal serum calcium content or hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged bromosulphalein half time, high serum urea nitrogen concentration, high serum creatinine concentration, and low urine specific gravity. Foci of inflammation including traumatic reticuloperitonitis, traumatic pericarditis, salpingitis, mastitis, and metritis were found. There was histologic evidence of amyloid in the kidneys, liver, adrenal glands, and spleen. The iodine-sulfuric acid test for amyloid was positive in 2 cows. The Congo red dye test for amyloid was positive in 2 other cows. In spite of supportive care, all the cows either died naturally or were euthanatized. Because foci of inflammation were found in each cow, it was concluded that the most likely classification of amyloidosis in these cases would be reactive systemic amyloidosis and that the major amyloid fibril protein would be type AA.

  12. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH.

  13. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  14. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows.

  15. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows managed for first service using timed artificial insemination with or without detection of estrus using an activity-monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C; Carvalho, P D

    2014-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=1,025) on a commercial dairy farm were randomly assigned at 10 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to 1 of 3 treatments for submitting cows to first artificial insemination (AI) and were fitted with activity-monitoring tags (Heatime; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 24 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=339) in treatment 1 were inseminated based on increased activity from the end of the voluntary waiting period (50 DIM) until submission to an Ovsynch protocol; cows without increased activity from 21 to 65 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM, whereas cows without increased activity from 21 to 50 DIM but not from 51 to 79 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 79 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=340) in treatment 2 were inseminated based on activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol at 50 DIM, and cows without increased activity began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=346) in treatment 3 were monitored for activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, but all cows received timed AI (TAI) at 75 ± 3 DIM after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. The activity-monitoring system detected increased activity in 56, 69, and 70% of cows in treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Treatment-2 cows had the fewest average days to first AI (62.5), treatment-3 cows had the most average days to first AI (74.9), and treatment-1 cows had intermediate average days to first AI (67.4). Treatment-1 and -2 cows in which inseminations occurred as a combination between increased activity and TAI had fewer overall pregnancies per AI (P/AI) 35 d after AI (32% for both treatments) compared with treatment-3 cows, all of which received TAI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (40%). Based on survival analysis, although the rate at which cows were inseminated differed among treatments, treatment did not affect the proportion of cows pregnant by 300 DIM. Thus, use of an activity-monitoring system to inseminate cows based on

  16. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  17. Genetic evaluation for cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When genetic evaluations for Productive Life were introduced by USDA in 1994, U.S. dairy producers had an opportunity to produce healthier cows, and it happened. The genetic evaluations were incorporated into selection programs and the deterioration occurring in pregnancy rate and somatic cell score...

  18. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  19. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  20. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  1. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  2. Effects of species-diverse high-alpine forage on in vitro ruminal fermentation when used as donor cow's feed or directly incubated.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Soliva, C R; Kreuzer, M; Leiber, F

    2012-11-01

    Alpine forages are assumed to have specific effects on ruminal digestion when fed to cattle. These effects were investigated in an experiment from two perspectives, either by using such forages as a substrate for incubation or as feed for a rumen fluid donor cow. In total, six 24-h in vitro batch culture runs were performed. Rumen fluid was collected from a non-lactating donor cow after having grazed pastures at ∼2000 m above sea level for 2, 6 and 10 weeks. These 'alpine runs' were compared with three lowland samplings from before and 2 and 6 weeks after the alpine grazing where a silage-concentrate mix was fed. In each run, nine replicates of four forages each were incubated. These forages differed in type and origin (alpine hay, lowland ryegrass hay, grass-maize silage mix, pure hemicellulose) as well as in the content of nutrients. Concentrations of phenolic compounds in the incubated forages were (g/kg dry matter (DM)): 20 (tannin proportion: 0.47), 8 (0.27), 15 (0.52) and 0 (0), respectively. Crude protein was highest in the silage mix and lowest with hemicellulose, whereas the opposite was the case for fiber. The total phenol contents (g/kg DM) for the high altitude and the lowland diet of the donor cow were 27 (tannins: 0.50 of phenols) and 12 (0.27), respectively. Independent of the origin of the rumen fluid, the incubation with alpine hay decreased (P < 0.05) bacterial counts, fermentation gas amount, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production as well as ammonia and methane concentrations in fermentation gas (the latter two being not lower when compared with hemicellulose). Alpine grazing of the cow in turn increased (P < 0.001) bacterial counts and, to a lesser extent, acetate proportion compared with lowland feeding. Further, alpine grazing decreased protozoal count (P < 0.05) and VFA production (P < 0.001) to a small extent, whereas methane remained widely unchanged. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between forage type incubated and feeding period of the

  3. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting complaints. 4.3... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a...

  4. Quantitative analysis of ruminal bacterial populations involved in lipid metabolism in dairy cows fed different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Cancino-Padilla, N; Romero, J; Garnsworthy, P C

    2016-11-01

    Vegetable oils are used to increase energy density of dairy cow diets, although they can provoke changes in rumen bacteria populations and have repercussions on the biohydrogenation process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of dietary lipids: soybean oil (SO, an unsaturated source) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO, a saturated source) on bacterial populations and the fatty acid profile of ruminal digesta. Three non-lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with three periods consisting of 21 days. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (Control, no fat supplement) and the basal diet supplemented with SO (2.7% of dry matter (DM)) or HPO (2.7% of DM). Ruminal digesta pH, NH3-N and volatile fatty acids were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with control and HPO, total bacteria measured as copies of 16S ribosomal DNA/ml by quantitative PCR was decreased (P<0.05) by SO. Fibrobacter succinogenes, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus and Anaerovibrio lipolytica loads were not affected by dietary treatments. In contrast, compared with control, load of Prevotella bryantii was increased (P<0.05) with HPO diet. Compared with control and SO, HPO decreased (P<0.05) C18:2 cis n-6 in ruminal digesta. Contents of C15:0 iso, C18:11 trans-11 and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 were increased (P<0.05) in ruminal digesta by SO compared with control and HPO. In conclusion, supplementation of SO or HPO do not affect ruminal fermentation parameters, whereas HPO can increase load of ruminal P. bryantii. Also, results observed in our targeted bacteria may have depended on the saturation degree of dietary oils.

  5. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species.

  6. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  7. Transcriptome analysis of epithelial and stromal contributions to mammogenesis in three week prepartum cows.

    PubMed

    Casey, Theresa; Dover, Heather; Liesman, James; DeVries, Lindsey; Kiupel, Matti; Vandehaar, Michael; Plaut, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary development has provided insight into regulation of mammogenesis. However, previous studies primarily examined expression of epithelial and stromal tissues combined, and consequently did not account for tissue specific contribution to mammary development. Our objective was to identify differences in gene expression in epithelial and intralobular stromal compartments. Tissue was biopsied from non-lactating dairy cows 3 weeks prepartum, cut into explants and incubated for 2 hr with insulin and hydrocortisone. Epithelial and intralobular stromal tissues were isolated with laser capture microdissection. Global gene expression was measured with Bovine Affymetrix GeneChips, and data were preprocessed using RMA method. Moderated t-tests from gene-specific linear model analysis with cell type as a fixed effect showed more than 3,000 genes were differentially expressed between tissues (P<0.05; FDR<0.17). Analysis of epithelial and stromal transcriptomes using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that epithelial and stromal cells contributed distinct molecular signatures. Epithelial signatures were enriched with gene sets for protein synthesis, metabolism and secretion. Stromal signatures were enriched with genes that encoded molecules important to signaling, extracellular matrix composition and remodeling. Transcriptome differences also showed evidence for paracrine interactions between tissues in stimulation of IGF1 signaling pathway, stromal reaction, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and immune response. Molecular signatures point to the dynamic role the stroma plays in prepartum mammogenesis and highlight the importance of examining the roles of cell types within the mammary gland when targeting therapies and studying mechanisms that affect milk production.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Epithelial and Stromal Contributions to Mammogenesis in Three Week Prepartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Theresa; Dover, Heather; Liesman, James; DeVries, Lindsey; Kiupel, Matti; VandeHaar, Michael; Plaut, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary development has provided insight into regulation of mammogenesis. However, previous studies primarily examined expression of epithelial and stromal tissues combined, and consequently did not account for tissue specific contribution to mammary development. Our objective was to identify differences in gene expression in epithelial and intralobular stromal compartments. Tissue was biopsied from non-lactating dairy cows 3 weeks prepartum, cut into explants and incubated for 2 hr with insulin and hydrocortisone. Epithelial and intralobular stromal tissues were isolated with laser capture microdissection. Global gene expression was measured with Bovine Affymetrix GeneChips, and data were preprocessed using RMA method. Moderated t-tests from gene-specific linear model analysis with cell type as a fixed effect showed more than 3,000 genes were differentially expressed between tissues (P<0.05; FDR<0.17). Analysis of epithelial and stromal transcriptomes using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that epithelial and stromal cells contributed distinct molecular signatures. Epithelial signatures were enriched with gene sets for protein synthesis, metabolism and secretion. Stromal signatures were enriched with genes that encoded molecules important to signaling, extracellular matrix composition and remodeling. Transcriptome differences also showed evidence for paracrine interactions between tissues in stimulation of IGF1 signaling pathway, stromal reaction, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and immune response. Molecular signatures point to the dynamic role the stroma plays in prepartum mammogenesis and highlight the importance of examining the roles of cell types within the mammary gland when targeting therapies and studying mechanisms that affect milk production. PMID:21829467

  9. Temporarily decreasing progesterone after timed artificial insemination decreased expression of interferon-tau stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in blood leukocytes, serum pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations, and embryo size in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Consentini, C C; Weaver, S R; Barleta, R V; Hernandez, L L; Fricke, P M

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of temporarily decreasing progesterone (P4) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on embryonic growth in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 80) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol for first TAI and were assigned randomly to receive 12.5 mg of PGF2α 5 d after the last GnRH treatment (LowP4) or remain untreated (control). Blood samples were collected thrice weekly from 5 to 29 d after TAI for all cows and from 32 to 67 d for pregnant cows, and were analyzed for P4 and pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations. Expression of interferon-tau stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed in blood leukocyte mRNA 18 and 20 d after TAI. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed weekly using ultrasound from 32 to 67 d after TAI, and embryonic crown-rump length was measured 32, 39, and 46 d after TAI. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. The LowP4 cows had less P4 than control cows from 6 to 11 d after TAI; however, pregnancy outcomes 32 d after TAI and pregnancy loss from 32 to 67 d after TAI did not differ between treatments. Control cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI had greater expression of ISG15 20 d after TAI than LowP4 cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI, and pregnant control cows had greater pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations from 25 to 67 d after TAI than pregnant LowP4 cows. Embryo size did not differ between treatments 32 and 39 d after TAI, but control cows had larger embryos 46 d after TAI. In conclusion, temporarily decreasing P4 after TAI decreased embryonic growth during early pregnancy in lactating Holstein cows but did not affect pregnancies per artificial insemination or pregnancy loss.

  10. Effect of administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin on health and performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with hyperketonemia.

    PubMed

    Gohary, K; Leslie, K E; Ford, J; Capel, M; LeBlanc, S J; Duffield, T F

    2015-07-01

    The effect of administering recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to cows with hyperketonemia during the early postpartum period on health, metabolic parameters, milk production, and early reproductive performance was evaluated in a double-blinded clinical trial. Cows from 8 dairy herds in New York State were tested weekly between 3 and 16d in milk for elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows were enrolled in the study when blood β-hydroxybutyrate was ≥1.3mmol/L for the first time. Enrolled cows were randomly assigned to a treatment (n=273) or placebo control (n=270) group. Treated cows were given 325mg of rbST subcutaneously on the day of enrollment and again 14d later. Control cows received the same regimen except the syringe contained only the carrier without somatotropin. After enrollment, blood samples were collected weekly for 4wk and submitted to the laboratory to be analyzed for selected metabolites. Risk ratios for clinical diseases subsequent to treatment were calculated using Poisson regression. Continuous data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Time to first insemination was assessed with survival analysis. In the 42d following the first administration of rbST, incidence risks of displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, metritis, clinical mastitis, and lameness were not different between treatment groups. Cows treated with rbST had a slightly lower body condition score 28d after enrollment compared with control cows. In the 4wk following enrollment, serum nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate amino-transferase were slightly higher for treated than control cows, respectively. Serum glucose, calcium, haptoglobin, and β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between groups. Treatment had no effect on resolution of hyperketonemia in any of the 4wk after enrollment. Milk production in either of the 2-wk periods after each treatment was not different between treated and control cows. Furthermore, milk production was not different between groups from enrollment

  11. Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. by dairy cows on farm and at cull cow markets.

    PubMed

    Wells, S J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Dargatz, D A; Ferris, K; Green, A

    2001-01-01

    As part of a national study of the U.S. dairy cow population, fecal samples were collected from representative cows on 91 dairies and 97 cull dairy cow markets in 19 states. Salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.4% of milk cows, 18.1% of milk cows expected to be culled within 7 days, and 14.9% of culled dairy cows at markets. On a premise basis, Salmonella shedding in milk cows was detected on 21.1% of dairies and 66% of cull dairy cow markets. The percentage of herds with at least one cow with detectable Salmonella fecal shedding was higher during the sampling period from May through July, in herds with at least 100 milk cows, and in herds in the South region. The most common Salmonella serogroups isolated were E (30.8% of isolates) and C1 (28.6%); the most common serotypes isolated were Salmonella Montevideo (21.5% of isolates), Salmonella Cerro (13.3%), and Salmonella Kentucky (8.5%). Fecal shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Typhimurium var. copenhagen was infrequent (2.8% of isolates). Most isolates (88.9%) were susceptible to all 17 antimicrobials evaluated; multiple resistance was an infrequent occurrence. This study provides information describing the distribution of Salmonella fecal shedding from dairy cows on farm and at markets and will serve as a baseline for future studies.

  12. The use of infrared thermography and accelerometers for remote monitoring of dairy cow health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M; Wilson, M T; Schaefer, A L; Huddart, F; Sutherland, M A

    2017-03-02

    Increasing reliance on automated systems on-farm has led to a need for remote monitoring of health and welfare. We aimed to validate 2 methods that could be integrated into automated systems currently in use: infrared thermography (IRT) to measure respiration rate (RR), and accelerometers to measure the flinch, step, kick (FSK) response and assessing stress and discomfort. We monitored 22 multiparous, nonlactating, Friesian and Friesian × Jersey cows (average 5.1 yr of age) during a baseline period (2 min), a restraint in a crush (2 min), and then a recovery period after exposure to a startle (2 min). We measured RR with continuous IRT imaging of airflow through the nostrils and by counting flank movements from video and live recordings. We recorded heart rate (HR) and HR variability using HR monitors, and we recorded FSK from continuous video analysis of leg movements and indirectly using accelerometers attached to both hind legs. The FSK response was scored between 1 and 4 based on the height and direction of each leg movement. We observed no change in RR, HR variability, or FSK in response to the startle; however, HR increased briefly by 10 bpm. Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement between the different methods of measuring RR, with average differences of -0.01 ± 0.87, 0.83 ± 0.57, and 0.37 ± 1.02 breaths/min for video versus live, IRT versus live and IRT versus video, respectively. Acceleration was also highly correlated with FSK scores of ≤3 (R(2) = 0.96) and ≤2 (R(2) = 0.89) and moderately correlated with FSK scores of 1 (R(2) = 0.66) over the 4-min sampling period. The results show that accelerometers can provide an indirect measure of the FSK response, and IRT can be used reliably to measure RR. With further development, both technologies could be integrated into existing systems for remote monitoring of dairy cows' health and welfare on-farm.

  13. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  14. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  15. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  16. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  17. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  18. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  19. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  20. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  1. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  2. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  3. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  4. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  5. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  6. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  7. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  8. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  9. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply piping to that machine is blanked off; and (2) The tank opening is sealed by a secured plate made...

  10. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  11. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  12. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  13. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  14. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  15. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  16. 21 CFR 822.14 - May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again? 822.14 Section 822.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Surveillance Plan § 822.14 May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again?...

  17. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  18. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  19. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  20. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  1. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  2. Excretion of Brucella abortus vaccine B19 strain during a reproductive cycle in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, W. A.; Genovez, M. E.; Pozzi, C. R.; Silva, L. M. P.; Azevedo, S. S.; Did, C. C.; Piatti, R. M.; Pinheiro, E. S.; Castro, V.; Miyashiro, S.; Gambarini, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the excretion period of B19 vaccine strain during a complete reproductive cycle (from estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, pregnancy and until 30 days after parturition) of dairy cows from 3 to 9 years old that were previously vaccinated from 3 to 8 months. Three groups were monitored with monthly milk and urine collection during 12 months: G1 with seven cows from 3 to 4 years old; G2 with three cows from 5 to 6 years old; and G3 with four cows from 7 to 9 years old. Urine and milk samples were submitted to bacteriological culture and urine and PCR reactions for detection of Brucella spp. and PCR-multiplex for B19 strain identification. Ring test (RT) was also performed in the milk samples, and serum samples were tested by buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPA). All animals were serologically negative at BAPA and Brucella spp. was not isolated from both urine and milk samples. RT revealed 13/210 (6.2%) positive milk samples. PCR reactions detected DNA of Brucella spp. in 86/420 (20.5%) samples. In urine it was found a significantly higher frequency (35.2%; 74/210) than in milk (5.7%; 12/210), more frequently from the estrus to 150 days of pregnancy and after parturition (6.7%; 10/150), and from 150 days of pregnancy to parturition (3.4%; 2/60), and they were all identified as B19 strain. In three groups, intermittent excretion of B19 strain was detected mainly in urine samples, which confirmed its multiplication and persistence in cows for until 9 years. PMID:24031869

  3. Effects of postbreeding gonadotropin treatments on conception rates of lactating dairy cows subjected to timed artificial insemination or embryo transfer in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Sá Filho, O G; Justolin, P L T; Morelli, P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Soriano, S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to evaluate the effects of treatments with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or GnRH 7 d after induced ovulation on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET). A total of 834 potential breedings were used from 661 lactating Holstein cows (37.3±0.3 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned randomly to receive TAI on d 0 or TET on d 7. Within each group, cows were assigned randomly to receive on d 7 no additional treatment (control; nTAI=156; nTET=126), a 100 μg i.m. injection of GnRH (nTAI=155; nTET=124), or a 2,500 IU i.m. injection of hCG (nTAI=151; nTET=122). Postbreeding treatment affected the percentages of pregnant cows at TET on d 28 (control: 38.1%; GnRH: 52.4%; hCG: 45.1%) and on d 60 (control: 32.5%; GnRH: 41.1%; hCG: 38.5%), but postbreeding treatment did not affect percentages of pregnant cows at TAI on d 28 (control: 30.1%; GnRH: 32.2%; hCG: 32.4%) or on d 60 (control: 25.6%; GnRH: 27.1%; hCG: 29.8%). The objective of experiment 2 was to evaluate the effect of a treatment with GnRH 7 d after TET on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows that received a previous GnRH treatment at TET. A total of 285 potential breedings were used from 257 lactating Holstein cows (35.1±0.8 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned for TET on d 7. Immediately after TET, all cows were treated with a 100 μg i.m. injection of GnRH. On d 14, cows were assigned randomly to receive (G7-14; n=147) or not (G7; n=138) an additional injection of GnRH. Pregnancy diagnosis were performed on d 28 and 60. The additional treatment with GnRH on d 14 did not affect the percentages of pregnant cows on d 28 (G7: 48.5%; G7-14: 42.9%) or on d 60 (G7: 39.8%; G7-14: 37.4%). In conclusion, treatment with GnRH or hCG 7 d after induced ovulation increased conception rates in lactating dairy cows submitted to TET, but not

  4. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  5. Nutritional Models of Experimentally-Induced Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) Differ in Their Impact on Rumen and Hindgut Bacterial Communities in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Plaizier, Jan C.; Li, Shucong; Tun, Hein M.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenges on the bacteria in rumen fluid, cecal digesta, and feces of dairy cows were determined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR. Six non-lactating Holstein cows with cannulas in the rumen and cecum were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments. During the first 3 wk of each experimental period, cows received a control diet containing 70% forages on a dry matter (DM) basis. In wk 4 of each period, cows received one of three diets: (1) the control diet; (2) a diet in which 34% of the dietary DM was replaced with pellets of ground wheat and barley (GBSC); or (3) a diet in which 37% of dietary DM was replaced with pellets of ground alfalfa (APSC). Rumen fluid, cecal digesta and feces were collected on d 5 of wk 4 of each period and the composition of the bacterial community was studied. Rumen fermentation responses were reported in a companion study. Both SARA-inducing challenges resulted in similar digesta pH depressions (as shown by the companion study), and reduced bacterial richness and diversity in rumen fluid, but GBSC had the larger effect. None of the challenges affected these measures in cecal digesta, and only GBSC reduced bacterial richness and diversity in feces. Only GBSC reduced the abundance of Bacteroidetes in rumen fluid. Abundances of limited number of bacterial genera identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in the rumen, cecum and feces were affected by the GBSC. The APSC did not affect any of these abundances. Both challenges increased the abundances of several starch, pectin, xylan, dextrin, lactate, succinate, and sugar fermenting bacterial species in the rumen, cecum, and feces as determined by qPCR. Only GBSC increased that of Megasphaera elsdenii in the rumen. Both challenges decreased the abundance of Streptococcus bovis, and increased that of Escherichia coli, in cecal digesta and feces, with GBSC having the larger effect. These results showed that

  6. Epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of Holstein cows with different responses to a long-term subacute ruminal acidosis diet challenge.

    PubMed

    Wetzels, S U; Mann, E; Pourazad, P; Qumar, M; Pinior, B; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Wagner, M; Schmitz-Esser, S; Zebeli, Q

    2017-03-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a prevalent metabolic disorder in cattle, characterized by intermittent drops in ruminal pH. This study investigated the effect of a gradual adaptation and continuously induced long-term SARA challenge diet on the epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of cows. Eight rumen-cannulated nonlactating Holstein cows were transitioned over 1 wk from a forage-based baseline feeding diet (grass silage-hay mix) to a SARA challenge diet, which they were fed for 4 wk. The SARA challenge diet consisted of 60% concentrates (dry matter basis) and 40% grass silage-hay mix. Rumen papillae biopsies were taken at the baseline, on the last day of the 1-wk adaptation, and on the last day of the 4-wk SARA challenge period; ruminal pH was measured using wireless sensors. We isolated DNA from papillae samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing results of most abundant key phylotypes were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Although they were fed similar amounts of concentrate, cows responded differently in terms of ruminal pH during the SARA feeding challenge. Cows were therefore classified as responders (n = 4) and nonresponders (n = 4): only responders met the SARA criterion of a ruminal pH drop below 5.8 for longer than 330 min/d. Data showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla, and at genus level, Campylobacter and Kingella showed highest relative abundance, at 15.5 and 7.8%, respectively. Diversity analyses revealed a significant increase of diversity after the 1-wk adaptation but a decrease of diversity and species richness after the 4-wk SARA feeding challenge, although without distinction between responders and nonresponders. At the level of the operational taxonomic unit, we detected diet-specific shifts in epimural community structure, but in the overall epimural bacterial community structure, we found no differences between responders and nonresponders

  7. Effects of excess metabolizable protein on ovarian function and circulating amino acids of beef cows: 2. Excessive supply in varying concentrations from corn gluten meal.

