NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prudenzano, F.; Ciminelli, C.; D'Orazio, A.; Petruzzelli, V.; Sario, M. De
The effects of double Ti and Mg diffusion into lithium niobate couplers exploiting cascaded second-order nonlinearity are theoretically investigated. We demonstrate that this technology may be employed to optimize the performance of a new type of coupler made by uniaxial crystal having an unusual dielectric tensor configuration, i.e. equatorial. An extended version of the simple effective index method is developed in order to take into account the complex nature of hybrid modes. A home-made computer code is utilized in the electromagnetic analysis of rotated anisotropic channel waveguides. As an example, the simulation results show that a magnesium diffusion, made in the external region of a Ti : LiNbO 3 coupler which induces negative extraordinary and ordinary changes of the refractive indices of LiNbO 3 Δn e( Mg) =-0.002 and Δ no(Mg)=-0.001, decreases the linear coupling length from Lc=73 to 44 mm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budroni, M. A.
2015-12-01
Cross diffusion, whereby a flux of a given species entrains the diffusive transport of another species, can trigger buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface of initially stable stratifications. Starting from a simple three-component case, we introduce a theoretical framework to classify cross-diffusion-induced hydrodynamic phenomena in two-layer stratifications under the action of the gravitational field. A cross-diffusion-convection (CDC) model is derived by coupling the fickian diffusion formalism to Stokes equations. In order to isolate the effect of cross-diffusion in the convective destabilization of a double-layer system, we impose a starting concentration jump of one species in the bottom layer while the other one is homogeneously distributed over the spatial domain. This initial configuration avoids the concurrence of classic Rayleigh-Taylor or differential-diffusion convective instabilities, and it also allows us to activate selectively the cross-diffusion feedback by which the heterogeneously distributed species influences the diffusive transport of the other species. We identify two types of hydrodynamic modes [the negative cross-diffusion-driven convection (NCC) and the positive cross-diffusion-driven convection (PCC)], corresponding to the sign of this operational cross-diffusion term. By studying the space-time density profiles along the gravitational axis we obtain analytical conditions for the onset of convection in terms of two important parameters only: the operational cross-diffusivity and the buoyancy ratio, giving the relative contribution of the two species to the global density. The general classification of the NCC and PCC scenarios in such parameter space is supported by numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear CDC problem. The resulting convective patterns compare favorably with recent experimental results found in microemulsion systems.
Budroni, M A
2015-12-01
Cross diffusion, whereby a flux of a given species entrains the diffusive transport of another species, can trigger buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface of initially stable stratifications. Starting from a simple three-component case, we introduce a theoretical framework to classify cross-diffusion-induced hydrodynamic phenomena in two-layer stratifications under the action of the gravitational field. A cross-diffusion-convection (CDC) model is derived by coupling the fickian diffusion formalism to Stokes equations. In order to isolate the effect of cross-diffusion in the convective destabilization of a double-layer system, we impose a starting concentration jump of one species in the bottom layer while the other one is homogeneously distributed over the spatial domain. This initial configuration avoids the concurrence of classic Rayleigh-Taylor or differential-diffusion convective instabilities, and it also allows us to activate selectively the cross-diffusion feedback by which the heterogeneously distributed species influences the diffusive transport of the other species. We identify two types of hydrodynamic modes [the negative cross-diffusion-driven convection (NCC) and the positive cross-diffusion-driven convection (PCC)], corresponding to the sign of this operational cross-diffusion term. By studying the space-time density profiles along the gravitational axis we obtain analytical conditions for the onset of convection in terms of two important parameters only: the operational cross-diffusivity and the buoyancy ratio, giving the relative contribution of the two species to the global density. The general classification of the NCC and PCC scenarios in such parameter space is supported by numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear CDC problem. The resulting convective patterns compare favorably with recent experimental results found in microemulsion systems. PMID:26764804
Double diffusive natural convection in solar ponds with nonlinear temperature and salinity profiles
Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Gordon, R.F.; Johnson, D.H.
1986-08-01
A solar pond can be used as a thermal energy source provided that convective instabilities do not occur. This paper experimentally examines the stability of a fluid layer with nonlinear salinity and temperature profiles. A nonlinear salt profile was set up in a fluid layer, and the water was heated by a solar radiation simulator. Three stability experiments were conducted. Instabilities occurred at the location of the weakest salinity gradient, and were confined to a thin region, as predicted by theory. A local length scale was used to produce a stability parameter, the ratio of thermal to solute Rayleigh numbers. It is shown that for nonconstant solute and temperature gradients, the appropriate length scale is based on the radius of curvature of the salinity distribution. With this choice of a length scale, good agreement was found between theory and experiment for the onset of an instability.
Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Gordon, R.F.; Johnson, D.H.
1985-04-01
A solar pond can be used as a thermal energy source provided that convective instabilities do not occur. This paper experimentally examines the stability of a fluid layer with nonlinear salinity profiles. A nonlinear salt profile was set up in a 0.7m x 0.7m x 1.4m deep tank, and the water was heated by a solar radiation simulator. Three experiments were conducted, each over a time scale of about one week. An instability was produced in two of the experiments. The instabilities occurred at the location of the weakest salinity gradient, and were confined to a narrow depth, as predicted by theory. A local length scale was used to produce a stability parameter, the ratio of thermal to solute Rayleigh numbers. It is shown that for nonlinear solute gradients, the appropriate length scale is based on the radius of curvature of the salinity distribution. With this choice of a length scale, good agreement was found between theory and experiment for the onset of an instability. However, only fair agreement was obtained for the disturbance frequency.
