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Sample records for nonlinear double diffusive

  1. Cross-diffusion-driven hydrodynamic instabilities in a double-layer system: General classification and nonlinear simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budroni, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Cross diffusion, whereby a flux of a given species entrains the diffusive transport of another species, can trigger buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface of initially stable stratifications. Starting from a simple three-component case, we introduce a theoretical framework to classify cross-diffusion-induced hydrodynamic phenomena in two-layer stratifications under the action of the gravitational field. A cross-diffusion-convection (CDC) model is derived by coupling the fickian diffusion formalism to Stokes equations. In order to isolate the effect of cross-diffusion in the convective destabilization of a double-layer system, we impose a starting concentration jump of one species in the bottom layer while the other one is homogeneously distributed over the spatial domain. This initial configuration avoids the concurrence of classic Rayleigh-Taylor or differential-diffusion convective instabilities, and it also allows us to activate selectively the cross-diffusion feedback by which the heterogeneously distributed species influences the diffusive transport of the other species. We identify two types of hydrodynamic modes [the negative cross-diffusion-driven convection (NCC) and the positive cross-diffusion-driven convection (PCC)], corresponding to the sign of this operational cross-diffusion term. By studying the space-time density profiles along the gravitational axis we obtain analytical conditions for the onset of convection in terms of two important parameters only: the operational cross-diffusivity and the buoyancy ratio, giving the relative contribution of the two species to the global density. The general classification of the NCC and PCC scenarios in such parameter space is supported by numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear CDC problem. The resulting convective patterns compare favorably with recent experimental results found in microemulsion systems.

  2. Cross-diffusion-driven hydrodynamic instabilities in a double-layer system: General classification and nonlinear simulations.

    PubMed

    Budroni, M A

    2015-12-01

    Cross diffusion, whereby a flux of a given species entrains the diffusive transport of another species, can trigger buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface of initially stable stratifications. Starting from a simple three-component case, we introduce a theoretical framework to classify cross-diffusion-induced hydrodynamic phenomena in two-layer stratifications under the action of the gravitational field. A cross-diffusion-convection (CDC) model is derived by coupling the fickian diffusion formalism to Stokes equations. In order to isolate the effect of cross-diffusion in the convective destabilization of a double-layer system, we impose a starting concentration jump of one species in the bottom layer while the other one is homogeneously distributed over the spatial domain. This initial configuration avoids the concurrence of classic Rayleigh-Taylor or differential-diffusion convective instabilities, and it also allows us to activate selectively the cross-diffusion feedback by which the heterogeneously distributed species influences the diffusive transport of the other species. We identify two types of hydrodynamic modes [the negative cross-diffusion-driven convection (NCC) and the positive cross-diffusion-driven convection (PCC)], corresponding to the sign of this operational cross-diffusion term. By studying the space-time density profiles along the gravitational axis we obtain analytical conditions for the onset of convection in terms of two important parameters only: the operational cross-diffusivity and the buoyancy ratio, giving the relative contribution of the two species to the global density. The general classification of the NCC and PCC scenarios in such parameter space is supported by numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear CDC problem. The resulting convective patterns compare favorably with recent experimental results found in microemulsion systems.

  3. Double-diffusive layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, Florian; Kupka, Friedrich; Hücker, Sebastian; Egbers, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Double-diffusive convection plays an important role in geo- and astrophysical applications. The special case, where a destabilising temperature gradient counteracts a stabilising solute gradient leads to layering phenomena under certain conditions. Convectively mixed layers sandwiched in diffusive interfaces form a so-called stack. Well-known double-diffusive systems are observed in rift lakes in Africa and even from the coffee drink Latte Macciatto. Stacks of layers are also predicted to occur inside massive stars and inside giant planets. Their dynamics depend on the thermal, the solute and the momentum diffusivities, as well on the ratio of the gradients of the opposing stratifications. Since the layering process cannot be derived from linear stability analysis, the full nonlinear set of equations has to be investigated. Numerical simulations have become feasible for this task, despite the physical processes operate on a vast range of length and time scales, which is challenging for numerical hydrodynamical modelling. The oceanographically relevant case of fresh and salty water is investigated here in further details. The heat and mass transfer is compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements. Additionally, the initial dynamic of layering, the transient behaviour of a stack and the long time evolution are presented using the example of Lake Kivu and the interior of a giant planet.

  4. Double Diffusive Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Lee, Brace

    2008-11-01

    Sour gas flares attempt to dispose of deadly H2S gas through combustion. What does not burn rises as a buoyant plume. But the gas is heavier than air at room temperature, so as the rising gas cools eventually it becomes negatively buoyant and descends back to the ground. Ultimately, our intent is to predict the concentrations of the gas at ground level in realistic atmospheric conditions. As a first step towards this goal we have performed laboratory experiments examining the structure of a steady state plume of hot and salty water that rises buoyantly near the source and descends as a fountain after it has cooled sufficiently. We call this a double-diffusive plume because its evolution is dictated by the different (turbulent) diffusivities of heat and salt. A temperature and conductivity probe measures both the salinity and temperature along the centreline of the plume. The supposed axisymmetric structure of the salinity concentration as it changes with height is determined by light-attenuation methods. To help interpret the results, a theory has been successfully adapted from the work of Bloomfield and Kerr (2000), who developed coupled equations describing the structure of fountains. Introducing a new empirical parameter for the relative rates of turbulent heat and salt diffusion, the predictions are found to agree favourably with experimental results.

  5. Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayergoyz, I.D.

    1996-12-31

    Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.

  6. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akira, Igarashi; Lamberto, Rondoni; Antonio, Botrugno; Marco, Pizzi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call “transient osmosis". We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes.

  7. Double Diffusive Convection in Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    1999-01-01

    A great number of crystals grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity (g-jitter). As a specific example, past HgCdTe crystal growth space experiments by Lehoczky and co-workers indicate radial compositional asymmetry in the grown crystals. In the case of HgCdTe the rejected component into the melt upon solidification is HgTe which is denser than the melt. The space grown crystals indicate the presence of three dimensional flow with the heavier HgTe-rich material clearly aligned with the residual gravity (0.55-1.55 micro g) vector. This flow stems from double-diffusive convection, namely, thermal and solutal buoyancy driven flow in the melt. The study of double-diffusive convection is multi-faceted and rather vast. In our investigation, we seek to focus on one specific aspect of this discipline that is of direct relevance to materials processing especially crystal growth, namely, the side ways heating regime. This problem has been widely studied, both experimentally and numerically, in the context of solar ponds wherein the system is characterized by a linear salt (solutal) gradient with an imposed lateral temperature gradient. The induced flow instabilities arise from the wide disparity between the fluid thermal diffusivity and the solute diffusivity. The extension of the analysis to practical crystal growth applications has however not been rigorously made and understood. One subtle but important difference in crystal growth systems is the fact that die system solute gradient is non-linear (typically exponential). Besides, the crystal growth problem has the added complexities of solidification, both lateral and longitudinal thermal gradients and segregation phenomena in systems where binary and ternary compounds are being grown. This paper treats the side ways heating problem alone in

  8. Double Diffusive Convection in Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    1999-01-01

    A great number of crystals grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity (g-jitter). As a specific example, past HgCdTe crystal growth space experiments by Lehoczky and co-workers indicate radial compositional asymmetry in the grown crystals. In the case of HgCdTe the rejected component into the melt upon solidification is HgTe which is denser than the melt. The space grown crystals indicate the presence of three dimensional flow with the heavier HgTe-rich material clearly aligned with the residual gravity (0.55-1.55 micro g) vector. This flow stems from double-diffusive convection, namely, thermal and solutal buoyancy driven flow in the melt. The study of double-diffusive convection is multi-faceted and rather vast. In our investigation, we seek to focus on one specific aspect of this discipline that is of direct relevance to materials processing especially crystal growth, namely, the side ways heating regime. This problem has been widely studied, both experimentally and numerically, in the context of solar ponds wherein the system is characterized by a linear salt (solutal) gradient with an imposed lateral temperature gradient. The induced flow instabilities arise from the wide disparity between the fluid thermal diffusivity and the solute diffusivity. The extension of the analysis to practical crystal growth applications has however not been rigorously made and understood. One subtle but important difference in crystal growth systems is the fact that die system solute gradient is non-linear (typically exponential). Besides, the crystal growth problem has the added complexities of solidification, both lateral and longitudinal thermal gradients and segregation phenomena in systems where binary and ternary compounds are being grown. This paper treats the side ways heating problem alone in

  9. Compact waves in microscopic nonlinear diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, P I; Krapivsky, P L

    2012-06-01

    We analyze the spread of a localized peak of energy into vacuum for nonlinear diffusive processes. In contrast with standard diffusion, the nonlinearity results in a compact wave with a sharp front separating the perturbed region from vacuum. In d spatial dimensions, the front advances as t^{1/(2+da)} according to hydrodynamics, with a the nonlinearity exponent. We show that fluctuations in the front position grow as ∼t^{μ}η, where μ<1/2+da is an exponent that we measure and η is a random variable whose distribution we characterize. Fluctuating corrections to hydrodynamic profiles give rise to an excess penetration into vacuum, revealing scaling behaviors and robust features. We also examine the discharge of a nonlinear rarefaction wave into vacuum. Our results suggest the existence of universal scaling behaviors at the fluctuating level in nonlinear diffusion.

  10. Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koseff, J.R.

    1989-04-07

    A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in our case) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating and surface shear. The goals of the proposed work include: (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in an experimental facility which is located in the Stanford Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues: (1) the formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; (2) the interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; (3) the measurement of heat and mass fluxes; and (4) the influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. 1 fig.

  11. Numerical discretization for nonlinear diffusion filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, I.; Mizuar, I.; Aminuddin, M. M. M.; Dasril, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear diffusion filters are famously used in machine vision for image denoising and restoration. This paper presents a study on the effects of different numerical discretization of nonlinear diffusion filter. Several numerical discretization schemes are presented; namely semi-implicit, AOS, and fully implicit schemes. The results of these schemes are compared by visual results, objective measurement e.g. PSNR and MSE. The results are also compared to a Daubechies wavelet denoising method. It is acknowledged that the two preceding scheme have already been discussed in literature, however comparison to the latter scheme has not been made. The semi-implicit scheme uses an additive operator splitting (AOS) developed to overcome the shortcoming of the explicit scheme i.e., stability for very small time steps. Although AOS has proven to be efficient, from the nonlinear diffusion filter results with different discretization schemes, examples shows that implicit schemes are worth pursuing.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of a double bilipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Sample, C; Golovin, A A

    2007-09-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a biological double membrane that consists of two coupled lipid bilayers, typical of some intracellular organelles such as mitochondria or nuclei, is studied. A phenomenological free-energy functional is formulated in which the curvatures of the two parts of the double membrane and the distance between them are coupled to the lipid chemical composition. The derived nonlinear evolution equations for the double-membrane dynamics are studied analytically and numerically. A linear stability analysis is performed, and the domains of parameters are found in which the double membrane is stable. For the parameter values corresponding to an unstable membrane, numerical simulations are performed that reveal various types of complex dynamics, including the formation of stationary, spatially periodic patterns.

  13. Nonlinear diffusion waves in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Rybka, D. V.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear diffusion of a magnetic field and the large-scale instabilities arising upon an electrical explosion of conductors in a superstrong (2-3 MG) magnetic field were investigated experimentally on the MIG high-current generator (up to 2.5 peak current, 100 ns current rise time). It was observed that in the nonlinear stage of the process, the wavelength of thermal instabilities (striations) increased with a rate of 1.5-3 km/s.

  14. Nonlinear diffusion filtering influenced by mean curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Michal; Mikula, Karol; Čunderlík, Róbert

    2016-04-01

    The presentation introduces a new nonlinear diffusion filtering method on closed surfaces such as a sphere, ellipsoid or the Earth's surface. Our new model extends the regularized surface Perona-Malik model by including a local extrema detector based on a mean curvature of processed data. The model is thus represented by a nonlinear diffusion equation which filters noise while preserves main edges, local extrema and details important for a correct interpretation of data. We define a surface finite-volume method to approximate numerically the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation on a closed surface. The closed surface is approximated by a polyhedral surface created by planar triangles representing subdivision of an initial icosahedron grid and we use a piece-wise linear approximation of a solution in space and the backward Euler time discretization. Numerical experiments present nonlinear diffusion filtering of artificial data and real measurements, namely the GOCE satellite observations. They aim to point out a main advantage of the new nonlinear model which, on the contrary of Perona-Malik model, preserves local extremal values of filtered data.

  15. Smart nonlinear diffusion: a probabilistic approach.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yufang; Krim, Hamid

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic interpretation of nonlinear diffusion equations used for image filtering is proposed. This is achieved by relating the problem of evolving/smoothing images to that of tracking the transition probability density functions of an underlying random process. We show that such an interpretation of, e.g., Perona-Malik equation, in turn allows additional insight and sufficient flexibility to further investigate some outstanding problems of nonlinear diffusion techniques. In particular, upon unraveling the limitations as well as the advantages of such an equation, we are able to propose a new approach which is demonstrated to improve performance over existing approaches and, more importantly, to lift the longstanding problem of a stopping criterion for a nonlinear evolution equation with no data term constraint. Substantiating examples in image enhancement and segmentation are provided.

  16. Double-Diffusive Convection in Rotational Shear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    9 A. BASIC MODEL SETUP...9 B. VERSIONS OF THE BASIC MODEL ................................................. 11 1. Non-sheared Simulations...behind each method. After this basic familiarization, a study on the particular area of research was pursued. A. DOUBLE DIFFUSION HISTORY The

  17. Enhanced nonlinear susceptibility via double-double electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Hessa M. M.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical susceptibility of an alkali-metal atom with tripod electronic configuration responsible for generating cross-phase modulation and self-phase modulation under the condition of double-double electromagnetically induced transparency. Our investigation demonstrates an enhancement in the nonlinear optical susceptibility of an alkali-metal atom by a factor of 1000 in the region of the second transparency window. This enhancement is in comparison with the atom's susceptibility in the first transparency window for the same parameters under the same conditions. Nonlinear-absorption enhancement arises by canceling Raman-gain generation, which arises when the probe and signal fields have equal intensities. At the center of the second transparency window, we obtain the condition required to attain a nonvanishing nonlinear optical susceptibility. In the bare-state picture, the coupling field must be off resonant from a bare-to-bare-state transition, while working in the semiclassical dressed picture required the signal field to be tuned off resonantly with a bare-to-dressed-state transition. The relation that governs the values of coupling- and signal-field detuning are also obtained. Our scheme exhibits the fact that the second transparency window has advantages over the first transparency window with respect to obtaining an enhanced Kerr effect, and our calculation includes simulation of both low-temperature and Doppler-broadened regimes.

  18. Nonlinear Surface Transport in the Thin Double-Layer Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kevin; Bazant, Martin

    2006-03-01

    At high applied electric fields, ionic transport within the double layer plays a significant role in the overall response of electrokinetic systems. It is well-known that surface transport processes, including surface electromigration, surface diffusion and surface advection, may impact the strength of electrokinetic phenomena by affecting both the zeta-potential and the magnitude of the tangential electric field. Therefore, it is important to include these effects when formulating the effective boundary conditions for the equations that govern electrokinetic flow outside of the double layer. In this talk, we discuss the application of a general formulation of ``surface conservation laws'' for diffuse boundary layers to derive effective boundary conditions that capture the physics of electrokinetic surface transport. Previous analyses (e.g. Deryagin & Dukhin 1969) are only valid for weak applied fields and are based on a linearization of the concentration and potential about a reference solution, but our results are fully nonlinear and hold at large applied fields as long as the double layer is sufficiently thin. We compare our nonlinear surface transport theory with existing linear analogues and apply it to the canonical problem of induced-charge electro-osmosis around a metal sphere or cylinder in a strong DC field.

  19. Double diffusivity model under stochastic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2017-05-01

    The "double diffusivity" model was proposed in the late 1970s, and reworked in the early 1980s, as a continuum counterpart to existing discrete models of diffusion corresponding to high diffusivity paths, such as grain boundaries and dislocation lines. It was later rejuvenated in the 1990s to interpret experimental results on diffusion in polycrystalline and nanocrystalline specimens where grain boundaries and triple grain boundary junctions act as high diffusivity paths. Technically, the model pans out as a system of coupled Fick-type diffusion equations to represent "regular" and "high" diffusivity paths with "source terms" accounting for the mass exchange between the two paths. The model remit was extended by analogy to describe flow in porous media with double porosity, as well as to model heat conduction in media with two nonequilibrium local temperature baths, e.g., ion and electron baths. Uncoupling of the two partial differential equations leads to a higher-ordered diffusion equation, solutions of which could be obtained in terms of classical diffusion equation solutions. Similar equations could also be derived within an "internal length" gradient (ILG) mechanics formulation applied to diffusion problems, i.e., by introducing nonlocal effects, together with inertia and viscosity, in a mechanics based formulation of diffusion theory. While being remarkably successful in studies related to various aspects of transport in inhomogeneous media with deterministic microstructures and nanostructures, its implications in the presence of stochasticity have not yet been considered. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of diffusion in nanopolycrystals whose deterministic ILG-based theoretical calculations predict a relaxation time that is only about one-tenth of the actual experimentally verified time scale. This article provides the "missing link" in this estimation by adding a vital element in the ILG structure, that of stochasticity, that takes into

  20. Double-diffusive fingering convection in a porous medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Falin; Chen, C. F.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of nonlinear two-dimensional horizontally periodic double-diffusive fingering convection in a saturated porous medium is investigated, using the Darcy equation including Brinkman and Forchheimer terms for the momentum equation. To solve the equations and the corresponding initial and boundary conditions, a Galerkin method is applied in the horizontal direction, and a hybrid finite difference method is used in the vertical direction. The developed computer code was used to compute the thermal convection case, and the results were found to be in good agreement with existing results.

  1. Modified nonlinear complex diffusion filter (MNCDF).

    PubMed

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M L; Rohit, Manojkumar

    2012-06-01

    Speckle noise removal is the most important step in the processing of echocardiographic images. A speckle-free image produces useful information to diagnose heart-related diseases. Images which contain low noise and sharp edges are more easily analyzed by the clinicians. This noise removal stage is also a preprocessing stage in segmentation techniques. A new formulation has been proposed for a well-known nonlinear complex diffusion filter (NCDF). Its diffusion coefficient and the time step size are modified to give fast processing and better results. An investigation has been performed among nine patients suffering from mitral regurgitation. Images have been taken with 2D echo in apical and parasternal views. The peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), universal quality index (Qi), mean absolute error (MAE), mean square error (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE) have been calculated, and the results show that the proposed method is much better than the previous filters for echocardiographic images. The proposed method, modified nonlinear complex diffusion filter (MNCDF), smooths the homogeneous area and enhances the fine details.

  2. Double nonlinear resonance in ferromagnets and other dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakai, A. S.

    2010-08-01

    The phenomenon of double nonlinear resonances in nonlinear oscillators of general type is described. The results are used to describe a double nonlinear ferromagnetic resonance in a uniaxial ferromagnet. The possibility of a similar resonance in the system of brain biocurrents is considered.

  3. Transient nonlinear optically-thick radiative-convective double-diffusive boundary layers in a Darcian porous medium adjacent to an impulsively started surface: Network simulation solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Bég, O.; Zueco, J.; Takhar, H. S.; Bég, T. A.; Sajid, A.

    2009-11-01

    A boundary-layer model is described for the two-dimensional nonlinear transient thermal convection heat and mass transfer in an optically-thick fluid in a Darcian porous medium adjacent to an impulsively started vertical surface, in the presence of significant thermal radiation and buoyancy forces in an (X∗,Y∗,t∗) coordinate system. An algebraic approximation is employed to simplify the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer for unidirectional flux normal to the plate into the boundary-layer regime, by incorporating this flux term in the energy conservation equation. The conservation equations are non-dimensionalized into an (X,Y,T) coordinate system and solved using the Network Simulation Method (NSM), a robust numerical technique which demonstrates high efficiency and accuracy. The transient variation of non-dimensional streamwise velocity component (u) and temperature (T) and concentration (C) functions is computed for various selected values of Stark number (radiation-conduction interaction parameter) and Darcy number. Transient velocity (u) and steady-state local skin friction (τX) are also studied for various thermal Grashof number (Gr), species Grashof number (Gm), Schmidt number (Sc) and Stark number (N) values. These computations for the infinite permeability case (Da → ∞) are compared with previous finite difference solutions [Prasad et al. Int J Therm Sci 2007;46(12):1251-8] and shown to be in excellent agreement. An increase in Darcy number is seen to accelerate the flow and boost velocity. A decrease in Stark number (corresponding to an increase in thermal radiation heat transfer contribution) is shown to increase the velocity values. Temperature function is observed to fall in value with a rise in Da and increase with decrease in N (corresponding to an increase in thermal radiation heat transfer contribution). Applications of the study include rocket combustion chambers, astrophysical flows, spacecraft thermal fluid dynamics in

  4. Double-diffusive convection with sidewalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Boisvert, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Stommel et al. (1956) have first described an instability, known as thermosolutal convection, thermohaline convection, or double-diffusive convection. This instability may occur in the case of a fluid in a gravitational field with two diffusing components present. The present study is concerned with the effect of sidewalls on flow in the fingering regime in the absence of applied horizontal gradients. The work was motivated by numerical results obtained on the basis of a simulation of thermosolutal convection occurring during the unidirectional solidification of a binary alloy. In this case, the unperturbed solute field in the liquid ahead of the solidifying planar interface has an exponential vertical profile because of the rejection or preferential incorporation of solute by the solid phase.

  5. Delinating Thermohaline Double-Diffusive Rayleigh Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, T.; Walther, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liedl, R.

    2013-12-01

    In natural systems, convective flow induced from density differences may occur in near-coastal aquifers, atmospheric boundary layers, oceanic streams or within the earth crust. Whether an initially stable, diffusive regime evolves into a convective (stable or chaotic) regime, or vice versa, depends on the system's framing boundary conditions. A conventional parameter to express the relation between diffusive and convective forces of such a density-driven regime is Rayleigh number (Ra). While most systems are mainly dominated by only a single significant driving force (i.e. only temperature or salinity), some systems need to consider two boundary processes (e.g. deep, thus warm, haline flow in porous media). In that case, a two-dimensional, 'double-diffusive' Rayleigh system can be defined. Nield (1998) postulated a boundary between diffusive and convective regime at RaT + RaC = 4pi^2 in the first quadrant (Q1), with Rayleigh numbers for temperature and concentration respectively. The boundary in the forth quadrant (Q4) could not exactly be determined, yet the approximate position estimated. Simulations with HydroGeoSphere (Therrien, 2010) using a vertical, quadratic, homogeneous, isotropic setup confirmed the existence of the 4pi^2-boundary and revealed additional regimes (diffusive, single-roll, double-roll, chaotic) in Q1. Also, non-chaotic, oscillating patterns could be identified in Q4. More detailed investigations with OpenGeoSys (Kolditz, 2012) confirmed the preceding HGS results, and, using a 1:10-scaled domain (height:length), uncovered even more distinctive regimes (diffusive, minimum ten roles, supposely up to 25 roles, and chaotic?) in Q1, while again, oscillating patterns were found in the transition zone between diffusive and chaotic regimes in Q4. Output of numerical simulations from Q1 and Q4 show the mentioned regimes (diffusive, stable-convective, stable-oscillatory, chaotic) while results are displayed in context of a possible delination between

  6. Solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation: Application to ionic diffusion in cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Sloot, H.A. van der

    2013-02-15

    A robust numerical solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for asymmetric polyelectrolyte solutions in discrete pore geometries is presented. Comparisons to the linearized approximation of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation reveal that the assumptions leading to linearization may not be appropriate for the electrochemical regime in many cementitious materials. Implications of the electric double layer on both partitioning of species and on diffusive release are discussed. The influence of the electric double layer on anion diffusion relative to cation diffusion is examined.

  7. Double-diffusive inner core convective translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguen, Renaud; Alboussière, Thierry; Labrosse, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    The hemispherical asymmetry of the inner core has been interpreted as resulting form a high-viscosity mode of inner core convection, consisting in a translation of the inner core. With melting on one hemisphere and crystallization on the other one, inner core translation would impose a strongly asymmetric buoyancy flux at the bottom of the outer core, with likely strong implications for the dynamics of the outer core and the geodynamo. The main requirement for convective instability in the inner core is an adverse radial density gradient. While older estimates of the inner core thermal conductivity favored a superadiabatic temperature gradient and the existence of thermal convection, the much higher values recently proposed makes thermal convection very unlikely. Compositional convection might be a viable alternative to thermal convection: an unstable compositional gradient may arise in the inner core either because the light elements present in the core are predicted to become increasingly incompatible as the inner core grows (Gubbins et al. 2013), or because of a possibly positive feedback of the development of the F-layer on inner core convection. Though the magnitude of the destabilizing effect of the compositional field is predicted to be similar to or smaller than the stabilizing effect of the thermal field, the huge difference between thermal and chemical diffusivities implies that double-diffusive instabilities can still arise even if the net density decreases upward. We propose here a theoretical and numerical study of double diffusive convection in the inner core that demonstrate that a translation mode can indeed exist if the compositional field is destabilizing, even if the temperature profile is subadiabatic, and irrespectively of the relative magnitude of the destabilizing compositional gradient and stabilizing temperature field. The predicted inner core translation rate is similar to the mean inner core growth rate, which is more consistent with

  8. Nonlinear diffusion filtering methods locally adapted to data features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Michal; Čunderlík, Róbert; Mikula, Karol

    2017-04-01

    The contribution deals with nonlinear diffusion filtering methods on a planar surface. These methods represent an extension of the simple linear diffusion filtering by the nonlinear diffusivity coefficient. This coefficient represents a function which depends on data features such as gradient and local or global extrema of data. In the case of the regularized surface Perona-Malik model, method mostly used in image processing, the diffusivity coefficient represents the edge detector function. If we use the nonlinear diffusion filtering influenced by the Laplace operator, local extrema detector function affects the diffusion process. We use a finite-volume method to approximate numerically the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation on uniform rectangle grid and finite difference method to approximate gradients and Laplacians. Numerical experiments present nonlinear diffusion filtering of artificial data and real measurements in upcoming filtering software with real-time filtered data visualization widget. Real measurements represent GOCE satellite observations, satellite-only MDT data, and high-resolution altimetry-derived gravity data. They aim to point out the main advantage of the nonlinear diffusion models which, on the contrary to linear models, preserve important structures of processed data.

  9. Double-Diffusive Layers and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dude, Sabine; Hansen, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Researching the thermal evolution of the Earth's mantle on numerical base is very challenging. During the last decade different approaches are put forward in oder to understand the picture of the today's Earth's mantle. One way is to incorporate all the known features and physics (plate tectonics, phase transitions, CMB-topography, ...) into numerical models and make them as complex (or 'complete') as possible to capture Earth's mantle processes and surface signals. Another way is, to take a step back and look at less complex models which account for single processes and their interaction and evolution. With these 'simpler' models one is able look in detail into the physical processes and dependencies on certain parameters. Since the knowledge of slab stagnation in the transitions zone of the Earth's mantle the question whether the mantle is or at least has been layered to some degree is still under debate. On this basis we address two important features that lead to layered mantle convection and may affect each other and with this the thermal evolution of the mantle. It is commonly known the main mantle mineral olivine pass through various phase changes with depth [1]. Detailed numerical studies had been carried out to ascertain the influence on convective motion and planetary evolution [2]. It is still heavily discussed whether the endothermic phase change at 660km depth can lead an isolated lower mantle. Most of the numerical studies favour a model which has phases of layering that are disrupted by catastrophic events. In the last years double-diffusive convection has also been intensively studied with regard to planetary mantle evolution such as pile formation and core-mantle boundary topography [3]. However, another striking feature still posing open questions are evolving layers self-organised from a previous non layered state. Considering a chemical component that influences the density of a fluid in addition to the temperature leads to dynamical phenomena

  10. Lattice Boltzmann model for nonlinear convection-diffusion equations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2009-01-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for convection-diffusion equation with nonlinear convection and isotropic-diffusion terms is proposed through selecting equilibrium distribution function properly. The model can be applied to the common real and complex-valued nonlinear evolutionary equations, such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, Burgers-Fisher equation, nonlinear heat conduction equation, and sine-Gordon equation, by using a real and complex-valued distribution function and relaxation time. Detailed simulations of these equations are performed, and it is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions and the numerical solutions reported in previous studies.

  11. Double-diffusive convection in Lake Nyos, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Martin; Lorke, Andreas; Dinkel, Christian; Tanyileke, Gregory; Wüest, Alfred

    2004-08-01

    Since the catastrophic CO 2 eruption in 1986, Lake Nyos has been investigated in detail by several research groups. However, no signs of double-diffusive convection were observed before December 2002, when a set of 26 well-mixed layers with thicknesses of 0.2-2.1 m and sharp interfaces in between were discovered at 53-74 m depth. Such pronounced steps are a characteristic feature of double-diffusive convection of the diffusive regime. A temperature time series measured at 62 m depth indicates that the double-diffusive convection started in the second half of March 2002. The trigger was most probably the cooling at the top of this layer caused by relatively strong seasonal convective mixing down to 52.5 m depth during the dry season in February 2002. The heat fluxes calculated by the heat budget method and the thicknesses of the layers agree within the uncertainties with the values expected from the double-diffusive flux laws. The heat fluxes increased by an order of magnitude since the establishment of the double-diffusive convection and reached values comparable to the heat input by a source of warm and CO 2-enriched water to the deepest zone of the water column. In contrast, the CO 2 fluxes caused by double diffusion are negligible compared to the input by this source. Because the double-diffusive heat fluxes were higher in the upper layers of the staircase compared to the lower ones, the temperature gradient between 60 and 75 m depth approximately doubled from March 2002 to December 2002, whereas the total dissolved solids gradient remained almost constant during this period. Consequently, this process is reducing the stability of the staircase and could potentially lead to a complete homogenization of this zone within a few years. It cannot be excluded that a similar double-diffusive event could have been the trigger of the CO 2 eruption in 1986.

  12. A new nonlocal nonlinear diffusion of image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidotti, Patrick

    A novel nonlocal nonlinear diffusion is analyzed which has proven useful as a denoising tool in image processing. The equation can be viewed as a new paradigm for the regularization of the well-known Perona-Malik equation. The regularization is implemented via nonlinearity intensity reduction through fractional derivatives. Well-posedness in the weak setting is established. Global existence and convergence to the average holds in the purely diffusive limit whereas an interesting dynamic behavior is engendered by the presence of nontrivial equilibria as the intensity of the nonlinearity is increased and comes close to the one of Perona-Malik.

  13. Entropic and gradient flow formulations for nonlinear diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Dirr, Nicolas; Stamatakis, Marios Zimmer, Johannes

    2016-08-15

    Nonlinear diffusion ∂{sub t}ρ = Δ(Φ(ρ)) is considered for a class of nonlinearities Φ. It is shown that for suitable choices of Φ, an associated Lyapunov functional can be interpreted as thermodynamic entropy. This information is used to derive an associated metric, here called thermodynamic metric. The analysis is confined to nonlinear diffusion obtainable as hydrodynamic limit of a zero range process. The thermodynamic setting is linked to a large deviation principle for the underlying zero range process and the corresponding equation of fluctuating hydrodynamics. For the latter connections, the thermodynamic metric plays a central role.

  14. Parity breaking with a nonlinear optical double-slit configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltoglou, Vassilis; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.

    2017-02-01

    We consider an optical nonlinear interferometric setup based on Young's double-slit configuration where a nonlinear material is placed exactly after one of the two slits. We examine the effects of Kerr nonlinearity and multi-photon absorption in the resulting interference pattern. The presence of nonlinearity breaks the transverse spatial symmetry of the system, resulting to a modified intensity pattern at the observation plane as a function of the incident intensity. Our theoretical model, based on the modification of the optical path due to the presence of nonlinearity, is surprisingly accurate in predicting the intensity profile of the main lobes for a wide range of parameters. We discuss about potential applications of our model in nonlinear interferometry. Specifically, we show that it is possible to measure both the multi-photon and the Kerr coefficients of a nonlinear material based on the spatial translation of the interference pattern as a function of the incident intensity.

  15. Dissipative double-well potential: Nonlinear stationary and pulsating modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Alfimov, Georgy L.

    2010-11-15

    The analysis of nonlinear modes in a complex absorbing double-well potential supported by linear gain is presented. Families of the nonlinear modes and their bifurcations are found numerically by means of the properly modified 'shooting' method. Linear stability and dynamics of the modes are studied. It is shown that no stable modes exist in the case of attractive nonlinearity, while stable modes, including nonsymmetric ones, are found when the nonlinearity is repulsive. Varying a control parameter (e.g., the height of barrier between the wells) results in switching from one mode to another. Apart from stationary modes we have found pulsating solutions emergent from unstable modes.

  16. Internal Gravity Wave Interactions with Double-Diffusive Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Justin; Radko, Timour

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we focus on the phenomenon of oscillatory double-diffusive convection, which occurs when cool fresh water is stratified above warm salty water, as commonly observed in the Arctic Ocean. In the Arctic, these regions are generally stable to the development of oscillatory double-diffusive instabilities; despite this, observations show the presence of staircases, i.e., the well-defined structures consisting of a series of homogeneous layers separated by thin high-gradient interfaces. Recent studies have shown that an instability can develop in such circumstances if weak static shear is present even when the shear and double-diffusion are themselves individually stable. However, the impact of oscillating shear, associated with the ubiquitous presence of internal gravity waves, has not yet been addressed for the diffusive case. Through two-dimensional simulations of diffusive convection, we have investigated the impact of magnitude and frequency of externally forced internal waves on the double-diffusive shear instability. The analysis is focused on the parameter regime in which the flow is individually stable with respect to double-diffusion and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but could be susceptible to the combined thermohaline-shear instability. We have illustrated that rapid oscillation inhibits the development of this instability if the dominant period is shorter than four hours for the oceanographically relevant parameters; otherwise, models with static shear adequately reproduce our results. If the dominant period is shorter than four hours but still significantly exceeds the buoyancy period, the instability range is much reduced to the low Richardson number regime. Some of these simulations show the saturated system developing into structures reminiscent of double-diffusive staircases whose thickness is given by the wavelength of the forced shear. Finally, preliminary three-dimensional simulations show no major differences in the growth rate of

  17. Mixed layer development in a double-diffusive, thermohaline system

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawsky, C.J.; Incropera, F.P.; Viskanta, R.

    1981-11-01

    A double-diffusive, thermohaline system has been studied under laboratory conditions involving uniform heating from below. Shadowgraph visualization has been used with temperature and salt concentration measurements to investigate mixing layer development and the onset of diffusion layer instabilities. Such instabilities were observed to occur in two of the experiments and were approximately predicted by an existing stability criterion. 17 refs.

  18. Double symbolic joint entropy in nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wenpo; Wang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Symbolizations, the base of symbolic dynamic analysis, are classified as global static and local dynamic approaches which are combined by joint entropy in our works for nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis. Two global static methods, symbolic transformations of Wessel N. symbolic entropy and base-scale entropy, and two local ones, namely symbolizations of permutation and differential entropy, constitute four double symbolic joint entropies that have accurate complexity detections in chaotic models, logistic and Henon map series. In nonlinear dynamical analysis of different kinds of heart rate variability, heartbeats of healthy young have higher complexity than those of the healthy elderly, and congestive heart failure (CHF) patients are lowest in heartbeats' joint entropy values. Each individual symbolic entropy is improved by double symbolic joint entropy among which the combination of base-scale and differential symbolizations have best complexity analysis. Test results prove that double symbolic joint entropy is feasible in nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis.

  19. Period-Doubling Bifurcation in Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jian-Min

    The dependence of the critical exponents, such as the Feigenbaum ratios, of the period-doubling bifurcation on the order of critical point z is studied. The dependence is quantitatively given for one-dimensional dissipative maps. The scaling factor in the period-doubling power spectrum of a class of two-dimensional area-preserving maps is found to approach a universal limit by both fast Fourier transform and autocorrelation-function analysis. The dependence of the fractal dimension on the critical-point order is studied. The variation of the three most commonly used definitions of dimension, viz., the capacity, the information dimension, and the correlation exponent, is computed as a function of z. The numerical values agree very well with analytical estimates. The dependence of the scaling of the period-doubling bifurcation on the dimensionality of the reduced phase space is considered. Especially, the investigation of period-doubling bifurcations in four-dimensional symplectic maps indicates the existence of an universally self-similar period-doubling sequence. The fixed-point map has two unstable directions under the period-doubling operator with two relevant eigenvalues. The four orbital scaling factors have been found. As an extension of the Feigenbaum scaling law for parameter and orbital element, a many-term scaling law is suggested. For one-dimensional dissipative maps, two-dimensional area-preserving maps, and four-dimensional symplectic maps, the many-term scaling law is very well obeyed. New scaling factors have been found.

  20. Pattern formation due to non-linear vortex diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Einfeld, J.; Wördenweber, R.; Griessen, R.

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconducting thin films in an external magnetic field is visualized using a magneto-optic technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex diffusion is observed: (1) Roughening of the flux front with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper including two distinct regimes where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. (2) Fractal penetration of flux with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. (3) Penetration as ‘flux-rivers’. (4) The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori. It is shown that most of the observed behavior is related to the non-linear diffusion of vortices by comparison with simulations of the non-linear diffusion equation appropriate for vortices.

  1. Model and Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Nanofluids with Cattaneo-Christov Double Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Here two classes of viscoelastic fluids have been analyzed in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion expressions of heat and mass transfer. A linearly stretched sheet has been used to create the flow. Thermal and concentration diffusions are characterized firstly by introducing Cattaneo-Christov fluxes. Novel features regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are retained. The conversion of nonlinear partial differential system to nonlinear ordinary differential system has been taken into place by using suitable transformations. The resulting nonlinear systems have been solved via convergent approach. Graphs have been sketched in order to investigate how the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are affected by distinct physical flow parameters. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rates at the wall are also computed and discussed. Our observations demonstrate that the temperature and concentration fields are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters.

  2. Three-dimensional flow of nanofluid with Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir

    Three dimensional (3D) boundary-layer flow of viscous nanofluid has been investigated in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion. A bi-directional linearly stretching sheet has been used to create the flow. Thermal and concentration diffusions are characterized by introducing Cattaneo-Christov fluxes. Novel attributes regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are retained. The conversion of nonlinear partial differential system to nonlinear ordinary differential system is done through suitable transformations. The resulting nonlinear systems are solved. Graphs have been sketched in order to investigate that how the temperature and concentration profiles are affected by distinct physical flow parameters. Further the skin friction and heat and mass transfer rates are numerically computed and discussed. Our findings depict that temperature and concentration distributions are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters.

  3. Model and Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Nanofluids with Cattaneo-Christov Double Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Here two classes of viscoelastic fluids have been analyzed in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion expressions of heat and mass transfer. A linearly stretched sheet has been used to create the flow. Thermal and concentration diffusions are characterized firstly by introducing Cattaneo-Christov fluxes. Novel features regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are retained. The conversion of nonlinear partial differential system to nonlinear ordinary differential system has been taken into place by using suitable transformations. The resulting nonlinear systems have been solved via convergent approach. Graphs have been sketched in order to investigate how the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are affected by distinct physical flow parameters. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rates at the wall are also computed and discussed. Our observations demonstrate that the temperature and concentration fields are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. PMID:28046011

  4. Bright solitons in nonlinear media with a self-defocusing double-well nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiongtao; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Yizhen; Shen, Zhenjiang; Fu, Jun

    2014-12-01

    We show that stable bright solitons can appear in a medium with spatially inhomogeneous self-defocusing (SDF) nonlinearity of a double-well structure. For a specific choice of the nonlinearity parameters, we obtain exact analytical solutions for the fundamental bright solitons. By making use of the linear stability analysis, the stability region in the parameter space for the exact fundamental bright soliton is obtained numerically. We also show the bifurcation from an antisymmetric to an asymmetric bright soliton for the SDF double-well nonlinearity.

  5. On nonlinear conservation laws with a nonlocal diffusion term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achleitner, F.; Hittmeir, S.; Schmeiser, C.

    Scalar one-dimensional conservation laws with a nonlocal diffusion term corresponding to a Riesz-Feller differential operator are considered. Solvability results for the Cauchy problem in L are adapted from the case of a fractional derivative with homogeneous symbol. The main interest of this work is the investigation of smooth shock profiles. In the case of a genuinely nonlinear smooth flux function we prove the existence of such travelling waves, which are monotone and satisfy the standard entropy condition. Moreover, the dynamic nonlinear stability of the travelling waves under small perturbations is proven, similarly to the case of the standard diffusive regularisation, by constructing a Lyapunov functional.

  6. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Del Razo, Mauricio; Pan, Wenxiao; Qian, Hong; Lin, Guang

    2014-05-30

    The currently existing theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is based on the linear fluctuation theory originally developed by Einstein, Onsager, Lax, and others as a phenomenological approach to equilibrium fluctuations in bulk solutions. For mesoscopic reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear chemical reactions among a small number of molecules, a situation often encountered in single-cell biochemistry, it is expected that FCS time correlation functions of a reaction-diffusion system can deviate from the classic results of Elson and Magde [Biopolymers (1974) 13:1-27]. We first discuss this nonlinear effect for reaction systems without diffusion. For nonlinear stochastic reaction-diffusion systems there are no closed solutions; therefore, stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out. We show that the deviation is small for a simple bimolecular reaction; the most significant deviations occur when the number of molecules is small and of the same order. Extending Delbrück-Gillespie’s theory for stochastic nonlinear reactions with rapidly stirring to reaction-diffusion systems provides a mesoscopic model for chemical and biochemical reactions at nanometric and mesoscopic level such as a single biological cell.

  7. Evolution Nonlinear Diffusion-Convection PDE Models for Spectrogram Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugnol, B.; Fernández, C.; Galiano, G.; Velasco, J.

    2008-09-01

    In previous works we studied the application of PDE-based image processing techniques applied to the spectrogram of audio signals in order to improve the readability of the signal. In particular we considered the implementation of the nonlinear diffusive model proposed by Álvarez, Lions and Morel [1](ALM) combined with a convective term inspired by the differential reassignment proposed by Chassandre-Mottin, Daubechies, Auger and Flandrin [2]-[3]. In this work we consider the possibility of replacing the diffusive model of ALM by diffusive terms in divergence form. In particular we implement finite element approximations of nonlinear diffusive terms studied by Chen, Levine, Rao [4] and Antontsev, Shmarev [5]-[8] with a convective term.

  8. Double diffusive convection in a porous medium layer saturated with an Oldroyd nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umavathi, J. C.; Sasso, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The onset of double diffusive convection in a horizontal layer of a porous medium saturated with an Oldroyd nanofluid is studied using linear and non-linear stability analysis. The modified Darcy-Oldroyd model is used for the momentum equation. The model used for the Oldroyd nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The thermal energy equations include the diffusion and cross diffusion terms. The linear theory depends on normal mode technique and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically. The effects of various governing parameters viz., concentration Rayleigh number, nanofluid Lewis number, modified diffusivity ratio, Soret and Dufour parameters, Solutal Rayleigh number, Vadasz number, Lewis number, relaxation, and retardation parameters, viscosity ratio and conductivity ratio on the stationary and oscillatory convections are presented graphically. The non-linear theory based on the representation of Fourier series method is used to find the heat and mass transport. The effect of various parameters on transient heat and mass transfer is also brought out and nonlinear analysis depends on a minimal representation of double Fourier series. We also study the effect of time on transient Nusselt numbers which is found to be oscillatory when time is small. However, when time becomes very large all the three transient Nusselt values approaches to their steady state values.

  9. MHD Oldroyd-B fluid flow across a melting surface with cross diffusion and double stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, N.; Gnaneswara Reddy, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed the Oldroyd-B flow across a horizontal melting surface with cross-diffusion and double stratification (thermal and solutal) effects. We reconstructed the controlling equations as a group of nonlinear ODEs and solved by employing the RK-based shooting technique. The influence of important specifications on the three common profiles (velocity, temperature and concentration) is discussed through the plots. Tables are utilized to discuss the heat and mass transfer rates. We verified that the thermal stratification improves the heat transfer rate. Cross diffusion regulates the concentration and thermal fields.

  10. Experiments with a Class of Nonlinear Anti-Diffusion Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moini-Yekta, Shayan

    The use of artificial viscosity in the simulation of viscous flows with separation, as well as inviscid flows with shocks is demonstrated first, based on standard central difference schemes. The effects of a class of nonlinear anti-diffusion schemes are studied. Furthermore, the anti-diffusion scheme is used to simulate turbulent flows over a flat plate and an ellipse, based on a primitive variable formulation in curvilinear coordinates and the artificial compressibility method. Both Baldwin-Lomax and Spalart-Allamaras models are implemented and the results are compared to those of the NASA CFL3D code. The results based on the anti-diffusion scheme are encouraging as third order upwinding results are recovered with first order upwinding with anti-diffusion.

  11. Boundedness in a chemotaxis-haptotaxis model with nonlinear diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Lankeit, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    This article deals with an initial-boundary value problem for the coupled chemotaxis-haptotaxis system with nonlinear diffusion under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a bounded smooth domain Ω \\subset {{{R}}n} , n  =  2, 3, 4, where χ,ξ and μ are given nonnegative parameters. The diffusivity D(u) is assumed to satisfy D(u)≥slant δ {{u}m-1} for all u  >  0 with some δ >0 . It is proved that for sufficiently regular initial data global bounded solutions exist whenever m>2-\\frac{2}{n} . For the case of non-degenerate diffusion (i.e. D(0)  >  0) the solutions are classical; for the case of possibly degenerate diffusion (D(0)≥slant 0 ), the existence of bounded weak solutions is shown.

  12. Nonlinear saturation of trapped electron modes via perpendicular particle diffusion.

    PubMed

    Merz, F; Jenko, F

    2008-01-25

    In magnetized fusion plasmas, trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence constitutes, together with ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence, the dominant source of anomalous transport on ion scales. While ITG modes are known to saturate via nonlinear zonal flow generation, this mechanism is shown to be of little importance for TEM turbulence in the parameter regime explored here. Instead, a careful analysis of the statistical properties of the ExB nonlinearity in the context of gyrokinetic turbulence simulations reveals that perpendicular particle diffusion is the dominant saturation mechanism. These findings allow for the construction of a rather realistic quasilinear model of TEM induced transport.

  13. Diapycnal Transport and Pattern Formation in Double-Diffusive Convection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    been made to combine the classical and mixing-driven views into a unified framework ( Salmon 1990, Samelson and Vallis 1997). These newer theories...of the stability of the water column to double- diffusive activity. Deep-Sea Research, 30, 1105–1107. Salmon , R., 1990: The thermocline as an

  14. Numerical simulation of double-diffusive finger convection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Vacher, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid finite element, integrated finite difference numerical model is developed for the simulation of double-diffusive and multicomponent flow in two and three dimensions. The model is based on a multidimensional, density-dependent, saturated-unsaturated transport model (SUTRA), which uses one governing equation for fluid flow and another for solute transport. The solute-transport equation is applied sequentially to each simulated species. Density coupling of the flow and solute-transport equations is accounted for and handled using a sequential implicit Picard iterative scheme. High-resolution data from a double-diffusive Hele-Shaw experiment, initially in a density-stable configuration, is used to verify the numerical model. The temporal and spatial evolution of simulated double-diffusive convection is in good agreement with experimental results. Numerical results are very sensitive to discretization and correspond closest to experimental results when element sizes adequately define the spatial resolution of observed fingering. Numerical results also indicate that differences in the molecular diffusivity of sodium chloride and the dye used to visualize experimental sodium chloride concentrations are significant and cause inaccurate mapping of sodium chloride concentrations by the dye, especially at late times. As a result of reduced diffusion, simulated dye fingers are better defined than simulated sodium chloride fingers and exhibit more vertical mass transfer. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Anomalous Transport of Cosmic Rays in a Nonlinear Diffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Fichtner, Horst; Walter, Dominik

    2017-05-01

    We investigate analytically and numerically the transport of cosmic rays following their escape from a shock or another localized acceleration site. Observed cosmic-ray distributions in the vicinity of heliospheric and astrophysical shocks imply that anomalous, superdiffusive transport plays a role in the evolution of the energetic particles. Several authors have quantitatively described the anomalous diffusion scalings, implied by the data, by solutions of a formal transport equation with fractional derivatives. Yet the physical basis of the fractional diffusion model remains uncertain. We explore an alternative model of the cosmic-ray transport: a nonlinear diffusion equation that follows from a self-consistent treatment of the resonantly interacting cosmic-ray particles and their self-generated turbulence. The nonlinear model naturally leads to superdiffusive scalings. In the presence of convection, the model yields a power-law dependence of the particle density on the distance upstream of the shock. Although the results do not refute the use of a fractional advection-diffusion equation, they indicate a viable alternative to explain the anomalous diffusion scalings of cosmic-ray particles.

  16. Codimension Two Bifurcation with Double-Zero Eigenvalue for Two-Dimensional Double Diffusive Convection in a Square Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Jiro; Izumikawa, Hayato; Fujimura, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional double diffusive convection of a binary fluid mixture in a square container is investigated by linear and weakly nonlinear stability analyses, numerical simulations and numerical calculations of steady solutions in the present paper. We consider an ethanol-water mixture as the binary fluid, in which the temperature and the ethanol concentration interact through the Soret effect, both affecting the fluid motion via buoyancy force. The bottom of the container is kept at a higher temperature than the top, while the side walls are assumed thermally insulating. The heat conduction state is known to become unstable to an oscillatory mode as well as a stationary mode of disturbance, and the two instability modes exchange at a set of parameter values, called codimension two point. It was reported that the convection often tend to a steady state even if the instability is induced by an oscillatory mode, which is an unusual flow property. We explore its mathematical and physical reason by formally deriving a set of amplitude equations near the codimension two point by applying the center manifold theory. It is shown that the unusual nonlinear behavior of the double diffusive convection is clearly explained from the bifurcation structure of the solutions to the set of amplitude equations.

  17. Traveling wavefront solutions to nonlinear reaction-diffusion-convection equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indekeu, Joseph O.; Smets, Ruben

    2017-08-01

    Physically motivated modified Fisher equations are studied in which nonlinear convection and nonlinear diffusion is allowed for besides the usual growth and spread of a population. It is pointed out that in a large variety of cases separable functions in the form of exponentially decaying sharp wavefronts solve the differential equation exactly provided a co-moving point source or sink is active at the wavefront. The velocity dispersion and front steepness may differ from those of some previously studied exact smooth traveling wave solutions. For an extension of the reaction-diffusion-convection equation, featuring a memory effect in the form of a maturity delay for growth and spread, also smooth exact wavefront solutions are obtained. The stability of the solutions is verified analytically and numerically.

  18. Exact nonlinear excitations in double-degenerate plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2012-06-15

    In this work, we use the conventional hydrodynamics formalism and incorporate the Chew-Goldberger-Low double-adiabatic theory to evaluate the nonlinear electrostatic ion excitations in double-degenerate (electron spin-orbit degenerate) magnetized quantum plasmas. Based on the Sagdeev pseudopotential method, an exact general pseudopotential is calculated which leads to the allowed Mach-number range criteria for such localized density structures in an anisotropic magnetized plasma. We employ the criteria on the Mach-number range for diverse magnetized quantum plasma with different equations of state. It is remarked that various plasma fractional parameters such as the system dimensionality, ion-temperature, relativistic-degeneracy, Zeeman-energy, and plasma composition are involved in the stability of an obliquely propagating nonlinear ion-acoustic wave in a double-degenerate quantum plasma. Current study is most appropriate for nonlinear wave analysis in dense astrophysical magnetized plasma environments such as white-dwarfs and neutron-star crusts where the strong magnetic fields can be present.

  19. Diffusive limits of nonlinear hyperbolic systems with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Masayoshi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the initial-boundary value problem for a 2-speed system of first-order nonhomogeneous semilinear hyperbolic equations whose leading terms have a small positive parameter. Using energy estimates and a compactness lemma, we show that the diffusion limit of the sum of the solutions of the hyperbolic system, as the parameter tends to zero, verifies the nonlinear parabolic equation of the p-Laplacian type.

  20. Nonlinear diffusion filtering of data on the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čunderlík, Róbert; Mikula, Karol; Tunega, Martin

    2013-02-01

    The paper deals with data filtering on closed surfaces using linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. We define a surface finite-volume method to approximate numerically parabolic partial differential equations on closed surfaces, namely on a sphere, ellipsoid or the Earth's surface. The closed surface as a computational domain is approximated by a polyhedral surface created by planar triangles and we construct a dual co-volume grid. On the co-volumes we define a weak formulation of the problem by applying Green's theorem to the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Then the finite-volume method is applied to discretize the weak formulation. Weak forms of elliptic operators are expressed through surface gradients. In our numerical scheme we use a piece-wise linear approximation of a solution in space and the backward Euler time discretization. Furthermore, we extend a linear diffusion on surface to the regularized surface Perona-Malik model. It represents a nonlinear diffusion equation, which at the same time reduces noise and preserves main edges and other details important for a correct interpretation of the real data. We present four numerical experiments. The first one has an illustrative character showing how an additive noise is filtered out from an artificial function defined on a sphere. Other three examples deal with the real geodetic data on the Earth's surface, namely (i) we reduce a stripping noise from the GOCE satellite only geopotential model up to degree 240, (ii) we filter noise from the real GOCE measurements (the component T_{zz}), and (iii) we reduce a stripping noise from the satellite only mean dynamic topography at oceans. In all experiments we focus on a comparison of the results obtained by both the linear and nonlinear models presenting advantages of the nonlinear diffusion.

  1. Turing pattern formation in the Brusselator system with nonlinear diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, G.; Lombardo, M. C.; Sammartino, M.; Sciacca, V.

    2013-10-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of density-dependent nonlinear diffusion on pattern formation in the Brusselator system. Through linear stability analysis of the basic solution we determine the Turing and the oscillatory instability boundaries. A comparison with the classical linear diffusion shows how nonlinear diffusion favors the occurrence of Turing pattern formation. We study the process of pattern formation both in one-dimensional and two-dimensional spatial domains. Through a weakly nonlinear multiple scales analysis we derive the equations for the amplitude of the stationary patterns. The analysis of the amplitude equations shows the occurrence of a number of different phenomena, including stable supercritical and subcritical Turing patterns with multiple branches of stable solutions leading to hysteresis. Moreover, we consider traveling patterning waves: When the domain size is large, the pattern forms sequentially and traveling wave fronts are the precursors to patterning. We derive the Ginzburg-Landau equation and describe the traveling front enveloping a pattern which invades the domain. We show the emergence of radially symmetric target patterns, and, through a matching procedure, we construct the outer amplitude equation and the inner core solution.

  2. Multi-diffusive nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Mauricio S.; Casas, Gabriela A.; Nobre, Fernando D.

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, characterized by more than one diffusion term, have appeared recently in literature. Here, it is shown that these equations may be derived either from approximations in a master equation, or from a Langevin-type approach. An H-theorem is proven, relating these Fokker-Planck equations to an entropy composed by a sum of contributions, each of them associated with a given diffusion term. Moreover, the stationary state of the Fokker-Planck equation is shown to coincide with the equilibrium state, obtained by extremization of the entropy, in the sense that both procedures yield precisely the same equation. Due to the nonlinear character of this equation, the equilibrium probability may be obtained, in most cases, only by means of numerical approaches. Some examples are worked out, where the equilibrium probability distribution is computed for nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations presenting two diffusion terms, corresponding to an entropy characterized by a sum of two contributions. It is shown that the resulting equilibrium distribution, in general, presents a form that differs from a sum of the equilibrium distributions that maximizes each entropic contribution separately, although in some cases one may construct such a linear combination as a good approximation for the equilibrium distribution.

  3. Lie symmetry properties of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with gradient-dependent diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniha, Roman; King, John R.; Kovalenko, Sergii

    2016-07-01

    Complete descriptions of the Lie symmetries of a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with gradient-dependent diffusivity in one and two space dimensions are obtained. A surprisingly rich set of Lie symmetry algebras depending on the form of diffusivity and source (sink) in the equations is derived. It is established that there exists a subclass in 1-D space admitting an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of invariance so that it is linearisable. A special power-law diffusivity with a fixed exponent, which leads to wider Lie invariance of the equations in question in 2-D space, is also derived. However, it is shown that the diffusion equation without a source term (which often arises in applications and is sometimes called the Perona-Malik equation) possesses no rich variety of Lie symmetries depending on the form of gradient-dependent diffusivity. The results of the Lie symmetry classification for the reduction to lower dimensionality, and a search for exact solutions of the nonlinear 2-D equation with power-law diffusivity, also are included.

  4. 3D nonlinear complex-diffusion filter on GPU.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Serranho, Pedro; Bernardes, Rui

    2012-01-01

    The ramp preserving 2D nonlinear complex-diffusion filter introduced by Gilboa et al. (2004) was extended to 3D (Maduro et al., 2012). We propose a graphical processing unit implementation of the 3D filter for an overall faster processing in order to be used in a clinical setting. We perform a search for the best diffusion parameters (the number of iterations and spread of the diffusivity) for the 2D and 3D filters and compare their results resorting to synthetic spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumetric data and several quantitative metrics. Execution time improvement of our implementation versus a single-core approach is also presented, showing that it allows for a full 3D volume to be processed under 7.5 seconds.

  5. An edge-adapting Laplacian kernel for nonlinear diffusion filters.

    PubMed

    Hajiaboli, Mohammad Reza; Ahmad, M Omair; Wang, Chunyan

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, first, a new Laplacian kernel is developed to integrate into it the anisotropic behavior to control the process of forward diffusion in horizontal and vertical directions. It is shown that, although the new kernel reduces the process of edge distortion, it nonetheless produces artifacts in the processed image. After examining the source of this problem, an analytical scheme is devised to obtain a spatially varying kernel that adapts itself to the diffusivity function. The proposed spatially varying Laplacian kernel is then used in various nonlinear diffusion filters starting from the classical Perona-Malik filter to the more recent ones. The effectiveness of the new kernel in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures is demonstrated by applying it to noisy images.

  6. Double-diffusive Marangoni convection around exothermic chemical fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rongy, L.; Assemat, P.; de Wit, A.

    2012-11-01

    We study double diffusive Marangoni flows triggered by concentration and temperature gradients across an exothermic chemical front propagating in horizontal uncovered solution layers. We numerically integrate the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled through the tangential stress balance to evolution equations for the concentration of the autocatalytic product and the temperature. Solutal and thermal Marangoni numbers quantify the effect of the concentration and temperature gradients on the surface tension respectively, while the Lewis number measures the ratio of thermal diffusivity over molecular diffusivity. The asymptotic isothermal dynamics is characterized by a steady fluid vortex traveling at a constant speed with the reactive front, deforming and accelerating it. We analyze here the influence of thermal effects on the dynamics of the system in both cases of cooperative and competitive solutal and thermal effects. In particular, because heat and mass diffuse at different rates, new unsteady double-diffusive dynamics such as oscillations of the concentration field can be observed when the solutal and thermal effects act antagonistically on the surface tension. The influence of the various parameters on the flow field is investigated.

  7. Double diffusion in arbitrary porous cavity: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamad, N. Ameer; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum

    2017-07-01

    Double diffusion refers to the heat and mass transfer that takes place simultaneously. The current work highlights the double diffusion when a solid block is placed at the bottom of a square porous cavity. The whole cavity is filed with saturated porous medium except the small block placed at the bottom left corner of the domain. The left vertical surface of porous cavity is maintained at concentration Ch and right vertical surface possesses lowest concentration Cc in the porous domain. The results are discussed in terms of isotherms, iso-concentration and streamlines inside the domain for various physical parameters. It is seen that the mass transfer is substantially different in present case as compared to the case of natural convection.

  8. Singular diffusionless limits of double-diffusive instabilities in magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Oleg N.

    2017-09-01

    We study local instabilities of a differentially rotating viscous flow of electrically conducting incompressible fluid subject to an external azimuthal magnetic field. In the presence of the magnetic field, the hydrodynamically stable flow can demonstrate non-axisymmetric azimuthal magnetorotational instability (AMRI) both in the diffusionless case and in the double-diffusive case with viscous and ohmic dissipation. Performing stability analysis of amplitude transport equations of short-wavelength approximation, we find that the threshold of the diffusionless AMRI via the Hamilton-Hopf bifurcation is a singular limit of the thresholds of the viscous and resistive AMRI corresponding to the dissipative Hopf bifurcation and manifests itself as the Whitney umbrella singular point. A smooth transition between the two types of instabilities is possible only if the magnetic Prandtl number is equal to unity, Pm=1. At a fixed Pm≠1, the threshold of the double-diffusive AMRI is displaced by finite distance in the parameter space with respect to the diffusionless case even in the zero dissipation limit. The complete neutral stability surface contains three Whitney umbrella singular points and two mutually orthogonal intervals of self-intersection. At these singularities, the double-diffusive system reduces to a marginally stable system which is either Hamiltonian or parity-time-symmetric.