    PubMed

    Geppert, T C; Meyer, A M; Perry, G A; Gunn, P J

    2017-04-01

    In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, amount of excess CP effects on reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of excess metabolizable protein (MP) supplementation from a moderately abundant rumen undegradable protein (RUP) source (corn gluten meal: 62% RUP) on ovarian function and circulating amino acid (AA) concentrations in beef cows consuming low quality forage. Non-pregnant, non-lactating beef cows (n=16) were allocated by age, BW and body condition score (BCS) to 1 of 2 isocaloric supplements designed to maintain BW for 60 days. Cows had ad libitum access to corn stalks and were individually offered a corn gluten meal-based supplement daily at 125% (MP125) or 150% (MP150) of National Research Council (NRC) MP requirements. After a 20-day supplement adaptation period, cows were synchronized for ovulation. After 10 days of synchronization, follicular growth was reset with gonadotropin releasing hormone. Daily thereafter, transrectal ultrasonography was performed to diagram ovarian follicular waves, and blood samples were collected for hormone, metabolite and AA analyses. After 7 days of observation of estrus, corpus luteum (CL) size was determined via ultrasound. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS. No differences (P⩾0.21) in BW and BCS existed throughout the study; however, plasma urea N at ovulation was greater (P=0.04) in MP150. Preovulatory ovarian follicle size at dominance, duration of dominance, size at spontaneous luteolysis, length of proestrus and wavelength were not different (P⩾0.11) between treatments. However, ovulatory follicles were larger (P=0.04) and average antral follicle count was greater (P=0.01) in MP150 than MP125. Estradiol concentration and ratio of estradiol to ovulatory follicle volume were not different due to treatment (P⩾0.25). While CL volume 7 days post

  8. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  9. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  10. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established.

  11. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum cow performance.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Day, M L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2010-08-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 144) were used to determine effects of late gestation dietary energy source on pre- and postpartum cow performance in a complete randomized block design experiment. Cows were adapted to diets starting at 167 +/- 9 d of gestation and fed until 1 wk before expected calving date. Cows were fed 1 of 3 dietary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried distillers grains (DDGS). Cows allotted to HY were allowed ad libitum access to round-bale grass hay, and average hay disappearance was 12.4 kg/d. Limit-fed corn and DDGS diets contained 5.3 kg of whole-shelled corn or 4.1 kg of DDGS, respectively, plus 2.1 kg of hay, and 1.0 kg of supplement to meet cow nutritional needs during late gestation and to allow for an energy intake similar to HY. Every 21 d, BW, BCS, and ultrasound measurement of backfat between the 12th and 13th ribs were collected. At 210 d in gestation, jugular blood samples were collected from cows at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea N (BUN) concentrations. After parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed similarly. Milk production was determined by weigh-suckle-weigh procedure on d 31, 100, and 176 postpartum. Cows fed DDGS during late gestation gained more (P = 0.04) BW than cows fed HY or CN; however, no difference in BCS change was detected (P = 0.28) among treatments. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar among treatments (P = 0.64), whereas insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding were greater (P = 0.002) for cows fed DDGS than those fed HY or CN. Plasma BUN concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.02) for cows fed DDGS vs. CN or HY up to 6 h postfeeding. Birth weight was greater (P < 0.001) for calves from cows fed CN and DDGS than for those fed HY, but this did not result in any differences in frequency of dystocia (P = 0.21). Prepartum energy source did not affect conception rates (P = 0.79), milk production (P > or = 0.51), or milk

  12. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Cholesterol metabolism, transport, and hepatic regulation in dairy cows during transition and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kessler, E C; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Albrecht, C

    2014-09-01

    The transition from the nonlactating to the lactating state represents a critical period for dairy cow lipid metabolism because body reserves have to be mobilized to meet the increasing energy requirements for the initiation of milk production. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview on cholesterol homeostasis in transition dairy cows by assessing in parallel plasma, milk, and hepatic tissue for key factors of cholesterol metabolism, transport, and regulation. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken from 50 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in wk 3 antepartum (a.p.), wk 1 postpartum (p.p.), wk 4 p.p., and wk 14 p.p. Milk sampling was performed in wk 1, 4, and 14 p.p. Blood and milk lipid concentrations [triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, and lipoproteins], enzyme activities (phospholipid transfer protein and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) were analyzed using enzymatic assays. Hepatic gene expression patterns of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGC) synthase 1 (HMGCS1) and HMGC reductase (HMGCR), sterol regulatory element-binding factor (SREBF)-1 and -2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1, liver X receptor (LXR) α and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Plasma TG, cholesterol, and lipoprotein concentrations decreased from wk 3 a.p. to a minimum in wk 1 p.p., and then gradually increased until wk 14 p.p. Compared with wk 4 p.p., phospholipid transfer protein activity was increased in wk 1 p.p., whereas lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was lowest at this period. Total cholesterol concentration and mass, and cholesterol concentration in the milk fat fraction decreased from wk 1 p.p. to wk 4 p.p. Both total and milk fat cholesterol concentration were decreased in wk 4 p.p. compared with wk 1 and 14 p.p. The mRNA abundance of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (SREBF-2, HMGCS1, and

  14. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  15. Isolation of Haemophilus somnus from dairy cattle in kwaZulu-Natal. An emerging cause of 'dirty cow syndrome' and infertility?

    PubMed

    Last, R D; Macfarlane, M D; Jarvis, C J

    2001-06-01

    Haemophilus somnus was consistently isolated from vaginal discharges of dairy cows submitted from field cases of vaginitis, cervicitis and/or metritis in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands during the period July 1995 - December 2000 and from the East Griqualand area in November/December 2000. The purulent vaginal discharges, red granular vaginitis and cervicitis, and pain on palpation described in these cases was very similar to that reported in outbreaks of H.somnus endometritis syndrome in Australia, Europe and North America. In all the herds involved in these outbreaks, natural breeding with bulls was employed. Although there was a good cure rate in clinically-affected animals treated with tetracyclines, culling rates for chronic infertility were unacceptably high. Employment of artificial insemination in these herds improved pregnancy rates in cows that had calved previously, but many cows that had formerly been infected failed to conceive.

  16. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  17. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract.

  18. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  19. Associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of freestall-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of high-producing dairy cows housed in freestall barns. Lying behavior of approximately 40 focal cows in one high-producing pen was monitored on each of 40 farms in the northeastern United States (NE) and 39 farms in California (CA). All cows within the pen were gait scored using a 1-to-5 scale to calculate the prevalence of clinical lameness (score ≥3) and severe lameness (score ≥4). Facility and management measures, including stall design, bedding, and flooring type within the pen, were collected. Herd-level factors associated with daily lying time, standard deviation (SD) of daily lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and lying bout duration at the univariate level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In the NE, daily lying time increased with the use of deep bedding (estimate = 0.80±0.31h/d) and as average days in milk (DIM) of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.04h/d for a 10-d increase in DIM). The SD of daily lying time decreased as stall stocking density increased (estimate = -0.08±0.03h/d for a 10% increase), and increased with the presence of rubber flooring in the pen (estimate = 0.16±0.08h/d) and percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (estimate = 0.04±0.01h/d for a 10% increase). Frequency of lying bouts decreased (estimate = -1.90±0.63 bouts/d) and average bout duration increased (estimate = 15.44±3.02 min) with the use of deep bedding. In CA, where all farms used deep bedding, daily lying time increased as average DIM of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.03h/d for a 10-d increase). The SD of daily lying time decreased when feed was delivered more than once per day (estimate = -0.24±0.08h/d). The percentage of lame cows was correlated with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (r=0.45), which in turn was associated with fewer (estimate = -0.25±0.06 bouts/d) and longer lying bouts (estimate

  20. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as ‘infinite’. PMID:17148336

  1. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  2. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'.

  3. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  4. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  5. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  6. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  7. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  8. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  9. Effect of rubber flooring on cow locomotion and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed-f...

  10. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  11. 2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical cow house opposite from the one pictured. In the background are: Robinson-Aiken Slave Building and Kitchens (SC-276) on left, and Robinson-Aiken Service Building and Stable (SC-275) on right. - Robinson-Aiken Cow House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  12. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  13. Transition cow nutrition and feeding management for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J; Sniffen, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    In this article, an overview is presented of nutrient modeling to define energy and protein requirements of the late pregnant cow, and metabolic relationships between fetus and cow as they relate to nutrient utilization and risk for postparturient disease are discussed. Recommendations for formulating dry cow diets are provided, with emphasis on opportunities to minimize variation and risk for postparturient disease events.

  14. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  15. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  16. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  17. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  18. Cow effects and estimation of success of first and following inseminations in Dutch dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Inchaisri, C; Jorritsma, R; Vernooij, J C M; Vos, P L A M; van der Weijden, G C; Hogeveen, H

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101,297 insemination records in 51,525 lactations of different cows from 1368 herds obtained from the Dutch milk production recording database. Cows that had a first insemination (AI) between 40 and 150 days post-partum with one or more inseminations (≤6 inseminations) were selected. An insemination was defined successful when not followed by another insemination and when the cow calved between 267 and 295 days after insemination, or when the cow was culled between 135 and 295 days after the last insemination. Breed, parity, days in milk, lactation curve characteristics, milk production traits, moment of AI related to peak milk yield time (before or after peak milk yield), the last calf (female, male, twin or stillbirth) and season of insemination were selected as independent parameters for a model with successful rate of insemination as dependent parameter. A multivariable logistic regression model was used within cow and farm as a random effect. The probability of successful insemination was the highest in the first insemination and decreased in the following inseminations. However, the success rate of all inseminations increased in a later stage of lactation. The improvement in the successful inseminations in a later stage of lactation was better in multiparous cows than in first parity cows. Insemination in summer and before peak milk yield time reduced the success of insemination. The success rate was the lowest in 100% Holstein Friesian cows compared with other breeds and was the highest when the last calf was a female calf compared to a male calf, twin or stillbirth. In conclusion, the success of first and following inseminations depended on parity, breed, season of insemination, last calf status, daily milk yield at insemination date

  19. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    .7% vs. 21.3% vs. 15.2%, for ET-Control, ET-CIDR-4, and ET-CIDR-14, respectively), with no effect on pregnancy loss. Therefore, although CIDR insertion on Day 3 after FTAI did not affect CL function and increased circulating P4, it did not increase pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows submitted to FTAI. Moreover, P4 supplementation decreased pregnancy per ET in lactating recipient cows.

  20. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  1. Cow-level prevalence of paratuberculosis in culled dairy cows in Atlantic Canada and Maine.

    PubMed

    McKenna, S L B; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W; McClure, J; Vanleeuwen, J A; Hanna, P; Sockett, D C

    2004-11-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Mptb) in culled dairy cattle in Eastern Canada and Maine was determined to be 16.1% (95% confidence interval 13.8 to 18.3%) based on a systematic random sample of abattoir cattle. Mesenteric lymph nodes and ileum from 984 cows were examined by histologic and bacteriologic methods. Histological testing was far less sensitive than bacteriologic methods for detecting infected cattle. A seasonal pattern of positive cows was also detected, with the highest proportion of cows being Mptb-positive in June (42.5%). Overall, body condition score was not associated with prevalence of Mptb isolation.

  2. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  3. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  4. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  5. RMP*eSubmit Users' Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RMP*eSubmit facilitates secure online Risk Management Plan updates/resubmissions, required at least every 5 years. Reporting requirements have not changed since 2004, but the 2012 version of North American Industry Classification System has been integrated

  6. Preparing, Submitting, and Tracking a Grant Application

    Cancer.gov

    Information compiled by NCI's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI information and policies related to writing and submitting new, resubmission, late, and renewal grant applications.

  7. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the Board... appealed to the Chairman, Merit Systems Protection Board, 1615 M Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  8. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the Board... appealed to the Chairman, Merit Systems Protection Board, 1615 M Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  9. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the Board... appealed to the Chairman, Merit Systems Protection Board, 1615 M Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  10. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the Board... appealed to the Chairman, Merit Systems Protection Board, 1615 M Street, NW., Washington, DC...

  11. Is downer cow syndrome related to chronic botulism?

    PubMed

    Rulff, R; Schrödl, W; Basiouni, S; Neuhaus, J; Krüger, M

    2015-01-01

    The present work was directed to investigate the relationship between Downer cow syndrome (DCS) and chronic botulism in dairy cattle. For this purpose, a total of 52 fresh calving downer cows and 206 apparently healthy cows at 14 dairy farms were investigated for Clostridium botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels, C. botulinum and botulinum neurotoxin in rumen fluids as well as in faeces. Results indicated that the downer cows had higher IgG titers for C. botulinum ABE and CD than the healthy cows. All tested rumen fluids were negative for BoNT and C. botulinum. BoNT/D, however, and C. botulinum type D spores were detected in faecal samples of healthy and downer cows in the selected farms. In conclusion, the presence of a significantly higher C. botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels in DCS cows than in the healthy animals suggests that chronic C. botulinum toxico-infection could be a predisposing factor for DCS.

  12. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  13. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  14. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  15. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  16. Economic feasibility of cooling dry cows across the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F C; Gennari, R S; Dahl, G E; De Vries, A

    2016-12-01

    Heat stress during the dry period reduces milk yield in the subsequent lactation of dairy cows. Our objectives were to quantify the economic losses due to heat stress if dry cows are not cooled and to evaluate the economic feasibility of dry cow cooling. We used weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to calculate the number of heat stress days for each of the 50 US states. A heat stress day was declared when the daily average temperature-humidity index was ≥68. The number of dairy cows in each state in 2015 was obtained from the USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service. We assumed that 15% of the cows were dry at any time, a 60-d dry period, and a calving interval of 400d. Only cows in their second or greater parity (65%) benefitted from cooling during the dry period of the previous parity. Milk yield decreased by 5kg in the subsequent lactation (340d) if the cow experienced heat stress during the dry period based on a review of the literature. The default marginal value of milk minus feed cost was $0.33/kg of milk. The investment analysis included purchases of fans and soakers and use of water and electricity. Investment in a dry cow barn was considered separately. The average US dairy cow would experience 96 (26%) heat stress days during the year if not cooled and loses 447kg of milk in the subsequent lactation if not cooled when dry. Annual losses would be $810 million if dry cows were not cooled ($87/cow per yr). For the top 3 milk-producing states (California, Wisconsin, New York), and Florida and Texas, the average milk losses in the subsequent lactation were 522, 349, 387, 1,197, and 904kg, and reduced profit per cow per year would be $101, $68, $75, $233, and $176, respectively. The average benefit-cost ratio and payback periods of cooling dry cows in the United States were 3.15 and 0.27 yr (dry cow barn already present) and 1.45 and 5.68 yr (if investing in a dry cow barn) in the default scenario. To reach positive net

  17. Immune response of pregnant cows to bovine rotavirus immunization.

    PubMed

    Saif, L J; Smith, K L; Landmeier, B J; Bohl, E H; Theil, K W; Todhunter, D A

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen pregnant Holstein cows were freely assigned to 3 experimental groups (5 cows in each group). Cows in group I were inoculated IM and intramammarily (IMm) with Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) tissue culture-propagated modified-live Nebraska calf diarrhea bovine rotavirus with added adjuvant (OARDC vaccine-immunized cows). Group II cows were given IM injections of a commercial modified-live rotavirus-coronavirus vaccine (commercial vaccine-immunized cows), and the remaining 5 cows were noninoculated controls (group III). Rotavirus antibody in colostrum and milk was mainly associated with immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, and less so with IgG2, IgA, and IgM, as analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using monospecific anti-bovine IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA sera. In serum, the rotavirus antibody was distributed almost equally between IgG1 and IgG2. The same relationships appeared in both immunized and nonvaccinated cows. All OARDC vaccine-injected cows had virus-neutralization (VN) and ELISA IgG1 rotavirus antibody titers in serum and mammary secretions at significantly increased levels (at least 100-fold; P less than 0.05) compared with the titers in groups II (commercial vaccine-immunized cows) and III (controls). Serum, colostrum, and milk antibody titers from these latter 2 groups did not differ statistically. The ELISA IgG2, IgA, and IgM rotavirus antibody titers also were significantly greater in mammary secretions from OARDC vaccine-immunized cows than in groups II and III cows. There was a high correlation between ELISA IgG1 and VN rotavirus antibody titers for all samples tested (r = 0.97, P less than 0.001), but ELISA IgG1 antibody titers were consistently higher than VN titers. The ELISA IgG1 and VN antibody titers of milk samples collected from cows 30 days after parturition were higher from the OARDC vaccine-immunized cows (ELISA IgG1, geometric mean titer (GMT) = 3,511; VN GMT = 1,689) than were titers from the

  18. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P<0.01). Post-calving, ketotic cows had increased serum amyloid A (4.2 and 1.8 fold in studies A and B, respectively; P=0.03 and P=0.04), haptoglobin (>6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; P<0.01 and P=0.02) compared with their healthy counterparts. Antepartum circulating LPS in ketotic cows was increased (2.3 fold; P=0.01) compared to healthy cows in Study B. In summary, increased biomarkers of inflammation appear to be closely associated with ketosis in transition dairy cows.

  19. Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine

  20. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  1. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  2. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  3. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  4. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  5. 33 CFR 160.208 - Changes to a submitted NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Changes to a submitted NOA. 160... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.208 Changes to a submitted NOA. (a) Unless otherwise specified in this section, when submitted NOA information changes, vessels must submit a notice of...

  6. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  7. Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Sumiko; Goto, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Ueo, Hiroshi; Komori, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Hitomi; Uchinuno, Yukinori

    2007-09-01

    An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.

  8. [Radiotelemetric studies of uterine motility in cows with acute endometritis].

    PubMed

    Kostov, I

    1980-01-01

    Thirty two cows with postpartum complication were radiotelemetrically studied to register uterine motility. The results were compared with those of the control group of 42 cows with normal calving and no complications. Enhanced uterine reactivity to oxytocin and other agents was established in all cows with complications in the postpartum period. It is manifested in the spring also by intensified motor activity of the uterus. Motor activity of the uterus is hardly registered during to summer months in cows with normal peurperium and complications following day 2 of calving. No essential difference was found in estradiol-17 beta content in the blood plasma of both groups of cows. Body temperature rises in cows with postpartum complications.

  9. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and submit a list of every HCT/P that your establishment manufactures within 5 days after...

  10. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (<200 d) and SCC (<100,000 cells/mL). Farms were followed for 4, 5-week periods. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC <100,000 cells/mL but whose next SCC exceeded 200,000 cells/mL. Lying behavior was recorded 5d after each milk sampling using data loggers. For these 5d, individual milking times and feeding times were also recorded. On d1 of each recording period 2 trained observers scored focal cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate

  11. Effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on the concentrations of ammonia and insulin in peripheral blood of cows receiving an intraruminal infusion of urea.

    PubMed

    Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    1995-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that propionate can reduce hepatic capacity to detoxify ammonia, effects of the inclusion of propionate in intraruminal infusions of urea on the concentrations of ammonia, other metabolites and insulin in peripheral blood were investigated in two experiments with non-lactating dairy cows. Both experiments were of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four animals, four treatments and four experimental periods of 7 d; feed was given in two equal meals each day, all intraruminal infusions were given for 1 h at the time of the morning feed, and propionic acid was partly neutralized with NaOH. In Expt 1, the treatments were a basal diet of pelleted lucerne and chopped hay alone or with the following infusions (g/d): urea 80, propionic acid 350, urea 80 plus propionic acid 350. The inclusion of propionate in the urea infusion markedly increased (P < 0.001) the concentration of ammonia in plasma compared with infusion of urea alone. Moreover, the inclusion of urea with the propionate infusion abolished (P < 0.01) the increase in blood insulin level seen with the infusion of propionate alone. In Expt 2, less severe treatments were imposed, the aim being to reproduce metabolic loads of propionate and ammonia that might be expected from a diet of high-protein grass silage rich in lactic acid. The treatments were a basal diet of grass silage alone or with the following infusions (g/d): NaCl 145, NaCl 145 plus urea 50, propionic acid 200, urea 50 plus propionic acid 200. Effects were less pronounced than in Expt 1 but, in the period immediately after infusion, similar effects were seen. It is concluded that propionate-ammonia interactions may have potentially important effects on milk production especially for diets with high proportions of grass silage containing high levels of protein and lactic acid.

  12. Cow Castle Creek, Orangeburg County, South Carolina. Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    woodlands, and drainage features. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Cow Castle Creek Basin is located within the larger Edisto River Basin in Orangeburg...about 47 inches of precipitation per year. Water Quality. Cow Castle Creek lies within the Edisto River drainage basin . The Edisto Basin is located... Edisto River . Several small tributaries enter Cow Castle Creek, adding to its flow during storms and hurricanes. Siltation and extensive litter and log

  13. Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-06

    foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) in...1 For additional details and background see CRS Report RS22345, BSE (“Mad Cow Disease:): A Brief Overview, and CRS Report RL32199, Bovine Spongiform ...rejection of three shipments of U.S. beef because of the presence of bone fragments. CRS-4 8 See also CRS Report RL32932, Bovine Spongiform

  14. Late gestation supplementation of beef cows differing in body condition score: effects on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Stalker, L A; Mills, R R; Nyman, A; Falck, S J; Cooke, R F

    2013-11-01

    A 2-yr study utilizing 120 mature, crossbred (Angus × Herford) cows/year, evaluated the influence of cow BCS and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplementation during late gestation on cow performance and productivity of subsequent offspring. Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 2 BCS and with or without DDGS supplementation. Cows were nutritionally managed to enter the last trimester of gestation with a BCS of approximately 4 (LBCS) or 6 (HBCS) and were thereafter managed in a single herd (initial BCS were 4.4 and 5.7 for LBCS and HBCS treatments, respectively). During the last trimester, 12.7 kg/cow of low quality meadow hay (6.4% CP; DM basis) was provided each day. Supplemented cows were gathered and sorted into pens (12 pens; 5 cows/pen; 6 pens/BCS) every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and received the equivalent of 0.9 kg/cow daily of DDGS (31% CP; DM basis; supplement was consumed within 30 min on each supplementation day). Calf birth weight was greater for HBCS compared to LBCS (P=0.001) and for supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.04). Cow weight at weaning was greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P<0.001); however, no differences were noted because of supplementation (P=0.16). Weaning weight was greater for the offspring of supplemented compared to nonsupplemented cows (P=0.02). There were no differences in postweaning calf performance (growing lot and feedlot) or carcass characteristics (P>0.05) due to treatments. Nevertheless, HBCS cows had approximately 10% more live calves at birth and at weaning (P≤0.01) compared to LBCS cows. Consequently, the total weaned calf weight per cow was 26 kg greater for HBCS compared with LBCS (P=0.004). Pregnancy rate was greater (P=0.05) for HBCS than LBCS cows (92% vs. 79%, respectively) but not affected by supplementation (P=0.94). This research demonstrates the potential consequences of not maintaining cows in adequate BCS at calving

  15. Abnormal regurgitation in three cows caused by intrathoracic perioesophageal lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. Case presentation The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal space, and in the third, only saliva could be collected. In one cow, oesophagoscopy revealed a discoloured 10-cm mucosal area with fibrin deposits. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The cows were euthanased and examined postmortem. Cow 1 had a large perioesophageal abscess containing feed material at the level of the thoracic inlet, believed to be the result of a healed oesophageal injury. Cow 2 had an abscess between the oesophagus and trachea 25 cm caudal to the epiglottis with the same presumed aetiology as in cow 1. Cow 3 had a mediastinal carcinoma that enclosed and constricted the oesophagus. Conclusions Abnormal regurgitation in cattle is usually the result of an oesophageal disorder. Causes of oesophageal disorders vary widely and their identification can be difficult. PMID:24629042

  16. Involvement of the plasminogen activation system in cow endometritis.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, S; Taitzoglou, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Boscos, C M; Kaldrimidou, E; Saratsis, Ph

    2004-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the: (a) presence and activity of components of the "plasminogen activators/plasmin" system in dairy cows with or without endometritis; (b) variations in enzyme activity according to the degree of endometritis; and (c) associations between these enzymes and changes in endometrial histology after intrauterine antibiotic treatment. Endometrial biopsies were collected from anestrus (no palpable ovarian structures and milk progesterone <1 ng/ml) Holstein cows, 30-40 days postpartum. On the basis of a vaginoscopic examination, rectal palpation of the cervix and uterus, and endometrial histology, there were 92 cows with endometritis and 20 cows without endometritis. After biopsy collection, each cow was given an intrauterine infusion of 1.5x10(6) IU of procaine penicillin G. In cows with endometritis, genital tract examinations and biopsies were repeated 2 weeks later. Both plasminogen activators (PAs), tissue type (t-PA) and urokinase (u-PA), were immunologically identified in all uterine biopsies. Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) increased, whereas plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) and plasmin inhibition (PI) decreased in proportion to the degree of inflammation. Two weeks after intrauterine treatment, PAA had decreased significantly in all cows that had reduced severity of endometrial inflammation and had increased significantly in all cows with increased severity of inflammation. The change in the degree of inflammation depended upon plasminogen activator activity; cows with higher PAA were more likely to improve. In conclusion, there was evidence for a role of the plasminogen activation proteolytic system in bovine endometritis.