Double-diffusive layer formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaussinger, Florian; Kupka, Friedrich; Hücker, Sebastian; Egbers, Christoph
2015-04-01
Double-diffusive convection plays an important role in geo- and astrophysical applications. The special case, where a destabilising temperature gradient counteracts a stabilising solute gradient leads to layering phenomena under certain conditions. Convectively mixed layers sandwiched in diffusive interfaces form a so-called stack. Well-known double-diffusive systems are observed in rift lakes in Africa and even from the coffee drink Latte Macciatto. Stacks of layers are also predicted to occur inside massive stars and inside giant planets. Their dynamics depend on the thermal, the solute and the momentum diffusivities, as well on the ratio of the gradients of the opposing stratifications. Since the layering process cannot be derived from linear stability analysis, the full nonlinear set of equations has to be investigated. Numerical simulations have become feasible for this task, despite the physical processes operate on a vast range of length and time scales, which is challenging for numerical hydrodynamical modelling. The oceanographically relevant case of fresh and salty water is investigated here in further details. The heat and mass transfer is compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements. Additionally, the initial dynamic of layering, the transient behaviour of a stack and the long time evolution are presented using the example of Lake Kivu and the interior of a giant planet.
Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis
Mayergoyz, I.D.
1996-12-31
Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunil; Mahajan, Amit
2009-09-01
A rigorous nonlinear stability result is derived by introducing a suitable generalized energy functional for a magnetized ferrofluid layer heated and soluted from below with magnetic field-dependent (MFD) viscosity, for stress-free boundaries. The mathematical emphasis is on how to control the nonlinear terms caused by magnetic body and inertia forces. For ferrofluids, we find that there is possibility of existence of subcritical instabilities, however, it is noted that in case of non-ferrofluid, global nonlinear stability Rayleigh number is exactly the same as that for linear instability. For lower values of magnetic parameters, this coincidence is immediately lost. The effects of magnetic parameter, M3, solute gradient, S1 and MFD viscosity parameter, δ, on the subcritical instability region have also been analyzed.
Compact waves in microscopic nonlinear diffusion.
Hurtado, P I; Krapivsky, P L
2012-06-01
We analyze the spread of a localized peak of energy into vacuum for nonlinear diffusive processes. In contrast with standard diffusion, the nonlinearity results in a compact wave with a sharp front separating the perturbed region from vacuum. In d spatial dimensions, the front advances as t^{1/(2+da)} according to hydrodynamics, with a the nonlinearity exponent. We show that fluctuations in the front position grow as ∼t^{μ}η, where μ<1/2+da is an exponent that we measure and η is a random variable whose distribution we characterize. Fluctuating corrections to hydrodynamic profiles give rise to an excess penetration into vacuum, revealing scaling behaviors and robust features. We also examine the discharge of a nonlinear rarefaction wave into vacuum. Our results suggest the existence of universal scaling behaviors at the fluctuating level in nonlinear diffusion. PMID:23005044
Nonlinear dynamics of a double bilipid membrane.
Sample, C; Golovin, A A
2007-09-01
The nonlinear dynamics of a biological double membrane that consists of two coupled lipid bilayers, typical of some intracellular organelles such as mitochondria or nuclei, is studied. A phenomenological free-energy functional is formulated in which the curvatures of the two parts of the double membrane and the distance between them are coupled to the lipid chemical composition. The derived nonlinear evolution equations for the double-membrane dynamics are studied analytically and numerically. A linear stability analysis is performed, and the domains of parameters are found in which the double membrane is stable. For the parameter values corresponding to an unstable membrane, numerical simulations are performed that reveal various types of complex dynamics, including the formation of stationary, spatially periodic patterns. PMID:17930289
Nonlinear dynamics of a double bilipid membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sample, C.; Golovin, A. A.
2007-09-01
The nonlinear dynamics of a biological double membrane that consists of two coupled lipid bilayers, typical of some intracellular organelles such as mitochondria or nuclei, is studied. A phenomenological free-energy functional is formulated in which the curvatures of the two parts of the double membrane and the distance between them are coupled to the lipid chemical composition. The derived nonlinear evolution equations for the double-membrane dynamics are studied analytically and numerically. A linear stability analysis is performed, and the domains of parameters are found in which the double membrane is stable. For the parameter values corresponding to an unstable membrane, numerical simulations are performed that reveal various types of complex dynamics, including the formation of stationary, spatially periodic patterns.
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
Koseff, J.R.
1988-05-01
A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating, surface shear and sloping boundaries. The goals of the proposed work include: quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and formulation of numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in a new experimental facility at Stanford and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues. The formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; The interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; The formation of gravitational intrusions; and The influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. The goals of the project were as follows. Physical experiments: Construct experimental facility; Modify and fabricate instrument rakes; Develop sampling and calibration software; Develop stratification techniques; Conduct flow visualization studies; Qualify wind tunnel over a range of wind speeds. Numerical experiments: Adapt REMIXCS to handle turbulent flows; Investigate approaches for specifying wind field; Perform calculations for low wind speeds. With the exception of the wind tunnel qualification, all the tasks have already been completed and we are now conducting quantitative experiments. 2 figs.
Numerical discretization for nonlinear diffusion filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustaffa, I.; Mizuar, I.; Aminuddin, M. M. M.; Dasril, Y.
2015-05-01
Nonlinear diffusion filters are famously used in machine vision for image denoising and restoration. This paper presents a study on the effects of different numerical discretization of nonlinear diffusion filter. Several numerical discretization schemes are presented; namely semi-implicit, AOS, and fully implicit schemes. The results of these schemes are compared by visual results, objective measurement e.g. PSNR and MSE. The results are also compared to a Daubechies wavelet denoising method. It is acknowledged that the two preceding scheme have already been discussed in literature, however comparison to the latter scheme has not been made. The semi-implicit scheme uses an additive operator splitting (AOS) developed to overcome the shortcoming of the explicit scheme i.e., stability for very small time steps. Although AOS has proven to be efficient, from the nonlinear diffusion filter results with different discretization schemes, examples shows that implicit schemes are worth pursuing.
Nonlinear diffusion waves in high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Rybka, D. V.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.