  9. Non-linear Young's double-slit experiment.

    PubMed

    San Roman, Julio; Ruiz, Camilo; Perez, Jose Antonio; Delgado, Diego; Mendez, Cruz; Plaja, Luis; Roso, Luis

    2006-04-03

    The Young's double slit experiment is recreated using intense and short laser pulses. Our experiment evidences the role of the non-linear Kerr effect in the formation of interference patterns. In particular, our results evidence a mixed mechanism in which the zeroth diffraction order of each slit are mainly affected by self-focusing and self-phase modulation, while the higher orders propagate linearly. Despite of the complexity of the general problem of non-linear propagation, we demonstrate that this experiment retains its simplicity and allows for a geometrical interpretation in terms of simple optical paths. In consequence, our results may provide key ideas on experiments on the formation of interference patterns with intense laser fields in Kerr media.

  10. Fine structure generation in a double-diffusive system.

    PubMed

    Kozitskiy, S B

    2005-11-01

    Double-diffusive convection in a horizontally infinite layer of a unit height in a large-Rayleigh-number limit is considered. From linear stability analysis it is shown that the convection tends to have a form of traveling tall thin rolls with width about 30 times less than height. Amplitude equations of type for vertical variations of the amplitude of these rolls and mean values of diffusive components are derived. As a result of its numerical simulation it is shown that for a wide variety of parameters considered system have solutions, known as diffusive chaos, which can be useful for the explanation of fine structure generation in some important oceanographical systems like thermohaline staircases.

  11. Spatial variability of the Arctic Ocean's double-diffusive staircase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, N. C.; Timmermans, M.-L.; Carpenter, J. R.; Toole, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    The Arctic Ocean thermohaline stratification frequently exhibits a staircase structure overlying the Atlantic Water Layer that can be attributed to the diffusive form of double-diffusive convection. The staircase consists of multiple layers of O(1) m in thickness separated by sharp interfaces, across which temperature and salinity change abruptly. Through a detailed analysis of Ice-Tethered Profiler measurements from 2004 to 2013, the double-diffusive staircase structure is characterized across the entire Arctic Ocean. We demonstrate how the large-scale Arctic Ocean circulation influences the small-scale staircase properties. These staircase properties (layer thicknesses and temperature and salinity jumps across interfaces) are examined in relation to a bulk vertical density ratio spanning the staircase stratification. We show that the Lomonosov Ridge serves as an approximate boundary between regions of low density ratio (approximately 3-4) on the Eurasian side and higher density ratio (approximately 6-7) on the Canadian side. We find that the Eurasian Basin staircase is characterized by fewer, thinner layers than that in the Canadian Basin, although the margins of all basins are characterized by relatively thin layers and the absence of a well-defined staircase. A double-diffusive 4/3 flux law parametrization is used to estimate vertical heat fluxes in the Canadian Basin to be O(0.1) W m-2. It is shown that the 4/3 flux law may not be an appropriate representation of heat fluxes through the Eurasian Basin staircase. Here molecular heat fluxes are estimated to be between O(0.01) and O(0.1) W m-2. However, many uncertainties remain about the exact nature of these fluxes.

  12. Strong enhancement of surface diffusion by nonlinear surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugaev, Maxim V.; Manzo, Anthony J.; Wu, Chengping; Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Helvajian, Henry; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2015-06-01

    The phenomenon of acoustic activation of surface diffusion is investigated in a combined computational and experimental study. The ability of pulsed laser-generated surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to enhance the mobility of small atomic clusters is demonstrated by directly tracking, with fluorescence microscopy, individual A u8 clusters moving on a (111) silicon substrate. A 19-fold increase in the effective diffusion coefficient is measured in room temperature experiments in the presence of SAWs generated by nanosecond pulse laser irradiation at a 100 Hz repetition rate. A strong enhancement of cluster mobility by SAWs is also observed in large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of surface diffusion of small atomic clusters. The analysis of the computational results demonstrates that the nonlinear sharpening of SAWs and the corresponding enrichment of the SAW spectra by high frequency harmonics which are capable of dynamic coupling to the cluster vibrations are responsible for the efficient acoustic activation of surface mobility in the simulations. The increase in the effective diffusion coefficient is proportional to the number of the SAW pulses passing through the diffusion region per unit time and a dramatic 4500-fold diffusion enhancement (corresponds to an equivalent temperature increase by ˜103K ) is predicted in the simulations for 15 GHz SAWs. The ability of SAWs to affect atomic-level surface processes has far-reaching implications for the design of new techniques where the acoustic energy serves as an effective substitution for thermal activation in applications where heating must be avoided or rapid switching of surface conditions is required.

  13. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of Vo/(kBT /e ) , where Vo is the amplitude of the driving voltage and kBT /e is the thermal voltage with kB as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D /λDL , where D is the ion diffusivity, λD is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O (Vo3) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in Vo. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing Vo. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  14. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage.

    PubMed

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of V_{o}/(k_{B}T/e), where V_{o} is the amplitude of the driving voltage and k_{B}T/e is the thermal voltage with k_{B} as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D/λ_{D}L, where D is the ion diffusivity, λ_{D} is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O(V_{o}^{3}) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in V_{o}. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing V_{o}. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion pore imaging: Experimental phase detection by double diffusion encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demberg, Kerstin; Laun, Frederik Bernd; Windschuh, Johannes; Umathum, Reiner; Bachert, Peter; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion pore imaging is an extension of diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging enabling the direct measurement of the shape of arbitrarily formed, closed pores by probing diffusion restrictions using the motion of spin-bearing particles. Examples of such pores comprise cells in biological tissue or oil containing cavities in porous rocks. All pores contained in the measurement volume contribute to one reconstructed image, which reduces the problem of vanishing signal at increasing resolution present in conventional magnetic resonance imaging. It has been previously experimentally demonstrated that pore imaging using a combination of a long and a narrow magnetic field gradient pulse is feasible. In this work, an experimental verification is presented showing that pores can be imaged using short gradient pulses only. Experiments were carried out using hyperpolarized xenon gas in well-defined pores. The phase required for pore image reconstruction was retrieved from double diffusion encoded (DDE) measurements, while the magnitude could either be obtained from DDE signals or classical diffusion measurements with single encoding. The occurring image artifacts caused by restrictions of the gradient system, insufficient diffusion time, and by the phase reconstruction approach were investigated. Employing short gradient pulses only is advantageous compared to the initial long-narrow approach due to a more flexible sequence design when omitting the long gradient and due to faster convergence to the diffusion long-time limit, which may enable application to larger pores.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion pore imaging: Experimental phase detection by double diffusion encoding.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Kerstin; Laun, Frederik Bernd; Windschuh, Johannes; Umathum, Reiner; Bachert, Peter; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion pore imaging is an extension of diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging enabling the direct measurement of the shape of arbitrarily formed, closed pores by probing diffusion restrictions using the motion of spin-bearing particles. Examples of such pores comprise cells in biological tissue or oil containing cavities in porous rocks. All pores contained in the measurement volume contribute to one reconstructed image, which reduces the problem of vanishing signal at increasing resolution present in conventional magnetic resonance imaging. It has been previously experimentally demonstrated that pore imaging using a combination of a long and a narrow magnetic field gradient pulse is feasible. In this work, an experimental verification is presented showing that pores can be imaged using short gradient pulses only. Experiments were carried out using hyperpolarized xenon gas in well-defined pores. The phase required for pore image reconstruction was retrieved from double diffusion encoded (DDE) measurements, while the magnitude could either be obtained from DDE signals or classical diffusion measurements with single encoding. The occurring image artifacts caused by restrictions of the gradient system, insufficient diffusion time, and by the phase reconstruction approach were investigated. Employing short gradient pulses only is advantageous compared to the initial long-narrow approach due to a more flexible sequence design when omitting the long gradient and due to faster convergence to the diffusion long-time limit, which may enable application to larger pores.

  17. Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Hao; J. Nitao; T.A. Buscheck; Y. Sun

    2006-03-28

    In this study, we conduct a two-dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have strong impacts on the in-drift convective flow and transport.

  18. Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y; Nitao, J; Buscheck, T A; Sun, Y

    2006-02-03

    In this study, we conduct a two-dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have strong impacts on the in-drift convective flow and transport.

  19. Diffusion thermopower of a serial double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierschmann, H.; Henke, M.; Knorr, J.; Maier, L.; Heyn, C.; Hansen, W.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    We have experimentally studied the diffusion thermopower of a serial double quantum dot, defined electrostatically in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. We present the thermopower stability diagram for a temperature difference ΔT = (20 ± 10) mK across the device and find a maximum thermovoltage signal of several μV in the vicinity of the triple points. Along a constant energy axis in this regime, the data show a characteristic pattern which is in agreement with Mott's relation and can be well understood within a model of sequential transport.

  20. Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y; Nitao, J J; Buscheck, T A; Sun, Y

    2006-07-24

    In this study, we conduct a two dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have a strong impact on in-drift convective flow and transport.

  1. A double-serpentine diffusion path for a ternary diffusion couple

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Y.H.; Dayananda, M.A.

    2000-04-19

    A double-serpentine diffusion path that crosses the straight line joining the terminal alloy compositions twice on a ternary isotherm is reported for a diffusion couple assembled with two {beta} (B{sub 2}) Fe-Ni-Al alloys and annealed at 1,000 C for 2 days. The couple developed a Ni concentration profile that exhibited two regions of mass loss separated by a region of mass gain on one side of the Matano plant. With an additional couple whose path intersected the double serpentine path, ternary interdiffusion coefficients were determined at the composition of intersection. Also, average values of the ternary interdiffusion coefficients, D{sub ij}{sup Fe} (i,j = Al, Ni), were determined over selected composition ranges of the couple and employed to model the concentration profiles. The cross D{sub NiAl}{sup Fe} coefficient was negative and comparable in magnitude to the main D{sub NiNi}{sup Fe} coefficient. The double-serpentine diffusion path was characterized by large diffusional interactions among the components and appreciable variations in the interdiffusion coefficients over different compositional ranges.

  2. Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koseff, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    Over the past seven years the authors have conducted an experimental, numerical, and theoretical study of the stability of doubly diffusive systems, and of mixing processes in stratified turbulence. For the study of the stability of doubly diffusive systems continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in this case) were used as the initial condition, and forcing was introduced by lateral heating and surface shear. The goals of this work included (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in sheardriven flows in doubly diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing their knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. In particular, the overall goals of this aspect of the research were as follows: (1) develop more general stability and scaling criteria for the destabilization of doubly-stratified systems, (2) study the variation of flow structure and scales with Rayleigh ratio and lateral heating ratio, (3) delineate the mechanisms governing convective layer formation and merging, (4) study the mixing processes within the convective layers and across interfaces, and estimate the heat and mass fluxes in such a system, (5) quantify the effects of turbulence and coherent structures (due to a wind-driven surface shear) on a doubly stratified system, and (6) study the interaction between surface shear and side-wall heating destabilization mechanisms. Goals 1 through 4 have been successfully completed and the results are described in this report.

  3. Evans functions and bifurcations of nonlinear waves of some nonlinear reaction diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linghai

    2017-10-01

    The main purposes of this paper are to accomplish the existence, stability, instability and bifurcation of the nonlinear waves of the nonlinear system of reaction diffusion equations ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ] - w, wt = ε (u - γw) and to establish the existence, stability, instability and bifurcation of the nonlinear waves of the nonlinear scalar reaction diffusion equation ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ], under different conditions on the model constants. To establish the bifurcation for the system, we will study the existence and instability of a standing pulse solution if 0 < 2 (1 + αγ) θ < αβγ; the existence and stability of two standing wave fronts if 2 (1 + αγ) θ = αβγ and γ2 ε > 1; the existence and instability of two standing wave fronts if 2 (1 + αγ) θ = αβγ and 0 <γ2 ε < 1; the existence and instability of an upside down standing pulse solution if 0 < (1 + αγ) θ < αβγ < 2 (1 + αγ) θ. To establish the bifurcation for the scalar equation, we will study the existence and stability of a traveling wave front as well as the existence and instability of a standing pulse solution if 0 < 2 θ < β; the existence and stability of two standing wave fronts if 2 θ = β; the existence and stability of a traveling wave front as well as the existence and instability of an upside down standing pulse solution if 0 < θ < β < 2 θ. By the way, we will also study the existence and stability of a traveling wave back of the nonlinear scalar reaction diffusion equation ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ] -w0, where w0 = α (β - 2 θ) > 0 is a positive constant, if 0 < 2 θ < β. To achieve the main goals, we will make complete use of the special structures of the model equations and we will construct Evans functions and apply them to study the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of several eigenvalue problems associated with several linear differential operators. It turns out that a complex number λ0 is an eigenvalue of the linear

  4. New variable separation solutions for the generalized nonlinear diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei-Yu, Ji; Shun-Li, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    The functionally generalized variable separation of the generalized nonlinear diffusion equations ut = A(u,ux)uxx + B(u,ux) is studied by using the conditional Lie-Bäcklund symmetry method. The variant forms of the considered equations, which admit the corresponding conditional Lie-Bäcklund symmetries, are characterized. To construct functionally generalized separable solutions, several concrete examples defined on the exponential and trigonometric invariant subspaces are provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11371293, 11401458, and 11501438), the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Tian Yuan Special Foundation (Grant No. 11426169), and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2015JQ1014).

  5. Geometrically nonlinear continuum thermomechanics with surface energies coupled to diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, A. T.; Javili, A.; Steinmann, P.; Bargmann, S.

    2011-10-01

    Surfaces can have a significant influence on the overall response of a continuum body but are often neglected or accounted for in an ad hoc manner. This work is concerned with a nonlinear continuum thermomechanics formulation which accounts for surface structures and includes the effects of diffusion and viscoelasticity. The formulation is presented within a thermodynamically consistent framework and elucidates the nature of the coupling between the various fields, and the surface and the bulk. Conservation principles are used to determine the form of the constitutive relations and the evolution equations. Restrictions on the jump in the temperature and the chemical potential between the surface and the bulk are not a priori assumptions, rather they arise from the reduced dissipation inequality on the surface and are shown to be satisfiable without imposing the standard assumptions of thermal and chemical slavery. The nature of the constitutive relations is made clear via an example wherein the form of the Helmholtz energy is explicitly given.

  6. Nonlinear evolution of double tearing mode in Hall magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C. L.; Ma, Z. W.

    2009-12-15

    Nonlinear evolution of a double tearing mode for different plasma resistivities (eta) and ion inertial lengths (d{sub i}) is investigated using Hall magnetohydrodynamics simulations. In the Hall dominant regime, the magnetic field configuration in the reconnection region evolves from Y-type to X-type geometry, which leads to fast reconnection in the nonlinear growth phase. The maximum growth rate of total kinetic energy of plasma gamma{sub max} in the explosive growth phase is found to have a d{sub i}{sup 2/5}eta{sup 1/10} scaling and the maximum total kinetic energy (E{sub k}){sub max} scales as d{sub i}{sup 4/5}. In the regime with weak Hall effect, it is found that the elongated thin current sheet formed in the early phase is broken into two X-points, forming a magnetic island in the late stage, instead of shrinking to an X-type geometry.

  7. Nonlinear evolution of double tearing mode with guiding magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C. L.; Ma, Z. W.

    2011-05-15

    Nonlinear dynamic evolution of the double tearing mode (DTM) with a guiding magnetic field (B{sub y0}) is investigated by magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulation. The dynamic process of DTM depends weakly on the guiding field in the weak guiding field regime (B{sub y0{<=}}1), but is suppressed by a strong guiding field (B{sub y0}>2). During the explosive nonlinear phase, the maximum reconnection rate ({gamma}{sub max}) increases weakly with the increase of the resistivity as {gamma}{sub max{approx}{eta}}{sup 0.06} for B{sub y0{<=}}1, but for B{sub y0}>2, {gamma}{sub max} is nearly independent of the resistivity. The maximum reconnection rate in the explosive growth phase increases with increase of the initial current sheet separation. A secondary tearing instability is observed at moderate current sheet separation. A strong guiding field suppresses the formation of a secondary island. Based on the simulation results, it is found that the secondary tearing instability occurs only when the length-to-thickness aspect ratio of the reconnection region exceeds about 20.

  8. A Simple Model of Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ellison, Donald C.

    1999-11-01

    We present a simple model of nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (also called first-order Fermi shock acceleration) that determines the shock modification, spectrum, and efficiency of the process in the plane-wave, steady state approximation as a function of an arbitrary injection parameter, η. The model, which uses a three-power-law form for the accelerated particle spectrum and contains only simple algebraic equations, includes the essential elements of the full nonlinear model and has been tested against Monte Carlo and numerical kinetic shock models. We include both adiabatic and Alfvén wave heating of the upstream precursor. The simplicity and ease of calculation make this model useful for studying the basic properties of nonlinear shock acceleration, as well as providing results accurate enough for many astrophysical applications. It is shown that the shock properties depend upon the shock speed u0 with respect to a critical value u*0~ηp1/4max, which is a function of the injection rate η and maximum accelerated particle momentum pmax. For u0MA0, or by rtot~1.5M3/8A0 in the opposite case (MS0 is the sonic Mach number and MA0 is the Alfvén Mach number). If u0>u*0, the shock, although still strong, becomes almost unmodified and accelerated particle production decreases inversely proportional to u0.

  9. Nonlinear diffusion and exclusion processes with contact interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Anthony E.; Landman, Kerry A.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Exclusion processes on a regular lattice are used to model many biological and physical systems at a discrete level. The average properties of an exclusion process may be described by a continuum model given by a partial differential equation. We combine a general class of contact interactions with an exclusion process. We determine that many different types of contact interactions at the agent-level always give rise to a nonlinear diffusion equation, with a vast variety of diffusion functions D(C) . We find that these functions may be dependent on the chosen lattice and the defined neighborhood of the contact interactions. Mild to moderate contact interaction strength generally results in good agreement between discrete and continuum models, while strong interactions often show discrepancies between the two, particularly when D(C) takes on negative values. We present a measure to predict the goodness of fit between the discrete and continuous model, and thus the validity of the continuum description of a motile, contact-interacting population of agents. This work has implications for modeling cell motility and interpreting cell motility assays, giving the ability to incorporate biologically realistic cell-cell interactions and develop global measures of discrete microscopic data.

  10. Nonlinear diffusion and exclusion processes with contact interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Anthony E; Landman, Kerry A; Simpson, Matthew J

    2010-01-01

    Exclusion processes on a regular lattice are used to model many biological and physical systems at a discrete level. The average properties of an exclusion process may be described by a continuum model given by a partial differential equation. We combine a general class of contact interactions with an exclusion process. We determine that many different types of contact interactions at the agent-level always give rise to a nonlinear diffusion equation, with a vast variety of diffusion functions D(C). We find that these functions may be dependent on the chosen lattice and the defined neighborhood of the contact interactions. Mild to moderate contact interaction strength generally results in good agreement between discrete and continuum models, while strong interactions often show discrepancies between the two, particularly when D(C) takes on negative values. We present a measure to predict the goodness of fit between the discrete and continuous model, and thus the validity of the continuum description of a motile, contact-interacting population of agents. This work has implications for modeling cell motility and interpreting cell motility assays, giving the ability to incorporate biologically realistic cell-cell interactions and develop global measures of discrete microscopic data.

  11. Robust and fast nonlinear optimization of diffusion MRI microstructure models.

    PubMed

    Harms, R L; Fritz, F J; Tobisch, A; Goebel, R; Roebroeck, A

    2017-07-15

    Advances in biophysical multi-compartment modeling for diffusion MRI (dMRI) have gained popularity because of greater specificity than DTI in relating the dMRI signal to underlying cellular microstructure. A large range of these diffusion microstructure models have been developed and each of the popular models comes with its own, often different, optimization algorithm, noise model and initialization strategy to estimate its parameter maps. Since data fit, accuracy and precision is hard to verify, this creates additional challenges to comparability and generalization of results from diffusion microstructure models. In addition, non-linear optimization is computationally expensive leading to very long run times, which can be prohibitive in large group or population studies. In this technical note we investigate the performance of several optimization algorithms and initialization strategies over a few of the most popular diffusion microstructure models, including NODDI and CHARMED. We evaluate whether a single well performing optimization approach exists that could be applied to many models and would equate both run time and fit aspects. All models, algorithms and strategies were implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to remove run time constraints, with which we achieve whole brain dataset fits in seconds to minutes. We then evaluated fit, accuracy, precision and run time for different models of differing complexity against three common optimization algorithms and three parameter initialization strategies. Variability of the achieved quality of fit in actual data was evaluated on ten subjects of each of two population studies with a different acquisition protocol. We find that optimization algorithms and multi-step optimization approaches have a considerable influence on performance and stability over subjects and over acquisition protocols. The gradient-free Powell conjugate-direction algorithm was found to outperform other common algorithms in terms of

  12. Non-linear diffusion and pattern formation in vortex matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.; Einfeld, J.; Woerdenweber, R.

    2000-03-01

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa_2Cu_3O7 superconducting thin films and crystals in externally applied magnetic fields is visualized with a magneto-optical technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex behavior is observed: 1. Roughening of the flux front^1 with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper^2. Two regimes are found where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. 2. Roughening of the flux profile similar to the Oslo model for rice-piles. 3. Fractal penetration of flux^3 with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. 4. Penetration as 'flux-rivers'. 5. The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori^4. By comparison with numerical simulations, it is shown that most of the observed behavior can be explained in terms of non-linear diffusion of vortices. ^1R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, E. Visser, J.M. Huijbregtse, J.H. Rector, B. Dam and R. Griessen, Phys.Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 2054 ^2J. Maunuksela, M. Myllys, O.-P. Kähkönen, J. Timonen, N. Provatas, M.J. Alava, T. Ala-Nissila, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1515 (1997) ^3R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, B. Dam, J. Rector, R. Griessen, C. Rossel, Z.F. Ren and J.H. Wang, Phys Rev B 58 (1998) 12467 ^4C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6534 (1998)

  13. Double resonant processes in 1D nonlinear periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmiak, Vladimir; Konotop, Vladimir

    2001-03-01

    We consider one-dimensional periodic structure consisting of alternating layers fabricated from the materials possessing \\chi^(2) nonlinearity and assume that the filling fraction and the dielectric permittivities of the slabs are chosen in such a way that resonant contions for the generation for the second and third harmonic are satisfied simultaneously. The possibility of such process is demonstrated in the structure consisting of the alternating slabs of AlGaAs and InSb. The wave evolution is described in terms of envelope function approach. By taking account three resonant waves one obtains a system of coupled-mode differential equations. One of the solutions which is of special importance is that of having a constant amplitude and the first and third harmonic having zero amplitude. We analyze the stability of the solutions and show that the use of the double resonance allows one to obtain difference generation. A particular example of such a process is fractional conversion ω arrow (2/3)ω which takes place with the participation of the mode with the frequency ω/3.

  14. Euler buckling and nonlinear kinking of double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Alexander P.; Meyer, Elisabeth A.; Cohen, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    The bending stiffness of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at high curvatures is fundamental to its biological activity, yet this regime has been difficult to probe experimentally, and literature results have not been consistent. We created a ‘molecular vise’ in which base-pairing interactions generated a compressive force on sub-persistence length segments of dsDNA. Short dsDNA strands (<41 base pairs) resisted this force and remained straight; longer strands became bent, a phenomenon called ‘Euler buckling’. We monitored the buckling transition via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between appended fluorophores. For low-to-moderate concentrations of monovalent salt (up to ∼150 mM), our results are in quantitative agreement with the worm-like chain (WLC) model of DNA elasticity, without the need to invoke any ‘kinked’ states. Greater concentrations of monovalent salts or 1 mM Mg2+ induced an apparent softening of the dsDNA, which was best accounted for by a kink in the region of highest curvature. We tested the effects of all single-nucleotide mismatches on the DNA bending. Remarkably, the propensity to kink correlated with the thermodynamic destabilization of the mismatched DNA relative the perfectly complementary strand, suggesting that the kinked state is locally melted. The molecular vise is exquisitely sensitive to the sequence-dependent linear and nonlinear elastic properties of dsDNA. PMID:23956222

  15. Euler buckling and nonlinear kinking of double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Fields, Alexander P; Meyer, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Adam E

    2013-11-01

    The bending stiffness of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at high curvatures is fundamental to its biological activity, yet this regime has been difficult to probe experimentally, and literature results have not been consistent. We created a 'molecular vise' in which base-pairing interactions generated a compressive force on sub-persistence length segments of dsDNA. Short dsDNA strands (<41 base pairs) resisted this force and remained straight; longer strands became bent, a phenomenon called 'Euler buckling'. We monitored the buckling transition via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between appended fluorophores. For low-to-moderate concentrations of monovalent salt (up to ∼150 mM), our results are in quantitative agreement with the worm-like chain (WLC) model of DNA elasticity, without the need to invoke any 'kinked' states. Greater concentrations of monovalent salts or 1 mM Mg(2+) induced an apparent softening of the dsDNA, which was best accounted for by a kink in the region of highest curvature. We tested the effects of all single-nucleotide mismatches on the DNA bending. Remarkably, the propensity to kink correlated with the thermodynamic destabilization of the mismatched DNA relative the perfectly complementary strand, suggesting that the kinked state is locally melted. The molecular vise is exquisitely sensitive to the sequence-dependent linear and nonlinear elastic properties of dsDNA.

  16. Trainable Nonlinear Reaction Diffusion: A Flexible Framework for Fast and Effective Image Restoration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunjin; Pock, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Image restoration is a long-standing problem in low-level computer vision with many interesting applications. We describe a flexible learning framework based on the concept of nonlinear reaction diffusion models for various image restoration problems. By embodying recent improvements in nonlinear diffusion models, we propose a dynamic nonlinear reaction diffusion model with time-dependent parameters (i.e., linear filters and influence functions). In contrast to previous nonlinear diffusion models, all the parameters, including the filters and the influence functions, are simultaneously learned from training data through a loss based approach. We call this approach TNRD - Trainable Nonlinear Reaction Diffusion. The TNRD approach is applicable for a variety of image restoration tasks by incorporating appropriate reaction force. We demonstrate its capabilities with three representative applications, Gaussian image denoising, single image super resolution and JPEG deblocking. Experiments show that our trained nonlinear diffusion models largely benefit from the training of the parameters and finally lead to the best reported performance on common test datasets for the tested applications. Our trained models preserve the structural simplicity of diffusion models and take only a small number of diffusion steps, thus are highly efficient. Moreover, they are also well-suited for parallel computation on GPUs, which makes the inference procedure extremely fast.

  17. The Effects of Double Diffusion and Background Turbulence on the Persistence of Submarine Wakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE EFFECTS OF...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE EFFECTS OF DOUBLE DIFFUSION AND BACKGROUND TURBULENCE ON THE...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE EFFECTS OF DOUBLE DIFFUSION AND

  18. Experimental investigation of a double-diffused MOS structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. C.; Halsor, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Self-aligned polysilicon gate technology was applied to double-diffused MOS (DMOS) construction in a manner that retains processing simplicity and effectively eliminates parasitic overlap capacitance because of the self-aligning feature. Depletion mode load devices with the same dimensions as the DMOS transistors were integrated. The ratioless feature results in smaller dimension load devices, allowing for higher density integration with no increase in the processing complexity of standard MOS technology. A number of inverters connected as ring oscillators were used as a vehicle to test the performance and to verify the anticipated benefits. The propagation time-power dissipation product and process related parameters were measured and evaluated. This report includes (1) details of the process; (2) test data and design details for the DMOS transistor, the load device, the inverter, the ring oscillator, and a shift register with a novel tapered geometry for the output stages; and (3) an analytical treatment of the effect of the distributed silicon gate resistance and capacitance on the speed of DMOS transistors.

  19. Enhanced nonlinear inspection of diffusion bonded interfaces using reflected non-collinear ultrasonic wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyin; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic wave mixing has shown promising potential for assessing otherwise hidden subtle imperfections in imperfect diffusion bonds between Ti-6Al-4V components. When interrogating a diffusion bonded specimen using non-collinear shear wave mixing, both bulk and interface nonlinearity will contribute to the transmitted nonlinear signal. Although a recent study has shown that changing the transducer alignment can suppress the intrinsic nonlinearity of the surrounding material to some extent so that the interface nonlinearity could be detected more selectively, it is still difficult to distinguish different levels of bond quality based on the detected transmitted signal only. Analytical and numerical studies showed that an imperfect interface generates the same amount of nonlinear displacement in the reflected and transmitted fields. In this study, we used the reflected nonlinear interface signature to characterize diffusion bonded interfaces. Our results indicate that it is better to use the reflected nonlinear interface signature to assess the bond quality, which is in agreement with our previous analytical and numerical predictions. However, the observed random phase of the reflected signature indicates that existing nonlinear interface models are insufficient for accurately describing the nonlinear interaction of shear incident waves with high-quality diffusion bonded interfaces.

  20. Nonlinear localized eigenmodes for a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiongtao; Liu, Xiaoliang; Rong, Shiguang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the nonlinear localized eigenmodes for a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential. For a specific choice of the potential parameters, certain exact analytical solutions for nonlinear localized eigenmodes are presented. By applying the linear stability analysis, the stability regions of these exact nonlinear localized eigenmodes are obtained numerically. It is shown that under certain conditions, the unstable nonlinear localized modes display the breathing behavior characterized by repeated appearance of symmetric and asymmetric distributions in the two potentials. This breathing behavior is shown to arise from the symmetry breaking for these nonlinear localized eigenmodes.

  1. A stable and accurate scheme for nonlinear diffusion equations: Application to atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Farshid; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Zadra, Ayrton; Charron, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Stability concerns are always a factor in the numerical solution of nonlinear diffusion equations, which are a class of equations widely applicable in different fields of science and engineering. In this study, a modified extended backward differentiation formulae (ME BDF) scheme is adapted for the solution of nonlinear diffusion equations, with a special focus on the atmospheric boundary layer diffusion process. The scheme is first implemented and examined for a widely used nonlinear ordinary differential equation, and then extended to a system of two nonlinear diffusion equations. A new temporal filter which leads to significant improvement of numerical results is proposed, and the impact of the filter on the stability and accuracy of the results is investigated. Noteworthy improvements are obtained as compared to other commonly used numerical schemes. Linear stability analysis of the proposed scheme is performed for both systems, and analytical stability limits are presented.

  2. Nonlinear free vibrations of curved double walled carbon nanotubes using differential quadrature method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigeroglu, Ender; Samandari, Hamed

    2014-11-01

    Nonlinear free vibration analysis of curved double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) embedded in an elastic medium is studied in this study. Nonlinearities considered are due to large deflection of carbon nanotubes (geometric nonlinearity) and nonlinear interlayer van der Waals forces between inner and outer tubes. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is utilized to discretize the partial differential equations of motion in spatial domain, which resulted in a nonlinear set of algebraic equations of motion. The effect of nonlinearities, different end conditions, initial curvature, and stiffness of the surrounding elastic medium, and vibrational modes on the nonlinear free vibration of DWCNTs is studied. Results show that it is possible to detect different vibration modes occurring at a single vibration frequency when CNTs vibrate in the out-of-phase vibration mode. Moreover, it is observed that boundary conditions have significant effect on the nonlinear natural frequencies of the DWCNT including multiple solutions.

  3. Multigrid approaches to non-linear diffusion problems on unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the nonlinearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) multigrid method which is used to solve the non-linear equations directly, a linear multigrid method which is used to solve the linear system arising from a Newton linearization of the non-linear system, and a hybrid scheme which is based on a non-linear FAS multigrid scheme, but employs a linear solver on each level as a smoother. Results indicate that all methods are equally effective at converging the non-linear residual in a given number of grid sweeps, but that the linear solver is more efficient in cpu time due to the lower cost of linear versus non-linear grid sweeps.

  4. Double Fourier Harmonic Balance Method for Nonlinear Oscillators by Means of Bessel Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-16

    Double Fourier harmonic balance method for nonlinear oscillators by means of Bessel series T.C. Lipscombe∗1 and C.E. Mungan†2 1Catholic University of...expressed in terms of a Bessel series, and the sums of many such series are known or can be developed. The method is illustrated for five different... Bessel series, work-energy theorem, nonlinear oscillator, pendulum. 1 Introduction Nonlinear oscillators are ubiquitous in physical and engineering

  5. Nonlinear Theory of Anomalous Diffusion and Application to Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Jean Pierre; Lutsko, James F.

    2015-12-01

    The nonlinear theory of anomalous diffusion is based on particle interactions giving an explicit microscopic description of diffusive processes leading to sub-, normal, or super-diffusion as a result of competitive effects between attractive and repulsive interactions. We present the explicit analytical solution to the nonlinear diffusion equation which we then use to compute the correlation function which is experimentally measured by correlation spectroscopy. The theoretical results are applicable in particular to the analysis of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of marked molecules in biological systems. More specifically we consider the cases of fluorescently labeled lipids in the plasma membrane and of fluorescent apoferritin (a spherically shaped oligomer) in a crowded dextran solution and we find that the nonlinear correlation spectra reproduce very well the experimental data indicating sub-diffusive molecular motion.

  6. Effect of carrier diffusion on the nonlinear response of optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Wayne M.; Sarid, Dror

    1987-08-01

    Carrier-density-dependent changes in the propagation constant of a TE mode in a symmetric slab semiconductor waveguide are calculated with allowance for transverse diffusion effects using a self-consistent numerical method. By using the plasma theory to model the nonlinearity, it is found that the effects of transverse carrier diffusion are strongly dependent on the index profiles and waveguide geometry. If the index difference between the core and the cladding is relatively large in comparison with the nonlinear index change, diffusion can produce results that are different from the no-diffusion case. If the index difference is relatively small, diffusion does not significantly modify the nonlinear response of the waveguide.

  7. Diffusion Geometry Based Nonlinear Methods for Hyperspectral Change Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-12

    automatically independent components of the spectrum building an empirical model of the constituents of the scene. It is precisely through this model that...This method enables coherent analysis of data from a multiplicity of sources generalizing signal processing to a nonlinear setting. By building ...local whitening to build a global explicit parameterization invariant under nonlinear perturbations of the spectrum, calibrating the data

  8. Hydrodynamically induced fluid transfer and non-convective double-diffusion in microgravity sliding solvent diffusion cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollmann, Konrad W.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Luttges, Marvin W.

    1994-01-01

    Microgravity can provide a diffusion-dominated environment for double-diffusion and diffusion-reaction experiments otherwise disrupted by buoyant convection or sedimentation. In sliding solvent diffusion cells, a diffusion interface between two liquid columns is achieved by aligning two offset sliding wells. Fluid in contact with the sliding lid of the cavities is subjected to an applied shear stress. The momentum change by the start/stop action of the well creates an additional hydrodynamical force. In microgravity, these viscous and inertial forces are sufficiently large to deform the diffusion interface and induce hydrodynamic transfer between the wells. A series of KC-135 parabolic flight experiments were conducted to characterize these effects and establish baseline data for microgravity diffusion experiments. Flow visualizations show the diffusion interface to be deformed in a sinusoidal fashion following well alignment. After the wells were separated again in a second sliding movement, the total induced liquid transfer was determined and normalized by the well aspect ratio. The normalized transfer decreased linearly with Reynolds number from 3.3 to 4.0% (w/v) for Re = 0.4 (Stokes flow) to a minimum of 1.0% for Re = 23 to 30. Reynolds numbers that provide minimum induced transfers are characterized by an interface that is highly deformed and unsuitable for diffusion measurements. Flat diffusion interfaces acceptable for diffusion measurements are obtained with Reynolds numbers on the order of 7 to 10. Microgravity experiments aboard a sounding rocket flight verified counterdiffusion of different solutes to be diffusion dominated. Ground control experiments showed enhanced mixing by double-diffusive convection. Careful selection of experimental parameters improves initial conditions and minimizes induced transfer rates.

  9. Unifying diffusion and seepage for nonlinear gas transport in multiscale porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongqing; Wang, Yuhe; Wang, Jiulong; Li, Zhengyi

    2016-09-01

    We unify the diffusion and seepage process for nonlinear gas transport in multiscale porous media via a proposed new general transport equation. A coherent theoretical derivation indicates the wall-molecule and molecule-molecule collisions drive the Knudsen and collective diffusive fluxes, and constitute the system pressure across the porous media. A new terminology, nominal diffusion coefficient can summarize Knudsen and collective diffusion coefficients. Physical and numerical experiments show the support of the new formulation and provide approaches to obtain the diffusion coefficient and permeability simultaneously. This work has important implication for natural gas extraction and greenhouse gases sequestration in geological formations.

  10. An examination of double-diffusive processes in a mesoscale eddy in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebieva, Yana; Timmermans, Mary-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity measurements of an Atlantic Water mesoscale eddy in the Arctic Ocean's Canada Basin are analyzed to understand the effects of velocity shear on a range of double-diffusive processes. Double-diffusive structures in and around the eddy are examined through the transition from low shear (outside the eddy and within its solid body core) to high geostrophic shear zones at the eddy flanks. The geostrophic Richardson number takes large values where a double-diffusive staircase is observed and lowest values at the eddy flanks where geostrophic velocity is largest and a well-formed staircase is not present. A Thorpe scale analysis is used to estimate turbulent diffusivities in the flank regions. Double-diffusive and turbulent heat, salt, and buoyancy fluxes from the eddy are computed, and used to infer that the eddy decays on time scales of around 4-9 years. Fluxes highlight that Atlantic Water heat within the eddy can be fluxed downward into deeper water layers by means of both double-diffusive and turbulent mixing. Estimated lateral variations in vertical fluxes across the eddy allow for speculation that double diffusion speeds up the eddy decay, having important implications for the transfer of Atlantic Water heat in the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Universal Critical Power for Nonlinear Schroedinger Equations with a Symmetric Double Well Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchetti, Andrea

    2009-11-06

    Here we consider stationary states for nonlinear Schroedinger equations in any spatial dimension n with symmetric double well potentials. These states may bifurcate as the strength of the nonlinear term increases and we observe two different pictures depending on the value of the nonlinearity power: a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, and a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation with two asymmetric branches occurring as the result of saddle-node bifurcations. We show that in the semiclassical limit, or for a large barrier between the two wells, the first kind of bifurcation always occurs when the nonlinearity power is less than a critical value; in contrast, when the nonlinearity power is larger than such a critical value then we always observe the second scenario. The remarkable fact is that such a critical value is a universal constant in the sense that it does not depend on the shape of the double well potential and on the dimension n.

  12. Transitions to chaos in two-dimensional double-diffusive convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobloch, E.; Moore, D. R.; Toomre, J.; Weiss, N. O.

    1986-01-01

    The partial differential equations governing two-dimensional thermosolutal convection in a Boussinesq fluid with free boundary conditions have been solved numerically in a regime where oscillatory solutions can be found. A systematic study of the transition from nonlinear periodic oscillations to temporal chaos has revealed sequences of period-doubling bifurcations. Overstability occurs if the ratio of the solutal to the thermal diffusivity tau is less than 1 and the solutal Rayleigh number Rs is sufficiently large. Solutions have been obtained for two representative values of tau. For tau = 0.316, R(s) = 10,000, symmetrical oscillations undergo a bifurcation to asymmetry, followed by a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to aperiodicity, as the thermal Rayleigh number R(T) is increased. At higher values of R(T), the bifurcation sequence is repeated in reverse, restoring simple periodic solutions. As R(T) is further increased more period-doubling cascades, followed by chaos, can be identified. Within the chaotic regions there are narrow periodic windows, and multiple branches of oscillatory solutions coexist. Eventually the oscillatory branch ends and only steady solutions can be found. The development of chaos has been investigated for tau = 0.1 by varying R(T) for several different values of R(s). When R(s) is sufficiently small there are periodic solutions whose period becomes infinite at the end of the oscillatory branch. As R(s) is increased, chaos appears in the neighborhood of these heteroclinic orbits. At higher values of R(s), chaos is found for a broader range in R(T). A truncated fifth-order model suggest that the appearance of chaos is associated with heteroclinic bifurcations.

  13. Model coupling intraparticle diffusion/sorption, nonlinear sorption, and biodegradation processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Gossard, Chris M.; Strevett, Keith A.; Kolar, Randall L.; Sabatini, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion, sorption and biodegradation are key processes impacting the efficiency of natural attenuation. While each process has been studied individually, limited information exists on the kinetic coupling of these processes. In this paper, a model is presented that couples nonlinear and nonequilibrium sorption (intraparticle diffusion) with biodegradation kinetics. Initially, these processes are studied independently (i.e., intraparticle diffusion, nonlinear sorption and biodegradation), with appropriate parameters determined from these independent studies. Then, the coupled processes are studied, with an initial data set used to determine biodegradation constants that were subsequently used to successfully predict the behavior of a second data set. The validated model is then used to conduct a sensitivity analysis, which reveals conditions where biodegradation becomes desorption rate-limited. If the chemical is not pre-equilibrated with the soil prior to the onset of biodegradation, then fast sorption will reduce aqueous concentrations and thus biodegradation rates. Another sensitivity analysis demonstrates the importance of including nonlinear sorption in a coupled diffusion/sorption and biodegradation model. While predictions based on linear sorption isotherms agree well with solution concentrations, for the conditions evaluated this approach overestimates the percentage of contaminant biodegraded by as much as 50%. This research demonstrates that nonlinear sorption should be coupled with diffusion/sorption and biodegradation models in order to accurately predict bioremediation and natural attenuation processes. To our knowledge this study is unique in studying nonlinear sorption coupled with intraparticle diffusion and biodegradation kinetics with natural media.

  14. Nonlinear diffusion and viral spread through the leaf of a plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Maureen P.; Waterhouse, Peter M.; Munoz-Lopez, María Jesús; Anderssen, Robert S.

    2016-10-01

    The spread of a virus through the leaf of a plant is both spatially and temporally causal in that the present status depends on the past and the spatial spread is compactly supported and progresses outwards. Such spatial spread is known to occur for certain nonlinear diffusion processes. The first compactly supported solution for nonlinear diffusion equations appears to be that of Pattle published in 1959. In that paper, no explanation is given as to how the solution was derived. Here, we show how the solution can be derived using Lie symmetry analysis. This lays a foundation for exploring the behavior of other choices for nonlinear diffusion and exploring the addition of reaction terms which do not eliminate the compactly supported structure. The implications associated with using the reaction-diffusion equation to model the spatial-temporal spread of a virus through the leaf of a plant are discussed.

  15. A Comparison of PDE-based Non-Linear Anisotropic Diffusion Techniques for Image Denoising

    SciTech Connect

    Weeratunga, S K; Kamath, C

    2003-01-06

    PDE-based, non-linear diffusion techniques are an effective way to denoise images. In a previous study, we investigated the effects of different parameters in the implementation of isotropic, non-linear diffusion. Using synthetic and real images, we showed that for images corrupted with additive Gaussian noise, such methods are quite effective, leading to lower mean-squared-error values in comparison with spatial filters and wavelet-based approaches. In this paper, we extend this work to include anisotropic diffusion, where the diffusivity is a tensor valued function which can be adapted to local edge orientation. This allows smoothing along the edges, but not perpendicular to it. We consider several anisotropic diffusivity functions as well as approaches for discretizing the diffusion operator that minimize the mesh orientation effects. We investigate how these tensor-valued diffusivity functions compare in image quality, ease of use, and computational costs relative to simple spatial filters, the more complex bilateral filters, wavelet-based methods, and isotropic non-linear diffusion based techniques.

  16. Comparison of PDE-based non-linear anistropic diffusion techniques for image denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeratunga, Sisira K.; Kamath, Chandrika

    2003-05-01

    PDE-based, non-linear diffusion techniques are an effective way to denoise images.In a previous study, we investigated the effects of different parameters in the implementation of isotropic, non-linear diffusion. Using synthetic and real images, we showed that for images corrupted with additive Gaussian noise, such methods are quite effective, leading to lower mean-squared-error values in comparison with spatial filters and wavelet-based approaches. In this paper, we extend this work to include anisotropic diffusion, where the diffusivity is a tensor valued function which can be adapted to local edge orientation. This allows smoothing along the edges, but not perpendicular to it. We consider several anisotropic diffusivity functions as well as approaches for discretizing the diffusion operator that minimize the mesh orientation effects. We investigate how these tensor-valued diffusivity functions compare in image quality, ease of use, and computational costs relative to simple spatial filters, the more complex bilateral filters, wavelet-based methods, and isotropic non-linear diffusion based techniques.

  17. Double-dark-resonance-enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in a single layer of graphene nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solookinejad, Gh.; Panahi, M.; Ahmadi Sangachin, E.; Hossein Asadpour, Seyyed

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for the giant enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in a single layer of graphene nanostructure based on quantum optics and nonlinear optical sciences. The linear and the nonlinear susceptibility of the monolayer graphene system are presented in details by using the density matrix method and perturbation theory. After deriving the equations of motion in the steady-state regime, we analytically solve the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the system. Our numerical results show that the giant enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be obtained in the double-dark-resonance condition with zero linear and nonlinear absorption. Our results may have potential applications in quantum information science in infrared and terahertz regimes.

  18. Submodels of model of nonlinear diffusion in the inhomogeneous medium involving absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Chirkunov, Yu. A.

    2015-10-15

    We study the five-parameter model, describing the process of nonlinear diffusion in an inhomogeneous medium in the presence of absorption, for which the differential equation of the model admits a continuous Lie group of transformations, acting on the set of its solutions. We found six submodels of the original model of nonlinear diffusion, with different symmetry properties. Of these six submodels, the five submodels with transient absorption, for which the absorption coefficient depends on time according to a power law, represent the greatest interest with a mathematical point of view and with the point of view of physical applications. For each of these nonlinear submodels, we obtained formulas for producing new solutions that contain arbitrary constants, and we found all invariant submodels. All essentially distinct invariant solutions describing these invariant submodels are found in an explicit form or are reduced to finding the solution of nonlinear integral equations. The presence of the arbitrary constants in the integral equations that determine these solutions provide new opportunities for analytical and numerical study of boundary value problems for the received submodels and, thus, for the original model of nonlinear diffusion. For the received invariant submodels, we studied diffusion processes for which at the initial moment of the time at a fixed point is specified as a concentration and its gradient or as a concentration and its velocity. Solving of boundary value problems describing these processes is reduced to the solving of nonlinear integral equations. We established the existence and uniqueness of solutions of these boundary value problems under some additional conditions. The obtained results can be used to study the diffusion of substances, diffusion of conduction electrons and other particles, diffusion of physical fields and propagation of heat in inhomogeneous medium, and also to study a turbulence (Leith model, differential

  19. Nonlinear distortion correction of diffusion MR images improves quantitative DTI measurements in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Davis C.; Pope, Whitney B.; Liau, Linda M.; Kim, Hyun J.; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a retrospective nonlinear distortion correction technique and evaluate the changes in DTI metrics in areas of interest in and around GBM tumors. A total of 24 histologically confirmed GBM patients with pre-operative 20-direction DTI scans were examined. Variability in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in normal tissue before and after distortion correction were examined. Changes in mean, median and variance of ADC and FA in contrast enhancing and T2/FLAIR ROIs were also examined with and without distortion correction. Results suggest the intra-subject standard deviations of ADC and FA decreased in normal tissue after the application of distortion correction (P<0.0001). FA mean and median values decreased after distortion correction in both T1+C and T2 ROIs (P<0.017), while ADC mean and median values did not significantly change except for the median ADC in T1+C ROIs (P=0.0054). The intra-subject standard deviation of ADC and FA values in tumor ROIs changed significantly with distortion correction, and Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the bias and the standard deviation of the bias of these intra-subject standard deviations were larger than those of the mean and median terms. Additionally, the means of the two curves of a double Gaussian fit to the histogram of ADC values from T1+C ROIs, ADCL (mean of lower Gaussian) as well as ADCH (mean of the higher Gaussian) were found to change significantly with distortion correction (P=0.0045 for ADCL and P=0.0370 for ADCH). Nonlinear distortion correction better aligns neuro-anatomical structures between DTI and anatomical scans, and significantly alters the measurement of values within tumor ROIs for GBM patients. PMID:24318915

  20. Modelling the nonlinear behaviour of double walled carbon nanotube based resonator with curvature factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the nonlinear vibration analysis of a double walled carbon nanotube based mass sensor with curvature factor or waviness, which is doubly clamped at a source and a drain. Nonlinear vibrational behaviour of a double-walled carbon nanotube excited harmonically near its primary resonance is considered. The double walled carbon nanotube is harmonically excited by the addition of an excitation force. The modelling involves stretching of the mid plane and damping as per phenomenon. The equation of motion involves four nonlinear terms for inner and outer tubes of DWCNT due to the curved geometry and the stretching of the central plane due to the boundary conditions. The vibrational behaviour of the double walled carbon nanotube with different surface deviations along its axis is analyzed in the context of the time response, Poincaré maps and Fast Fourier Transformation diagrams. The appearance of instability and chaos in the dynamic response is observed as the curvature factor on double walled carbon nanotube is changed. The phenomenon of Periodic doubling and intermittency are observed as the pathway to chaos. The regions of periodic, sub-harmonic and chaotic behaviour are clearly seen to be dependent on added mass and the curvature factors in the double walled carbon nanotube. Poincaré maps and frequency spectra are used to explicate and to demonstrate the miscellany of the system behaviour. With the increase in the curvature factor system excitations increases and results in an increase of the vibration amplitude with reduction in excitation frequency.

  1. Classical momentum diffusion in double-delta-kicked particles.

    PubMed

    Stocklin, M M A; Monteiro, T S

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the classical chaotic diffusion of atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced pulses ("kicks") from standing waves of light (the 2delta-KP ). Recent experimental studies with cold atoms implied an underlying classical diffusion of a type very different from the well-known paradigm of Hamiltonian chaos, the standard map. The kicks in each pair are separated by a small time interval E<1, which together with the kick strength K, characterizes the transport. Phase space for the 2delta-KP is partitioned into momentum "cells" partially separated by momentum-trapping regions where diffusion is slow. We present here an analytical derivation of the classical diffusion for a 2delta-KP including all important correlations which were used to analyze the experimental data. We find an asymptotic (t-->infinity) regime of "hindered" diffusion: while for the standard map the diffusion rate, for K>1 , D approximately K(2)/2[1-2J(2)(K)...] oscillates about the uncorrelated rate D(0)=K(2)/2, we find analytically, that the 2delta-KP can equal, but never diffuses faster than, a random walk rate. We argue this is due to the destruction of the important classical "accelerator modes" of the standard map. We analyze the experimental regime 0.1 less or approximately KE less or approximately 1 , where quantum localization lengths L approximately Planck's (-0.75) are affected by fractal cell boundaries. We find an approximate asymptotic diffusion rate D proportional to K(3)E, in correspondence to a D proportional to K(3) regime in the standard map associated with the "golden-ratio" cantori.

  2. Nonlinear Diffusion Filtering of the GOCE-Based Satellite-Only Mean Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunderlik, Robert; Mikula, Karol

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents nonlinear diffusion filtering of the GOCE-based satellite-only mean dynamic topography (MDT). Our approach is based on a numerical solution to the nonlinear diffusion equation defined on the discretized Earth’s surface using the regularized surface Perona-Malik Model. For its numerical discretization we use a surface finite volume method. A key idea is that the diffusivity coefficient depends on the edge detector. It allows effectively reduce the stripping noise while preserve important gradients in filtered data. Numerical experiments present nonlinear filtering of the geopotential evaluated from the GO_CONS_GCF_2_ DIR_R5 model on the DTU13 mean sea surface. After filtering the geopotential is transformed into the MDT.

  3. Influence of Glass Fiber Nonlinearity and Dispersion on Light propagation in Double Core Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, A.; Listanti, A.; Latifah, E.; Wisodo, H.; P, Nugroho A.; Taufiq, A.

    2017-05-01

    Influence of coupling and intermodal dispersion coefficient on pulse splitting in double core optical fibre was investigated by using solutions of normalized coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. It was found that if coupling coefficient and intermodal dispersion coefficient was small, and then nonlinearity cannot balance intermodal dispersion effect. Consequently, pulse was distorted. Furthermore, if intermodal dispersion coefficient was large enough, then pulse splitting occurred. Increasing coupling coefficient avoids pulse splitting and the pulse was stable.

  4. Numerical Study of g-Jitter Induced Double-Diffusive Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Y.; Li, B. Q.; deGroh, Henry C.

    2001-01-01

    A finite element study is presented of double-diffusive convection driven by g-jitter in a microgravity environment. Mathematical formulations are presented and extensive simulations are carried out for g-jitter induced fluid flow, temperature distribution, and solutal transport in an alloy system under consideration for space flights. Computations include the use of idealized single-frequency and multi-frequency g-jitter as well as the real g-jitter data taken during an actual Space Shuttle fight. Little correlation is seen between these velocity components for the g-jitter components studied. The temperature field is basically undisturbed by convection because of a small Pr number for the fluid. The disturbance of the concentration field, however, is pronounced, and the local variation of the concentration follows the velocity oscillation in time. It is found that although the concentration field varies in both position and time, the local concentration gradient remains approximately constant in time. Numerical study further indicates that with an increase in g-jitter force (or amplitude), the nonlinear convective effects become much more obvious, which in turn drastically change the concentration fields. The simulated results computed using the g-jitter data taken during space flights show that both the velocity and concentration become random, following approximately the same pattern as the g-jitter perturbations.

  5. Inexact Picard iterative scheme for steady-state nonlinear diffusion in random heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Mohan, P Surya; Nair, Prasanth B; Keane, Andy J

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical scheme for the analysis of steady-state nonlinear diffusion in random heterogeneous media. The key idea is to iteratively solve the nonlinear stochastic governing equations via an inexact Picard iteration scheme, wherein the nonlinear constitutive law is linearized using the current guess of the solution. The linearized stochastic governing equations are then spatially discretized and approximately solved using stochastic reduced basis projection schemes. The approximation to the solution process thus obtained is used as the guess for the next iteration. This iterative procedure is repeated until an appropriate convergence criterion is met. Detailed numerical studies are presented for diffusion in a square domain for varying degrees of nonlinearity. The numerical results are compared against benchmark Monte Carlo simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach provides good approximations for the response statistics at modest computational effort.

  6. The relationship between double-diffusive intrusions and staircases in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebieva, Yana; Timmermans, Mary-Louise

    2016-11-01

    The origin of double-diffusive staircases in the Arctic Ocean is investigated for the particular background setting in which both temperature and salinity increase with depth. Motivated by observations that show the co-existence of thermohaline intrusions and double-diffusive staircases, a linear stability analysis is performed on the governing equations to determine the conditions under which staircases form. It is shown that a double-diffusive staircase can result from interleaving motions if the observed bulk vertical density ratio is below a critical vertical density ratio estimated for particular lateral and vertical background temperature and salinity gradients. Vertical temperature and salinity gradients dominate over horizontal gradients in determining whether staircases form. Examination of Arctic Ocean temperature and salinity measurements indicates that observations are consistent with the theory for reasonable choices of eddy diffusivity and viscosity.

  7. Coupled nonlinear-diffusion color image sharpening based on the chromaticity-brightness model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takahiro; Nosaka, Reina; Komatsu, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Previously we have presented a selective image sharpening method based on the coupled nonlinear diffusion process composed of a nonlinear diffusion term, a fidelity term and an isotropic peaking term, and it can sharpen only blurred edges without increasing the noise visibility. Our previously presented prototypal color-image sharpening methods based on the coupled nonlinear-diffusion process have been formulated on the linear color models, namely, the channel-bychannel model and the 3D vectorial model. Our prototypal methods can sharpen blurred color step edges, but they do not necessarily enhance contrasts of signal variations in complex texture image regions so well as in simple step-edge regions. To remedy the drawback, this paper extends our coupled nonlinear-diffusion color-image sharpening method to the nonlinear non-flat color model, namely, the chromaticity-brightness model, which is known to be closely relating to human color perception. We modify our time-evolution PDE's for the non-flat space of the chromaticity vector and present its digital implementations. Through experimental simulations, we compare our new color-image sharpening method based on the chromaticity-brightness model with our prototypal color-image sharpening methods based on the linear color models.

  8. Applying nonlinear diffusion acceleration to the neutron transport k-Eigenvalue problem with anisotropic scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Willert, Jeffrey; Park, H.; Taitano, William

    2015-11-01

    High-order/low-order (or moment-based acceleration) algorithms have been used to significantly accelerate the solution to the neutron transport k-eigenvalue problem over the past several years. Recently, the nonlinear diffusion acceleration algorithm has been extended to solve fixed-source problems with anisotropic scattering sources. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can extend this algorithm to k-eigenvalue problems in which the scattering source is anisotropic and a significant acceleration can be achieved. Lastly, we demonstrate that the low-order, diffusion-like eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently using a technique known as nonlinear elimination.

  9. Magnetic diffusion and ion nonlinear dynamics in magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenitani, S.; Shinohara, I.; Nagai, T.; Wada, T.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in many plasma systems, ranging from laboratory and solar-terrestrial environments to extreme astrophysical settings. The reconnection process is controlled by magnetic dissipation physics in a small-scale region near the reconnection point (X-line), and therefore the structure of the reconnection site is of strong interest. According to the standard picture of collisionless reconnection, the X-line is surrounded by a compact electron diffusion region and by an outer ion diffusion region. While the electron region has been extensively studied, much less is known about the ion region. In this work, we examine key aspects of the ion region in magnetic reconnection. First, we evaluate the ''diffusion'' of magnetic field lines, going back to the topology theorems. Unlike in the MHD, the idealness, the frozen-in, magnetic diffusion, and the energy dissiation can be all different in a kinetic plasma. We will apply these concepts to the reconnection site in two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Importantly, in the outer part of the ion region, even though the ion ideal condition is violated, the magnetic fields are frozen to plasma fluids. This raises a serious question to the widespread definition of the ion diffusion region, based on the ion nonidealness. We further examine the ion velocity distribution function in the same region. The distribution function contains multiple populations such as global Speiser ions, local Speiser ions, and trapped ions. The particle motion of the local Speiser ions in an appropriately rotated frame explains the plasma nonidealness. The trapped ions are the first demonstration of the regular orbits in Chen & Palmadesso (1986), in self-consistent PIC simulations. They would be observational signatures in the ion current layer near reconnection sites.

  10. Nonlinearity Effects of Lateral Density Diffusion Coefficient on Gain-Guided VCSEL Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Cheung, Samson H.; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron and hole diffusions in the plane of semiconductor quantum wells play an important part in the static and dynamic operations of semiconductor lasers. In this paper, we apply a hydrodynamic model developed from the semiconductor Bloch equations to numerically study the effects of nonlinearity in the diffusion coefficient on single mode operation and direct modulation of a gain-guided InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well laser, operating not too far from threshold. We found that a small diffusion coefficient is advantageous for lowering the threshold current and increasing the modulation bandwidth. Most importantly, the effects of nonlinearity in the coefficient can be approximately reproduced by replacing the coefficient with an effective constant diffusion coefficient, which corresponds roughly to the half height density of the density distribution.

  11. Approximate self-similar solutions to a nonlinear diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płociniczak, Łukasz; Okrasińska, Hanna

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we consider a fractional nonlinear problem for anomalous diffusion. The diffusion coefficient we use is of power type, and hence the investigated problem generalizes the porous-medium equation. A generalization is made by introducing a fractional time derivative. We look for self-similar solutions for which the fractional setting introduces other than classical space-time scaling. The resulting similarity equations are of nonlinear integro-differential type. We approximate these equations by an expansion of the integral operator and by looking for solutions in a power function form. Our method can be easily adapted to solve various problems in self-similar diffusion. The approximations obtained give very good results in numerical analysis. Their simplicity allows for easy use in applications, as our fitting with experimental data shows. Moreover, our derivation justifies theoretically some previously used empirical models for anomalous diffusion.

  12. Nonlinear plasma vortices in the Jupiter magnetosphere and radial diffusion in the radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, A. P.; Mozzhukhina, A. R.

    Within the framework of representations about two-dimensional vortex character of hydrodynamic turbulence in Jo torus linked with the development of rearrangement (flute) instability of torus plasma, nonlinear equations describing such disturbances with regard to ionospheric conductivity effect are derived. Evaluations of chacteristic size of a vortex and value of electric field disturbances are found. Energetic particle radial diffusion coefficient in the Jo torus region is calculated, radial diffusion equation with model losses is solved.

  13. 3-D adaptive nonlinear complex-diffusion despeckling filter.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Bernardes, Rui

    2012-12-01

    This work aims to improve the process of speckle noise reduction while preserving edges and other relevant features through filter expansion from 2-D to 3-D. Despeckling is very important for data visual inspection and as a preprocessing step for other algorithms, as they are usually notably influenced by speckle noise. To that intent, a 3-D approach is proposed for the adaptive complex-diffusion filter. This 3-D iterative filter was applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography medical imaging volumes of the human retina and a quantitative evaluation of the results was performed to allow a demonstration of the better performance of the 3-D over the 2-D filtering and to choose the best total diffusion time. In addition, we propose a fast graphical processing unit parallel implementation so that the filter can be used in a clinical setting.