  17. Electrostatic Radionuclide Separation: A New Version of Rutherford's "Thorium Cow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiswirth, Marcus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes three experiments (also useful as demonstrations) using a "thorium cow," a device which concentrates the daughter products from thorium compounds by precipitation on a charged electrode. (JN)

  18. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    PubMed

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  19. Weather and soil type affect incidence of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, N; Phelan, P; O'Kiely, P; Waal, T de

    2014-10-18

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can result in marked economic losses on Irish dairy farms. This study investigated the exposure to F hepatica in 237 dairy cow herds, using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) samples collected in the autumn of 2012. A total of 364 BTM samples were collected from 237 different herds, with 127 farmers submitting BTM samples in two consecutive months. Analysis of the BTM samples indicated that 67 per cent (n= 159) of the dairy herds had been exposed to F hepatica. Rainfall, temperature and soil types were significantly different between the exposed and non-exposed herds (P<0.05), highlighting the role of these variables to the exposure to F hepatica. Among the 127 herds that provided two monthly milk samples, 83 herds were exposed to F hepatica and 82 increased their F hepatica antibody levels at the later sampling time (P<0.01).The findings of this study confirm the high prevalence of F hepatica antibodies in Irish dairy herds and show the rise in antibody levels during autumn. This study is the first step towards assessing the spatiotemporal pattern of fasciolosis in dairy herds in Ireland.

  20. Diversity of Staphylococcus species and prevalence of enterotoxin genes isolated from milk of healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rall, V L M; Miranda, E S; Castilho, I G; Camargo, C H; Langoni, H; Guimarães, F F; Araújo Júnior, J P; Fernandes Júnior, A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus spp. in milk from healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis in Brazil and to examine the profile of enterotoxin genes and some enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus spp. A total of 280 individual mammary quarter milk samples from 70 healthy cows and 292 samples from 73 cows with subclinical mastitis were collected from 11 farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 63 (22.5%) samples from healthy cows and from 80 samples (27.4%) from cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly different between these 2 groups and was more prevalent in the cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus was also significantly different between these 2 groups, but this organism was more prevalent in healthy cows. No statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of other staphylococci in milk samples from the 2 groups. The sea gene was the most prevalent enterotoxin gene in both groups. Eight of 15 (53.3%) Staph. aureus carried this gene and all produced the SEA toxin. In the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) group, 61 of 128 (47.5%) had the same gene and just 1 (1.6%) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain produced the enterotoxin in vitro. Because CNS were isolated from both groups of cows and most CNS contained enterotoxin genes but did not produce toxins, the role of CNS in mastitis should be carefully defined.

  1. Characteristics of patients suffering from cow milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Li; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Chao, Peng-Li; Tong, Man-Li; Liu, Gui-Li; Lin, Li-Rong; Fan-Liu; Zhang, Zhong-Ying; Yang, Tian-Ci

    2012-09-01

    The most frequent symptoms among the manifestations of cow milk allergy (CMA) are gastrointestinal. CMA pathogenesis involves immunological mechanisms with participation of immunocompetent cells, production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). We aim to determine whether cow milk-specific IgE antibodies coexist with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies in CMA patients with diarrhea symptom, and if there is any relationship between both antibody types. 65 CMA patients (average age of 17 years, ranging from 2 to 74 years), all of who had diarrhea symptom of CMA, were enrolled in this study. The total cow IgE and IgG subclass in serum were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and rate immune scatter turbidimetry, respectively. And also the cow milk-specific IgE was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of eosinophils in serum was calculated by Sysmex XE-2100 Hematology Analyzer. Our data showed that both cow milk-specific IgG and IgE levels were significantly elevated in CMA patients compared to those of age-matched control subjects. Out of the 65 CMA patients, 40 showed elevated cow milk-specific IgE antibody level, among which, 28 cases presented highly sensitive reaction to cow milk-specific IgG, along with each six of moderate and mild sensitive reaction to cow milk-specific IgG; while 20 showed elevated total IgG levels. The IgG3 positive rate was 16.9%, which was the highest. A moderate correlation between cow milk-specific IgE and cow milk-specific IgG was found in the CMA patients (r=0.415, P=0.001). The results indicated that cow milk-specific IgE antibodies could coexist with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies in patients suffering from CMA. The aberrant changes in the concentration of cow milk-specific IgE antibodies were associated with cow milk-specific IgG antibodies.

  2. Ovum pick up and in vitro embryo production in cows superstimulated with an individually adapted superstimulation protocol.

    PubMed

    De Roover, R; Genicot, G; Leonard, S; Bols, P; Dessy, F

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this experiment was to apply an ovarian superstimulation protocol prior to ovum pick up (OPU), tailored to the individual donor response, to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages in terms of follicle numbers and diameters, the numbers of retrieved oocytes and day 7 cultured blastocysts. Ten adult non-lactating dairy cows were superstimulated with pFSH and subjected to ovum pick up-in vitro fertilisation (OPU-IVF) 6 times at 2-week intervals. On day 0 of each 2-week period, all follicles >8mm were ablated and an ear implant (Crestar, Intervet, Belgium) was inserted. On day 2, 48 h after follicle ablation the animals were administered six equal doses of pFSH, divided into morning and evening doses for 3 days. On day 7, 48 h following the last pFSH injection, follicle diameters were measured by ultrasound and all follicles were subjected to OPU. All cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), regardless of their quality, were subjected to in vitro maturation-in vitro fertilisation-in vitro culture (IVM-IVF-IVC). The total dose of pFSH prior to the first OPU session was 300 microg per animal. During the following OPU sessions, the total pFSH dose was either kept unchanged, increased or reduced (+/-50 microg), according to the percentage of follicles of more than 11 mm in diameter, present in the previous session of that particular donor. The mean number of punctured follicles per session was 11.9 +/- 7.7 (mean +/- S.D.), with 16% of follicles exceeding 11 mm. These follicles yielded a mean of 5.6 +/- 4.1 cumulus oocyte complexes (COC), 32% of which had >/=3 layers of cumulus cells (quality 1 and 2). The recovery rate was 47%. Finally, all COC were subjected to IVM-IVF-IVC, which resulted in a mean of 2.0 +/- 2.3 blastocysts on day 7 postinsemination. The subtle changes in pFSH dose influenced the sizes but not the numbers of follicles, the latter parameter was influenced by the individual donor and the OPU session.

  3. How a submitted manuscript is processed.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-09-01

    Processing of a submitted manuscript is a complex and time-consuming process. Authors should be aware of items in the editorial office checklist. The journal editors and peer reviewers are an essential part of the manuscript processing system. Copy editors serve as a link between authors and the printer/publisher, and aim to adapt the accepted manuscript to the journal house style and to improve readability of the article.

  4. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  5. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  6. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  7. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  8. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  9. Endocrine patterns of the post-partum cow.

    PubMed

    Lamming, G E; Wathes, D C; Peters, A R

    1981-01-01

    Milked dairy cows generally have a shorter post-partum interval to ovarian cyclicity than suckling dairy or beef cows. In milked and suckling cows, there is a strong seasonal influence with spring-calving cows remaining anoestrous longer. Increasing the suckling intensity further delays the onset of ovarian cyclicity, probably by increasing the frequency or strength of its inhibitory influence on hypothalamic activity. Plasma FSH levels rise in most cows 5-10 days after calving and thereafter the random changes observed have little relationship to the onset of cycles. Recovery of FSH release therefore occurs earlier post partum than recovery of LH release. Hyperprolactinaemia is not a cause of reproductive failure in milked or suckling cows because there is no correlation between plasma prolactin levels and the onset of ovarian cycles. Plasma LH concentrations undergo significant changes directly related to the initiation of ovarian cycles, with low plasma levels immediately post partum, followed by an increase in basal secretion and the development of clear LH episodes. This pulsatile pattern appears earlier in dairy than in beef cows and is further delayed by suckling compared to milking. Before the first ovulation there is an increased frequency and peak height of LH episodes leading to a rise in plasma LH levels and eventually to a preovulatory-type LH surge which results in the first ovulation. These changes in the pattern of LH release appear definitive in the initiation of ovarian activity in post-partum cows.

  10. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  11. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows.

  12. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  13. Identification of metabolites and thermal transformation products of quinolones in raw cow's milk by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Junza, Alexandra; Barbosa, Sergio; Codony, M Rosa; Jubert, Anna; Barbosa, José; Barrón, Dolores

    2014-02-26

    The presence of residues of antibiotics, metabolites, and thermal transformation products (TPs), produced during thermal treatment to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in milk, could represent a risk for people. Cow's milk samples spiked with enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF), and sarafloxacin (SAR) and milk samples from cows medicated with ENR were submitted to several thermal treatments. The milk samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to find and identify TPs and metabolites. In this work, 27 TPs of 4 quinolones and 24 metabolites of ENR were found. Some of these compounds had been reported previously, but others were characterized for the first time, including lactose-conjugated CIP, the formamidation reaction for CIP and SAR, and hydroxylation or ketone formation to produce three different isomers for all quinolones studied.

  14. Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.

    PubMed

    Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (<51d), and for cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We

  15. Lead absorption in cows: biological indicators of ambient lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Karacic, V.; Prpic-Majic, D.; Skender, L.

    1984-03-01

    In order to determine actual lead exposure from residual amounts of lead in the environmental soil following the introduction of effective engineering emission controls in a lead smeltery, the absorption of lead in cows grazing in the vicinity was investigated. Four groups of cows were examined: two groups of cows exposed to different ambient lead concentration, compared with two normal groups of cows. In each cow aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (Pb-B) were determined, two years prior to and four years after the technical sanitation of the lead emission source. The results demonstrated normalization of ALAD, EP and Pb-B after the technical sanitation. In spite of normalization, biological indicators ALAD and Pb-B determined four years after the technical sanitation showed increased lead absorption in comparison with the results of the control group. This indirectly indicates lead contamination of the environment from residual amounts of lead in the soil.

  16. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    PubMed

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  17. A Checklist for Submitting Your Risk Management Plan (RMP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Important information about 2014 submissions and a checklist to consider in preparing and resubmitting a 5-year update, as required by 40 CFR part 68. Use the RMP*eSubmit software application, which replaced RMP*Submit.

  18. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operator of an onshore pipeline facility shall prepare and submit a response plan to PHMSA as provided in... substantial harm. Operators of substantial harm pipeline facilities must prepare and submit plans to PHMSA...

  19. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operator of an onshore pipeline facility shall prepare and submit a response plan to PHMSA as provided in... substantial harm. Operators of substantial harm pipeline facilities must prepare and submit plans to PHMSA...

  20. Intrauterine ozone treatment of retained fetal membrane in Simmental cows.

    PubMed

    Djuricic, D; Vince, S; Ablondi, M; Dobranic, T; Samardzija, M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of research was to determine influence of intrauterine application of two different ozone preparations on reproductive performance in Simmental cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM). The study was performed on 143 Simmental cows aged 2-8 years and divided in three groups. Group A (n=46) consisted of cows treated with foam spray ozone applied into the body of the uterus for 5s using a sterile catheter. Group B (n=50) consisted of cows treated using six ozone pearls intrauterinely at once, as deeply and hygienically possible. Cows were observed and treated during early puerperium, 24-36h after parturition. The third group (n=47) consisted of cows without RFM (control group). To assess the reproductive performance of cows, the interval from calving to first insemination (days not pregnant to first service, DOFS), interval from calving to pregnancy (days not pregnant to pregnancy, DOP), relative pregnancy rate (%), first service conception rate (FSCR, %) and all service conception rate (ASCR, %) were measured. The estimate of hazard ratio for the Groups A and B relative to control group with DOFS were 0.423 (P=0.0006) and 0.434 (P=0.0005), and with DOP were 0.701 (P=0.003) and 0.411 (P=0.0003), respectively, implying that cows in the control group were not pregnant longer until first insemination and pregnancy. Variables that had an influence on DOFS were postpartum fever (PPF) (HR=0.458; P=0.003) and milk yield (HR=0.999; P<0.0001) and an influence on DOP were PPF (HR=0.314; P=0.001) and milk yield (HR=0.999; P<0.0001). Cows with RFM treated with intrauterine Riger spray or Ripromed ovuli O(3) have similar or enhanced reproductive performance results compared to the control group of cows demonstrating the effectiveness of therapy with intrauterine ozone products.

  1. Analysis of feeding and drinking patterns of dairy cows in two cow traffic situations in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Melin, M; Wiktorsson, H; Norell, L

    2005-01-01

    With increasing possibilities for obtaining online information for individual cows, systems for individual management can be developed. Feeding and drinking patterns from automatically obtained records may be valuable input information in these systems. With the aim of evaluating appropriate mixed-distribution models for feeding and drinking events, records of 30 fresh cows from visits at feeding stations (n = 83,249) and water bowls (n = 67,525) were analyzed. Cows were either allowed a high-milking (HF) or a low-milking (LF) frequency by being subjected to controlled cow traffic with minimum milking intervals of 4 and 8 h, respectively. Milking frequency had significant effects on feeding patterns. The major part (84 to 98%) of the random variation in feeding patterns of the cows was due to individual differences between cows. It can be concluded that cows develop consistent feeding and drinking patterns over time that are characteristic for each individual cow. Based on this consistency, patterns of feeding and drinking activities have valuable potential for purposes of monitoring and decision making in individual control management systems. Use of a Weibull distribution to describe the population of intervals between meals increased the statistical fit, predicted biologically relevant starting probabilities, and estimated meal criteria that were closer to what has been published by others.

  2. Measures of daily distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using global positioning systems on both cows and calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...

  3. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  4. 33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Person in charge of COW... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  5. 33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Person in charge of COW... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  6. 33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Person in charge of COW... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  7. 33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Person in charge of COW... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  8. Effect on Production of Replacing Dietary Starch With Sucrose in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacing dietary starch with sugar has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. Two sets of 24 Holstein cows averaging 41 kg/d of milk were fed a covariate diet and then blocked by DIM and randomly assigned in two phases to four groups of 6 cows each. Cows were fed experimental diets cont...

  9. Environmental and cow-related factors affect cow locomotion and can cause misclassification in lameness detection systems.

    PubMed

    Van Nuffel, A; Van De Gucht, T; Saeys, W; Sonck, B; Opsomer, G; Vangeyte, J; Mertens, K C; De Ketelaere, B; Van Weyenberg, S

    2016-09-01

    To tackle the high prevalence of lameness, techniques to monitor cow locomotion are being developed in order to detect changes in cows' locomotion due to lameness. Obviously, in such lameness detection systems, alerts should only respond to locomotion changes that are related to lameness. However, other environmental or cow factors can contribute to locomotion changes not related to lameness and hence, might cause false alerts. In this study the effects of wet surfaces, dark environment, age, production level, lactation and gestation stage on cow locomotion were investigated. Data was collected at Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research research farm (Melle, Belgium) during a 5-month period. The gait variables of 30 non-lame and healthy Holstein cows were automatically measured every day. In dark environments and on wet walking surfaces cows took shorter, more asymmetrical strides with less step overlap. In general, older cows had a more asymmetrical gait and they walked slower with more abduction. Lactation stage or gestation stage also showed significant association with asymmetrical and shorter gait and less step overlap probably due to the heavy calf in the uterus. Next, two lameness detection algorithms were developed to investigate the added value of environmental and cow data into detection models. One algorithm solely used locomotion variables and a second algorithm used the same locomotion variables and additional environmental and cow data. In the latter algorithm only age and lactation stage together with the locomotion variables were withheld during model building. When comparing the sensitivity for the detection of non-lame cows, sensitivity increased by 10% when the cow data was added in the algorithm (sensitivity was 70% and 80% for the first and second algorithm, respectively). Hence, the number of false alerts for lame cows that were actually non-lame, decreased. This pilot study shows that using knowledge on influencing factors on cow

  10. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  11. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  12. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  13. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  14. 13 CFR 120.830 - Reports a CDC must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports a CDC must submit. 120.830... Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.830 Reports a CDC must submit. A CDC must submit the following reports to SBA: (a) An annual report within one...

  15. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.13 When must IRPs be submitted? (a) Submitting the initial IRP. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  16. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  17. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  18. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  19. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  20. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.12 How must IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  1. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  2. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  3. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  4. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  5. 48 CFR 32.1109 - EFT information submitted by offerors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFT information submitted... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1109 EFT information submitted by offerors. If offerors are required to submit EFT information prior to award,...

  6. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  7. 33 CFR 160.212 - When to submit an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When to submit an NOA. 160.212... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.212 When to submit an NOA. (a) Submission of NOA. (1) Except... and operating solely between ports or places in the continental United States, must submit an...

  8. 33 CFR 160.212 - When to submit an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When to submit an NOA. 160.212... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.212 When to submit an NOA. (a) Submission of NOA. (1) Except... and operating solely between ports or places in the continental United States, must submit an...

  9. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  10. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  11. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  12. 33 CFR 160.210 - Methods for submitting an NOA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods for submitting an NOA... Conditions, and Certain Dangerous Cargos § 160.210 Methods for submitting an NOA. (a) Submission to the..., vessels must submit NOA information required by § 160.206 (entries 1 through 9 in Table 160.206) to...

  13. 21 CFR 526.464a - Cloxacillin benzathine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bovine mastitis in nonlactating cows due to S. agalactiae and S. aureus. (3) Limitations. For use in dry... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae including penicillin resistant strains in dairy cows...

  14. 21 CFR 526.464a - Cloxacillin benzathine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. Treatment and prophylaxis of bovine mastitis in nonlactating cows due to S. agalactiae and S. aureus. (3) Limitations. For use in dry cows only. Not to be used within 4 weeks (28 days)...

  15. 21 CFR 526.464a - Cloxacillin benzathine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bovine mastitis in nonlactating cows due to S. agalactiae and S. aureus. (3) Limitations. For use in dry... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae including penicillin resistant strains in dairy cows...

  16. 21 CFR 526.464a - Cloxacillin benzathine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bovine mastitis in nonlactating cows due to S. agalactiae and S. aureus. (3) Limitations. For use in dry... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae including penicillin resistant strains in dairy cows...

  17. Risk factors for dirty dairy cows in Norwegian freestall systems.

    PubMed

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2010-11-01

    Cow cleanliness is important for ensuring hygienic milk production and the well-being of dairy cows. The aim of this cross-sectional field study was to describe cow cleanliness in freestall-housed dairy herds and to examine risk factors related to thigh cleanliness. Cow cleanliness (n=2,335), management-related variables (e.g., ventilation and use of sawdust-bedded stalls), and housing-related variables (e.g., freestall design and number of cows per stall) were recorded in 232 Norwegian freestall-housed dairy herds. Cleanliness was scored on a 4-point scale ranging from clean (1) to very dirty (4). The cows were relatively clean on the udder and belly, dirtier on thigh and the rear part of the body, and dirtiest on the legs, with cleanliness scores (mean ± SD) of 1.64±0.62, 1.62±0.65, 2.02±0.75, 1.77±0.58, and 2.30±0.59, respectively. With dirty thighs as the response variable, several variables were tested in a logistic regression mixed model and with repeated measurements within herd and cow. A high number of cows per freestall [odds ratio (OR)=3.45], no use of sawdust as bedding (OR=3.24) versus use of sawdust, and a low-positioned (<0.85 m above stall floor) upper head rail "enclosing" the front of the stall (OR=1.42 to 2.13) versus a position >0.85 m were all risk factors for dirty thighs on the cows. Furthermore, liquid manure (score 2) versus more consistent manure (score 1; OR=1.66) and less tame cows (score 2) versus tame cows (score 1) were associated with an increased risk of dirty thighs (OR=1.24). The cleanest cows were associated with indoor temperatures in the range from 10 to 15°C. For each 10-percentage-unit increase in relative air humidity, the risk of dirty thighs increased (OR=1.32). Freestalls with a construction hindering normal lying, rising, and standing movements should be avoided. Furthermore, focus is needed on indoor climate and manure consistency to obtain cows with clean thighs.

  18. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels.

  19. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submit updates? 1271.21 Section 1271.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and... update your establishment registration annually in December, except as required by § 1271.26. You...

  20. How to submit a nail specimen.

    PubMed

    Reinig, Erica; Rich, Phoebe; Thompson, Curtis T

    2015-04-01

    The scarcity of specific submission protocols for nail unit biopsies presents many challenges for appropriate specimen processing. Many nail biopsies are received fragmented or without orientation, often resulting in less-than-ideal tissue embedding and poor histologic sections, which are difficult to interpret. Methods are described for proper nail matrix/bed biopsy and plate submission that incorporate aspects of previous submission protocols and include inking the biopsy specimen along with submitting the tissue on a drawing of the nail. Also described is a technique for maintaining adherence of nail plate to glass slides, a chronic challenge in the laboratory.

  1. Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows.

    PubMed

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; den Uijl, I E M; van Schaik, G; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Keurentjes, J M; Lam, T J G M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This study evaluated selective DCT in 1,657 cows with low somatic cell count (SCC) at the last milk recording before drying off in 97 Dutch dairy herds. Low SCC was defined as <150,000 cells/mL for primiparous and <250,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows. A split-udder design was used in which 2 quarters of each cow were treated with dry cow antibiotics and the other 2 quarters remained as untreated controls. The effect of DCT on clinical mastitis (CM), bacteriological status, SCC, and antibiotic use were determined at the quarter level using logistic regression and chi-squared tests. The incidence rate of CM was found to be 1.7 times (95% confidence interval = 1.4-2.1) higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics as compared with quarters dried off with antibiotics. Streptococcus uberis was the predominant organism causing CM in both groups. Somatic cell count at calving and 14 d in milk was significantly higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics (772,000 and 46,000 cells/mL, respectively) as compared with the quarters dried off with antibiotics (578,000 and 30,000 cells/mL, respectively). Quarters with an elevated SCC at drying off and quarters with a positive culture for major pathogens at drying off had a higher risk for an SCC above 200,000 cells/mL at 14 d in milk as compared with quarters with a low SCC at drying off and quarters with a negative culture for major pathogens at drying off. For quarters that were culture-positive for major pathogens at drying off, a trend for a higher risk on CM was also found. Selective DCT, not using DCT in cows that had a low SCC at the last milk recording before drying off, significantly increased the incidence rate of CM and

  2. [Children who are allergic to cow's milk. Nutritional treatment].