2015-11-01
The nonlinear diffusion of a magnetic field and the large-scale instabilities arising upon an electrical explosion of conductors in a superstrong (2-3 MG) magnetic field were investigated experimentally on the MIG high-current generator (up to 2.5 peak current, 100 ns current rise time). It was observed that in the nonlinear stage of the process, the wavelength of thermal instabilities (striations) increased with a rate of 1.5-3 km/s.
Nonlinear Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalchi, Andreas
Within cosmic ray transport theory, we investigate the interaction between energetic charged particles like electrons, protons, or heavy ions and astrophysical plasmas such as the solar wind or the interstellar medium. These particles interact with a background magnetic field B 0 and with turbulent electric and magnetic fields ýE and ýB, and they therefore experience scattering parallel and perpendicular to B 0. In this introductory chapter, general properties of cosmic rays are discussed, as well as the unperturbed motion of the particles. Furthermore, the physics of parallel and perpendicular scattering is investigated. At the end of this chapter, we consider observed mean free paths of cosmic rays in the heliosphere and in the interstel- lar medium. One aim of this book is to demonstrate that a nonlinear description of particle transport is necessary to reproduce these measurements.
Nonlinear diffusion filtering influenced by mean curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kollár, Michal; Mikula, Karol; Čunderlík, Róbert
2016-04-01
The presentation introduces a new nonlinear diffusion filtering method on closed surfaces such as a sphere, ellipsoid or the Earth's surface. Our new model extends the regularized surface Perona-Malik model by including a local extrema detector based on a mean curvature of processed data. The model is thus represented by a nonlinear diffusion equation which filters noise while preserves main edges, local extrema and details important for a correct interpretation of data. We define a surface finite-volume method to approximate numerically the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation on a closed surface. The closed surface is approximated by a polyhedral surface created by planar triangles representing subdivision of an initial icosahedron grid and we use a piece-wise linear approximation of a solution in space and the backward Euler time discretization. Numerical experiments present nonlinear diffusion filtering of artificial data and real measurements, namely the GOCE satellite observations. They aim to point out a main advantage of the new nonlinear model which, on the contrary of Perona-Malik model, preserves local extremal values of filtered data.
Quasistatic nonlinear characteristics of double-reed instruments.
Almeida, André; Vergez, Christophe; Caussé, René
2007-01-01
This article proposes a characterization of the double reed in quasistatic regimes. The nonlinear relation between the pressure drop, deltap, in the double reed and the volume flow crossing it, q, is measured for slow variations of these variables. The volume flow is determined from the pressure drop in a diaphragm replacing the instrument's bore. Measurements are compared to other experimental results on reed instrument exciters and to physical models, revealing that clarinet, oboe, and bassoon quasistatic behavior relies on similar working principles. Differences in the experimental results are interpreted in terms of pressure recovery due to the conical diffuser role of the downstream part of double-reed mouthpieces (the staple). PMID:17297807
Double-diffusive instabilities in ancient seawater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlowicz, Rich; Scheifele, Ben; Zaloga, Artem; Wuest, Alfred; Sommer, Tobias
2015-04-01
Powell Lake, British Columbia, Canada is a geothermally heated lake about 350m deep with a saline lower layer that was isolated from the ocean by coastal uplift about 11000 years ago, after the last ice age. Careful temperature and conductivity profiling measurements show consistent, stable, and spatially/temporally coherent steps resulting from double-diffusive processes in certain ranges of depth, vertically interspersed with other depth ranges where these signatures are not present. These features are quasi-stable for at least several years. Although molecular diffusion has removed about half the salt from the deepest waters and biogeochemical processes have slightly modified the water composition, the lack of tidal processes and shear-driven mixing, as well as an accurate estimate of heat flux from both sediment heat flux measurements and gradient measurements in a region not susceptible to diffusive instabilities, makes this a unique geophysical laboratory to study double diffusion. Here we present a detailed picture of the structure of Powell Lake and its double-diffusive stair cases, and suggest shortcomings with existing parameterizations for fluxes through such staircases.
The Evolution of a Double Diffusive Magnetic Buoyancy Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvers, Lara J.; Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Brummell, Nicholas H.; Proctor, Michael R. E.
2011-08-01
Recently, Silvers et al. (2009b), using numerical simulations, confirmed the existence of a double diffusive magnetic buoyancy instability of a layer of horizontal magnetic field produced by the interaction of a shear velocity field with a weak vertical field. Here, we demonstrate the longer term nonlinear evolution of such an instability in the simulations. We find that a quasi two-dimensional interchange instability rides (or ``surfs'') on the growing shear-induced background downstream field gradients. The region of activity expands since three-dimensional perturbations remain unstable in the wake of this upward-moving activity front, and so the three-dimensional nature becomes more noticeable with time.
Non-linear diffusion paths in two-phase ternary diffusion couples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hongwei
2005-11-01
Prediction of diffusion paths facilitates the understanding of interdiffusion microstructure development at the vicinity of a common interface between two alloys. Understanding the influence of interdiffusion on microstructure is critically important to the design of many advanced materials systems such as high temperature coatings. The current study using DICTRA finite difference software predicts non-linear features formed on the diffusion path as the initial interface is approached. The non-linear diffusion path deviates from the linear zigzag shape predicted by an error function model for multiphase diffusion couples. The deviations appear as "horns" that protrude from the linear paths. The horns were found to be of two types. When the two outer legs of the diffusion path bend in the same direction, a "single-horn" is formed. When they bend in opposite directions a "double-horn" is formed. The formation of horns is attributed to the concentration dependence of the diffusivity. It results in a shift on the maximum of the flux profile from the initial interface, which accordingly leads to a rapid rise or decrease of the precipitate fraction as the interface is approached. It was found that the horn length is proportional to the composition vector component along the major eigenvector of the effective diffusivity matrix. Applying these results to a study on Ni-Cr-Al diffusion couples prepared from gamma + beta alloys, it also was found that the formation of single-phase beta layers could be attributed to the horns pointing away from each other, in which case the diffusion path could intersect the single phase beta region of the phase diagram. Comparison between EPMA data and DICTRA simulation shows that existence of second phase could introduce microstructure effect on diffusion. This microstructure effect may be taken into account for promoting or blocking the diffusion.