  14. Complex statistics and diffusion in nonlinear disordered particle chains

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, Ch. G.; Bountis, T.; Skokos, Ch.; Drossos, L.

    2014-06-15

    We investigate dynamically and statistically diffusive motion in a Klein-Gordon particle chain in the presence of disorder. In particular, we examine a low energy (subdiffusive) and a higher energy (self-trapping) case and verify that subdiffusive spreading is always observed. We then carry out a statistical analysis of the motion, in both cases, in the sense of the Central Limit Theorem and present evidence of different chaos behaviors, for various groups of particles. Integrating the equations of motion for times as long as 10{sup 9}, our probability distribution functions always tend to Gaussians and show that the dynamics does not relax onto a quasi-periodic Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser torus and that diffusion continues to spread chaotically for arbitrarily long times.

  15. Complex statistics and diffusion in nonlinear disordered particle chains

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, Ch. G.; Bountis, T.; Skokos, Ch.; Drossos, L.

    2014-06-15

    We investigate dynamically and statistically diffusive motion in a Klein-Gordon particle chain in the presence of disorder. In particular, we examine a low energy (subdiffusive) and a higher energy (self-trapping) case and verify that subdiffusive spreading is always observed. We then carry out a statistical analysis of the motion, in both cases, in the sense of the Central Limit Theorem and present evidence of different chaos behaviors, for various groups of particles. Integrating the equations of motion for times as long as 10{sup 9}, our probability distribution functions always tend to Gaussians and show that the dynamics does not relax onto a quasi-periodic Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser torus and that diffusion continues to spread chaotically for arbitrarily long times.

  16. Krylov implicit integration factor WENO methods for semilinear and fully nonlinear advection-diffusion-reaction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tian; Zhang, Yong-Tao

    2013-11-01

    Implicit integration factor (IIF) methods are originally a class of efficient “exactly linear part” time discretization methods for solving time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs) with linear high order terms and stiff lower order nonlinear terms. For complex systems (e.g. advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) systems), the highest order derivative term can be nonlinear, and nonlinear nonstiff terms and nonlinear stiff terms are often mixed together. High order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) methods are often used to discretize the hyperbolic part in ADR systems. There are two open problems on IIF methods for solving ADR systems: (1) how to obtain higher than the second order global time discretization accuracy; (2) how to design IIF methods for solving fully nonlinear PDEs, i.e., the highest order terms are nonlinear. In this paper, we solve these two problems by developing new Krylov IIF-WENO methods to deal with both semilinear and fully nonlinear advection-diffusion-reaction equations. The methods can be designed for arbitrary order of accuracy. The stiffness of the system is resolved well and the methods are stable by using time step sizes which are just determined by the nonstiff hyperbolic part of the system. Large time step size computations are obtained. We analyze the stability and truncation errors of the schemes. Numerical examples of both scalar equations and systems in two and three spatial dimensions are shown to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the methods.

  17. Decadal variability of the Turner Angle in the Mediterranean Sea and its implications for double diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meccia, Virna L.; Simoncelli, Simona; Sparnocchia, Stefania

    2016-08-01

    The physical reanalysis component of the Mediterranean Forecasting System is used to construct a high-resolution three-dimensional atlas of the Turner Angle. An assessment of the model quality shows a maximum degree of agreement with observations in the water column between 150 and 1000 m depth. The mean state of the favourable conditions for double diffusion processes is evaluated and the recent decadal variability is studied in terms of changes in the water mass properties. The results show that approximately 50% of the Mediterranean Sea is favourable to double diffusion processes, from which around 47% is associated with salt fingering. The Tyrrhenian, Ionian and southwestern Mediterranean are the most vulnerable basins to salt fingering, and the strongest processes can occur in the Tyrrhenian deep waters. Diffusive convection is most likely to occur in the Ionian, Aegean and eastern Mediterranean at vertical levels deeper than 1000 m. The observed gradual warming and salinification of the Mediterranean after 1997 decreased and increased the possibilities of the occurrence of salt fingers and double diffusive convections, respectively. The climatological atlas that is presented in this paper provides a three-dimensional picture of the regions that are either doubly stable or favourable to double diffusion instability and allows for the characterization of the diffusive properties of the water masses.

  18. Nonlinear approach to difference imaging in diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Mozumder, Meghdoot; Tarvainen, Tanja; Seppänen, Aku; Nissilä, Ilkka; Arridge, Simon R; Kolehmainen, Ville

    2015-10-01

    Difference imaging aims at recovery of the change in the optical properties of a body based on measurements before and after the change. Conventionally, the image reconstruction is based on using difference of the measurements and a linear approximation of the observation model. One of the main benefits of the linearized difference reconstruction is that the approach has a good tolerance to modeling errors, which cancel out partially in the subtraction of the measurements. However, a drawback of the approach is that the difference images are usually only qualitative in nature and their spatial resolution can be weak because they rely on the global linearization of the nonlinear observation model. To overcome the limitations of the linear approach, we investigate a nonlinear approach for difference imaging where the images of the optical parameters before and after the change are reconstructed simultaneously based on the two datasets. We tested the feasibility of the method with simulations and experimental data from a phantom and studied how the approach tolerates modeling errors like domain truncation, optode coupling errors, and domain shape errors.

  19. Modeling magnetic field amplification in nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Andrey

    2009-02-01

    This research was motivated by the recent observations indicating very strong magnetic fields at some supernova remnant shocks, which suggests in-situ generation of magnetic turbulence. The dissertation presents a numerical model of collisionless shocks with strong amplification of stochastic magnetic fields, self-consistently coupled to efficient shock acceleration of charged particles. Based on a Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport and acceleration in nonlinear shocks, the model describes magnetic field amplification using the state-of-the-art analytic models of instabilities in magnetized plasmas in the presence of non-thermal particle streaming. The results help one understand the complex nonlinear connections between the thermal plasma, the accelerated particles and the stochastic magnetic fields in strong collisionless shocks. Also, predictions regarding the efficiency of particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification, the impact of magnetic field amplification on the maximum energy of accelerated particles, and the compression and heating of the thermal plasma by the shocks are presented. Particle distribution functions and turbulence spectra derived with this model can be used to calculate the emission of observable nonthermal radiation.

  20. Using Directional Diffusion Coefficients for Nonlinear Diffusion Acceleration of the First Order SN Equations in Near-Void Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Schunert, Sebastian; Hammer, Hans; Lou, Jijie; Wang, Yaqi; Ortensi, Javier; Gleicher, Frederick; Baker, Benjamin; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The common definition of the diffusion coeffcient as the inverse of three times the transport cross section is not compat- ible with voids. Morel introduced a non-local tensor diffusion coeffcient that remains finite in voids[1]. It can be obtained by solving an auxiliary transport problem without scattering or fission. Larsen and Trahan successfully applied this diffusion coeffcient for enhancing the accuracy of diffusion solutions of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) problems that feature large, optically thin channels in the z-direction [2]. It is demonstrated that a significant reduction of error can be achieved in particular in the optically thin region. Along the same line of thought, non-local diffusion tensors are applied modeling the TREAT reactor confirming the findings of Larsen and Trahan [3]. Previous work of the authors have introduced a flexible Nonlinear-Diffusion Acceleration (NDA) method for the first order S N equations discretized with the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM), [4], [5], [6]. This NDA method uses a scalar diffusion coeffcient in the low-order system that is obtained as the flux weighted average of the inverse transport cross section. Hence, it su?ers from very large and potentially unbounded diffusion coeffcients in the low order problem. However, it was noted that the choice of the diffusion coeffcient does not influence consistency of the method at convergence and hence the di?usion coeffcient is essentially a free parameter. The choice of the di?usion coeffcient does, however, affect the convergence behavior of the nonlinear di?usion iterations. Within this work we use Morel’s non-local di?usion coef- ficient in the aforementioned NDA formulation in lieu of the flux weighted inverse of three times the transport cross section. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that significant en- hancement of the spectral properties of NDA can be achieved in near void regions. For testing the spectral properties of the NDA

  1. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: double-layer theory in a temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Dhont, J K G; Briels, W J

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that includes a small temperature gradient. There are three forces that constitute the total thermophoretic force on a charged colloidal sphere due to the presence of its double layer: i) the force F W that results from the temperature dependence of the internal electrostatic energy W of the double layer, ii) the electric force Fel with which the temperature-induced non-spherically symmetric double-layer potential acts on the surface charges of the colloidal sphere and iii) the solvent-friction force Fsol on the surface of the colloidal sphere due to the solvent flow that is induced in the double layer because of its asymmetry. The force F W will be shown to reproduce predictions based on irreversible-thermodynamics considerations. The other two forces Fel and Fsol depend on the details of the temperature-gradient-induced asymmetry of the double-layer structure which cannot be included in an irreversible-thermodynamics treatment. Explicit expressions for the thermal diffusion coefficient are derived for arbitrary double-layer thickness, which complement the irreversible-thermodynamics result through the inclusion of the thermophoretic velocity resulting from the electric- and solvent-friction force.

  2. Improving Breakdown Behavior by Substrate Bias in a Novel Double Epi-layer Lateral Double Diffused MOS Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Wang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yun; Wei, Xue-Ming

    2012-02-01

    A new lateral double diffused MOS (LDMOS) transistor with a double epitaxial layer formed by an n-type substrate and a p-type epitaxial layer is reported (DEL LDMOS). The mechanism of the improved breakdown characteristic is that the high electric field around the drain is reduced by substrate reverse bias, which causes the redistribution of the bulk electric field in the drift region, and the vertical blocking voltage is shared by the drain side and the source side. The numerical results indicate that the trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the proposed device is improved greatly in comparison to that of the conventional LDMOS.

  3. Solution blow-up for a class of parabolic equations with double nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Korpusov, Maxim O

    2013-03-31

    We consider a class of parabolic-type equations with double nonlinearity and derive sufficient conditions for finite time blow-up of its solutions in a bounded domain under the homogeneous Dirichlet condition. To prove the solution blow-up we use a modification of Levine's method. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  4. Diffusion barrier performance of novel Ti/TaN double layers for Cu metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y. M.; He, M. Z.; Xie, Z.

    2014-10-01

    Novel Ti/TaN double layers offering good stability as a barrier against Cu metallization have been made achievable by annealing in vacuum better than 1 × 10-3 Pa. Ti/TaN double layers were formed on SiO2/Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering and then the properties of Cu/Ti/TaN/SiO2/Si film stacks were studied. It was found that the Ti/TaN double layers provide good diffusion barrier between Cu and SiO2/Si up to 750 °C for 30 min. The XRD, Auger and EDS results show that the Cu-Si compounds like Cu3Si were formed by Cu diffusion through Ti/TaN barrier for the 800 °C annealed samples. It seems that the improved diffusion barrier property of Cu/Ti/TaN/SiO2/Si stack is due to the diffusion of nitrogen along the grain boundaries in Ti layer, which would decrease the defects in Ti film and block the diffusion path for Cu diffusion with increasing annealing temperature. The failure mechanism of Ti/TaN bi-layer is similar to the Cu/TaN/Si metallization system in which Cu atoms diffuse through the grain boundary of barrier and react with silicon to form Cu3Si.

  5. A diffuse-interface modeling for liquid solution-solid gel phase transition of physical hydrogel with nonlinear deformation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Wu, Tao

    2016-10-01

    A diffuse-interface model is presented in this paper for simulation of the evolution of phase transition between the liquid solution and solid gel states for physical hydrogel with nonlinear deformation. The present domain covers the gel and solution states as well as a diffuse interface between them. They are indicated by the crosslink density in such a way that the solution phase is identified as the state when the crosslink density is small, while the gel as the state if the crosslink density becomes large. In this work, a novel order parameter is thus defined as the crosslink density, which is homogeneous in each distinct phase and smoothly varies over the interface from one phase to another. In this model, the constitutive equations, imposed on the two distinct phases and the interface, are formulated by the second law of thermodynamics, which are in the same form as those derived by a different approach. The present constitutive equations include a novel Ginzburg-Landau type of free energy with a double-well profile, which accounts for the effect of crosslink density. The present governing equations include the equilibrium of forces, the conservations of mass and energy, and an additional kinetic equation imposed for phase transition, in which nonlinear deformation is considered. The equilibrium state is investigated numerically, where two stable phases are observed in the free energy profile. As case studies, a spherically symmetrical solution-gel phase transition is simulated numerically for analysis of the phase transition of physical hydrogel.

  6. Nonlinear stability in reaction-diffusion systems via optimal Lyapunov functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, S.; Mulone, G.; Trovato, M.

    2008-06-01

    We define optimal Lyapunov functions to study nonlinear stability of constant solutions to reaction-diffusion systems. A computable and finite radius of attraction for the initial data is obtained. Applications are given to the well-known Brusselator model and a three-species model for the spatial spread of rabies among foxes.

  7. AN EFFICIENT, NON-LINEAR STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR DETECTING PATTERN FORMATION IN REACTION DIFFUSION SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    HOLMES, WILLIAM R.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction diffusion systems are often used to study pattern formation in biological systems. However, most methods for understanding their behavior are challenging and can rarely be applied to complex systems common in biological applications. I present a relatively simple and efficient, non-linear stability technique that greatly aids such analysis when rates of diffusion are substantially different. This technique reduces a system of reaction diffusion equations to a system of ordinary differential equations tracking the evolution of a large amplitude, spatially localized perturbation of a homogeneous steady state. Stability properties of this system, determined using standard bifurcation techniques and software, describe both linear and non-linear patterning regimes of the reaction diffusion system. I describe the class of systems this method can be applied to and demonstrate its application. Analysis of Schnakenberg and substrate inhibition models is performed to demonstrate the methods capabilities in simplified settings and show that even these simple models have non-linear patterning regimes not previously detected. The real power of this technique however is its simplicity and applicability to larger complex systems where other non-linear methods become intractable. This is demonstrated through analysis of a chemotaxis regulatory network comprised of interacting proteins and phospholipids. In each case, predictions of this method are verified against results of numerical simulation, linear stability, asymptotic, and / or full PDE bifurcation analyses. PMID:24158538

  8. Nonlinear dirac and diffusion equations in 1+1 dimensions from stochastic considerations

    PubMed

    Maharana

    2000-08-01

    We generalize the method of obtaining fundamental linear partial differential equations such as the diffusion and Schrodinger equation, the Dirac, and the telegrapher's equation from a simple stochastic consideration to arrive at a certain nonlinear form of these equations. A group classification through a one-parameter group of transformations for two of these equations is also carried out.

  9. Nonlinear diffusion filtering of the GOCE-based satellite-only MDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čunderlík, Róbert; Mikula, Karol

    2015-04-01

    A combination of the GRACE/GOCE-based geoid models and mean sea surface models provided by satellite altimetry allows modelling of the satellite-only mean dynamic topography (MDT). Such MDT models are significantly affected by a stripping noise due to omission errors of the spherical harmonics approach. Appropriate filtering of this kind of noise is crucial in obtaining reliable results. In our study we use the nonlinear diffusion filtering based on a numerical solution to the nonlinear diffusion equation on closed surfaces (e.g. on a sphere, ellipsoid or the discretized Earth's surface), namely the regularized surface Perona-Malik model. A key idea is that the diffusivity coefficient depends on an edge detector. It allows effectively reduce the noise while preserve important gradients in filtered data. Numerical experiments present nonlinear filtering of the satellite-only MDT obtained as a combination of the DTU13 mean sea surface model and GO_CONS_GCF_2_DIR_R5 geopotential model. They emphasize an adaptive smoothing effect as a principal advantage of the nonlinear diffusion filtering. Consequently, the derived velocities of the ocean geostrophic surface currents contain stronger signal.

  10. Similarity solution to fractional nonlinear space-time diffusion-wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, F. Silva; Marão, J. A. P. F.; Soares, J. C. Alves; de Oliveira, E. Capelas

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the so-called fractional nonlinear space-time wave-diffusion equation is presented and discussed. This equation is solved by the similarity method using fractional derivatives in the Caputo, Riesz-Feller, and Riesz senses. Some particular cases are presented and the corresponding solutions are shown by means of 2-D and 3-D plots.

  11. Self-similar solutions for a nonlinear radiation diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, Josselin; Malinie, Guy; Saillard, Yves; Cherfils-Clerouin, Catherine

    2006-09-15

    This paper considers the hydrodynamic equations with nonlinear conduction when the internal energy and the opacity have power-law dependences in the density and in the temperature. This system models the situation in which a dense solid is brought into contact with a thermal bath. It supports self-similar solutions that depend on the surface temperature. The self-similar solution can exhibit a shock wave followed by an ablation front if the surface temperature does not increase too fast in time, but it can exhibit a heat front followed by an isothermal shock otherwise. These flows are carefully studied in order to clarify the role of the initial solid density in the energy absorption and the ablation process. Comparisons with numerical simulations show excellent agreement.

  12. Enhanced nonlinear optical characteristics of copper-ion-doped double crossover DNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byeongho; Lee, Byung Jic; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Cho, Youngho; Kim, Chulki; Seo, Minah; Lee, Taikjin; Jhon, Young Min; Choi, Jaebin; Lee, Seok; Park, Sung Ha; Jun, Seong Chan; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jae Hun

    2015-10-01

    The modification of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples by sequencing the order of bases and doping copper ions opens the possibility for the design of novel nanomaterials exhibiting large optical nonlinearity. We investigated the nonlinear characteristics of copper-ion doped double crossover DNA samples for the first time to the best of our knowledge by using Z-scan and four-wave mixing methods. To accelerate the nonlinear characteristics, we prepared two types of unique DNA nanostructures composed of 148 base pairs doped with copper ions with a facile annealing method. The outstanding third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the copper-ion-doped DNA solution, 1.19 × 10-12 esu, was estimated by the conventional Z-scan measurement, whereas the four-wave mixing experiment was also investigated. In the visible spectral range, the copper-ion-doped DNA solution samples provided competent four-wave mixing signals with a remarkable conversion efficiency of -4.15 dB for the converted signal at 627 nm. The interactions between DNA and copper ions contribute to the enhancement of nonlinearity due to structural and functional changes. The present study signifies that the copper-ion-doped double crossover DNA is a potential candidate as a highly efficient novel material for further nonlinear optical applications.

  13. Eigenfunction Expansions for Coupled Nonlinear Convection-Diffusion Problems in Complex Physical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotta, R. M.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.; Knupp, D. C.; Zotin, J. L. Z.; Pontes, P. C.

    2016-09-01

    This lecture offers an updated review on the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), with focus on handling complex geometries, coupled problems, and nonlinear convection-diffusion, so as to illustrate some new application paradigms. Special emphasis is given to demonstrating novel developments, such as a single domain reformulation strategy that simplifies the treatment of complex geometries, an integral balance scheme in handling multiscale problems, the adoption of convective eigenvalue problems in dealing with strongly convective formulations, and the direct integral transformation of nonlinear convection-diffusion problems based on nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Representative application examples are then provided that employ recent extensions on the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), and a few numerical results are reported to illustrate the convergence characteristics of the proposed eigenfunction expansions.

  14. Drift-diffusion theory of symmetrical double-junction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Pierre E.; Henisch, Heinz K.

    1982-11-01

    Using numerical methods, we have calculated the current-voltage characteristics, energy contours and carrier distributions of a symmetrical double junction diode ( n+nn+ and n+pn+). It is found that the I-V characteristics at low currents and voltages depend greatly on the doping concentration of the base region; at hihg currents, they do not. In that regime, the characteristics bunch together, and can be approximated with remarkable fidelity by the Mott-Gurney law for space-charge controlled conduction in solids. Characteristics are presented for different impurity densities and base widths.

  15. Stability analysis of nonlinear two-grid method for multigroup neutron diffusion problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Cornejo, Luke R.; Jones, Jesse P.

    2017-10-01

    We present theoretical analysis of a nonlinear acceleration method for solving multigroup neutron diffusion problems. This method is formulated with two energy grids that are defined by (i) fine-energy groups structure and (ii) coarse grid with just a single energy group. The coarse-grid equations are derived by averaging of the multigroup diffusion equations over energy. The method uses a nonlinear prolongation operator. We perform stability analysis of iteration algorithms for inhomogeneous (fixed-source) and eigenvalue neutron diffusion problems. To apply Fourier analysis the equations of the method are linearized about solutions of infinite-medium problems. The developed analysis enables us to predict convergence properties of this two-grid method in different types of problems. Numerical results of problems in 2D Cartesian geometry are presented to confirm theoretical predictions.

  16. Nonlinear diffusion-wave equation for a gas in a regenerator subject to temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, N.

    2015-10-01

    This paper derives an approximate equation for propagation of nonlinear thermoacoustic waves in a gas-filled, circular pore subject to temperature gradient. The pore radius is assumed to be much smaller than a thickness of thermoviscous diffusion layer, and the narrow-tube approximation is used in the sense that a typical axial length associated with temperature gradient is much longer than the radius. Introducing three small parameters, one being the ratio of the pore radius to the thickness of thermoviscous diffusion layer, another the ratio of a typical speed of thermoacoustic waves to an adiabatic sound speed and the other the ratio of a typical magnitude of pressure disturbance to a uniform pressure in a quiescent state, a system of fluid dynamical equations for an ideal gas is reduced asymptotically to a nonlinear diffusion-wave equation by using boundary conditions on a pore wall. Discussion on a temporal mean of an excess pressure due to periodic oscillations is included.

  17. Double diffusion in gel reactions with antigens insoluble in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Felix; Loza, Ulana; Czechowski, Donna

    2004-08-01

    Ethanol-soluble, but saline-insoluble antigens were prepared as saline suspensions and studied in double diffusion reactions in a soft agarose gel. Positive reactions were observed with syphilis and SLE sera tested against the Kahn antigen as well as against commercial cardiolipin reagents. Also, ethanol-soluble brain antigen was studied for organ-specific reactions with rabbit immune sera. It was shown that double diffusion in gel can be employed as an analytical procedure for studies on reactions of saline suspensions of ethanol-soluble antigens.

  18. Double-diffusive natural convection in a fluid saturated porous cavity with a freely convecting wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nithiarasu, P.; Sundararajan, T.; Seetharamu, K.N.

    1997-12-01

    Double-diffusive natural convection in fluid saturated porous medium has been investigated using a generalized porous medium model. One of the vertical walls of the porous cavity considered is subjected to convective heat and mass transfer conditions. The results show that the flow, heat and mass transfer become sensitive to applied mass transfer coefficient in both the Darcy and non-Darcy flow regimes. It is also observed that the Sherwood number approaches a constant value as the solutal Biot number increases. Double-diffusive natural convection in fluid saturated porous medium is encountered in applications such as food processing, contaminant transport in ground water, and others.

  19. Euler buckling and nonlinear kinking of double-stranded DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Alexander; Axelrod, Kevin; Cohen, Adam

    2012-02-01

    Bare double-stranded DNA is a stiff biopolymer with a persistence length of roughly 53 nm under physiological conditions. Cells and viruses employ extensive protein machinery to overcome this stiffness and bend, twist, and loop DNA to accomplish tasks such as packaging, recombination, gene regulation, and repair. The mechanical properties of DNA are of fundamental importance to the mechanism and thermodynamics of these processes, but physiologically relevant curvature has been difficult to access experimentally. We designed and synthesized a DNA hairpin construct in which base-pairing interactions generated a compressive force on a short segment of duplex DNA, inducing Euler buckling followed by bending to thermally inaccessible radii of curvature. The efficiency of F"orster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorophores covalently linked to the hairpin indicated the degree of buckling. Bulk and single-molecule measurements yielded distinctly different force-compression curves for intact DNA and for strands with single nicks, base pair mismatches, and damage sites. These results suggest that changes in local mechanical properties may play a significant role in the recognition of these features by DNA-binding proteins.

  20. Piecewise approximation of curves using nonlinear diffusion in scale-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Antonio M. G.; Ghanbari, Mohammad

    2000-10-01

    The emerging Multimedia Content Description Interface standard, MPEG-7, looks at the indexing and retrieval of visual information. In this context the development of shape description and shape querying tools become a fundamental and challenging task. We introduce a method based on non-linear diffusion of contours. The aim is to compute reference points in contours to provide a shape description tool. This reference points will be situated in the sharpest changes in the contour direction. Hence, they provide ideal choices to use as vertices of a polygonal approximation. If a maximum error between the original contour and the polygonal approximation is required, a scale-space procedure can help to find new vertices in order to meet this requirement. Basically, this method follows the non-linear diffusion technique of Perona and Malik. Unlike the usually linear diffusion techniques of contours, where the diffusion is made through the contour points coordinates, this method applies the diffusion in the tangent space. In this case the contour is described by the angle variation, and the non-linear diffusion procedure is applied on it. Perona and Malik model determines how strong diffusion will act on the original function, and depends of a factor K, estimated automatically. In areas with spatial concentration of strong changes of the angle this factor is also adjusted to reduce the noise effect. The proposed method has been extensively tested using the data- base contour of fish shapes in SQUID web site. A shape-based retrieval application was also tested using a similarity measure between two polygonal approximations.

  1. Nonlinear stability research on the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Qingxue; An, Gaocheng; Qi, Qisong; Sun, Binyu

    2015-10-01

    This paper researches the stability of the nonlinear system taking the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear as an example. The hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear uses unsymmetrical electro-hydraulic proportional servo valve to control the cylinder with single piston rod, which can make best use of the space and reduce reversing shock. It is a typical nonlinear structure. The nonlinear state-space equations of the unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder system are built first, and the second Lyapunov method is used to evaluate its stability. Second, the software AMEsim is applied to simulate the nonlinear system, and the results indicate that the system is stable. At last, the experimental results show that the system unsymmetrical valve controlling the cylinder with single piston rod is stable and conforms to what is deduced by theoretical analysis and simulation. The construction and application of Lyapunov function not only provide the theoretical basis for using of unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder with single piston rod but also develop a new thought for nonlinear stability evaluation.

  2. Nonlinear stability research on the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Qingxue; An, Gaocheng; Qi, Qisong; Sun, Binyu

    2015-10-01

    This paper researches the stability of the nonlinear system taking the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear as an example. The hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear uses unsymmetrical electro-hydraulic proportional servo valve to control the cylinder with single piston rod, which can make best use of the space and reduce reversing shock. It is a typical nonlinear structure. The nonlinear state-space equations of the unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder system are built first, and the second Lyapunov method is used to evaluate its stability. Second, the software AMEsim is applied to simulate the nonlinear system, and the results indicate that the system is stable. At last, the experimental results show that the system unsymmetrical valve controlling the cylinder with single piston rod is stable and conforms to what is deduced by theoretical analysis and simulation. The construction and application of Lyapunov function not only provide the theoretical basis for using of unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder with single piston rod but also develop a new thought for nonlinear stability evaluation.

  3. Double-carrier injection and recombination in insulators, including diffusion effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torpey, P. A.

    1984-10-01

    A theory describing the double-carrier injection and recombination in thin insulating crystals is developed and applied to the case of current flow in anthracene. The diffusion-free analysis indicates that the scaling J proportional to V-squared/d-cubed holds, even when recombination effects are present for any crystal thickness. The same scaling is shown to be valid when diffusion effects are present, if the injecting contacts are not limiting. The individual effects of recombination, diffusion, contacts, and crystal thickness are studied and discussed.

  4. Comparison of Numeric to Analytic Solutions for a Class of Nonlinear Diffusion Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Charles E.; Cranfill, Charles W.

    1992-10-23

    In order to test the accuracy of numerical algorithms for solving nonlinear diffusion equations, self-similar analytic solutions to a class of such equations have been constructed using Lie group techniques. The diffusion equations treated have the form δtk = 'δx(g'knδxk), where δt and δx represent partial derivatives with respect to time and position, k is the diffusing quantity, n is the nonlinearity parameter, and g is a general scaling constant. A standard time-implicit finite-difference diffusion algorithm is shown to give excellent agreement with the analytic solutions if the time and position step sizes are sufficiently small. In particular, an automatic time-step control which limits the fractional change ink produces quite good results. Examples are presented using several fixed time and position step sizes for four values of the nonlinearity parameter (n = 1/2,1, 3/2, 2) and using the automatic time-step control for three values (n = 1/2, 1, 3/2).

  5. PDE-based nonlinear diffusion techniques for denoising scientific and industrial images: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeratunga, Sisira K.; Kamath, Chandrika

    2002-05-01

    Removing noise from data is often the first step in data analysis. Denoising techniques should not only reduce the noise, but do so without blurring or changing the location of the edges. Many approaches have been proposed to accomplish this; in this paper, we focus on one such approach, namely the use of non-linear diffusion operators. This approach has been studied extensively from a theoretical viewpoint ever since the 1987 work of Perona and Malik showed that non-linear filters outperformed the more traditional linear Canny edge detector. We complement this theoretical work by investigating the performance of several isotropic diffusion operators on test images from scientific domains. We explore the effects of various parameters such as the choice of diffusivity function, explicit and implicit methods for the discretization of the PDE, and approaches for the spatial discretization of the non-linear operator etc. We also compare these schemes with simple spatial filters and the more complex wavelet-based shrinkage techniques. Our empirical results show that, with an appropriate choice of parameters, diffusion-based schemes can be as effective as competitive techniques.

  6. Multichannel compressed sensing MR image reconstruction using statistically optimized nonlinear diffusion.

    PubMed

    Joy, Ajin; Paul, Joseph Suresh

    2017-08-01

    Eliminate the need for parametric tuning in total variation (TV) based multichannel compressed-sensing image reconstruction using statistically optimized nonlinear diffusion without compromising image quality. Nonlinear diffusion controls the denoising process using a contrast parameter that separates the gradients corresponding to noise and true edges in the image. This parameter is statistically estimated from the variance of combined image gradient to yield minimum steady-state reconstruction error. In addition, it uses acquired k-space data to bias the diffusion process toward an optimal solution. The proposed method is compared with TV using a set of noisy spine and brain data sets for three, four, and five-fold undersampling. It is observed that the choice of regularization parameter (step size) of TV-based methods requires prior tuning based on an extensive search procedure. In contrast, statistical estimation of contrast parameter removes this need for tuning by adapting to the changes in data sets and undersampling levels. Although an a-priori tuned TV-based reconstruction can provide a comparable image quality to that of controlled nonlinear diffusion, there are practical limitations with regard to its time complexity for ad-hoc applications to multicoil compressed-sensing reconstruction. Magn Reson Med 78:754-762, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. A novel heterodyne displacement interferometer with no detectable periodic nonlinearity and optical resolution doubling

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, K; Ellis, J D; Buice, E S; Spronck, J W; Munnig Schmidt, R H

    2010-02-05

    This paper describes a novel heterodyne laser interferometer with no significant periodic nonlinearity for linear displacement measurements. Moreover, the optical configurations have the benefit of doubling the measurement resolution when compared to its respective traditional counterparts. Experimental results show no discernable periodic nonlinearity for a retro-reflector interferometer and plane mirror interferometer configurations with a noise level below 20 pm. The incoming laser beams of the interferometers are achieved by utilizing two single mode optical fibers. To determine the stability of the optical fiber couplers a fiber delivery prototype was also built and tested.

  8. Nonlinear dilational mechanics of Langmuir lipid monolayers: a lateral diffusion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Laura R; López-Montero, Iván; Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; Monroy, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    We propose a theoretical model for the nonlinear mechanical response of Langmuir lipid monolayers subjected to a dilational in-plane deformation. Lateral diffusion in conjunction with free convection has been considered to drive nonlinear mass transport in Langmuir lipid monolayers. The present model combines the conservative dynamical equations for lipid transport along the monolayer plane together with a material relationship accounting for nonlinear hypoelasticity, as experimentally observed from high-strain rheological measurements [Hilles, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 122, 67 (2007)]. The dynamical equations have been resolved for oscillatory nonlinear motion, the theoretical spectral amplitudes being found in quantitative agreement with the experimental values obtained from surface rheology experiments performed in Langmuir monolayers of two different lipid systems, namely DPPC and native E. Coli lipids. The presence of micrometer-sized phase coexistence domains in these lipid systems has been claimed to pump diffusive transport along the monolayer plane. This dynamical scenario defines a relaxation regime compatible with the observed nonlinear mechanical behavior.

  9. The effects of nutrient chemotaxis on bacterial aggregation patterns with non-linear degenerate cross diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, J. Francisco; Málaga, Carlos; Plaza, Ramón G.

    2013-11-01

    This paper studies a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for bacterial aggregation patterns on the surface of thin agar plates. It is based on the non-linear degenerate cross diffusion model proposed by Kawasaki et al. (1997) [5] and it includes a suitable nutrient chemotactic term compatible with such type of diffusion, as suggested by Ben-Jacob et al. (2000) [20]. An asymptotic estimation predicts the growth velocity of the colony envelope as a function of both the nutrient concentration and the chemotactic sensitivity. It is shown that the growth velocity is an increasing function of the chemotactic sensitivity. High resolution numerical simulations using Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), which include noise in the diffusion coefficient for the bacteria, are presented. The numerical results verify that the chemotactic term enhances the velocity of propagation of the colony envelope. In addition, the chemotaxis seems to stabilize the formation of branches in the soft-agar, low-nutrient regime.

  10. Experimental investigation of the Marangoni effect on the stability of a double-diffusive layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanny, Josef; Chen, Chuan F.

    1994-01-01

    Stability experiments were carried out in 4-cm-thick, salt-stratified fluid layer by heating from below and cooling from above. The bottom boundary was rigid while the top was either free or rigid. The initial solute Rayleigh number varied from 2.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4.6 x 10(exp 7). For the rigid-free case, at initial solute Rayleigh numbers R(sub s) greater than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), thermal Marangoni instabilities were observed to onset along the free surface at a relatively low thermal Rayleigh number, R(sub t). The convection was very weak, and it had almost no effect on the concentration and temperature distributions. Double-diffusive instabilities along the top free surface were observed to onset at a higher R(sub t), with much stronger convection causing changes in the concentration and temperature distributions near the top. At a yet higher R(sub t), double-diffusive convection was observed to onset along the bottom boundary. Fluid motion in the layer then evolved into fully developed thermal convection of a homogeneous fluid without any further increase in the imposed Delta T. For layers with R(sub s) less than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), Marangoni and double-diffusive instabilities onset simultaneously along the free surface first, while double-diffusive instabilities along the bottom wall onset at a higher R(sub t).

  11. Service life of fence posts treated by double-diffusion methods

    Treesearch

    Donald C. Markstrom; Lee R. Gjovik

    1999-01-01

    Service-life tests indicate that Engelmann spruce, lodgepole pine, and Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir fence posts treated by double-diffusion methods performed excellently after field exposure of 30 years with no failures. The test site was located in the semiarid Central Plains near Nunn, Colorado. Although Engelmann spruce posts generally defy treatment by other treating...

  12. Nonlinear preferential rewiring in fixed-size networks as a diffusion process.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Samuel; Torres, Joaquín J; Marro, Joaquín

    2009-05-01

    We present an evolving network model in which the total numbers of nodes and edges are conserved, but in which edges are continuously rewired according to nonlinear preferential detachment and reattachment. Assuming power-law kernels with exponents alpha and beta , the stationary states which the degree distributions evolve toward exhibit a second-order phase transition-from relatively homogeneous to highly heterogeneous (with the emergence of starlike structures) at alpha=beta . Temporal evolution of the distribution in this critical regime is shown to follow a nonlinear diffusion equation, arriving at either pure or mixed power laws of exponents -alpha and 1-alpha .

  13. Semi-analytical method for solving nonlinear heat diffusion problems in spherical medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-El-Malek, Mina B.; Helal, Medhat M.

    2006-08-01

    A semi-analytical methodology, based on the finite integral transform technique, is proposed to solve the heat diffusion problem in a spherical medium subject to nonlinear boundary conditions due to radiation exchange at the interface according to the fourth power law. The method proceeds by treating the nonlinearity term in the boundary condition as a source in the differential equation and keeping other conditions unchanged. The results obtained from this semi-analytical solutions are compared with those obtained from a numerical solution developed using an explicit finite difference method, which showed very good agreement.

  14. Local-instantaneous filtering in the integral transform solution of nonlinear diffusion problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macêdo, E. N.; Cotta, R. M.; Orlande, H. R. B.

    A novel filtering strategy is proposed to be utilized in conjunction with the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), in the solution of nonlinear diffusion problems. The aim is to optimize convergence enhancement, yielding computationally efficient eigenfunction expansions. The proposed filters include space and time dependence, extracted from linearized versions of the original partial differential system. The scheme automatically updates the filter along the time integration march, as the required truncation orders for the user requested accuracy begin to exceed a prescribed maximum system size. A fully nonlinear heat conduction example is selected to illustrate the computational performance of the filtering strategy, against the classical single-filter solution behavior.

  15. Evidence for nonlinear, diffusive sediment transport on hillslopes and implications for landscape morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roering, Joshua J.; Kirchner, James W.; Dietrich, William E.

    1999-03-01

    Steep, soil-mantled hillslopes evolve through the downslope movement of soil, driven largely by slope-dependent transport processes. Most landscape evolution models represent hillslope transport by linear diffusion, in which rates of sediment transport are proportional to slope, such that equilibrium hillslopes should have constant curvature between divides and channels. On many soil-mantled hillslopes, however, curvature appears to vary systematically, such that slopes are typically convex near the divide and become increasingly planar downslope. This suggests that linear diffusion is not an adequate model to describe the entire morphology of soil-mantled hillslopes. Here we show that the interaction between local disturbances (such as rainsplash and biogenic activity) and frictional and gravitational forces results in a diffusive transport law that depends nonlinearly on hillslope gradient. Our proposed transport law (1) approximates linear diffusion at low gradients and (2) indicates that sediment flux increases rapidly as gradient approaches a critical value. We calibrated and tested this transport law using high-resolution topographic data from the Oregon Coast Range. These data, obtained by airborne laser altimetry, allow us to characterize hillslope morphology at ≈2 m scale. At five small basins in our study area, hillslope curvature approaches zero with increasing gradient, consistent with our proposed nonlinear diffusive transport law. Hillslope gradients tend to cluster near values for which sediment flux increases rapidly with slope, such that large changes in erosion rate will correspond to small changes in gradien. Therefore average hillslope gradient is unlikely to be a reliable indicator of rates of tectonic forcing or baselevel lowering. Where hillslope erosion is dominated by nonlinear diffusion, rates of tectonic forcing will be more reliably reflected in hillslope curvature near the divide rather than average hillslope gradient.

  16. Rediscovering Hydrogel-Based Double-Diffusion Systems for Studying Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Dorvee, Jason R.; Boskey, Adele L.; Estroff, Lara A.

    2012-01-01

    For those seeking to model biomineralization in vitro, hydrogels can serve as excellent models of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. A major challenge posed in implementing such systems is the logistics involved, from fundamental engineering to experimental design. For the study of calcium phosphate (e.g., hydroxyapatite) formation, many researchers use hydrogel-based double-diffusion systems (DDSs). The various designs of these DDSs are seemingly as unique as their applications. In this Highlight, we present a survey of four distinct types of double-diffusion systems and evaluate them in the context of fundamental diffusion theory. Based upon this analysis, we present the design and evaluation of an optimized system. The techniques and framework for the evaluation and construction of a DDS presented here can be applied to any DDS that a researcher may want to implement for their particular studies of biomineralization. PMID:22962542

  17. Fluxes across double-diffusive interfaces: a one-dimensional-turbulence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, E.; Kerstein, A.; Lignell, D.

    2010-12-01

    Double-diffusive convection in the diffusive regime is believed to occur, for example, in the Arctic and Southern Oceans, in geothermally-heated salty lakes, and in massive stars and giant planets. It is of interest in all these systems to know the parametrization of the fluxes of heat and salt across double-diffusive interfaces. The present work is a parametric study of these fluxes using one-dimensional-turbulence (ODT) simulations. Its main distinction is that it considers a parameter space larger than previous studies, which includes the effect of background shear. Specifically, this work considers the effect on the fluxes of the stability parameter, Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, Lewis number, and Richardson number. The ratio of the Rayleigh number and the stability parameter is found to be a dominant parameter. This parameter can be seen as a ratio of destabilizing and stabilizing effects. Trends predicted by the simulations are in good agreement with previous models and available measurements.

  18. Single-Step Nonlinear Diffusion Tensor Estimation in the Presence of Microscopic and Macroscopic Motion

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Murat; Liu, Chunlei; Moseley, Michael E.; Bammer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Patient motion can cause serious artifacts in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diminishing the reliability of the estimated diffusion tensor information. Studies in this field have so far been limited mainly to the correction of miniscule physiological motion. In order to correct for gross patient motion it is not sufficient to correct for misregistration between successive shots; the change in the diffusion-encoding direction must also be accounted for. This becomes particularly important for multishot sequences, whereby—in the presence of motion—each shot is encoded with a different diffusion weighting. In this study a general mathematical framework to correct for gross patient motion present in a multishot and multicoil DTI scan is presented. A signal model is presented that includes the effect of rotational and translational motion in the patient frame of reference. This model was used to create a nonlinear least-squares formulation, from which the diffusion tensors were obtained using a nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm. Applications to both phantom simulations and in vivo studies showed that in the case of gross motion the proposed algorithm performs superiorly compared to conventional methods used for tensor estimation. PMID:18429035

  19. Impurity-related nonlinear optical rectification in double quantum dot under electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, D.

    2016-11-01

    The characteristics of donor-impurity-related nonlinear optical rectification in asymmetric double quantum dot under electric field are investigated within the compact density-matrix formalism and the effective mass approximation. The results show that: (i) the binding energy of the ground state varies strongly with the impurity position and it is raised or decreased by the applied field, depending on the impurity position; (ii) the optical rectification spectra are rather sensitive to the impurity position and the electric field intensity; (iii) the changes in the impurity position within the double quantum dot and the electric field value may induce red or blue shift of the resonant peaks of the nonlinear optical rectification.

  20. Nonlinear ion-acoustic double-layers in electronegative plasmas with electrons featuring Tsallis distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghebache, Siham; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2016-04-01

    Weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic (IA) double-layers (DLs), which accompany electronegative plasmas composed of positive ions, negative ions, and nonextensive electrons are investigated. A generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with a cubic nonlinearity is derived using a reductive perturbation method. Different types of electronegative plasmas inspired from the experimental studies of Ichiki et al. (2001) are discussed. It is shown that the IA wave phase velocity, in different mixtures of negative and positive ions, decreases as the nonextensive parameter q increases, before levelling-off at a constant value for larger q. Moreover, a relative increase of Q involves an enhancement of the IA phase velocity. Existence domains of either solitary waves or double-layers are then presented and their parametric dependence is determined. Owing to the electron nonextensivity, our present plasma model can admit compressive as well as rarefactive IA-DLs.

  1. Finite element method for nonlinear Riesz space fractional diffusion equations on irregular domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Yuan, Z.; Nie, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhu, X.; Liu, F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we consider two-dimensional Riesz space fractional diffusion equations with nonlinear source term on convex domains. Applying Galerkin finite element method in space and backward difference method in time, we present a fully discrete scheme to solve Riesz space fractional diffusion equations. Our breakthrough is developing an algorithm to form stiffness matrix on unstructured triangular meshes, which can help us to deal with space fractional terms on any convex domain. The stability and convergence of the scheme are also discussed. Numerical examples are given to verify accuracy and stability of our scheme.

  2. Revisiting the Young's double slit experiment for background-free nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gachet, David; Brustlein, Sophie; Rigneault, Hervé

    2010-05-28

    In the Young's double slit experiment, the spatial shift of the interference pattern projected onto a screen is directly related to the phase difference between the fields diffracted by the two slits. We apply this property to fields emitted by nonlinear processes and thus demonstrate background-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy near an axial interface between a resonant and a nonresonant medium. This method is relevant to remove the nonresonant background in other coherent resonant processes.

  3. Nonlinear optical endoscopy based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber and a MEMS mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Jain, Ankur; Xie, Huikai; Cranfield, Charles; Gu, Min

    2006-02-01

    Two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy have enabled functional and morphological in vivo imaging. However, in vivo applications of those techniques to living animals are limited by bulk optics on a bench top. Fortunately, growing functionality of fiber-optic devices and miniaturization of scanning mirrors stimulate the race to develop nonlinear optical endoscopy. In this paper, we report on a prototype of a nonlinear optical endoscope based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber to improve the detection efficiency and a MEMS mirror to steer the light at the fiber tip. The miniaturized fiber-optic nonlinear microscope is characterized by rat esophagus imaging. Line profiles from the rat tail tendon and esophagus prove the potential of the technology in in vivo applications.

  4. Period doubling and other nonlinear phenomena in volcanic earthquakes and tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, B. R.

    2000-08-01

    Evidence of subharmonic period-doubling cascades has recently been recognized in seismograms of volcanic tremor from several volcanoes. This phenomenon occurs only in nonlinear systems, and is the commonest route by which such systems change from periodic to chaotic behavior. It is predicted to occur in a model of volcanic tremor excitation by flow-induced vibration, and it might well also occur in other volcano-seismic source process. If the possibility of period doubling is not taken into account in interpreting spectra of tremor and long-period earthquakes, then low-frequency "sub-harmonic" oscillations may be mis-identified as normal modes of a linear acoustic resonator, leading to errors of an order of magnitude or more in inferred magma-body dimensions. This example illustrates the importance of nonlinear phenomena in attempts to understand volcano-seismic phenomena physically. Linear systems are fundamentally incapable of causing earthquakes or exciting tremor, so nonlinearity is essential to any theory of volcano-seismic phenomena. Nonlinear processes are in many respects qualitatively different from linear ones. A few of their characteristics that might be relevant in volcanoes include the possibility: (1) that damping might increase, rather than decrease, oscillation frequencies; and (2) that these frequencies might be functions of the amplitude of oscillation, so that temporal variations in spectral peak frequencies might not be manifestations of changes of conditions within the magmatic system.

  5. Period doubling and other nonlinear phenomena in volcanic earthquakes and tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence of subharmonic period-doubling cascades has recently been recognized in seismograms of volcanic tremor from several volcanoes. This phenomenon occurs only in nonlinear systems, and is the commonest route by which such systems change from periodic to chaotic behavior. It is predicted to occur in a model of volcanic tremor excitation by flow-induced vibration, and it might well also occur in other volcano-seismic source process. If the possibility of period doubling is not taken into account in interpreting spectra of tremor and long-period earthquakes, then low-frequency "sub-harmonic" oscillations may be mis-identified as normal modes of a linear acoustic resonator, leading to errors of an order of magnitude or more in inferred magma-body dimensions. This example illustrates the importance of nonlinear phenomena in attempts to understand volcano-seismic phenomena physically. Linear systems are fundamentally incapable of causing earthquakes or exciting tremor, so nonlinearity is essential to any theory of volcano-seismic phenomena. Nonlinear processes are in many respects qualitatively different from linear ones. A few of their characteristics that might be relevant in volcanoes include the possibility: (1) that damping might increase, rather than decrease, oscillation frequencies; and (2) that these frequencies might be functions of the amplitude of oscillation, so that temporal variations in spectral peak frequencies might not be manifestations of changes of conditions within the magmatic system.

  6. Typical and rare fluctuations in nonlinear driven diffusive systems with dissipation.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Lasanta, A; Prados, A

    2013-08-01

    We consider fluctuations of the dissipated energy in nonlinear driven diffusive systems subject to bulk dissipation and boundary driving. With this aim, we extend the recently introduced macroscopic fluctuation theory to nonlinear driven dissipative media, starting from the fluctuating hydrodynamic equations describing the system mesoscopic evolution. Interestingly, the action associated with a path in mesoscopic phase space, from which large-deviation functions for macroscopic observables can be derived, has the same simple form as in nondissipative systems. This is a consequence of the quasielasticity of microscopic dynamics, required in order to have a nontrivial competition between diffusion and dissipation at the mesoscale. Euler-Lagrange equations for the optimal density and current fields that sustain an arbitrary dissipation fluctuation are also derived. A perturbative solution thereof shows that the probability distribution of small fluctuations is always Gaussian, as expected from the central limit theorem. On the other hand, strong separation from the Gaussian behavior is observed for large fluctuations, with a distribution which shows no negative branch, thus violating the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, as expected from the irreversibility of the dynamics. The dissipation large-deviation function exhibits simple and general scaling forms for weakly and strongly dissipative systems, with large fluctuations favored in the former case but heavily suppressed in the latter. We apply our results to a general class of diffusive lattice models for which dissipation, nonlinear diffusion, and driving are the key ingredients. The theoretical predictions are compared to extensive numerical simulations of the microscopic models, and excellent agreement is found. Interestingly, the large-deviation function is in some cases nonconvex beyond some dissipation. These results show that a suitable generalization of macroscopic fluctuation theory is capable of

  7. Nonlinear diffusion model for annealed proton-exchanged waveguides in zirconium-doped lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Langrock, Carsten; Roussev, Rostislav V; Nava, Giovanni; Minzioni, Paolo; Argiolas, Nicola; Sada, Cinzia; Fejer, Martin M

    2016-08-20

    Photorefractive-damage- (PRD) resistant zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate is investigated as a substrate for the realization of annealed proton-exchanged (APE) waveguides. Its advantages are a favorable distribution coefficient, PRD resistance comparable to magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate, and a proton-diffusion behavior resembling congruent lithium niobate. A 1D model for APE waveguides was developed based on a previous model for congruently melting lithium niobate. Evidence for a nonlinear index dependence on concentration was found.

  8. Typical and rare fluctuations in nonlinear driven diffusive systems with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Pablo I.; Lasanta, A.; Prados, A.

    2013-08-01

    We consider fluctuations of the dissipated energy in nonlinear driven diffusive systems subject to bulk dissipation and boundary driving. With this aim, we extend the recently introduced macroscopic fluctuation theory to nonlinear driven dissipative media, starting from the fluctuating hydrodynamic equations describing the system mesoscopic evolution. Interestingly, the action associated with a path in mesoscopic phase space, from which large-deviation functions for macroscopic observables can be derived, has the same simple form as in nondissipative systems. This is a consequence of the quasielasticity of microscopic dynamics, required in order to have a nontrivial competition between diffusion and dissipation at the mesoscale. Euler-Lagrange equations for the optimal density and current fields that sustain an arbitrary dissipation fluctuation are also derived. A perturbative solution thereof shows that the probability distribution of small fluctuations is always Gaussian, as expected from the central limit theorem. On the other hand, strong separation from the Gaussian behavior is observed for large fluctuations, with a distribution which shows no negative branch, thus violating the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, as expected from the irreversibility of the dynamics. The dissipation large-deviation function exhibits simple and general scaling forms for weakly and strongly dissipative systems, with large fluctuations favored in the former case but heavily suppressed in the latter. We apply our results to a general class of diffusive lattice models for which dissipation, nonlinear diffusion, and driving are the key ingredients. The theoretical predictions are compared to extensive numerical simulations of the microscopic models, and excellent agreement is found. Interestingly, the large-deviation function is in some cases nonconvex beyond some dissipation. These results show that a suitable generalization of macroscopic fluctuation theory is capable of

  9. All fiber nonlinear microscopy at 1550 nm using a double-clad fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrillat-Bottonet, Thomas; Strupler, Mathias; Leduc, Mikael; Majeau, Lucas; Godbout, Nicolas; Boudoux, Caroline

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinear microscopy has already shown its impact in biological research, namely in the fields of neurobiology, immunology, cancer research and embryology. Typically, these microscopes operate under free space propagation, using a dichroic mirror to separate the nonlinear signals from the excitation laser. While powerful such implementations are difficult to translate from the laboratory to a clinical setting where the environment is less controlled. Therefore, we propose an alignment-free all-fiber nonlinear microscopy system at 1550 nm based on double-clad fibers (DCF). As sectioning is performed through nonlinear effects, nonlinear microscopy does not require a detection pinhole, and. the DCF inner cladding can be used for efficient collection of nonlinear signals. The built system allows for multiplexing second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excitation fluorescence (2PEF), collected from the inner cladding; and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), detected from the core acting as the confocal pinhole. Finally, an asymmetric double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) is used to address efficiently both DCF channels. This all-fiber system is more compact and less sensitive to alignment, but requires carefully managing the transmission of the femtosecond pulse in the fiber. This is addressed using dispersion compensation fiber, pulse compression and solitonic propagation. Additionally, with a source centered at 1550 nm, we benefit from reduced sample scattering thus increasing the depth of field in comparison with systems operating at 800 nm. Overall we believe that the developed system could be transferred in clinics to enable in-vivo and in-situ imaging of human patient.

  10. A systematic investigation of reflectance diffuse optical tomography using nonlinear reconstruction methods and continuous wave measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Jiang; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic investigation of the reflectance diffuse optical tomography using continuous wave (CW) measurements and nonlinear reconstruction algorithms. We illustrated and suggested how to fine-tune the nonlinear reconstruction methods in order to optimize target localization with depth-adaptive regularizations, reduce boundary noises in the reconstructed images using a logarithm based objective function, improve reconstruction quantification using transport models, and resolve crosstalk problems between absorption and scattering contrasts with the CW reflectance measurements. The upgraded nonlinear reconstruction algorithms were evaluated with a series of numerical and experimental tests, which show the potentials of the proposed approaches for imaging both absorption and scattering contrasts in the deep targets with enhanced image quality. PMID:25401014

  11. Double-Diffusive Convection During Growth of Halides and Selenides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Su, Ching-Hua; Duval, Walter M. B.

    2015-01-01

    several materials such as mercurous chloride, mercurous bromide, mercurous iodide, lead chloride lead bromide, lead iodide, thallium arsenic selenide, gallium selenide, zince sulfide zinc selenide and several crystals into devices. We have used both Bridgman and physical vapor transport (PVT) crystal growth methods. In the past have examined PVT growth numerically for conditions where the boundary of the enclosure is subjected to a nonlinear thermal profile. Since past few months we have been working on binary and ternary materials such as selenoiodides, doped zinc sulfides and mercurous chloro bromide and mercurous bromoiodides. In the doped and ternary materials thermal and solutal convection play extremely important role during the growth. Very commonly striations and banding is observed. Our experiments have indicated that even in highly purified source materials, homogeneity in 1-g environment is very difficult. Some of our previous numerical studies have indicated that gravity level less than 10-4 (?-g) helps in controlling the thermosolutal convection. We will discuss the ground based growth results of HgClxBr(1-x) and ZnSe growth results for the mm thick to large cm size crystals. These results will be compared with our microgravity experiments performed with this class of materials. For both HgCl-HgBr and ZnS-ZnSe the lattice parameters of the mixtures obey Vagard's law in the studied composition range. The study demonstrates that properties are very anisotropic with crystal orientation, and performance achievement requires extremely careful fabrication to utilize highest figure of merit. In addition, some parameters such as crystal growth fabrication, processing time, resolution, field of view and efficiency will be described based on novel solid solution materials. It was predicted that very similar to the pure compounds solid solutions also have very large anisotropy, and very precise oriented and homogeneous bulk and thin film crystals is required to achieve

  12. Effects of radial diffuser hydraulic design on a double-suction centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H. C.; Zhang, Y. X.; Xu, C.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, Z. L.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study effects of radial diffuser on hydraulic performance of crude oil pump, the steady CFD numerical method is applied and one large double-suction oil pump running in long-distance pipeline is considered. The research focuses on analysing the influence of its diffuser vane profile on hydraulic performance of oil pump. The four different types of cylindrical vane have been designed by in-house codes mainly including double arcs (DA), triple arcs (TA), equiangular spiral line (ES) and linear variable angle spiral line (LVS). During design process diffuser vane angles at inlet and outlet are tentatively given within a certain range and then the wrapping angle of the four types of diffuser vanes can be calculated automatically. Under the given inlet and outlet angles, the linear variable angle spiral line profile has the biggest wrapping angle and profile length which is good to delay channel diffusion but bring more friction hydraulic loss. Finally the vane camber line is thickened at the certain uniform thickness distribution and the 3D diffuser models are generated. The whole flow passage of oil pump with different types of diffusers under various flow rate conditions are numerically simulated based on RNG k-ɛ turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The numerical results show that different types of diffusers can bring about great difference on the hydraulic performance of oil pump, of which the ES profile diffuser with its proper setting angle shows the best hydraulic performance and its inner flow field is improved obviously. Compared with the head data from model sample, all designed diffusers can make a certain improvement on head characteristic. At the large flow rate conditions the hydraulic efficiency increases obviously and the best efficiency point shift to the large flow rate range. The ES profile diffuser embodies the better advantages on pump performance which can be explained theoretically that the diffuser actually acts as a diffusion

  13. Extension of the double-wave-vector diffusion-weighting experiment to multiple concatenations.

    PubMed

    Finsterbusch, Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    Experiments involving two diffusion-weightings in a single acquisition, so-called double- or two-wave-vector experiments, have recently been applied to measure the microscopic anisotropy in macroscopically isotropic samples or to estimate pore or compartment sizes. These informations are derived from the signal modulation observed when varying the wave vectors' orientations. However, the modulation amplitude can be small and, for short mixing times between the two diffusion-weightings, decays with increased gradient pulse lengths which hampers its detectability on whole-body MR systems. Here, an approach is investigated that involves multiple concatenations of the two diffusion-weightings in a single experiment. The theoretical framework for double-wave-vector experiments of fully restricted diffusion is adapted and the corresponding tensor approach recently presented for short mixing times extended and compared to numerical simulations. It is shown that for short mixing times (i) the extended tensor approach well describes the signal behavior observed for multiple concatenations and (ii) the relative amplitude of the signal modulation increases with the number of concatenations. Thus, the presented extension of the double-wave-vector experiment may help to improve the detectability of the signal modulations observed for short mixing times, in particular on whole-body MR systems with their limited gradient amplitudes.

  14. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan double bags: effect of concentration gradient reduction.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called "double bags." Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.

  15. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  16. A flexible nonlinear diffusion acceleration method for the SN transport equations discretized with discontinuous finite elements

    DOE PAGES

    Schunert, Sebastian; Wang, Yaqi; Gleicher, Frederick; ...

    2017-02-21

    This paper presents a flexible nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) method that discretizes both the SN transport equation and the diffusion equation using the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM). The method is flexible in that the diffusion equation can be discretized on a coarser mesh with the only restriction that it is nested within the transport mesh and the FEM shape function orders of the two equations can be different. The consistency of the transport and diffusion solutions at convergence is defined by using a projection operator mapping the transport into the diffusion FEM space. The diffusion weak form is basedmore » on the modified incomplete interior penalty (MIP) diffusion DFEM discretization that is extended by volumetric drift, interior face, and boundary closure terms. In contrast to commonly used coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) methods, the presented NDA method uses a full FEM discretized diffusion equation for acceleration. Suitable projection and prolongation operators arise naturally from the FEM framework. Via Fourier analysis and numerical experiments for a one-group, fixed source problem the following properties of the NDA method are established for structured quadrilateral meshes: (1) the presented method is unconditionally stable and effective in the presence of mild material heterogeneities if the same mesh and identical shape functions either of the bilinear or biquadratic type are used, (2) the NDA method remains unconditionally stable in the presence of strong heterogeneities, (3) the NDA method with bilinear elements extends the range of effectiveness and stability by a factor of two when compared to CMFD if a coarser diffusion mesh is selected. In addition, the method is tested for solving the C5G7 multigroup, eigenvalue problem using coarse and fine mesh acceleration. Finally, while NDA does not offer an advantage over CMFD for fine mesh acceleration, it reduces the iteration count required for convergence by almost

  17. A flexible nonlinear diffusion acceleration method for the SN transport equations discretized with discontinuous finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Wang, Yaqi; Gleicher, Frederick; Ortensi, Javier; Baker, Benjamin; Laboure, Vincent; Wang, Congjian; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a flexible nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) method that discretizes both the SN transport equation and the diffusion equation using the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM). The method is flexible in that the diffusion equation can be discretized on a coarser mesh with the only restriction that it is nested within the transport mesh and the FEM shape function orders of the two equations can be different. The consistency of the transport and diffusion solutions at convergence is defined by using a projection operator mapping the transport into the diffusion FEM space. The diffusion weak form is based on the modified incomplete interior penalty (MIP) diffusion DFEM discretization that is extended by volumetric drift, interior face, and boundary closure terms. In contrast to commonly used coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) methods, the presented NDA method uses a full FEM discretized diffusion equation for acceleration. Suitable projection and prolongation operators arise naturally from the FEM framework. Via Fourier analysis and numerical experiments for a one-group, fixed source problem the following properties of the NDA method are established for structured quadrilateral meshes: (1) the presented method is unconditionally stable and effective in the presence of mild material heterogeneities if the same mesh and identical shape functions either of the bilinear or biquadratic type are used, (2) the NDA method remains unconditionally stable in the presence of strong heterogeneities, (3) the NDA method with bilinear elements extends the range of effectiveness and stability by a factor of two when compared to CMFD if a coarser diffusion mesh is selected. In addition, the method is tested for solving the C5G7 multigroup, eigenvalue problem using coarse and fine mesh acceleration. While NDA does not offer an advantage over CMFD for fine mesh acceleration, it reduces the iteration count required for convergence by almost a factor of two in

  18. Colossal Kerr nonlinearity based on electromagnetically induced transparency in a five-level double-ladder atomic system.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, H R; Gharamaleki, Ali Hamrah; Sahrai, Mostafa

    2016-08-01

    The paper is aimed at modeling the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in a five-level double-ladder-type atomic system based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) by using the semi-classical density matrix method. We present an analytical model to explain the origin of Kerr nonlinearity enhancement. The scheme also results in a several orders of magnitude increase in the Kerr nonlinearity in comparison with the well-known four- and three-level atomic systems. In addition to the steady-state case, the time-dependent Kerr nonlinearity and the switching feature of EIT-based colossal Kerr nonlinearity is investigated for the proposed system.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of bi-layered graphene sheet, double-walled carbon nanotube and nanotube bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sachin O.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    Due to strong van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the graphene sheets and nanotubes stick to each other and form clusters of these corresponding nanostructures, viz. bi-layered graphene sheet (BLGS), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) and nanotube bundle (NB) or ropes. This research work is concerned with the study of nonlinear dynamics of BLGS, DWCNT and NB due to nonlinear interlayer vdW forces using multiscale atomistic finite element method. The energy between two adjacent carbon atoms is represented by the multibody interatomic Tersoff-Brenner potential, whereas the nonlinear interlayer vdW forces are represented by Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential function. The equivalent nonlinear material model of carbon-carbon bond is used to model it based on its force-deflection relation. Newmark's algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear matrix equation governing the motion of the BLGS, DWCNT and NB. An impulse and harmonic excitations are used to excite these nanostructures under cantilevered, bridged and clamped boundary conditions. The frequency responses of these nanostructures are computed, and the dominant resonant frequencies are identified. Along with the forced vibration of these structures, the eigenvalue extraction problem of armchair and zigzag NB is also considered. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are extracted for the different length and boundary conditions of the nanotube bundle.