    PubMed

    Casado Dones, M José; Cruz Martín, Rosa M; Moreno González, Cristina; Oya Luis, Isabel; Martin Rodríguez, María

    2008-09-01

    An allergy or intolerance to cow's milk protein (APLV-IPLV) is the most frequent food allergy among early childhood in our environment, related to genetic and environmental factors. This allergy tends to appear during the first few months of life, after the introduction of cow's milk protein in a child's diet and it manifests itself with symptoms which depend on foreign matter being introduced (immunological or otherwise). A diagnosis is made by means of the patient's case history and is completed by laboratory tests. Treatment consists of excluding cow's milk protein from the child's diet. Formulas derived from cow's milk are substituted by a hydrolyzed formula or one based on soybean. The prognosis is good: patients respond to this diet which does not include cow's milk protein and the majority of patients succeed in forming tolerance for cow's milk protein. A nurse's role is fundamental in educating parents and later on the child in order to achieve following a diet which completely eliminates cow's milk protein (PLV).

  3. Induction of parturition in dairy cows with dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Peters, A R; Poole, D A

    Sixty Holstein cows were paired by parity and sire, and one of each pair was allocated at random to treatment or control; 17 cows were injected with 7.5 mg/100 kg dexamethasone trioxa undecanoate 14 days before the predicted date of calving, 13 cows received the same dose five days before term and 30 cows were left untreated. The treatment significantly advanced parturition and 29 of the 30 induced cows calved within 72 hours of the injection. Induction at day 14 before term was safe for calf and dam, the calves were 3.2 kg lighter than control calves and there was a high incidence of retained placenta. Treatment for this condition resulted in increased veterinary costs of 14.50 pounds per cow exclusive of dexamethasone treatment. Treatment at this stage was also associated with low pregnancy rates in the next breeding season. Calves born after induction at five days before term were not significantly lighter than calves from control cows, the problem of retained placenta was less marked and there were no subsequent effects on fertility. There were no significant effects of induction on milk yield or milk quality up to 200 days of lactation.

  4. Effect of relocation on locomotion and cleanliness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Crafton O; Pence, Kristen J; Hurt, Amanda M; Becvar, Ondrej; Knowlton, Katharine F; McGilliard, Michael L; Gwazdauskas, Francis C

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect that relocation to a new free stall barn had on locomotion and cleanliness of two breeds of dairy cows. The original facility before relocation had cows housed in an 8-row free stall barn. Cows were allocated in a new 4-row free stall facility: cows of two breeds (n=22 Holsteins and 22 Jerseys) were intermixed in the northwest section. Locomotion (scale 1-5) and cleanliness were scored (scale 1-4). Holsteins and Jerseys had no difference in locomotion score throughout 12 weeks following relocation. A lactation number by date interaction showed cows in third and greater lactations had significantly higher locomotion scores (more lameness) by day 86. Locomotion scores increased across breeds during the 86-d observation period, suggesting cows became lamer. Jerseys had cleaner lower legs than Holsteins (2.9+/-0.1 v. 3.5+/-0.1, respectively). Lactation number affected lower leg cleanliness, with scores decreasing as lactation number increased (3.4 v. 3.3 v. 2.9+/-0.10 for first, second and third and greater lactations, respectively; P<0.01). All cows were cleaner (lower scores) after relocation, suggesting that the new facility improved hygiene.

  5. Associations between individual cow factors and milk-protein production.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Martin, S W; Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; Gibson, J P; Scott, H M; Kelton, D F

    1998-02-06

    Associations between stage of lactation, cow characteristics, and protein production were evaluated using data from a 2-year period on 75 Ontario, 5 Alberta, and 3 Nova Scotia dairy farms. Individual-cow protein production was defined by 305-day protein yield and by the estimated breeding value for protein yield. Lactation curves for average daily protein yield were computed by parity, breed, and season of calving. Mean protein yield was highest in early lactation. However, there was no pronounced peak in daily protein yield. Parity was positively associated with 305-day protein yield and negatively associated with the estimated breeding values for protein yield. First-calf heifers had lower protein yields in early lactation and a slower rate of decline in protein yield in late lactation, as compared to later parity cows. Holstein cows had higher unadjusted protein yields and lower protein yields after adjusting for milk yield than other breeds. Holstein cows had significantly higher protein yields early in lactation compared to other breeds, but the rate of decline in protein production in late lactation was also greater. Season was associated with 305-day protein yield; the highest protein yields occurred in cows calving in the fall and winter months, but these cows had the greatest rate of decline in protein production in late lactation.

  6. Differences in CLA isomer distribution of cow's milk lipids.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Jana; Collomb, Marius; Möckel, Peter; Sieber, Robert; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    The uniqueness of ruminant milk lipids is based on their high concentration of CLA. Maximal CLA concentrations in milk lipids require optimal conditions of ruminal fermentation and substrate availability, conditions like those present in pasture-fed cows. Our previous work showed that farm management (indoor feeding vs. pasture feeding) markedly influenced the CLA concentration. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the farm management system as dependent on different locations. Milk samples from different locations (Thuringia and the Alps, representing diverse altitudes) were collected during the summer months and analyzed for FA profile and CLA isomer distribution. The proportion of PUFA and total CLA in milk fat was significantly lower in milk from indoor cows compared with the pasture cows in the Alps. The trans-11 18:1 in milk fat of Alpine cows was elevated, in contrast to lower values for trans-10 18:1. Milk from cows grazing pasture in the Alps was higher in EPA and lower in arachidonic acid than milk from indoor-fed cows. The proportion of cis,trans/trans,cis isomers of CLA was 10 times higher from the indoor cows than from the Alpine cows. In addition to the major isomer cis-9,trans-11, this difference also occurred for the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, which represented more than a fourth of the total CLA present in milk fat. This is the first report showing a special isomer distribution in the milk fat of cows living under very natural conditions. We hypothesize that the CLA isomer trans-11,cis-13 is formed in large quantity as a result of grazing mountain pasture, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid.

  7. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  8. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9 20 h) or the night (21 8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5±2.9 during the day and 70.1±4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes

  9. [Ultrasonographic finding and treatment of a cow with pyelonephrosis].

    PubMed

    Lesser, M; Krüger, S; Nuss, K; Sydler, T; Braun, U

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonography of a six-year-old Simmental cow revealed an abscess like structure, approximately 15 cm in diameter, in place of the right kidney. The cow had a history of colic for 4 days and was referred to our clinic with a tentative diagnosis of caecal dilatation. The cow voided dark opaque urine with white floccules. Laboratory examination yielded increased haematocrit, leukocytosis with left shift, hyperbilirubinaemia and azotaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed, the caecum emptied surgically and the pus-filled structure at the site of the right kidney removed. A diagnosis of pyonephrosis was made after pathological examination of the pus-filled structure.

  10. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-04-05

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations.

  11. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  12. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (P<0.001), timing of calving (P<0.001) relative to start of breeding, history of abnormal repeat intervals (P<0.001) and length of post partum interval (P<0.001) were each associated with lower six-week pregnancy rates. Timing of calving (P<0.001) and history of abnormal repeat intervals (P<0.001) were associated with higher not-in-calf rates. Herd size and cow parity were not associated (P>0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds.

  13. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    PubMed

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  14. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  15. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  16. Culling of dairy cows. Part I. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T

    1999-07-20

    The effects of 15 diseases on time until culling were studied in 39,727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved during 1993 and were followed until the next calving or culling. The diseases studied were: dystocia, milk fever, retained placenta, displacement of the abomasum, metritis, non-parturient paresis, ketosis, rumen disorders, acute mastitis, hypomagnesemia, lameness, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, anestrus, ovarian cysts, and teat injuries. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed and diseases were modeled as time-dependent covariates. Different stages of lactation when culling can occur were also considered. Parity, calving season and herd were included as covariates in every model. Parity had a significant effect on culling, the risk of culling being four times higher for a cow in her sixth or higher parity than for a first parity cow. The effects of diseases varied according to when the diseases occurred and when culling occurred. Mastitis, teat injuries and lameness had a significant effect on culling throughout the whole lactation. Anestrus and ovarian cysts had a protective effect against culling at the time when they were diagnosed. In general, diseases affected culling decisions mostly at the time of their occurrence. The effect seemed to decrease with time from the diagnosis of the disease. However, milk fever, dystocia and metritis also had a significant effect on culling at the end of the lactation.

  17. The influence of genetic selection and feed system on the reproductive performance of spring-calving dairy cows within future pasture-based production systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2009-10-01

    Three genetic groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were established from within the Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland) dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of the Irish national average-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNA, high-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNZ, high-genetic-merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Genetic merit in this study was based on the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index. Animals from within each genetic group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible post-European Union-milk-quota pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark (MP) pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genetic group, FS, and the interaction between genetic group and FS on reproductive performance, body weight, body condition score, and blood metabolite concentrations were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genetic groups and FS. Odds ratios were used in the analysis of binary fertility traits, and survival analysis was used in the analysis of survival after first calving. When treatment means were compared, the HighNA and HighNZ genotypes (with greater genetic merit for fertility performance) had greater first-service pregnancy rates and had a greater proportion of cows pregnant after 42 d of the breeding season than the LowNA group. Both HighNA and HighNZ genotypes were submitted for artificial insemination earlier in the breeding season and had greater survival than the LowNA genotype. There was no significant FS or genotype by FS interactions for any of the reproductive

  18. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    PubMed

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA.

  19. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  20. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  1. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  2. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  3. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  4. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    PubMed

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  5. 141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows on an agricultural lease in the foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  7. Hypomagnesemia among cows in a confinement-housed dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Donovan, G Arthur; Steenholdt, Christian; McGehee, Kerry; Lundquist, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Between January and March 2002, 55 cows in a 1,200-cow commercial dairy herd in south Florida died. Most of the cows that were found dead did not have any clinical signs of disease prior to death. Because of a history of a feed change, a bloom of blue-green algae in cow cooling ponds, and initial necropsy findings of moderate enteritis, the preliminary differential diagnosis included clostridial enteritis, blue-green algae toxicosis, and mycotoxicosis. Rumen acidosis, hypomagnesemia, and heavy metal toxicosis were included as secondary considerations. On the basis of physical examination and gross necropsy findings, results of clinicopathol ogic testing, and results of feed and water analyses, a diagnosis of hypomagnesemia was made. Control procedures that were implemented included changing the forage source and increasing the magnesium concentration in the diet.

  8. Immobilization of phosphorus in cow manure during hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lichun; Tan, Furong; Wu, Bo; He, Mingxiong; Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Qichun; Zhang, Min

    2015-07-01

    The surplus of manure phosphorus (P) with increasing livestock production might pose a risk of P loss to the environment due to the high mobility of P in manure. Thus, there is an increasing need to mitigate P loss from manure. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) on the immobilization of P in cow manure. The results demonstrated that the P content in cow manure was increased substantially by ∼20% after HTC, while the water-extractable P (WEP) and Mehlich-3-extractable P (MEP) in manure was reduced significantly by >80% and 50%, respectively. The decrease in P solubility might result from the increased apatite P (increased by >85%) and decreased soluble Ca (decreased by ∼50%) after HTC. These results suggested that HTC could be an efficient strategy to immobilize P in cow manure, thereby potentially mitigating the P loss problem from cow manure.

  9. Sacred Cows That Should Be Put to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artley, A. Sterl

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with unquestioned teaching practices and theories ("sacred cows") in the field of reading. Topics discussed include phonics, pronunciation, oral reading, teacher accountability and behavioral objectives, individualized reading, and the open classroom. (KS)

  10. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Webster defines history as "a chronological record of significant events." In wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step in establishing a diagnosis. You can greatly assist the diagnostic process by providing a thorough history with specimens yo submit. This information is also of value in understanding the natural history of disease outbreaks, and is difficult if not impossible to obtain after the event has occurred. Detailed field observations during the course of a die-off and investigation of significant events preceding it also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. Remember, the most helpful information is that which obtained at the time of the event by a sensitive and aware observer.

  11. The metabolism of four sulphonamides in cows

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Poul

    1973-01-01

    1. The metabolism of sulphanilamide, sulphadimidine (4,6-dimethyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine), sulphamethoxazole (5-methyl-3-sulphanilamidoisoxazole) and sulphadoxine (5,6-dimethoxy-4-sulphanilamidopyrimidine) given by intravenous injection has been examined in cows. 2. The sulphonamides were present mainly as unchanged drugs in blood samples collected 2h after administration. 3. The sulphonamides were excreted in the milk partly as unchanged drugs and partly as conjugated metabolites whereas only small amounts were excreted as the N4-acetyl derivatives. 4. The unchanged drug and the N4-acetyl derivative were the major constituents in urine samples after administration of sulphanilamide, sulphamethoxazole and sulphadoxine. 5. Besides the unchanged drug, the N4-acetyl derivative and the conjugated metabolites, three further metabolites of sulphadimidine were isolated from urine samples and identified. They were 5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine, 4-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-2-sulphanilamidopyrimidine and sulphaguanidine. PMID:4786525

  12. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p < 0.01) and handling facility (p < 0.0001) and handling facility by temperament score interaction (p < 0.001), breeding season pregnancy rate was lower in excited versus calm cows [88.6% (798/901) vs 94.1% (607/645); p < 0.001]. Cows with an excitable temperament took 24 more days to become pregnant compared to calm cows (median days to pregnancy, 35 vs 59 days; p < 0.0001). In Experiment 2, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p < 0.05), pregnancy loss was higher in excited versus calm cows [5.5% (36/651) vs 3.2% (20/623), p < 0.0001]. In conclusion, beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring

  13. Weekly bull exchange shortens postpartum anestrus in suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, V; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-05-01

    The duration of anestrus in cattle was usually shortened when cows were exposed to bulls. The objective of the present experiment was to determine if weekly bull exchange accelerated the resumption of cyclicity in postpartum suckled beef cows. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of postpartum, anestrous, suckled beef cows (extensively managed) to weekly exchange of bulls, accelerates the resumption of cyclicity, compared to continuous exposure to the same bulls. Ninety-one multiparous suckled Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows, <60d postpartum, were assigned to two homogeneous groups. Beginning on December 1st (late spring), the control group (C, n=45) remained with one pair of bulls throughout the breeding period (7 weeks), whereas in the "exchanged" (E, n=46) group two pairs of bulls were exchanged weekly. Based on weekly ultrasonographic examinations of all cows, none had a CL at the start of the experiment and for 2 weeks after the start of bull exposure. However, the accumulated frequency of cows with a CL was greater in group E than in group C cows on week 4 (P=0.024), as well as on weeks 5-7 (P<0.001) after the start of bull exposure. Furthermore, in group E versus group C, there was a higher pregnancy rate 30d after the end of bull exposure (26 of 46, 56.2% vs. 16 of 45, 35.6%; P=0.045). In conclusion, weekly exchange of two pairs of bulls shortened postpartum anestrus in suckled multiparous cows, compared to continuous exposure to a single pair of bulls.

  14. An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe sand abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of sand 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ≤ −110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed. PMID:17987969

  15. Brown midrib sorghum silage for midlactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grant, R J; Haddad, S G; Moore, K J; Pedersen, J F

    1995-09-01

    Brown midrib sorghum silage was compared with alfalfa, corn, and normal sorghum silages for its effect on performance, ruminal metabolism, and digestive kinetics of Holstein dairy cows in midlactation. Twelve cows averaging 90 +/- 5 DIM were assigned to one of four diets in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Additionally, 3 ruminally fistulated cows (95 +/- 20 DIM) were assigned to the same diets in a 3 x 4 Youden square for measurement of ruminal characteristics. Diets were fed as isonitrogenous TMR that contained 65% silage (DM basis). The DMI was greater for the corn and brown midrib sorghum (4% of BW/d) than for the alfalfa and normal sorghum diets (3.4% of BW/d). The brown midrib sorghum supported FCM production that was similar to that of cows on corn and alfalfa diets (25.8 kg/d), but cows fed normal sorghum produced less milk and fewer milk components. Source of silage had no effect on eating time, but rumination was least for the alfalfa diet. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations were similar for all diets. Total VFA concentrations were greatest for the corn and brown midrib sorghum diets. The brown midrib sorghum had greater in situ extent of ruminal NDF digestion than did the normal sorghum, which agreed with in vitro data. The brown midrib sorghum used in this experiment supported FCM production similar to the corn and alfalfa silages commonly fed to dairy cows in midlactation.

  16. Comparison of fertility following use of one versus two intravaginal progesterone inserts in dairy cows without a CL during a synchronization protocol before timed AI or timed embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Sanches, C P; Guida, T G; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of increased progesterone (P4) during preovulatory follicle growth during timed AI (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET) protocols. Lactating dairy cows with no CL and low circulating P4 (≤1.0 ng/mL) were submitted to a protocol using one or two intravaginal P4 implants (controlled intravaginal releasing device [CIDRs]), and were bred to TAI or TET. The low P4 cows for this experiment were identified on nine farms, four utilized TAI (n = 326 of 1160 cows examined), and five utilized TET (n = 445 of 1396). All cows were synchronized by insertion of P4 implant(s) (CIDR[s]) at start of protocol (Day -11) and simultaneous treatment with 2 mg of E2-benzoate. After 7 days, cows were treated with PGF (Day -4) and 2 days later treated with 1.0-mg E2-cypionate and CIDR(s) were removed (Day -2). Cows received TAI on Day 0 or TET on Day 7. Cows were randomly assigned to receive either one or two CIDRs on Day -11 until Day -2 (1CIDR vs. 2CIDR). Presence of CL was determined by ultrasound on Day -11 and Day 7 after protocol (to determine ovulation to protocol), P4 concentrations were determined on a subset of cows (Day -11, Day -4, Day 7), and ovulatory follicle diameter was evaluated on Day 0. Pregnancy success (P/AI or P/ET) was evaluated on Days 32 and 60. The 2CIDR treatment increased circulating P4 by Day -4 (1.77 ± 0.23 vs. 2.18 ± 0.24 ng/mL) but had no effect on ovulation at the end of protocol (83.6 vs. 82.6%) or ovulatory follicle diameter (15.6 ± 0.3 vs. 15.3 ± 0.3 mm). If only cows that ovulated to the protocol were included, 1CIDR tended to have lower P/AI than 2CIDR by Day 32 (42.8 vs. 52.6%; P = 0.10) and Day 60 (37.7 vs. 48.1%; P = 0.08) but there was no effect on pregnancy loss. There was an interaction (P = 0.05) between ovulatory follicle diameter and CIDR treatment on P/AI (Day 60). In cows ovulating larger follicles (≥14 mm), 2CIDR treatment increased P/AI compared with 1CIDR (53.3 vs. 34

  17. The effect of sire selection on cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse and favorable cow survival environments.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Goodling, R C; Rhode, S P

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent that genetic selection can help reduce dairy cow mortality and early lactation culling in adverse cow survival environments. Two datasets were constructed. The first contained 100,911 mortality records and 171,178 sixty-day culling records from 1467 herds. Cows that left the herd (culled or died) from 21 days prior to a due date through 60 days in milk were considered a 60-day cull. Cows were classified as belonging to herds with adverse cow survival environments (≥ 4.4% mortality rate and ≥ 7.1% 60-day cull rate) or favorable cow survival environments (<4.4% mortality rate and <7.1% 60-day cull rate). The second dataset included 20,438 mortality records and 34,942 sixty-day culling records from 314 herds with a known herd management system. Cows from both datasets were stratified into quartiles based on their sire's predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for productive life and other traits. Cows in the first dataset were also stratified into high (>50th percentile) and low (≤ 50th percentile) groups based on their sire's PTA for daughter calving ease and daughter stillbirth rates. Mortality and 60-day culling in the first dataset were evaluated with logistic regression models with the independent effects of sire PTA quartile, cow survival environment (adverse or favorable), the interaction of sire PTA quartile with cow survival environment, lactation number, age within lactation number, and herd-calving-cluster. The second dataset was analyzed in the same manner, but with cow survival environment replaced by herd management system. The estimated proportion of lactations that ended in death declined from 9.0% to 6.8% and 60-day culling incidence from 7.6% to 4.9% as sire productive life PTA went from the lowest to highest quartile in adverse cow survival environments. The corresponding reduction in mortality (0.7%) and 60-day culling (0.9%) were also significant in favorable cow survival environments

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 282 - Submitting a Claim

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... received within 6 years after the death of the deceased resident. (v) Claims under 37 U.S.C. 554(h) must be... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting a Claim C Appendix C to Part 282.... 282, App. C Appendix C to Part 282—Submitting a Claim (a) Who May Submit a Claim. Any...

  19. 15 CFR 270.351 - Protection of voluntarily submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Protection of voluntarily submitted information. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a Team, NIST, any investigation participant, and any agency receiving information from a Team, NIST, or any...

  20. 15 CFR 270.351 - Protection of voluntarily submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Protection of voluntarily submitted information. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a Team, NIST, any investigation participant, and any agency receiving information from a Team, NIST, or any...

  1. 15 CFR 270.351 - Protection of voluntarily submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Protection of voluntarily submitted information. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a Team, NIST, any investigation participant, and any agency receiving information from a Team, NIST, or any...

  2. 15 CFR 270.351 - Protection of voluntarily submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Protection of voluntarily submitted information. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a Team, NIST, any investigation participant, and any agency receiving information from a Team, NIST, or any...

  3. 49 CFR 1332.3 - Manner of submitting contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS FILING CONTRACTS FOR... agreement(s) will be submitted by facsimile transmission or messenger service where feasible, and,...

  4. 15 CFR 270.351 - Protection of voluntarily submitted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Protection of voluntarily submitted information. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a Team, NIST, any investigation participant, and any agency receiving information from a Team, NIST, or any...

  5. Cow hair allergen (Bos d 2) content in house dust: correlation with sensitization in farmers with cow hair asthma.

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1997-03-01

    Farmers (N = 45) suffering from occupational cow hair asthma were visited at home to evaluate the concentration of cow hair major allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust and to correlate these results with measures of avoidance, degree of sensitization, clinical symptoms, and lung function. Bos d 2 was determined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. In dust of tiles and linoleum Bos d 2 was difficult to detect, whereas dust samples of carpets often contained high concentrations of the allergen (50-520 micrograms/g fine dust). Bos d 2 levels were significantly higher when barn and living quarters were in the same building. Concentrations of cow hair-specific IgE were correlated with concentrations of Bos d 2 in house dust samples. A concentration of 20-29 micrograms Bos d 2 per gram of house dust could be established as threshold value for relevant IgE sensitization. Avoiding the barn is not a sufficient avoidance measure for cow hair asthmatics if the partner continues cattle farming. Cessation of cattle farming and avoiding the former barn results in a marked reduction in Bos d 2 concentration in living quarters, a decreased degree of sensitization, and a reduced symptom score. Farmers with cow hair asthma should avoid cattle and thoroughly clean all carpets in the living quarters to avoid continuous cow allergen exposure.

  6. Summary of the BIOMOVS A4 scenario: Testing models of the air-pasture-cow milk pathway using Chernobyl fallout data

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Hoffman, F.O.; Koehler, H.