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koseff, J. R.
1991-04-01
A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in our case) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heatings and surface shear. The goals of the proposed work include: (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in an experimental facility which is located in the Stanford Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular, our overall goals are as follows: (1) develop more general stability and scaling criteria for the destabilization of doubly-stratified systems, (2) further study the variation of flow structure and scales with Rayleigh ratio and lateral heating ratio, (3) further delineate the mechanisms governing convective layer formation and merging, (4) study the mixing processes within the convective layers and across interfaces, and estimate the heat and mass fluxes in such a system, (5) quantify the effects of turbulence and coherent structures (due to a wind-driven surface shear) on a doubly stratified system, and (6) study the interaction between surface shear and side-wall heating destabilization mechanisms.
Nonlinear dynamics of a rotating double pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiti, Soumyabrata; Roy, Jyotirmoy; Mallik, Asok K.; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.
2016-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics of a double pendulum rotating at a constant speed about a vertical axis passing through the top hinge is investigated. Transitions of oscillations from chaotic to quasiperiodic and back to chaotic again are observed with increasing speed of rotation. With increasing speed, a pair of new stable equilibrium states, different from the normal vertical one, appear and the quasiperiodic oscillations occur. These oscillations are first centered around the origin, but with increasing rotation speed they cover the origin and the new fixed points. At a still higher speed, more than one pair of fixed points appear and the oscillation again turns chaotic. The onset of chaos is explained in terms of internal resonance. Analytical and numerical results confirm the critical values of the speed parameter at various transitions.
Double-diffusive convection with sidewalls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Boisvert, R. F.
1985-01-01
Stommel et al. (1956) have first described an instability, known as thermosolutal convection, thermohaline convection, or double-diffusive convection. This instability may occur in the case of a fluid in a gravitational field with two diffusing components present. The present study is concerned with the effect of sidewalls on flow in the fingering regime in the absence of applied horizontal gradients. The work was motivated by numerical results obtained on the basis of a simulation of thermosolutal convection occurring during the unidirectional solidification of a binary alloy. In this case, the unperturbed solute field in the liquid ahead of the solidifying planar interface has an exponential vertical profile because of the rejection or preferential incorporation of solute by the solid phase.
Delinating Thermohaline Double-Diffusive Rayleigh Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, T.; Walther, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liedl, R.
2013-12-01
In natural systems, convective flow induced from density differences may occur in near-coastal aquifers, atmospheric boundary layers, oceanic streams or within the earth crust. Whether an initially stable, diffusive regime evolves into a convective (stable or chaotic) regime, or vice versa, depends on the system's framing boundary conditions. A conventional parameter to express the relation between diffusive and convective forces of such a density-driven regime is Rayleigh number (Ra). While most systems are mainly dominated by only a single significant driving force (i.e. only temperature or salinity), some systems need to consider two boundary processes (e.g. deep, thus warm, haline flow in porous media). In that case, a two-dimensional, 'double-diffusive' Rayleigh system can be defined. Nield (1998) postulated a boundary between diffusive and convective regime at RaT + RaC = 4pi^2 in the first quadrant (Q1), with Rayleigh numbers for temperature and concentration respectively. The boundary in the forth quadrant (Q4) could not exactly be determined, yet the approximate position estimated. Simulations with HydroGeoSphere (Therrien, 2010) using a vertical, quadratic, homogeneous, isotropic setup confirmed the existence of the 4pi^2-boundary and revealed additional regimes (diffusive, single-roll, double-roll, chaotic) in Q1. Also, non-chaotic, oscillating patterns could be identified in Q4. More detailed investigations with OpenGeoSys (Kolditz, 2012) confirmed the preceding HGS results, and, using a 1:10-scaled domain (height:length), uncovered even more distinctive regimes (diffusive, minimum ten roles, supposely up to 25 roles, and chaotic?) in Q1, while again, oscillating patterns were found in the transition zone between diffusive and chaotic regimes in Q4. Output of numerical simulations from Q1 and Q4 show the mentioned regimes (diffusive, stable-convective, stable-oscillatory, chaotic) while results are displayed in context of a possible delination between
Contrast Enhancement by Nonlinear Diffusion Filtering.
Liang, Zhetong; Liu, Weijian; Yao, Ruohe
2016-02-01
To enhance the visual quality of an image that is degraded by uneven light, an effective method is to estimate the illumination component and compress it. Some previous methods have either defects of halo artifacts or contrast loss in the enhanced image due to incorrect estimation. In this paper, we discuss this problem and propose a novel method to estimate the illumination. The illumination is obtained by iteratively solving a nonlinear diffusion equation. During the diffusion process, surround suppression is embedded in the conductance function to specially enhance the diffusive strength in textural areas of the image. The proposed estimation method has the following two merits: 1) the boundary areas are preserved in the illumination, and thus halo artifacts are prevented and 2) the textural details are preserved in the reflectance to not suffer from illumination compression, which contributes to the contrast enhancement in the result. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves excellent performance in artifact removal and local contrast enhancement. PMID:26685234
Layered convection in double diffusive fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaussinger, F.; Kupka, F.; Muthsam, H. J.; Happenhofer, N.; Grimm-Strele, H.
2012-04-01
Double diffusive convection plays an important role in astrophysics and oceanography where under certain conditions a thermally unstable temperature gradient is counteracted by a stable solute gradient. This configuration is well known from salt lakes, where the salt concentration stabilizes convective motions and a layered structure emerges. Similar conditions are found in stellar interiors, where helium as the stabilizing component inhibits the development of convection and the occurrence of double-diffusive staircases is assumed. We investigate mixing timescales and stability conditions using theoretical estimates and numerical simulations covering a broad range of parameter sets by varying Prandtl-, Lewis- and Rayleigh numbers. To shed light on the numerically inaccessible astrophysical case we extrapolate to the relevant parameter range. We investigate the initial layer formation process as well as the stability of evolved layers by performing direct numerical simulations in 2D and 3D using the Boussinesq approximation. A fitting formula for the Nusselt numbers and the effective mixing rates is given. Finally, we present a semi-implicit method to solve the compressible counterpart of the governing equations which has the advantage to cover the entire relevant Mach number range.