  20. Relaxation of charge in monolayer graphene: Fast nonlinear diffusion versus Coulomb effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Pristine monolayer graphene exhibits very poor screening because the density of states vanishes at the Dirac point. As a result, charge relaxation is controlled by the effects of zero-point motion (rather than by the Coulomb interaction) over a wide range of parameters. Combined with the fact that graphene possesses finite intrinsic conductivity, this leads to a regime of relaxation described by a nonlinear diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient that diverges at zero charge density. Some consequences of this fast diffusion are self-similar superdiffusive regimes of relaxation, the development of a charge depleted region at the interface between electron- and hole-rich regions, and finite extinction times for periodic charge profiles.

  1. A new nonlinear diffusion formalism in a magnetized plasma - Application to space physics and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimbadi, H.; Krauss-Varban, D.

    1992-01-01

    A novel diffusion formalism that takes into account the finite width of resonances is presented. The resonance diagram technique is shown to reproduce the details of the particle orbits very accurately, and can be used to determine the acceleration/scattering in the presence of a given wave spectrum. Ways in which the nonlinear orbits can be incorporated into the diffusion equation are shown. The resulting diffusion equation is an extension of the Q-L theory to cases where the waves have large amplitudes and/or are coherent. This new equation does not have a gap at 90 deg in cases where the individual orbits can cross the gap. The conditions under which the resonance gap at 90-deg pitch angle exits are also examined.

  2. A new nonlinear diffusion formalism in a magnetized plasma - Application to space physics and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimbadi, H.; Krauss-Varban, D.

    1992-01-01

    A novel diffusion formalism that takes into account the finite width of resonances is presented. The resonance diagram technique is shown to reproduce the details of the particle orbits very accurately, and can be used to determine the acceleration/scattering in the presence of a given wave spectrum. Ways in which the nonlinear orbits can be incorporated into the diffusion equation are shown. The resulting diffusion equation is an extension of the Q-L theory to cases where the waves have large amplitudes and/or are coherent. This new equation does not have a gap at 90 deg in cases where the individual orbits can cross the gap. The conditions under which the resonance gap at 90-deg pitch angle exits are also examined.

  3. DOUBLE-DIFFUSIVE INSTABILITIES OF A SHEAR-GENERATED MAGNETIC LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Silvers, Lara J.; Proctor, Michael R. E.; Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Brummell, Nicholas H.

    2009-09-01

    Previous theoretical work has speculated about the existence of double-diffusive magnetic buoyancy instabilities of a dynamically evolving horizontal magnetic layer generated by the interaction of forced vertically sheared velocity and a background vertical magnetic field. Here, we confirm numerically that if the ratio of the magnetic to thermal diffusivities is sufficiently low then such instabilities can indeed exist, even for high Richardson number shear flows. Magnetic buoyancy may therefore occur via this mechanism for parameters that are likely to be relevant to the solar tachocline, where regular magnetic buoyancy instabilities are unlikely.

  4. New modified multi-level residue harmonic balance method for solving nonlinearly vibrating double-beam problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Saifur; Lee, Yiu-Yin

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a new modified multi-level residue harmonic balance method is presented and adopted to investigate the forced nonlinear vibrations of axially loaded double beams. Although numerous nonlinear beam or linear double-beam problems have been tackled and solved, there have been few studies of this nonlinear double-beam problem. The geometric nonlinear formulations for a double-beam model are developed. The main advantage of the proposed method is that a set of decoupled nonlinear algebraic equations is generated at each solution level. This heavily reduces the computational effort compared with solving the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations generated in the classical harmonic balance method. The proposed method can generate the higher-level nonlinear solutions that are neglected by the previous modified harmonic balance method. The results from the proposed method agree reasonably well with those from the classical harmonic balance method. The effects of damping, axial force, and excitation magnitude on the nonlinear vibrational behaviour are examined.

  5. DOUBLE-DIFFUSIVE MIXING IN STELLAR INTERIORS IN THE PRESENCE OF HORIZONTAL GRADIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, M.; Garaud, P.; Stellmach, S.

    2014-09-10

    We have identified a potentially important source of mixing in stellar radiation zones which would arise whenever two conditions are satisfied: (1) the presence of an inverse vertical compositional gradient, and (2) the presence of density-compensating horizontal gradients of temperature and composition. The former can be caused by off-center nuclear burning, atomic diffusion, or surface accretion. The latter could be caused by rotation, tides, meridional flows, etc. The linear instability and its nonlinear development have been studied in an oceanographic context. It is known to drive the formation of stacks of fingering layers separated by diffusive interfaces, called intrusions. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of the process in the astrophysically relevant region of parameter space, we find similar results and demonstrate that the material transport in the intrusive regime can be highly enhanced compared with pure diffusion, even in systems which would otherwise be stable to fingering (thermohaline) convection.

  6. Single and double linear and nonlinear flatband chains: Spectra and modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegadlo, Krzysztof; Dror, Nir; Viet Hung, Nguyen; Trippenbach, Marek; Malomed, Boris A.

    2017-07-01

    We report results of systematic analysis of various modes in the flatband lattice, based on the diamond-chain model with the on-site cubic nonlinearity, and its double version with the linear on-site mixing between the two lattice fields. In the single-chain system, a full analysis is presented, first, for the single nonlinear cell, making it possible to find all stationary states, viz., antisymmetric, symmetric, and asymmetric ones, including an exactly investigated symmetry-breaking bifurcation of the subcritical type. In the nonlinear infinite single-component chain, compact localized states (CLSs) are found in an exact form too, as an extension of known compact eigenstates of the linear diamond chain. Their stability is studied by means of analytical and numerical methods, revealing a nontrivial stability boundary. In addition to the CLSs, various species of extended states and exponentially localized lattice solitons of symmetric and asymmetric types are also studied, by means of numerical calculations and variational approximation. As a result, existence and stability areas are identified for these modes. Finally, the linear version of the double diamond chain is solved in an exact form, producing two split flatbands in the system's spectrum.

  7. Double deck bridge behavior and failure mechanism under seismic motions using nonlinear analyzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alali, Shirin; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Guanzhong

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the behavior and the failure mechanism of a double deck bridge constructed in China through nonlinear time history analysis. A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the influence of different structural characteristics on the behavior of the double deck bridge under transverse seismic motions, and to detect the effect of bidirectional loading on the seismic response of this type of bridge. The results showed that some characteristics, such as the variable lateral stiffness, the foundation modelling, and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio of the upper and lower columns of the bridge pier bents have a major impact on the double deck bridge response and its failure mechanism under transverse seismic motions. It was found that the soft story failure mechanism is not unique to the double deck bridge and its occurrence is related to some conditions and structural characteristics of the bridge structure. The analysis also showed that the seismic vulnerability of the double deck bridge under bi-directional loading was severely increased compared to the bridge response under unidirectional transverse loading, and out-of-phase movements were triggered between adjacent girders.

  8. An Inverse Model of Double Diffusive Convection in the Beaufort Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Inverse Model of Double Diffusive Convection in the Beaufort Sea 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeremiah E. Chaplin 5 ...convection and mixing within the homogeneous layers............................... 5 Figure 4. Ice tethered profiler system....................14...Figure 5 . Location of ITP 1-6.............................15 Figure 6. Temperature – Salinity plot for ITPs 1-6........18 Figure 7. Histogram of data

  9. Swelling pressure of a divalent-rich bentonite: Diffuse double-layer theory revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, Tom; Tripathy, Snehasis

    2009-05-01

    Physicochemical forces are responsible for the swelling pressure development in saturated bentonites. In this paper, the swelling pressures of several compacted bentonite specimens for a range of dry density of 1.10-1.73 Mg/m3 were measured experimentally. The clay used was a divalent-rich Ca-Mg-bentonite with 12% exchangeable Na+ ions. The theoretical swelling pressure-dry density relationship for the bentonite was determined from the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double-layer theory. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results showed that the experimental swelling pressures are either smaller or greater than their theoretical counterparts within different dry density ranges. It is shown that for dry density of the clay less than about 1.55 Mg/m3, a possible dissociation of ions from the surface of the clay platelets contributed to the diffuse double-layer repulsion. At higher dry densities, the adsorptive forces due to surface and ion hydration dominated the swelling pressures of the clay. A comparison of the modified diffuse double-layer theory equations proposed in the literature to determine the swelling pressures of compacted bentonites and the experimental results for the clay in this study showed that the agreement between the calculated and experimental swelling pressure results is very good for dry densities less than 1.55 Mg/m3, whereas at higher dry densities the use of the equations was found to be limited.

  10. Observations indicative of rain-induced double diffusion in the ocean surface boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walesby, K.; Vialard, J.; Minnett, P. J.; Callaghan, A. H.; Ward, B.

    2015-05-01

    Double diffusion can result in the formation of thermohaline staircases, typically observed in the ocean interior. The observations presented here were acquired in the ocean surface boundary layer with the autonomous microstructure Air-Sea Interaction Profiler. An intense rain event (rainfall rates of up to 35 mm/h) resulted in cooler, fresher water (up to 0.15 practical salinity unit (psu) over the upper 7-10 m) overlaying warmer, saltier water, a situation potentially conducive to double-diffusive mixing. Although not as crisp as interfaces in the interior ocean because of elevated background mixing, a total of 303 thermohaline interfaces were detected within and at the base of the fresh layer, with mean changes in temperature (T) and salinity (S) across interfaces of 20 × 10-3∘C and 22 × 10-3 psu, respectively. These results call for new studies to disambiguate whether such interfaces are formed through double-diffusive mixing or shear instabilities and understand any long-term impacts on near-surface stratification.

  11. Denoising of single-trial matrix representations using 2D nonlinear diffusion filtering.

    PubMed

    Mustaffa, I; Trenado, C; Schwerdtfeger, K; Strauss, D J

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we present a novel application of denoising by means of nonlinear diffusion filters (NDFs). NDFs have been successfully applied for image processing and computer vision areas, particularly in image denoising, smoothing, segmentation, and restoration. We apply two types of NDFs for the denoising of evoked responses in single-trials in a matrix form, the nonlinear isotropic and the anisotropic diffusion filters. We show that by means of NDFs we are able to denoise the evoked potentials resulting in a better extraction of physiologically relevant morphological features over the ongoing experiment. This technique offers the advantage of translation-invariance in comparison to other well-known methods, e.g., wavelet denoising based on maximally decimated filter banks, due to an adaptive diffusion feature. We compare the proposed technique with a wavelet denoising scheme that had been introduced before for evoked responses. It is concluded that NDFs represent a promising and useful approach in the denoising of event related potentials. Novel NDF applications of single-trials of auditory brain responses (ABRs) and the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) evoked electroencephalographic responses denoising are presented in this paper.

  12. Efficient solution of two-sided nonlinear space-fractional diffusion equations using fast Poisson preconditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Timothy; Yang, Qianqian

    2013-08-01

    We develop a fast Poisson preconditioner for the efficient numerical solution of a class of two-sided nonlinear space-fractional diffusion equations in one and two dimensions using the method of lines. Using the shifted Grünwald finite difference formulas to approximate the two-sided (i.e. the left and right Riemann-Liouville) fractional derivatives, the resulting semi-discrete nonlinear systems have dense Jacobian matrices owing to the non-local property of fractional derivatives. We employ a modern initial value problem solver utilising backward differentiation formulas and Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov methods to solve these systems. For efficient performance of the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method it is essential to apply an effective preconditioner to accelerate the convergence of the linear iterative solver. The key contribution of our work is to generalise the fast Poisson preconditioner, widely used for integer-order diffusion equations, so that it applies to the two-sided space-fractional diffusion equation. A number of numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the preconditioner and the overall solution strategy.

  13. Pumping of electrolytes by electrical forces induced on the diffusion layer: A weakly nonlinear analysis.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Pablo; Loucaides, Neophytos G; Ramos, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Pumping of electrolytes in microchannels can be achieved with the use of microelectrodes subjected to AC potentials. Experiments have shown an influence of Faradaic currents in the pumping performance, and theoretical studies for asymmetric electrolytes suggest that induced charges in the diffusion layer play an important role. In this work we consider the case of a diffusion layer induced by an array of electrodes subjected to a traveling wave potential and we include Faradaic currents. Previous theoretical studies considered the case of very small applied voltages, which allowed for two major simplifications: (i) Butler-Volmer (B-V) equation was linearized, and (ii) the presence of gradients in ion concentration was neglected. We extend previous results and used the full nonlinear B-V equation. A comparison with the linear limit shows that the flow rate in both cases coincides for voltages around and below ≈0.25 V. For voltages larger than this, the nonlinear equations show that gradients in ion concentration appear and have an important influence, therefore, the predictions deviate from the linear model. We show that the electrical force in the diffusion layer can induce pumping either in the same or the opposite direction of the applied traveling-wave potential and it could be responsible for the reversal of the flow as observed in experiments.

  14. Geometric nonlinear diffusion filter and its application to X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Michel-González, Eric; Cho, Min Hyoung; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2011-06-05

    Denoising with edge preservation is very important in digital x-ray imaging since it may allow us to reduce x-ray dose in human subjects without noticeable degradation of the image quality. In denoising filter design for x-ray imaging, edge preservation as well as noise reduction is of great concern not to lose detailed spatial information for accurate diagnosis. In addition to this, fast computation is also important since digital x-ray images are mostly comprised of large sized matrices. We have developed a new denoising filter based on the nonlinear diffusion filter model. Rather than employing four directional gradients around the pixel of interest, we use geometric parameters derived from the local pixel intensity distribution in calculating the diffusion coefficients in the horizontal and vertical directions. We have tested the filter performance, including edge preservation and noise reduction, using low dose digital radiography and micro-CT images. The proposed denoising filter shows performance similar to those of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filters (ADFs), one Perona-Malik ADF and the other Weickert's ADF in terms of edge preservation and noise reduction. However, the computation time has been greatly reduced. We expect the proposed denoising filter can be greatly used for fast noise reduction particularly in low-dose x-ray imaging.

  15. Geometric nonlinear diffusion filter and its application to X-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Denoising with edge preservation is very important in digital x-ray imaging since it may allow us to reduce x-ray dose in human subjects without noticeable degradation of the image quality. In denoising filter design for x-ray imaging, edge preservation as well as noise reduction is of great concern not to lose detailed spatial information for accurate diagnosis. In addition to this, fast computation is also important since digital x-ray images are mostly comprised of large sized matrices. Methods We have developed a new denoising filter based on the nonlinear diffusion filter model. Rather than employing four directional gradients around the pixel of interest, we use geometric parameters derived from the local pixel intensity distribution in calculating the diffusion coefficients in the horizontal and vertical directions. We have tested the filter performance, including edge preservation and noise reduction, using low dose digital radiography and micro-CT images. Results The proposed denoising filter shows performance similar to those of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filters (ADFs), one Perona-Malik ADF and the other Weickert's ADF in terms of edge preservation and noise reduction. However, the computation time has been greatly reduced. Conclusions We expect the proposed denoising filter can be greatly used for fast noise reduction particularly in low-dose x-ray imaging. PMID:21639933

  16. Pumping of electrolytes by electrical forces induced on the diffusion layer: A weakly nonlinear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sánchez, Pablo; Loucaides, Neophytos G.; Ramos, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Pumping of electrolytes in microchannels can be achieved with the use of microelectrodes subjected to AC potentials. Experiments have shown an influence of Faradaic currents in the pumping performance, and theoretical studies for asymmetric electrolytes suggest that induced charges in the diffusion layer play an important role. In this work we consider the case of a diffusion layer induced by an array of electrodes subjected to a traveling wave potential and we include Faradaic currents. Previous theoretical studies considered the case of very small applied voltages, which allowed for two major simplifications: (i) Butler-Volmer (B-V) equation was linearized, and (ii) the presence of gradients in ion concentration was neglected. We extend previous results and used the full nonlinear B-V equation. A comparison with the linear limit shows that the flow rate in both cases coincides for voltages around and below ≈0.25 V. For voltages larger than this, the nonlinear equations show that gradients in ion concentration appear and have an important influence, therefore, the predictions deviate from the linear model. We show that the electrical force in the diffusion layer can induce pumping either in the same or the opposite direction of the applied traveling-wave potential and it could be responsible for the reversal of the flow as observed in experiments.

  17. Linearized finite-element method solution of the ion-exchange nonlinear diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Mohamed M.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2017-04-01

    Ion-exchange process is one of the most common techniques used in glass waveguide fabrication. This has many advantages, such as low cost, ease of implementation, and simple equipment requirements. The technology is based on the substitution of some of the host ions in the glass (typically Na+) with other ions that possess different characteristics in terms of size and polarizability. The newly diffused ions produce a region with a relatively higher refractive index in which the light could be guided. A critical issue arises when it comes to designing such waveguides, which is carefully and precisely determining the resultant index profile. This task has been proven to be hideous as the process is generally governed by a nonlinear diffusion model with no direct general analytical solution. Furthermore, numerical solutions become unreliable-in terms of stability and mean squared error-in some cases, especially the K+-Na+ ion-exchanged waveguide, which is the best candidate to produce waveguides with refractive index differences compatible with those of the commercially available optical fibers. Linearized finite-element method formulations were used to provide a reliable tool that could solve the nonlinear diffusion model of the ion-exchange in both one- and two-dimensional spaces. Additionally, the annealed channel waveguide case has been studied. In all cases, unprecedented stability and minimum mean squared error could be achieved.

  18. Influence of asymmetric magnetic perturbation on the nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, G. Z.; Wang, L.; Li, X. Q.; Liu, H. F.; Tang, C. J.; Huang, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, X. Q.

    2017-06-01

    The effects of asymmetric magnetic perturbation on the triggering and evolution of double tearing modes (DTMs) are investigated using nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics simulations in a slab geometry. We find that for reversed magnetic shear plasmas the resistive reconnection process induced by the initial perturbation at one rational surface can drive a new island at the other rational surface with the same mode number. The four typical states of the mode for the time evolution are found, and include: (i) a linear growth stage; (ii) a linear/nonlinear stable stage; (iii) an interactively driving stage; and (iv) a symmetric DTM stage. These differ from previous simulation results. Moreover, nonlinear DTM growth is found to strongly depend on the asymmetric magnetic perturbation, particularly in the early nonlinear phase. The initial perturbation strength scale of island width suggests that the left island enters into a Sweet-Parker growth process when the right island is sufficiently large to effectively drive the other. These results predict that although externally applied magnetic perturbations can suppress the neoclassical tearing mode they can also trigger new instabilities such as asymmetric DTMs.

  19. Flight Experiment to Study Double-Diffusive Instabilities in Silver-Dopped Lead Bromide Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Adam, J. D.; Zhang, Hui; Coriell, Sam. R.; Duval, Walter M. B.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the present program is to understand thermosolutal convection during crystal growth of PbBr2-AgBr alloys. This involves identification of the growth conditions for microgravity experiments delineating the microsegregation, observation of convecto-diffusive instabilities and comparison with theoretical models. The overall objectives can be summarized as follows: 1. Observe and study the double diffusive and morphological instabilities in controlled conditions and to compare with theoretically predicted convective and morphological instability curves. 2. Study the three-dimensional morphological instabilities and resulting cellular growth that occur near the onset of morphological instability in the bulk samples under purely diffusive conditions. 3. Understand the micro-and macro-segregation of silver dopant in lead bromide crystals in microgravity. 4. Provide basic data on convective behavior in alloy crystals grown by the commercially important Bridgman crystal growth process.

  20. Minimal model for double diffusion and its application to Kivu, Nyos, and Powell Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toffolon, Marco; Wüest, Alfred; Sommer, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    Double diffusion originates from the markedly different molecular diffusion rates of heat and salt in water, producing staircase structures under favorable conditions. The phenomenon essentially consists of two processes: molecular diffusion across sharp interfaces and convective transport in the gravitationally unstable layers. In this paper, we propose a model that is based on the one-dimensional description of these two processes only, and—by self-organization—is able to reproduce both the large-scale dynamics and the structure of individual layers, while accounting for different boundary conditions. Two parameters characterize the model, describing the time scale for the formation of unstable water parcels and the optimal spatial resolution. Theoretical relationships allow for the identification of the influence of these parameters on the layer structure and on the mass and heat fluxes. The performances of the model are tested for three different lakes (Powell, Kivu, and Nyos), showing a remarkable agreement with actual microstructure measurements.

  1. Experimental studies of the lower convective layer in a thermohaline, double-diffusive system

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, J.M.; Lavan, Z.; Worek, W.M.

    1983-06-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of an experimental investigation that was undertaken to characterize the growth of the lower mixing layer in a double-diffusive system. Detailed concentration and temperature profiles are presented for the lower mixing layer as well as the diffusive layer. For all of the experiments reported here, the heat input flux at the bottom is restricted to 0.036 cal/cm/sup 2/-min. At such low heating rates, only a three layered system, where a diffusive layer is separated from the lower mixing layer by a lower interfacial boundary layer is observed. Preliminary estimations of the flux ratio indicate the dependance of this ratio on the stability parameter as well as on the applied heat flux.

  2. Nonlinear modes and symmetry breaking in rotating double-well potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyao; Pang, Wei; Malomed, Boris A.

    2012-08-01

    We study modes trapped in a rotating ring carrying the self-focusing (SF) or self-defocusing (SDF) cubic nonlinearity and double-well potential cos2θ, where θ is the angular coordinate. The model, based on the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation in the rotating reference frame, describes the light propagation in a twisted pipe waveguide, as well as in other optical settings, and also a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a torus and dragged by the rotating potential. In the SF and SDF regimes, five and four trapped modes of different symmetries are found, respectively. The shapes and stability of the modes and the transitions between them are studied in the first rotational Brillouin zone. In the SF regime, two symmetry-breaking transitions are found, of subcritical and supercritical types. In the SDF regime, an antisymmetry-breaking transition occurs. Ground states are identified in both the SF and SDF systems.

  3. Nonlinear stability analysis of double-curved shallow fgm panels on elastic foundations in thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Nguyen Dinh; Quan, Tran Quoc

    2012-09-01

    An analytical investigation into the nonlinear response of thick functionally graded double-curved shallow panels resting on elastic foundations and subjected to thermal and thermomechanical loads is presented. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are both graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. All formulations are based on the classical shell theory with account of geometrical nonlinearity and initial geometrical imperfection in the cases of Pasternak-type elastic foundations. By applying the Galerkin method, explicit relations for the thermal load-deflection curves of simply supported curved panels are found. The effects of material and geometrical properties and foundation stiffness on the buckling and postbuckling load-carrying capacity of the panels in thermal environments are analyzed and discussed.

  4. Nonlinear Vibration Characteristics of Fluid-Filled Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Wang, W. Q.; Zhang, L. X.

    Nonlinear vibration behaviors of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with fluid inside the inner tube are investigated based on Donnell's cylindrical shell model and the more refined van der Waals (vdW) interaction formula. The Galerkin method and harmonic balance method are used to study the issue. The results obtained show that the radial vibrational modes of simply supported DWCNTs have twice the dynamical mode transitions as the frequency increases. The transitions correspond to twice the noncoaxial vibrations which play a critical role in electronic and transport properties of CNTs. Moreover, comparisons of the dynamical behaviors of fluid-filled DWCNTs with different wave numbers, radii and aspect ratios demonstrate that the amplitude-frequency curve topological forms are identical. Meanwhile, it is also concluded that the existence of fluid is significant for the value of amplitude ratio corresponding to noncoaxial vibration whereas it does not change the nonlinear vibrating topological pattern of amplitude-frequency curves.

  5. Nonlinear evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the double current sheet configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Aohua; Li, Jiquan; Liu, Jinyuan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2016-03-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability driven by a radially antisymmetric shear flow in the double current sheet configuration is numerically investigated based on a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. Simulations reveal different nonlinear fate of the KH instability depending on the amplitude of the shear flow, which restricts the strength of the KH instability. For strong shear flows far above the KH instability threshold, the linear electrostatic-type KH instability saturates and achieves a vortex flow dominated quasi-steady state of the electromagnetic (EM) KH turbulence with large-amplitude zonal flows as well as zonal fields. The magnetic surfaces are twisted significantly due to strong vortices but without the formation of magnetic islands. However, for the shear flow just over the KH instability threshold, a weak EM-type KH instability is saturated and remarkably damped by zonal flows through modifying the equilibrium shear flow. Interestingly, a secondary double tearing mode (DTM) is excited subsequently in highly damped KH turbulence, behaving as a pure DTM in a flowing plasma as described in Mao et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 052304 (2014)]. However, the explosive growth phenomenon is replaced by a gradually growing oscillation due to the extremely twisted islands. As a result, the release of the magnetic energy becomes slow and the global magnetic reconnection tends to be gentle. A complex nonlinear interaction between the EM KH turbulence and the DTMs occurs for the medium shear flows above the KH instability threshold, turbulent EM fluctuations experience oscillatory nonlinear growth of the DTMs, finally achieves a quasi-steady state with the interplay of the fluctuations between the DTMs and the EM KH instability.

  6. Nonlinear Elastic J-Integral Measurements in Mode I Using a Tapered Double Cantilever Beam Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macon, David J.

    2006-01-01

    An expression for the J-integral of a nonlinear elastic material is derived for an advancing crack in a tapered double cantilever beam fracture specimen. The elastic and plastic fracture energies related to the test geometry and how these energies correlates to the crack position are discussed. The dimensionless shape factors eta(sub el and eta(sub p) are shown to be equivalent and the deformation J-integral is analyzed in terms of the eta(sub el) function. The fracture results from a structural epoxy are interpreted using the discussed approach. The magnitude of the plastic dissipation is found to strongly depend upon the initial crack shape.

  7. Real-time nonlinear feedback control of pattern formation in (bio)chemical reaction-diffusion processes: a model study.

    PubMed

    Brandt-Pollmann, U; Lebiedz, D; Diehl, M; Sager, S; Schlöder, J

    2005-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies related to manipulation of pattern formation in self-organizing reaction-diffusion processes by appropriate control stimuli become increasingly important both in chemical engineering and cellular biochemistry. In a model study, we demonstrate here exemplarily the application of an efficient nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) algorithm to real-time optimal feedback control of pattern formation in a bacterial chemotaxis system modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations. The corresponding drift-diffusion model type is representative for many (bio)chemical systems involving nonlinear reaction dynamics and nonlinear diffusion. We show how the computed optimal feedback control strategy exploits the system inherent physical property of wave propagation to achieve desired control aims. We discuss various applications of our approach to optimal control of spatiotemporal dynamics.

  8. Real-time nonlinear feedback control of pattern formation in (bio)chemical reaction-diffusion processes: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt-Pollmann, U.; Lebiedz, D.; Diehl, M.; Sager, S.; Schlöder, J.

    2005-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies related to manipulation of pattern formation in self-organizing reaction-diffusion processes by appropriate control stimuli become increasingly important both in chemical engineering and cellular biochemistry. In a model study, we demonstrate here exemplarily the application of an efficient nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) algorithm to real-time optimal feedback control of pattern formation in a bacterial chemotaxis system modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations. The corresponding drift-diffusion model type is representative for many (bio)chemical systems involving nonlinear reaction dynamics and nonlinear diffusion. We show how the computed optimal feedback control strategy exploits the system inherent physical property of wave propagation to achieve desired control aims. We discuss various applications of our approach to optimal control of spatiotemporal dynamics.

  9. Comparison of PDE-based nonlinear diffusion approaches for image enhancement and denoising in optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Harry M; Fernández, Delia Cabrera

    2007-06-01

    A comparison between two nonlinear diffusion methods for denoising OCT images is performed. Specifically, we compare and contrast the performance of the traditional nonlinear Perona-Malik filter with a complex diffusion filter that has been recently introduced by Gilboa et al.. The complex diffusion approach based on the generalization of the nonlinear scale space to the complex domain by combining the diffusion and the free Schridinger equation is evaluated on synthetic images and also on representative OCT images at various noise levels. The performance improvement over the traditional nonlinear Perona-Malik filter is quantified in terms of noise suppression, image structural preservation and visual quality. An average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of about 2.5 times and an average contrast to noise ratio (CNR) improvement of 49% was obtained while mean structure similarity (MSSIM) was practically not degraded after denoising. The nonlinear complex diffusion filtering can be applied with success to many OCT imaging applications. In summary, the numerical values of the image quality metrics along with the qualitative analysis results indicated the good feature preservation performance of the complex diffusion process, as desired for better diagnosis in medical imaging processing.

  10. Computation of traveling wave fronts for a nonlinear diffusion-advection model.

    PubMed

    Mansour, M B A

    2009-01-01

    This paper utilizes a nonlinear reaction-diffusion-advection model for describing the spatiotemporal evolution of bacterial growth. The traveling wave solutions of the corresponding system of partial differential equations are analyzed. Using two methods, we then find such solutions numerically. One of the methods involves the traveling wave equations and solving an initial-value problem, which leads to accurate computations of the wave profiles and speeds. The second method is to construct time-dependent solutions by solving an initial-moving boundary-value problem for the PDE system, showing another approximation for such wave solutions.

  11. An algorithm for solving the fractional convection diffusion equation with nonlinear source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momani, Shaher

    2007-10-01

    In this paper an algorithm based on Adomian's decomposition method is developed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear fractional convection-diffusion equation {∂αu}/{∂tα}={∂2u}/{∂x2}-c{∂u}/{∂x}+Ψ(u)+f(x,t),00. The fractional derivative is considered in the Caputo sense. The approximate solutions are calculated in the form of a convergent series with easily computable components. The analysis is accompanied by numerical examples and the obtained results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions known for some special cases.

  12. Identification of the population density of a species model with nonlocal diffusion and nonlinear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Nguyen Huy; Van Au, Vo; Khoa, Vo Anh; Lesnic, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    The identification of the population density of a logistic equation backwards in time associated with nonlocal diffusion and nonlinear reaction, motivated by biology and ecology fields, is investigated. The diffusion depends on an integral average of the population density whilst the reaction term is a global or local Lipschitz function of the population density. After discussing the ill-posedness of the problem, we apply the quasi-reversibility method to construct stable approximation problems. It is shown that the regularized solutions stemming from such method not only depend continuously on the final data, but also strongly converge to the exact solution in L 2-norm. New error estimates together with stability results are obtained. Furthermore, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  13. Studies in hydrodynamic stability: Double-diffusive oscillations and explosive gravitational instability of interpenetrating fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casti, Alexander Robert Richard

    1999-07-01

    This work explores two problems in hydrodynamic stability theory whose primary mathematical distinction is the manner in which unstable equilibria relax to a stable state. The first problem involves a dissipative fluid for which the diffusive relaxation of a linear instability is the primary saturation mechanism. The second problem arises from a conservative system where the relaxation is governed either by linear instabilities or nonlinear interactions among linearly stable modes. The dissipative problem considers thermohaline convection and the diffusive relaxation of two-dimensional, convectively unstable rolls. For this situation, the disparate diffusion rates of the heat and salt play a crucial role not only in triggering an instability, but also in dictating the nature of the saturation. We study these issues in two particular contexts. In the first case the effect of a nonlinear, basic state salt profile on the bifurcation to instability is examined, and some of the possible patterns in the weakly nonlinear regime are discussed. The second case explores the dynamics of a salt field diffusing so slowly that it does not have time to redistribute itself on the timescale over which the weakly unstable pattern develops. This necessitates a mathematical description that differs from the amplitude equations traditionally employed to capture the nonlinear saturation. The conservative system comes from astrophysics and cosmology. Motivated by the coexistence of dark and luminous matter in the cosmos, we investigate the instabilities of two interpenetrating fluids that interact only through the gravitational field. The result of primary importance is that negative energy modes may exist if the relative motion is substantial. This fact can have dramatic consequences on the nonlinear stability of the system if linearly stable waves of different energy signature conspire to resonate. In the absence of dissipative forces, the nature of the saturation must be a nonlinear

  14. Nonlinear models for the adoption and diffusion of innovations for industrial energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Joseph J; Guastello, Stephen J

    2007-10-01

    Four different theoretical models for explaining the diffusion of innovation were compared for 13 energy-related innovations--the Theory of Planned Behavior, the S-curve for Diffusion of Innovations, the power law distribution, and the cusp catastrophe. The substantive concern was to explore the roles of facilitative and obstructive factors in diffusing industrial and commercial innovations. Participants were 102 industrial plant and facilities managers from sites that were among the top users of electrical energy and natural gas in the United States. They completed a survey that contained measurements of positive attitudes toward innovation, organizational resistance to innovation, and the extent to which they had investigated or adopted each of the target innovations. Seven of the 13 innovations exhibited strong cusp catastrophe models (via nonlinear regression, average R2 = .91) compared to linear alternative models (average R2 = .31) for those innovations; the S-curve for diffusion was regarded as a simplified version of the cusp. One innovation was characterized best by a power law distribution (R2 = .94), and the remaining five were characterized best by a linear model that was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (R2 = .41). Different underlying dynamics for the various innovations were implied by these results.

  15. Pattern formation in a two-dimensional two-species diffusion model with anisotropic nonlinear diffusivities: a lattice approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasevich, Yuri Yu; Laptev, Valeri V.; Burmistrov, Andrei S.; Lebovka, Nikolai I.

    2017-09-01

    Diffusion in a two-species two-dimensional system has been simulated using a lattice approach. Rodlike particles were considered as linear k-mers of two mutually perpendicular orientations (k x - and k y -mers) on a square lattice. These k x - and k y -mers were treated as species of two kinds. A random sequential adsorption model was used to produce an initial homogeneous distribution of k-mers. The concentration of k-mers, p, was varied in the range from 0.1 to the jamming concentration, p j . By means of the Monte Carlo technique, translational diffusion of the k-mers was simulated as a random walk, while rotational diffusion was ignored. We demonstrated that the diffusion coefficients are strongly anisotropic and nonlinearly concentration-dependent. For sufficiently large concentrations (packing densities) and k ≥slant 6 , the system tends toward a well-organized steady state. Boundary conditions predetermine the final state of the system. When periodic boundary conditions are applied along both directions of the square lattice, the system tends to a steady state in the form of diagonal stripes. The formation of stripe domains takes longer time the larger the lattice size, and is observed only for concentrations above a particular critical value. When insulating (zero flux) boundary conditions are applied along both directions of the square lattice, each kind of k-mer tries to completely occupy a half of the lattice divided by a diagonal, e.g. k x -mers locate in the upper left corner, while the k y -mers are situated in the lower right corner (‘yin–yang’ pattern). From time to time, regions built of k x - and k y -mers exchange their locations through irregular patterns. When mixed boundary conditions are used (periodic boundary conditions are applied along one direction whereas insulating boundary conditions are applied along the other one), the system still tends to form the stripes, but they are unstable and change their spatial orientation.

  16. Thermal Diffusivity Measurement of Zinc-Aluminum-Layered Double Hydroxide using Photoflash Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Maryam; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat.; Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin; Moksin, Mohd Maarof H. A.; Haydari, Mehdi

    2008-05-01

    The photoflash technique has been widely used for measuring thermal diffusivity of various types of materials. In this report thermal diffusivity of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide synthesized at different ratios of Zn to Al composition is presented. The samples were prepared using Zn(NO3)2 and Al(NO3)3 solutions at pH of 10 by drop wise addition of NaOH solution with vigorous stirring under nitrogen atmosphere. Different compositions of Zn to Al molar ratios were obtained by changing the molar ratio of Zn(NO3)2 to Al(NO3)3. The slurry formed was kept at 70 °C in an oil bath shaker for 18 h, filtered, washed and dried in an oven for 18 h at 70 °C. A simple photo flash and polyvinlidene diflouride (PVDF) film was used as light source and thermal wave detector, respectively. Thermal diffusivity of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide measure at room temperature was found increase with different compositions for Zn-Al ratio of 3-5.

  17. The Effect of Rotation on Oscillatory Double-diffusive Convection (Semiconvection)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Ryan; Garaud, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Oscillatory double-diffusive convection (ODDC, more traditionally called semiconvection) is a form of linear double-diffusive instability that occurs in fluids that are unstably stratified in temperature (Schwarzschild unstable), but stably stratified in chemical composition (Ledoux stable). This scenario is thought to be quite common in the interiors of stars and giant planets, and understanding the transport of heat and chemical species by ODDC is of great importance to stellar and planetary evolution models. Fluids unstable to ODDC have a tendency to form convective thermocompositional layers that significantly enhance the fluxes of temperature and chemical composition compared with microscopic diffusion. Although a number of recent studies have focused on studying properties of both layered and nonlayered ODDC, few have addressed how additional physical processes such as global rotation affect its dynamics. In this work, we study first how rotation affects the linear stability properties of rotating ODDC. Using direct numerical simulations, we then analyze the effect of rotation on properties of layered and nonlayered ODDC, and we study how the angle of the rotation axis with respect to the direction of gravity affects layering. We find that rotating systems can be broadly grouped into two categories based on the strength of rotation. The qualitative behavior in the more weakly rotating group is similar to nonrotating ODDC, but strongly rotating systems become dominated by vortices that are invariant in the direction of the rotation vector and strongly influence transport. We find that whenever layers form, rotation always acts to reduce thermal and compositional transport.

  18. Oceanic Double-Diffusive Layer Thicknesses in the Presence of Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, Nicole; Timmermans, Mary-Louise

    2016-11-01

    Double-diffusive stratification in the ocean is characterized by staircase structures consisting of mixed layers separated by high-gradient interfaces in temperature and salinity. Several past studies have examined mechanisms that govern the observed thicknesses of staircase mixed layers. In one formalism, the mixed-layer thickness is set by layer formation that arises when a heat source is applied at the base of water that is stably-stratified in salinity; in another, the equilibrium thickness of mixed layers has been explained as the product of "merging," where thin layers continue to grow until they reach a thickness determined by a criterion relating the ratio of heat flux to salt flux and the density ratio. We extend the above two theories to consider the influence of turbulence on mixed-layer thicknesses. The study has implications for the Arctic Ocean where double-diffusive staircases are widely present, and mixed-layer thicknesses are well-resolved by ocean measurements. Our theoretical framework provides a means to determine turbulent diffusivities (in regions where microstructure measurements are not available) by considering only observations of density ratio, stratification, and layer thicknesses.

  19. ESR spectra and thermal diffusivity of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed; Abidin Talib, Zainal; Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin

    2012-01-01

    Zn-Al-NO3-LDH was synthesized using the co-precipitation method at pH 7±0.1 and ratio Zn/Al=4. The heat treatment of LDH was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG) to investigate the stability of the LDH structure. The in situ electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of fresh LDH from room temperature up to 190 °C were obtained, which are due to the presence of nitrate radicals in LDH interlayer. ESR spectra of sintered LDH below 200 °C (ex situ ESR spectra) were investigated, which are also due to the nitrate radicals. However, at 200 °C and above, spectra were due to the oxygen vacancies of ZnO, which was formed during the thermal treatment of LDH. Thermal diffusivity of LDH as a function of in situ temperatures results in a nonlinear relation, which is due to the changing water content of LDH when temperature increases. However, thermal diffusivity of LDH as a function of sintered temperatures showed a linear relation and the slope of these data demonstrated the dependency between thermal diffusivity and water content of LDH below 200 °C. For temperature above 180 °C, the thermal diffusivity behavior was mainly due to the ZnO phase in LDH.

  20. Speckle reduction in medical ultrasound: a novel scatterer density weighted nonlinear diffusion algorithm implemented as a neural-network filter.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Ahmed M; Rushdi, Muhammad A

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound imaging while preserving the edges with the added advantages of adaptive noise filtering and speed. We propose a nonlinear image diffusion algorithm that incorporates two local parameters of image quality, namely, scatterer density and texture-based contrast in addition to gradient, to weight the nonlinear diffusion process. The scatterer density is proposed to replace the existing traditional measures of quality of the ultrasound diffusion process such as MSE, RMSE, SNR, and PSNR. This novel diffusion filter was then implemented using back propagation neural network for fast parallel processing of volumetric images. The experimental results show that weighting the image diffusion with these parameters produces better noise reduction and produces a better edge detection quality with reasonable computational cost. The proposed filter can be used as a preprocessing phase before applying any ultrasound segmentation or active contour model processes.

  1. Nonlinear diffusion of indirect excitons in an ideal bilayer with an in-plane harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Qinglu

    2009-06-01

    The nonlinear diffusion of the spatially indirect excitons in an ideal bilayer with an in-plane harmonic trap is investigated based on the theories developed by Ivanov [A.L. Ivanov, Europhys. Lett. 59 (2002) 586; A.L. Ivanov, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 (2004) S3629] and Rapaport et al. [R. Rapaport, G. Chen, S. Simon, O. Mitrofanov, L. Pfeiffer, P.M. Platzman, Phys. Rev. B 72 (2005) 075428]. A nonlinear equation for the diffusion of the indirect excitons in this structure is established. The two-dimensional density of the indirect excitons in this structure is calculated. The calculations show that the density adjacent to the trap center for different exciton temperatures can remain very high even long after the photo-excitation because of the confinement of the in-plane harmonic trap, and that the indirect excitons gather several tens of μm away from the trap center. The calculations are in good agreement qualitatively with the experimental results of Voros et al. [Z. Voros, D.W. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 016803] and prove that an in-plane harmonic trap can indeed keep an exciton gas dense near its center.

  2. Restoration of fluorescence images from two-photon microscopy using modified nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmin; Luo, Qingming; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2007-05-01

    Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy is becoming a powerful tool in study of neuron functional imaging in vivo for its inherent deeper penetration, less photo-damage. Now, with the two-photon fluorescence images of brain tissue, we can reconstruct three-dimensional neuronal morphologies easily. However, the images usually are obscured by a lot of noise, in particular in deep tissue with strong excitation laser power. Therefore, good image restoration technique that could remove the noise while preserve neuronal structure is crucial for the results of subsequent image segmentation and neuron reconstruction. Here, we propose a modified nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter which incorporates both gradient and gray-level variance of raw data, to remove the noise, rather than merely considers gradient as the classical Perona-Malik nonlinear anisotropic diffusion model. Experimental results have shown that the proposed scheme can remove noisy speckles effectively while maintain the shape of neuronal morphologies in two-photon fluorescence images without conflict.

  3. Approximate nonlinear multi-parameter inversion with single and double scattering seismic wavefields in acoustic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Mao, Weijian; Li, Wuqun; Zhang, Pan

    2016-11-01

    An approach for approximate direct quadratic nonlinear inversion in two-parameter (density and bulk modulus) heterogeneous acoustic media is being presented and discussed in this paper. The approach consists of two parts: the first is a linear generalized Radon transform (GRT) migration procedure based on the weighted true-amplitude summation of pre-stack seismic scattered data that is adapted to a virtually arbitrary observing system, and the second is a non-iterative quadratic inversion operation, produced from the explicit expression of amplitude radiation pattern that is acting on the migrated data. This ensures the asymptotic inversion can continue to simultaneously locate the discontinuities and reconstruct the size of the discontinuities in the perturbation parameters describing the acoustic media. We identify that the amplitude radiation pattern is the binary quadratic combination of the parameters in the process of formulating nonlinear inverse scattering problems based on second-order Born approximation. The coefficients of the quadratic terms are computed by appropriately handling the double scattering effects. These added quadratic terms provide a better amplitude correction for the parameters inversion. Through numerical tests, we show that for strong perturbations, the errors of the linear inversion are significant and unacceptable. In contrast, the quadratic nonlinear inversion can give fairly accurate inversion results and keep almost the same computational complexity as conventional GRT liner inversion.

  4. Interpreting nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy with the classical mechanical analogs of double-sided Feynman diagrams.

    PubMed

    Noid, W G; Loring, Roger F

    2004-10-15

    Observables in coherent, multiple-pulse infrared spectroscopy may be computed from a vibrational nonlinear response function. This response function is conventionally calculated quantum-mechanically, but the challenges in applying quantum mechanics to large, anharmonic systems motivate the examination of classical mechanical vibrational nonlinear response functions. We present an approximate formulation of the classical mechanical third-order vibrational response function for an anharmonic solute oscillator interacting with a harmonic solvent, which establishes a clear connection between classical and quantum mechanical treatments. This formalism permits the identification of the classical mechanical analog of the pure dephasing of a quantum mechanical degree of freedom, and suggests the construction of classical mechanical analogs of the double-sided Feynman diagrams of quantum mechanics, which are widely applied to nonlinear spectroscopy. Application of a rotating wave approximation permits the analytic extraction of signals obeying particular spatial phase matching conditions from a classical-mechanical response function. Calculations of the third-order response function for an anharmonic oscillator coupled to a harmonic solvent are compared to numerically correct classical mechanical results.

  5. Characterization, comparison, and choice of a commercial double-clad fiber for nonlinear endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Claire; Hamzeh, Hussein; Louradour, Frederic; Pain, Frédéric; Haidar, Darine Abi

    2014-01-01

    Several endomicroscope prototypes for nonlinear optical imaging were developed in the last decade for in situ analysis of tissue with cellular resolution by using short infrared light pulses. Fourier-transform-limited pulses at the tissue site are necessary for optimal excitation of faint endogenous signals. However, obtaining these transform-limited short pulses remains a challenge, and previously proposed devices did not achieve an optimal pulse delivery. We present a study of fibered endomicroscope architecture with an efficient femtosecond pulse delivery and a high excitation level at the output of commercially available double-clad fibers (DCFs). The endomicroscope incorporates a module based on a grism line to compensate for linear and nonlinear effects inside the system. Simulations and experimental results are presented and compared to the literature. Experimentally, we obtained short pulses down to 24 fs at the fiber output, what represents to the best of our knowledge the shortest pulse duration ever obtained at the output of a nonlinear endoscopic system without postcompression. The choice of the optimal DCF among four possible commercial components is discussed and evaluated in regard to multiphoton excitation and fluorescence emission.

  6. Approximate non-linear multiparameter inversion with single and double scattering seismic wavefields in acoustic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Mao, Weijian; Li, Wuqun; Zhang, Pan

    2017-02-01

    An approach for approximate direct quadratic non-linear inversion in two-parameter (density and bulk modulus) heterogeneous acoustic media is being presented and discussed in this paper. The approach consists of two parts: the first is a linear generalized Radon transform (GRT) migration procedure based on the weighted true-amplitude summation of pre-stack seismic scattered data that is adapted to a virtually arbitrary observing system, and the second is a non-iterative quadratic inversion operation, produced from the explicit expression of amplitude radiation pattern that is acting on the migrated data. This ensures the asymptotic inversion can continue to simultaneously locate the discontinuities and reconstruct the size of the discontinuities in the perturbation parameters describing the acoustic media. We identify that the amplitude radiation pattern is the binary quadratic combination of the parameters in the process of formulating non-linear inverse scattering problems based on second-order Born approximation. The coefficients of the quadratic terms are computed by appropriately handling the double scattering effects. These added quadratic terms provide a better amplitude correction for the parameters inversion. Through numerical tests, we show that for strong perturbations, the errors of the linear inversion are significant and unacceptable. In contrast, the quadratic non-linear inversion can give fairly accurate inversion results and keep almost the same computational complexity as conventional GRT liner inversion.

  7. Evaluation of Field Map and Nonlinear Registration Methods for Correction of Susceptibility Artifacts in Diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sijia; Peterson, Daniel J.; Gatenby, J. C.; Li, Wenbin; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Madhyastha, Tara M.

    2017-01-01

    Correction of echo planar imaging (EPI)-induced distortions (called “unwarping”) improves anatomical fidelity for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional imaging investigations. Commonly used unwarping methods require the acquisition of supplementary images during the scanning session. Alternatively, distortions can be corrected by nonlinear registration to a non-EPI acquired structural image. In this study, we compared reliability using two methods of unwarping: (1) nonlinear registration to a structural image using symmetric normalization (SyN) implemented in Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs); and (2) unwarping using an acquired field map. We performed this comparison in two different test-retest data sets acquired at differing sites (N = 39 and N = 32). In both data sets, nonlinear registration provided higher test-retest reliability of the output fractional anisotropy (FA) maps than field map-based unwarping, even when accounting for the effect of interpolation on the smoothness of the images. In general, field map-based unwarping was preferable if and only if the field maps were acquired optimally. PMID:28270762

  8. The Role of Double-Diffusion in the Thermohaline Structure of the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malki-Epshtein, L.; Dvorkin, Y.; Gavrieli, I.; Gertman, I.; Lensky, N. G.; Lyakhovsky, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline terminal lake located in the Dead Sea Rift Valley between Israel and Jordan. Over the years the negative water balance of the Dead Sea has lead to an increase in the salinity of its epilimnion, termination of centuries-old meromixis and annual overturn. For the past 50 years, the Dead Sea level has declined by 25 meters, while recently the average rate has been 1 m/yr. Salt precipitates and accumulates at the seafloor at a rate of about 0.1 m/yr. Enhanced radiation and evaporation during the summer period leads to the formation of a warm (~30°C) and very saline (~280g/kg) upper mixed layer separated from the relative homogeneous bulk deep water by a sharp stable pycnocline at the depth of about 25 m. The deep water conditions, formed during previous winter convection, are colder (~23°C) and somewhat less saline than those of the summer upper layer. These conditions are favourable for double-diffusive salt fingering along the interface, which is expected to drive a net downward salt, heat and density flux through the interface. In the Dead Sea such fluxes through the stable pycnocline would have profound influence on the thermohaline structure of the deep water. We present hydrographic observations supporting the existence of double diffusive processes in the Dead Sea. These effects are being incorporated into a numerical 1-D limnological model of the Dead Sea. We demonstrate that accounting for double-diffusive related heat and mass exchange is necessary for successful calibration of the 1-D model for the holomictic period.

  9. Double hit diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2015-03-01

    Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is curable with standard chemoimmunotherapy, over 30% of patients with advanced stage disease experience refractory disease or progression. Recent studies suggest that rearrangement of the myc oncogene occurs in approximately 10% of patients with DLBCL, and confers a very poor prognosis, particularly when there is concomitant rearrangement of bcl-2, a condition referred to as "double hit DLBCL". Using immunohistochemistry, up to 30% of patients have evidence of increased expression of myc, which occurs in both activated B-cell and germinal center type DLBCL. When bcl-2 is also positive by immunohistochemistry, prognosis is also poor. There are no randomized studies guiding treatment for patients with double hit DLBCL, but new datasets are emerging suggesting a possible role for dose-adjusted EPOCH infusional chemotherapy with rituximab. This review will conclude with a survey of novel agents which may be rationally incorporated into chemotherapy platforms for this high risk subset of DLBCL.

  10. Multistability and spin diffusion enhanced lifetimes in dynamic nuclear polarization in a double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Mühlbacher, M.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Giedke, G.; Ludwig, S.

    2015-12-01

    The control of nuclear spins in quantum dots is essential to explore their many-body dynamics and exploit their prospects for quantum information processing. We present a unique combination of dynamic nuclear spin polarization and electric-dipole-induced spin resonance in an electrostatically defined double quantum dot (DQD) exposed to the strongly inhomogeneous field of two on-chip nanomagnets. Our experiments provide direct and unrivaled access to the nuclear spin polarization distribution and allow us to establish and characterize multiple fixed points. Further, we demonstrate polarization of the DQD environment by nuclear spin diffusion which significantly stabilizes the nuclear spins inside the DQD.

  11. Numerical model of wind-induced entrainment in a double-diffusive thermohaline system

    SciTech Connect

    Hullender, T.A.; Laster, W.R. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A low Reynolds number k-[epsilon] model has been used to predict the wind-induced entrainment in a double-diffusive system. The calculated results are compared with experimental results from wind-induced entrainment in a finite length tank and with shear-induced entrainment in an annular tank. Overall agreement is good for wind speeds less than 10 m/s. Above this value, multidimensional effects tend to dominate. The scale of the turbulence at the surface is found to significantly affect the entrainment rate. This indicates that the suppression of waves on the surface can significantly reduce the rate of entrainment.

  12. Kinetic theory of nonlinear diffusion in a weakly disordered nonlinear Schrödinger chain in the regime of homogeneous chaos.

    PubMed

    Basko, D M

    2014-02-01

    We study the discrete nonlinear Schröinger equation with weak disorder, focusing on the regime when the nonlinearity is, on the one hand, weak enough for the normal modes of the linear problem to remain well resolved but, on the other, strong enough for the dynamics of the normal mode amplitudes to be chaotic for almost all modes. We show that in this regime and in the limit of high temperature, the macroscopic density ρ satisfies the nonlinear diffusion equation with a density-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(ρ) = D(0)ρ(2). An explicit expression for D(0) is obtained in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linear problem, which is then evaluated numerically. The role of the second conserved quantity (energy) in the transport is also quantitatively discussed.

  13. Double Layers: Potential Formation and Related Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas: Proceedings of the 5th Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, S.

    1998-02-01

    Potential Modification Due to C60- Production * Modifications of the Floating Potential and the Plasma Potential in a C60 Plasma * Properties of Strongly Electronegative Plasma Produced at Afterglow of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chlorine Plasma * 2.2 Particle Accelerations * Potential Structures Due to an Electron Beam-Excited Localized HF-Discharge (Invited) * Experiments and Computer Simulations of Electric Field Spikes in Electron Beam-Plasma Interaction * Magnetosonic Waves in Multi-Ion-Species Plasmas: Nonlinear Evolution and Ion Acceleration * Observation of Repetitive Electric Field Pulses Accompanying a Short Wave Train Near the Lower Hybrid Frequency in a High-Voltage Linear Plasma Discharge * Control of Potential Profile and Energy Transport to Machine Ends along Open Magnetic Field Lines in a Tandem Mirror * Observation of Ion Acceleration in Picosecond Laser Produced Plasma Expanding across a Magnetic Field * Pellet Ablation Characteristics and the Effect on the Potential in Toroidal Plasmas (Invited) * CHAPTER 3: CROSS-FIELD ELECTRIC FIELDS, VELOCITY SHEAR, AND VORTEX FORMATION * 3.1 Cross-Field Potential Structures * Laboratory Simulation of Transverse Magnetic Field Effects on Dynamics of Plasma Streams in Magnetosphere * Double-Layer-like and Sheath-like Potential Structures across Magnetic Field Lines * Relaxation of Virtual Cathode Oscillations due to Transverse Effects in a Crossed-Field Diode * Control of Radial Potential Profile and Related Low-Frequency Fluctuations in an ECR-Produced Plasma * Potential Formation in Magnetized Dusty Plasma * Potential Measurement Using Electrostatic Probe in Tokamak Boundary Plasma * Studies on Radial Electric Field and Confinement in Toroidal Plasmas (Invited) * 3.2 Velocity Shear * Space Chamber Investigations of Transverse Velocity Shear Driven Plasma Waves * Observations of the Velocity-Shear-Driven Instability in a Sodium Plasma (Invited) * The Effect of Negative Ions and Neutral Particle Collisions on the

  14. Detecting compartmental non-Gaussian diffusion with symmetrized double-PFG MRI.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Jeffrey L; Özarslan, Evren; Komlosh, Michal E; Basser, Peter J; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2015-11-01

    Diffusion in tissue and porous media is known to be non-Gaussian and has been used for clinical indications of stroke and other tissue pathologies. However, when conventional NMR techniques are applied to biological tissues and other heterogeneous materials, the presence of multiple compartments (pores) with different Gaussian diffusivities will also contribute to the measurement of non-Gaussian behavior. Here we present symmetrized double PFG (sd-PFG), which can separate these two contributions to non-Gaussian signal decay as having distinct angular modulation frequencies. In contrast to prior angular d-PFG methods, sd-PFG can unambiguously extract kurtosis as an oscillation from samples with isotropic or uniformly oriented anisotropic pores, and can generally extract a combination of compartmental anisotropy and kurtosis. The method further fixes its sensitivity with respect to the time dependence of the apparent diffusion coefficient. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of the fourth cumulant (kurtosis) of diffusion and find it consistent with theoretical predictions. By enabling the unambiguous identification of contributions of compartmental kurtosis to the signal, sd-PFG has the potential to help identify the underlying micro-structural changes corresponding to current kurtosis based diagnostics, and act as a novel source of contrast to better resolve tissue micro-structure.

  15. Compressible, diffusive, reactive flow simulations of the double Mach reflection phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, J. L.; Deiterding, R.; Shepherd, J. E.; Pullin, D. I.

    2010-11-01

    We describe direct numerical simulations of the multi-component, compressible, reactive Navier-Stokes equations in two spatial dimensions. The simulations utilize a hybrid, WENO/centered-difference numerical method, with low numerical dissipation, high-order shock-capturing, and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). These features enable resolution of diffusive processes within reaction zones. A series of one- and two-dimensional test problems are used to verify the implementation, specifically the high-order accuracy of the diffusion terms, including a viscous shock wave, the decaying Lamb-Oseen vortex, laminar flame and unstable ZND detonation. High-resolution simulations are discussed of the reactive double Mach reflection phenomenon. The diffusive scales (shear/mixing/boundary layers and flame thicknesses) and weak shocks are resolved while the strong shocks emanating from the triple points are captured. Additionally, a minimally reduced chemistry and transport model for hydrocarbon detonation is used to accurately capture the induction time, chemical relaxation, and the diffusive mixing within vortical structures evolving from the triple-point shear layer.

  16. A diffusive virus infection dynamic model with nonlinear functional response, absorption effect and chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Wanbiao; Lai, Xiulan

    2017-01-01

    From a biological perspective, a diffusive virus infection dynamic model with nonlinear functional response, absorption effect and chemotaxis is proposed. In the model, the diffusion of virus consists of two parts, the random diffusion and the chemotactic movement. The chemotaxis flux of virus depends not only on their own density, but also on the density of infected cells, and the density gradient of infected cells. The well posedness of the proposed model is deeply investigated. For the proposed model, the linear stabilities of the infection-free steady state E0 and the infection steady state E* are extensively performed. We show that the threshold dynamics can be expressed by the basic reproduction number R0 of the model without chemotaxis. That is, the infection-free steady state E0 is globally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1, and the virus is uniformly persistent if R0 > 1. In addition, we use the cross iteration method and the Schauder's fixed point theorem to prove the existence of travelling wave solutions connecting the infection-free steady state E0 and the infection steady state E* by constructing a pair of upper-lower solutions. At last, numerical simulations are presented to confirm theoretical findings.

  17. Fourth order Douglas implicit scheme for solving three dimension reaction diffusion equation with non-linear source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Shahid; Saqib, Muhammad; Mashat, Daoud Suleiman

    2017-07-01

    This research paper represents a numerical approximation to non-linear three dimension reaction diffusion equation with non-linear source term from population genetics. Since various initial and boundary value problems exist in three dimension reaction diffusion phenomena, which are studied numerically by different numerical methods, here we use finite difference schemes (Alternating Direction Implicit and Fourth Order Douglas Implicit) to approximate the solution. Accuracy is studied in term of L2, L∞ and relative error norms by random selected grids along time levels for comparison with analytical results. The test example demonstrates the accuracy, efficiency and versatility of the proposed schemes. Numerical results showed that Fourth Order Douglas Implicit scheme is very efficient and reliable for solving 3-D non-linear reaction diffusion equation.

  18. Mathematical modeling of macrosegregation of iron carbon binary alloy: Role of double diffusive convection

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.K.; Basu, B.