    1996-08-01

    A unique opportunity to test dose assessment models arose after the Chernobyl reactor accident. During the passage of the contaminated plume, concentrations of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in air, pasture, and cow`s milk were collected at various sites in the northern hemisphere. Afterwards, contaminated pasture and milk samples were analyzed over time. Under the auspices of the Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS), data from 13 sites for {sup 131}I and 10 sites for {sup 137}Cs were used to test model predictions for the air-pasture-cow milk pathway. Calculations were submitted for 23 models, 10 of which were quasi-steady state. The others were time-dependent. Daily predictions and predictions of time-integrated concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in pasture grass and milk for six months post-accident were calculated and compared with observed data. Testing against data from several locations over time for several steps in the air-to-milk pathway resulted in a better understanding of important processes and how they should be modeled. This model testing exercise showed both the strengths and weaknesses of the models and revealed the importance of testing all parts of dose assessment models whenever possible. 19 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Chewing activity, saliva production, and ruminal pH of primiparous and multiparous lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, M; Beauchemin, K A; Christensen, D A

    2002-05-01

    Four multiparous (MP) and four primiparous (PP) ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a double 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the chewing behavior, saliva production, and ruminal pH of cows in the first or subsequent lactation. Cows were fed one of four diets; three total mixed rations containing 40, 50, or 60% silage (DM basis), and a separate ingredient diet containing 50% concentrate. Dry matter intake was higher for MP cows than for PP cows (19.2 vs. 17.1 kg/d) but not as a percentage of body weight (2.97 +/- 0.06%). Multiparous cows spent more time eating than PP cows (260 vs. 213 min/d, respectively), even after adjustment for dry matter intake (13.8 vs. 12.4 min/kg DM). Multiparous cows also spent more time ruminating per day than PP cows (560 vs. 508 min/d, respectively). Eating salivation rate was not affected by parity, but resting salivation rate was higher for MP cows than for PP. Although MP cows spent more time chewing than PP cows, total daily saliva production was only numerically higher for MP cows because the increase in saliva produced during chewing was accompanied by a decrease in saliva produced during resting. Furthermore, pH profiles tended to be lower for MP cows than for PP cows. Multiparous cows may have a greater risk of incurring acidosis than PP cows because increased salivary secretion associated with increased chewing may not sufficiently compensate the increment of fermentation acids produced in the rumen due to high feed intake.

  8. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans.

  9. Supplementation of prepartum dairy cows with β-carotene.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R C; Guerreiro, B M; Morais Junior, N N; Araujo, R L; Pereira, R A N; Pereira, M N

    2015-09-01

    The prepartum supplementation of dairy cows with β-carotene was evaluated. Cows were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to a treatment: β-carotene (1.2 g/cow per d) or control (no supplementation). The same total mixed ration batch was offered to all cows, and β-carotene was top dressed to individual cows once per day. The data set contained 283 Holsteins that received a treatment for >14 d (29.1±6.9 d). Frequency distributions were analyzed with the GENMOD procedure of SAS using logistic regression for binomial data. Continuous variables were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Within parity, nonparametric estimates of the survivor function for reproductive variables were computed using the product-limit method of the Kaplan-Meier method with the LIFETEST procedure of SAS. Plasma β-carotene concentration before supplementation was similar between supplemented and nonsupplemented cows (2.99µg/mL) and peaked at 3.26±0.175µg/mL on d -15±2.4 precalving for supplemented cows (2.62±0.168µg/mL for control). Colostrum density, milk yield, and milk composition were similar between treatments. β-Carotene tended to increase milk protein content from 2.90 to 2.96% and to decrease the proportion of primiparous cows with a milk fat to protein ratio >1.5 from 22.6 to 6.4%. The proportion of primiparous and multiparous cows with difficult calving, metritis, progesterone >1 ng/mL at 21 d and at 42 d in lactation, % conception at first service, and % pregnancy at 90 and 150 d in lactation were similar between treatments. A trend for decreased incidence of somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL was present in multiparous cows supplemented with β-carotene (38.9% vs. 28.1%). β-Carotene was associated with a reduction in the proportion of multiparous cows with retained placenta 12 h postpartum from 29.9 to 21.7%; time of placenta release was 392 min (340 to 440) for β-carotene and 490 min (395 to 540) for control (median and 95% confidence

  10. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-06-14

    SummaryIn wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step toward establishing a diagnosis and aiding agencies with management considerations. The diagnostic process and overall investigation is often greatly expedited by a chronological record accompanying specimens submitted for laboratory evaluation. Knowing where and when the outbreak is taking place, what the environmental conditions and species involved are, and clinical signs in sick animals, along with necropsy findings and diagnostic test results are important for understanding the natural history or epizootiology of disease outbreaks. It becomes increasingly difficult to retrospectively obtain all of the pertinent history as time passes. The most helpful information is that which is obtained at the time of the die-off event by perceptive field biologists and other observers. Significant events preceding morbidity and/or mortality also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. In this chapter, readers will find information regarding what type of information should be recorded, how it should be recorded and why it is relevant to a disease investigation. A thoughtful approach in providing as much information as possible surrounding the situation including about host species and the biotic and abiotic environment, greatly aids in determining the most likely causative agent(s).

  11. Serum selenium and liposoluble vitamins in Japanese Black cows that had stillborn calves

    PubMed Central

    UEMATSU, Mizuho; KITAHARA, Go; SAMESHIMA, Hiroshi; OSAWA, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth and dystocia are major factors that negatively affect beef production. We sought to clarify serum selenium and liposoluble vitamin levels in Japanese Black cows that gave birth to stillborn calves (stillbirth cows). Blood samples were collected from 103 stillbirth cows and 95 cows that gave birth to healthy calves (control cows). Serum levels of selenium (45.8 ± 16.0 ng/ml) and vitamin A (73.0 ± 24.8 IU/dl) in stillbirth cows were lower (P<0.05) than those in control cows (52.2 ± 8.9 ng/ml and 93.3 ± 14.8 IU/dl, respectively). Our findings suggest that appropriate serum selenium and vitamin A levels are important for calving cows. PMID:27181084

  12. 24 CFR 598.300 - Procedure for submitting a nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Procedure for submitting a nomination. 598.300 Section 598.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... DESIGNATIONS Designation Process § 598.300 Procedure for submitting a nomination. (a) Establishment...

  13. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... Department's evaluation of all claims for reimbursement submitted by a licensee. (c) Each submitted claim... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  14. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 765.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM... Department's evaluation of all claims for reimbursement submitted by a licensee. (c) Each submitted claim... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  15. 30 CFR 210.101 - Who must submit production reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must submit production reports? 210.101 Section 210.101 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 210.101 Who must submit production reports?...

  16. 46 CFR 110.25-3 - Procedure for submitting plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure for submitting plans. 110.25-3 Section 110.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal § 110.25-3 Procedure for submitting plans. (a) The plans required by §...

  17. 46 CFR 110.25-3 - Procedure for submitting plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedure for submitting plans. 110.25-3 Section 110.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal § 110.25-3 Procedure for submitting plans. (a) The plans required by §...

  18. 7 CFR 3406.21 - Intent to submit a proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Submission of a Teaching or Research Proposal § 3406.21 Intent to submit a proposal. To assist CSREES in... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intent to submit a proposal. 3406.21 Section 3406.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH,...

  19. Learning Disability Documentation in Higher Education: What Are Students Submitting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the supporting documentation submitted by students with learning disability (LD) diagnoses. The participants were 210 students who were enrolled in a college support program for students with disabilities at a private liberal arts college. Findings showed that although most students submitted a psychoeducational evaluation,…

  20. 40 CFR 98.5 - How is the report submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How is the report submitted? 98.5 Section 98.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision § 98.5 How is the report submitted? Each GHG report...

  1. 40 CFR 98.5 - How is the report submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How is the report submitted? 98.5 Section 98.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision § 98.5 How is the report submitted? Each GHG report...

  2. 40 CFR 98.5 - How is the report submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is the report submitted? 98.5 Section 98.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision § 98.5 How is the report submitted? Each GHG report...

  3. 40 CFR 98.5 - How is the report submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the report submitted? 98.5 Section 98.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision § 98.5 How is the report submitted? Each GHG report...

  4. 40 CFR 98.5 - How is the report submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How is the report submitted? 98.5 Section 98.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision § 98.5 How is the report submitted? Each GHG report...

  5. 7 CFR 3405.12 - Intent to submit a proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intent to submit a proposal. 3405.12 Section 3405.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS PROGRAM Submission of a Proposal § 3405.12 Intent to submit...

  6. 15 CFR 711.5 - Numerical precision of submitted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Numerical precision of submitted data... ELECTRONIC FILING OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.5 Numerical precision of submitted data. Numerical... (i.e., parts 712 through 715 of the CWCR) with a precision equal to that which can be...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1605 - Information to be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Altitude Performance Adjustments for New and In-Use Motor Vehicles and Engines § 86.1605 Information to be submitted. (a) Manufacturers shall submit to the Administrator the text of the altitude performance adjustment instructions to be provided to vehicle owners and service establishments. Each set of...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1605 - Information to be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Altitude Performance Adjustments for New and In-Use Motor Vehicles and Engines § 86.1605 Information to be submitted. (a) Manufacturers shall submit to the Administrator the text of the altitude performance adjustment instructions to be provided to vehicle owners and service establishments. Each set of...

  9. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; < 0.001). Efficiency for the smallest cows was greater in the driest year (0.41 ± 0.02) than efficiency of the largest cows in the wettest years (0.37 ± 0.01). The change in efficiency (ΔE) between wet and dry years was 0.18 for the smallest cow size and 0.02 for the largest cow size, and ΔE decreased as cow size increased. This is an indication of the ability of smaller cows to lower maintenance requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large

  10. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and <4.0 for LBC cows during the experiments. During Exp. 1, LBC cows consumed more (P = 0.001) pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but

  11. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Luchterhand, Karen M.; Silva, Paula R. B.; Chebel, Ricardo C.; Endres, Marcia I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score <2 or >4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2–4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts. PMID:27597948

  12. Prepartum nutritional strategy affects reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, F C; LeBlanc, S J; Murphy, M R; Drackley, J K

    2013-09-01

    Negative energy balance during early postpartum is associated with reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. A pooled statistical analysis of 7 studies completed in our group from 1993 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the association between prepartum energy feeding regimen and reproductive performance. The interval from calving to pregnancy (days to pregnancy, DTP) was the dependent variable to assess reproductive performance. Individual data for 408 cows (354 multiparous and 54 primiparous) were included in the analysis. The net energy for lactation (NEL) intake was determined from each cow's average dry matter intake and calculated dietary NEL density. Treatments applied prepartum were classified as either controlled-energy (CE; limited NEL intake to ≤100% of requirement) or high-energy (HE; cows were allowed to consume >100%) diets fed during the far-off (FO) or close-up (CU) dry periods. Cow was the experimental unit. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that days to pregnancy was shorter for CE (median=157 d) than HE (median=167 d) diets during the CU period [hazard ratio (HR)=0.70]. Cows fed HE diets during the last 4 wk prepartum lost more body condition score in the first 6 wk postpartum than those fed CE diets (-0.43 and -0.30, respectively). Cows fed CE diets during the FO period had lower nonesterified fatty acids concentrations in wk 1, 2, and 3 of lactation than cows fed HE diets. Higher nonesterified fatty acids concentration in wk 1 postpartum was associated with a greater probability of disease (n=251; odds ratio=1.18). Cows on the CE regimen during the FO period had greater plasma glucose concentrations during wk 1 and 3 after calving than cows fed the HE regimen. Higher plasma glucose (HG) concentration compared with lower glucose (LG) in wk 3 (HG: n=154; LG: n=206) and wk 4 (HG: n=71; LG: n=254) after calving was associated with shorter days to pregnancy (wk 3: median=151 and 171 d for HG and LG, respectively, and HR=1.3; wk 4

  13. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n = 18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n = 29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 12), second (group H, n = 23; group M, n = 18) and fourth (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 7) postpartum luteal phases. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at the same time. Sixteen cows (group H, n = 9; group M, n = 7) underwent transvaginal luteal biopsy for gene expression analysis of steroidogenic regulatory proteins during the second and fourth cycles. Cows with persistence of the corpus luteum (CL) underwent determination of luteal size, luteal biopsy and serum progesterone measurement once between days 29 and 33, followed by prostaglandin treatment to induce luteolysis. The same procedures were repeated once between days 9 and 13 of the induced cycle. Results The cows in group M had smaller first-cycle CLs than the cows in group H (p = 0.04), but progesterone concentrations did not differ between groups. Luteal size, progesterone concentration and gene expression did not differ between the two groups during the second and fourth cycles. Compared with healthy cows (10%), there was a trend (p = 0.07) toward a higher prevalence of persistent CLs in cows with metritis (33%). Persistent CLs were limited to the first cycle. Persistent CLs and the induced cyclic CLs did not differ with regard to the variables investigated. Conclusions An effect of metritis on luteal activity was apparent in the first postpartum estrous cycle. However, after the first postpartum cycle, no differences occurred

  14. Endogenous and exogenous progesterone influence body temperature in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suthar, V S; Burfeind, O; Bonk, S; Dhami, A J; Heuwieser, W

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of endogenous progesterone (P4) on body temperature comparing lactating, pregnant with lactating, nonpregnant cows, and to study the effect of exogenous P4 administered via a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert on body temperature in lactating dairy cows. Body temperature was measured vaginally and rectally using temperature loggers and a digital thermometer, respectively. In experiment 1, 10 cyclic lactating cows (3 primiparous, 7 multiparous) and 10 lactating, pregnant cows (3 primiparous, 7 multiparous) were included. Vaginal temperatures and serum P4 concentrations were greater in pregnant cows (vaginal: 0.3±0.01°C; P4: 5.5±0.4 ng/mL) compared with nonpregnant cows. In experiment 2, estrous cycles of 14 postpartum healthy, cyclic, lactating cows (10 primiparous, 4 multiparous) were synchronized, and cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments (CIDR-P4 or CIDR-blank). A temperature logger was inserted 1 d after ovulation using a P4-free CIDR (CIDR-blank) and a CIDR containing 1.38g of P4 (CIDR-P4) in the control (n=7) and the P4-treated group (n=7), respectively. On d 3 after P4 treatment, vaginal temperature was 0.3±0.03°C greater compared with that on d 1 and d 5. In experiment 3, 9 cyclic multiparous lactating cows were enrolled 1±1 d after confirmed ovulation and a temperature logger inserted. Two days later, a CIDR-P4 was inserted on top of the CIDR-blank. On d 5±1 and d 7±1, respectively, the CIDR-P4 and CIDR-blank with the temperature logger were removed. During the CIDR-P4 treatment (48h), vaginal temperature was 0.2±0.05°C and 0.1±0.05°C greater than during the pre- and post-treatment periods (48h), respectively. Serum P4 concentration peaked during CIDR-P4 treatment (2.2±0.8 ng/mL) and was greater than during the pre-treatment period (0.2±0.2 ng/mL) for 48h. An increase in vaginal temperature could be due to endogenous and exogenous P4. However, a correlation between

  15. Simulation of MAD Cow Disease Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.; Gołdasz, J.

    Computer simulation of dynamic of BSE disease is presented. Both vertical (to baby) and horizontal (to neighbor) mechanisms of the disease spread are considered. The game takes place on a two-dimensional square lattice Nx×Ny = 1000×1000 with initial population randomly distributed on the net. The disease may be introduced either with the initial population or by a spontaneous development of BSE in an item, at a small frequency. Main results show a critical probability of the BSE transmission above which the disease is present in the population. This value is vulnerable to possible spatial clustering of the population and it also depends on the mechanism responsible for the disease onset, evolution and propagation. A threshold birth rate below which the population is extinct is seen. Above this threshold the population is disease free at equilibrium until another birth rate value is reached when the disease is present in population. For typical model parameters used for the simulation, which may correspond to the mad cow disease, we are close to the BSE-free case.

  16. Chemotherapeutic potential of cow urine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Sharma, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for the treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of a cow with many benefits and without toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activity of cow’s urine (CU) comparable with standard drugs such as ofloxacin, cefpodoxime, and gentamycin, against a vast number of pathogenic bacteria, more so against Gram-positive than negative bacteria. Interestingly antimicrobial activity has also been found against some resistant strains such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial action is enhanced still further by it being an immune-enhancer and bioenhancer of some antibiotic drugs. Antifungal activity was comparable to amphotericin B. CU also has anthelmintic and antineoplastic action. CU has, in addition, antioxidant properties, and it can prevent the damage to DNA caused by the environmental stress. In the management of infectious diseases, CU can be used alone or as an adjunctive to prevent the development of resistance and enhance the effect of standard antibiotics. PMID:26401404

  17. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  18. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-03-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life.

  19. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2007-07-20

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centrifugation, were subjected to PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The prevalence of G. duodenalis infection, ranged from 3% to 64%, with an average prevalence of 27% (144 positive cows out of 541 examined). DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of both Assemblage A and Assemblage E, G. duodenalis. Overall, Assemblage E was present in 25% of all animals tested and Assemblage A was present in 2% of the animals. As a percentage of G. duodenalis isolates, Assemblage E represented 94% and Assemblage A represented 6%. Although, most of the cows were infected with a genotype that is not known to be infectious for humans, adult cows on five farms did harbor varying levels of zoonotic Assemblage A, G. duodenalis. Therefore, although adult cows do not appear to be a significant source of human infectious cysts in the environment, the risk from this age group should not entirely be discounted.

  20. Lameness and foot lesions in Swiss dairy cows: I. Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Becker, J; Steiner, A; Kohler, S; Koller-Bähler, A; Wüthrich, M; Reist, M

    2014-02-01

    Prevalences of foot lesions and lameness were recorded in 1'449 Swiss dairy cows during routine claw-trimming on 78 farms from June 2010 until February 2011. Lameness was present in 14.8 % of cows and on 80.8 % of investigated farms. Highest prevalences were seen for widened white line (80.7 %/100 %), signalling foot lesion (65.6 %/98.7 %), heel-horn erosion (34.2 %/88.5 %), digital dermatitis complex (29.1 %/73.1 %), severe hemorrhages (27.9 %/87.2 %), and Rusterholz' sole ulcers (11.5 %/74.4 %) at cow and herd level, respectively. Lower prevalences were found for subclinical laminitis (5.4 %/47.4 %), chronic laminitis (3.3 %/25.6 %), white line disease (4.7 %/42.3 %), double soles (2.6 %/33.3 %), interdigital hyperplasia (3.1 %/33.3 %), sole ulcers (0.4 %/6.4 %), toe infections caused by faulty claw-trimming (3.9 %/39.7 %) and by injury (0.1 %/2.6 %), deep lacerations (0.4 %/6.4 %), and interdigital phlegmona (0.1 %/1.3 %). Lameness and foot lesions were shown to represent important health problems of dairy cows under the conditions of the typical grass-based production system in Switzerland. Digital dermatitis has developed to the most relevant foot disease with a high impact on welfare of Swiss dairy cows within the past 10 years.

  1. Feeding in relation to suckler cow management and fertility.

    PubMed

    Lowman, B G

    1985-07-27

    Profitable suckled calf production, like any other business, depends on the balance between costs and output (Fig 1). The major costs incurred in suckled calf production are feed costs to the cow. Output is simply the weight of weaned calf sold per cow put to the bull, coupled with planned marketing of good quality, cull cows. To maintain this balance at an optimum level requires correct herd management. This can only be achieved with all cows in the herd being at a similar stage of production--a compact two-month calving period. In the long term, a compact two month calving period can only be maintained with correct management of bulling and first-calved heifers. Day-to-day management decisions must be based on the current condition of the cows in relation to the target condition scores set for the system. Understanding this model allows a simple management system to be implemented and achieve the high levels of fertility and suckled calf output required for a profitable enterprise in today's economic climate.

  2. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  3. Use of monosodium glutamate by-product in cow diet on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Padunglerk, Achira; Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2017-01-01

    Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were monosodium glutamate by-product (MSGB) replacement for soybean meal in concentrate at four levels: MSGB replacement at 0, 20, 40 and 60%, respectively. Pangola hay was given on an ad libitum basis. It was found that total dry matter intake, concentrate intake, pangola hay intake and all apparent digestibilities were not different among treatments. Ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen at 4 h post-feeding was significantly different, in which the 0% treatment had the highest (P < 0.05) while the 20% treatment had the lowest. Milk fat percentage was the highest (P < 0.05) in the 0% treatment. MSGB replacement at 40% and 60% were shown to be the lowest (P < 0.05) feed cost for milk production, and profitability of milk production was the highest (P < 0.05) for the 60% treatment. Based on this experiment, it could be concluded that MSGB replacement for soybean meal at 20-60% in the feed for dairy cows presented no negative effects on their performances. In addition, it could decrease feed cost 2.9-17.3% and increase milk production profit up to 33.3% in the 60% treatment.

  4. 40 CFR 63.2382 - What notifications must I submit and when and what information should be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sampling and analysis procedures and quality assurance procedures. (iii) Descriptions of monitoring devices... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What notifications must I submit and when and what information should be submitted? 63.2382 Section 63.2382 Protection of...

  5. 40 CFR 63.2382 - What notifications must I submit and when and what information should be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sampling and analysis procedures and quality assurance procedures. (iii) Descriptions of monitoring devices... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What notifications must I submit and when and what information should be submitted? 63.2382 Section 63.2382 Protection of...

  6. 40 CFR 63.2382 - What notifications must I submit and when and what information should be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sampling and analysis procedures and quality assurance procedures. (iii) Descriptions of monitoring devices... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What notifications must I submit and when and what information should be submitted? 63.2382 Section 63.2382 Protection of...

  7. Physiological and metabolic responses of gestating Brahaman cows to repeated transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and metabolic responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows into temperament groups of Calm, Intermediate, or Temperamental. Brahman cows (n = 48) were subjected to 2 hours of transport (TRA...

  8. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  9. Granulosa cell gene expression profiling in cows with divergent follicular fluid concentrations of androgens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inefficiencies in reproduction result in significant production costs for beef producers in the United States. In the UNL cow-calf herd, two sub-populations of cows have been identified with divergent levels of follicular androstenedione (A4). Furthermore, High A4 cows (A4 > 40ng/ml) have a 10 perce...

  10. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, leukocyte activity and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed...

  11. 7 CFR 59.102 - Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow...

  12. Feed efficiency - how should it be used for the cow herd?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cows, the most critical factor influencing the output component of efficiency is reproductive rate, and not necessarily weight gain. Thus benefits of selecting animals with desirable measures of feed efficiency on cow efficiency remain to be determined. The feed input component of cow efficiency...

  13. Variation in enteric methane emissions among cows on commercial dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Potterton, S L; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Wilcox, R H; Hunter, M; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2014-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions by dairy cows vary with feed intake and diet composition. Even when fed on the same diet at the same intake, however, variation between cows in CH4 emissions can be substantial. The extent of variation in CH4 emissions among dairy cows on commercial farms is unknown, but developments in methodology now permit quantification of CH4 emissions by individual cows under commercial conditions. The aim of this research was to assess variation among cows in emissions of eructed CH4 during milking on commercial dairy farms. Enteric CH4 emissions from 1964 individual cows across 21 farms were measured for at least 7 days/cow using CH4 analysers at robotic milking stations. Cows were predominantly of Holstein Friesian breed and remained on the same feeding systems during sampling. Effects of explanatory variables on average CH4 emissions per individual cow were assessed by fitting a linear mixed model. Significant effects were found for week of lactation, daily milk yield and farm. The effect of milk yield on CH4 emissions varied among farms. Considerable variation in CH4 emissions was observed among cows after adjusting for fixed and random effects, with the CV ranging from 22% to 67% within farms. This study confirms that enteric CH4 emissions vary among cows on commercial farms, suggesting that there is considerable scope for selecting individual cows and management systems with reduced emissions.