Double-diffusive inner core translation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deguen, Renaud; Alboussière, Thierry; Labrosse, Stéphane
2015-04-01
The hemispherical asymmetry of the inner core has recently been interpreted as resulting form a high-viscosity mode of inner core convection, consisting in a translation of the inner core. With melting on one hemisphere and crystallization on the other one, inner core translation would impose a strongly asymmetric buoyancy flux at the bottom of the outer core, with likely strong implications for the dynamics of the outer core and the geodynamo. The main requirement for convective instability in the inner core is an adverse radial density gradient. While older estimates of the inner core thermal conductivity favored a superadiabatic temperature gradient and the existence of thermal convection, the much higher values recently proposed make thermal convection unlikely. Compositional convection might be a viable alternative to thermal convection: an unstable compositional gradient may arise in the inner core either because the light elements present in the core are predicted to become increasingly incompatible as the inner core grows (Gubbins et al. 2013), or because of a possibly positive feedback of the development of the F-layer on inner core convection. Though the magnitude of the destabilizing effect of the compositional field is predicted to be similar to or smaller than the stabilizing effect of the thermal field, the huge difference between thermal and chemical diffusivities implies that double-diffusive instabilities may still arise even if the net density decreases upward. We propose here a theoretical (linear stability analysis) and numerical study of double diffusive convection in the inner core, focusing on the translation mode, and discuss in what conditions inner core translation can develop.
Arnold, J.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Sloot, H.A. van der
2013-02-15
A robust numerical solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for asymmetric polyelectrolyte solutions in discrete pore geometries is presented. Comparisons to the linearized approximation of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation reveal that the assumptions leading to linearization may not be appropriate for the electrochemical regime in many cementitious materials. Implications of the electric double layer on both partitioning of species and on diffusive release are discussed. The influence of the electric double layer on anion diffusion relative to cation diffusion is examined.
Solution spectrum of nonlinear diffusion equations
Ulmer, W.
1992-08-01
The stationary version of the nonlinear diffusion equation -{partial_derivative}c/{partial_derivative}t+D{Delta}c=A{sub 1}c-A{sub 2}c{sup 2} can be solved with the ansatz c={summation}{sub p=1}{sup {infinity}} A{sub p}(cosh kx){sup -p}, inducing a band structure with regard to the ratio {lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda}{sub 2}. The resulting solution manifold can be related to an equilibrium of fluxes of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The modification of this ansatz yielding the expansion c={summation}{sub p,q=1}{sup infinity}A{sub pa}(cosh kx){sup -p}[(cosh {alpha}t){sup -q-1} sinh {alpha}t+b(cosh {alpha}t){sup -q}] represents a solution spectrum of the time-dependent nonlinear equations, and the stationary version can be found from the asymptotic behaviour of the expansion. The solutions can be associated with reactive processes such as active transport phenomena and control circuit problems is discussed. There are also applications to cellular kinetics of clonogenic cell assays and spheriods. 33 refs., 1 tab.
Nonlinear diffusivity of analytes in tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosn, Mohamad G.; Carbajal, Esteban F.; Befrui, Natasha A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Larin, Kirill V.
2008-02-01
Noninvasive assessments of optical clearing and permeability coefficients of tissues pose great possibilities in advanced diagnostics and medical applications. In order for both of these to become utilized in common practice, a greater understanding of molecular diffusivity in multi-layered tissues is required. In biological tissues, the different layers are comprised of differentiated cells and/or collagen fibrils which come together to form that specific layer. Therefore, a patchwork of layers is created each with its own set of properties. In our current study we analyze and describe the dynamics of matter diffusion and its underlying non-linear character in various epithelial tissues. For instance, the permeability coefficient (PC) of 20% concentrated mannitol in the rabbit eye sclera showed an increasing trend as it was measured deeper into the tissue. The PC was found to be 2.18 × 10 -6 cm/sec at 50 μm away from the epithelial layer. It increased to about 7.33 × 10 -6 cm/sec when it was computed at 210 μm from the epithelial layer. Different layers in the sclera showed different clearing response to glucose solution as well. The first 100 μm region from the epithelial layer cleared about 10% whereas the next 100 μm cleared about 17-22%. The importance of this study is that it may offer a novel explanation to how a layer's composition affects optical clearing and the permeability coefficient of analytes and solutions.