    1995-10-01

    During alloy solidification, macrosegregation results from long range transport of solute under the influence of convective flow and leads to nonuniform quality of a solidified material. The present study is an attempt to understand the role of double diffusive convection resulting from the solutal rejection in the evolution of macrosegregation in an iron carbon system. The solidification process of an alloy is governed by conservation of heat, mass, momentum, and species and is accompanies by the evolution of latent heat and the rejection or incorporation of solute at the solid liquid interface. Using a continuum formulation, the governing equations were solved using the finite volume method. The numerical model was validated by simulating experiments on an ammonium chloride water system reported in the literature. The model was further used to study the role of double diffusive convection in the evolution of macrosegregation during solidification of Fe 1 wt pct c alloy in a rectangular cavity. Simulation of this transient process was carried out until complete solidification, and the results, depicting the influence of flow field on thermal and solutal field and vice versa, are shown at various stages of solidification. Under the given set of parameters, it was found that the thermal buoyancy affects the macrosegregation field globally, whereas the solutal buoyancy has a localized effect.

  19. Double-diffusive two-fluid flow in a slippery channel: A linear stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sukhendu; Usha, R.; Sahu, Kirti Chandra

    2014-12-01

    The effect of velocity slip at the walls on the linear stability characteristics of two-fluid three-layer channel flow (the equivalent core-annular configuration in case of pipe) is investigated in the presence of double diffusive (DD) phenomenon. The fluids are miscible and consist of two solute species having different rates of diffusion. The fluids are assumed to be of the same density, but varying viscosity, which depends on the concentration of the solute species. It is found that the flow stabilizes when the less viscous fluid is present in the region adjacent to the slippery channel walls in the single-component (SC) system but becomes unstable at low Reynolds numbers in the presence of DD effect. As the mixed region of the fluids moves towards the channel walls, a new unstable mode (DD mode), distinct from the Tollman Schlichting (TS) mode, arises at Reynolds numbers smaller than the critical Reynolds number for the TS mode. We also found that this mode becomes more prominent when the mixed layer overlaps with the critical layer. It is shown that the slip parameter has nonmonotonic effect on the stability characteristics in this system. Through energy budget analysis, the dual role of slip is explained. The effect of slip is influenced by the location of mixed layer, the log-mobility ratio of the faster diffusing scalar, diffusivity, and the ratio of diffusion coefficients of the two species. Increasing the value of the slip parameter delays the first occurrence of the DD-mode. It is possible to achieve stabilization or destabilization by controlling the various physical parameters in the flow system. In the present study, we suggest an effective and realistic way to control three-layer miscible channel flow with viscosity stratification.

  20. Structure-driven nonlinear instability as the origin of the explosive reconnection dynamics in resistive double tearing modes.

    PubMed

    Janvier, M; Kishimoto, Y; Li, J Q

    2011-11-04

    The onset of abrupt magnetic reconnection events, observed in the nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes (DTM), is investigated via reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We have identified the critical threshold for the parameters characterizing the linear DTM stability leading to the bifurcation to the explosive dynamics. A new type of secondary instability is discovered that is excited once the magnetic islands on each rational surface reach a critical structure characterized here by the width and the angle rating their triangularization. This new instability is an island structure-driven nonlinear instability, identified as the trigger of the subsequent nonlinear dynamics which couples flow and flux perturbations. This instability only weakly depends on resistivity.

  1. An ADI extrapolated Crank-Nicolson orthogonal spline collocation method for nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Ryan I.; Fairweather, Graeme

    2012-08-01

    An alternating direction implicit (ADI) orthogonal spline collocation (OSC) method is described for the approximate solution of a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. Its efficacy is demonstrated on the solution of well-known examples of such systems, specifically the Brusselator, Gray-Scott, Gierer-Meinhardt and Schnakenberg models, and comparisons are made with other numerical techniques considered in the literature. The new ADI method is based on an extrapolated Crank-Nicolson OSC method and is algebraically linear. It is efficient, requiring at each time level only O(N) operations where N is the number of unknowns. Moreover, it is shown to produce approximations which are of optimal global accuracy in various norms, and to possess superconvergence properties.

  2. Median-prior tomography reconstruction combined with nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianhua; Yu, Jun

    2007-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is becoming increasingly important in the fields of medicine and biology. Penalized iterative algorithms based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation for image reconstruction in emission tomography place conditions on which types of images are accepted as solutions. The recently introduced median root prior (MRP) favors locally monotonic images. MRP can preserve sharp edges, but a steplike streaking effect and much noise are still observed in the reconstructed image, both of which are undesirable. An MRP tomography reconstruction combined with nonlinear anisotropic diffusion interfiltering is proposed for removing noise and preserving edges. Analysis shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of producing better reconstructed images compared with those reconstructed by conventional maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), MAP, and MRP-based algorithms in PET image reconstruction.

  3. Image segmentation combining non-linear diffusion and the Nystrom extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Ebroul

    2005-07-01

    An approach for image segmentation is presented. Images are first preprocessed using multiscale simplification by nonlinear diffusion. Subsequently image segmentation of the resulting smoothed images is carried out. The actual segmentation step is based on the estimation of the Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues of a matrix derived from both the total dissimilarity and the total similarity between different groups of pixels in the image. This algorithm belong to the class of spectral methods, specifically, the Nystron extension introduced by Fowlkes et al in [1]. Stability analysis of the approximation of the underlying spectral partitioning is presented. Modifications of Fowlkes technique are proposed to improve the stability of the algorithm. The proposed modifications include a criterion for the selection of the initial sample and numerically stable estimations of ill-posed inverse matrices for the solution of the underlying mathematical problem. Results of selected computer experiments are reported to validate the superiority of the proposed approach when compared with the technique proposed in [1].

  4. A geometric framework for channel network extraction from lidar: Nonlinear diffusion and geodesic paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passalacqua, Paola; Do Trung, Tien; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Sapiro, Guillermo; Dietrich, William E.

    2010-03-01

    A geometric framework for the automatic extraction of channels and channel networks from high-resolution digital elevation data is introduced in this paper. The proposed approach incorporates nonlinear diffusion for the preprocessing of the data, both to remove noise and to enhance features that are critical to the network extraction. Following this preprocessing, channels are defined as curves of minimal effort, or geodesics, where the effort is measured on the basis of fundamental geomorphological characteristics such as flow accumulation area and isoheight contours curvature. The merits of the proposed methodology, and especially the computational efficiency and accurate localization of the extracted channels, are demonstrated using light detection and ranging (lidar) data of the Skunk Creek, a tributary of the South Fork Eel River basin in northern California.

  5. Weak chaos in the disordered nonlinear Schroedinger chain: Destruction of Anderson localization by Arnold diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Basko, D.M.

    2011-07-15

    Research Highlights: > In a one-dimensional disordered chain of oscillators all normal modes are localized. > Nonlinearity leads to chaotic dynamics. > Chaos is concentrated on rare chaotic spots. > Chaotic spots drive energy exchange between oscillators. > Macroscopic transport coefficients are obtained. - Abstract: The subject of this study is the long-time equilibration dynamics of a strongly disordered one-dimensional chain of coupled weakly anharmonic classical oscillators. It is shown that chaos in this system has a very particular spatial structure: it can be viewed as a dilute gas of chaotic spots. Each chaotic spot corresponds to a stochastic pump which drives the Arnold diffusion of the oscillators surrounding it, thus leading to their relaxation and thermalization. The most important mechanism of equilibration at long distances is provided by random migration of the chaotic spots along the chain, which bears analogy with variable-range hopping of electrons in strongly disordered solids. The corresponding macroscopic transport equations are obtained.

  6. A Priori Estimates for Fractional Nonlinear Degenerate Diffusion Equations on Bounded Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Matteo; Vázquez, Juan Luis

    2015-10-01

    We investigate quantitative properties of the nonnegative solutions to the nonlinear fractional diffusion equation, , posed in a bounded domain, , with m > 1 for t > 0. As we use one of the most common definitions of the fractional Laplacian , 0 < s < 1, in a bounded domain with zero Dirichlet boundary conditions. We consider a general class of very weak solutions of the equation, and obtain a priori estimates in the form of smoothing effects, absolute upper bounds, lower bounds, and Harnack inequalities. We also investigate the boundary behaviour and we obtain sharp estimates from above and below. In addition, we obtain similar estimates for fractional semilinear elliptic equations. Either the standard Laplacian case s = 1 or the linear case m = 1 are recovered as limits. The method is quite general, suitable to be applied to a number of similar problems.

  7. Stochastic dynamics and control of a driven nonlinear spin chain: the role of Arnold diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotorlishvili, L.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Berakdar, J.

    2009-09-01

    We study a chain of nonlinear interacting spins driven by a static and a time-dependent magnetic field. The aim is to identify the conditions for the locally and temporally controlled spin switching. Analytical and full numerical calculations show the possibility of stochastic control if the underlying semiclassical dynamics is chaotic. This is achievable by tuning the external field parameters according to the method described in this paper. We show analytically for a finite spin chain that Arnold diffusion is the underlying mechanism for the present stochastic control. Quantum mechanically we consider the regime where the classical dynamics is regular or chaotic. For the latter we utilize the random matrix theory. The efficiency and the stability of the non-equilibrium quantum spin states are quantified by the time dependence of the Bargmann angle related to the geometric phases of the states.

  8. Magnetic Damping of g-Jitter Induced Double-Diffusive Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Y.; Li, B. Q.; deGroh, H. C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical study of the g-jitter driven double diffusive convective flows, thermal and concentration distributions in binary alloy melt systems subject to an external magnetic field. The study is based on the finite element solution of transient magnetohydrodynamic equations governing the momentum, thermal and solutal transport in the melt pool. Numerical simulations are conducted using the synthesized single- and multi- frequency g-jitter as well as the real g-jitter data taken during space flights with or without an applied magnetic field. It is found that for the conditions studied, the main melt flow follows approximately a lineal- superposition of velocity components induced by individual g-jitter components, regardless of whether a magnetic field exists or not. The flow field is characterized by a recirculating double diffusive convection loop oscillating in time with a defined frequency equal to that of the driving g-jitter force. An applied magnetic field has little effect on the oscillating recirculating pattern, except around the moment in time when the flow reverses its direction. The field has no effect on the oscillation period, but it changes the phase angle. It is very effective in suppressing the flow intensity and produces a notable reduction of the solutal striation and time fluctuations in the melt. For a given magnetic field strength, the magnetic damping effect is more pronounced on the velocity associated with the largest g-jitter component present and/or the g-jitter spiking peaks. A stronger magnetic field is more effective in suppressing the melt convection and also is more helpful in bringing the convection in phase with the g-jitter driving force. The applied field is particularly useful in suppressing the effect of real g-jitter spikes on both flow and solutal distributions. With appropriately selected magnetic fields, the convective flows caused by g-jitter can be reduced sufficiently and diffusion dominant

  9. Multiple secondary islands formation in nonlinear evolution of double tearing mode simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W.; Ma, J.; Yu, Z.

    2017-03-01

    A new numerical code solving the conservative perturbed resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model is developed. Numerical tests of the ideal Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the resistive double tearing mode (DTM) show its capability in solving linear and nonlinear MHD instabilities. The nonlinear DTM evolution in 2D geometry is numerically investigated with low guiding field B z 0 , short half-distance y 0 between the equilibrium current sheets, and small resistivity η. The interaction of islands on the two initial current sheets may generate an unstable flow driven current sheet with a high length-to-thickness aspect ratio (α), and multiple secondary islands can form. In general, the length-to-thickness aspect ratio α and the number of secondary islands increase with decreasing guide field B z 0 , decreasing half-distance y 0 , and increasing Lundquist number of the flow driven current sheet S L although the dependence may be non-monotonic. The reconnection rate dependence on S L , B z 0 , and y 0 is also investigated.

  10. Single shot, double differential spectral measurements of inverse Compton scattering in the nonlinear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Y.; Gadjev, I.; Hoang, P.; Majernik, N.; Nause, A.; Fukasawa, A.; Williams, O.; Fedurin, M.; Malone, B.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Polyanskiy, M.; Babzien, M.; Montemagno, M.; Zhong, Z.; Siddons, P.; Pogorelsky, I.; Yakimenko, V.; Kumita, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2017-06-01

    Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is a unique mechanism for producing fast pulses—picosecond and below—of bright photons, ranging from x to γ rays. These nominally narrow spectral bandwidth electromagnetic radiation pulses are efficiently produced in the interaction between intense, well-focused electron and laser beams. The spectral characteristics of such sources are affected by many experimental parameters, with intense laser effects often dominant. A laser field capable of inducing relativistic oscillatory motion may give rise to harmonic generation and, importantly for the present work, nonlinear redshifting, both of which dilute the spectral brightness of the radiation. As the applications enabled by this source often depend sensitively on its spectra, it is critical to resolve the details of the wavelength and angular distribution obtained from ICS collisions. With this motivation, we present an experimental study that greatly improves on previous spectral measurement methods based on x-ray K -edge filters, by implementing a multilayer bent-crystal x-ray spectrometer. In tandem with a collimating slit, this method reveals a projection of the double differential angular-wavelength spectrum of the ICS radiation in a single shot. The measurements enabled by this diagnostic illustrate the combined off-axis and nonlinear-field-induced redshifting in the ICS emission process. The spectra obtained illustrate in detail the strength of the normalized laser vector potential, and provide a nondestructive measure of the temporal and spatial electron-laser beam overlap.

  11. Single shot, double differential spectral measurements of inverse Compton scattering in the nonlinear regime

    DOE PAGES

    Sakai, Y.; Gadjev, I.; Hoang, P.; ...

    2017-06-05

    Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is a unique mechanism for producing fast pulses$-$picosecond and below$-$of bright photons, ranging from x to γ rays. These nominally narrow spectral bandwidth electromagnetic radiation pulses are efficiently produced in the interaction between intense, well-focused electron and laser beams. The spectral characteristics of such sources are affected by many experimental parameters, with intense laser effects often dominant. A laser field capable of inducing relativistic oscillatory motion may give rise to harmonic generation and, importantly for the present work, nonlinear redshifting, both of which dilute the spectral brightness of the radiation. As the applications enabled by thismore » source often depend sensitively on its spectra, it is critical to resolve the details of the wavelength and angular distribution obtained from ICS collisions. With this motivation, we present an experimental study that greatly improves on previous spectral measurement methods based on x-ray K -edge filters, by implementing a multilayer bent-crystal x-ray spectrometer. In tandem with a collimating slit, this method reveals a projection of the double differential angular-wavelength spectrum of the ICS radiation in a single shot. The measurements enabled by this diagnostic illustrate the combined off-axis and nonlinear-field-induced redshifting in the ICS emission process. The spectra obtained illustrate in detail the strength of the normalized laser vector potential, and provide a nondestructive measure of the temporal and spatial electron-laser beam overlap.« less

  12. Effect of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy diffusion pathways in double perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Pilania, Ghanshyam

    2015-07-08

    Perovskite structured oxides (ABO3) are attractive for a number of technological applications, including as superionics because of the high oxygen conductivities they exhibit. Double perovskites (AA’BB’O6) provide even more flexibility for tailoring properties. Using accelerated molecular dynamics, we examine the role of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy mobility in one model double perovskite SrLaTiAlO6. We find that the mobility of the vacancy is very sensitive to the cation ordering, with a migration energy that varies from 0.6 to 2.7 eV. In the extreme cases, the mobility is both higher and lower than either of the two end member single perovskites. Further, the nature of oxygen vacancy diffusion, whether one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, also varies with cation ordering. We correlate the dependence of oxygen mobility on cation structure to the distribution of Ti4+ cations, which provide unfavorable environments for the positively charged oxygen vacancy. The results demonstrate the potential of using tailored double perovskite structures to precisely control the behavior of oxygen vacancies in these materials.

  13. Effect of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy diffusion pathways in double perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Pilania, Ghanshyam

    2015-07-08

    Perovskite structured oxides (ABO3) are attractive for a number of technological applications, including as superionics because of the high oxygen conductivities they exhibit. Double perovskites (AA’BB’O6) provide even more flexibility for tailoring properties. Using accelerated molecular dynamics, we examine the role of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy mobility in one model double perovskite SrLaTiAlO6. We find that the mobility of the vacancy is very sensitive to the cation ordering, with a migration energy that varies from 0.6 to 2.7 eV. In the extreme cases, the mobility is both higher and lower than either of the two end member single perovskites.more » Further, the nature of oxygen vacancy diffusion, whether one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, also varies with cation ordering. We correlate the dependence of oxygen mobility on cation structure to the distribution of Ti4+ cations, which provide unfavorable environments for the positively charged oxygen vacancy. The results demonstrate the potential of using tailored double perovskite structures to precisely control the behavior of oxygen vacancies in these materials.« less

  14. Lattice Boltzmann methods for some 2-D nonlinear diffusion equations:Computational results

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, B.H.; Rodrigue, G.H. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Levermore, C.D. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we examine two lattice Boltzmann methods (that are a derivative of lattice gas methods) for computing solutions to two two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations of the form {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}t u = v ({partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x u + {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y u), where u = u({rvec x},t), {rvec x} {element of} R{sup 2}, v is a constant, and D(u) is a nonlinear term that arises from a Chapman-Enskog asymptotic expansion. In particular, we provide computational evidence supporting recent results showing that the methods are second order convergent (in the L{sub 1}-norm), conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Solutions computed via the lattice Boltzmann methods are compared with those computed by other explicit, second order, conservative, monotone finite difference methods. Results are reported for both the L{sub 1}- and L{sub {infinity}}-norms.

  15. Cell-centered nonlinear finite-volume methods for the heterogeneous anisotropic diffusion problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhov, Kirill M.; Mallison, Bradley T.; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.

    2017-02-01

    We present two new cell-centered nonlinear finite-volume methods for the heterogeneous, anisotropic diffusion problem. The schemes split the interfacial flux into harmonic and transversal components. Specifically, linear combinations of the transversal vector and the co-normal are used that lead to significant improvements in terms of the mesh-locking effects. The harmonic component of the flux is represented using a conventional monotone two-point flux approximation; the component along the parameterized direction is treated nonlinearly to satisfy either positivity of the solution as in [29], or the discrete maximum principle as in [9]. In order to make the method purely cell-centered, we derive a homogenization function that allows for seamless interpolation in the presence of heterogeneity following a strategy similar to [46]. The performance of the new schemes is compared with existing multi-point flux approximation methods [3,5]. The robustness of the scheme with respect to the mesh-locking problem is demonstrated using several challenging test cases.

  16. Nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering of three-dimensional image data from two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broser, Philip J.; Schulte, Roland; Roth, A.; Helmchen, Fritjof; Waters, Jack; Lang, Stefan; Sakmann, Bert J.; Wittum, Gabriel

    2005-03-01

    Two-photon microscopy in combination with novel fluorescent labeling techniques enables imaging of three-dimensional neuronal morphologies in intact brain tissue. In principle it is now possible to automatically reconstruct the dendritic branching patterns of neurons from 3D fluorescence image stacks. In practice however, the signal-to-noise ratio can be low, in particular in the case of thin dendrites or axons imaged relatively deep in the tissue. Here we present a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter that enhances the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original dimensions of the structural elements. The key idea is to use structural information in the raw data -- the local moments of inertia -- to locally control the strength and direction of diffusion filtering. A cylindrical dendrite, for example, is effectively smoothed only parallel to its longitudinal axis, not perpendicular to it. This is demonstrated for artificial data as well as for in vivo 2-photon microscopic data from pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. In both cases noise is averaged out along the dendrites, leading to bridging of apparent gaps, while dendritic diameters are not affected. The filter is a valuable general tool for smoothing cellular processes and is well suited for preparing data for subsequent image segmentation and neuron reconstruction.

  17. Double-Diffusive Finger Convection: Flow Field Evolution in a Hele-Shaw Cell

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER,CLAY A.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; TYLER,SCOTT W.

    2000-12-21

    Double-diffusive finger convection is a hydrodynamic instability that can occur when two components with different diffusivities are oppositely stratified with respect to the fluid density gradient as a critical condition is exceeded. Laboratory experiments were designed using sodium chloride and sucrose solutions in a Hele-Shaw cell. A high resolution, full field, light transmission technique was used to study the development of the instability. The initial buoyancy ratio (R{sub p}), which is a ratio of fluid density contributions by the two solutes, was varied systematically in the experiments so that the range of parameter space spanned conditions that were nearly stable (R{sub p} = 2.8) to those that were moderately unstable (R{sub p} = 1.4). In systems of low R{sub p}, fingers develop within several minutes, merge with adjacent fingers, form conduits, and stall before newer-generated fingers travel through the conduits and continue the process. Solute fluxes in low R{sub p} systems quickly reach steady state and are on the order of 10{sup {minus}6} m{sup 2} sec{sup {minus}1}. In the higher R{sub p} experiments, fingers are slower to evolve and do not interact as dynamically as in the lower R{sub p} systems. Our experiment with initial R{sub p} = 2.8 exhibited flux on the order of that expected for a similar diffusive system (i.e., 10{sup {minus}7} m{sup 2} sec{sup {minus}1}), although the structures were very different than the pattern of transport expected in a diffusing system. Mass flux decayed as t{sup 1/2} in two experiments each with initial R{sub p} = 2.4 and 2.8.

  18. A particle-in-cell method for studying double-diffusive convection in the liquid layers of planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Mathieu; Labrosse, Stéphane; Choblet, Gaël; Fournier, Alexandre; Aubert, Julien; Tackley, Paul J.

    2017-10-01

    Many planetary bodies contain internal liquid layers in their metallic cores or as buried water oceans. Convection in these layers is usually driven by buoyancy sources of thermal or compositional origin, with very different molecular diffusivities. Such conditions can potentially trigger double-diffusive instabilities and fundamentally affect the convective features. In numerical models, the weak diffusivity of the compositional field requires the use of a semi-Lagrangian description to produce minimal numerical diffusion. We implemented a ;particle-in-cell; (PIC) method into a pre-existing geodynamo code in 3D spherical geometry to describe the compositional field properly. We developed several numerical strategies to solve various problems inherent to the implementation of a PIC method for convection in spherical geometry and coded a hybrid scheme suitable for massively parallel platforms. We tested our new code on two benchmark cases which validate its applicability to the study of double-diffusive convection in the internal liquid layers of planets. As a first application, we study a case of non-magnetic double-diffusive convection at infinite Lewis number. Major differences emerge both in the compositional field and the convective pattern when the compositional diffusivity is neglected.

  19. Nonlinear diffusion and thermo-electric coupling in a two-variable model of cardiac action potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, A.; Loppini, A.; Ruiz-Baier, R.; Ippolito, A.; Camassa, A.; La Camera, A.; Emmi, E.; Di Perna, L.; Garofalo, V.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2017-09-01

    This work reports the results of the theoretical investigation of nonlinear dynamics and spiral wave breakup in a generalized two-variable model of cardiac action potential accounting for thermo-electric coupling and diffusion nonlinearities. As customary in excitable media, the common Q10 and Moore factors are used to describe thermo-electric feedback in a 10° range. Motivated by the porous nature of the cardiac tissue, in this study we also propose a nonlinear Fickian flux formulated by Taylor expanding the voltage dependent diffusion coefficient up to quadratic terms. A fine tuning of the diffusive parameters is performed a priori to match the conduction velocity of the equivalent cable model. The resulting combined effects are then studied by numerically simulating different stimulation protocols on a one-dimensional cable. Model features are compared in terms of action potential morphology, restitution curves, frequency spectra, and spatio-temporal phase differences. Two-dimensional long-run simulations are finally performed to characterize spiral breakup during sustained fibrillation at different thermal states. Temperature and nonlinear diffusion effects are found to impact the repolarization phase of the action potential wave with non-monotone patterns and to increase the propensity of arrhythmogenesis.

  20. Neurobiological Models of Two-Choice Decision Making Can Be Reduced to a One-Dimensional Nonlinear Diffusion Equation

    PubMed Central

    Roxin, Alex; Ledberg, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The response behaviors in many two-alternative choice tasks are well described by so-called sequential sampling models. In these models, the evidence for each one of the two alternatives accumulates over time until it reaches a threshold, at which point a response is made. At the neurophysiological level, single neuron data recorded while monkeys are engaged in two-alternative choice tasks are well described by winner-take-all network models in which the two choices are represented in the firing rates of separate populations of neurons. Here, we show that such nonlinear network models can generally be reduced to a one-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equation, which bears functional resemblance to standard sequential sampling models of behavior. This reduction gives the functional dependence of performance and reaction-times on external inputs in the original system, irrespective of the system details. What is more, the nonlinear diffusion equation can provide excellent fits to behavioral data from two-choice decision making tasks by varying these external inputs. This suggests that changes in behavior under various experimental conditions, e.g. changes in stimulus coherence or response deadline, are driven by internal modulation of afferent inputs to putative decision making circuits in the brain. For certain model systems one can analytically derive the nonlinear diffusion equation, thereby mapping the original system parameters onto the diffusion equation coefficients. Here, we illustrate this with three model systems including coupled rate equations and a network of spiking neurons. PMID:18369436

  1. Numerical studies on transient double-diffusive and mixed convection in cylindrical enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujano Maldonado, Jose Raul

    1999-10-01

    Numerical studies on transient convection phenomena are introduced. The studies are related to computation and description of time dependent flow, temperature and concentration fields. Two topics related with convection phenomena in cylindrical enclosures are presented, the first being double diffusive natural convection in cylindrical vessels. The subject of research is concerned with the liquid-liquid interface stability and its relationship with the different flow and mixing characteristics observed in the system. Interface penetration phenomena during transient double diffusive convection in a vertical cylinder is analyzed through direct numerical simulation. The fluid is initially motionless with a pre-existent two-layers density stratification featuring a diffusion-like interface. The flow is initiated when a uniform heat flux is applied from the sidewall. The influence of relevant parameters on velocity of interface penetration and intensity of mixing are analyzed. Two regimes of interface penetration were identified and characterized namely: convective and diffusive-convective regimes of interface penetration. The second topic is mixed natural and forced convection. In this case the investigation is focused on transient oscillatory convection and its suppression in the Czochralski growth melt. A numerical analysis assuming axisymmetric flow and temperature fields in a cylindrical enclosure was performed in which the swirl component of velocity is included in the computation to account for rotational effects. Temperature and flow field oscillations were computed for natural and forced convection dominant flow regimes. Numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with previously reported experimental results. Computational results are presented which disclose relevant features of oscillatory thermal and flow fields. Parametric studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of crystal radius and melt depth variations on the oscillatory flows. It was shown

  2. Reducing slab boundary artifacts in three‐dimensional multislab diffusion MRI using nonlinear inversion for slab profile encoding (NPEN)

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, Peter J.; Frost, Robert; Miller, Karla L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To propose a method to reduce the slab boundary artifacts in three‐dimensional multislab diffusion MRI. Methods Bloch simulation is used to investigate the effects of multiple factors on slab boundary artifacts, including characterization of residual errors on diffusion quantification. A nonlinear inversion method is proposed to simultaneously estimate the slab profile and the underlying (corrected) image. Results Correction results of numerical phantom and in vivo data demonstrate that the method can effectively remove slab boundary artifacts for diffusion data. Notably, the nonlinear inversion is also successful at short TR, a regimen where previously proposed methods (slab profile encoding and weighted average) retain residual artifacts in both diffusion‐weighted images and diffusion metrics (mean diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy). Conclusion The nonlinear inversion for removing slab boundary artifacts provides improvements over existing methods, particularly at the short TRs required to maximize SNR efficiency. Magn Reson Med 76:1183–1195, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26510172

  3. Flow reversal of fully developed double diffusive mixed convection in a vertical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhatar, Nur Asiah Mohd; Saleh, Habibis; Hashim, Ishak

    2015-10-01

    The mixed convection flow within a vertical channel having internal heat generation at a rate proportional to a power of the temperature difference is considered. The analysis is concerning the studies of occurrence of flow reversal and the effects of three dimensionless parameters, identified as the internal heat parameter (G), a mixed convection parameter (λ) and the exponent (p) in the local heating term on the fully developed double diffusive mixed convection flow in a vertical channel. The governing equations are solved numerically via MAPLE. It was found that flow reversal occurs with larger values of internal heat parameter and mixed convection parameter, but smaller values of local-heating exponent. They also show that, unlike the internal heat parameter and the local-heating exponent, the mixed convection parameter do not give any significant effect on the temperature.

  4. Simulation of diffuse-charge capacitance in electric double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    We use a Lattice Boltzmann Model (LBM) in order to simulate diffuse-charge dynamics in Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs). Simulations are carried out for both the charge and the discharge processes on 2D systems of complex random electrode geometries (pure random, random spheres and random fibers). The steric effect of concentrated solutions is considered by using a Modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (MPNP) equations and compared with regular Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) systems. The effects of electrode microstructures (electrode density, electrode filler morphology, filler size, etc.) on the net charge distribution and charge/discharge time are studied in detail. The influence of applied potential during discharging process is also discussed. Our studies show how electrode morphology can be used to tailor the properties of supercapacitors.

  5. Effects of a random porosity model on double diffusive natural convection in a porous medium enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, W.S.; Ke, W.W.

    2000-01-01

    A double diffusive natural convection in a rectangular enclosure filled with porous medium is investigated numerically. The distribution of porosity is based upon the random porosity model. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is used and the factors of heat flux, mean porosity and standard deviation are taken into consideration. The SIMPLEC method with iterative processes is adopted to solve the governing equations. The effects of the random porosity model on the distributions of local Nusselt number are remarkable and the variations of the local Nusselt number become disordered. The contribution of latent heat transfer to the total heat transfer of the high Rayleigh number is larger than that of the low Rayleigh number and the variations of the latent heat transfer are not in order.

  6. Investigation of domain size in polymer membranes using double quantum filtered spin diffusion MAS NMR.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Alam, Todd Michael; Cherry, Brian Ray; Cornelius, Christopher James

    2005-02-01

    Solid-state {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR was used to investigate sulfonated Diels-Alder poly(phenlylene) polymer membranes. Under high spinning speed {sup 1}H MAS conditions, the proton environments of the sulfonic acid and phenylene polymer backbone are resolved. A double-quantum (DQ) filter using the rotor-synchronized back-to-back (BABA) NMR multiple-pulse sequence allowed the selective suppression of the sulfonic proton environment in the {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra. This DQ filter in conjunction with a spin diffusion NMR experiment was then used to measure the domain size of the sulfonic acid component within the membrane. In addition, the temperature dependence of the sulfonic acid spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) was determined, providing an estimate of the activation energy for the proton dynamics of the dehydrated membrane.

  7. Effect of surface tension on the onset of convection in a double-diffusive layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. F.; Su, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on the stability of a double-diffusive layer is considered using linear stability analysis. The surface tension is assumed to vary linearly with temperature and solute concentration. The eigenvalue problem is solved by the Galerkin method. Results show that the predicted stability boundary based on Marangoni effects alone is completely altered in the presence of buoyancy effects induced by low gravity levels (about 10 exp -5 g). At reduced gravity levels, salt-finger instability may onset in the overstable mode due to the stabilizing effect of surface tension. Fluid properties in terms of the Prandtl and the Lewis numbers have a profound effect on the stability conditions; opposite stability characteristics are found in salt solutions and in molten metals.

  8. Fluxes across double-diffusive interfaces : a one-dimensional turbulence study.

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstein, Alan R.; Lignell, David O.; Gonzalez-Juez, Esteban Daniel

    2010-11-01

    The parameterization of the fluxes of heat and salt across double-diffusive interfaces is of interest in geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. The present work is a parametric study of these fluxes using one-dimensional-turbulence (ODT) simulations. Its main distinction is that it considers a parameter space larger than previous studies. Specifically, this work considers the effect on the fluxes of the stability parameter R{sub {rho}}, Rayleigh number Ra, Prandtl number, Lewis number, and Richardson number. The ratio Ra/R{sub {rho}} is found to be a dominant parameter. Here Ra/R{sub {rho}} can be seen as a ratio of destabilizing and stabilizing effects. Trends predicted by the simulations are in good agreement with previous models and available measurements.

  9. The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer with non-equilibrium model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhixin; Wang, Shaowei; Zhao, Moli; Li, Shucai; Zhang, Qiangyong

    2013-01-01

    The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically.

  10. Nonlinear transient response analysis for double walls with a porous material supported by nonlinear springs using FEM and MSKE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takao; Hozumi, Hiroaki; Hirano, Yuta; Tobita, Kazuhiro; Kurosawa, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we newly propose a fast computation method for the nonlinear transient responses including coupling between nonlinear springs and sound proof structures having porous materials using FEM. In this method, we extend our numerical method named as Modal Strain and Kinetic Method (i.e. MSKE method proposed previously by Yamaguchi who is one of the authors) from linear damping analysis to nonlinear dynamic analysis. We assume that the restoring force of the spring has cubic nonlinearity and linear hysteresis damping. To calculate damping properties for soundproof structures including elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous body, displacement vectors as common unknown variable are solved under coupled condition. The damped sound fields in the porous materials are defined by complex effective density and complex bulk modulus. The discrete equations in physical coordinate for this system are transformed into nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinates corresponding to linear natural modes. Further, using MSKE method, modal damping can be derived approximately under coupled conditions between hysteresis damping of viscoelastic materials, damping of the springs and damping due to flow resistance in porous materials. The modal damping is used for the nonlinear differential equation to compute nonlinear transient responses.

  11. The formation of thermohaline staircases for large salt concentration differences in double diffusive convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-11-01

    In the upper layers of the tropical and subtropical ocean, step-like mean profiles for both temperature and salinity are often observed, a phenomenon referred to as thermohaline staircase. It consists of alternatively stacked mixing layers, and finger layers with sharp gradients in both mean temperature and salinity. It is believed that thermohaline staircases are caused by double diffusive convection (DDC), i.e. the convection flow with fluid density affected by two different scalars. Here we conducted direct numerical simulations of DDC bounded by two parallel plates and aimed to realise the multi-layer state similar to the oceanic thermohaline staircase. We applied an unstable salinity difference and a stable temperature difference across the two plates. We gradually increased the salinity Rayleigh number RaS , i.e. the strength of salinity difference, and fixed the relative strength of temperature difference. When RaS is high enough the flow undergoes a transition from a single finger layer to a triple layer state, where one mixing layer emerges between two finger layers. Such triple layer state is stable up to the turbulent diffusive time scale. The finger-layer height is larger for higher RaS . The dependences of the scalar fluxes on RaS were also investigated. Supported by Dutch FOM Foundation and NWO rpogramme MCEC; Computing resources from SURFSara and PRACE project 2015133124.

  12. From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-05

    Double-diffusive convection (DDC), which is the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering environments. Of great interests are scalars' transfer rate and flow structures. Here we systematically investigate DDC flow between two horizontal plates, driven by an unstable salinity gradient and stabilized by a temperature gradient. Counterintuitively, when increasing the stabilizing temperature gradient, the salinity flux first increases, even though the velocity monotonically decreases, before it finally breaks down to the purely diffusive value. The enhanced salinity transport is traced back to a transition in the overall flow pattern, namely from large-scale convection rolls to well-organized vertically oriented salt fingers. We also show and explain that the unifying theory of thermal convection originally developed by Grossmann and Lohse for Rayleigh-Bénard convection can be directly applied to DDC flow for a wide range of control parameters (Lewis number and density ratio), including those which cover the common values relevant for ocean flows.

  13. From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Double-diffusive convection (DDC), which is the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering environments. Of great interests are scalars' transfer rate and flow structures. Here we systematically investigate DDC flow between two horizontal plates, driven by an unstable salinity gradient and stabilized by a temperature gradient. Counterintuitively, when increasing the stabilizing temperature gradient, the salinity flux first increases, even though the velocity monotonically decreases, before it finally breaks down to the purely diffusive value. The enhanced salinity transport is traced back to a transition in the overall flow pattern, namely from large-scale convection rolls to well-organized vertically oriented salt fingers. We also show and explain that the unifying theory of thermal convection originally developed by Grossmann and Lohse for Rayleigh–Bénard convection can be directly applied to DDC flow for a wide range of control parameters (Lewis number and density ratio), including those which cover the common values relevant for ocean flows. PMID:26699474

  14. Diffuse magnetic neutron scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6

    DOE PAGES

    Nilsen, Gøran. J.; Thompson, Corey M.; Ehlers, Georg; ...

    2015-02-23

    Here we investigated diffuse magnetic scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6 using polarized neutrons. Consistent with previous reports, the material shows two apparent transitions at 47 and 36 K to an eventual type I face-centered-cubic magnetic ground state. The (100) magnetic reflection shows different behavior from the five other observed reflections upon heating from 1.8 K, with the former broadening well beyond the resolution limit near 36 K. Closer examination of the latter group reveals a small, but clear, increase in peak widths between 36 and 47 K, indicating that this regime is dominated by short-range spin correlations.more » Diffuse magnetic scattering persists above 47 K near the position of (100) to at least 200 K, consistent with strong frustration. Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the diffuse scattering from 45 to 200 K finds that the spin-spin correlations between nearest and next-nearest neighbors are antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively, at temperatures near the upper ordering temperature, but both become antiferromagnetic and of similar magnitude above 100 K. The significance of this unusual crossover is discussed in light of the super-superexchange interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors in this material and the demands of type I order. The dimensionality of the correlations is addressed by reconstructing the scattering in the (hk0) plane using the RMC spin configurations. This indicates that one-dimensional spin correlations dominate at temperatures close to the first transition. In addition, a comparison between mean-field calculations and (hk0) scattering implies that further neighbor couplings play a significant role in the selection of the ground state. Finally, the results and interpretation are compared with those recently published for monoclinic Sr2YRuO6, and similarities and differences are emphasized.« less

  15. Atomistic simulation of nanoporous layered double hydroxide materials and their properties. II. Adsorption and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nayong; Harale, Aadesh; Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2007-12-01

    Nanoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials have wide applications, ranging from being good adsorbents for gases (particularly CO2) and liquid ions to membranes and catalysts. They also have applications in medicine, environmental remediation, and electrochemistry. Their general chemical composition is [M1-xIIMxIII(OH-)2]x+[Xn/mm -•nH2O], where M represents a metallic cation (of valence II or III), and Xn/mm - is an m-valence inorganic, or heteropolyacid, or organic anion. We study diffusion and adsorption of CO2 in a particular LDH with MII=Mg, MIII=Al, and x ≃0.71, using an atomistic model developed based on energy minimization and molecular dynamics simulations, together with a modified form of the consistent-valence force field. The adsorption isotherms and self-diffusivity of CO2 in the material are computed over a range of temperature, using molecular simulations. The computed diffusivities are within one order of magnitude of the measured ones at lower temperatures, while agreeing well with the data at high temperatures. The measured and computed adsorption isotherms agree at low loadings, but differ by about 25% at high loadings. Possible reasons for the differences between the computed properties and the experimental data are discussed, and a model for improving the accuracy of the computed properties is suggested. Also studied are the material's hydration and swelling properties. As water molecules are added to the pore space, the LDH material swells to some extent, with the hydration energy exhibiting interesting variations with the number of the water molecules added. The implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Characterization of double diffusive convection steps and heat budget in the deep Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sheng-Qi; Lu, Yuan-Zheng

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we explore the hydrographic structure and heat budget in the deep Canada Basin by using data measured with McLane-Moored-Profilers (MMP), bottom pressure recorders (BPR), and conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers. Upward from the bottom, a homogeneous bottom layer and its overlaying double diffusive convection (DDC) steps are well identified at Mooring A (75°N,150°W). We find that the deep water is in weak diapycnal mixing because the effective diffusivity of the bottom layer is ˜1.8 × 10-5 m2s-1, while that of the other steps is ˜10-6 m2s-1. The vertical heat flux through the DDC steps is evaluated by using different methods. We find that the heat flux (0.1-11 mWm -2) is much smaller than geothermal heating (˜50 mWm -2). This suggests that the stack of DDC steps acts as a thermal barrier in the deep basin. Moreover, the temporal distributions of temperature and salinity differences across the interface are exponential, whereas those of heat flux and effective diffusivity are found to be approximately lognormal. Both are the result of strong intermittency. Between 2003 and 2011, temperature fluctuations close to the sea floor were distributed asymmetrically and skewed toward positive values, which provide a direct observation that geothermal heating was transferred into the ocean. Both BPR and CTD data suggest that geothermal heating and not the warming of the upper ocean is the dominant mechanism responsible for the warming of deep water. As the DDC steps prevent vertical heat transfer, geothermal heating is unlikely to have a significant effect on the middle and upper Arctic Ocean.

  17. Hydrodynamic and Thermal Slip Effect on Double-Diffusive Free Convective Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Flat Vertical Plate in the Moving Free Stream

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Waqar A.; Uddin, Md Jashim; Ismail, A. I. Md.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions on the double-diffusive free convective flow of a nanofluid along a semi-infinite flat solid vertical plate are investigated numerically. It is assumed that free stream is moving. The governing boundary layer equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into a system of nonlinear, coupled similarity equations. The effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, solute and nanofluid concentration as well as on the reduced Nusselt number, reduced Sherwood number and the reduced nanoparticle Sherwood number are investigated and presented graphically. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions have not been investigated yet. It is found that the reduced local Nusselt, local solute and the local nanofluid Sherwood numbers increase with hydrodynamic slip and decrease with thermal slip parameters. PMID:23533566

  18. Hydrodynamic and thermal slip effect on double-diffusive free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate in the moving free stream.

    PubMed

    Khan, Waqar A; Uddin, Md Jashim; Ismail, A I Md

    2013-01-01

    The effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions on the double-diffusive free convective flow of a nanofluid along a semi-infinite flat solid vertical plate are investigated numerically. It is assumed that free stream is moving. The governing boundary layer equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into a system of nonlinear, coupled similarity equations. The effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, solute and nanofluid concentration as well as on the reduced Nusselt number, reduced Sherwood number and the reduced nanoparticle Sherwood number are investigated and presented graphically. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions have not been investigated yet. It is found that the reduced local Nusselt, local solute and the local nanofluid Sherwood numbers increase with hydrodynamic slip and decrease with thermal slip parameters.

  19. Evolution of supersaturation of amorphous pharmaceuticals: nonlinear rate of supersaturation generation regulated by matrix diffusion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dajun D; Lee, Ping I

    2015-04-06

    The importance of rate of supersaturation generation on the kinetic solubility profiles of amorphous systems has recently been shown by us; however, the previous focus was limited to constant rates of supersaturation generation. The objective of the current study is to further examine the effect of nonlinear rate profiles of supersaturation generation in amorphous systems, including (1) instantaneous or infinite rate (i.e., initial degree of supersaturation), (2) first-order rate (e.g., from dissolution of amorphous drug particles), and (3) matrix diffusion regulated rate (e.g., drug release from amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) based on cross-linked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels), on the kinetic solubility profiles of a model poorly soluble drug indomethacin (IND) under nonsink dissolution conditions. The previously established mechanistic model taking into consideration both the crystal growth and ripening processes was extended to predict the evolution of supersaturation resulting from nonlinear rates of supersaturation generation. Our results confirm that excessively high initial supersaturation or a rapid supersaturation generation leads to a surge in maximum supersaturation followed by a rapid decrease in drug concentration owing to supersaturation-induced precipitation; however, an exceedingly low degree of supersaturation or a slow rate of supersaturation generation does not sufficiently raise the supersaturation level, which results in a lower but broader maximum kinetic solubility profile. Our experimental data suggest that an optimal area-under-the-curve of the kinetic solubility profiles exists at an intermediate initial supersaturation level for the amorphous systems studied here, which agrees well with the predicted trend. Our model predictions also support our experimental findings that IND ASD in cross-linked PHEMA exhibits a unique kinetic solubility profile because the resulting supersaturation level is governed by a matrix

  20. Double Diffusive Convection in Jupiter as a result of H/He demixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettelmann, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Garaud, P.

    2013-12-01

    Demixing of hydrogen and helium with subsequent He rain has long been suggested to occur in giant planets once they have sufficiently cooled down during their evolution. Its occurrence is Jupiter is suggested by the observed atmospheric helium depletion. He rain in a giant planet may cause a gradual increase of the helium abundance with depth, in contrast to full homogeneity or a sharp increase in form of a layer boundary as assumed for convenience in traditional models. In the presence of a stabilizing compositional and a destabilizing temperature gradient, large-scale convection may be inhibited (Ledoux-stable) and replaced by layered double diffusive (LDD) or oscillatory double diffusive (ODD) convection as recently studied in hydrodynamical simulations (Mirouh, Garaud+2012; Wood, Garaud, Stellmach 2013), or even a purely diffusive stable state. We here investigate the present structure of Jupiter in light of a helium gradient due to assumed He sedimentation, and the possible occurrence of LDD and ODD convection, or a stably stratified demixing region. For that purpose we apply the published ab initio data based phase diagram of Lorenzen et al (2009, 2011), which yields the demixing temperature as a function of pressure and He abundance, and invert it to obtain the helium gradient along Jupiter's pressure-temperature profile. In a first step, we find a He gradient between 1 and ~4 Mbars. In a second step, we compute the super-adiabaticity in the demixing region that is required to get the observed heat flux transported through that region, assuming that the flux is due to LDD convection as described by Wood+2013, using the transport parameter values along the Jupiter adiabat of French et al 2012, ApJS. If fine-tuning the parameters, e.g. the layer thickness, we can indeed find a super-adiabaticity profile that is consistent with the assumption of LDD convection. However, for a wider range of parameter values, such as layer thicknesses above ~1 km, the ratio of

  1. 3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.

    2008-07-02

    We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.

  2. Stability, diffusion and interactions of nonlinear excitations in a many body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coste, Christophe; Jean, Michel Saint; Dessup, Tommy

    2017-04-01

    When repelling particles are confined in a quasi-one-dimensional trap by a transverse potential, a configurational phase transition happens. All particles are aligned along the trap axis at large confinement, but below a critical transverse confinement they adopt a staggered row configuration (zigzag phase). This zigzag transition is a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation in extended systems and in systems with cyclic boundary conditions in the longitudinal direction. Among many evidences, phase coexistence is exhibited by localized nonlinear patterns made of a zigzag phase embedded in otherwise aligned particles. We give the normal form at the bifurcation and we show that these patterns can be described as solitary wave envelopes that we call bubbles. They are stable in a large temperature range and can diffuse as quasi-particles, with a diffusion coefficient that may be deduced from the normal form. The potential energy of a bubble is found to be lower than that of the homogeneous bifurcated phase, which explains their stability. We observe also metastable states, that are pairs of solitary wave envelopes which spontaneously evolve toward a stable single bubble. We evidence a strong effect of the discreteness of the underlying particles system and introduce the concept of topological frustration of a bubble pair. A configuration is frustrated when the particles between the two bubbles are not organized in a modulated staggered row. For a nonfrustrated (NF) bubble pair configuration, the bubbles interaction is attractive so that the bubbles come closer and eventually merge as a single bubble. In contrast, the bubbles interaction is found to be repulsive for a frustrated (F) configuration. We describe a model of interacting solitary wave that provides all qualitative characteristics of the interaction force: it is attractive for NF-systems, repulsive for F-systems, and decreases exponentially with the bubbles distance.

  3. PDE-based Non-Linear Diffusion Techniques for Denoising Scientific and Industrial Images: An Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Weeratunga, S K; Kamath, C

    2001-12-20

    Removing noise from data is often the first step in data analysis. Denoising techniques should not only reduce the noise, but do so without blurring or changing the location of the edges. Many approaches have been proposed to accomplish this; in this paper, they focus on one such approach, namely the use of non-linear diffusion operators. This approach has been studied extensively from a theoretical viewpoint ever since the 1987 work of Perona and Malik showed that non-linear filters outperformed the more traditional linear Canny edge detector. They complement this theoretical work by investigating the performance of several isotropic diffusion operators on test images from scientific domains. They explore the effects of various parameters such as the choice of diffusivity function, explicit and implicit methods for the discretization of the PDE, and approaches for the spatial discretization of the non-linear operator etc. They also compare these schemes with simple spatial filters and the more complex wavelet-based shrinkage techniques. The empirical results show that, with an appropriate choice of parameters, diffusion-based schemes can be as effective as competitive techniques.

  4. A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Double Diffusion Precipitin Reactions in Gels, and its Application to Characterization of Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Allison, A. C.; Humphrey, J. H.

    1960-01-01

    The distribution of antigen and antibody in radial double diffusion systems was studied by means of materials labelled with 131I or 14C. These studies showed that, once a precipitate begins to form, the assumption that antigen and antibody obey the laws of free diffusion is invalid. They also showed that, in the systems used, no antigen and very little antibody diffused past the zone of visible precipitation. It was found that accurate estimates of the diffusion constants of antigens could be obtained by allowing antigen and antibody to diffuse from troughs set at right angles and by measuring the angle of the precipitin line. Examples of the use of this method, and a theoretical treatment are given. An alternative method for estimating the size of antigens is to use the `molecular sieve' properties of gelatin gels, which are sharply graded with the concentration of the gel. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:13792817

  5. Local, global, and nonlinear screening in twisted double-layer graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Chih -Pin; Rodriguez-Vega, Martin; Li, Guohong; ...

    2016-06-02

    One-atom-thick crystalline layers and their vertical heterostructures carry the promise of designer electronic materials that are unattainable by standard growth techniques. To realize their potential it is necessary to isolate them from environmental disturbances, in particular those introduced by the substrate. However, finding and characterizing suitable substrates, and minimizing the random potential fluctuations they introduce, has been a persistent challenge in this emerging field. In this paper, we show that Landau-level (LL) spectroscopy offers the unique capability to quantify both the reduction of the quasiparticles’ lifetime and the long-range inhomogeneity due to random potential fluctuations. Harnessing this technique together withmore » direct scanning tunneling microscopy and numerical simulations we demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene buffer layer with a large twist angle is a very effective method to shield a 2D system from substrate interference that has the additional desirable property of preserving the electronic structure of the system under study. Finally, we further show that owing to its remarkable nonlinear screening capability a single graphene buffer layer provides better shielding than either increasing the distance to the substrate or doubling the carrier density and reduces the amplitude of the potential fluctuations in graphene to values even lower than the ones in AB-stacked bilayer graphene.« less

  6. Non-linear growth of double tearing mode: Explosive reconnection, plasmoid formation, and particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akramov, Tohir; Baty, Hubert

    2017-08-01

    The nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes (DTMs) is investigated within the framework of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in a two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. We have explored the explosive reconnection phase associated with the growth of the secondary structure-driven instability for a range of resistivity values. The time scale of the explosive phase (that is of order of a few Alfvénic time scales) is shown to be quasi-independent of the resistivity, even when fast growing plasmoids develop for the highest enough Lundquist number cases. Test particle accelerations are performed using the MHD explosive simulations as input parameters. Our results show that reconnection DTM dynamics is able to provide an efficient process for accelerating charged particles far beyond characteristic thermal velocities within the reconnection layers. The main acceleration mechanism is attributed to the strong inductive electric field generated by the island structure-driven instability, with an additional smaller contribution due to the presence of plasmoids. Finally, our results are used to discuss some features of the accelerated particle spectra during flaring activity in the solar corona.

  7. Local, global, and nonlinear screening in twisted double-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Pin; Rodriguez-Vega, Martin; Li, Guohong; Luican-Mayer, Adina; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Rossi, Enrico; Andrei, Eva Y.

    2016-01-01

    One-atom-thick crystalline layers and their vertical heterostructures carry the promise of designer electronic materials that are unattainable by standard growth techniques. To realize their potential it is necessary to isolate them from environmental disturbances, in particular those introduced by the substrate. However, finding and characterizing suitable substrates, and minimizing the random potential fluctuations they introduce, has been a persistent challenge in this emerging field. Here we show that Landau-level (LL) spectroscopy offers the unique capability to quantify both the reduction of the quasiparticles’ lifetime and the long-range inhomogeneity due to random potential fluctuations. Harnessing this technique together with direct scanning tunneling microscopy and numerical simulations we demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene buffer layer with a large twist angle is a very effective method to shield a 2D system from substrate interference that has the additional desirable property of preserving the electronic structure of the system under study. We further show that owing to its remarkable nonlinear screening capability a single graphene buffer layer provides better shielding than either increasing the distance to the substrate or doubling the carrier density and reduces the amplitude of the potential fluctuations in graphene to values even lower than the ones in AB-stacked bilayer graphene. PMID:27302949

  8. Double-diffusive convection in geothermal systems: the salton sea, California, geothermal system as a likely candidate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Much has been published about double-diffusive convection as a mechanism for explaining variations in composition and temperature within all-liquid natural systems. However, relatively little is known about the applicability of this phenomenon within the heterogeneous rocks of currently active geothermal systems where primary porosity may control fluid flow in some places and fractures may control it in others. The main appeal of double-diffusive convection within hydrothermal systems is-that it is a mechanism that may allow efficient transfer of heat mainly by convection, while at the same time maintaining vertical and lateral salinity gradients. The Salton Sea geothermal system exhibits the following reservoir characteristics: (1) decreasing salinity and temperature from bottom to top and center toward the sides, (2) a very high heat flow from the top of the system that seems to require a major component of convective transfer of heat within the chemically stratified main reservoir, and (3) a relatively uniform density of the reservoir fluid throughout the system at all combinations of subsurface temperature, pressure, and salinity. Double-diffusive convection can account for these characteristics very nicely whereas other previously suggested models appear to account either for the thermal structure or for the salinity variations, but not both. Hydrologists, reservoir engineers, and particularly geochemists should consider the possibility and consequences of double-diffusive convection when formulating models of hydrothermal processes, and of the response of reservoirs to testing and production. ?? 1990.

  9. Therapeutic effect of double-filtration plasmapheresis combined with methylprednisolone to treat diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Li, MinXia; Wang, YuanDa; Qiu, Qiang; Wei, RiBao; Gao, YuWei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yong; Zhang, XueGuang; Chen, XiangMei

    2016-08-01

    The efficacy of double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), combined with methylprednisolone, to treat diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) was studied. Twenty-four patients who were admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with diffuse proliferative LN (LN Class IV-G(A)) through renal biopsy from 2011 to 2013 were recruited as the study subjects. The patients' clinical manifestations were nephritic syndrome and/or renal insufficiency. The pathological features were glomerular diffuse proliferative lesions. The patients were divided into two groups: the treatment group and the control group, with 12 patients in each group. The patients in the treatment group were first treated with DFPP combined with methylprednisolone (0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day); subsequently, they were put on methylprednisolone therapy only. The patients in the control group were first put on methylprednisolone pulse therapy (500-1,000 mg) for 3 days; subsequently, they were treated with methylprednisolone (0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day) combined with mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g/day). The patients were observed for 24 months. Levels of hemoglobin, platelet, albumin, serum creatinine, 24-h urinary protein, serum C3 , antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dsDNA, and anti-Smith were measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Complete remission and recurrence standards were established. The total dosages of methylprednisolone were calculated. Repeated renal biopsy was performed on several patients. There was no statistical significance in the baseline conditions of the treatment and the control groups. For the treatment group, no plasmapheresis-related complications occurred. The two groups showed no significant difference in complete remission. The patients' edema and serous effusion resolved, urine volume, serum creatinine, and albumin levels returned to normal, urine protein decreased in treatment group more rapidly than the patients in the control group. The mean dose of methylprednisolone received in the treatment group

  10. Singular 1-soliton solution of the nonlinear variable-coefficient diffusion reaction and mKdV equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet; Unsal, Omer; Cevikel, Adem C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we pay attention to the analytical method named, ansatz method for finding the exact solutions of the variable-coefficient modified KdV equation and variable coefficient diffusion-reaction equation. As a result the singular 1-soliton solution is obtained. These solutions are important for the explanation of some practical physical problems. The obtained results show that these methods provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equations with variable coefficients. This method can be extended to solve other variable coefficient nonlinear partial differential equations.

  11. Finite element discretization of non-linear diffusion equations with thermal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J A; Español, Pep; Donev, Aleksandar

    2015-03-07

    We present a finite element discretization of a non-linear diffusion equation used in the field of critical phenomena and, more recently, in the context of dynamic density functional theory. The discretized equation preserves the structure of the continuum equation. Specifically, it conserves the total number of particles and fulfills an H-theorem as the original partial differential equation. The discretization proposed suggests a particular definition of the discrete hydrodynamic variables in microscopic terms. These variables are then used to obtain, with the theory of coarse-graining, their dynamic equations for both averages and fluctuations. The hydrodynamic variables defined in this way lead to microscopically derived hydrodynamic equations that have a natural interpretation in terms of discretization of continuum equations. Also, the theory of coarse-graining allows to discuss the introduction of thermal fluctuations in a physically sensible way. The methodology proposed for the introduction of thermal fluctuations in finite element methods is general and valid for both regular and irregular grids in arbitrary dimensions. We focus here on simulations of the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional using both regular and irregular 1D grids. Convergence of the numerical results is obtained for the static and dynamic structure factors as the resolution of the grid is increased.

  12. Evoked response denoising using nonlinear diffusion filtering of single-trial matrix representations.

    PubMed

    Mustaffa, Izadora; Trenado, Carlos; Schwerdtfeger, Karsten; Strauss, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in mathematical image processing shows a remarkable success when applying numerical methods to ill-posed partial differential equations (PDE). In particular, nonlinear diffusion filtering (NDF)process is an approach that belongs to such family of differential equations. It has been successfully applied in many recent methods for image processing and computer vision areas, particularly in denoising, smoothing, segmentation, and restoration. In this paper we focus on a novel NDF application, namely denoising of single-trials of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and the analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) responses.We show that by applying NDF on a matrix-form image of single-trials, we were able to denoise the single-trials, resulting in a better extraction of information over the ongoing experiment; morphology, eg. the latency of the single-trials according to different stimuli paradigms at different stimulation intensity levels. It is concluded that NDF represents a novel and useful approach for the analysis of single-trials in brain imaging.

  13. Rényi entropy and improved equilibration rates to self-similarity for nonlinear diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J. A.; Toscani, G.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the large-time asymptotics of nonlinear diffusion equations ut = Δup in dimension n ⩾ 1, in the exponent interval p > n/(n + 2), when the initial datum u0 is of bounded second moment. Precise rates of convergence to the Barenblatt profile in terms of the relative Rényi entropy are demonstrated for finite-mass solutions defined in the whole space when they are re-normalized at each time t > 0 with respect to their own second moment, as proposed by Carrillo et al (2006 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 180 127-49) and Toscani (2005 J. Evol. Eqns 5 185-203). The analysis shows that, in the range p > max((n - 1)/n, n/(n + 2)), the relative Rényi entropy exhibits a better decay, for intermediate times, with respect to the standard Ralston-Newman entropy. The result follows by a suitable use of sharp Gagliardo-Nirenberg-Sobolev inequalities considered by Dolbeault and Toscani (2013 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Anal. 30 917-34), and their information-theoretical proof (Savaré and Toscani 2014 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 60 2687-93), known as concavity of Rényi entropy power.

  14. Double-image encryption using chaotic maps and nonlinear non-DC joint fractional Fourier transform correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongjie; Zhong, Zhi; Fang, Weiwei; Xie, Hong; Zhang, Yabin; Shan, Mingguang

    2016-09-01

    A double-image encryption method is reported using chaotic maps, nonlinear non-DC joint transform correlator (JTC), and fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). The double images are converted into the amplitude and phase of a synthesized function through the application of chaotic pixel scrambling. The synthesized function bonded with a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) and another different CRPM serve as the input signal of the JTC architecture in the fractional Fourier domain to obtain a real-valued encrypted image. The nonlinear and non-DC operation is also done to improve the security and decrypted image quality. The parameters in joint FrFT correlator and chaotic map serve as the encrypted keys. Numerical simulations have been done to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this algorithm.

  15. Global well-posedness of 2D nonlinear Boussinesq equations with mixed partial viscosity and thermal diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Jitao

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss with the global well-posedness of 2D anisotropic nonlinear Boussinesq equations with any two positive viscosities and one positive thermal diffusivity. More precisely, for three kinds of viscous combinations, we obtain the global well-posedness without any assumption on the solution. For other three difficult cases, under the minimal regularity assumption, we also derive the unique global solution. To the authors' knowledge, our result is new even for the simplified model.

  16. Nonlinear Diffusions and Stable-Like Processes with Coefficients Depending on the Median or VaR

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsov, Vassili N.

    2013-08-01

    The paper is devoted to the well-posedness for nonlinear McKean-Vlasov type diffusions with coefficients depending on the median or, more generally, on the {alpha}-quantile of the underlying distribution. The median is not a continuous function on the space of probability measures equipped with the weak convergence. This is one reason why well-posedness of the SDE considered in the paper does not follow by standard arguments.

  17. [Two cases of Paragonimiasis westermani in a Chinese family diagnosed with the Ouchterlony double diffusion method].