  14. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk and butter in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J

    1997-12-03

    This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in cow's milk and butter samples, respectively. The mean DDT levels were 0.159 and 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. In relation to cow's milk, the total HCH levels in Veracruz state were higher but total DDT levels were comparable to those reported in other countries. On the other hand, organochlorine levels detected in national brand butter samples were lower than those found in other countries, where these pesticides are still used in sanitary actions. These results confirmed that dairy products in Mexico presented organochlorine pesticide residues (owing to their use in sanitary actions) indicating a human exposure through these food products.

  16. Pulsed electrodeposition of Co-W amorphous and crystalline coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulukutla, Mrinalini; Kommineni, Vamsi Karthik; Harimkar, Sandip P.

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of hard chromium plating has been of particular interest to many industrial applications, including automotive, aircraft, and machinery parts that require high hardness and wear/corrosion resistance. Co-W alloy coatings, owing to their eco-friendly processing and high hardness/wear resistance, are promising for electrolytic chromium replacement. In the present study, pulsed electrodeposition of amorphous and crystalline Co-W coating is reported. Systematic investigations on the effect of pulse duty cycle and pulse frequency on development of surface microstructure, phases, composition, surface roughness, and micro-hardness are presented. Furthermore, detailed analysis of micro-/nano-mechanical (using ball-on-disc wear tester and nanoindentor) and corrosion (using potentiodynamic polarization method) behavior of optimized Co-W coatings is presented.

  17. Aquagrams of raw milk for oestrus detection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Takemura, G; Bázár, G; Ikuta, K; Yamaguchi, E; Ishikawa, S; Furukawa, A; Kubota, Y; Kovács, Z; Tsenkova, R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost-effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen-bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods.

  18. Genetically enhanced cows resist intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Wall, Robert J; Powell, Anne M; Paape, Max J; Kerr, David E; Bannerman, Douglas D; Pursel, Vernon G; Wells, Kevin D; Talbot, Neil; Hawk, Harold W

    2005-04-01

    Mastitis, the most consequential disease in dairy cattle, costs the US dairy industry billions of dollars annually. To test the feasibility of protecting animals through genetic engineering, transgenic cows secreting lysostaphin at concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 14 micrograms/ml [corrected] in their milk were produced. In vitro assays demonstrated the milk's ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Intramammary infusions of S. aureus were administered to three transgenic and ten nontransgenic cows. Increases in milk somatic cells, elevated body temperatures and induced acute phase proteins, each indicative of infection, were observed in all of the nontransgenic cows but in none of the transgenic animals. Protection against S. aureus mastitis appears to be achievable with as little as 3 micrograms/ml [corrected] of lysostaphin in milk. Our results indicate that genetic engineering can provide a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improve the well-being of livestock.

  19. Cleanliness scores as indicator of Klebsiella exposure in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Munoz, M A; Bennett, G J; Ahlström, C; Griffiths, H M; Schukken, Y H; Zadoks, R N

    2008-10-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationship between cow and udder cleanliness scores and the risk of isolation of Klebsiella spp. from lower hind legs and teat ends, respectively. The distribution of Klebsiella species was compared among isolates from teat ends, legs, and cases of clinical mastitis obtained from 2 dairy farms in New York State, with 850 and 1,000 cows, respectively. Farms were visited twice approximately 4 wk apart in August and September 2007 to obtain cleanliness scores and swabs from legs and teats. Isolates of Klebsiella clinical mastitis from each farm were collected from July through October 2007. Two studies were conducted. In the first study, whole-cow cleanliness of a purposive sample of 200 lactating cows was scored using a 4-point scale, and swabs were taken from their lower hind legs. In the second study, udder cleanliness of a separate convenience sample of 199 lactating cows was scored in the milking parlor, and swabs were taken from their teat ends before and after premilking udder preparation. Prevalence of Klebsiella spp. on legs and teat ends before udder preparation was 59 and 60%, respectively. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between isolation of Klebsiella spp. and cleanliness scores. Cow cleanliness scores and udder cleanliness scores were not associated with detection of Klebsiella on legs and on teats before udder preparation, respectively. After udder preparation, 43% of previously Klebsiella positive teat end samples remained positive, with significant differences between farms and months. Teats from dirty udders were significantly more likely to test positive for Klebsiella after udder preparation than teats from clean udders. The proportion of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates was similar for isolates from teat end swabs and clinical mastitis cases, supporting the notion that the presence of Klebsiella on teat ends may lead to opportunistic intramammary infections

  20. Replacing corn with glycerol in diets for transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, E R; Schmelz-Roberts, N S; White, H M; Doane, P H; Donkin, S S

    2011-02-01

    Expansion of the biofuels industry has increased the availability of glycerol as an alternative feed for dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol on feed intake, milk production, rumen volatile fatty acids, and metabolic parameters in transition dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing either high-moisture corn (n=11) or glycerol (n=12) from -28 to +56 d relative to calving. Glycerol was included at 11.5 and 10.8% of the ration dry matter for the pre- and postpartum diets, respectively. Prepartum feed intake was not changed by glycerol feeding (14.9 vs. 14.6 kg/d, control vs. glycerol) nor did postpartum feed intake differ (19.8 vs. 20.7 kg/d, control vs. glycerol). Overall milk yield did not differ (35.8 vs. 37 kg/d, control vs. glycerol) and milk composition, milk urea nitrogen, somatic cells, and energy balance were not different with glycerol feeding. Blood glucose content was decreased in cows fed glycerol during the prepartum period (59.1 vs. 53.4 mg/dL), and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was increased (0.58 vs. 0.82 mmol/L, control vs. glycerol). Concentrations of blood nonesterified fatty acids did not differ between the treatment groups, and no response to glycerol for blood metabolites during the postpartum period was observed. Total rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations (mmol/L) did not differ between treatments, but proportions of rumen propionate and butyrate were greater for cows fed glycerol (22.7 vs. 28.6% of propionate, control vs. glycerol; and 11.5 vs. 15.3% of butyrate, control vs. glycerol) at the expense of acetate (61.4 vs. 51.5%, control vs. glycerol). These data indicate that glycerol is a suitable replacement for corn grain in diets for transition dairy cows.

  1. a Sensor Based Automatic Ovulation Prediction System for Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Toby; Hart, John; Pemberton, Roy

    2000-12-01

    Sensor scientists have been successful in developing detectors for tiny concentrations of rare compounds, but the work is rarely applied in practice. Any but the most trivial application of sensors requires a specification that should include a sampling system, a sensor, a calibration system and a model of how the information is to be used to control the process of interest. The specification of the sensor system should ask the following questions. How will the material to be analysed be sampled? What decision can be made with the information available from a proposed sensor? This project provides a model of a systems approach to the implementation of automatic ovulation prediction in dairy cows. A healthy well managed dairy cow should calve every year to make the best use of forage. As most cows are inseminated artificially it is of vital importance mat cows are regularly monitored for signs of oestrus. The pressure on dairymen to manage more cows often leads to less time being available for observation of cows to detect oestrus. This, together with breeding and feeding for increased yields, has led to a reduction in reproductive performance. In the UK the typical dairy farmer could save € 12800 per year if ovulation could be predicted accurately. Research over a number of years has shown that regular analysis of milk samples with tests based on enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) can map the ovulation cycle. However, these tests require the farmer to implement a manually operated sampling and analysis procedure and the technique has not been widely taken up. The best potential method of achieving 98% specificity of prediction of ovulation is to adapt biosensor techniques to emulate the ELISA tests automatically in the milking system. An automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows is specified. The system integrates a biosensor with automatic milk sampling and a herd management database. The biosensor is a screen printed carbon electrode system capable of

  2. Dilatation of the Lower Cervical Esophagus in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    Acquired megaesophagus of suspected neuromuscular origin was diagnosed in a six year old Holstein cow. The dilatation was restricted to the lower cervical esophagus. Signs included projectile regurgitation of chewed ingesta at variable periods of time after swallowing, nasal discharge of mucus and feed particles, and a cough. A secondary aspiration pneumonia was associated with this condition. The dilated portion of the esophagus was detected utilizing positive contrast radiography and fiberoptic endoscopy. Treatment consisted of feed management and antibiotics. Deglutition in the cow returned to normal over a three month period despite radiographic and fiberoptic endoscopic evidence of a persistent dilatation of the esophagus. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422388

  3. Systemic infection with Mortierella wolfii following abortion in a cow

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jennifer L.; Ngeleka, Musangu; Wobeser, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe meningoencephalitis and endometritis associated with necrotizing vasculitis, thrombosis, and infarction were found at necropsy of a 4-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow with a history of abortion and neurological signs. Focal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and nephritis were also present. Fungal hyphae typical of zygomycetes were abundant within lesions, and Mortierella wolfii was cultured from multiple tissues. This is believed to be the first report of systemic mortierellosis following abortion in North America, and the second reported instance of encephalitis caused by M. wolfii in a cow. PMID:21358934

  4. Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

    PubMed

    Zehetmeier, M; Baudracco, J; Hoffmann, H; Heißenhuber, A

    2012-01-01

    Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the 'economic allocation method', GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and

  5. Is intersucking in dairy cows the continuation of a habit developed in early life?

    PubMed

    Keil, N M; Audigé, L; Langhans, W

    2001-01-01

    Intersucking, i.e., cattle sucking the udder of heifers or cows, is a frequent problem in dairy herds and may lead to udder damage, mastitis, milk loss, and culling of breeding animals. Using epidemiological methods, we conducted an observational cross-sectional study to investigate risk factors for intersucking in Swiss dairy cows. We asked 114 randomly selected dairy farmers about a broad spectrum of environmental factors possibly associated with intersucking, such as housing conditions, management, and feeding of calves, heifers, and cows. Thirty of the 114 farms were confronted with intersucking in cows. The mean proportion of intersucking cows per farm was 1.6%. From a total of 3077 cows (Swiss Brown Cattle, Simmental, and Holstein Friesian) we recorded 49 cows that had performed or were currently intersucking. In 69% of these cows, intersucking had been observed as heifers. Using path analysis and multivariable stepwise backward logistic and linear regression analyses, we revealed that the most important risk factor for intersucking cows was the presence of intersucking heifers on a farm (odds ratio = 7.8). The results suggest that intersucking in cows is the continuation of a habit that was already established in a cow's subadult life. This emphasizes the importance of looking not only at the animal's current environmental situation but also considering its entire life history for the prevention of behavioral problems.

  6. Manipulating dietary anions and cations for prepartum dairy cows to reduce incidence of milk fever.

    PubMed

    Block, E

    1984-12-01

    Twenty preparturient dairy cows were in a 2-yr switchover design to test effects of dietary ions on incidence of milk fever. In yr 1, cows were blocked and assigned randomly 45 days prepartum to one of two diets; one diet contained an excess of anions, and the second diet contained an excess of cations. In yr 2, cows were changed to the opposite diet. Both diets were equivalent for crude protein (11%), calcium (.65%), phosphorus (.25%), and energy on a dry basis but differed for quantities of chlorine, sulfur, and sodium. Both diets were chopped alfalfa hay, corn silage, high moisture corn, and vitamin-mineral mix. Diets were available ad libitum as complete rations. There were no differences in dry matter intake of the diets. Cows consuming the anionic diet had no milk fever, but cows consuming the canionic diet had 47.4% incidence. Samples of blood plasma showed that cows consuming the anionic diet maintained calcium and phosphorus through parturition, whereas cows consuming the cationic diet decreased in these minerals around calving. Hydroxyproline was higher for cows consuming the anionic diet during the peripartal period compared to cows consuming the cationic diet. Milk produced in the lactation subsequent to prepartum treatment was 6.8% less for cows offered the cationic diet. When milk production of paretic and nonparetic cows offered the cationic diet was compared, milk was reduced 14% with milk fever.

  7. Dairy cow cleanliness and milk quality on organic and conventional farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Kathryn A; Innocent, Giles T; Mihm, Monika; Cripps, Peter; McLean, W Graham; Howard, C Vyvyan; Grove-White, Dai

    2007-08-01

    A subjective cow cleanliness scoring system was validated and used to assess the cleanliness score of dairy cows at different times in the year. A longitudinal study followed a number of farms from summer to winter, and a larger, cross-sectional study assessed a greater number of farms during the housed winter period. The scoring system was demonstrated to be both a repeatable and practical technique to use on-farm and showed that cows become dirtier in the transition from summer grazing to winter housing. Although farming system (organic or conventional) had no effect on cow cleanliness when cows were at grass, when housed in the winter, organic cows were significantly more likely to be cleaner. There was a link between cow cleanliness scores and milk quality, with herds having lower bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) tending to have a lower (cleaner) median cow cleanliness score; with this relationship strongest for the organic herds. There was no significant link between cleanliness score and Bactoscan (BS) count or clinical mastitis incidence. No major mastitis pathogens were cultured from bulk tank milk samples from the quartile of herds with the cleanest cows in contrast to the quartile of herds with the dirtiest cows, where significant mastitis pathogens were cultured. Based on this study, all farms, especially organic systems, should attempt to keep cows clean as part of subclinical mastitis control.

  8. Source of stray voltage and effect on cow health and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Appleman, R.D.; Gustafson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    In dairy cows, two distinct and important aspects of the interrelationship between stray voltage problems on the farm and dairy cow productivity can be identified. One is behavioral modification that increases in intensity when currents associated with neutral-to-earth voltages above .7 V find a pathway through the cow. The other is immediate endocrine response. Results of research are less clear on the current necessary for the latter to occur; it may require 8 mA or more. This implies, depending on the pathway and the cow's pathway resistance, that voltage difference between two cow contact points must exceed 3 V. Resistance of different cow pathways range from 350 to 1700 OMEGA. Milk production is more likely to be affected adversely when cows are subjected to shock patterns both intermittent and irregular. This paper identifies various sources of stray voltage problems and discusses appropriate procedures for correction.

  9. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.20... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  10. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.20... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  11. 29 CFR 1956.21 - Procedures for submitting changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... developmental, Federal program, evaluation, and State-initiated change supplements to plans approved under this..., Change, Evaluation and Withdrawal of Approval Procedures § 1956.21 Procedures for submitting changes....

  12. 29 CFR 1956.21 - Procedures for submitting changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... developmental, Federal program, evaluation, and State-initiated change supplements to plans approved under this..., Change, Evaluation and Withdrawal of Approval Procedures § 1956.21 Procedures for submitting changes....

  13. 29 CFR 1956.21 - Procedures for submitting changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... developmental, Federal program, evaluation, and State-initiated change supplements to plans approved under this..., Change, Evaluation and Withdrawal of Approval Procedures § 1956.21 Procedures for submitting changes....

  14. 29 CFR 1956.21 - Procedures for submitting changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... developmental, Federal program, evaluation, and State-initiated change supplements to plans approved under this..., Change, Evaluation and Withdrawal of Approval Procedures § 1956.21 Procedures for submitting changes....

  15. 7 CFR 1776.8 - Methods for submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Stop 1548 Room 5145 South, 1400 Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20250-1548. (c) Electronic... of business days to complete the process. Applications submitted electronically must be show...

  16. 7 CFR 1776.8 - Methods for submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Stop 1548 Room 5145 South, 1400 Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20250-1548. (c) Electronic... of business days to complete the process. Applications submitted electronically must be show...

  17. 10 CFR 765.20 - Procedures for submitting reimbursement claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.20... reimbursement ceiling for any active uranium or thorium processing site; (5) Any revision in the per dry...

  18. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  19. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system.

    PubMed

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F

    2016-12-20

    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  20. Liver condition of Holstein cows affects mitochondrial function and fertilization ability of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Hiroshi; TAKEO, Shun; ABE, Takahito; KIN, Airi; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; IWATA, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the fertilization ability and mitochondrial function of oocytes derived from cows with or without liver damage. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of cows with damaged livers (DL) and those of cows with healthy livers (HL), subjected to in vitro maturation, and fertilized in vitro. A significantly high abnormal fertilization rate was observed for oocytes from DL cows compared to oocytes from HL cows. The time to dissolve the zona pellucida by protease before fertilization was similar between the two liver conditions, whereas after fertilization treatment this time was shorter for DL cows than for HL cows. The percentage of oocytes with equivalent cortical granule distributions underneath the membrane was greater for in vitro matured oocytes from HL cows, whereas an immature distribution pattern was observed for oocytes from DL cows. In addition, a greater percentage of oocytes derived from HL cows released cortical granules following fertilization compared with oocytes from DL cows. Mitochondrial function determined by ATP content and membrane potential were similar at the germinal vesicle stage, but post-in vitro maturation, the oocytes derived from HL cows showed higher values than DL cows. The mitochondrial DNA copy number in oocytes was similar between the two liver conditions for both the germinal vesicle and post-in vitro maturation oocytes. In conclusion, liver damage induces low fertilization, likely because of incomplete cortical granule distribution and release, and the maturation of oocytes from DL cows contain low-functioning mitochondria compared to their HL counterparts. PMID:26832309

  1. Activities of the enzymes of hepatic gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows with induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Murondoti, Absolom; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Beynen, Anton C; Wensing, Theo; Geelen, Math J H

    2004-05-01

    The objective was to measure the activities of all the enzymes essential for hepatic gluconeogenesis in dairy cows with induced fatty liver. We aimed to induce severe fatty liver in ten experimental cows by overfeeding them during the dry period while seven control cows were maintained on a restricted diet. To induce a marked negative energy balance, the experimental cows were deprived of feed for 8 h immediately after parturition. In addition, the experimental cows were given a restricted amount of diet during the first 5 d of lactation. Liver samples were collected 1 week before and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after parturition. Before parturition, liver triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ between the two groups. After parturition, the experimental cows developed marked fatty liver as indicated by a higher level of triacylglycerols in the liver compared with the control cows. Before parturition, all gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver were lower in experimental cows than in control cows. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase were significantly lower and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase tended to be lower in the experimental cows. The activities of two crucial enzymes for gluconeogenesis in ruminants, i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase, remained low throughout the sampling period post partum. Activities of pyruvate carboxylase and glucose 6-phosphatase in the experimental cows post partum were upgraded to values similar to those of the control cows. The results showed that the capacity for hepatic gluconeogenesis before parturition was lower in cows with induced fatty liver than in control cows. After parturition, the low activities of crucial gluconeogenic enzymes indicated insufficient production of glucose. It is suggested that the low gluconeogenic capacity leads successively to low blood glucose concentrations, low insulin levels and high rates of

  2. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  3. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Young, L J; Dahl, G E

    2012-09-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period affects hepatic gene expression and adipose tissue mobilization during the transition period. In addition, it is postulated that HT may alter insulin action on peripheral tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of cooling heat-stressed cows during the dry period on insulin effects on peripheral tissues during the transition period. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT (n = 16) or cooling (CL, n = 16). During the dry period, the average temperature-humidity index was 78, but CL cows were cooled with sprinklers and fans, whereas HT cows were not. After calving, all cows were housed and managed under the same conditions. Rectal temperatures were measured twice daily (0730 and 1430 h) and respiration rate recorded 3 times weekly during the dry period. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from dry-off to 42 d relative to calving (DRC). Body weight and body condition score were measured weekly from dry-off to 42 DRC. Milk yield and composition were recorded daily to 42 wk postpartum. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed at dry-off, -14, 7, and 28 DRC in a subset of cows (HT, n = 8; CL, n = 8). Relative to HT, CL cows had lower rectal temperatures (39.3 vs. 39.0°C) in the afternoon and respiration rate (69 vs. 48 breath/min). Cows from the cooling treatment tended to consume more feed than HT cows prepartum and postpartum. Compared with HT, CL cows gained more weight before calving but lost more weight and body condition in early lactation. Cows from the cooling treatment produced more milk than HT cows (34.0 vs. 27.7 kg/d), but treatments did not affect milk composition. Treatments did not affect circulating insulin and metabolites prepartum, but CL cows had decreased glucose, increased nonesterified fatty acid, and tended to have lower insulin concentrations in plasma postpartum compared with HT cows. Cooling prepartum HT cows did not

  4. Rumen perforation caused by horn injury in two cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ueli; Gerspach, Christian; Stettler, Manuela; Grob, Daniela; Sydler, Titus

    2016-01-20

    Post-operative complications of trocarisation and rumenotomy are the most common causes of peritonitis associated with a rumen disorder. Since horn injury leading to rumen perforation has not previously been reported in the literature, two cows with this condition are reported. Small superficial skin lesions were observed in one of the cows and the other had a perforating skin lesion in the left abdomen. Both cows had signs of hypovolaemic shock. Ultrasonography revealed hypoechoic fluid, echoic lesions and occasional fibrinous septa caudoventral to the reticulum. Caudally the fluid extended to the left flank fold and occupied about one third of the peritoneal cavity. The area of the skin perforation in the left abdomen was swollen and the muscle layers could not be differentiated using ultrasonography. Diffuse fibrino-purulent peritonitis was diagnosed in both cows, and because of a poor prognosis, they were euthanased and necropsied. Perforation of the abdominal wall and rumen with diffuse fibrino-purulent peritonitis was present. Ultrasonography is a suitable tool to characterise the inflammatory lesions between the rumen and left abdominal wall and objectify the interpretation of clinical findings. Horn injury should be included in the rule outs for cattle with left abdominal skin wounds and diffuse peritonitis.

  5. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  6. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia

    2011-02-01

    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  7. Implications of nutritional management for beef cow/calf systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beef cattle industry relies on utilization of high forage diets to maintain the cow herd, develop replacement females, and stocker operations. Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions. Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a grazed forage...

  8. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  9. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Baldi, Francesco; Bendandi, Barbara; Calzone, Luigi; Marani, Miris; Pasquinelli, Pamela

    2010-01-15

    A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians.The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal), enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  10. Grass tetany in a herd of beef cows

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Five cows in a herd of 15 cattle that had just been turned out onto lush pasture after having over-wintered on poor quality hay died suddenly. Biochemical profiles collected from the cadavers revealed reduced serum levels of magnesium, urea, and beta-hydroxybutycate. Classical grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) was diagnosed on postmortem examination. PMID:16187719

  11. Indicators of dairy cow transition risks: Metabolic profiling revisited.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, R J

    2016-01-01

    Periparturient disease conditions affecting transition dairy cows have been recognized as a critical contributor to impaired dairy performance and have become a focal point of herd diagnostic investigations. Over the past 40 years use of blood sampling in the form of metabolic profiling has been applied to herd diagnostics with mixed impressions of diagnostic robustness. Research has greatly increased our understanding of underpinning mechanisms related to cow biology, management, environment and their interactions responsible for peripartum diseases. Elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration (> 1.2 mmol/l) within 7-10 days following calving identifies high risk cows for therapeutic intervention. Herd evaluations with 15-25% of first week fresh cows with elevated BHB indicates significant disease risk and productive losses. Elevated peripartal serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) also indicate increased disease risk. This review discusses documented (BHB, NEFA) and other potential analytes using individual or pooled samples useful for disease risk assessment or nutritional status and their application in risk-based or herd screening methods of herd metabolic profiling diagnostics. A pooled sample approach modified from the original Compton Metabolic Profile allows for more economic assessment of multiple analytes, though interpretation and herd-size application may be limited. Pooled samples between 5 and 10 individuals accurately represent arithmetic means of individuals. Most importantly metabolic profiles must be used in concert with other diagnostic metrics of animal and facility evaluations, body condition scoring and ration evaluation to be fully useful in herd evaluations.