Double-diffusive inner core convective translation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deguen, Renaud; Alboussière, Thierry; Labrosse, Stéphane
2016-04-01
The hemispherical asymmetry of the inner core has been interpreted as resulting form a high-viscosity mode of inner core convection, consisting in a translation of the inner core. With melting on one hemisphere and crystallization on the other one, inner core translation would impose a strongly asymmetric buoyancy flux at the bottom of the outer core, with likely strong implications for the dynamics of the outer core and the geodynamo. The main requirement for convective instability in the inner core is an adverse radial density gradient. While older estimates of the inner core thermal conductivity favored a superadiabatic temperature gradient and the existence of thermal convection, the much higher values recently proposed makes thermal convection very unlikely. Compositional convection might be a viable alternative to thermal convection: an unstable compositional gradient may arise in the inner core either because the light elements present in the core are predicted to become increasingly incompatible as the inner core grows (Gubbins et al. 2013), or because of a possibly positive feedback of the development of the F-layer on inner core convection. Though the magnitude of the destabilizing effect of the compositional field is predicted to be similar to or smaller than the stabilizing effect of the thermal field, the huge difference between thermal and chemical diffusivities implies that double-diffusive instabilities can still arise even if the net density decreases upward. We propose here a theoretical and numerical study of double diffusive convection in the inner core that demonstrate that a translation mode can indeed exist if the compositional field is destabilizing, even if the temperature profile is subadiabatic, and irrespectively of the relative magnitude of the destabilizing compositional gradient and stabilizing temperature field. The predicted inner core translation rate is similar to the mean inner core growth rate, which is more consistent with
Double-Diffusive Layers and Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dude, Sabine; Hansen, Ulrich
2015-04-01
Researching the thermal evolution of the Earth's mantle on numerical base is very challenging. During the last decade different approaches are put forward in oder to understand the picture of the today's Earth's mantle. One way is to incorporate all the known features and physics (plate tectonics, phase transitions, CMB-topography, ...) into numerical models and make them as complex (or 'complete') as possible to capture Earth's mantle processes and surface signals. Another way is, to take a step back and look at less complex models which account for single processes and their interaction and evolution. With these 'simpler' models one is able look in detail into the physical processes and dependencies on certain parameters. Since the knowledge of slab stagnation in the transitions zone of the Earth's mantle the question whether the mantle is or at least has been layered to some degree is still under debate. On this basis we address two important features that lead to layered mantle convection and may affect each other and with this the thermal evolution of the mantle. It is commonly known the main mantle mineral olivine pass through various phase changes with depth [1]. Detailed numerical studies had been carried out to ascertain the influence on convective motion and planetary evolution [2]. It is still heavily discussed whether the endothermic phase change at 660km depth can lead an isolated lower mantle. Most of the numerical studies favour a model which has phases of layering that are disrupted by catastrophic events. In the last years double-diffusive convection has also been intensively studied with regard to planetary mantle evolution such as pile formation and core-mantle boundary topography [3]. However, another striking feature still posing open questions are evolving layers self-organised from a previous non layered state. Considering a chemical component that influences the density of a fluid in addition to the temperature leads to dynamical phenomena
Viscoelasticity in the diffuse electric double layer.
Etchenique, Roberto; Buhse, Thomas
2002-10-01
The electroacoustical impedance of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in contact with aqueous electrolyte solutions was measured using the transfer function method in a flow injection system . Measurements of both components of the impedance of the QCM, the resistance R and the inductive reactance XL, have been performed for modified and bare gold and silver surfaces and for different concentrations of several aqueous electrolyte solutions. For the experimental concentration range of 0-50 mM, unexpectedly the QCM impedance does not follow the Kanazawa equation, as is usual for bulk newtonian liquids. This behavior indicates the presence of a nanometric sized viscoelastic layer between the piezoelectric crystal and the bulk electrolyte solution. This layer can only be identified as the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double layer (DDL). Its elasticity and viscosity have been estimated by the measurement of R and XL. The viscoelasticity of the DDL appears to be independent of the chemical nature of the surface and of the solution viscosity but strongly dependent on the surface charge, the bulk electrolyte concentration and the dielectric constant of the solvent. PMID:12430608
Dissipative double-well potential: Nonlinear stationary and pulsating modes
Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Alfimov, Georgy L.
2010-11-15
The analysis of nonlinear modes in a complex absorbing double-well potential supported by linear gain is presented. Families of the nonlinear modes and their bifurcations are found numerically by means of the properly modified 'shooting' method. Linear stability and dynamics of the modes are studied. It is shown that no stable modes exist in the case of attractive nonlinearity, while stable modes, including nonsymmetric ones, are found when the nonlinearity is repulsive. Varying a control parameter (e.g., the height of barrier between the wells) results in switching from one mode to another. Apart from stationary modes we have found pulsating solutions emergent from unstable modes.
Multivariate Padé Approximations For Solving Nonlinear Diffusion Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turut, V.
2015-11-01
In this paper, multivariate Padé approximation is applied to power series solutions of nonlinear diffusion equations. As it is seen from tables, multivariate Padé approximation (MPA) gives reliable solutions and numerical results.
Entropic and gradient flow formulations for nonlinear diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dirr, Nicolas; Stamatakis, Marios; Zimmer, Johannes
2016-08-01
Nonlinear diffusion ∂tρ = Δ(Φ(ρ)) is considered for a class of nonlinearities Φ. It is shown that for suitable choices of Φ, an associated Lyapunov functional can be interpreted as thermodynamic entropy. This information is used to derive an associated metric, here called thermodynamic metric. The analysis is confined to nonlinear diffusion obtainable as hydrodynamic limit of a zero range process. The thermodynamic setting is linked to a large deviation principle for the underlying zero range process and the corresponding equation of fluctuating hydrodynamics. For the latter connections, the thermodynamic metric plays a central role.
Double soft theorems and shift symmetry in nonlinear sigma models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Ian
2016-02-01
We show that both the leading and subleading double soft theorems of the nonlinear sigma model follow from a shift symmetry enforcing Adler's zero condition in the presence of an unbroken global symmetry. They do not depend on the underlying coset G /H and are universal infrared behaviors of Nambu-Goldstone bosons. Although nonlinear sigma models contain an infinite number of interaction vertices, the double soft limit is determined entirely by a single four-point interaction, together with the existence of Adler's zeros.
The thermal stability of coronal loops by nonlinear diffusion asymptotics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pakkert, J. W.; Verhulst, F.; Martens, P. C. H.
1987-01-01
A nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation and some additional constraints are derived which describe the time-dependent behavior of the temperature structure of the plasma in coronal loops. The equation is analyzed using nonlinear diffusion asymptotics, in particular singular perturbation techniques, and the results are interpreted in the context of the physical problem of the thermal stability and temporal behavior of the plasma. The results are consistent with the possibility of cyclic thermal behavior of the plasma, as suggested by Kuin and Martens (1982).
Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion
Del Razo, Mauricio; Pan, Wenxiao; Qian, Hong; Lin, Guang
2014-05-30
The currently existing theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is based on the linear fluctuation theory originally developed by Einstein, Onsager, Lax, and others as a phenomenological approach to equilibrium fluctuations in bulk solutions. For mesoscopic reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear chemical reactions among a small number of molecules, a situation often encountered in single-cell biochemistry, it is expected that FCS time correlation functions of a reaction-diffusion system can deviate from the classic results of Elson and Magde [Biopolymers (1974) 13:1-27]. We first discuss this nonlinear effect for reaction systems without diffusion. For nonlinear stochastic reaction-diffusion systems there are no closed solutions; therefore, stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out. We show that the deviation is small for a simple bimolecular reaction; the most significant deviations occur when the number of molecules is small and of the same order. Extending Delbrück-Gillespie’s theory for stochastic nonlinear reactions with rapidly stirring to reaction-diffusion systems provides a mesoscopic model for chemical and biochemical reactions at nanometric and mesoscopic level such as a single biological cell.
Double diffusion convection under sinusoidal modulations of low-frequency vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yu; Viviani, Antonio; Saghir, M. Ziad
2008-09-01
Double diffusion convection features the coupling of diffusion fluxes driven by the temperature and concentration gradients and the simultaneous existence of the natural convection driven by the buoyancy force. This paper studies the double diffusion convection under different modulations of low-frequency g-jitters in order to evaluate the g-jitter effect on diffusion-dominated experiments in space laboratories. The numerical simulation for a binary mixture of water-isopropanol (90:10 wt%) has shown a dependence of the Soret separation on g-jitter frequency and amplitude. Under the same amplitude, the fluctuation of local properties, i.e., velocity, temperature and concentration, is found to intensify as the g-jitter frequency decreases. When both static residual gravity and oscillatory g-jitter exist, the diffusion process is affected by the nonlinear interaction between individual g-jitters. As the amplitude decreases to 1μg, this nonlinearity becomes less significant than it appears in the high-amplitude scenario.
A Stochastic Cellular Automaton Model of Non-linear Diffusion and Diffusion with Reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brieger, Leesa M.; Bonomi, Ernesto
1991-06-01
This article presents a stochastic cellular automaton model of diffusion and diffusion with reaction. The master equations for the model are examined, and we assess the difference between the implementation in which a single particle at a time moves (asynchronous dynamics) and one implementation in which all particles move simultaneously (synchronous dynamics). Biasing locally each particle's random walk, we alter the diffusion coefficients of the system. By appropriately choosing the biasing function, we can impose a desired non-linear diffusive behaviour in the model. We present an application of this model, adapted to include two diffusing species, two static species, and a chemical reaction in a prototypical simulation of carbonation in concrete.
Diffusion and Segmental Dynamics of Double-Stranded DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, E. P.; Ohrt, T.; Winkler, R. G.; Schwille, P.
2006-12-01
Diffusion and segmental dynamics of the double-stranded λ-phage DNA polymer are quantitatively studied over the transition range from stiff to semiflexible chains. Spectroscopy of fluorescence fluctuations of single-end fluorescently labeled monodisperse DNA fragments unambiguously shows that double-stranded DNA in the length range of 102 2×104 base pairs behaves as a semiflexible polymer with segmental dynamics controlled by hydrodynamic interactions.
Exact nonlinear excitations in double-degenerate plasmas
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2012-06-15
In this work, we use the conventional hydrodynamics formalism and incorporate the Chew-Goldberger-Low double-adiabatic theory to evaluate the nonlinear electrostatic ion excitations in double-degenerate (electron spin-orbit degenerate) magnetized quantum plasmas. Based on the Sagdeev pseudopotential method, an exact general pseudopotential is calculated which leads to the allowed Mach-number range criteria for such localized density structures in an anisotropic magnetized plasma. We employ the criteria on the Mach-number range for diverse magnetized quantum plasma with different equations of state. It is remarked that various plasma fractional parameters such as the system dimensionality, ion-temperature, relativistic-degeneracy, Zeeman-energy, and plasma composition are involved in the stability of an obliquely propagating nonlinear ion-acoustic wave in a double-degenerate quantum plasma. Current study is most appropriate for nonlinear wave analysis in dense astrophysical magnetized plasma environments such as white-dwarfs and neutron-star crusts where the strong magnetic fields can be present.
Coherent control of Kerr nonlinearity via double dark resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahelia, A.; Sahraib, M.; Namdarc, A.; Sadighi-Bonabidd, R.
2016-03-01
A theoretical scheme for enhanced Kerr nonlinearity is proposed in a four-level ladder-type atomic system based on double dark resonances (DDRs). We solve the relevant density matrix equations in steady state and utilize the perturbation theory to obtain the analytical expressions for the third order susceptibility of the atomic system. The influence of system parameters on behavior of the first and third order susceptibilities is then discussed. In particular, it is found that an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity with reduced linear and nonlinear absorption is obtained around zero probe detuning under the slow light condition through proper adjusting the laser field intensity and frequency detuning of driving fields. The dressed state analysis is employed to explain the physical origin of the obtained result. The obtained results may be important for all-optical signal processing and quantum information technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hristov, Jordan
2016-03-01
Closed form approximate solutions to nonlinear heat (mass) diffusion equation with power-law nonlinearity of the thermal (mass) diffusivity have been developed by the integral-balance method avoiding the commonly used linearization by the Kirchhoff transformation. The main improvement of the solution is based on the double-integration technique and a new approach to the space derivative. Solutions to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems have been developed and benchmarked against exact numerical and approximate analytical solutions available in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizushima, Jiro; Izumikawa, Hayato; Fujimura, Kaoru
2016-04-01
Two-dimensional double diffusive convection of a binary fluid mixture in a square container is investigated by linear and weakly nonlinear stability analyses, numerical simulations and numerical calculations of steady solutions in the present paper. We consider an ethanol-water mixture as the binary fluid, in which the temperature and the ethanol concentration interact through the Soret effect, both affecting the fluid motion via buoyancy force. The bottom of the container is kept at a higher temperature than the top, while the side walls are assumed thermally insulating. The heat conduction state is known to become unstable to an oscillatory mode as well as a stationary mode of disturbance, and the two instability modes exchange at a set of parameter values, called codimension two point. It was reported that the convection often tend to a steady state even if the instability is induced by an oscillatory mode, which is an unusual flow property. We explore its mathematical and physical reason by formally deriving a set of amplitude equations near the codimension two point by applying the center manifold theory. It is shown that the unusual nonlinear behavior of the double diffusive convection is clearly explained from the bifurcation structure of the solutions to the set of amplitude equations.