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Tokio; Tamura, Kumi; Kawano, Shinji; Kato, Tetsurou; Sato, Fumiya; Horino, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Yasushi; Yosikawa, Kouji; Yoshida, Masaki; Kumagai, Masahiro; Hori, Seiji

    2014-11-01

    We report two cases of Paragonimus westermani infection in a Chinese family in Japan. A 41-year-old husband and his 40-year-old wife were infected with P. westermani after consuming a homemade Chinese traditional "Drunken Crab." They were a family with two children who had lived in Japan for 19 years. The crabs were Eriocheir japonica sent from the Kyusyu area that they had pickled at home with soy sauce and Chinese liquor for 5 days. Their children did not eat any of the crabs. One month after consuming the crabs, the husband came to our outpatient clinic with fever and chest pain and his wife also presented with a persistent cough. Both patients had a high peripheral blood eosinophil count (husband:18,900/μL, wife:10,600/μL) with pulmonary effusion, nodular shadow, and pneumothorax in chest X-ray findings. Paragonimiasis was suspected from the episode of consuming the crabs. No parasite eggs were seen in their sputum and stool samples. A multiple-dot ELISA was performed with the sera to screen for parasitic infections, but the result was only weakly positive for P. westermani antigen in the husband and a slightly positive reaction in the wife. The diagnosis of P. westermani was achieved with the double diffusion Ouchterlony method using P. westermani antigen and P. miyazakii antigen. Praziquantel administration for three days improved the symptoms in both patients. The Ouchterlony method proved useful in diagnosing paragonimiasis in these cases.

  18. A Single Chip Automotive Control LSI Using SOI Bipolar Complimentary MOS Double-Diffused MOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Kazunori; Mizuno, Shoji; Abe, Hirofumi; Higuchi, Yasushi; Ishihara, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Harutsugu; Watanabe, Takamoto; Fujino, Seiji; Shirakawa, Isao

    2001-04-01

    Using the example of an air bag controller, a single chip solution for automotive sub-control systems is investigated, by using a technological combination of improved circuits, bipolar complimentary metal oxide silicon double-diffused metal oxide silicon (BiCDMOS) and thick silicon on insulator (SOI). For circuits, an automotive specific reduced instruction set computer (RISC) center processing unit (CPU), and a novel, all integrated system clock generator, dividing digital phase-locked loop (DDPLL) are proposed. For the device technologies, the authors use SOI-BiCDMOS with trench dielectric-isolation (TD) which enables integration of various devices in an integrated circuit (IC) while avoiding parasitic miss operations by ideal isolation. The structures of the SOI layer and TD, are optimized for obtaining desired device characteristics and high electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity. While performing all the air bag system functions over a wide range of supply voltage, and ambient temperature, the resulting single chip reduces the electronic parts to about a half of those in the conventional air bags. The combination of single chip oriented circuits and thick SOI-BiCDMOS technologies offered in this work is valuable for size reduction and improved reliability of automotive electronic control units (ECUs).

  19. A global ocean climatological atlas of the Turner angle: implications for double-diffusion and water-mass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuzhu

    2002-11-01

    The 1994 Levitus climatological atlas is used to calculate the Turner angle (named after J. Stewart Turner) to examine which oceanic water masses are favorable for double-diffusion in the form of diffusive convection or salt-fingering and which are doubly stable. This atlas complements the Levitus climatology. It reveals the major double-diffusive signals associated with large-scale water-mass structure. In total, about 44% of the oceans display double-diffusion, of which 30% is salt-fingering and 14% is diffusive double-diffusion. Results show that various central and deep waters are favorable for salt-fingering. The former is due to positive evaporation minus precipitation, and the latter is due to thermohaline circulation, i.e. the southward spreading of relatively warm, salty North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) overlying cold, fresh Antarctic Bottom Water. In the northern Indian Ocean and eastern North Atlantic, favorable conditions for salt-fingering are found throughout the water column. The Red Sea (including the Persian Gulf) and Mediterranean Sea are the sources of warm, salty water for the ocean. As consequence, temperature and salinity in these outflow regions both decrease from the sea surface to the bottom. On the other hand, ocean currents are in general sluggish in these regions. In the polar and subpolar regions of Arctic and Antarctic, Okhotsk Sea, Gulf of Alaska, the subpolar gyre of the North Pacific, the Labrador Sea, and the Norwegian Sea, the upper layer water is favorable for diffusive convection because of high latitude surface cooling and ice melting. Weak and shallow diffusive convection is also found throughout tropical regions and the Bay of Bengal. The former is due to excessive precipitation over evaporation and rain cooling, and the latter is due to both precipitation and river runoff. Diffusive convection in the ocean's interior is unique to the South Atlantic between Antarctic Intermediate Water and upper NADW (uNADW). It is the

  20. Non-linear diffusion of cosmic rays escaping from supernova remnants - I. The effect of neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, L.; Gabici, S.; Marcowith, A.; Morlino, G.; Ptuskin, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the main sources of galactic cosmic rays (CR). Within this framework, particles are accelerated at supernova remnant shocks and then released in the interstellar medium. The mechanism through which CRs are released and the way in which they propagate still remain open issues. The main difficulty is the high non-linearity of the problem: CRs themselves excite the magnetic turbulence that confines them close to their sources. We solve numerically the coupled differential equations describing the evolution in space and time of the escaping particles and of the waves generated through the CR streaming instability. The warm ionized and warm neutral phases of the interstellar medium are considered. These phases occupy the largest fraction of the disc volume, where most supernovae explode, and are characterized by the significant presence of neutral particles. The friction between those neutrals and ions results in a very effective wave damping mechanism. It is found that streaming instability affects the propagation of CRs even in the presence of ion-neutral friction. The diffusion coefficient can be suppressed by more than a factor of ˜2 over a region of few tens of pc around the remnant. The suppression increases for smaller distances. The propagation of ≈10 GeV particles is affected for several tens of kiloyears after escape, while ≈1 TeV particles are affected for few kiloyears. This might have a great impact on the interpretation of gamma-ray observations of molecular clouds located in the vicinity of supernova remnants.

  1. A flexible nonlinear diffusion acceleration method for the S N transport equations discretized with discontinuous finite elements

    DOE PAGES

    Schunert, Sebastian; Wang, Yaqi; Gleicher, Frederick; ...

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a flexible Nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) method that discretizes both themore » $$S_N$$ transport equation and the diffusion equation using the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM). The method is flexible in that the diffusion equation can be discretized on a coarser mesh with the only restriction that it is nested within the transport mesh and the FEM shape function orders of the two equations can be different. The \\textit{consistency} of the transport and diffusion solutions at convergence is defined by using a projection operator mapping the transport into the diffusion FEM space. The diffusion weak form is based on the modified incomplete interior penalty (MIP) diffusion DFEM discretization that is extended by volumetric drift, face closure, and boundary closure terms. In contrast to commonly used coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) methods, the presented NDA method uses a full FEM discretized diffusion equation for acceleration. Suitable projection and prolongation operators arise naturally from the FEM framework. Via Fourier analysis and numerical experiments for a one-group, fixed source problem the following properties of the NDA method are established for structured quadrilateral meshes: (1) the presented method is unconditionally stable and effective in the presence of mild material heterogeneities if the same mesh and identical shape functions either of the bilinear or biquadratic type are used, (2) the NDA method remains unconditionally stable in the presence of strong heterogeneities, (3) the NDA method with bilinear elements extends the range of effectiveness and stability by a factor of two when compared to CMFD if a coarser diffusion mesh is selected. In addition, the method is tested for solving the C5G7 multigroup, eigenvalue problem using coarse and fine mesh acceleration. While NDA does not offer an advantage over CMFD for fine mesh acceleration, it reduces the iteration count required for convergence by

  2. Linear and Weakly Nonlinear Stability Analyses of Turing Patterns for Diffusive Predator-Prey Systems in Freshwater Marsh Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fan; Ruan, Shigui

    2017-03-01

    We study a diffusive predator-prey model describing the interactions of small fishes and their resource base (small invertebrates) in the fluctuating freshwater marsh landscapes of the Florida Everglades. The spatial model is described by a reaction-diffusion system with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response. Uniform bound, local and global asymptotic stability of the steady state of the PDE model under the no-flux boundary conditions are discussed in details. Sufficient conditions on the Turing (diffusion-driven) instability which induces spatial patterns in the model are derived via linear analysis. Existence of one-dimensional and two-dimensional spatial Turing patterns, including rhombic and hexagonal patterns, are established by weakly nonlinear analyses. These results provide theoretical explanations and numerical simulations of spatial dynamical behaviors of the wetland ecosystems of the Florida Everglades.

  3. Building macroscale models from microscale probabilistic models: a general probabilistic approach for nonlinear diffusion and multispecies phenomena.

    PubMed

    Penington, Catherine J; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2011-10-01

    A discrete agent-based model on a periodic lattice of arbitrary dimension is considered. Agents move to nearest-neighbor sites by a motility mechanism accounting for general interactions, which may include volume exclusion. The partial differential equation describing the average occupancy of the agent population is derived systematically. A diffusion equation arises for all types of interactions and is nonlinear except for the simplest interactions. In addition, multiple species of interacting subpopulations give rise to an advection-diffusion equation for each subpopulation. This work extends and generalizes previous specific results, providing a construction method for determining the transport coefficients in terms of a single conditional transition probability, which depends on the occupancy of sites in an influence region. These coefficients characterize the diffusion of agents in a crowded environment in biological and physical processes.

  4. Quantifying the diffusion of a fluid through membranes by double phase encoded remote detection magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Hilty, Christian; Garcia, Sandra; Harel, Elad; Pines, Alexander

    2007-12-20

    We demonstrate that a position correlation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiment based on two phase encoding steps separated by a delay can be used for quantifying diffusion across a membrane. This method is noninvasive, and no tracer substance or concentration gradient across the membrane is required. Because, in typical membranes, the T1 relaxation time of the fluid spins is usually much longer than the T2 time, we developed and implemented a new position correlation experiment based on a stimulated spin-echo, in which the relaxation attenuation of the signal is dominated by T1 instead of T2. This enables using relatively long delays needed in the diffusion measurements. The sensitivity of the double encoded experiment detected in a conventional way is still low because of the low filling factor of the fluid inside the NMR coil around the sample. We circumvent this problem by using the remote detection technique, which significantly increases the sensitivity, making it possible to do the measurements with gaseous fluids that have a low spin-density compared to liquids. We derive a model that enables us to extract a diffusion constant characterizing the diffusion rate through the membrane from the obtained correlation images. The double phase encoded MRI method is advantageous in any kind of diffusion studies, because the propagator of fluid molecules can directly be seen from the correlation image.

  5. Angularly Adaptive P1 - Double P0 Flux-Limited Diffusion Solutions of Non-Equilibrium Grey Radiative Transfer Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P S

    2006-08-08

    The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near a non-equilibrium radiation wave front. In addition, the DP{sub 0} approximation should be more accurate in non-equilibrium optically thin regions where the positive and negative angular domains are largely decoupled. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or P{sub 1} flux-limited diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for two test problems due to Su and Olson and to Ganapol and Pomraning for which semi-analytic transport solutions exist. These numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation, both without and with flux-limiting, for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.

  6. Angularly Adaptive P1-Double P0 Flux-Limited Diffusion Solutions of Non-Equilibrium Grey Radiative Transfer Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P S

    2005-12-13

    The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near a non-equilibrium radiation wave front. In addition, the DP{sub 0} approximation should be more accurate in non-equilibrium optically thin regions where the positive and negative angular domains are largely decoupled. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or P{sub 1} flux-limited diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for two test problems due to Su and Olson and to Ganapol and Pomraning for which semi-analytic transport solutions exist. These numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation, both without and with flux-limiting, for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.

  7. A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by nanosecond pulse under a double hexagon needle-array electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Wen-Chun; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Jiang, Peng-Chao

    2014-01-01

    A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse is generated under a double hexagon needle-array electrode at atmospheric pressure. The images of the diffuse discharge, electric characteristics, and the optical emission spectra emitted from the diffuse air discharge plasma are obtained. Based on the waveforms of pulse voltage and current, the power consumption, and the power density of the diffuse air discharge plasma are investigated under different pulse peak voltages. The electron density and the electron temperature of the diffuse plasma are estimated to be approximately 1.42×10(11) cm(-3) and 4.4 eV, respectively. The optical emission spectra are arranged to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures by comparing experimental with simulated spectra. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures of the diffuse discharge plasma are also discussed under different pulse peak voltages and pulse repetition rates, respectively. In addition, the diffuse air discharge plasma can form an area of about 70×50 mm(2) on the surface of dielectric layer and can be scaled up to the required size.

  8. Dead Sea seasonal stratification: metalimnion sharpening and the role of Double Diffusive diapycnal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Ali; Lensky, Nadav; Selker, John

    2015-04-01

    Summer thermo-haline stratification in a hypersaline lake involves conditions favorable for double diffusion (DD) diapycnal flux and precipitation (or dissolution) of halite crystals. Quantifying these processes and their role on the stratification of the Dead Sea is the aim of this study. The thermal structure of the metalimnion of the Dead Sea was investigated in high spatial and temporal resolution by means of fiber optics temperature sensing during May-Dec 2012. This high resolution method enabled achieving very detailed and unique information of the thermal morphology: a continuous record of temperature- depth profiles allowing quantitative investigation of the thermal morphology dynamics by defining objective parameters as metalimnion's thickness, depth, slope (dT/dz max), and sharpness of the thermocline's boundaries (d2T/dz2 max and min). Along the season sharpening of the thermal profile occurs gradually with the build-up of stratification, from a relatively wide curved temperature profile in early spring to a very sharp step metalimnion (<1m, >10°C) at mid-summer-fall time. The sharpening was expressed by the thinning of the metalimnion and thermocline, increase in slope of the thermocline, and increase in sharpness of the boundaries of the thermocline. The transition from a gradual to a sharp interface initiated with the formation of a staircase of 5 sharp steps in the thermal profile, merging gradually and collapsing into a single abrupt change in temperature. This sharp single step lasted from early September until stratification diminished in early December. We calculate diapycnal flux (salinity and heat) based on measured data (rise in temperature and salinity of the hypolimnion, expected salinity increase from level measurements and water balance). The Maximum slope and sharpness of the metalimnion was achieved at the beginning of September, synchronous with the onset of heat and salinity diapycnal flux. Having the basic conditions for salt

  9. Enhanced sedimentation beneath particle-laden flows in lakes and the ocean due to double-diffusive convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shahrzad; Wells, Mathew G.

    2016-10-01

    The transport rate of particles beneath sediment-laden overflows and interflows in lakes and the ocean can be enhanced by double-diffusive and settling-driven convection. In previous experiments with sediment-laden fluid overlaying a saline layer, visual measurements could only be made in the optically clear lower layer. Hence, there was difficulty distinguishing the two processes, hindering predictions of when enhanced sedimentation occurs. We used an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter to measure velocities and turbulence above and below the initial sediment/salt interface. The velocity of the sediment fingers in the lower layer were always larger than the Stokes settling velocity of the particles, leading to an asymmetry in the flow field of the two convective layers. Sediment fingers only dominated when there were marginal density differences between the two layers. We conclude that double-diffusive sediment fingers control sedimentation beneath interflows in most lakes, whereas settling-driven convection is dominant in most oceanic overflows.

  10. Characteristics of Superjunction Lateral-Double-Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and Degradation after Electrical Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh‑Ling; Lin, Ming‑Jang; Lin, Li‑Jheng

    2006-04-01

    The superjunction lateral double diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect has recently received considerable attention. Introducing heavily doped p-type strips to the n-type drift region increases the horizontal depletion capability. Consequently, the doping concentration of the drift region is higher and the conduction resistance is lower than those of conventional lateral-double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (LDMOSFETs). These characteristics may increase breakdown voltage (\\mathit{BV}) and reduce specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). In this study, we focus on the electrical characteristics of conventional LDMOSFETs on silicon bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOSFETs and superjunction LDMOSFETs after bias stress. Additionally, the \\mathit{BV} and Ron,sp of superjunction LDMOSFETs with different N/P drift region widths and different dosages are discussed. Simulation tools, including two-dimensional (2-D) TSPREM-4/MEDICI and three-dimensional (3-D) DAVINCI, were employed to determine the device characteristics.

  11. Salinity variations in submarine hydrothermal systems by layered double-diffusive convection

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the salinity variations in vent fluids of sea floor geothermal systems. New experiments reacting diabase and evolved seawater were carried out to reproduce earlier published observations of Cl depletions attributed to formation of an ephemeral Cl-bearing mineral. The absence of any Cl depletions in the present study suggests that the formation of Cl-bearing minerals is not sufficiently widespread to account for the observed salinity variations in the vent fluids. A re-evaluation of both field and laboratory evidence has led to a new model for subseafloor circulation that accounts for salinity variations as well as other chemical and mineralogic observations. In place of a simple single-pass convection system, the authors propose that the sea floor systems consist of two vertically nested convection cells in which a brine layer at depth heats and drives an overlying seawater cell. Such layering of salinities, a process known in fluid mechanics as double-diffusive convection, is an expected result when convection is induced in saline fluids. The process provides for stable high-temperature heat transfer upward from the cracking front adjacent to the magma, and for limited chemical exchange of the brine with the overlying seawater to explain salinity variations and high metal contents in the vent fluids. The brine also provides an effective medium to produce the secondary mineral assemblages observed in rocks from the mid-ocean ridges and ophiolites unsuccessfully produced in laboratory studies using seawater. The brine originates from the two-phase separation of seawater during magmatic/tectonic events and accumulates and remains relatively stable in the region immediately above the magma chamber.

  12. A numerical study of double-diffusive flow in a long rotating porous channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhusseny, Ahmed; Turan, A.

    2015-04-01

    The problem of double-diffusive flow in a long rotating porous channel has been analysed numerically. The two opposite vertical walls of the channel are maintained at constant but different temperature and concentration, while both horizontal walls are kept insulated. The generalised model is used to mathematically simulate the momentum equations with employing the Boussinesq approximation for the density variation. Moreover, both the fluid and solid phases are assumed to be at a local thermal equilibrium. The Coriolis effect is considered to be the main effect of rotation, which is induced by means of the combined natural heat and mass transfer within the transverse plane. The governing equations are discretised according to the finite volume method with employing the hybrid differencing scheme to calculate the fluxes across the faces of each control volume. The problem of pressure-velocity coupling is sorted out by relying on PISO algorithm. Computations are performed for a wide range of dimensionless parameters such as Darcy-Rayleigh number (100 ≤ Ra* ≤ 10,000), Darcy number (10-6 ≤ Da ≤ 10-4), the buoyancy ratio (-10 ≤ N ≤ 8), and Ekman number (10-7 ≤ Ek ≤ 10-3), while the values of Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are maintained constant and equal to 1.0. The results reveal that the rotation seems to have a dominant role at high levels of porous medium permeability, where it reduces the strength of the secondary flow, and hence the rates of heat and mass transfer. However, this dominance decreases gradually with lessening the permeability for the same level of rotation, but does not completely vanish.

  13. Bayesian Thermal Evolution Models for Giant Planets: Helium rain and double-diffusive convection in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankovich, C.; Fortney, J. J.; Moore, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen and helium demix when sufficiently cool, and this bears on the thermal evolution of all cool giant planets at or below one Jupiter mass. Over the past few years, ab initio simulations have put us in the era of quantitative predictions for this H-He immiscibility at megabar pressures. We present models for the thermal evolution of Jupiter, including its evolving helium distribution following one such ab initio H-He phase diagram. After 4 Gyr of homogeneous evolution, differentiation establishes a helium gradient between 1 and 2 Mbar that dynamically stabilizes the fluid to overturning convection. The result is a region undergoing overstable double-diffusive convection (ODDC), whose relatively weak vertical heat transport maintains a superadiabatic temperature gradient. With a general parameterization for the ODDC efficiency, the models can reconcile Jupiter's intrinsic flux, atmospheric helium content, and radius at the age of the solar system if this H-He phase diagram is translated to cooler temperatures. We cast our nonadiabatic thermal evolution models in a Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation framework, retrieving the total heavy element mass, the superadiabaticity in the convectively stable region, and the phase diagram temperature offset. Models using the interpolated Saumon, Chabrier and van Horn (1995) equation of state (SCvH-I) favor very inefficient ODDC, forming a thermal boundary layer that allows the molecular envelope to cool rapidly while the deeper interior (most of the planet's mass) actually heats up over time. If the overall cooling time is modulated with an additional free parameter, mimicking the effect of a colder or warmer EOS, the models favor those that are colder than SCvH-I; this class of EOS is also favored by shock experiments. The models in this scenario have more modest deep superadiabaticities such that the envelope cools more gradually, and a cooling or warming deep interior are equally likely.

  14. Bayesian Evolution Models for Jupiter with Helium Rain and Double-diffusive Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankovich, Christopher; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen and helium demix when sufficiently cool, and this bears on the evolution of all giant planets at large separations at or below roughly a Jupiter mass. We model the thermal evolution of Jupiter, including its evolving helium distribution following results of ab initio simulations for helium immiscibility in metallic hydrogen. After 4 Gyr of homogeneous evolution, differentiation establishes a thin helium gradient below 1 Mbar that dynamically stabilizes the fluid to convection. The region undergoes overstable double-diffusive convection (ODDC), whose weak heat transport maintains a superadiabatic temperature gradient. With a generic parameterization for the ODDC efficiency, the models can reconcile Jupiter’s intrinsix flux, atmospheric helium content, and radius at the age of the solar system if the Lorenzen et al. H-He phase diagram is translated to lower temperatures. We cast the evolutionary models in an MCMC framework to explore tens of thousands of evolutionary sequences, retrieving probability distributions for the total heavy-element mass, the superadiabaticity of the temperature gradient due to ODDC, and the phase diagram perturbation. The adopted SCvH-I equation of state (EOS) favors inefficient ODDC such that a thermal boundary layer is formed, allowing the molecular envelope to cool rapidly while the deeper interior actually heats up over time. If the overall cooling time is modulated with an additional free parameter to imitate the effect of a colder or warmer EOS, the models favor those that are colder than SCvH-I. In this case the superadiabaticity is modest and warming and cooling deep interiors are equally likely.

  15. FDLBM simulation of double-diffusive mixed convection of shear-thinning fluids between two-square concentric duct annuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, GH. R.

    2015-11-01

    Double-diffusive mixed convection of pseudoplastic fluids between two-square concentric duct annuli has been analyzed by FDLBM. Results indicate that the augmentation of Richardson number decreases heat and mass transfer. The fall of the power law index declines heat and mass transfer at Ri = 0.00062 and 0.01. The increase in the size of the adiabatic body enhances the heat and mass transfer in the lid-driven enclosure generally.

  16. Double-diffusion-based synthesis of BiVO4 mesoporous single crystals with enhanced photocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiangfang; Bao, Shenyuan; Tian, Baozhu; Xiao, Yifei; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-06-14

    BiVO4 mesoporous single crystals (MSCs) were successfully prepared, for the first time, by a one-step hydrothermal method using the acidified BiVO4 precursor solution pre-impregnated silica as the template. It was revealed that the BiVO4 MSCs were formed by a double-diffusion mechanism. The O2 evolution rate over BiVO4 MSCs was improved nearly 10 times than that over BiVO4 bulk single crystals.

  17. Nonlinear complex diffusion approaches based on a novel noise estimation for noise reduction in phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear diffusion processes have been widely used for image denoising. In the traditional nonlinear anisotropic diffusion denoising techniques, behavior of the diffusion depends highly on the gradient of image. However, it is difficult to get a good effect if we use these methods to reduce noise in optical coherence tomography images. Because background has the gradient that is very similar to regions of interest, so background noise will be mistaken for edge information and cannot be reduced. Therefore, nonlinear complex diffusion approaches using texture feature(NCDTF) for noise reduction in phase-resolved optical coherence tomography is proposed here, which uses texture feature in OCT images and structural OCT images to remove noise in phase-resolved OCT. Taking into account the fact that texture between background and signal region is different, which can be linked with diffusion coefficient of nonlinear complex diffusion model, we use NCDTF method to reduce noises of structure and phase images first. Then, we utilize OCT structure images to filter phase image in OCT. Finally, to validate our method, parameters such as image SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL), and edge preservation were compared between our approach and median filter, Gaussian filter, wavelet filter, nonlinear complex diffusion filter (NCDF). Preliminary results demonstrate that NCDTF method is more effective than others in keeping edges and denoising for phase-resolved OCT.

  18. Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding Without Interlayer of 5A90 Al-Li Alloy Hollow Double-Layer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shaosong; Jia, Yong; Lu, Zhen; Shi, Chengcheng; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2017-09-01

    The hollow double-layer structure of 5A90 Al-Li alloy was fabricated by SPF/DB process in this study. The characteristics and mechanism of 5A90 Al-Li alloy with respect to superplasticity and diffusion bonding were investigated. Tensile tests showed that the optimal elongation of tensile specimens was 243.97% at the temperature of 400 °C and the strain rate of 0.001 s-1. Effect of the surface roughness, bonding temperature and bonding time to determine the microstructure and mechanical properties of diffusion bonding joints was investigated, and the optimum bonding parameters were 540 °C/2.5 h/Ra18. Through the finite element simulation, it could be found that the SPF/DB process of hollow double-layer structure was feasible. The hollow double-layer structure of 5A90 Al-Li alloy was manufactured, showing that the thickness distribution of the bonding area was uniform and the thinnest part was the round corner. The SEM images of diffusion bonding joints showed that sound bonding interfaces were obtained in which no discontinuity existed.

  19. Optimal sound speed estimation using modified nonlinear anisotropic diffusion to improve spatial resolution in ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Changhan; Seo, Haijin; Lee, Yuhwa; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong; Chang, Jin Ho

    2012-05-01

    In ultrasound exams of obese patients and the breast, the spatial and contrast resolutions of ultrasound images are severely deteriorated when a constant sound speed corresponding to soft tissue is used in receive dynamic beamformation. This degradation is due to the defocusing of the ultrasound beam because of the disparity in sound speed between soft tissue and fatty layers. To minimize the degradation, this paper proposes a new method of estimating an optimal sound speed that can be used to achieve the best beamforming performance in a region of interest (ROI). The proposed method employs a new focusing quality factor (FQF) as an indicator of how well the focusing is conducted with a given sound speed. The FQF is closely associated with the degree of edge conspicuity, which can be obtained using the proposed modified nonlinear anisotropic diffusion (MNAD) technique. To calculate FQF, ultrasound images are formed with different sound speeds ranging from 1400 to 1600 m/s and, subsequently, the ROI is chosen. In the ROI, the degrees of edge conspicuity (i.e., FQF) are calculated. The sound speed can be considered an optimal one for the ROI if it is used to construct the image that provides the maximum FQF. The performances of the proposed method were evaluated through simulation and in vitro experiments with a tissue-mimicking phantom. The performance was also compared with that of the conventional image-based method employed in a commercial ultrasound imaging system. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of estimating an optimal sound speed with an error of 10 m/s regardless of whether strong targets are included in the ROI or not. On the other hand, the conventional image-based method generated an estimation error of 60 m/s maximally in the case in which there were no strong targets in ROI. This indicates that the proposed method is a useful tool to improve ultrasound image quality for clinical applications, especially for

  20. Determination of the Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness by Using a Nonlinear Double-Cantilever Beam Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelko, V.; Lapsa, K.; Pavlovskis, P.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is estimation of the effect of large deflections of a double-cantilever beam (DCB) on the accuracy of determination of the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness GIc of layered composites by using the nonlinear theory of bending of beams. The differential equation of the deflection curve of arm of the DCB specimen in the natural form was used to analyze the strain energy of the specimen and its strain energy release rate GI upon propagation of delamination under the action of cleavage forces at the ends of cantilevers. An algorithm for calculating the strain energy and its release rate in the DCB specimens is realized in the form of a MATLAB code. An experimental study was carried out on DCB specimens of a highly flexible carbon/epoxy laminate. The validity of the nonlinear model developed is demonstrated. The standard methods used to determine GIc are refined for the case of highly flexible specimens.

  1. A Framework for Linear and Non-Linear Registration of Diffusion-Weighted MRIs Using Angular Interpolation

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Carvajalino, Julio M.; Sapiro, Guillermo; Harel, Noam; Lenglet, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Registration of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DW-MRIs) is a key step for population studies, or construction of brain atlases, among other important tasks. Given the high dimensionality of the data, registration is usually performed by relying on scalar representative images, such as the fractional anisotropy (FA) and non-diffusion-weighted (b0) images, thereby ignoring much of the directional information conveyed by DW-MR datasets itself. Alternatively, model-based registration algorithms have been proposed to exploit information on the preferred fiber orientation(s) at each voxel. Models such as the diffusion tensor or orientation distribution function (ODF) have been used for this purpose. Tensor-based registration methods rely on a model that does not completely capture the information contained in DW-MRIs, and largely depends on the accurate estimation of tensors. ODF-based approaches are more recent and computationally challenging, but also better describe complex fiber configurations thereby potentially improving the accuracy of DW-MRI registration. A new algorithm based on angular interpolation of the diffusion-weighted volumes was proposed for affine registration, and does not rely on any specific local diffusion model. In this work, we first extensively compare the performance of registration algorithms based on (i) angular interpolation, (ii) non-diffusion-weighted scalar volume (b0), and (iii) diffusion tensor image (DTI). Moreover, we generalize the concept of angular interpolation (AI) to non-linear image registration, and implement it in the FMRIB Software Library (FSL). We demonstrate that AI registration of DW-MRIs is a powerful alternative to volume and tensor-based approaches. In particular, we show that AI improves the registration accuracy in many cases over existing state-of-the-art algorithms, while providing registered raw DW-MRI data, which can be used for any subsequent analysis. PMID:23596381

  2. Angularly Adaptive P1--Double P0 Diffusion Solutions of Non-Equilibrium Grey Radiative Transfer Problems in Planar Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P S

    2005-06-06

    The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. The standard P{sub 1} angular approximation represents the angular dependence of the radiation specific intensity using a linear function in the angular domain -1 {le} {mu} {le} 1. In contrast, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation represents the angular dependence as isotropic in each half angular range -1 {le} {mu} < 0 and 0 < {mu} {le} 1. Neglecting the time derivative of the radiation flux, both the P{sub 1} and DP{sub 0} equations can be written as a single diffusion equation for the radiation energy density. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near the non-equilibrium wave front. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for a test problem due to Su and Olson for which a semi-analytic transport solution exists. The numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.

  3. Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, Sergey V

    2014-01-13

    For the first time we report the results of both numerical simulation and experimental observation of second-harmonic generation as an example of non-linear frequency conversion of pulses generated by passively mode-locked fiber master oscillator in different regimes including conventional (stable) and double-scale (partially coherent and noise-like) ones. We show that non-linear frequency conversion efficiency of double-scale pulses is slightly higher than that of conventional picosecond laser pulses with the same energy and duration despite strong phase fluctuations of double-scale pulses.

  4. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of asymmetric double quantum well under intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum well under the intense non-resonant laser field is theoretically investigated. We calculate the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation within the compact density-matrix approach. The theoretical findings show that the influence of electric, magnetic, and intense laser fields leads to significant changes in the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation.

  5. Traveling waves of a diffusive SIR epidemic model with a class of nonlinear incidence rates and distributed delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhenguo; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study the traveling waves of a diffusive SIR epidemic model with a class of nonlinear incidence rates of the form βS (x, t)> ∫0h f (τ) g (I (x, t - τ)) dτ . We find that the existence of traveling waves is determined by the basic reproduction number of the corresponding spatial-homogenous delay differential equations and the minimal wave speed. The existence proof is to introduce an auxiliary system and apply Schauder's fixed point theorem. The non-existence of traveling waves is obtained by two-sided Laplace transform.

  6. Adaptive WENO Schemes for Singular in Space and Time Solutions of Nonlinear Degenerate Reaction-Diffusion Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova, Stefka; Mihaylova, Yonita

    2016-02-01

    The numerical solution of nonlinear degenerate reaction-diffusion problems often meets two kinds of difculties: singularities in space - finite speed of propagation of compact supports' initial perturbations and possible sharp moving fronts, where the solution has low regularity, and singularities in time - blow-up or quenching in finite time. We propose and implement a combination of the sixth-order WENO scheme of Liu, Shu and Zhang [SIAM J.Sci.Comput. 33, 939-965 (2011)] with an adaptive procedure to deal with these singularities. Numerical results on the mathematical model of heat structures are shown.

  7. Nonlinear thermal radiation in flow induced by a slendering surface accounting thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waqas, M.; Khan, M. Ijaz; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.; Khan, M. Imran

    2017-06-01

    Our attention here in this research is on scrutinizing the nonlinear convection characteristics in a flow induced by a slendering surface. Flow expression is developed through electrically conducting Williamson nanomaterial. Nonlinear forms of stretching and free stream velocities are imposed. Consideration of nonlinear thermal radiation, non-uniform heat generation/absorption, Joule and convective heating aspects describe the phenomenon of heat transfer. The zero-mass condition for concentration is also considered. The compatible transformations produce strong nonlinear differential systems. The problems are computed analytically utilizing the bvp4c procedure. Heat transfer rate and drag force are also explained for various physical variables. Our analysis reveals that the heat transfer rate augments via larger radiation parameter and Biot number. Moreover, larger Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters have opposite characteristics on concentration field. For the verification of the present findings, the results of the presented analysis have been compared with the available works in particular situations and reasonable agreement is noted.

  8. Double-Wronskian solitons and rogue waves for the inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Tian, Bo Jiang, Yan; Zhen, Hui-Ling

    2014-04-15

    Plasmas are the main constituent of the Universe and the cause of a vast variety of astrophysical, space and terrestrial phenomena. The inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation is hereby investigated, which describes the propagation of an electron plasma wave packet with a large wavelength and small amplitude in a medium with a parabolic density and constant interactional damping. By virtue of the double Wronskian identities, the equation is proved to possess the double-Wronskian soliton solutions. Analytic one- and two-soliton solutions are discussed. Amplitude and velocity of the soliton are related to the damping coefficient. Asymptotic analysis is applied for us to investigate the interaction between the two solitons. Overtaking interaction, head-on interaction and bound state of the two solitons are given. From the non-zero potential Lax pair, the first- and second-order rogue-wave solutions are constructed via a generalized Darboux transformation, and influence of the linear and parabolic density profiles on the background density and amplitude of the rogue wave is discussed. -- Highlights: •Double-Wronskian soliton solutions are obtained and proof is finished by virtue of some double Wronskian identities. •Asymptotic analysis is applied for us to investigate the interaction between the two solitons. •First- and second-order rogue-wave solutions are constructed via a generalized Darboux transformation. •Influence of the linear and parabolic density profiles on the background density and amplitude of the rogue wave is discussed.

  9. Changing the dynamical behavior of nonlinear reaction diffusion systems by stochastic electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlein, J.; Kuhnert, L.

    1996-12-12

    The idea of changing the diffusivities of charged ions in a solution by the application of an external stochastic electric field is proposed. The effect of such a change of the diffusion coefficients on the dynamical behavior of the Belouzov-Zhabotinsky reaction is theoretically studied and discussed. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Bayesian thermal evolution models for giant planets: Helium rain and double-diffusive convection in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankovich, Christopher; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nettelmann, Nadine; Moore, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen and helium unmix when sufficiently cool, and this bears on the thermal evolution of all cool giant planets at or below one Jupiter mass. Over the past few years, ab initio simulations have put us in the era of quantitative predictions for this H-He immiscibility at megabar pressures. We present models for the thermal evolution of Jupiter, including its evolving helium distribution following one such ab initio H-He phase diagram. After 4 Gyr of homogeneous evolution, differentiation establishes a helium gradient between 1 and 2 Mbar that dynamically stabilizes the fluid to overturning convection. The result is a region undergoing overstable double-diffusive convection (ODDC), whose relatively weak vertical heat transport maintains a superadiabatic temperature gradient. With a general parameterization for the ODDC efficiency, the models can reconcile Jupiter's intrinsic flux, atmospheric helium content, and mean radius at the age of the solar system if the H-He phase diagram is translated to cooler temperatures.We cast our nonadiabatic thermal evolution models in a Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation framework, retrieving the total heavy element mass, the superadiabaticity of the deep temperature gradient, and the phase diagram temperature offset. Models using the interpolated Saumon, Chabrier and van Horn (1995) equation of state (SCvH-I) favor very inefficient ODDC such that the deep temperature gradient is strongly superadiabatic, forming a thermal boundary layer that allows the molecular envelope to cool quickly while the deeper interior (most of the planet's mass) actually heats up over time. If we modulate the overall cooling time with an additional free parameter, mimicking the effect of a colder or warmer EOS, the models favor those that are colder than SCvH-I; this class of EOS is also favored by shock experiments. The models in this scenario have more modest deep superadiabaticities such that the envelope cools more gradually and the deep

  11. Modeling sorption of divalent metal cations on hydrous manganese oxide using the diffuse double layer model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tonkin, J.W.; Balistrieri, L.S.; Murray, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Manganese oxides are important scavengers of trace metals and other contaminants in the environment. The inclusion of Mn oxides in predictive models, however, has been difficult due to the lack of a comprehensive set of sorption reactions consistent with a given surface complexation model (SCM), and the discrepancies between published sorption data and predictions using the available models. The authors have compiled a set of surface complexation reactions for synthetic hydrous Mn oxide (HMO) using a two surface site model and the diffuse double layer SCM which complements databases developed for hydrous Fe (III) oxide, goethite and crystalline Al oxide. This compilation encompasses a range of data observed in the literature for the complex HMO surface and provides an error envelope for predictions not well defined by fitting parameters for single or limited data sets. Data describing surface characteristics and cation sorption were compiled from the literature for the synthetic HMO phases birnessite, vernadite and ??-MnO2. A specific surface area of 746 m2g-1 and a surface site density of 2.1 mmol g-1 were determined from crystallographic data and considered fixed parameters in the model. Potentiometric titration data sets were adjusted to a pH1EP value of 2.2. Two site types (???XOH and ???YOH) were used. The fraction of total sites attributed to ???XOH (??) and pKa2 were optimized for each of 7 published potentiometric titration data sets using the computer program FITEQL3.2. pKa2 values of 2.35??0.077 (???XOH) and 6.06??0.040 (???YOH) were determined at the 95% confidence level. The calculated average ?? value was 0.64, with high and low values ranging from 1.0 to 0.24, respectively. pKa2 and ?? values and published cation sorption data were used subsequently to determine equilibrium surface complexation constants for Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd 2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn 2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Sr2+ and Zn 2+. In addition, average model parameters were used to predict additional

  12. Diffusivity of the double negatively charged mono-vacancy in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoodoo, Chidanand; Vines, Lasse; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt Gunnar

    2017-05-01

    Lightly-doped silicon (Si) samples of n-type conductivity have been irradiated with 2.0 MeV {{\\text{H}}+} ions at a temperature of 30 K and characterized in situ by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements using an on-line setup. Migration of the Si mono-vacancy in its double negative charge state (V 2-) starts to occur at temperatures above  ˜70 K and is monitored via trapping of V 2- by interstitial oxygen impurity atoms ({{\\text{O}}i} ), leading to the growth of the prominent vacancy-oxygen (V\\text{O} ) center. The V\\text{O} center gives rise to an acceptor level located at  ˜0.17 eV below the conduction band edge (E c ) and is readily detected by DLTS measurements. Post-irradiation isothermal anneals at temperatures in the range of 70 to 90 K reveal first-order kinetics for the reaction {{V}2-}+{{\\text{O}}i}\\to V\\text{O} ≤ft(+ 2{{e}-}\\right) in both Czochralski-grown and Float-zone samples subjected to low fluences of {{\\text{H}}+} ions, i.e. the irradiation-induced V concentration is dilute (≤slant 1013 cm-3). On the basis of these kinetics data and the content of {{\\text{O}}i} , the diffusivity of V 2- can be determined quantitatively and is found to exhibit an activation energy for migration of  ˜0.18 eV with a pre-exponential factor of  ˜4× {{10}-3} cm2 s-1. The latter value evidences a simple jump process without any entropy effects for the motion of V 2-. No deep level in the bandgap to be associated with V 2- is observed but the results suggest that the level is situated deeper than  ˜0.19 eV below E c , corroborating results reported previously in the literature.

  13. Numerical studies of double-diffusive convection and miscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Yuan-Nan

    2000-08-01

    Slot convection refers to buoyantly driven flow due to the lateral temperature difference. In double-diffusive slot convection the destabilizing temperature gradient (transverse to the gravitational direction) is competing with a stabilizing concentration gradient. For suitable combination of physical parameters, layers form as a result of buoyancy balance between the lateral thermal difference and the stabilizing concentration gradient. In chapter 2, we directly simulate this system using a two- dimensional pseudospectral code. Incompressibility is achieved by the consistent implementation of the tau- correction. We find that layer dynamics depends on the particulars of the imposed boundary conditions for the temperature at the sidewalls and the density stratification ratio (the relative strength of the stabilizing solute gradient to the destabilizing horizontal thermal difference). We demonstrate the effects of the density stratification ratio on the layer dynamics for the constant sidewall temperature case, and we also study the case of constant lateral heat flux in order to understand the effects of the temperature boundary conditions. We apply the argument for layering in turbulent stratified fluids to our problem, and find-despite the tilted nature of cell boundaries in our case-similarities in both the averaged equations and actual layer evolution. Finally, we provide details for both edge mergers and interior mergers. In chapter 3, we investigate the miscible Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in both 2 and 3 dimensions using direct numerical simulations, where the working fluid is assumed incompressible under the Boussinesq approximation. With a variety of diagnostics, we develop a physical picture for the detailed temporal development of the mixed layer: We identify three distinct evolutionary phases in the development of the mixed layer. Our analysis provides an explanation for the observed differences between two and three-dimensional RT instability; the

  14. Diffusivity of the double negatively charged mono-vacancy in silicon.

    PubMed

    Bhoodoo, Chidanand; Vines, Lasse; Monakhov, Edouard; Gunnar Svensson, Bengt

    2017-03-27

    Lightly-doped silicon (Si) samples of n-type conductivity have been irradiated with 2.0 MeV [Formula: see text] ions at a temperature of 30 K and characterized in situ by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements using an on-line setup. Migration of the Si mono-vacancy in its double negative charge state (V (2-)) starts to occur at temperatures above  ∼70 K and is monitored via trapping of V (2-) by interstitial oxygen impurity atoms ([Formula: see text]), leading to the growth of the prominent vacancy-oxygen ([Formula: see text]) center. The [Formula: see text] center gives rise to an acceptor level located at  ∼0.17 eV below the conduction band edge (E c ) and is readily detected by DLTS measurements. Post-irradiation isothermal anneals at temperatures in the range of 70 to 90 K reveal first-order kinetics for the reaction [Formula: see text] in both Czochralski-grown and Float-zone samples subjected to low fluences of [Formula: see text] ions, i.e. the irradiation-induced V concentration is dilute ([Formula: see text]10(13) cm(-3)). On the basis of these kinetics data and the content of [Formula: see text], the diffusivity of V (2-) can be determined quantitatively and is found to exhibit an activation energy for migration of  ∼0.18 eV with a pre-exponential factor of  ∼[Formula: see text] cm(2) s(-1). The latter value evidences a simple jump process without any entropy effects for the motion of V (2-). No deep level in the bandgap to be associated with V (2-) is observed but the results suggest that the level is situated deeper than  ∼0.19 eV below E c , corroborating results reported previously in the literature.

  15. Correction of Gradient Nonlinearity Bias in Quantitative Diffusion Parameters of Renal Tissue with Intra Voxel Incoherent Motion.

    PubMed

    Malyarenko, Dariya I; Pang, Yuxi; Senegas, Julien; Ivancevic, Marko K; Ross, Brian D; Chenevert, Thomas L

    2015-12-01

    Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting bias due to gradient nonlinearity (GNL) causes substantial errors in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for anatomical regions imaged distant from magnet isocenter. Our previously-described approach allowed effective removal of spatial ADC bias from three orthogonal DWI measurements for mono-exponential media of arbitrary anisotropy. The present work evaluates correction feasibility and performance for quantitative diffusion parameters of the two-component IVIM model for well-perfused and nearly isotropic renal tissue. Sagittal kidney DWI scans of a volunteer were performed on a clinical 3T MRI scanner near isocenter and offset superiorly. Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting due to GNL resulted both in shift and broadening of perfusion-suppressed ADC histograms for off-center DWI relative to unbiased measurements close to isocenter. Direction-average DW-bias correctors were computed based on the known gradient design provided by vendor. The computed bias maps were empirically confirmed by coronal DWI measurements for an isotropic gel-flood phantom. Both phantom and renal tissue ADC bias for off-center measurements was effectively removed by applying pre-computed 3D correction maps. Comparable ADC accuracy was achieved for corrections of both b-maps and DWI intensities in presence of IVIM perfusion. No significant bias impact was observed for IVIM perfusion fraction.

  16. Numerical Modeling of HgCdTe Solidification: Effects of Phase Diagram, Double-Diffusion Convection and Microgravity Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1997-01-01

    Melt convection, along with species diffusion and segregation on the solidification interface are the primary factors responsible for species redistribution during HgCdTe crystal growth from the melt. As no direct information about convection velocity is available, numerical modeling is a logical approach to estimate convection. Furthermore influence of microgravity level, double-diffusion and material properties should be taken into account. In the present study, HgCdTe is considered as a binary alloy with melting temperature available from a phase diagram. The numerical model of convection and solidification of binary alloy is based on the general equations of heat and mass transfer in two-dimensional region. Mathematical modeling of binary alloy solidification is still a challenging numericial problem. A Rigorous mathematical approach to this problem is available only when convection is not considered at all. The proposed numerical model was developed using the finite element code FIDAP. In the present study, the numerical model is used to consider thermal, solutal convection and a double diffusion source of mass transport.

  17. On the modeling of the bottom particles segregation with non-linear diffusion equations: application to the marine sand ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguercha, Djlalli; Bennis, Anne-claire; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The elliptical motion in surface waves causes an oscillating motion of the sand grains leading to the formation of ripple patterns on the bottom. Investigation how the grains with different properties are distributed inside the ripples is a difficult task because of the segration of particle. The work of Fernandez et al. (2003) was extended from one-dimensional to two-dimensional case. A new numerical model, based on these non-linear diffusion equations, was developed to simulate the grain distribution inside the marine sand ripples. The one and two-dimensional models are validated on several test cases where segregation appears. Starting from an homogeneous mixture of grains, the two-dimensional simulations demonstrate different segregation patterns: a) formation of zones with high concentration of light and heavy particles, b) formation of «cat's eye» patterns, c) appearance of inverse Brazil nut effect. Comparisons of numerical results with the new set of field data and wave flume experiments show that the two-dimensional non-linear diffusion equations allow us to reproduce qualitatively experimental results on particles segregation.

  18. Nonlinear diffusion acceleration for the multigroup transport equation discretized with S{sub N} and continuous FEM with rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) can improve the performance of a neutron transport solver significantly especially for the multigroup eigenvalue problems. The high-order transport equation and the transport-corrected low-order diffusion equation form a nonlinear system in NDA, which can be solved via a Picard iteration. The consistency of the correction of the low-order equation is important to ensure the stabilization and effectiveness of the iteration. It also makes the low-order equation preserve the scalar flux of the high-order equation. In this paper, the consistent correction for a particular discretization scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with discrete ordinates method (S{sub N}) and continuous finite element method (CFEM) is proposed for the multigroup neutron transport equation. Equations with the anisotropic scatterings and a void treatment are included. The Picard iteration with this scheme has been implemented and tested with RattleS{sub N}ake, a MOOSE-based application at INL. Convergence results are presented. (authors)

  19. Nonlinear electroelastic vibration analysis of NEMS consisting of double-viscoelastic nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimy, Farzad; Hosseini, S. Hamed S.

    2016-10-01

    The nonlinear electroelastic vibration behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates is investigated based on nonlocal elasticity theory. Employing nonlinear strain-displacement relations, the geometrical nonlinearity is modeled while governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle and they are solved applying semi-analytical generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory takes into account the effect of small size, which enables the present model to become effective in the analysis and design of nanosensors and nanoactuators. Based on Kelvin-Voigt model, the influence of the viscoelastic coefficient is also discussed. It is demonstrated that the GDQ method has high precision and computational efficiency in the vibration analysis of viscoelastic nanoplates. The good agreement between the results of this article and those available in literature validated the presented approach. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and numerical investigations are performed while the emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of the several parameters such as electric voltage, small-scale effects, van der Waals interaction, Winkler and Pasternak elastic coefficients, the viscidity and aspect ratio of the nanoplate on its nonlinear vibrational characteristics. It is explicitly shown that the electroelastic vibration behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates is significantly influenced by these effects. Numerical results are presented to serve as benchmarks for future analyses of viscoelastic nanoplates which are fundamental elements in nanoelectromechanical systems.

  20. Nondestructive measurement of thermal contact resistance for the power vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Guo, Chun-Sheng; Feng, Shi-Wei; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Lin

    2015-07-01

    To obtain thermal contact resistance (TCR) between the vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (VDMOS) and the heat sink, we derived the relationship between the total thermal resistance and the contact force imposed on the VDMOS. The total thermal resistance from the chip to the heat sink is measured under different contact forces, and the TCR can be extracted nondestructively from the derived relationship. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61204081).

  1. Turn-off Transient Analysis of a Double Diffused Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Device Considering Quasi Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Min; Kuo, James

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports the turn-off transient of a double diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (DMOS) device considering the quasi-saturation behavior. Based on the two-dimensional (2D) simulation result, during the input ramp-down period of 100 ps, the accumulated electrons below the gate oxide are pushed toward the p region below the lateral channel toward the source, causing a surge in source current. After the input ramp-down period, these electrons are withdrawn from the drain by the quasi-saturation current.

  2. Oxygen nonstoichiometry, defect structure and oxygen diffusion in the double perovskite GdBaCo2O6-δ.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, D S; Ananjev, M V; Eremin, V A; Zuev, A Yu; Kurumchin, E Kh

    2014-11-14

    Oxygen nonstoichiometry of GdBaCo2O6-δ was studied by means of the thermogravimetric technique in the temperature range 600-1000 °C. The defect structure model based on the simple cubic perovskite GdCoO3-δ was shown to be valid for GdBaCo2O6-δ up to temperatures as low as 600 °C. Two independent methods, namely dc-polarization with the YSZ microelectrode and (18)O-isotope exchange with gas phase analysis, were used to determine the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in the double perovskite GdBaCo2O6-δ. All measurements were carried out using ceramic samples identically prepared from the same single phase powder of GdBaCo2O6-δ. The experimental data on oxygen nonstoichiometry of GdBaCo2O6-δ allowed a precise calculation of the oxygen interphase exchange rate and the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficient on the basis of the isotope exchange measurements. The values of the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient measured by the dc-polarization technique were found to be in very good agreement with the ones of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficient.

  3. Noise-tunable nonlinearity in a dispersively coupled diffusion-resonator system using superconducting circuits

    PubMed Central

    Rhén, Christin; Isacsson, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic oscillator is one of the most widely used model systems in physics: an indispensable theoretical tool in a variety of fields. It is well known that an otherwise linear oscillator can attain novel and nonlinear features through interaction with another dynamical system. We investigate such an interacting system: a superconducting LC-circuit dispersively coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We find that the SQUID phase behaves as a classical two-level system, whose two states correspond to one linear and one nonlinear regime for the LC-resonator. As a result, the circuit’s response to forcing can become multistable. The strength of the nonlinearity is tuned by the level of noise in the system, and increases with decreasing noise. This tunable nonlinearity could potentially find application in the field of sensitive detection, whereas increased understanding of the classical harmonic oscillator is relevant for studies of the quantum-to-classical crossover of Jaynes-Cummings systems. PMID:28120946

  4. Noise-tunable nonlinearity in a dispersively coupled diffusion-resonator system using superconducting circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhén, Christin; Isacsson, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic oscillator is one of the most widely used model systems in physics: an indispensable theoretical tool in a variety of fields. It is well known that an otherwise linear oscillator can attain novel and nonlinear features through interaction with another dynamical system. We investigate such an interacting system: a superconducting LC-circuit dispersively coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We find that the SQUID phase behaves as a classical two-level system, whose two states correspond to one linear and one nonlinear regime for the LC-resonator. As a result, the circuit’s response to forcing can become multistable. The strength of the nonlinearity is tuned by the level of noise in the system, and increases with decreasing noise. This tunable nonlinearity could potentially find application in the field of sensitive detection, whereas increased understanding of the classical harmonic oscillator is relevant for studies of the quantum-to-classical crossover of Jaynes-Cummings systems.

  5. Nonlinear reconstruction of absorption and fluorescence contrast from measured diffuse transmittance and reflectance of a compressed-breast-simulating phantom.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ronny; Nielsen, Tim; Koehler, Thomas; Grosenick, Dirk; Steinkellner, Oliver; Hagen, Axel; Macdonald, Rainer; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2009-08-20

    We report on the nonlinear reconstruction of local absorption and fluorescence contrast in tissuelike scattering media from measured time-domain diffuse reflectance and transmittance of laser as well as laser-excited fluorescence radiation. Measurements were taken at selected source-detector offsets using slablike diffusely scattering and fluorescent phantoms containing fluorescent heterogeneities. Such measurements simulate in vivo data that would be obtained employing a scanning, time-domain fluorescence mammograph, where the breast is gently compressed between two parallel glass plates, and source and detector optical fibers scan synchronously at various source-detector offsets, allowing the recording of laser and fluorescence mammograms. The diffusion equations modeling the propagation of the laser and fluorescence radiation were solved in frequency domain by the finite element method simultaneously for several modulation frequencies using Fourier transformation and preprocessed experimental data. To reconstruct the concentration of the fluorescent contrast agent, the Born approximation including higher-order reconstructed photon densities at the excitation wavelength was used. Axial resolution was determined that can be achieved by various detection schemes. We show that remission measurements increase the depth resolution significantly.

  6. Nonlinear reconstruction of absorption and fluorescence contrast from measured diffuse transmittance and reflectance of a compressed-breast-simulating phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, Ronny; Nielsen, Tim; Koehler, Thomas; Grosenick, Dirk; Steinkellner, Oliver; Hagen, Axel; Macdonald, Rainer; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2009-08-20

    We report on the nonlinear reconstruction of local absorption and fluorescence contrast in tissuelike scattering media from measured time-domain diffuse reflectance and transmittance of laser as well as laser-excited fluorescence radiation. Measurements were taken at selected source-detector offsets using slablike diffusely scattering and fluorescent phantoms containing fluorescent heterogeneities. Such measurements simulate in vivo data that would be obtained employing a scanning, time-domain fluorescence mammograph, where the breast is gently compressed between two parallel glass plates, and source and detector optical fibers scan synchronously at various source-detector offsets, allowing the recording of laser and fluorescence mammograms. The diffusion equations modeling the propagation of the laser and fluorescence radiation were solved in frequency domain by the finite element method simultaneously for several modulation frequencies using Fourier transformation and preprocessed experimental data. To reconstruct the concentration of the fluorescent contrast agent, the Born approximation including higher-order reconstructed photon densities at the excitation wavelength was used. Axial resolution was determined that can be achieved by various detection schemes. We show that remission measurements increase the depth resolution significantly.

  7. Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Hydrophilic Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tredenick, Eloise C.; Farrell, Troy W.; Forster, W. Alison; Psaltis, Steven T. P.

    2017-01-01

    The agricultural industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops and weeds in order to reduce their environmental impact and deliver improved financial returns. Enhanced foliar uptake is one means of improving efficacy. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The usefulness of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted previously in the literature, as the results of each uptake experiment are specific to each formulation of active ingredient, plant species and environmental conditions. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of hydrophilic ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a novel, nonlinear, porous diffusion model for ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which extends simple diffusion through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating: plant species variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions, ion binding effects on the cuticle surface and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms. Major influencing factors have been found to be cuticle structure, including tortuosity and density of the aqueous pores, and to a lesser extent humidity and cuticle surface ion binding effects. PMID:28539930

  8. A novel investigation of a micropolar fluid characterized by nonlinear constitutive diffusion model in boundary layer flow and heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Jize; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-02-01

    The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized "n-diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. These novel models may offer a new approach to the theoretical understanding of shear-thinning behavior and anomalous heat transfer caused by the collective micro-rotation effects in a MF with shear flow according to recent experiments. The nonlinear similarity equations with a power law form are derived and the approximate analytical solutions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method, which is in good agreement with the numerical solutions. The results indicate that non-Newtonian behaviors involving a MF depend substantially on the power exponent n and the modified material parameter K 0 introduced by us. Furthermore, the relations of the engineering interest parameters, including local boundary layer thickness, local skin friction, and Nusselt number are found to be fitted by a quadratic polynomial to n with high precision, which enables the extraction of the rapid predictions from a complex nonlinear boundary-layer transport system.

  9. A novel investigation of a micropolar fluid characterized by nonlinear constitutive diffusion model in boundary layer flow and heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jize; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-02-01

    The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized "n-diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. These novel models may offer a new approach to the theoretical understanding of shear-thinning behavior and anomalous heat transfer caused by the collective micro-rotation effects in a MF with shear flow according to recent experiments. The nonlinear similarity equations with a power law form are derived and the approximate analytical solutions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method, which is in good agreement with the numerical solutions. The results indicate that non-Newtonian behaviors involving a MF depend substantially on the power exponent n and the modified material parameter [Formula: see text] introduced by us. Furthermore, the relations of the engineering interest parameters, including local boundary layer thickness, local skin friction, and Nusselt number are found to be fitted by a quadratic polynomial to n with high precision, which enables the extraction of the rapid predictions from a complex nonlinear boundary-layer transport system.

  10. Noise-adaptive nonlinear diffusion filtering of MR images with spatially varying noise levels.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, Alexei A; Johnson, Chris R

    2004-10-01

    Anisotropic diffusion filtering is widely used for MR image enhancement. However, the anisotropic filter is nonoptimal for MR images with spatially varying noise levels, such as images reconstructed from sensitivity-encoded data and intensity inhomogeneity-corrected images. In this work, a new method for filtering MR images with spatially varying noise levels is presented. In the new method, a priori information regarding the image noise level spatial distribution is utilized for the local adjustment of the anisotropic diffusion filter. Our new method was validated and compared with the standard filter on simulated and real MRI data. The noise-adaptive method was demonstrated to outperform the standard anisotropic diffusion filter in both image error reduction and image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement. The method was also applied to inhomogeneity-corrected and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) images. The new filter was shown to improve segmentation of MR brain images with spatially varying noise levels.

  11. A feedback control method for the stabilization of a nonlinear diffusion system on a graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Xu, Chao; Lin, Qun

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the internal stabilization problems of FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) systems on the locally finite connected weighted graphs, which describe the process of signal transmission across axons in neurobiology. We will establish the proper condition on the weighted Dirichlet-Laplace operator on a graph such that the nonlinear FHN system can be stabilized exponentially and globally only using internal actuation over a sub-domain with a linear feedback form.

  12. Determination of Constitutive Equation for Thermo-mechanical Processing of INCONEL 718 Through Double Multivariate Nonlinear Regression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Mirza Zahid; Li, Fuguo; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zhanwei; Li, Pan; Wu, Tao

    2015-07-01

    The present study comprises the determination of constitutive relationship for thermo-mechanical processing of INCONEL 718 through double multivariate nonlinear regression, a newly developed approach which not only considers the effect of strain, strain rate, and temperature on flow stress but also explains the interaction effect of these thermo-mechanical parameters on flow behavior of the alloy. Hot isothermal compression experiments were performed on Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical testing machine in the temperature range of 1153 to 1333 K within the strain rate range of 0.001 to 10 s-1. The deformation behavior of INCONEL 718 is analyzed and summarized by establishing the high temperature deformation constitutive equation. The calculated correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error ( AARE) underline the precision of proposed constitutive model.

  13. Simulation of double layers in a model auroral circuit with nonlinear impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A reduced circuit description of the U-shaped potential structure of a discrete auroral arc, consisting of the flank transmission line plus parallel-electric-field region, is used to provide the boundary condition for one-dimensional simulations of the double-layer evolution. The model yields asymptotic scalings of the double-layer potential, as a function of an anomalous transport coefficient alpha and of the perpendicular length scale l(a) of the arc. The arc potential phi(DL) scales approximately linearly with alpha, and for alpha fixed phi (DL) about l(a) to the z power. Using parameters appropriate to the auroral zone acceleration region, potentials of phi (DPL) 10 kV scale to projected ionospheric dimensions of about 1 km, with power flows of the order of magnitude of substorm dissipation rates.

  14. Estimating nonlinear selection gradients using quadratic regression coefficients: double or nothing?

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, John R; Agrawal, Aneil F; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Arnold, Stevan J; Blows, Mark W

    2008-09-01

    The use of regression analysis has been instrumental in allowing evolutionary biologists to estimate the strength and mode of natural selection. Although directional and correlational selection gradients are equal to their corresponding regression coefficients, quadratic regression coefficients must be doubled to estimate stabilizing/disruptive selection gradients. Based on a sample of 33 papers published in Evolution between 2002 and 2007, at least 78% of papers have not doubled quadratic regression coefficients, leading to an appreciable underestimate of the strength of stabilizing and disruptive selection. Proper treatment of quadratic regression coefficients is necessary for estimation of fitness surfaces and contour plots, canonical analysis of the gamma matrix, and modeling the evolution of populations on an adaptive landscape.