  12. Sacred Cows: Questioning Assumptions in Elementary Writing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda; Ohanian, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents a series of e-mail conversations between the two authors as they debate some of the "sacred cows" of writing instruction in elementary language arts: (1) Do teachers need to be writers?; (2) Do students need to keep journals?; (3) Is writing a political act?; and (4) Do students need to publish their work? (SR)

  13. Sand impactions in a Saskatchewan beef cow-calf herd

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Nathan; Hendrick, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Forty beef cows were reported to show signs of abdominal pain and discomfort over a period of 1 wk. Two of the affected animals died and on postmortem examination were found to be impacted with sand in their abomasum and small intestines. Sand-laden barley silage was found to be the cause of these impactions. PMID:21461212

  14. A case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a Belgian blue cow

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old cow was presented with chronic respiratory disease and lameness. Chronic pleuritis, pneumonia, and bronchial carcinoma were found as well as periosteal proliferation on limb bones. Ancillary tests and necropsy confirmed a combined pathology of pulmonary inflammation and neoplasm, and hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy. PMID:22654134

  15. Repeatability and heritability of response to superovulation in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Tonhati, H; Lôbo, R B; Oliveira, H N

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative effects of genetic and phenotypic factors on the efficacy and efficiency of superovulation for Holstein-Friesian cows reared in Brazil. A database, established by the Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Bovinos da Raca Holandesa, consisting of a total of 5387 superovulations of 2941 cows distributed over 473 herds and sired by 690 bulls was used for the analysis. The records were analyzed by MTDFREML (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood), using a repeatability animal model. The fixed effects included in the model were contemporaneous group (veterinarian, herd, year and season of the superovulation); number of semen doses; cow age; and superovulation order. The estimated repeatability of the number of the transferable embryos was low (0.13), and the estimated heritability was 0.03. These results indicate that environmental factors play a critical role in the response of a cow to a superovulation treatment. There is little evidence that future responses to superovulation by individual females can be predicted by previous treatment(s) or that superovulation response is an heritable trait.

  16. A case of galactosemia misdiagnosed as cow's milk intolerance.

    PubMed

    Della Casa, Roberto; Ungaro, Carla; Acampora, Emma; Pignata, Claudio; Vajro, Pietro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Santamaria, Francesca; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2012-09-19

    We report on a female patient affected by galactosemia in whom the diagnosis was obscured by the concomitant presence of manifestations suggesting a cow's milk intolerance. This case exemplifies the problems in reaching a correct diagnosis in patients with metabolic diseases.

  17. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  18. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P < 0.001) in cows suffering from ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  19. Manganese binding proteins in human and cow's milk

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.; Hurley, L.S.

    1985-03-01

    Manganese nutrition in the neonatal period is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of information on the amount of manganese in infant foods and its bioavailability. Since the molecular localization of an element in foods is one determinant of its subsequent bioavailability, a study was made of the binding of manganese in human and cow's milk. An extrinsic label of /sup 54/Mn was shown to equilibrate isotopically with native manganese in milks and formulas. Milk samples were separated into fat, casein and whey by ultracentrifugation. In human milk, the major part (71%) of manganese was found in whey, 11% in casein and 18% in the lipid fraction. In contrast, in cow's milk, 32% of total manganese was in whey, 67% in casein and 1% in lipid. Within the human whey fraction, most of the manganese was bound to lactoferrin, while in cow's whey, manganese was mostly complexed to ligands with molecular weights less than 200. The distribution of manganese in formulas was closer to that of human milk than of cow's milk. The bioavailability of manganese associated with lactoferrin, casein and low molecular weight complexes needs to be assessed.

  20. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  1. Milk and manure: cows can energize U. S

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-23

    The operation of a 180,000 gallon biogas digester on a 675 - cow dairy farm is briefly outlined. The gas, which is contained by a heavy plastic cover, is burned in a dual-fuel diesel engine to generate half the farm's electricity needs at about one-third the cost of commercial power.

  2. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW.

  3. Metritis in dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Giuliodori, M J; Magnasco, R P; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Risco, C A; de la Sota, R L

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the risk factors for metritis, its effects on milk yield and on reproductive performance, and the efficacy of ceftiofur therapy in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n=303) from a commercial dairy herd in Argentina were studied. Cows were scored for body condition, and blood samples were collected on d -14, 7, 21, 31, 41, and 50 relative to parturition. Cows having a watery, purulent, or brown, and fetid vaginal discharge (VD) and rectal temperature ≤ 39.2°C were diagnosed as having clinical metritis, and those having a similar VD and rectal temperature >39.2°C were diagnosed as having puerperal metritis. Both clinical and puerperal metritis cows were randomly assigned to control (no treatment) or ceftiofur group (2.2mg/kg×3 consecutive days). Cure was declared if clear VD was observed at 21 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and blood urea nitrogen using commercial kits, and for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and leptin by RIA. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED, GENMOD, PHREG, and LIFETEST from SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The risk for metritis increased with dystocia, retained fetal membranes, and dead calf [AOR (adjusted odds ratio)=2.58, 95% CI: 1.189-5.559], and as prepartum nonesterified fatty acids levels increased (AOR=1.001, 95% CI: 0.999-1.002). Conversely, risk decreased as prepartum insulin-like growth factor-1 increased (AOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.349-1.219). Cows having either clinical or puerperal metritis produced less milk by 90 DIM than did healthy cows (2,236 ± 172 vs. 2,367 ± 77 vs. 2,647 ± 82 kg, respectively). Cows with puerperal metritis had lower risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM (AOR=0.189, 95% CI: 0.070-0.479) and a lower hazard rate for pregnancy by 150 DIM (hazard rate: 0.753, 95% CI: 0.621-0.911), and took longer to get pregnant (129 vs. 111 vs. 109 d, for puerperal metritis, clinical metritis, and healthy cows, respectively

  4. 76 FR 76359 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the...

  5. Matching forage systems with cow size and environment for sustainable cow-calf production in the southern region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been increased interest in intensification of cow-calf production due to an increasing world population and red meat demand along with reductions in available grazing lands. Intensified production can come about by increasing fertilization, supplementation, or feeding of stored forages, bu...

  6. Economic feasibility of converting cow manure to electricity: a case study of the CVPS Cow Power program in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Thompson, E; Parsons, R; Rogers, G; Dunn, D

    2011-10-01

    A case study of the Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS) Cow Power program examines the economic feasibility for dairy farms to convert cow manure into electricity via anaerobic methane digestion. The study reviews the mechanism for CVPS, dairy farms, electricity customers, and government agencies to develop and operate the program since 2004, examines the costs and returns for the participating dairy farms, and assesses their cash flow over a period of 7 yr under different scenarios. With 6 dairy farms generating about 12 million kilowatt-hours of electricity per year and more than 4,600 CVPS electricity customers voluntarily paying premiums of $0.04 per kilowatt-hour, or a total of about $470,000 per year, the CVPS Cow Power program represents a successful and locally sourced renewable energy project with many environmental and economic benefits. Factors for the successful development and operation of the program include significant grants from government agencies and other organizations, strong consumer support, timely adjustments to the basic electricity price paid to the farms, and close collaboration among the participating parties. This study confirms that it is technically feasible to convert cow manure to electricity on farms, but the economic returns depend highly on the base electricity price, premium rate, financial supports from government agencies and other organizations, and sales of the byproducts of methane generation.

  7. A note on possible link between behaviour and the occurrence of lameness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Galindo; Broom; Jackson

    2000-04-19

    Lameness in cattle is a major welfare problem and has important economic implications. It is known that lameness has a multifactorial causation; however, it is still not clear why some individuals are more susceptible than others to present foot lesions under the same environment. Social and individual behaviour is thought to play an important role. The aim of this study was to assess the possible relationships between social behaviour, individual time budgets, and the incidence of lameness in 40 dairy cows. The incidence of lameness in the group of cows observed was 42%. There were no differences in the mean time standing between low-, middle- and high-ranking cows. Low-ranking cows spent more time standing still in passageways and standing half in the cubicles than middle- and high-ranking cows. No differences were found in the mean time standing between cows that got lame and cows that did not get lame. However, cows that got clinically lame spent longer standing half in the cubicles and had a significantly lower index of displacements than those cows that did not get lame. This study may offer a starting point to better understand the relationships between behaviour and the occurrence of lameness in dairy cows.

  8. Economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination of a cow in oestrus.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2012-07-07

    Most dairy farmers are not certain whether immediate insemination or delaying the insemination is the best economic decision for a cow in oestrus. A model was developed for determining, based on herd and cow characteristics, the economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination. The model was based on literature information and expert knowledge. In the model, the oestrus detection and conception rates were made cow-specific. The utility of the model was illustrated using a standard cow and data on 90 cows in oestrus (provided by 10 Dutch dairy farmers). The model suggested that for the majority of cows, the best decision is to immediately inseminate the cow in oestrus, but for most heifers with a flatter lactation curve the best decision was to delay the insemination. The economic effect of delaying the insemination was however small, on average -€18 per cow per year. Immediate insemination of an individual cow did result in relatively low economic benefits, but for a whole herd they can be substantial. This model can be used by farmers to help making the best economic decision for a cow in oestrus.

  9. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis and intrauterine infections in repeat breeder cows.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, H; Prunner, I; Wagener, K; Jaureguiberry, M; de la Sota, R L; Erber, R; Aurich, C; Ehling-Schulz, M; Drillich, M

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and the presence of common uterine pathogens in repeat breeder cows. A total of 121 cows with three or more consecutive artificial inseminations without conception and no clinical signs of disease were defined as repeat breeder cows and were enrolled in this trial. Intrauterine samples were collected with the cytobrush technique to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and bacteriologic infections. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma to assess ovarian activity. Furthermore, breed, parity, history of calving and postpartum uterine infection, clinical findings of transrectal palpation, and backfat thickness were analyzed as potential factors for the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows was 12.7%; but common uterine pathogens, Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, were found in only one and three cows, respectively. Ovarian activity was determined in 95.0% of all cows. Recorded variables had no effect on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis and uterine infections linked to common pathogens were playing a minor role as a cause for repeat breeder cows in this study. Alternative reasons for failure to conceive in these cows are discussed.

  10. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry

    PubMed Central

    HEPPELMANN, Maike; KRACH, Karoline; KRUEGER, Lars; BENZ, Philipp; HERZOG, Kathrin; PIECHOTTA, Marion; HOEDEMAKER, Martina; BOLLWEIN, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M–; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH–; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca < 2.0 mmol/l in at least one sample between Days 1 and 3; n = 7). Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility. PMID:26400127

  11. Influence of various treatment methods on bacteriological findings in cows with puerperal endometritis.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarowski, M; Malinowski, E; Markiewicz, H

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the species of microorganisms isolated from the uterus of healthy cows (control group) and cows affected with puerperal metritis (PM) before and after an experimental therapy with an immunomodulator and antibiotics versus commonly applied methods (antibiotic + beta-blocker or antibiotic + PGF2alpha). Examinations were carried out on 110 cows with PM in three farms with similar system of rearing and nutrition. The control group consisted of 21 cows without postpartum disturbances. Smears from the uterus were taken before treatment and then at 21st day of observation. Escherichia coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae family were isolated from 48.2% of PM cows and 47.6% of healthy cows. The degree of Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection was statistically lower in healthy than in sick cows (9.5% versus 30.0%). Streptococcus sp. was isolated from 13.6% of PM cows and from 16% of control ones. Staphylococci were isolated from 10% of PM and from 30% of control cows. Other bacteria species were isolated from about 10% of the examined cows. The best elimination of infections (66%) was noted in cows treated with the intrauterine antibiotic in combination with PGF2alpha i.m. injection. Examination showed that species of bacteria in the postparturient uterus were similar in healthy and sick cows. However, Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated 3 times more often from the sick animals. This pathogen was identified in 11 cows out of 19 (57.9%) culled subsequently because of infertility after the metritis puerperalis was clinically cured.

  12. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  13. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  14. Invited review: Matching forage systems with cow size and environment for sustainable cow-calf production in the southern region of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been increased interest in intensification of cow-calf production due to an increasing world population and red meat demand along with reductions in available grazing lands. Over the last 40 years, mature cow size has increased by over 30%, increasing their metabolizable energy requirement...

  15. Effects of dry cow treatment of beef cows on pathogenic organisms, milk somatic cell counts, and calf growth during the subsequent lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring calving Angus and Angus x Hereford multiparous cows were utilized to determine effects of intramammary treatment with penicillin G procaine (200,000 IU) and novobiocin (400 mg) at the time of weaning on udder health and calf growth following the subsequent calving. Cows were stratified by age...

  16. Effects of dry cow treatment of beef cows on pathogenic organisms, milk somatic cell counts, and calf growth during the subsequent lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring calving Angus and Angus x Hereford multiparous cows were utilized to determine the effects of intramammary treatment with penicillin G procain and novobiocin at the time of drying-off on udder health and calf growth following the subsequent calving. Cows were blocked by age and randomly assi...

  17. Factors affecting pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation rate to GnRH in postpartum beef cows Part I: Cycling cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows induced to ovulate small dominant follicles were reported to have reduced pregnancy rates compared to cows that ovulated large follicles. The reason for the presence of small dominant follicles at the time of GnRH-induced ovulation in timed AI protocols is unknown. Objectives of this experime...

  18. Factors affecting pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation rate following GnRH in postpartum beef cows Part II: Anestrous cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors affecting ovulatory follicle size in anestrous suckled beef cows so that we could determine how ovulatory follicle size affects fertility. This study used a two by two factorial design in which anestrous suckled beef cows (n = 55) either ovulate...

  19. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    PubMed

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (P<0.01). Protein was decreased (P=0.01) and fat was increased (P=0.01) in milk from DDGS compared with CON cows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (P<0.01) and increased long chain FA (P<0.01) at both time points. Saturated FA content of milk was decreased (P<0.01) at both time-points in DDGS compared with CON cows, which resulted in an increase (P<0.01) in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, including cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Daily gain of the DDGS calves was increased (P=0.01) compared with CON calves, resulting in heavier BW on day 129 (P=0.01). Heavier BW of DDGS calves was maintained through weaning (P=0.01). Timed-artificial insemination (TAI) rates were greater for cows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (P<0.02), but dietary treatment had no effect on overall pregnancy rates (P=0.64). In summary, feeding DDGS to lactating beef cows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male

  20. Pasture forages, supplementation rate, and stocking rate effects on dairy cow performance.

    PubMed

    Fike, J H; Staples, C R; Sollenberger, L E; Macoon, B; Moore, J E

    2003-04-01

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of forage species, stocking rate, and supplementation rate on performance and physiology of grazing lactating Holstein cows under intensive rotational stocking management during summer. Eight treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. Animals (n = 62) grazed pastures of Tifton 85 bermudagrass or Florigraze rhizoma peanut, a tropical legume. Low and high stocking rates were 7.5 and 10.0 cows/ha for bermudagrass and 5.0 and 7.5 cows/ha for rhizoma peanut. Within each forage-stocking rate combination, cows were fed supplement at 0.33 or 0.5 kg of supplement (as-fed basis)/kg daily milk production. Cows grazing rhizoma peanut pastures produced more milk (16.9 vs. 15.4 kg/d) but had higher rectal temperatures (39.4 vs. 39.1 degrees C). Milk production per cow was improved at the higher stocking rate for bermudagrass but was reduced at the higher stocking rate for peanuts. Increasing supplementation rate boosted plasma glucose, milk production, and milk protein percent. Increased supplementation rate had a greater positive impact on milk production of cows grazing bermudagrass compared to rhizoma peanut (21.9 vs. 10.6% increase) due to a lower substitution of grain for forage intake. Organic matter intakes of forage, supplement, and total diet were greatest by cows grazing rhizoma peanut pastures and averaged 12.4, 6.1, and 18.5 kg/d compared to 9.2, 5.4, and 14.6 kg/d for cows grazing bermudagrass. Despite lower individual feed intake and performance, production per unit land area was 29% greater (112 vs. 90 kg of milk/ha per d) for cows grazing bermudagrass due to the greater stocking rate possible with that forage. Only cows supplemented at the high rate and kept at the high stocking rate on bermudagrass maintained body weight. Cows on other treatments lost body weight. Tifton 85 bermudagrass appears to be an excellent summer forage for dairy cows grazing in the southeastern U.S. given its nutritive value

  1. Southeastern pasture-based dairy systems: housing, posilac, and supplemental silage effects on cow performance.

    PubMed

    Fike, J H; Staples, C R; Sollenberger, L E; Moore, J E; Head, H H

    2002-04-01

    This experiment tested performance and physiological responses to evaporative cooling, bovine somatotropin (bST), and supplemental silage of lactating cows grazing bermudagrass (Tifton 85; Cynodon dactylon x C. nlemfuensis cv.) pastures. Multiparous (n = 32) cows (196 d in milk) were assigned one of five treatments arranged in two replicates. Treatments were 1) cows maintained continuously on pasture with access to shade, 2) treatment 1 + bST, 3) night housing on pasture, then free-stall housing with fans and misters from 0730 to 1630 h, 4) treatment 3 + bST, and 5) treatment 4 + corn silage fed at 0.5% of body weight (dry matter basis) in the barn. A grain supplement was fed at a rate of 0.5 kg/kg of milk produced. Time spent grazing ranged from 4 to 7.2 h/d, with cows fed corn silage spending the least amount of time. Cows given bST grazed 45 min/d longer than controls, but intake of bermudagrass was unchanged. Intake of bermudagrass ranged from 7.4 to 9.5 kg/d of organic matter, with the lowest intake by cows fed corn silage. With the exception of cows fed corn silage, cows kept in a cooling barn during the day ate equivalent amounts of pasture as those given unlimited access to pasture. Production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greater by cows injected with bST (17.7 vs. 15.8 kg/d) compared with controls and tended to be greater for cows given daytime cooling compared with cows on pasture continuously (17.2 vs. 16.3 kg/d). Cows provided evaporative cooling did not lose weight compared with continually pastured cows (6.3 vs. -10.9 kg/24 d). Cows injected with bST compared with controls maintained their body weight better (2.5 vs. -7.1 kg/24 d). Cows given bST had increased concentration of plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (142 vs. 89 ng/ml), insulin (0.60 vs. 0.56 ng/ml), and nonesterified fatty acids (318 vs. 239 mEq/L). Cows given bST and those continually on pasture had greater diurnal body temperatures. Use of barn cooling systems and bST treatments as

  2. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  3. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, <5 of 9 before calving, and lost condition between calving and the start of the breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS <5 of 9 with a loss of condition between breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors.

  4. Production and calving traits of Montbeliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-02-22

    Montbeliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams.

  5. A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.

  6. 21 CFR 803.13 - Do I need to submit reports in English?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Do I need to submit reports in English? 803.13... need to submit reports in English? (a) Yes. You must submit all written or electronic equivalent reports required by this part in English. (b) If you submit any reports required by this part in...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2205 - When must I submit my annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my annual report? 60... § 60.2205 When must I submit my annual report? You must submit an annual report no later than 12 months following the submission of the information in § 60.2200. You must submit subsequent reports no more than...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1880 - When must I submit the annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit the annual report...-Reporting § 60.1880 When must I submit the annual report? Submit the annual report no later than February 1... permit for any unit under title V of the CAA, the permit may require you to submit semiannual...

  9. 30 CFR 585.601 - When am I required to submit my plans to BOEM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... submit your plans as follows: (a) You may submit your SAP or GAP prior to lease or grant issuance, but must submit your SAP or your GAP no later than 12 months from the date of lease or grant issuance. (b... submit your COP or FERC license application with your SAP. (1) You must provide sufficient data...

  10. 49 CFR 512.6 - How should I prepare documents when submitting a claim for confidentiality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... confidential within brackets: “ .” (c) Submissions in electronic format—(1) Persons submitting information under this Part may submit the information in an electronic format. Except for early warning reporting data submitted to the agency under 49 CFR part 579, the information submitted in an electronic...

  11. Cow genotyping strategies for genomic selection in a small dairy cattle population.

    PubMed

    Jenko, J; Wiggans, G R; Cooper, T A; Eaglen, S A E; Luff, W G de L; Bichard, M; Pong-Wong, R; Woolliams, J A

    2017-01-01

    This study compares how different cow genotyping strategies increase the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (EBV) in dairy cattle breeds with low numbers. In these breeds, few sires have progeny records, and genotyping cows can improve the accuracy of genomic EBV. The Guernsey breed is a small dairy cattle breed with approximately 14,000 recorded individuals worldwide. Predictions of phenotypes of milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and calving interval were made for Guernsey cows from England and Guernsey Island using genomic EBV, with training sets including 197 de-regressed proofs of genotyped bulls, with cows selected from among 1,440 genotyped cows using different genotyping strategies. Accuracies of predictions were tested using 10-fold cross-validation among the cows. Genomic EBV were predicted using 4 different methods: (1) pedigree BLUP, (2) genomic BLUP using only bulls, (3) univariate genomic BLUP using bulls and cows, and (4) bivariate genomic BLUP. Genotyping cows with phenotypes and using their data for the prediction of single nucleotide polymorphism effects increased the correlation between genomic EBV and phenotypes compared with using only bulls by 0.163±0.022 for milk yield, 0.111±0.021 for fat yield, and 0.113±0.018 for protein yield; a decrease of 0.014±0.010 for calving interval from a low base was the only exception. Genetic correlation between phenotypes from bulls and cows were approximately 0.6 for all yield traits and significantly different from 1. Only a very small change occurred in correlation between genomic EBV and phenotypes when using the bivariate model. It was always better to genotype all the cows, but when only half of the cows were genotyped, a divergent selection strategy was better compared with the random or directional selection approach. Divergent selection of 30% of the cows remained superior for the yield traits in 8 of 10 folds.

  12. Comparison of two monitoring and treatment strategies for cows with acute puerperal metritis.

    PubMed

    Sannmann, I; Burfeind, O; Voigtsberger, R; Heuwieser, W

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two strategies for screening and subsequent treatment of acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows. Therefore, we conducted a study on 79 cows with APM (cows with an enlarged uterus with fetid watery red-brown vaginal discharge and fever >39.5 °C) and 114 healthy control cows. Cows with APM were divided into two groups (treated, N = 67 cows; not treated, N = 12 cows). The treated animals were further subdivided into two groups (treated between Day 1 and 4 post partum, N =12 and treated between Day 5 and 10, N = 55). Serum haptoglobin concentrations, milk yield, cure rate, prevalence of endometritis, and cervical diameter on days in milk (DIM) 21 to 27 were compared between the groups. Cows were defined as cured when their rectal temperature was <39.5 °C 4 days after treatment and fever did not rebound over 39.4 °C until the end of the screening period which was DIM 10. The results of this study did not show any significant differences in cure rates, milk yield, or serum haptoglobin concentrations on DIM 2, 5, and 10 and subsequent uterine health (DIM 21-27). Considering this study as a proof of concept study, we conclude that there might not be a negative effect after a screening and treatment protocol beginning at DIM 5 and leaving early APM cows untreated. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by a larger field study. Furthermore, antimicrobial therapy could be avoided in 12 of 55 cows (21.8%) in group 2 because of the protocol implementing treatments after DIM 5. These cows did not show signs of APM during the following 5 days. Therefore, these animals were considered as self-recovered leading to a cure rate of at least 21.8% (12 of 55 cows).

  13. The Cows Come Home. A Farm Kid Milks Her Experiences for All They're Worth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panciera, Carla

    2005-01-01

    Carla Panciera, is a farmer's daughter who grew up on a hundred acres of corn, pasture with a herd of dairy cows. As a child she learned that cows have 4 stomachs, the average gestation period of a calf, how to back the manure spreader into the shed, and the art of clipping, and bathing cows on show day. Her father eventually sold the farm and…

  14. Innovative Caciocavallo cheeses made from a mixture of cow milk with ewe or goat milk.

    PubMed

    Niro, Serena; Fratianni, Alessandra; Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Tipaldi, Luca; Panfili, Gianfranco; Coppola, Raffaele

    2014-03-01

    This study assessed and compared the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of Caciocavallo cheeses, made from cow milk and a mixture of cow with ewe or goat milk, during ripening. Different cheese-making trials were carried out on an industrial scale following the standard procedure of pasta filata cheeses, with some modifications. The percentage of the different added milk to cow milk influenced compositional and nutritional characteristics of the innovative products, leading to a satisfactory microbiological and sensorial quality.

  15. Use of a uterine pessary to prevent infection of the uterus of the cow after parturition.

    PubMed

    Dobson, D P; Noakes, D E

    1990-08-11

    A uterine pessary containing penicillin, streptomycin, formosulphathiazole and ethinyloestradiol, was assessed for its efficacy in reducing the frequency and severity of uterine infections in cows after parturition. Fifteen pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows had pessaries inserted into the uterus within 24 hours after calving. Compared with 14 similar untreated cows there were significant reductions in the number infected by Actinomyces pyogenes and in the number exhibiting abnormal uterine discharges.

  16. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  17. Assessing cow-calf welfare. Part 2: Risk factors for beef cow health and behavior and stockperson handling.

    PubMed

    Simon, G E; Hoar, B R; Tucker, C B

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies can be used to identify risk factors for livestock welfare concerns but have not been conducted in the cow-calf sector for this purpose. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships of 1) herd-level management, facilities, and producer perspectives with cattle health and behavior and stockperson handling and 2) stockperson handling on cattle behavior at the individual cow level. Cow ( = 3,065) health and behavior and stockperson handling during a routine procedure (e.g., pregnancy checks) were observed on 30 California ranches. Management and producer perspectives were evaluated using an interview, and handling facility features were recorded at the chute. After predictors were screened for univariable associations, multivariable models were built for cattle health (i.e., thin body condition, lameness, abrasions, hairless patches, swelling, blind eyes, and dirtiness) and behavior (i.e., balking, vocalizing, stumbling and falling in the chute and while exiting the restraint, and running out of the restraint) and stockperson handling (i.e., electric prod use, moving aid use, tail twisting, and mis-catching cattle). When producers empathized more toward an animal's pain experience, there was a lower risk of swelling (odds ratio [OR] = 0.7) but a higher risk of lameness (OR = 1.3), which may indicate a lack of awareness of the latter. Training stockpersons using the Beef Quality Assurance program had a protective effect on cow cleanliness and mis-catching in the restraint (OR = 0.2 and OR = 0.5, respectively). Hydraulic chutes increased the risk of vocalizations (OR = 2.7), possibly because these systems can apply greater pressure to the sides of the animal than manual restraints. When a moving aid was used to move an individual cow, it increased the risk of her balking, but when hands, in particular, were used, the risk of balking decreased across the herd (OR = 34.1 and OR = 0.3, respectively). Likewise, individual cows

  18. Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in the united Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Breen, J. E.; Green, M. J.; Bradley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis (CM) during lactation were investigated during a 12-mo longitudinal study on 8 commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy farms in the southwest of England. The individual risk factors studied on 1,677 cows included assessments of udder and leg hygiene, teat-end callosity, and hyperkeratosis; body condition score; and measurements of monthly milk quality and yield. Several outcome variables for CM were used for statistical analysis, which included use of generalized linear mixed models. Significant covariates associated with an increased risk of CM were increasing parity, decreasing month of lactation, cows with very dirty udders, and quarters with only very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end. Thin and moderate smooth teat-end callosity scores were not associated with an increased risk for CM. Cows that recorded a somatic cell count >199,000 cells/mL and a milk protein percentage <3.2 at the first milk recording after calving were significantly more likely to develop CM after the first 30 d of lactation. There was no association between cow body condition score and incidence of CM. Of the cases of CM available for culture, 171 (26.7%) were confirmed as being caused by Escherichia coli and 121 (18.9%) confirmed as being caused by Streptococcus uberis. Quarters with moderate and very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were at significantly increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis before the next visit. Quarters with very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were significantly more likely to develop clinical Strep. uberis mastitis before the next visit. There were strong trends within the data to suggest an association between very dirty udders (an increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis) and teat-ends with no callosity ring present (an increased risk of clinical Strep. uberis mastitis). These results highlight the importance of individual quarter- and cow-level risk factors in

  19. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, M.; Keid, L.B.; Rocha, V.C.M.; Vejarano, M.P.; Ikuta, C.Y.; Rodriguez, C.A.R.; Ferreira, F.; Dias, R.A.; Ferreira Neto, J.S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (p< 0.0001) and GT (p=0.0004). There was no difference between the PK and GT protocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol. PMID:24031391

  20. [Prick tests for histamine and cow milk in children].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F J; Jiménez, A

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and one children were evaluated in six different rural areas in Tlaxcala, State (México). Through skin prick tests which included histamine, glycerine, cow's milk antigen and a drop fulfill a registration form including: personal data; personal and family atopic background; degree and frequency of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cutaneous diseases, as well as the child temperament. Besides, feeding history (length and type of breast-feeding). Six cases were found positive to cow's milk antigen (1.9%) by Prick test but none of them had showed signology related to (83%) were breast-fed at least for the first month of life. Histamine wheal size increased progressively up to eight months of age and reached a plateau.

  1. Fatal mastitis of dairy cows: a retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Hazlett, M J; Little, P B; Maxie, M G; Barnum, D A

    1984-01-01

    The necropsy records of dairy cows with mastitis were reviewed from the provincial veterinary laboratory in Guelph (44 cases of mastitis in nine years) and from the Ontario Veterinary College (168 cases in 14 years). Mastitis was considered to be the primary cause of death in 167 of 212 cows (79%). Of these 167 cases of mastitis, Escherichia coli was involved in 107 (64%), Klebsiella sp. in 12 (7%) and Staphylococcus aureus in 11 (7%). Bacteriology was not reported in 22 cases. Coliform mastitis, the most commonly identified type of fatal mastitis, was characterized histologically by the presence of infarcted areas in affected glands and by the lack of demonstrable bacteria, and was thus easily identified from fatal mastitis caused by S. aureus. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6722641

  2. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that might be used to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and

  3. Prepartum supplementation of selenium and vitamin E to dairy cows: assessment of selenium and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hidiroglou, M.; McAllister, A.J.; Williams, C.J.

    1987-06-01

    Incidence of retained placenta in dairy cows was evaluated in 627 parturitions. The herd was divided prepartum into three groups: (1) control, no treatment (n = 217 cows); (2) cows injected intramuscularly (n = 190) 21 to 10 d prior parturition with 45 mg Se and 2040 IU of vitamin E; and (3) cows intraruminally administered (n = 220) with two 30-g pellets containing 10% elemental selenium 2 mo prior to expected calving. Incidence of retained placenta (22.1%) was not reduced by Se in combination with vitamin E injection or intraruminal Se pellet nor were other measures of reproduction improved for cows fed a prepartum diet adequate in Se. At parturition the blood plasma Se concentrations were higher in treated postpartum with Se than in untreated cows. No difference in blood plasma Se was observed at parturition between cows with or without placenta retention. Cows dosed intraruminally with Se had a significant increase in milk Se, but this was to small to be a danger to human health. The present results on placenta retention suggest that this disorder is not a Se responsive disease in the dairy cow.

  4. A reduction in milking frequency and feed allowance improves dairy cow immune status.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K; Olmos, G; Llamas Moya, S; Mee, J F; Earley, B; Gleeson, D; O'Brien, B; Boyle, L

    2012-03-01

    Twice-daily milking is the most common milking regimen used globally. A reduction in milking frequency to once daily, combined with a reduced feed allowance (FA), could reduce the physiological stress associated with the transition to peak milk production, and hence improve immune function. This study investigated how milking frequency and FA affect dairy cow immune status. Cows (n = 48) were milked once a day (OAD) or twice a day (TAD) on 1 of 2 FA: high (HFA) or low (LFA), in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. After the mean calving date of March 11, HFA cows were offered ad libitum grass silage and 7 kg of concentrates/cow per day until March 22, then 4 kg of concentrates/cow per day until April 17, and thereafter allocated 31.3 kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per day. The LFA cows were offered 4 kg of concentrates/cow per day, 1 kg of concentrates/cow per day, and allocated 19 kg of DM grass/cow per day for the same respective periods. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score weekly, and somatic cell count was performed at approximately 2-wk intervals. Blood samples were collected prepartum (d -7 to -1) and at d 1 to 7, d 14 to 21, and d 42 to 49 postpartum. Total and differential leukocyte percentage, IFN-γ production in response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin, and cortisol, haptoglobin (Hp), and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations were evaluated. Cows milked OAD had reduced milk yield and body reserve mobilization, but higher somatic cell counts. Milking frequency and diet had no effect on total leukocyte counts. Cows milked OAD had a higher lymphocyte percentage and lower monocyte percentage, and tended to have a lower neutrophil percentage than cows milked TAD. In addition, the LFA cows had a higher eosinophil percentage than cows fed the HFA. Milking frequency and diet had no effect on IFN-γ, Hp, SAA, or cortisol production. Utilization of strategies to reduce milk yield at the beginning of the lactation could not only

  5. Peripartal changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lactate dehydrogenase activity in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Peter, A T; Bosu, W T; MacWilliams, P; Gallagher, S

    1987-01-01

    Peripartal serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lactate dehydrogenase activity were measured in 30 dairy cows in order to examine the association between retained fetal membranes and enzyme activity. Daily blood samples were obtained from pregnant cows, starting 15 days before the expected day of calving until eight days after parturition. Sera from 15 cows which retained fetal membranes longer than 24 hours and 15 cows which shed fetal membranes within six hours after parturition were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Mean alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities ranged from 15.93 to 32.6 U/L in retained and nonretained placenta cows. There was a trend towards higher serum alkaline phosphatase activities in retained placenta cows but the differences were not significant among the groups (P greater than 0.05). Mean lactate dehydrogenase activities ranged from 307.2 to 438.86 U/L in nonretained and retained placenta cows. Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities in nonretained and retained placenta cows were similar (P greater than 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities peaked at the time of parturition in both groups. However, the differences in alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities on different days within non-retained and retained placenta cows were significant (P less than 0.05). Results indicate that prepartal changes in alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities are not predictive of placental retention postpartum. PMID:3453274

  6. Effect of feeding duration and rumen fill on behaviour in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lindström; Redbo

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that oral manipulation of feed is a behavioural need in cattle, irrespective of actual rumen load. Twelve rumen fistulated cows were used and subjected to four different treatments: low rumen content+long duration of eating (A), high rumen content+short duration of eating (B), high rumen content+long duration of eating (=positive control) (C) and low rumen content+short duration of eating (=negative control) (D). To obtain treatment A and B, rumen content was transferred by hand from cow A to B through the rumen fistulaes. Each treatment lasted for 3 days with 2 weeks of recovery between each new treatment. The experiment was repeated twice during two consecutive years. All cows were fed the same mixture of silage, concentrate and hay. The cows were videotaped under normal conditions (24h), and on the third day of the experiment. From these videotapes, the behaviours (frequency and duration per 24h) have been analysed.Time spent eating differed between the four treatments (P<0.001), with shortest eating-times in B and D. The cows with low rumen content (A and D) spent shorter time ruminating (P<0.001) than the cows with filled rumen (B and C). The B and D cows (short duration of eating) spent longer time (P<0.001) with behaviours related to feed-searching than the cows with long duration of eating (A and C). The C cows had fewer (P<0.001) bouts of behaviours related to feed-searching than the A, B and D cows. Time spent with stereotypies (tongue-rolling) was longer (P<0.01) in D than in the other treatments. There was a difference (P<0.001) between treatments in eating bouts. The A cows had more (P<0.05) eating bouts than the cows in B, C and D. The cows with low rumen content (A and D) had fewer ruminating bouts (P<0.001) than the cows with filled rumens (B and C). The number of bouts with stereotypies differed (P<0.01), the cows in D having the highest figures compared with all the other treatments

  7. The balance between caseins and whey proteins in cow's milk determines its allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Lara-Villoslada, F; Olivares, M; Xaus, J

    2005-05-01

    Cow's milk allergy is quite common in the first years of human life. Protein composition plays an important role in this pathology, particularly the casein/whey protein ratio. It is known that milks from different species have different sensitization capacities although their protein sources are quite similar. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the allergenicity of native cow's milk and milk with a modified ratio of casein and whey proteins in a murine model of atopy. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were orally sensitized to native cow's milk or modified cow's milk with a casein/whey protein ratio of 40:60. During the sensitization period, the number of mice suffering from diarrhea was significantly higher in the native cow's milk-sensitized group than in the modified milk-sensitized group. Once mice were killed, plasma histamine levels were shown to be significantly higher in native cow's milk-sensitized mice. In addition, cow's milk proteins induced a higher lymphocyte sensitization in the native milk-sensitized mice, with a significant increase in the specific proliferation ratio of these cells. These results suggest that the balance between caseins and whey proteins plays an important role in the sensitization capacity of cow's milk, and its modification might be a way to reduce the allergenicity of cow's milk.

  8. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: reproduction, condition loss, plasma metabolites, and insulin.

    PubMed

    Chapa, A M; McCormick, M E; Fernandez, J M; French, D D; Ward, J D; Beatty, J F

    2001-04-01

    An experiment was conducted over a 2-yr period to investigate the influence of grain crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) concentration on reproduction and energy status of dairy cows grazing annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and oats (Avena sativa). Holstein cows (n = 122) were blocked by calving group [partum (0 d postpartum) vs. postpartum (41 +/- 19 d postpartum at study initiation)] and assigned to grain supplements containing high CP [22.8% of dry matter (DM)], moderate CP (16.6%), or moderate CP (16.2%)] supplemented with RUP from blood meal and corn gluten meal. Postpartum condition loss was greater and first-service pregnancy rate was lower for partum-group cows receiving high CP grain supplements compared with control cows receiving moderate CP supplements. The RUP supplements reduced grain consumption, increased days to first estrus, and reduced first-service pregnancy rate of partum-group cows. The reproduction of postpartum group cows was unaffected by protein supplements. Plasma urea nitrogen was higher for cows fed high CP diets, but plasma ammonia nitrogen, glycated hemoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydoxybutyrate, glucose, and insulin concentrations were similar to cows fed moderate CP. Excess postpartum condition loss, coupled with inconsistent protein supplement effects on days to first service and first-service pregnancy rate, suggest that energy deprivation may have contributed to the low fertility experienced by grazing cows in this study.

  9. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin.

    PubMed

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H; Dick, C Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-07-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements included individual cow daily feed intakes, daily milk production, body weights, and monensin residues in composite milk samples from each cow. There were no detectable monensin residues (< 0.005 microg/mL) in any of the milk samples collected. Lactating cows receiving a dose of 72 ppm monensin exhibited up to a 20% reduction in dry matter intake, and a 5% to 15% drop in milk production from the pre-challenge period. Cows receiving doses of 144 and 240 ppm monensin exhibited rapid decreases in feed intake of up to 50% by the 2nd d and milk production losses of up to 20% and 30%, respectively, within 4 d. Lactating cows receiving up to 4865 mg monensin per day had no detectable monensin residues (< 0.005 microg/mL) in any of the milk samples collected. Results of this study confirm that food products derived from lactating dairy cattle receiving monensin at recommended levels are safe for human consumption.

  10. Technical note: adjustment of all cow evaluations for yield traits to be comparable with bull evaluations.

    PubMed

    Wiggans, G R; Vanraden, P M; Cooper, T A

    2012-06-01

    Traditional evaluations of cows with genotypes have been adjusted since April 2010 to be comparable with evaluations of bulls so that their value for estimation of single nucleotide polymorphism effects in genomic evaluation programs would be improved. However, that adjustment made them not comparable with traditional evaluations of nongenotyped cows. To create an adjustment for all cows with an evaluation based on US data, Mendelian sampling, which is the difference between predicted transmitting ability (PTA) and parent average (PA), was calculated for milk, fat, and protein yields and divided by a deregression factor. Standard deviations for the deregressed Mendelian sampling (DMS) were grouped by reliability with PA contribution removed (REL(no PA)). A multiplicative adjustment to reduce the DMS standard deviation for cows so that it would be the same as for bulls with similar REL(no PA) was represented as a linear function of REL(no PA). Mean cow PA by birth year was subtracted from individual bull and cow PA to create within-year PA deviation groups, and mean DMS was calculated by PA deviation group. Means decreased for bulls and increased for cows with increasing deviation. The differences were fit by linear regression on PA deviation and used to adjust cow DMS. The adjustment reduced PTA of cows with a high PA and increased PTA of cows with a low PA but did not change estimated genetic trend because adjustment was within birth year. The adjustment also reduced variance of cow evaluations within birth year. Traditional evaluations of genotyped cows with a REL(no PA) of ≥55% were further adjusted so that the difference between those evaluations and direct genomic values calculated using only bulls as predictors was similar to that for bulls. The second adjustment was small compared with a 2010 adjustment and, therefore, had little effect on the comparability of evaluations for genotyped and nongenotyped cows. Cows with converted evaluations from other

  11. Nephrolithiasis resulting in intermittent ureteral obstruction in a cow.

    PubMed

    Divers, T J; Reef, V B; Roby, K A

    1989-04-01

    Bilateral nephrolithiasis with intermittent ureterolithiasis was diagnosed in a 7-year old Holstein cow. Two episodes of ureterolithiasis resulted in severe azotemia which resolved after spontaneous movement of the stone. A third episode of obstruction one year after the initial episode resulted in rupture of one kidney, necessitating euthanasia. The histopathological examination of the kidney was diagnostic for chronic pyelonephritis. Corynebacterium sp. was cultured from a nephrolith. In this case it is believed that the chronic pyelonephritis predisposed to the calculi formation.

  12. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L

    2013-03-01

    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  13. Detection of some organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardio, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Infanzon, R M; Rivera, J

    1996-01-01

    This monitoring study of 192 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean DDT and HCH levels were 0.057 and 0.098 mg/kg respectively expressed on fat basis and are within FAO tolerances and similar to those found in other tropical countries.

  14. Occupational cow horn eye injuries in ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Oa; Olusanya, Ba

    2014-11-01

    This case series aims to describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of occupational eye injuries caused by cow horns and to recommend possible preventive measures. A review of patients with cow horn inflicted eye injuries seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 2006, and December 2011 was conducted. Three patients were identified, and their charts were reviewed for demographic information, mechanism of injury, initial and final visual acuity, surgeries performed, as well as anatomic and visual outcome. The three patients were males and were aged 45, 22, and 49 years, respectively. They were all involved in cattle-related jobs, and they all had unilateral open-globe injuries with corneoscleral lacerations. Presenting visual acuity was nil light perception in the injured eyes. The contralateral eyes were all normal. Two of the patients required evisceration of the eye, while the third patient underwent repair of lacerations. Visual improvement was not achieved in any of the patients. Cow horn eye injuries may be quite severe and could result in loss of the eye with monocular blindness. Careful attention must be paid to prevent such injuries. Cattle rearers and dealers should wear safety goggles, and proper restraint of the animals is advocated.

  15. Peptidomic profile of milk of Holstein cows at peak lactation

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A.; Garay, Luis A.; Bhandari, Aashish; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Barile, Daniela; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk is known to contain naturally occurring peptides, but relatively few of their sequences have been determined. Human milk contains hundreds of endogenous peptides and the ensemble has been documented for antimicrobial actions. Naturally occurring peptides from bovine milk were sequenced and compared with human milk peptides. Bovine milk samples from six cows in second stage peak lactation at 78–121 days post- partum revealed 159 peptides. Most peptides (73%) were found in all six cows sampled, demonstrating the similarity of the intra-mammary peptide degradation across these cows. One peptide sequence, ALPIIQKLEPQIA from bovine perilipin 2 was identical to another found in human milk. Most peptides derived from β-casein, αs1-casein and αs2- casein. No peptides derived from abundant bovine milk proteins like lactoferrin, β- lactoglobulin and secretory immunoglobulin A. The enzymatic cleavage analysis revealed that milk proteins were degraded by plasmin, cathepsins B and D and elastase in all samples. PMID:24344900

  16. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts. PMID:23217175

  17. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. Results To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome. PMID:24888604

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the omasum in cows and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mohindroo, Jitender; Kumar, Ashwani; Sangwan, Vandana; Udehiya, Rahul; Singh, Simrat Sagar

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to establish the ultrasonographic features of the healthy and impacted omasum in cows and buffaloes. Scanning was done using a 3.5 MHz microconvex transducer. In healthy buffaloes, the omasum could be scanned at the eighth to ninth intercostal space as a round or oval structure having thick echogenic wall with echogenic leaves. Gradual slow movements of omasal leaves could also be seen in real-time B-mode. The omasum appeared to be very clear, large, and close to the transducer at the start of the omasal contraction, and as the contraction progressed the omasum retracted away from the transducer and became very small. In healthy cows the omasum was seen as a crescent-shaped structure with an echogenic wall. The contents of the omasum or omasal leaves could not be visualized. Omasal contractility was not as prominent as in buffaloes. In buffaloes, the impacted omasum appeared amotile, the omasal leaves were not visible, and the omasum as a whole gave a prominent distal acoustic shadow. In cows, the impaction could be diagnosed based on amotile omasum covering a large area on the right side. Ultrasonography was found to be helpful in subjective assessment of omasal impaction but could not aid in diagnosing the severity of impaction.

  19. High frequency of leptospiral vaginal carriers among slaughtered cows.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, A P; Pestana, C; Medeiros, M A; Lilenbaum, W

    2017-03-01

    Bovine leptospirosis is one of the most important reproductive diseases that compromise the productivity of cattle farming. However, the presence of the agent on vaginal environment is still poorly understood in cattle. Considering this context, the present study aimed to detect the presence of pathogenic Leptospira sp. in vaginal fluid (VF) of cows. VF and urine were collected from 254 cows from a slaughterhouse for bacteriological culture and PCR (lipL32 gene). Overall, eleven pure culture (4.3%) of leptospiral isolates were obtained. Leptospiral DNA was detected in 128 (50.4%) of VF samples and 81 (31.0%) of urine samples, while on 75 (29.5%) it was exclusively in VF and 28 (11.3%) only in the urine. Detection of leptospiral DNA and the recovery of viable leptospires from VF of a high number of cows without apparent symptoms highlight the role of vaginal carriers and indicate that venereal transmission (female-to-male) could occur in that species. Moreover, VF should be encouraged as a valuable sample for diagnosis of bovine genital leptospirosis.

  20. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions.

    PubMed

    Valtorta, Silvia E; Gallardo, Miriam R

    2004-05-01

    Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow(-1) day(-1)). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.