  15. Simulation of double layers in a model auroral circuit with nonlinear impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A reduced circuit description of the U-shaped potential structure of a discrete auroral arc, consisting of the flank transmission line plus parallel-electric-field region, is used to provide the boundary condition for one-dimensional simulations of the double-layer evolution. The model yields asymptotic scalings of the double-layer potential, as a function of an anomalous transport coefficient alpha and of the perpendicular length scale l(a) of the arc. The arc potential phi(DL) scales approximately linearly with alpha, and for alpha fixed phi (DL) about l(a) to the z power. Using parameters appropriate to the auroral zone acceleration region, potentials of phi (DPL) 10 kV scale to projected ionospheric dimensions of about 1 km, with power flows of the order of magnitude of substorm dissipation rates.

  16. Double-hump solitary waves in quadratically nonlinear media with loss and gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmanyan, S.; Crasovan, L.; Lederer, F.

    2000-03-01

    We report the existence of a family of bright chirped localized waves in quadratic media with loss and gain. It is shown that the fundamental field component of the symbiotic solitary wave may exhibit a double-hump shape. The conditions of the solitary wave's existence are identified. Numerical experiments disclose different scenarios of instability as well as domains of rather robust behavior of these objects upon propagation.

  17. Option pricing beyond Black-Scholes based on double-fractional diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, H.; Korbel, J.

    2016-05-01

    We show how the prices of options can be determined with the help of double-fractional differential equation in such a way that their inclusion in a portfolio of stocks provides a more reliable hedge against dramatic price drops than the use of options whose prices were fixed by the Black-Scholes formula.

  18. Global existence and boundedness in a 3D Keller-Segel-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion and rotational flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yingping; Xiang, Zhaoyin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the 3D Keller-Segel-Stokes (K-S-S) system with nonlinear diffusion term Δ nm (m>0) and rotational flux posed in a bounded domain Ω with smooth boundary. Under the assumption that the Frobenius norm of the tensor-valued chemotactic sensitivity S( x, n, c) satisfies |S(x,n,c)|≤ CS(1+n)^{-α }, by seeking some new functionals and using the bootstrap arguments on the regularized system, we establish the existence and boundedness of global weak solutions to K-S-S system for arbitrarily large initial data under the assumption m+2α >2 and m>3/4, which includes both the degenerate (m>1) and the singular (m<1) case.

  19. Nonlinear scaling of surface water diffusion with bulk water viscosity of crowded solutions.

    PubMed

    Franck, John M; Scott, John A; Han, Songi

    2013-03-20

    The translational hydration dynamics within 0.5-1.5 nm of the surface of a DPPC liposome, a model biomacromolecular surface, is analyzed by the recently developed Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) technique. We find that dramatic changes to the bulk solvent cause only weak changes in the surface hydration dynamics. Specifically, both a >10-fold increase in bulk viscosity and the restriction of diffusion by confinement on a multiple nm length-scale change the local translational diffusion coefficient of the surface water surrounding the lipid bilayer by <2.5-fold. By contrast, previous ODNP studies have shown that changes to the biomacromolecular surface induced by folding, binding, or aggregation can cause local hydration dynamics to vary by factors of up to 30. We suggest that the surface topology and chemistry at the ≤1.5 nm scale, rather than the characteristics of the solvent, nearly exclusively determine the macromolecule's surface hydration dynamics.

  20. Comparison of Nonlinear and Linear Stabilization Schemes for Advection-Diffusion Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, R. R.; Heister, T.

    2015-12-01

    Accurately solving advection-diffusion equations that appear in the finite element discretization of a mantle convection simulation is an important computational issue to the computational geoscience community. This is because it allows for users studying mantle convection to create reliable simulations for something as small and simple as a 2D simulation on their personal laptop to something as complex as a massively parallel 3D simulation on their university supercomputer. Standard finite element discretizations of advection-diffusion equations introduce unphysical oscillations around steep gradients. Therefore, stabilization must be added to the discrete formulation to obtain correct solutions. Using the open source scientific library ASPECT, the SUPG and Entropy Viscosity schemes are compared using stationary and non-stationary test equations. Differences in maximum overshoot and undershoot, smear, and convergence orders are compared to see if improvements can be made to the existing numerical method existing in ASPECT.

  1. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Design of Double Cladding Nearly Zero Dispersion Flattened Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Hou, Lan-Tian; Lu, Ming; Zhou, Gui-Yao

    2009-11-01

    We present a design of double cladding nearly zero dispersion flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with the core consisting of seven missing holes. The dispersion of the designed PCF fluctuates from -0.28 to 0.29 ps·km-1·nm-1 in the range of 1.35-1.795μm and the dispersion slope is -0.0038 ps·km-1·nm-2 at 1.55 μm. Due to its small air-hole to air-hole pitch in the inner cladding, the effective mode area is 6.48μm2 and the effective nonlinearity γ is as high as 13.78 W-1 km-1 at 1.55 μm. Two layers of air-hole rings in the outer cladding ensures the loss of the fundamental mode to be 2.9dB/km at 1.55 μm and two more air-hole rings can further reduce the fundamental mode's loss to the level of 4.2 × 10-3 dB/km.

  2. Kinetics of intercalation of fluorescent probes in magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide within a multiscale reaction-diffusion framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Daniel; Al-Ghoul, Mazen

    2016-11-01

    We report the synthesis of magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) using a reaction-diffusion framework (RDF) that exploits the multiscale coupling of molecular diffusion with chemical reactions, nucleation and growth of crystals. In an RDF, the hydroxide anions are allowed to diffuse into an organic gel matrix containing the salt mixture needed for the precipitation of the LDH. The chemical structure and composition of the synthesized magnesium-aluminium LDHs are determined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR), Fourier transform infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This novel technique also allows the investigation of the mechanism of intercalation of some fluorescent probes, such as the neutral three-dimensional rhodamine B (RhB) and the negatively charged two-dimensional 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS), using in situ steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The incorporation of these organic dyes inside the interlayer region of the LDH is confirmed via fluorescence microscopy, solid-state lifetime, SSNMR and PXRD. The activation energies of intercalation of the corresponding molecules (RhB and HPTS) are computed and exhibit dependence on the geometry of the involved probe (two or three dimensions), the charge of the fluorescent molecule (anionic, cationic or neutral) and the cationic ratio of the corresponding LDH. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  3. Effects of walls temperature variation on double diffusive natural convection of Al2O3-water nanofluid in an enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhzadeh, G. A.; Dastmalchi, M.; Khorasanizadeh, H.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of wall temperature variations on double diffusive natural convection of Al2O3-water nanofluid in a differentially heated square enclosure with constant temperature hot and cold vertical walls is studied numerically. Transport mechanisms of nanoparticles including Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis that cause heterogeneity are considered in non-homogeneous model. The hot and cold wall temperatures are varied, but the temperature difference between them is always maintained 5 °C. The thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity and density and thermophoresis diffusion and Brownian motion coefficients are considered variable with temperature and volume fraction of nanoparticles. The governing equations are discretized using the control volume method. The results show that nanoparticle transport mechanisms affect buoyancy force and cause formation of small vortexes near the top and bottom walls of the cavity and reduce the heat transfer. By increasing the temperature of the walls the effect of transport mechanisms decreases and due to enhanced convection the heat transfer rate increases.

  4. A free boundary problem of a diffusive SIRS model with nonlinear incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jia-Feng; Li, Wan-Tong; Wang, Jie; Yang, Fei-Ying

    2017-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the spreading (persistence) and vanishing (extinction) of a disease which is characterized by a diffusive SIRS model with a bilinear incidence rate and free boundary. Through discussing the dynamics of a free boundary problem of an SIRS model, the spreading of a disease is described. We get the sufficient conditions which ensure the disease spreading or vanishing. In addition, the estimate of the expanding speed is also given when the free boundaries extend to the whole R.

  5. Reactive-Diffusive-Advective Traveling Waves in a Family of Degenerate Nonlinear Equations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Garduño, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of existence of traveling wave solutions (TWS) for a diffusion-degenerate (at D(0) = 0) and advection-degenerate (at h′(0) = 0) reaction-diffusion-advection (RDA) equation. Diffusion is a strictly increasing function and the reaction term generalizes the kinetic part of the Fisher-KPP equation. We consider different forms of the convection term h(u): (1)  h′(u) is constant k, (2)  h′(u) = ku with k > 0, and (3) it is a quite general form which guarantees the degeneracy in the advective term. In Case 1, we prove that the task can be reduced to that for the corresponding equation, where k = 0, and then previous results reported from the authors can be extended. For the other two cases, we use both analytical and numerical tools. The analysis we carried out is based on the restatement of searching TWS for the full RDA equation into a two-dimensional dynamical problem. This consists of searching for the conditions on the parameter values for which there exist heteroclinic trajectories of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system in the traveling wave coordinates. Throughout the paper we obtain the dynamics by using tools coming from qualitative theory of ODE. PMID:27689131

  6. Reactive-Diffusive-Advective Traveling Waves in a Family of Degenerate Nonlinear Equations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Garduño, Faustino; Pérez-Velázquez, Judith

    This paper deals with the analysis of existence of traveling wave solutions (TWS) for a diffusion-degenerate (at D(0) = 0) and advection-degenerate (at h'(0) = 0) reaction-diffusion-advection (RDA) equation. Diffusion is a strictly increasing function and the reaction term generalizes the kinetic part of the Fisher-KPP equation. We consider different forms of the convection term h(u): (1)  h'(u) is constant k, (2)  h'(u) = ku with k > 0, and (3) it is a quite general form which guarantees the degeneracy in the advective term. In Case 1, we prove that the task can be reduced to that for the corresponding equation, where k = 0, and then previous results reported from the authors can be extended. For the other two cases, we use both analytical and numerical tools. The analysis we carried out is based on the restatement of searching TWS for the full RDA equation into a two-dimensional dynamical problem. This consists of searching for the conditions on the parameter values for which there exist heteroclinic trajectories of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system in the traveling wave coordinates. Throughout the paper we obtain the dynamics by using tools coming from qualitative theory of ODE.

  7. Similarity solutions of nonlinear diffusion problems related to mathematical hydraulics and the Fokker-Planck equation.

    PubMed

    Daly, Edoardo; Porporato, Amilcare

    2004-11-01

    Similarity solutions of the shallow-water equation with a generalized resistance term are studied for open channel flows when both inertial and gravity forces are negligible. The resulting model encompasses various particular cases that appear, in addition to mathematical hydraulics, in diverse physical phenomena, such as gravity currents, creeping flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, thin films, and nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations. Solutions of both source-type and dam-break problems are analyzed. Closed-form solutions are discussed, when possible, along with a qualitative study of two phase-plane formulations based on two different variable transformations.

  8. A preconditioned numerical solver for stiff nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with fractional Laplacians that avoids dense matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Alex; Yang, Qianqian; Moroney, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    The numerical solution of fractional partial differential equations poses significant computational challenges in regard to efficiency as a result of the spatial nonlocality of the fractional differential operators. The dense coefficient matrices that arise from spatial discretisation of these operators mean that even one-dimensional problems can be difficult to solve using standard methods on grids comprising thousands of nodes or more. In this work we address this issue of efficiency for one-dimensional, nonlinear space-fractional reaction-diffusion equations with fractional Laplacian operators. We apply variable-order, variable-stepsize backward differentiation formulas in a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov framework to advance the solution in time. A key advantage of this approach is the elimination of any requirement to form the dense matrix representation of the fractional Laplacian operator. We show how a banded approximation to this matrix, which can be formed and factorised efficiently, can be used as part of an effective preconditioner that accelerates convergence of the Krylov subspace iterative solver. Our approach also captures the full contribution from the nonlinear reaction term in the preconditioner, which is crucial for problems that exhibit stiff reactions. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the overall effectiveness of the solver.

  9. Modified kernel principal component analysis using double-weighted local outlier factor and its application to nonlinear process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaogang; Wang, Lei

    2017-10-07

    Traditional kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) based nonlinear process monitoring method may not perform well because its Gaussian distribution assumption is often violated in the real industrial processes. To overcome this deficiency, this paper proposes a modified KPCA method based on double-weighted local outlier factor (DWLOF-KPCA). In order to avoid the assumption of specific data distribution, local outlier factor (LOF) is introduced to construct two LOF-based monitoring statistics, which are used to substitute for the traditional T(2) and SPE statistics, respectively. To provide better online monitoring performance, a double-weighted LOF method is further designed, which assigns the weights for each component to highlight the key components with significant fault information, and uses the moving window to weight the historical statistics for reducing the drastic fluctuations in the monitoring results. Finally, simulations on a numerical example and the Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark process are used to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed DWLOF-KPCA method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematic Modeling and Function Generation for Non-linear Curves Using 5R Double Arm Parallel Manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavkumar Kamaliya, Parth; Patel, Yashavant Kumar Dashrathlal

    2016-01-01

    Double arm configuration using parallel manipulator mimic the human arm motions either for planar or spatial space. These configurations are currently lucrative for researchers as it also replaces human workers without major redesign of work-place in industries. Humans' joint ranges limitation of arms can be resolved by replacement of either revolute or spherical joints in manipulator. Hence, the scope of maximum workspace utilization is prevailed. Planar configuration with five revolute joints (5R) is considered to imitate human arm motions in a plane using Double Arm Manipulator (DAM). Position analysis for tool that can be held in end links of configuration is carried out using Pro/mechanism in Creo® as well as SimMechanics. D-H parameters are formulated and its results derived using developed MATLAB programs are compared with mechanism simulation as well as SimMechanics results. Inverse kinematics model is developed for trajectory planning in order to trace tool trajectory in a continuous and smooth sequence. Polynomial functions are derived for position, velocity and acceleration for linear and non-linear curves in joint space. Analytical results obtained for trajectory planning are validated with simulation results of Creo®.

  11. Period doubling cascades of prey-predator model with nonlinear harvesting and control of over exploitation through taxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. P.; Banerjee, Malay; Chandra, Peeyush

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates a prey predator type model for conservation of ecological resources through taxation with nonlinear harvesting. The model uses the harvesting function as proposed by Agnew (1979) [1] which accounts for the handling time of the catch and also the competition between standard vessels being utilized for harvesting of resources. In this paper we consider a three dimensional dynamic effort prey-predator model with Holling type-II functional response. The conditions for uniform persistence of the model have been derived. The existence and stability of bifurcating periodic solution through Hopf bifurcation have been examined for a particular set of parameter value. Using numerical examples it is shown that the system admits periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic solutions. It is observed that the system exhibits periodic doubling route to chaos with respect to tax. Many forms of complexities such as chaotic bands (including periodic windows, period-doubling bifurcations, period-halving bifurcations and attractor crisis) and chaotic attractors have been observed. Sensitivity analysis is carried out and it is observed that the solutions are highly dependent to the initial conditions. Pontryagin's Maximum Principle has been used to obtain optimal tax policy to maximize the monetary social benefit as well as conservation of the ecosystem.

  12. Effect logs of double diffusion on MHD Prandtl nano fluid adjacent to stretching surface by way of numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, S.; Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Awais, M.

    The current communication is carried to contemplate the unique and novel characteristics of nanofluids by constructing formulation of Prandtl fluid model. The fascinating aspects of thermo diffusion effects are also accounted in this communication. Mathematical modelling is performed by employing boundary layer approach. Afterwards, similarity variables are selected to convert dimensional non-linear system into dimensionless expressions. The solution of governing dimensionless problem is executed by shooting method (SM). Graphical evaluation is displayed to depict the intrinsic behavior of embedded parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, solutal concentration and nanoparticle concentration profiles. Furthermore, the numerical variation for skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, Sherwood number and nano Sherwood number is scrutinized through tables. The assurance of current analysis is affirmed by developing comparison with previous findings available in literature, which sets a benchmark for implementation of computational approach. It is inferred from the computation that concentration profile increases whereas Sherwood number decreases for progressive values of Dufour solutal number.

  13. A study of the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of a slender double-delta wing in roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Alain

    An experimental investigation of the dynamic behavior of an 80sp°/65sp° double-delta wing at high angles of incidence was conducted. It was found that depending upon the angle of incidence, different dynamic regimes were encountered as the wing was free to rotate about its longitudinal axis. These dynamic regimes included damped oscillations, quasi-limit-cycle wing-rock motion, and chaotic oscillations. The presence of vortex breakdown on the model was shown to influence the type of dynamic regime obtained and the location of the roll attractors. Results are presented that indicate how the individual physical features of the double-delta wing affected the overall dynamic behavior of the 80sp°/65sp° double-delta wing. It is shown that the 65sp° main wing had a strong influence on the location of the roll attractors, while the presence of the 80sp° strake seemed to affect the amplitude of oscillation. Force balance experiments and flow visualization tests were also conducted and the results show a relationship between vortex behavior and wing aerodynamics. The behavior of the leeward strake vortex at large roll angle was shown to have a strong influence on the roll moment acting on the wing. Flow visualization also helped explain the presence of critical states in the force and moment data. It also showed that different dynamic regimes were associated with different flow regimes. Moreover, a method was developed to predict the roll attractors and amplitude of oscillation from static roll moment coefficient results. Finally, numerical simulation of the free-to-roll behavior of the wing led to a better understanding of the possible chaotic nature of the free-to-roll response of the wing at certain angles of incidence.

  14. NONLINEAR OPTICAL PHENOMENA: Efficient frequency doubling in a transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donin, Valerii I.; Nikonov, Andrei V.; Yakovin, Dmitrii V.

    2004-10-01

    A simple scheme is proposed for efficient frequency doubling in a Nd:YAG laser transversely pumped by diode lasers. The average output TEM00-mode power of the 1064-nm Q-switched laser at the Q-switching rate exceeding 20 kHz is 15 W. The radiation power at the second harmonic frequency (λ=532 nm) is found to be 12 and 8.3 W for KTP and LBO crystals for Q-switching rates f>=20 kHz and 10 kHz, respectively. The maximum second-harmonic conversion efficiency is ~80%.

  15. High-sensitive nonlinear detection of steroids by resonant double grating waveguide structures-based immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriano, Alejandro; Salvador, J.-Pablo; Galve, Roger; Marco, M.-Pilar; Thayil K. N., Anisha; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Soria, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We report the non linear fluorescence real-time detection of methylboldenone, an androgenic anabolic steroid used illegally as growth promoter based on a resonant sensing chip: a double grating waveguide structure. The limit of detection of this synthetic steroid is two orders of magnitude lower than the Minimum Required Performance Limit required by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The immunoreagents have been have been immobilized onto the surface of the resonant sensor after being activated with phosphonohexanoic acid spacers. The developed immunosensor presents great potential as a robust sensing device for fast and early detection of illegal dopants and food contaminants.

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Nonlinear Phenomena Related to the Double Layer Dynamics in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Niculescu, O.; Dimitriu, D. G.

    2010-08-04

    The periodic current bursts observed in the dynamic current-voltage characteristic of a probe in the presence of a plasma fireball in dynamic state were modeled in the frame of the scale relativity model, based on both the fractal space-time concept and the generalization of Einstein's principle of relativity to scale transformations. The double layer dynamics is described by a set of time-dependent Schroedinger-type equations and the self-structuring is given by means of the negative differential resistance. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are proven to be in very good agreement.

  17. Richardson-Lucy deconvolution for two-photon fluorescence images via non-linear diffusion equation pre-filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmin; Zhang, Zhitao; Luo, Qingming; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2007-02-01

    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is a powerful technique to obtain the stacks of neuronal individual or population morphologies deep inside brain tissue in vivo. However, the stacks often suffer from increasing noises with depth because of light scattering of specimen and optical distortion of microscopic system. Therefore, deconvolution becomes a more useful and a crucial approach to restore the original details of neuronal structure in fluorescence images. Since Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm is appropriate for Poisson process of microscopy but sensitive to noise, we propose a scheme that it pre-filters noise via Perona-Malik nonlinear anisotropic diffusion before performing regularized Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm. In contrast to other restoration approaches, the preliminary denoising of Perona-Malik diffusion model provides a better trade-off between noise reduction and edge preservation, and helps to following regularized Richardson-Lucy deconvolution procedure. Experimental results have shown that proposed scheme is effective and robust for restoring noisy two-photon fluorescence images.

  18. Nonlinear modifications of photon correlations via controlled single and double Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Mou; Tian, Xue-Dong; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Cui-Li; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2015-04-01

    We study the optical response of cold rubidium atoms driven into the four-level Y configuration exhibiting two high Rydberg levels in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Atoms excited to either Rydberg level interact with each other just via self-blockade potentials (I) or also via cross blockade potentials (II). Numerical results show a few interesting quantum phenomena on the transmitted properties of a weak probe field owing to controlled single and double Rydberg blockade. In case (I), it is viable to switch between single-photon outputs with vanishing (invariable) two-photon (three-photon) correlation and photon-pair outputs with vanishing (invariable) three-photon (two-photon) correlation. Such output switch can be easily done by modulating frequencies and intensities of two strong coupling fields to create a degenerate EIT window or two separated EIT windows. In case (II), we find that two-photon and three-photon correlations decrease together at a degenerate EIT window center while increasing together between two separated EIT windows. Such consistent changes are observed because both correlations are modified by the identical polarizability degradation though depending on single and double Rydberg blockade, respectively.

  19. Revival of oscillations from deaths in diffusively coupled nonlinear systems: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Wei; Sebek, Michael; Kiss, István Z.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD) are two structurally different oscillation quenching phenomena in coupled nonlinear systems. As a reverse issue of AD and OD, revival of oscillations from deaths attracts an increasing attention recently. In this paper, we clearly disclose that a time delay in the self-feedback component of the coupling destabilizes not only AD but also OD, and even the AD to OD transition in paradigmatic models of coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators under diverse death configurations. Using a rigorous analysis, the effectiveness of this self-feedback delay in revoking AD is theoretically proved to be valid in an arbitrary network of coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with generally distributed propagation delays. Moreover, the role of self-feedback delay in reviving oscillations from AD is experimentally verified in two delay-coupled electrochemical reactions.

  20. Neutrality condition and response law for nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations, with application to population genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Marcel Ovidiu; Moran, Federico; Tsuchiya, Masa; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Oefner, Peter J.; Ross, John

    2002-06-01

    We study a general class of nonlinear macroscopic evolution equations with ``transport'' and ``reaction'' terms which describe the dynamics of a species of moving individuals (atoms, molecules, quasiparticles, organisms, etc.). We consider that two types of individuals exist, ``not marked'' and ``marked,'' respectively. We assume that the concentrations of both types of individuals are measurable and that they obey a neutrality condition, that is, the kinetic and transport properties of the ``not marked'' and ``marked'' individuals are identical. We suggest a response experiment, which consists in varying the fraction of ``marked'' individuals with the preservation of total fluxes, and show that the response of the system can be represented by a linear superposition law even though the underlying dynamics of the system is in general highly nonlinear. The linear response law is valid even for large perturbations and is not the result of a linearization procedure but rather a necessary consequence of the neutrality condition. First, we apply the response theorem to chemical kinetics, where the ``marked species'' is a molecule labeled with a radioactive isotope and there is no kinetic isotope effect. The susceptibility function of the response law can be related to the reaction mechanism of the process. Secondly we study the geographical distribution of the nonrecurrent, nonreversible neutral mutations of the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome from human populations and show that the fraction of mutants at a given point in space and time obeys a linear response law of the type introduced in this paper. The theory may be used for evaluating the geographic position and the moment in time where and when a mutation originated.

  1. Numerical modeling of HgCdTe solidification: Effects of phase diagram, double-diffusion convection and microgravity level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehozky, Sandor L.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of HgCdTe solidification was implemented using finite the element code FIDAP. Model verification was done using both experimental data and numerical test problems. The model was used to evaluate possible effects of double-diffusion convection in molten material, and microgravity level on concentration distribution in the solidified HgCdTe. Particular attention was paid to incorporation of HgCdTe phase diagram. It was found, that below a critical microgravity amplitude, the maximum convective velocity in the melt appears virtually independent on the microgravity vector orientation. Good agreement between predicted interface shape and an interface obtained experimentally by quenching was achieved. The results of numerical modeling are presented in the form of video film.

  2. Analysis of entropy generation for double diffusive MHD convection in a square cavity with isothermal hollow cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sourav; Saha, Sumon

    2016-07-01

    Entropy optimization is a major concern for designing modern thermal management system. In the present work, entropy analysis in a square cavity with an isothermal hollow cylinder at the center is carried out for magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) double diffusive convection. Galerkin weighted residuals method of finite element formulation is adopted for the numerical solution. Entropies due to fluid flow, heat, and mass transfer are computed for wide range of Hartmann (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 50) and Lewis numbers (1 ≤ Le ≤ 15), and buoyancy ratios (-5 ≤ N ≤ 5) at constant Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. It is found that the influence of buoyancy ratio is prominent on entropy generation, which also depends on both Lewis and Hartmann numbers. The ratio N = -1 shows minimum entropy generation for any combination of Lewis and Hartman numbers. Visualization of isentropic contours and the variation of total entropy with the governing parameters provide remarkable evidences of entropy optimization.

  3. The relevance of nonlinear stacking interactions in simple models of double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Saccomandi, Giuseppe; Sgura, Ivonne

    2006-01-01

    Single molecule DNA experiments provide interesting data that allow a better understanding of the mechanical interactions between the strands and the nucleotides of this molecule. In some sense, these experiments complement the classical ones about DNA thermal denaturation. It is well known that the original Peyrard–Bishop (PB) model by means of a harmonic stacking potential and a nonlinear substrate potential has been able to predict the existence of a critical temperature of full denaturation of the molecule. In the present paper, driven by the findings of single molecule experiments, we substitute the original harmonic intra-strand stacking potential with a Duffing type potential. By elementary and analytical arguments, we show that with this choice it is possible to obtain a sharp transition in the classical domain wall solution of the PB model and the compactification of the classical solitary wave solutions of other models for the dynamics of DNA. We discuss why these solutions may improve our knowledge of the DNA dynamics in several directions. PMID:16971334

  4. Magnetic Susceptibility: Correlations with Clay Content and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients Controlling Electrical Double Layer Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, T.; Keating, K.; Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Parker, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Clay content and mineralogy play a critical role in determining the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response in soils and rocks. Clay minerals enhance the induced polarization response of soils due to an increase in the mineral surface area. Traditionally, x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques are used to determine clay content, requiring intact samples to be ground into powder. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements have previously been used to estimate clay content of samples when paramagnetic clays (e.g. illite and chlorite) dominate the response. Building on this work, this study assumes that sandstone samples from two lithologic formations could be approximated as a simple mixture of diamagnetic quartz and a paramagnetic component. Paramagnetic susceptibility is assumed proportional to iron content and thus to the iron bearing clays that control the susceptibility response. Fractions of iron rich clay components were determined with XRD and the volume magnetic susceptibility values of these clays were used to estimate clay content. We evaluated these clay content estimates with SIP measurements (imaginary conductivity magnitude and characteristic time constant (tau)) and properties related to fluid flow, including permeability and pore normalized surface area (Spor). A recently proposed SIP permeability model that uses a single value of the diffusion coefficient for clays and sands was evaluated to see whether apparent diffusion coefficients are correlated with magnetic susceptibility. Our findings show that MS can be helpful in rapidly determining clay content and also brings insight into the effect of paramagnetic clays on SIP measurements.

  5. ABC, GCB, and Double-Hit Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Does Subtype Make a Difference in Therapy Selection?

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Czuczman, Myron S

    2015-01-01

    Personalized therapy for the treatment of patients with cancer is rapidly approaching and is an achievable goal in the near future. A substantial number of novel targets have been developed into therapeutic agents. There is a substantial variability to antitumor activity by novel therapeutics because of the unique heterogeneity and biology that exists both between and within lymphoma subtypes. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Approximately 40% of patients have refractory disease or disease that will relapse after an initial response, and the majority of patients with relapsed DLBCL will succumb to the disease. There are two major biologically distinct molecular subtypes of DLBCL: germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC). ABC DLBCL is associated with substantially worse outcomes when treated with standard chemoimmunotherapy. In addition to GCB and ABC subtypes, double-hit lymphomas (approximately 5% to 10% of patients) and double-expressor lymphomas, which overexpress MYC and BCL2 protein, are aggressive DLBCLs and are also associated with a poor prognosis. Double-hit lymphomas have concurrent chromosomal rearrangements of MYC plus BCL2 (or less likely, BCL6). Advances in molecular characterization techniques and the development of novel agents targeting specific subtypes of DLBCL have provided a foundation for personalized therapy of DLBCL based on molecular subtype. A number of early clinical trials evaluating combinations of novel targeted agents with standard chemotherapy (R-CHOP) have been completed and have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach with encouraging efficacy. As such, molecular classification of DLBCL is not only important for prognostication, but moves to center stage for personalization of therapy for DLBCL.

  6. Treatment of diffuse systemic sclerosis with hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO): a phase II double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. Methods This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3 years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26 weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26 weeks. Results There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26 weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26 weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). Conclusions These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation. PMID:24067785

  7. Treatment of diffuse systemic sclerosis with hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO): a phase II double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3 years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26 weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26 weeks. There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26 weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26 weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation.

  8. Imatinib mesylate in scleroderma-associated diffuse skin fibrosis: a phase II multicentre randomized double-blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Prey, S; Ezzedine, K; Doussau, A; Grandoulier, A-S; Barcat, D; Chatelus, E; Diot, E; Durant, C; Hachulla, E; de Korwin-Krokowski, J-D; Kostrzewa, E; Quemeneur, T; Paul, C; Schaeverbeke, T; Seneschal, J; Solanilla, A; Sparsa, A; Bouchet, S; Lepreux, S; Mahon, F-X; Chene, G; Taïeb, A

    2012-11-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a potent inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways which may play a role in systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated skin changes. We aimed primarily at assessing the efficacy of imatinib mesylate in scleroderma skin fibrosis. We performed a phase II double-blinded trial on patients with scleroderma with either morphoea involving > 20% of body surface area or SSc with extensive skin involvement: modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) ≥ 20/51. Each patient was randomized to receive either imatinib mesylate 400 mg or placebo daily for a total of 6 months, and then was followed up 6 months after therapy discontinuation. Skin fibrosis was assessed by mRSS and measurement of the dermal thickness using skin biopsies performed at inclusion and at 6 months of treatment. In addition, quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index and modified Health Assessment Questionnaire for Scleroderma) was recorded at each visit, and pulmonary function before and after intervention. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study with a mean age of 48·9 years (range 30-71): 25 had a diagnosis of a SSc and three of diffuse cutaneous scleroderma. Demographic data, frequency of organ involvement of SSc and mRSS were comparable between groups. At 6 months, the proportion of variation of mRSS from inclusion was not statistically significantly different between the two groups (median +0·10 in imatinib group vs. -0·16 in placebo group, P = 0·098). Similarly, changes in dermal thickness, quality of life and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide were not significantly different between groups. This study failed to demonstrate the efficacy of imatinib 400 mg daily to improve skin fibrosis of diffuse scleroderma after 6 months of treatment based on validated outcome measurements. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Doubled Shot Noise and Photon-Assisted Noise In Diffusive Mesoscopic Conductors with Andreev Reflection and in Andreev Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prober, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    We report measurements of non-equilibrium noise in a diffusive normal metal - superconductor (N-S) junction in the presence of both dc bias and high-frequency RF excitation. We find that the shot noise of a diffusive N-S junction is doubled compared to a normal diffusive conductor and is indicative of effective charge of current carriers being 2e, due to Andreev reflection [1]. Under RF excitation of frequency f the shot noise develops features at bias voltages |V|=hf/(2e), which bear all the hallmarks of a photon-assisted process [2]. These photon-assisted noise features are similar to photon-assisted noise in normal metal wires [3]. Observation of these features in an N-S junction at bias voltages |V|=hf/(2e) provides further evidence that the effective charge of the current carriers is 2e. The photon-assisted noise features locations satisfy Josephson relation 2eV=hf. This is the first observation where Josephson relation manifests itself in a system with only one superconducting reservoir and with no weak links. We have also studied in addition Andreev interferometers, and find novel features that correspond to features found theoretically by Belzig and Nazarov [4]. [1] A.A. Kozhevnikov, et al., J. Low-Temp. Phys. 118, 671 (2000). [2] A.A. Kozhevnikov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3398 (2000). [3] R.J. Schoelkopf et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2437 (1998). [4] W. Belzig et al, unpublished and private communication.

  10. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics mixed convection flow in a rotating medium with double diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2015-05-15

    Exact solutions of an unsteady Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow over an impulsively started vertical plate in a rotating medium are presented. The effects of thermal radiative and thermal diffusion on the fluid flow are also considered. The governing equations are modelled and solved for velocity, temperature and concentration using Laplace transforms technique. Expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained and their numerical results are presented graphically. Skin friction, Sherwood number and Nusselt number are also computed and presented in tabular forms. The determined solutions can generate a large class of solutions as special cases corresponding to different motions with technical relevance. The results obtained herein may be used to verify the validation of obtained numerical solutions for more complicated fluid flow problems.

  11. Waiting-time solutions of a nonlinear diffusion equation: Experimental study of a creeping flow near a waiting front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, B. M.; Thomas, L. P.; Gratton, R.; Diez, J. A.; Betelú, S.; Gratton, J.

    1996-09-01

    We investigate an unsteady plane viscous gravity current of silicone oil on a horizontal glass substrate. Within the lubrication approximation with gravity as the dominant force, this current is described by the nonlinear diffusion equation φt=(φmφx)x (φ is proportional to the liquid thickness h and m=3>0), which is of interest in many other physical processes. The solutions of this equation display a fine example of the competition between diffusive smoothening and nonlinear steepening. This work concerns the so-called waiting-time solutions, whose distinctive character is the presence of an interface or front, separating regions with h≠/0 and h=0, that remains motionless for a finite time interval tw meanwhile a redistribution of h takes place behind the interface. We start the experiments from an initial wedge-shape configuration [h(x)~=α'(x0-x)] with a small angle (α'<=0.12 rad). In this situation, the tip of the wedge, situated at x0 from the rear wall (15 cm<=x0<=75 cm), waits at least several seconds before moving. During this waiting stage, a region characterized by a strong variation of the free surface slope (corner layer) develops and propagates toward the front while it gradually narrows and ∂2h/∂x2 peaks. The stage ends when the corner layer overtakes the front. At this point, the liquid begins to spread over the uncovered substrate. We measure the slope of the free surface in a range ~=10 cm around x0, and, by integration, we determine the fluid thickness h(x) there. We find that the flow tends to a self-similar behavior when the corner layer position tends to x0; however, near the end of the waiting stage, it is perturbed by capillarity. Even if some significant effects are not included in the above equation, the main properties of its solutions are well displayed in the experiments

  12. QIN DAWG Validation of Gradient Nonlinearity Bias Correction Workflow for Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Multicenter Trials

    PubMed Central

    Malyarenko, Dariya I.; Wilmes, Lisa J.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Huang, Wei; Helmer, Karl G.; Taouli, Bachir; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Newitt, David; Chenevert, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that system-dependent gradient nonlinearity (GNL) introduces a significant spatial bias (nonuniformity) in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Here, the feasibility of centralized retrospective system-specific correction of GNL bias for quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in multisite clinical trials is demonstrated across diverse scanners independent of the scanned object. Using corrector maps generated from system characterization by ice-water phantom measurement completed in the previous project phase, GNL bias correction was performed for test ADC measurements from an independent DWI phantom (room temperature agar) at two offset locations in the bore. The precomputed three-dimensional GNL correctors were retrospectively applied to test DWI scans by the central analysis site. The correction was blinded to reference DWI of the agar phantom at magnet isocenter where the GNL bias is negligible. The performance was evaluated from changes in ADC region of interest histogram statistics before and after correction with respect to the unbiased reference ADC values provided by sites. Both absolute error and nonuniformity of the ADC map induced by GNL (median, 12%; range, −35% to +10%) were substantially reduced by correction (7-fold in median and 3-fold in range). The residual ADC nonuniformity errors were attributed to measurement noise and other non-GNL sources. Correction of systematic GNL bias resulted in a 2-fold decrease in technical variability across scanners (down to site temperature range). The described validation of GNL bias correction marks progress toward implementation of this technology in multicenter trials that utilize quantitative DWI. PMID:28105469

  13. Effects of certain control-system nonlinearities on stability and pointing of an attached double-gimbal experiment package in presence of random crew-motion disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.; Groom, N. J.; Nene, V. D.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of two types of control-system nonlinearities, sensor deadband and actuator breakout torque, on the pointing capability of a Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) double-gimbal experiment isolation and control system are investigated. A composite structural model of a flexible experiment package connected through frictionless double gimbals to a flexible carrier vehicle is used for this investigation. Contributions of the primary carrier control system to experiment pointing are neglected. Pointing errors onboard the experiment package due to random crew-motion input into the carrier vehicle are computed. A stability investigation is performed to verify control-system stability with nominal nonlinearities and gains. Indications are that there is no stability problem due to the nonlinearities. A nonlinearity sensitivity study is carried out to determine the effects on pointing accuracy. Its results indicate that nominal ATM control system nonlinearities limit the pointing accuracy to approximately 0.4 arc second in the presence of crew motion. Methods of reducing the error to less than 0.1 arc second are discussed.

  14. Maskless direct laser writing with visible light: Breaking through the optical resolving limit with cooperative manipulations of nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-28

    In this work, the resolving limit of maskless direct laser writing is overcome by cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion, where the nonlinear reverse saturation absorption can induce the formation of below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot, and the thermal diffusion manipulation can make the heat quantity at the central region of energy absorption spot propagate along the thin film thickness direction. The temperature at the central region of energy absorption spot transiently reaches up to melting point and realizes nanolithography. The sample “glass substrate/AgInSbTe” is prepared, where AgInSbTe is taken as nonlinear reverse saturation absorption thin film. The below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot is simulated theoretically and verified experimentally by near-field spot scanning method. The “glass substrate/Al/AgInSbTe” sample is prepared, where the Al is used as thermal conductive layer to manipulate the thermal diffusion channel because the thermal diffusivity coefficient of Al is much larger than that of AgInSbTe. The direct laser writing is conducted by a setup with a laser wavelength of 650 nm and a converging lens of NA=0.85, the lithographic marks with a size of about 100 nm are obtained, and the size is only about 1/10 the incident focused spot. The experimental results indicate that the cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion is a good method to realize nanolithography in maskless direct laser writing with visible light.

  15. Simultaneous fingering, double-diffusive convection, and thermal plumes derived from autocatalytic exothermic reaction fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskew, Matthew W.; Harrison, Jason; Simoyi, Reuben H.

    2016-11-01

    Oxidation reactions of thiourea by chlorite in a Hele-Shaw cell are excitable, autocatalytic, exothermic, and generate a lateral instability upon being triggered by the autocatalyst. Reagent concentrations used to develop convective instabilities delivered a temperature jump at the wave front of 2.1 K. The reaction zone was 2 mm and due to normal cooling after the wave front, this generated a spike rather than the standard well-studied front propagation. The reaction front has solutal and thermal contributions to density changes that act in opposite directions due to the existence of a positive isothermal density change in the reaction. The competition between these effects generates thermal plumes. The fascinating feature of this system is the coexistence of plumes and fingering in the same solution which alternate in frequency as the front propagates, generating hot and cold spots within the Hele-Shaw cell, and subsequently spatiotemporal inhomogeneities. The small ΔT at the wave front generated thermocapillary convection which competed effectively with thermogravitational forces at low Eötvös Numbers. A simplified reaction-diffusion-convection model was derived for the system. Plume formation is heavily dependent on boundary effects from the cell dimensions. This work was supported by Grant No. CHE-1056366 from the NSF and a Research Professor Grant from the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

  16. Multisoliton solutions in terms of double Wronskian determinant for a generalized variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation from plasma physics, arterial mechanics, fluid dynamics and optical communications

    SciTech Connect

    Lue Xing Zhu Hongwu; Yao Zhenzhi; Meng Xianghua; Zhang Cheng; Zhang Chunyi; Tian Bo

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, the multisoliton solutions in terms of double Wronskian determinant are presented for a generalized variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which appears in space and laboratory plasmas, arterial mechanics, fluid dynamics, optical communications and so on. By means of the particularly nice properties of Wronskian determinant, the solutions are testified through direct substitution into the bilinear equations. Furthermore, it can be proved that the bilinear Baecklund transformation transforms between (N - 1)- and N-soliton solutions.

  17. Chirped femtosecond solitons and double-kink solitons in the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with self-steepening and self-frequency shift

    SciTech Connect

    Alka,; Goyal, Amit; Gupta, Rama; Kumar, C. N.; Raju, Thokala Soloman

    2011-12-15

    We demonstrate that the competing cubic-quintic nonlinearity induces propagating solitonlike dark(bright) solitons and double-kink solitons in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with self-steepening and self-frequency shift. Parameter domains are delineated in which these optical solitons exist. Also, fractional-transform solitons are explored for this model. It is shown that the nonlinear chirp associated with each of these optical pulses is directly proportional to the intensity of the wave and saturates at some finite value as the retarded time approaches its asymptotic value. We further show that the amplitude of the chirping can be controlled by varying the self-steepening term and self-frequency shift.

  18. High-order finite-volume solutions of the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Qinghai

    2017-09-01

    We propose high-order finite-volume schemes for numerically solving the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions. Although the original motivation comes from a mathematical model of blood clotting, the nonlinear boundary conditions may also apply to other scientific problems. The main contribution of this work is a generic algorithm for generating third-order, fourth-order, and even higher-order explicit ghost-filling formulas to enforce nonlinear Robin boundary conditions in multiple dimensions. Under the framework of finite volume methods, this appears to be the first algorithm of its kind. Numerical experiments on boundary value problems show that the proposed fourth-order formula can be much more accurate and efficient than a simple second-order formula. Furthermore, the proposed ghost-filling formulas may also be useful for solving other partial differential equations.

  19. A numerical theory of lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann methods in the computation of solutions to nonlinear advective-diffusive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, A.B.H.

    1990-09-24

    A numerical theory for the massively parallel lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann methods for computing solutions to nonlinear advective-diffusive systems is introduced. The convergence theory is based on consistency and stability arguments that are supported by the discrete Chapman-Enskog expansion (for consistency) and conditions of monotonicity (in establishing stability). The theory is applied to four lattice methods: Two of the methods are for some two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations. One of the methods is for the one-dimensional lattice method for the one-dimensional viscous Burgers equation. And one of the methods is for a two-dimensional nonlinear advection-diffusion equation. Convergence is formally proven in the L{sub 1}-norm for the first three methods, revealing that they are second-order, conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Computational results which support the theory for lattice methods are presented. In addition, a domain decomposition strategy using mesh refinement techniques is presented for lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann methods. The strategy allows concentration of computational resources on regions of high activity. Computational evidence is reported for the strategy applied to the lattice gas method for the one-dimensional viscous Burgers equation. 72 refs., 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. On the Hybrid of Fourier Transform and Adomian Decomposition Method for the Solution of Nonlinear Cauchy Problems of the Reaction-Diffusion Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourazar, Salman; Nazari-Golshan, Akbar; Yıldırım, Ahmet; Nourazar, Maryam

    2012-07-01

    The physical science importance of the Cauchy problem of the reaction-diffusion equation appears in the modelling of a wide variety of nonlinear systems in physics, chemistry, ecology, biology, and engineering. A hybrid of Fourier transform and Adomian decomposition method (FTADM) is developed for solving the nonlinear non-homogeneous partial differential equations of the Cauchy problem of reaction-diffusion. The results of the FTADM and the ADM are compared with the exact solution. The comparison reveals that for the same components of the recursive sequences, the errors associated with the FTADM are much lesser than those of the ADM. We show that as time increases the results of the FTADM approaches 1 with only six recursive terms. This is in agreement with the physical property of the density-dependent nonlinear diffusion of the Cauchy problem which is also in agreement with the exact solution. The monotonic and very rapid convergence of the results of the FTADM towards the exact solution is shown to be much faster than that of the ADM

  1. Estimation of the effective phase function of bulk diffusing materials with the inverse adding-doubling method.

    PubMed

    Leyre, Sven; Meuret, Youri; Durinck, Guy; Hofkens, Johan; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of optical simulations including bulk diffusors is heavily dependent on the accuracy of the bulk scattering properties. If no knowledge on the physical scattering effects is available, an iterative procedure is usually used to obtain the scattering properties, such as the inverse Monte Carlo method or the inverse adding-doubling (AD) method. In these methods, a predefined phase function with one free parameter is usually used to limit the number of free parameters. In this work, three predefined phase functions (Henyey-Greenstein, two-term Henyey-Greenstein, and Gegenbauer kernel (GK) phase function) are implemented in the inverse AD method to determine the optical properties of two strongly diffusing materials: low-density polyethylene and TiO₂ particles. Using the presented approach, an estimation of the effective phase function was made. It was found that the use of the GK phase function resulted in the best agreement between calculated and experimental transmittance, reflectance, and scattered radiant intensity distribution for the LDPE sample. For the TiO₂ sample, a good agreement was obtained with both the two-term Henyey-Greenstein and the GK phase function.

  2. Double-diffusive convection and baroclinic instability in a differentially heated and initially stratified rotating system: the barostrat instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Miklos; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe; Le Gal, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    A water-filled differentially heated rotating annulus with initially prepared stable vertical salinity profiles is studied in the laboratory. Based on two-dimensional horizontal particle image velocimetry data and infrared camera visualizations, we describe the appearance and the characteristics of the baroclinic instability in this original configuration. First, we show that when the salinity profile is linear and confined between two non-stratified layers at top and bottom, only two separate shallow fluid layers can be destabilized. These unstable layers appear nearby the top and the bottom of the tank with a stratified motionless zone between them. This laboratory arrangement is thus particularly interesting to model geophysical or astrophysical situations where stratified regions are often juxtaposed to convective ones. Then, for more general but stable initial density profiles, statistical measures are introduced to quantify the extent of the baroclinic instability at given depths and to analyze the connections between this depth-dependence and the vertical salinity profiles. We find that, although the presence of stable stratification generally hinders full-depth overturning, double-diffusive convection can lead to development of multicellular sideways convection in shallow layers and subsequently to a multilayered baroclinic instability. Therefore we conclude that by decreasing the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, stratification may even enhance the formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (and thus, mixing) in a local sense.

  3. Vertically Bounded Double Diffusive Convection in the Finger Regime: Comparing No-Slip versus Free-Slip Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-10-28

    Vertically bounded fingering double diffusive convection is numerically investigated, focusing on the influences of different velocity boundary conditions, i.e., the no-slip condition, which is inevitable in the lab-scale experimental researches, and the free-slip condition, which is an approximation for the interfaces in many natural environments, such as the oceans. For both boundary conditions the flow is dominated by fingers and the global responses follow the same scaling laws, with enhanced prefactors for the free-slip cases. Therefore, the laboratory experiments with the no-slip boundaries serve as a good model for the finger layers in the ocean. Moreover, in the free-slip case, although the tangential shear stress is eliminated at the boundaries, the local dissipation rate in the near-wall region may exceed the value found in the no-slip cases, which is caused by the stronger vertical motions of horizontally focused fingers and sheet structures near the free-slip boundaries. This counterintuitive result might be relevant for properly estimating and modeling the mixing and entrainment phenomena at free surfaces and interfaces widespread in oceans and geophysical flows.

  4. Limitation of parallel flow in double diffusive convection: Two- and three-dimensional transitions in a horizontal porous domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mimouni, N.; Chikh, S.; Rahli, O.; Bennacer, R.

    2014-07-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of double diffusion natural convection in an elongated enclosure filled with a binary fluid saturating a porous medium are carried out in the present work. The Boussinesq approximation is made in the formulation of the problem, and Neumann boundary conditions for temperature and concentration are adopted, respectively, on vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity. The used numerical method is based on the control volume approach, with the third order quadratic upstream interpolation scheme in approximating the advection terms. A semi implicit method algorithm is used to handle the velocity-pressure coupling. To avoid the excessively high computer time inherent to the solution of 3D natural convection problems, full approximation storage with full multigrid method is used to solve the problem. A wide range of the controlling parameters (Rayleigh-Darcy number Ra, lateral aspect ratio Ay, Lewis number Le, and the buoyancy ration N) is investigated. We clearly show that increasing the depth of the cavity (i.e., the lateral aspect ratio) has an important effect on the flow patterns. The 2D perfect parallel flows obtained for small lateral aspect ratio are drastically destabilized by increasing the cavity lateral dimension. This yields a 3D fluid motion with a much more complex flow pattern and the usually considered 2D parallel flow model cannot be applied.

  5. Finite element solution of double-diffusive boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluids over a stretching sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, M.; Bhargava, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the double-diffusive boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a stretching sheet. In this model, where binary nanofluid is used, the Brownian motion and thermophoresis are classified as the main mechanisms which are responsible for the enhancement of the convection features of the nanofluid. The boundary layer equations governed by the partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. The variational finite element method (FEM) is used to solve these ordinary differential equations. We have examined the effects of different controlling parameters, namely, the Brownian motion parameter, the thermophoresis parameter, modified Dufour number, viscoelastic parameter, Prandtl number, regular Lewis number, Dufour Lewis number, and nanofluid Lewis number on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics. Graphical display of the numerical examine are performed to illustrate the influence of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration, reduced Nusselt, reduced Sherwood and reduced nanofluid Sherwood number distributions. The present study has many applications in coating and suspensions, movement of biological fluids, cooling of metallic plate, melt-spinning, heat exchangers technology, and oceanography.

  6. Nonlinear Diffusion Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Rabies will inevitably return t Bri so we cons id, red a domain with the shape of Britain :in , a single- rbiJ fox on the coastline. Travelling waves w...9. A. Friedman and J.B. McLeod, Strict inequality in iso- perimetric inequalities, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., to 6 appear. 10. A. Friedman and J.B

  7. Nonlinear electron transport in GaAs/InGaAs asymmetric double-quantum-well pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Meryleen; Sahu, Arttatran; Panda, Sangita R.; Das, Sudhakar; Sahu, Trinath; Panda, Ajit K.

    2017-06-01

    We analyze the structural-asymmetry-induced nonlinear enhancement of the electron mobility μ in a GaAs/In x Ga1- x As double-quantum-well pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (p-HEMT). We consider the well widths w i and w s and the doping concentrations n di and n ds in the barriers along the substrate (inverted doping) and surface (surface doping), respectively. We show that for a suitable choice of w s and n ds, the variation of w i leads to interesting changes in the occupation of subbands, i.e., first, single-subband, then double-subband, and again, single-subband occupancy. By increasing n di, the range of double-subband occupancy is enhanced. However, the lowering of μ due to the inter-subband effects is minimized. In the case of a single-channel HEMT, i.e., say, for n di = 0, only a single subband is occupied. The mobility exhibits a cusplike behavior with a minimum at a certain value of w i. If one takes a higher value of n ds, the occupation of subbands shows a different trend, i.e., from single- to double-subband occupancy as a function of w i for different n di values with nonmonotonic variations of μ. Our results of the nonlinear enhancement of mobility can be utilized for the analysis of the coupled GaAs/In x Ga1- x As double-quantum-well p-HEMT structure.

  8. Nonlinear Behavior of a Shim Coil in an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet With an HTS Insert Comprising Double-Pancake HTS-Tape Coils

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seung-yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bascuñán, Juan; Yao, Weijun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports results, experimental and analytical, of the nonlinear behavior of a shim coil in the presence of an HTS coil assembled with double-pancake (DP) HTS-tape coils. The experimental results are from: 1) operation of a 700 MHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet (LH700) consisting of a 600 MHz LTS NMR magnet (L600) equipped with superconducting shim coils and a 100 MHz DP-assembled HTS insert (H100) and; 2) an experiment with a room-temperature (RT) Z1 shim coil coupled to a 50 MHz DP-as-sembled HTS insert (H50). A field mapping theory with a harmonic analysis is applied to interpret both results. Based on experimental results and analyses, we conclude that the screening-current-induced field (SCF) generated by a DP-assembled HTS insert is primarily responsible for the nonlinear behavior, including strength degradation, of a shim coil. PMID:20383282

  9. Conductivity Modulation of Gold Thin Film at Room Temperature via All-Solid-State Electric-Double-Layer Gating Accelerated by Nonlinear Ionic Transport.

    PubMed

    Asano, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Omote, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideaki; Fujii, Eiji

    2017-02-15

    We demonstrated the field-effect conductivity modulation of a gold thin film by all-solid-state electric-double-layer (EDL) gating at room temperature using an epitaxially grown oxide fast lithium conductor, La2/3-xLi3xTiO3 (LLT), as a solid electrolyte. The linearly increasing gold conductivity with increasing gate bias demonstrates that the conductivity modulation is indeed due to carrier injection by EDL gating. The response time becomes exponentially faster with increasing gate bias, a result of the onset of nonlinear ionic transportation. This nonlinear dynamic response indicates that the ionic motion-driven device can be much faster than would be estimated from a linear ionic transport model.

  10. Consequences of using nonlinear particle trajectories to compute spatial diffusion coefficients. [for cosmic ray propagation in interstellar and interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    In a study of cosmic ray propagation in interstellar and interplanetary space, a perturbed orbit resonant scattering theory for pitch angle diffusion in a slab model of magnetostatic turbulence is slightly generalized and used to compute the diffusion coefficient for spatial propagation parallel to the mean magnetic field. This diffusion coefficient has been useful for describing the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic rays, and for explaining the diffusive phase in solar flares in which the initial anisotropy of the particle distribution decays to isotropy.

  11. Submodels of the generalization of the Leith model of the phenomenological theory of turbulence and of the model of nonlinear diffusion in the inhomogeneous media without absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkunov, Yu A.

    2015-10-01

    We study a nonlinear equation which is equivalent to an equation of generalization of the Leith model of turbulence and to the equation of the model of nonlinear diffusion in an inhomogeneous media without absorption. Using this equation, all submodels admitting continuous Lie transformation groups, acting on the set of solutions of the equations of these submodels are obtained. For obtained submodels, all invariant submodels are found. All essentially distinct invariant solutions describing these invariant submodels are found explicitly, or their finding is reduced to solving nonlinear integral equations. The integral equations defining these solutions reveal new possibilities for analytical and numerical studies. The presence of arbitrary constants in these equations allows one to apply them to the study of different boundary value problems. We have proved the existence and uniqueness of the solution for some boundary value problems. We have investigated the following boundary value problems: (1) a distribution of front-density turbulent kinetic energy in a framework of the generalizion of the Leith model of wave turbulence for which either the spectrum and its wavenumber derivative or the spectrum and its time derivative are given at the initial moment of time at a fixed wavenumber; (2) a nonlinear diffusion process in an inhomogeneous media without absorption, for which either the concentration and its gradient or the concentration and its rate of change are given at the initial moment of time at a fixed point. Under certain additional conditions we have established the existence and uniqueness of the solutions to boundary value problems describing these processes.

  12. Linkage effects to nonlinear optical properties of porphyrin-appended mixed (porphyrinato)(phthalocyaninato) yttrium(III) double-decker complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Xianyao; Yan, Xingzhong; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2011-10-01

    Third-order nonlinear optical properties of three isomeric tetrapyrrole triads, i.e. mixed (porphyrinato)(phthalocyaninato) yttrium double-decker complexes appended with one metal free porphyrin chromophore at the para, meta, and orthoposition, respectively, of one meso-phenyl group of the porphyrin ligand in the double-decker unit through ester linkage, 3-5, were comparatively investigated along with the model compounds metal free meso-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl) porphyrin H2TBPP (1) and mixed [meso-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrinato] [1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(butyloxyl)phthalocyaninato] yttrium double-decker complex YIIIH(TBPP) [Pc(α-OC4H9)8] (2) by using Z-scan technique with the fundamental (800 nm) laser emission from a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser system. Strong reverse saturable absorption (RSA) properties of complexes 2-5 were observed. Interestingly, under highly intense irradiation, an RSA-SA-RSA-SA-RSA switch behavior was evolved in the tight focal intensity regime on the Z-scan profiles of complexes 3-5. Under the laser irradiation with focal intensity of 7.48-8.39 GW.cm-2, the triads 3 and 4 with the metal free porphyrin chromophore appended at the para or meta positions of the meso-phenyl group of the porphyrin ligand in the double-decker unit retained a characteristic response of RSA. In contrast, the triad 5 with the metal free porphyrin chromophore appended at the ortho position has already shown a trend of SA peaks at the same intensity range, revealing the effect of the position of porphyrin-substituent on the nonlinear optical properties of the triads.

  13. Performance improvements of the vertical, double-diffused power metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ronghua

    An n-channel power vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor (VDMOSFET) with a new atomic-lattice-layout (ALL) has been designed and fabricated. The performance of the VDMOSFET with the ALL has been studied experimentally and comprehensively for the first time. The experimental results with the ALL are compared with the square (SQ), hexagonal (HEX) and stripe (STR) layouts for different applications. For high-frequency applications of VDMOSFET, the ALL is superior to the HEX and inferior to the STR. The optimum specific on-resistance and input capacitance product (Rsb{ON,SP} × Csb{iss,SP}) and optimum specific on-resistance and output capacitance product (Rsb{ON,SP} × Csb{oss,SP}) for the ALL are 44% and 36% lower than the HEX, and 10% and 13% higher than the STR, respectively. The ALL offers superior performance compared to the SQ for applications involving smart power feedback control using integrated current sensor. For a typical sense resistance of 100 Omega, the sense current drops 44% of its value at 0 Omega for the SQ, but only 11% for the ALL. For high-voltage and high-current applications, such as voltage-controlled current source, one observes that the ALL enters into quasi-saturation region at lower gate voltage (Vsb{G}). Typically, quasi-saturation occurs at Vsb{G} of 3V above the threshold voltage (Vsb{T}) for ALL, whereas this voltage is 5 and 6V for the STR and HEX, respectively. Minority carrier lifetime control by proton implantation has been successfully employed to improve the VDMOSFET built-in diode switching performance for the first time. A sevenfold reduction in reverse recovery charge has been achieved with a proton energy of 2.5 MeV and dose of 3 × 10sp{11}/cmsp2. The impact of proton implantation on diode forward voltage and the VDMOSFET characteristics, such as Vsb{T}, leakage current and on-resistance, has been found negligible. Proton implantation has also been found to significantly improve the device

  14. The parallel-antiparallel signal difference in double-wave-vector diffusion-weighted MR at short mixing times: A phase evolution perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterbusch, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with two diffusion weightings applied in direct succession in a single acquisition, so-called double- or two-wave-vector diffusion-weighting (DWV) experiments at short mixing times, have been shown to be a promising tool to estimate cell or compartment sizes, e.g. in living tissue. The basic theory for such experiments predicts that the signal decays for parallel and antiparallel wave vector orientations differ by a factor of three for small wave vectors. This seems to be surprising because in standard, single-wave-vector experiments the polarity of the diffusion weighting has no influence on the signal attenuation. Thus, the question how this difference can be understood more pictorially is often raised. In this rather educational manuscript, the phase evolution during a DWV experiment for simple geometries, e.g. diffusion between parallel, impermeable planes oriented perpendicular to the wave vectors, is considered step-by-step and demonstrates how the signal difference develops. Considering the populations of the phase distributions obtained, the factor of three between the signal decays which is predicted by the theory can be reproduced. Furthermore, the intermediate signal decay for orthogonal wave vector orientations can be derived when investigating diffusion in a box. Thus, the presented “phase gymnastics” approach may help to understand the signal modulation observed in DWV experiments at short mixing times.

  15. Nonlinear electrochemical relaxation around conductors.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin T; Bazant, Martin Z

    2006-07-01

    We analyze the simplest problem of electrochemical relaxation in more than one dimension-the response of an uncharged, ideally polarizable metallic sphere (or cylinder) in a symmetric, binary electrolyte to a uniform electric field. In order to go beyond the circuit approximation for thin double layers, our analysis is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations of dilute solution theory. Unlike most previous studies, however, we focus on the nonlinear regime, where the applied voltage across the conductor is larger than the thermal voltage. In such strong electric fields, the classical model predicts that the double layer adsorbs enough ions to produce bulk concentration gradients and surface conduction. Our analysis begins with a general derivation of surface conservation laws in the thin double-layer limit, which provide effective boundary conditions on the quasineutral bulk. We solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations numerically for strong fields and also perform a time-dependent asymptotic analysis for weaker fields, where bulk diffusion and surface conduction arise as first-order corrections. We also derive various dimensionless parameters comparing surface to bulk transport processes, which generalize the Bikerman-Dukhin number. Our results have basic relevance for double-layer charging dynamics and nonlinear electrokinetics in the ubiquitous PNP approximation.

  16. Highly Unstable Double-Diffusive Finger Convection in a Hele-Shaw Cell: Baseline Experimental Data for Evaluation of Numerical Models

    SciTech Connect

    PRINGLE,SCOTT E.; COOPER,CLAY A.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.

    2000-12-21

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study double-diffusive finger convection in a Hele-Shaw cell by layering a sucrose solution over a more-dense sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The solutal Rayleigh numbers were on the order of 60,000, based upon the height of the cell (25 cm), and the buoyancy ratio was 1.2. A full-field light transmission technique was used to measure a dye tracer dissolved in the NaCl solution. They analyze the concentration fields to yield the temporal evolution of length scales associated with the vertical and horizontal finger structure as well as the mass flux. These measures show a rapid progression through two early stages to a mature stage and finally a rundown period where mass flux decays rapidly. The data are useful for the development and evaluation of numerical simulators designed to model diffusion and convection of multiple components in porous media. The results are useful for correct formulation at both the process scale (the scale of the experiment) and effective scale (where the lab-scale processes are averaged-up to produce averaged parameters). A fundamental understanding of the fine-scale dynamics of double-diffusive finger convection is necessary in order to successfully parameterize large-scale systems.

  17. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Stuart T; Baker, Ruth E; McElwain, D L Sean; Simpson, Matthew J

    2017-02-14

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population.

  18. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Stuart T.; Baker, Ruth E.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population. PMID:28195135

  19. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Stuart T.; Baker, Ruth E.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population.

  20. A modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method for three-dimensional non-linear diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, Sumita; Mittal, Ramesh Chandra

    2017-07-01

    This paper employs a differential quadrature scheme for solving non-linear partial differential equations. Differential quadrature method (DQM), along with modified cubic B-spline basis, has been adopted to deal with three-dimensional non-linear Brusselator system, enzyme kinetics of Michaelis-Menten type problem and Burgers' equation. The method has been tested efficiently to three-dimensional equations. Simple algorithm and minimal computational efforts are two of the major achievements of the scheme. Moreover, this methodology produces numerical solutions not only at the knot points but also at every point in the domain under consideration. Stability analysis has been done. The scheme provides convergent approximate solutions and handles different cases and is particularly beneficial to higher dimensional non-linear PDEs with irregularities in initial data or initial-boundary conditions that are discontinuous in nature, because of its capability of damping specious oscillations induced by high frequency components of solutions.

  1. Segmented Dyke Growth and Associated Seismicity at Bárðarbunga Volcanic System (Iceland) is Driven by Non-Linear Magma Pressure Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbruch, C.

    2015-12-01

    In August 2014 segmented lateral dyke growth has been observed in a rifting event at Bardarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. The temporal evolution of the magma source and the physical nature of magma flow process during dyke propagation and arrest are unclear. The epidemic-type aftershock sequence model has been used to detect fluid signals in seismicity data. We use the earthquake catalog recorded during the rifting event to reconstruct the magma flow signal at the feeding source of the dyke. We find that the segmentation of dyke growth is caused by a pulsating nature of the magma flow source. We identify two main magma flow pulses, which initiate and propagate the two main segments of the dyke. During phases of dyke arrest magma flow pulses are low and cannot further propagate the dyke. We use the reconstructed magma flow signal to set up a numerical model of non-linear magma pressure diffusion. By using the magma pressure changes resulting from magma flow, we simulate the earthquake catalog caused by the reduction of the effective principal stress. We observe an excellent agreement between the spatio-temporal characteristics of the simulated earthquake catalog and recorded seismicity. Our results suggest that the process of magma pressure relaxation can be described as a non-linear diffusion process. Because the opening of the dyke creates significant new fracture volume, the permeability of the rock is strongly increasing and the diffusion process becomes highly non-linear. Our analysis is based on lessons learned from analysis of seismicity observed during hydraulic fracturing of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Despite large differences in scale, the underlying physical processes are comparable. Finally, we analyze the decay of seismic activity after start of the effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. The magma flow strongly decreases and seismic activity decays according to Omori's law, which describes the decay of aftershock activity after tectonic

  2. Lie symmetry analysis of a double-diffusive free convective slip flow with a convective boundary condition past a radiating vertical surface embedded in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afify, A. A.; Uddin, Md. J.

    2016-09-01

    A numerical study of a steady two-dimensional double-diffusive free convection boundary layer flow over a vertical surface embedded in a porous medium with slip flow and convective boundary conditions, heat generation/absorption, and solar radiation effects is performed. A scaling group of transformations is used to obtain the governing boundary layer equations and the boundary conditions. The transformed equations are then solved by the fourth- and fifth-order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg numerical method with Maple 13. The results for the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles, as well as the skin friction coefficient, the Nusselt number, and the Sherwood number are presented and discussed.

  3. Fringe localization requirements for three-dimensional flow visualization of shock waves in diffuse-illumination double-pulse holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-04-01

    A theory of fringe localization in rapid-double-exposure, diffuse-illumination holographic interferometry was developed. The theory was then applied to compare holographic measurements with laser anemometer measurements of shock locations in a transonic axial-flow compressor rotor. The computed fringe localization error was found to agree well with the measured localization error. It is shown how the view orientation and the curvature and positional variation of the strength of a shock wave are used to determine the localization error and to minimize it. In particular, it is suggested that the view direction not deviate from tangency at the shock surface by more than 30 degrees.

  4. Double-diffusive mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium filled by a nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Mohd Hafizi Mat; Ishak, Anuar

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of mass suction on double diffusive mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium filled by a nanofluid using Buongiorno's model. The appropriate similarity transformation is used to reduce the partial differential equations into a system of ordinary differential equation, which is then solved numerically using a shooting method. The effects of mass suction parameter on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are presented and discussed.

  5. Fringe localization requirements for three-dimensional flow visualization of shock waves in diffuse-illumination double-pulse holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A theory of fringe localization in rapid-double-exposure, diffuse-illumination holographic interferometry was developed. The theory was then applied to compare holographic measurements with laser anemometer measurements of shock locations in a transonic axial-flow compressor rotor. The computed fringe localization error was found to agree well with the measured localization error. It is shown how the view orientation and the curvature and positional variation of the strength of a shock wave are used to determine the localization error and to minimize it. In particular, it is suggested that the view direction not deviate from tangency at the shock surface by more than 30 degrees.

  6. Double diffusion, convection de Boussinesq et convection profonde en air atmosphérique pollué ou humide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, Pierre-Antoine

    2006-11-01

    We derive the molecular diffusion equations, and we show how the determination of the molecular diffusion coefficients of passive scalars (pollutants or moisture) in the atmospheric air may be performed, in first approximation, by means of data of pressure, temperature and densities in the medium at the rest. These approximations are sufficient in order to write the equations of shallow convection (Boussinesq equations), whatever be the Brunt-Väisälä frequency of the medium (as well as in the troposphere and in the stratosphere). In the case of deep convection, which is possible in the troposphere only, the weakness of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency modifies the molecular diffusion equations, and these equations also modify the equations of convection. More accurate evaluations of the diffusion coefficients must also be made, using, for instance, static datas associated with several temperature distributions. To cite this article: P.-A. Bois, C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  7. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard; Grim, Joel; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Tupitsyn, Eugene; Rowe, Emmanuel; Buliga, Vladimir M.; Burger, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.

  8. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R. T.; Grim, Joel Q.; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, S.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E.; Rowe, E.; Buliga, V. M.; Burger, A.

    2013-09-26

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This study describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.

  9. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, R. T.; Grim, Joel Q.; Li, Qi; ...

    2013-09-26

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx tomore » volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This study describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.« less

  10. Nonlinear Evolution Equation of a Step with Anisotropy in a Diffusion Field for the Two-Sided Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Soma, T.; Okuda, K.; Wada, K.

    2004-05-01

    The nonlinear evolution equation for the fluctuation of a terrace edge with anisotropy in step stiffness during step flow growth is derived in the two-sided model where adatoms can be incorporated into the step from the upper terrace as well as from the lower terrace. It is shown by reductive perturbation method based on the linear stability analysis that (1) up to ɛ3 order in the smallness parameter of instability the nonlinear evolution equation reduces to the closed Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation with extra coefficients compared with the one-sided model and (2) the nonlinear evolution equation up to ɛ5 order is also derived in order to take into account the anisotropy in step stiffness in the lowest order. The nonlinear evolution equation is numerically calculated for various parameters included. It is also shown that the asymmetry of attachment into a step and the Gibbs-Thomson effect with anisotropy in step stiffness bring about various growth patterns of the step from chaotic growth to periodic growth and further to an inclined straight step mode with a single peak.

  11. Design of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers with a double-cladded coaxial core for zero chromatic dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong

    2012-10-01

    Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a double-cladded coaxial core (CC) is proposed and analyzed to obtain propagation characteristics such as chromatic dispersion, field distribution, and effective area. Only by doubling the number of air holes to 12 in the inner hexagonal cladding layer with one pitch (Λ) value can the chromatic dispersion shift close to zero be achieved at 1.55 μm operation wavelength. The fundamental mode field for the double-cladded CCPCF is tightly confined to the central core region. Therefore, the effective area is normally very small, while it tends to be larger rather rapidly as the operating wavelength is longer than around 1.7 μm.

  12. Nonlinear propagation of small-amplitude modified electron acoustic solitary waves and double layer in semirelativistic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sah, O.P.; Goswami, K.S. )

    1994-10-01

    Considering an unmagnetized plasma consisting of relativistic drifting electrons and nondrifting thermal ions and by using reductive perturbation method, a usual Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation and a generalized form of KdV equation are derived. It is found that while the former governs the dynamics of a small-amplitude rarefactive modified electron acoustic (MEA) soliton, the latter governs the dynamics of a weak compressive modified electron acoustic double layer. The influences of relativistic effect on the propagation of such a soliton and double layer are examined. The relevance of this investigation to space plasma is pointed out.

  13. Double-shell target design for the NIF: Noncryogenic ignition and nonlinear mix studies for Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P

    2004-02-10

    Double-shell ignition is complementary to the baseline approach by virtue of not requiring: (1) cryogenic preparation and fielding, (2) high-contrast pulse-shaping for shock-timing, and (3) demanding x-ray flux symmetry control. The use of simpler low-contrast pulse-shaping potentially allows more benign hohlraum conditions by reducing the risk of laser backscatter. In addition, the associated higher laser fluence threshold for optics damage initiation allows the possibility of more routine high-fluence shots with 2{omega} on the NIF. Based on LDRD-sponsored research in FY01-03 on NIF double-shell ignition target designs, the feasibility of this approach was advanced through both a highly successful implosion campaign on the Omega laser facility and a variety of design improvements for mitigating instability. The double-shell implosion campaign on Omega achieved the important milestone of repeatably demonstrating dominant primary (2.45 MeV) neutron production from the mix-susceptible compressional phase of a double-shell implosion, using fall-line design optimization and exacting fabrication standards. Showing effective control of fuel-pusher mix during final compression is an essential element for achieving ignition. In our studies to control mix by reducing hydrodynamic instability a new pathway for destructive Rayleigh-Taylor growth on the outer surface of the inner shell at ignition scales was identified. However, highly resolved multi-mode simulations showed that with use of a graded dopant in the inner shell and material-matching with an exterior metallic foam, this instability was significantly reduced. In addition, the resulting density-gradient stabilization was seen to quench small-wavelength growth, thereby avoiding the computationally challenging turbulent regime. A major goal of future research for realizing double-shell ignition on the NIF is experimental validation of this instability mitigation approach using the Omega laser facility.

  14. A new modification to homotopy perturbation method combined with Fourier transform for solving nonlinear Cauchy reaction diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourazar, S. S.; Nazari-Golshan, A.

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid of Fourier transform and new modified homotopy perturbation method based on the Adomian method is developed to solve linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. The Taylor series expansion is used to expand nonlinear term of partial differential equation and the Adomian polynomial incorporated into homotopy perturbation method combined with Fourier transform, is used to solve partial differential equations. Three case study problems, partial differential equations, are handled using homotopy perturbation method and Fourier transform modified homotopy perturbation method (FTMHPM). Results obtained are compared with exact solution. The comparison reveals that for same components of recursive sequences, errors associated with Fourier transform modified method are much less than the other and are valid for a large range of x-axis coordinates.

  15. Comment on ``Diffusion measurements with the pulsed gradient nonlinear spin echo method'' [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5275 (2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeener, J.

    2002-01-01

    An undocumented approximation has been found in the discussion of the effects of molecular diffusion in the CRAZED experiment, as presented in the reference quoted in the title. A detailed discussion shows the subtle origin of the problem. Reference is given to discussions which avoid this approximation by using the extended Bloch equation.

  16. Cation diffusion in the electrical double layer enhances the mass transfer rates for Sr2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ in compacted illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaus, M. A.; Aertsens, M.; Appelo, C. A. J.; Kupcik, T.; Maes, N.; Van Laer, L.; Van Loon, L. R.

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced mass transfer rates have been frequently observed in diffusion studies with alkaline and earth alkaline elements in compacted clay minerals and clay rocks. Whether this phenomenon - often termed surface diffusion - is also relevant for more strongly sorbing species is an open question. We therefore investigated the diffusion of Sr2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ in compacted illite with respect to variations of the concentration of the background electrolyte, pH and carbonate. New experimental techniques were developed in order to avoid artefacts stemming from the confinement of the clay sample. A distinct dependence of the effective diffusion coefficients on the concentration of the background electrolyte was observed for all three elements. A similar correlation was found for the sorption distribution ratio (Rd) derived from tracer breakthrough in the case of Sr2+, while this dependence was much weaker for Co2+ and Zn2+. Model calculations using Phreeqc resulted in a good agreement with the experimental data when it was assumed that the cationic species, present in the electrical double layer (EDL) of the charged clay surface, are mobile. Species bound to the specific surface complexation sites at the clay edges were assumed to be immobile. An assessment of the mobility of the type of cationic elements studied here in argillaceous media thus requires an analysis of their distribution among specifically sorbed surface species and species in the EDL. The normal approach of deriving unknown effective diffusion coefficients from reference values of an uncharged water tracer may significantly underestimate the mobility of metal cations in argillaceous media.

  17. Double Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convective Slip Flow along a Radiating Moving Vertical Flat Plate with Convective Boundary Condition

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Mohammad M.; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J.; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, , local Nusselt number, , and local Sherwood number are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360

  18. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective slip flow along a radiating moving vertical flat plate with convective boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Mohammad M; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, [Formula: see text], local Nusselt number, [Formula: see text], and local Sherwood number [Formula: see text] are shown and explained through tables.

  19. Multiple spreading phenomena for a free boundary problem of a reaction-diffusion equation with a certain class of bistable nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Yusuke; Yamada, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with a free boundary problem for diffusion equation with a certain class of bistable nonlinearity which allows two positive stable equilibrium states as an ODE model. This problem models the invasion of a biological species and the free boundary represents the spreading front of its habitat. Our main interest is to study large-time behaviors of solutions for the free boundary problem. We will completely classify asymptotic behaviors of solutions and, in particular, observe two different types of spreading phenomena corresponding to two positive stable equilibrium states. Moreover, it will be proved that, if the free boundary expands to infinity, an asymptotic speed of the moving free boundary for large time can be uniquely determined from the related semi-wave problem.

  20. Ultrafast Atomic Layer-by-Layer Oxygen Vacancy-Exchange Diffusion in Double-Perovskite LnBaCo2O5.5+δ Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shanyong; Ma, Chunrui; Chen, Garry; Xu, Xing; Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Chonglin; Zhang, Yamei; Bettis, Jerry L.; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Dong, Chuang; Zhang, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Surface exchange and oxygen vacancy diffusion dynamics were studied in double-perovskites LnBaCo2O5.5+δ (LnBCO) single-crystalline thin films (Ln = Er, Pr; −0.5 < δ < 0.5) by carefully monitoring the resistance changes under a switching flow of oxidizing gas (O2) and reducing gas (H2) in the temperature range of 250 ~ 800°C. A giant resistance change ΔR by three to four orders of magnitude in less than 0.1 s was found with a fast oscillation behavior in the resistance change rates in the ΔR vs. t plots, suggesting that the oxygen vacancy exchange diffusion with oxygen/hydrogen atoms in the LnBCO thin films is taking the layer by layer oxygen-vacancy-exchange mechanism. The first principles density functional theory calculations indicate that hydrogen atoms are present in LnBCO as bound to oxygen forming O-H bonds. This unprecedented oscillation phenomenon provides the first direct experimental evidence of the layer by layer oxygen vacancy exchange diffusion mechanism. PMID:24751601

  1. Double-pass propagation of laser pulses reflected by a diffuse whiteboard or a corner-cube retroreflector in turbulent atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Wei; Du, Pengfei; Geng, Dongxian; Gao, Gan; Gong, Mali

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric turbulence affects the transmission of laser pulses through the atmosphere. The effects mean that the peak power of the laser pulses is not stable. For laser pulses reflected by a cooperative target, the peak power instability is greater because of the double-pass propagation of the laser pulses through the same atmosphere. The atmospheric turbulence can be monitored by detecting the peak power instability of echo laser pulses. This paper presents a method for monitoring atmospheric turbulence based on a cooperative target. Comparative experiments are carried out based on using a diffuse whiteboard and a corner-cube retroreflector (CCR) as the cooperative target. The distance between the two terminals of the experimental system is 1550 m. The size of the diffuse whiteboard is 60×60 cm2. The bottom surface of the CCR is a circle with a diameter of 1 in. and the three mirrors of the CCR are coated with silver. Experiment results show that the peak power instability of echo laser pulses retroreflected by the CCR is 28.3%. This is much larger than that diffuse reflected by the whiteboard (11.2%). This indicates that the method based on the CCR has higher atmospheric sensitivity. In addition, the peak power of the echo laser pulses retroreflected by the CCR is also much larger. Therefore, the system based on the CCR is more suitable for monitoring of atmospheric turbulence.

  2. Analysis of X-Ray Microradiographs of Al-Au Interface Quench Profile using Modeling of Solidification Including Double-Diffusion and Convection in the Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris V.; Kaukler, William

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data on Al-0.8Au horizontal solidification of a 1 mm thick specimen in a BN crucible shows the effect of growth rate on the solidification interface shape. For translation rates below 0.5 micron/s the interface maintains a plain and flat shape. When the translation rate is 3 to 5 micron/s or more, the interface appearance changes to two planar zones, with the zone closer to the bottom having higher inclination. The interface shapes were measured by first quenching in place during growth. X-ray microscopy shows the interface shape within the quenched sample by viewing through the side of the specimen. In order to provide theoretical explanation of the phenomena, numerical modeling was undertaken using finite element code FIDAP. Double diffusion convection in Al-0.8Au melt and crystal-melt interface curvature during directional solidification was analyzed numerically. Actual thermophysical properties of Al-0.8Au including the binary Al-Au phase diagram were used. Although convection in the sample is weak, for the slower translation rate convection and diffusion is sufficient for the redistribution of initial compositional stratification caused by gravity. When translation rate is raised, neither convection nor diffusion can provide proper mixing so that solidification temperatures differ significantly near the bottom within the bulk of the sample. As a result, the solid-liquid interface appears to have two planar zones with different inclination.

  3. Double-resonance enhanced intersubband second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Tian, W; Zhang, J; Wang, S; Wan, Q X; Dai, J N; Wu, Z H; Xu, J T; Li, X Y; Fang, Y Y; Chen, C Q

    2014-06-16

    Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for second harmonic generation (SHG) associated with intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN single quantum well and step quantum well have been studied theoretically by solving Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. The calculated results suggest that due to the very large polarization-induced field in the quantum well, the potential profile becomes asymmetrical, leading to large second-order susceptibilities. A high value about 4 × 10-7 m/V can be obtained in single quantum well structure. Furthermore, by adopting step quantum well structure to increase the asymmetry degree of the potential profile and manipulate the energy levels for double-resonance, a significant enhancement of second-order susceptibility can occur in step quantum well. Specifically, the susceptibility can be as large as 4 × 10-6 m/V with structure optimization, about an order of magnitude greater than that in single quantum well. The results indicate that nonlinear optical elements based on GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells are very promising for SHG in a wide range of wavelengths from telecommunication to mid-infrared, especially effective in longer wavelength.

  4. Location - Dependent Coronary Artery Diffusive and Convective Mass Transport Properties of a Lipophilic Drug Surrogate Measured Using Nonlinear Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Joseph T.; Simon, Bruce R.; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Arterial wall mass transport properties dictate local distribution of biomolecules or locally delivered dugs. Knowing how these properties vary between coronary artery locations could provide insight into how therapy efficacy is altered between arterial locations. Methods We introduced an indocarbocyanine drug surrogate to the lumens of left anterior descending and right coronary (LADC; RC) arteries from pigs with or without a pressure gradient. Interstitial fluorescent intensity was measured on live samples with multiphoton microscopy. We also measured binding to porcine coronary SMCs in monoculture. Results Diffusive transport constants peaked in the middle sections of the LADC and RC arteries by 2.09 and 2.04 times, respectively, compared to the proximal and distal segments. There was no statistical difference between the average diffusivity value between LADC and RC arteries. The convection coefficients had an upward trend down each artery, with the RC being higher than the LADC by 3.89 times. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the convective and diffusive transport of lipophilic molecules changes between the LADC and the RC arteries as well as along their length. These results may have important implications in optimizing drug delivery for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PMID:23224981

  5. Unidirectional solidification of binary melts from a cooled boundary: analytical solutions of a nonlinear diffusion-limited problem.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, D V; Nizovtseva, I G; Malygin, A P; Huang, H-N; Lee, D

    2008-03-19

    A model is presented that describes nonstationary solidification of binary melts or solutions from a cooled boundary maintained at a time-dependent temperature. Heat and mass transfer processes are described on the basis of the principles of a mushy layer, which divides pure solid material and a liquid phase. Nonlinear equations characterizing the dynamics of the phase transition boundaries are deduced. Approximate analytical solutions of the model under consideration are constructed. A method for controlling the external temperature at a cooled wall in order to obtain a required solidification velocity is discussed.

  6. Speed selection for traveling-wave solutions to the diffusion-reaction equation with cubic reaction term and Burgers nonlinear convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabelnikov, V. A.; Lipatnikov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    The problem of traveling wave (TW) speed selection for solutions to a generalized Murray-Burgers-KPP-Fisher parabolic equation with a strictly positive cubic reaction term is considered theoretically and the initial boundary value problem is numerically solved in order to support obtained analytical results. Depending on the magnitude of a parameter inherent in the reaction term (i) the term is either a concave function or a function with the inflection point and (ii) transition from pulled to pushed TW solution occurs due to interplay of two nonlinear terms; the reaction term and the Burgers convection term. Explicit pushed TW solutions are derived. It is shown that physically observable TW solutions, i.e., solutions obtained by solving the initial boundary value problem with a sufficiently steep initial condition, can be determined by seeking the TW solution characterized by the maximum decay rate at its leading edge. In the Appendix, the developed approach is applied to a non-linear diffusion-reaction equation that is widely used to model premixed turbulent combustion.

  7. Soliton microdynamics of the generation of new-type nonlinear surface vibrations, dissociation, and surfing diffusion in diatomic crystals of the uranium nitride type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, O. A.; Semenov, V. A.; Orlov, A. V.; Sudarev, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The microdynamics of large-amplitude nonlinear vibrations of uranium nitride diatomic lattices has been investigated using the computer simulation and neutron scattering methods at temperatures T = 600-2500°C near the thresholds of the dissociation and destruction of the reactor fuel materials. It has been found using the computer simulation that, in the spectral gap between the frequency bands of acoustic and optical phonons in crystals with an open surface, there are resonances of new-type harmonic surface vibrations and a gap-filling band of their genetic successors, i.e., nonlinear surface vibrations. Experimental measurements of the slow neutron scattering spectra of uranium nitride on the DIN-2PI neutron spectrometer have revealed resonances and bands of these surface vibrations in the spectral gap, as well as higher optical vibration overtones. It has been shown that the solitons and bisolitons initiate the formation and collapse of dynamic pores with the generation of surface vibrations at the boundaries of the cavities, evaporation of atoms and atomic clusters, formation of cracks, and destruction of the material. It has been demonstrated that the mass transfer of nitrogen in cracks and along grain boundaries can occur through the revealed microdynamics mechanism of the surfing diffusion of light nitrogen atoms at large-amplitude soliton waves propagating in the stabilizing sublattice of heavy uranium atoms and in the nitrogen sublattice.

  8. Speed selection for traveling-wave solutions to the diffusion-reaction equation with cubic reaction term and Burgers nonlinear convection.

    PubMed

    Sabelnikov, V A; Lipatnikov, A N

    2014-09-01

    The problem of traveling wave (TW) speed selection for solutions to a generalized Murray-Burgers-KPP-Fisher parabolic equation with a strictly positive cubic reaction term is considered theoretically and the initial boundary value problem is numerically solved in order to support obtained analytical results. Depending on the magnitude of a parameter inherent in the reaction term (i) the term is either a concave function or a function with the inflection point and (ii) transition from pulled to pushed TW solution occurs due to interplay of two nonlinear terms; the reaction term and the Burgers convection term. Explicit pushed TW solutions are derived. It is shown that physically observable TW solutions, i.e., solutions obtained by solving the initial boundary value problem with a sufficiently steep initial condition, can be determined by seeking the TW solution characterized by the maximum decay rate at its leading edge. In the Appendix, the developed approach is applied to a non-linear diffusion-reaction equation that is widely used to model premixed turbulent combustion.

  9. Nonlinear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  10. Nonlinear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  11. Absorption spectra and nonlinear transmission (at λ = 2940 nm) of a diffusion-doped Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetova, G A; Gulyamova, E S; Il'ichev, N N; Pashinin, P P; Shapkin, P V; Nasibov, A S

    2015-06-30

    Transmission spectra of a ZnSe sample diffusion-doped with Fe{sup 2+} ions have been measured in the wavelength range 500 – 7000 nm. A broad absorption band in the range 500 – 1500 nm has been observed in both doped and undoped regions of the sample. This band is possibly due to deviations from stoichiometry in the course of diffusion doping. The transmission of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe sample at a wavelength of 2940 nm has been measured at various dopant concentrations and high peak pulse intensities (up to 8 MW cm{sup -2}). The samples have been shown to be incompletely bleached: during a laser pulse, the transmission first increases, reaches a maximum, and then falls off. Our results suggest that the incomplete bleaching cannot be accounted for by excited-state absorption. The incomplete bleaching (as well as the transmission maximum) is due to the heating of the sample, which leads to a reduction in upper level lifetime and, accordingly, to an increase in absorption saturation intensity. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  12. Kalman filter parameter estimation for a nonlinear diffusion model of epithelial cell migration using stochastic collocation and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jared; Tanase, Roxana; Yotov, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Several Kalman filter algorithms are presented for data assimilation and parameter estimation for a nonlinear diffusion model of epithelial cell migration. These include the ensemble Kalman filter with Monte Carlo sampling and a stochastic collocation (SC) Kalman filter with structured sampling. Further, two types of noise are considered -uncorrelated noise resulting in one stochastic dimension for each element of the spatial grid and correlated noise parameterized by the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion resulting in one stochastic dimension for each KL term. The efficiency and accuracy of the four methods are investigated for two cases with synthetic data with and without noise, as well as data from a laboratory experiment. While it is observed that all algorithms perform reasonably well in matching the target solution and estimating the diffusion coefficient and the growth rate, it is illustrated that the algorithms that employ SC and KL expansion are computationally more efficient, as they require fewer ensemble members for comparable accuracy. In the case of SC methods, this is due to improved approximation in stochastic space compared to Monte Carlo sampling. In the case of KL methods, the parameterization of the noise results in a stochastic space of smaller dimension. The most efficient method is the one combining SC and KL expansion.

  13. Theoretical study on nonlinear optical properties of the Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)dimer, trimer and its polymer with diffuse excess electrons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang Tao; Chen, Wei; Gu, Feng Long; Aoki, Yuriko

    2010-03-01

    The static (hyper)polarizabilities of the dimer and trimer with diffuse excess electrons, [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n), are firstly investigated by the DFT(B3LYP) method in detail. For the dimer and trimer, a Li atom inside each calix[4]pyrrole unit is ionized to form a diffuse excess electron. The results show that the dimer and trimer containing two and three excess electrons, respectively, have very large first hyperpolarizablities as 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.0 x 10(4) au, which are 30 and 40 times larger than that of the corresponding [calix[4]pyrrole](n) (n = 2, 3) without Li atom. Also, beta values of dimer and trimer are twice and four times as large as that of monomer containing one excess electron. Obviously, not only excess electron but also the number of excess electron plays an important role in increasing the first hyperpolarizability. Moreover, the (hyper)polarizabilities of the [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n) polymer are investigated at ab initio level by using the elongation finite-field (elongation FF) method. All the oligomers of the [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n) with many excess electrons exhibit very large first hyperpolarizability and large second hyperpolarizability. The present investigation shows that by introducing several and more excess electrons into the nonlinear optical (NLO) materials will be an important strategy for improving their NLO properties, which will be helpful for design of NLO materials.

  14. Anticrossing double Fano resonances generated in metallic/dielectric hybrid nanostructures using nonradiative anapole modes for enhanced nonlinear optical effects.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Wu-Chao; Qiao, Tie-Zhu; Cai, Dong-Jin; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Jing-Dong; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Shao-Ding

    2016-11-28

    Third-harmonic generation with metallic or dielectric nanoparticles often suffer from, respectively, small modal volumes and weak near-field enhancements. This study propose and demonstrate that a metallic/dielectric hybrid nanostructure composed of a silver double rectangular nanoring and a silicon square nanoplate can be used to overcome these obstacles for enhanced third-harmonic generation. It is shown that the nonradiative anapole mode of the Si plate can be used as a localized source to excite the dark subradiant octupole mode of the Ag ring, and the mode hybridization leads to the formation of an antibonding and a bonding subradiant collective mode, thereby forming anticrossing double Fano resonances. With the strong coupling between individual particles and the effectively suppressed radiative losses of the Fano resonances, several strong hot spots are generated around the Ag ring due to the excitation of the octupole mode, and electromagnetic fields within the Si plate are also strongly amplified, making it possible to confine more incident energy inside the dielectric nanoparticle. Calculation results reveal that the confined energy inside the Si plate and the Ag ring for the hybrid structures can be about, respectively, more than three times and four orders stronger than that of the corresponding isolated nanoparticles, which makes the designed hybrid nanostructure a promising platform for enhanced third-harmonic generation.

  15. Gradient Nonlinearity Correction to Improve Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Accuracy and Standardization in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network 6698 Breast Cancer Trial

    PubMed Central

    Newitt, David C.; Tan, Ek T.; Wilmes, Lisa J.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Kornak, John; Marinelli, Luca; Hylton, Nola

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a gradient nonlinearity correction (GNC) program for quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements on phantom and human subject diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in a multicenter breast cancer treatment response study Materials and Methods A GNC program using fifth-order spherical harmonics for gradient modeling was applied retrospectively to qualification phantom and human subject scans. Ice-water phantoms of known diffusion coefficient were scanned at five different study centers with different scanners and receiver coils. Human in vivo data consisted of baseline and early-treatment exams on 54 patients from four sites. ADC maps were generated with and without GNC. Regions of interest were defined to quantify absolute errors and changes with GNC over breast imaging positions. Results Phantom ADC errors varied with region of interest (ROI) position and scanner configuration; the mean error by configuration ranged from 1.4% to 19.9%. GNC significantly reduced the overall mean error for all sites from 9.9% to 0.6% (P = 0.016). Spatial dependence of GNC was highest in the right-left (RL) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Human subject mean tumor ADC was reduced 0.2 to 12% by GNC at different sites. By regression, every 1-cm change in tumor ROI position between baseline and follow-up visits resulted in an estimated change of 2.4% in the ADC early-treatment response measurement. Conclusion GNC is effective for removing large, system-dependent errors in quantitative breast DWI. GNC may be important in ensuring reproducibility in multicenter studies and in reducing errors in longitudinal treatment response measures arising from spatial variations in tumor position between visits. PMID:25758543

  16. Regularized iterative integration combined with non-linear diffusion filtering for phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Burger, Karin; Koehler, Thomas; Chabior, Michael; Allner, Sebastian; Marschner, Mathias; Fehringer, Andreas; Willner, Marian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Noël, Peter

    2014-12-29

    Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography has a high potential to become clinically implemented because of its complementarity to conventional absorption-contrast.In this study, we investigate noise-reducing but resolution-preserving analytical reconstruction methods to improve differential phase-contrast imaging. We apply the non-linear Perona-Malik filter on phase-contrast data prior or post filtered backprojected reconstruction. Secondly, the Hilbert kernel is replaced by regularized iterative integration followed by ramp filtered backprojection as used for absorption-contrast imaging. Combining the Perona-Malik filter with this integration algorithm allows to successfully reveal relevant sample features, quantitatively confirmed by significantly increased structural similarity indices and contrast-to-noise ratios. With this concept, phase-contrast imaging can be performed at considerably lower dose.

  17. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  18. Consequences of using nonlinear particle trajectories to compute spatial diffusion coefficients. [for charged particles in interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    The propagation of charged particles through interstellar and interplanetary space has often been described as a random process in which the particles are scattered by ambient electromagnetic turbulence. In general, this changes both the magnitude and direction of the particles' momentum. Some situations for which scattering in direction (pitch angle) is of primary interest were studied. A perturbed orbit, resonant scattering theory for pitch-angle diffusion in magnetostatic turbulence was slightly generalized and then utilized to compute the diffusion coefficient for spatial propagation parallel to the mean magnetic field, Kappa. All divergences inherent in the quasilinear formalism when the power spectrum of the fluctuation field falls off as K to the minus Q power (Q less than 2) were removed. Various methods of computing Kappa were compared and limits on the validity of the theory discussed. For Q less than 1 or 2, the various methods give roughly comparable values of Kappa, but use of perturbed orbits systematically results in a somewhat smaller Kappa than can be obtained from quasilinear theory.

  19. Impact of drift gap, N-layer, and deep N+ sinker on breakdown voltage and saturation current of lateral double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor transistor.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kunsik; Won, Taeyoung

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss on the optimal design of a High-Side n-channel Lateral Double-diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (LDMOSFET) whose breakdown voltage is over 100 V with 0.35 microm Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process. The proposed nLDMOSFET has been fabricated and tested in order to confirm the features of a deep N+ sinker and a gap of between the drift region (DEEP N-WELL) and the center of the source. The surface is implanted by the N-layer for high breakdown voltage and simultaneously the low specific on-resistance. The computer simulation of the proposed High-Side LDMOS exhibits BVdss of 115 V and Ron,sp of as low as 2.20 m ohms cm2, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  20. Lattice Bhatnagar Gross Krook Simulations of Hydromagnetic Double-Diffusive Convection in a Rectangular Enclosure with Opposing Temperature and Concentration Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chang-Feng; Shi, Bao-Chang

    2006-07-01

    The temperature-concentration lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (TCLBGK) model with a robust boundary scheme is developed for two-dimensional hydromagnetic double-diffusive convective flow of a binary gas mixture in a rectangular enclosure, in which the upper and lower walls are insulated, while the left and right walls are constant temperature and constant concentration, and a uniform magnetic field is applied in the x-direction. In the model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are solved by three independent LBGK equations, which are combined into a coupled equation for the whole system. In our simulations, we take the Prandtl number Pr = 1.0, the Lewis number Le = 2.0, the thermal Rayleigh number RaT = 105, and the aspect ratio A = 2 for the enclosure. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with those of previous studies.

  1. Rapid calculation of diffuse reflectance from a multilayered model by combination of the white Monte Carlo and adding-doubling methods

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kenichiro; Nishidate, Izumi

    2014-01-01

    To rapidly derive a result for diffuse reflectance from a multilayered model that is equivalent to that of a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS), we propose a combination of a layered white MCS and the adding-doubling method. For slabs with various scattering coefficients assuming a certain anisotropy factor and without absorption, we calculate the transition matrices for light flow with respect to the incident and exit angles. From this series of precalculated transition matrices, we can calculate the transition matrices for the multilayered model with the specific anisotropy factor. The relative errors of the results of this method compared to a conventional MCS were less than 1%. We successfully used this method to estimate the chromophore concentration from the reflectance spectrum of a numerical model of skin and in vivo human skin tissue. PMID:25426319

  2. Condensation-inhibited convection in hydrogen-rich atmospheres . Stability against double-diffusive processes and thermal profiles for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Jérémy; Selsis, Franck; Hersant, Franck; Guillot, Tristan

    2017-02-01

    In an atmosphere, a cloud condensation region is characterized by a strong vertical gradient in the abundance of the related condensing species. On Earth, the ensuing gradient of mean molecular weight has relatively few dynamical consequences because N2 is heavier than water vapor, so that only the release of latent heat significantly impacts convection. On the contrary, in a hydrogen dominated atmosphere (e.g., giant planets), all condensing species are significantly heavier than the background gas. This can stabilize the atmosphere against convection near a cloud deck if the enrichment in the given species exceeds a critical threshold. This raises two questions. What is transporting energy in such a stabilized layer, and how affected can the thermal profile of giant planets be? To answer these questions, we first carry out a linear analysis of the convective and double-diffusive instabilities in a condensable medium showing that an efficient condensation can suppress double-diffusive convection. This suggests that a stable radiative layer can form near a cloud condensation level, leading to an increase in the temperature of the deep adiabat. Then, we investigate the impact of the condensation of the most abundant species (water) with a steady-state atmosphere model. Compared to standard models, the temperature increase can reach several hundred degrees at the quenching depth of key chemical tracers. Overall, this effect could have many implications for our understanding of the dynamical and chemical state of the atmosphere of giant planets, for their future observations (with Juno for example), and for their internal evolution.

  3. Polymeric nanoparticles of siRNA prepared by a double-emulsion solvent-diffusion technique: Physicochemical properties, toxicity, biodistribution and efficacy in a mammary carcinoma mice model.

    PubMed

    Ben David-Naim, Meital; Grad, Etty; Aizik, Gil; Nordling-David, Mirjam M; Moshel, Ofra; Granot, Zvi; Golomb, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    siRNA-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) administered systemically can overcome the poor stability and rapid elimination of free double-stranded RNA in circulation, resulting in increased tumor accumulation and efficacy. siRNA against osteopontin (siOPN), a protein involved in breast cancer development, was encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) NPs by a double emulsion solvent diffusion (DESD) technique. We also compared the effect of polyethylenimine (PEI) molecular weight (800 Da and 25 kDa), used as the counter-ion for siRNA complexation, on the physicochemical properties of the NPs, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake. NPs prepared by the DESD technique were obtained at the desired size (∼170 nm) using both types of PEIs, and were characterized with a neutral surface charge, high encapsulation yield (up to ∼60%), siOPN concentration of 5.6-8.4 μg/mg, stability in physiologic conditions in vitro and in vivo, and long-term shelf-life stability (> 3 years). The NPs prepared using both PEIs exhibited no cytotoxicity in primary smooth muscle culture, and no detrimental effect on mice liver enzymes following their IV administration. Following cellular uptake and biodistribution studies, the therapeutic potential of the NPs was demonstrated by a significant decrease of tumor progression and size in an ectopic xenograft model of mammary carcinoma in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional diffusion of botulinum toxin in facial muscles: a randomised double-blind study and a consideration for clinical studies with split-face design.

    PubMed

    Punga, Anna Rostedt; Eriksson, Annika; Alimohammadi, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Despite the extensive use of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) in medical and cosmetic treatments, the potential spreading of BoNTA to surrounding tissues remains unknown. A patient with hemifacial paralysis upon blepharospasm treatment with low dose of BoNTA, prompted us to investigate the spreading effect. A randomised, double-blind study was conducted in which 5 healthy women (33-52 years) were treated with different doses of onabotulinum toxin unilaterally in the corrugator muscle. Parameters of efficacy and diffusion (CMAP; EMG and jitter analysis) in both glabellar and frontalis muscles were assessed at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks following BoNTA injection. CMAP of the treated glabellar muscles was reduced to approximately 40% in all dose groups. Additionally, contralateral CMAP reduction was observed in 3 of 5 subjects. These data confirm regional diffusion of BoNTA in facial muscle application, which raises question on the reliability of split-face models in BoNTA studies.

  5. A Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Using a Proportional Integral Derivative with Double Phase Lead Controller Based on a New Nonlinear Model of Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Ilham Ben; Richard, Pierre-Yves; Lefebvre, Marie-Anne; Guilhem, Isabelle; Poirier, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Background Most closed-loop insulin delivery systems rely on model-based controllers to control the blood glucose (BG) level. Simple models of glucose metabolism, which allow easy design of the control law, are limited in their parametric identification from raw data. New control models and controllers issued from them are needed. Methods A proportional integral derivative with double phase lead controller was proposed. Its design was based on a linearization of a new nonlinear control model of the glucose–insulin system in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients validated with the University of Virginia/Padova T1DM metabolic simulator. A 36 h scenario, including six unannounced meals, was tested in nine virtual adults. A previous trial database has been used to compare the performance of our controller with their previous results. The scenario was repeated 25 times for each adult in order to take continuous glucose monitoring noise into account. The primary outcome was the time BG levels were in target (70–180 mg/dl). Results Blood glucose values were in the target range for 77% of the time and below 50 mg/dl and above 250 mg/dl for 0.8% and 0.3% of the time, respectively. The low blood glucose index and high blood glucose index were 1.65 and 3.33, respectively. Conclusion The linear controller presented, based on the linearization of a new easily identifiable nonlinear model, achieves good glucose control with low exposure to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. PMID:23759403

  6. Real-Time Measurement and Correction of Both B0 Changes and Subject Motion in Diffusion Tensor Imaging Using a Double Volumetric Navigated (DvNav) Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Alhamud, A.; Taylor, Paul A.; van der Kouwe, A.J.W.; Meintjes, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) requires a set of diffusion weighted measurements in order to acquire enough information to characterize local structure. The MRI scanner automatically performs a shimming process by acquiring a field map before the start of a DTI scan. Changes in B0, which can occur throughout the DTI acquisition due to several factors (including heating of the iron shim coils or subject motion), cause significant signal distortions that result in warped diffusion tensor (DT) parameter estimates. In this work we introduce a novel technique to simultaneously measure, report and correct in real time subject motion and changes in B0 field homogeneity, both in and through the imaging plane. This is achieved using double volumetric navigators (DvNav), i.e. a pair of 3D EPI acquisitions, interleaved with the DTI pulse sequence. Changes in the B0 field are evaluated in terms of zero-order (frequency) and first-order (linear gradients) shim. The ability of the DvNav to accurately estimate the shim parameters was first validated in a water phantom. Two healthy subjects were scanned both in the presence and absence of motion using standard, motion corrected (single navigator, vNav), and DvNav DTI sequences. The difference in performance between the proposed 3D EPI field maps and the standard 3D gradient echo field maps of the MRI scanner was also evaluated in a phantom and two healthy subjects. The DvNav sequence was shown to accurately measure and correct changes in B0 following manual adjustments of the scanner’s central frequency and the linear shim gradients. Compared to other methods, the DvNav produced DTI results that showed greater spatial overlap with anatomical references, particularly in scans with subject motion. This is largely due to the ability of the DvNav system to correct shim changes and subject motion between each volume acquisition, thus reducing shear distortion. PMID:26584865

  7. Characterization of nonOhmic electrical transport in double perovskite compounds through bias scale and nonlinearity exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, D.; Nandi, U. N.; Jana, D.; Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Scaling analysis of nonOhmic electrical transport in double perovskite (DP) compounds like La2NiMnO6 and Sr2Fe0.3Mn0.7MoO6 is presented over a wide range of electric bias and temperatures. It is shown that the voltage V0(T) at which conductance deviates from its Ohmic value Σ0(T) scales with Σ0(T) as V0(T) ∼Σ0(T) xT , xT being the onset exponent characterizing the onset of nonOhmic conduction. Interestingly, it was found that xT is negative and insensitive to the nature of conduction mechanism in DPs but is related to the characteristic temperature T0 and the mean hopping length Hm. We provide a scaling formalism in terms of the parameters V0(T) and xT in DPs for deeper understanding of the spintronic application and the electrode functioning in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Inelastic multi-step tunneling is found to be the suitable mechanism of electronic transport characterized completely by these two parameters.

  8. Prediction of the moments in advection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann method. II. Attenuation of the boundary layers via double-Λ bounce-back flux scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Irina

    2017-01-01

    to vanish or attenuate the disparity of the modeled transport coefficients with the equilibrium weights without any modification of the BB rule, we propose to use the two-relaxation-times collision operator with free-tunable product of two eigenfunctions Λ . Two different values Λv and Λb are assigned for bulk and boundary nodes, respectively. The rationale behind this is that Λv is adjustable for stability, accuracy, or other purposes, while the corresponding Λb(Λv) controls the primary accommodation effects. Two distinguished but similar functional relations Λb(Λv) are constructed analytically: they preserve advection velocity in parabolic profile, exactly in the two-dimensional channel and very accurately in a three-dimensional cylindrical capillary. For any velocity-weight stencil, the (local) double-Λ BB scheme produces quasi-identical solutions with the (nonlocal) specular-forward reflection for first four moments in a channel. In a capillary, this strategy allows for the accurate modeling of the Taylor-dispersion and non-Gaussian effects. As illustrative example, it is shown that in the flow around a circular obstacle, the double-Λ scheme may also vanish the dependency of mean velocity on the velocity weight; the required value for Λb(Λv) can be identified in a few bisection iterations in given geometry. A positive solution for Λb(Λv) may not exist in pure diffusion, but a sufficiently small value of Λb significantly reduces the disparity in diffusion coefficient with the mass weight in ducts and in the presence of rectangular obstacles. Although Λb also controls the effective position of straight or curved boundaries, the double-Λ scheme deals with the lower-order effects. Its idea and construction may help understanding and amelioration of the anomalous, zero- and first-order behavior of the macroscopic solution in the presence of the bulk and boundary or interface discontinuities, commonly found in multiphase flow and heterogeneous

  9. Prediction of the moments in advection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann method. II. Attenuation of the boundary layers via double-Λ bounce-back flux scheme.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Irina

    2017-01-01

    to vanish or attenuate the disparity of the modeled transport coefficients with the equilibrium weights without any modification of the BB rule, we propose to use the two-relaxation-times collision operator with free-tunable product of two eigenfunctions Λ. Two different values Λ_{v} and Λ_{b} are assigned for bulk and boundary nodes, respectively. The rationale behind this is that Λ_{v} is adjustable for stability, accuracy, or other purposes, while the corresponding Λ_{b}(Λ_{v}) controls the primary accommodation effects. Two distinguished but similar functional relations Λ_{b}(Λ_{v}) are constructed analytically: they preserve advection velocity in parabolic profile, exactly in the two-dimensional channel and very accurately in a three-dimensional cylindrical capillary. For any velocity-weight stencil, the (local) double-Λ BB scheme produces quasi-identical solutions with the (nonlocal) specular-forward reflection for first four moments in a channel. In a capillary, this strategy allows for the accurate modeling of the Taylor-dispersion and non-Gaussian effects. As illustrative example, it is shown that in the flow around a circular obstacle, the double-Λ scheme may also vanish the dependency of mean velocity on the velocity weight; the required value for Λ_{b}(Λ_{v}) can be identified in a few bisection iterations in given geometry. A positive solution for Λ_{b}(Λ_{v}) may not exist in pure diffusion, but a sufficiently small value of Λ_{b} significantly reduces the disparity in diffusion coefficient with the mass weight in ducts and in the presence of rectangular obstacles. Although Λ_{b} also controls the effective position of straight or curved boundaries, the double-Λ scheme deals with the lower-order effects. Its idea and construction may help understanding and amelioration of the anomalous, zero- and first-order behavior of the macroscopic solution in the presence of the bulk and boundary or interface discontinuities, commonly found in

  10. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Recombinant Human Relaxin in the Treatment of Systemic Sclerosis with Diffuse Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Dinesh; Clements, Philip J.; Furst, Daniel E.; Korn, Joseph H.; Ellman, Michael; Rothfield, Naomi; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Moreland, Larry W.; Silver, Richard; Kim, Youn H.; Steen, Virginia D.; Firestein G, Gary S.; Kavanaugh, Arthur F.; Weisman, Michael; Mayes, Maureen D.; Collier, David; Csuka, Mary E.; Simms, Robert; Merkel, Peter A.; Medsger, Thomas A.; Sanders, Martin E.; Maranian, Paul; Seibold, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose A phase II randomized controlled trial of recombinant human relaxin suggested that 25 ug/kg/day was safe and clinically effective in improving skin disease and functional disability in scleroderma. We report the results of a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing placebo with recombinant human relaxin, 10 ug/kg of body weight per day and 25 ug/kg per day, given for 24 weeks in patients with stable, diffuse, moderate to severe scleroderma (SSc). Methods Men and women 18 to 70 years of age with diffuse SSc, disease duration ≤ 5 years since the onset of the first non-Raynaud sign or symptom, a baseline modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS) of 20 or greater, or at least 16 if truncal involvement was present. Recombinant human relaxin (10 or 25 ug/kg/day), or placebo was administered for 24 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion and there was a follow-up safety visit at week 28. Results The primary outcome measure, the MRSS, was similar between the 3 groups at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, and 24 (P=NS). Secondary outcomes such as functional disability were similar in all 3 groups and the forced vital capacity significantly decreased in the relaxin groups (p< 0.04). The discontinuation of relaxin (both doses) at week 24 led to statistically significant declines in creatinine clearance and serious renal adverse events (defined as either doubling of baseline serum creatinine, renal crisis, or grade 3 or 4 hypertension) in 7 patients who had received relaxin therapy but in none who had received placebo (p=0.04). Conclusion Recombinant relaxin was not significantly better than placebo in improving total skin score, pulmonary function, or functional disability in patients with diffuse SSc. In addition, relaxin was associated with serious renal adverse events, the majority of which occurred after stopping the infusion. If relaxin is used therapeutically for any conditions other than scleroderma, close monitoring of

  11. Mixed convection flow of couple stress fluid between rotating discs with chemical reaction and double diffusion effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladhar, K.; Srinivasacharya, D.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical reaction, Soret and Dufour effects on steady flow of a couple stress fluid between two rotating disks are studied. The lower disc is rotating with angular velocity Ω1 where as the upper disc is rotating with Ω2. The density variation in centrifugal and Coriolis force terms are taken into consideration by invoking a linear density-temperature relation and Boussinesq approximation to account the buoyancy effects. The non-linear governing partial differential equations are transformed into system of ordinary differential equations by using the similarity transformations. Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) has been used to solve the resulting equations. Graphical illustrations of the dimensionless velocity, concentration and temperature profiles are presented at different values of the emerging parameter of the present study. It has been found that as an increase in couple stresses leads to the decrease in velocity, temperature and increase in concentration of the fluid. Flow velocities, temperature and concentration profiles are decreases with an increase in reaction parameter.

  12. Perceptibility of double-slope reverberation decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Derrick P.; Shimizu, Yasushi; Torres, Rendell R.

    2002-11-01

    No concert hall has a perfectly diffuse field, although many are close enough that their decay is perceived as linear. In recent years, concert hall acousticians have taken steps to ensure more exaggerated double-sloped (nonlinear) decays in their concert halls by using coupled volumes. Some acousticians feel that a coupled volume gives a hall a balance between clarity (subjectively speaking) and reverberance. However, there have been no studies done to determine when a nonlinear decay becomes perceptibly different from a linear decay. This work seeks to identify the threshold of perception for nonlinear decays. Nonlinear impulse responses of different lengths are generated by first computing uncoupled impulse responses of a concert hall and a coupled volume in CATT-Acoustic. The two linear impulse responses are convolved in matlab. These convolved impulse responses are manipulated to systematically vary the degree of nonlinear decay. The various nonlinear impulse responses are then convolved with anechoic signals with different temporal characteristics and presented to listeners for evaluation. From these evaluations, a criteria is derived to determine when a nonlinear decay becomes audibly different from a linear decay to a listener for various representative signals.

  13. Nonlinear Dichroism in Back-to-Back Double Ionization of He by an Intense Elliptically Polarized Few-Cycle Extreme Ultraviolet Pulse.

    PubMed

    Ngoko Djiokap, J M; Manakov, N L; Meremianin, A V; Hu, S X; Madsen, L B; Starace, Anthony F

    2014-11-28

    Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum. We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse.

  14. [DNA double-strand breaks in human lymphocytes after single irradiation by low doses of pulsed X-rays: non-linear dose-response relationship].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, S A; Stepanova, E Iu; Kutenkov, O P; Belenko, A A; Zharkova, L P; Bol'shakov, M A; Lebedev, I N; Rostov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation registered in cells after low dose irradiation are still poorly understood. A pulsed mode of irradiation is even more problematic in terms of predicting the radiation-induced response in cells. Thus, the aim of this paper was to study and analyze the effects of dose and frequency of pulsed X-rays on the frequency of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks and their repair kinetics in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Analysis of radiation-induced gammaH2AX and 53BP1 repair foci was used to assess the DNA damage in these cells. The dose-response curve of radiation-induced foci of both proteins has shown deviations from linearity to a higher effect in the 12-32 mGy dose range and a lower effect at 72 mGy. The dose-response curve was linear at doses higher than 100 mGy. The number of radiation-induced gammaH2AX and 53BP1 foci depended on the frequency of X-ray pulses: the highest effect was registered at 13 pulses per second. Moreover, slower repair kinetics was observed for those foci induced by very low doses with a nonlinear dose-response relationship.

  15. Novel double-layer titanium boride coating on CP-titanium and titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy: Kinetics of boron diffusion and coating morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikekar, Nishant M.

    2007-12-01

    Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and its alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, have found widespread use in aerospace, mechanical and biomedical industries due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Although these materials provide significant engineering performance, problems such as galling, seizing and poor wear resistance have limited their use. One way of achieving increased wear performance is by modifying their surface properties by deposition of a suitable coating via solid-state diffusion. Hence, this research has been undertaken with the objective of developing a powder-based process for depositing a thick double-layer boride (TiB2 + TiB) coating on Ti-6Al-4V and CP-Ti and a simple solid-state diffusion model to predict the growth kinetics of TiB2 and TiB layers of the coating, based on processing parameters. The powder composition that resulted in maximum double-layer thickness with clean surface finish was found to be: Composition A (where, A = powder mixture of boron source, transport medium and scavenger). Boriding experiments were conducted in the temperature range 950-1200°C on Ti-6Al-4V and 850-1050°C on CP-Ti samples for time periods studied ranging from 3 to 24 hours at different temperatures. The growth kinetics of TiB2 and total (TiB2 + TiB) layers seem to be parabolic. The layer growth kinetics of TiB was found to be nonparabolic. TiB whiskers had different morphologies at temperatures above and below the beta-transus temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and CP-Ti. For both materials, typically, TiB whiskers were thin below the beta-transus temperature and thicker above it. The theoretical model seems to show good agreement with the experimental data of TiB2 thicknesses on CP-Ti at all the temperatures studied. For total (TiB2 + TiB) coating thicknesses, the model showed good agreement with experimental data at all temperatures, except 1050°C. In case of Ti-6Al-4V, the model showed good agreement

  16. Investigating the Long-term Variability of 4U1705-44; Evidence for an Underlying Nonlinear Double-Welled Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2016-04-01

    The bright low-mass X-ray binary 4U1705-44 exhibits long-term semi-periodic variability with a timescale of several hundred days. The All-Sky Monitor (ASM) aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Japanese X-ray All-Sky Monitor (MAXI) aboard the International Space Station together have continuously observed the source from December 1995 through the present. The combined ASM-MAXI data provides a continuous time series over fifty times the length of the timescale of interest. The phase space embedding of the flux versus its first derivative shows a strong resemblance to a double-welled nonlinear oscillator. When comparing our time series against well-known nonlinear oscillators, we find that 4U1705-44 exhibits behavior akin to the Duffing oscillator. Topological analysis can help us identify ‘fingerprints’ in the phase space of a system unique to its equations of motion. If such ‘fingerprints’ are the same between two systems, then their equations of motion must be closely related. We therefore found a range of parameters for which the Duffing oscillator closely follows the time evolution of 4U1705-44 and from this range chose 6 different numerical Duffing time series. We can extract low-period, unstable periodic orbits from both the 4U1705-44 and numerical Duffing time series and compare their topological information in phase space, such as their relative rotation rates. We argue that the associated period-1 orbit in 4U1705-44 has a period between 130 and 170 days. The driving periods of our 6 numerical time series correspond to 140 to 175 days. Assigning a logical sequence name to each orbit, the relative rotation rates can be compiled into a unique ‘intertwining’ matrix. The numerical Duffing time series and the 4U1705-44 intertwining matrices are identical, which provides strong evidence that they share the same underlying template. The implications of this equivalence suggests that we can look to the Duffing equation to describe the X

  17. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages.

    PubMed

    Højgaard Olesen, Laurits; Bazant, Martin Z; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    We study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a large ac voltage of frequency comparable to the inverse cell relaxation time. To bring out the basic physics, we consider the simplest possible model of a symmetric binary electrolyte confined between parallel-plate blocking electrodes, ignoring any transverse instability or fluid flow. We analyze the resulting one-dimensional problem by matched asymptotic expansions in the limit of thin double layers and extend previous work into the strongly nonlinear regime, which is characterized by two features--significant salt depletion in the electrolyte near the electrodes and, at very large voltage, the breakdown of the quasiequilibrium structure of the double layers. The former leads to the prediction of "ac capacitive desalination" since there is a time-averaged transfer of salt from the bulk to the double layers, via oscillating diffusion layers. The latter is associated with transient diffusion limitation, which drives the formation and collapse of space-charge layers, even in the absence of any net Faradaic current through the cell. We also predict that steric effects of finite ion sizes (going beyond dilute-solution theory) act to suppress the strongly nonlinear regime in the limit of concentrated electrolytes, ionic liquids, and molten salts. Beyond the model problem, our reduced equations for thin double layers, based on uniformly valid matched asymptotic expansions, provide a useful mathematical framework to describe additional nonlinear responses to large ac voltages, such as Faradaic reactions, electro-osmotic instabilities, and induced-charge electrokinetic phenomena.

  18. An Airy beam as a self-similar solution to the problem of slit laser beam propagation in a linear medium and in a photorefractive crystal with diffusion nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, V A; Petnikova, V M; Shuvalov, V V

    2013-10-31

    We have analysed self-similar solutions to the propagation problem of a slit beam with a plane wavefront in a linear medium and in a photorefractive crystal with diffusion nonlinearity. It is shown that in the latter case, despite the presence of the nonlinear term in the wave equation, the linear superposition principle holds true for the solutions of this class due to saturation. At the same time, the mirror symmetry violation of the wave equation for the transverse coordinate in the nonlinear case and the requirement to the spatial localisation modify one of the localised partial solutions (Airy beam) to the corresponding linear problem and prohibit the existence of other solutions of this class. (laser beams)

  19. Finite element analysis of double-diffusive natural convection in a porous triangular enclosure filled with Al2O3 -water nanofluid in presence of heat generation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Raju; Parvin, Salma; Khan, Md Abdul Hakim

    2016-08-01

    The problem of double-diffusive natural convection of Al2O3 -water nanofluid in a porous triangular enclosure in presence of heat generation has been studied numerically in this paper. The bottom wall of the cavity is heated isothermally, the left inclined wall is non-isothermal and the right inclined wall is considered to be cold. The concentration is higher at bottom wall, lower at right inclined wall and non-isoconcentration at left inclined wall of the cavity. The governing equations are transformed to the dimensionless form and solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual technique of finite element method. The results are obtained in terms of streamlines, isotherms, isoconcentrations, average Nueeslt number (Nu) and average Sherwood number (Sh) for the parameters thermal Rayleigh number (RaT ), dimensionless heat generation parameter (λ), solid volume fraction (ϕ) and Lewis number (Le) while Prandtl number (Pr), Buoyancy ratio (N) and Darcy number (Da) are considered to be fixed. It is observed that flow pattern, temperature fields and concentration fields are affected by the variation of above considered parameters.

  20. Novel Bulk Silicon Lateral Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Using Step Thickness Technology in Drift Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shi; Guo, Yufeng; Yao, Jiafei; Hua, Tingting; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Changchun; Ji, Xincun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a novel bulk silicon lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (LDMOS) using step thickness technology in drift region is proposed. The drift region is divided into several zones with different thicknesses increasing from source to drain. Owing to modulation effect of the step thickness drift region, new additional electric field peaks are introduced in the drift region, thus leading to the reduction of the surface electric fields and the increase of the breakdown voltage. The influences of device parameters on breakdown voltage and specific on-resistance are investigated using semiconductor device simulator, MEDICI. The simulation results indicate that an 18.4% increase in the breakdown voltage and a 42.5% increase in the figure of merit (FOM) are obtained in the novel device in comparison with the conventional LDMOS. Furthermore, single step can lead to approximately ideal FOM in comparison with the multiple steps, so that can obtain a suitable trade-off between fabrication costs and performance.