Double-diffusive layering and mixing in Patagonian fjords
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Santos, Iván; Garcés-Vargas, José; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ross, Lauren; Parra, Sabrina; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo
2014-12-01
Double-diffusive layering was quantified for the first time in the Chilean Patagonian fjords region (41.5-56°S). Approximately 600 temperature and salinity profiles collected during 1995-2012 were used to study water masses, quantify diffusive layering and compute the vertical diffusivity of heat. Development of 'diffusive-layering' or simply 'layering' was favored by relatively fresh-cold waters overlying salty-warm waters. Fresh waters are frequently derived from glacial melting that influences the fjord either directly or through rivers. Salty waters are associated with Modified Subantarctic (MSAAW) and Subantarctic Water (SAAW). Double-diffusive convection occurred as layering in 40% of the year-round data and as salt fingering in <1% of the time. The most vigorous layering, was found at depths between 20 and 70 m, as quantified by (a) Turner angles, (b) density ratios, and (c) heat diffusivity (with maximum values of 5 × 10-5 m2 s-1). Diffusive-layering events presented a meridional gradient with less layering within the 41-47°S northern region, relative to the southern region between 47° and 56°S. Layering occupied, on average, 27% and 56% of the water column in the northern and southern regions, respectively. Thermohaline staircases were detected with microprofile measurements in Martinez and Baker channels (48°S), showing homogeneous layers (2-4 m thick) below the pycnocline (10-40 m). Also in this area, increased vertical mixing coincided with the increased layering events. High values of Thorpe scale (LT ∼ 7 m), dissipation rate of TKE (ε = 10-5-10-3 W kg-1) and diapycnal eddy diffusivity (Kρ = 10-6-10-3 m-2 s-1) were associated with diffusive layering. Implications of these results are that diffusive layering should be taken into account, together with other mixing processes such as shear instabilities and wind-driven flows, in biological and geochemical studies.
Numerical simulation of double-diffusive finger convection
Hughes, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Vacher, H.L.
2005-01-01
A hybrid finite element, integrated finite difference numerical model is developed for the simulation of double-diffusive and multicomponent flow in two and three dimensions. The model is based on a multidimensional, density-dependent, saturated-unsaturated transport model (SUTRA), which uses one governing equation for fluid flow and another for solute transport. The solute-transport equation is applied sequentially to each simulated species. Density coupling of the flow and solute-transport equations is accounted for and handled using a sequential implicit Picard iterative scheme. High-resolution data from a double-diffusive Hele-Shaw experiment, initially in a density-stable configuration, is used to verify the numerical model. The temporal and spatial evolution of simulated double-diffusive convection is in good agreement with experimental results. Numerical results are very sensitive to discretization and correspond closest to experimental results when element sizes adequately define the spatial resolution of observed fingering. Numerical results also indicate that differences in the molecular diffusivity of sodium chloride and the dye used to visualize experimental sodium chloride concentrations are significant and cause inaccurate mapping of sodium chloride concentrations by the dye, especially at late times. As a result of reduced diffusion, simulated dye fingers are better defined than simulated sodium chloride fingers and exhibit more vertical mass transfer. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.
Boundedness in a chemotaxis-haptotaxis model with nonlinear diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan; Lankeit, Johannes
2016-05-01
This article deals with an initial-boundary value problem for the coupled chemotaxis-haptotaxis system with nonlinear diffusion under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a bounded smooth domain Ω \\subset {{{R}}n} , n = 2, 3, 4, where χ,ξ and μ are given nonnegative parameters. The diffusivity D(u) is assumed to satisfy D(u)≥slant δ {{u}m-1} for all u > 0 with some δ >0 . It is proved that for sufficiently regular initial data global bounded solutions exist whenever m>2-\\frac{2}{n} . For the case of non-degenerate diffusion (i.e. D(0) > 0) the solutions are classical; for the case of possibly degenerate diffusion (D(0)≥slant 0 ), the existence of bounded weak solutions is shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aziz-Aghchegala, V. L.; Mughnetsyan, V. N.; Kirakosyan, A. A.
2015-06-01
The effect of interdiffusion on electronic states and nonlinear light absorption in Gaussian-shaped double quantum rings is studied. The confining potential, electron energy spectrum, wave functions and absorption coefficient are obtained for different values of diffusion parameter. The effect of the variation of Gaussian parameters is considered as well. The selection rules for the intraband transitions in the cases of the light polarization parallel and perpendicular to the quantum rings' axis are obtained. It is shown that the interdiffusion can be used as an effective tool for the purposeful manipulation of the electric and optical properties of the considered structure.
Anisotropic nuclear-spin diffusion in double quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatano, T.; Kume, W.; Watanabe, S.; Akiba, K.; Nagase, K.; Hirayama, Y.
2015-03-01
Nuclear spin diffusion in double quantum wells (QWs) is examined by using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at a Landau level filling factor ν =2 /3 spin phase transition (SPT). The longitudinal resistance increases during the DNP of one of the two QW (the "polarization QW") by means of a large applied current and starts to decrease just after the termination of the DNP. On the other hand, the longitudinal resistance of the other QW (the "detection QW") continuously increases for approximately 2 h after the termination of the DNP of the polarization QW. It is therefore concluded that the nuclear spins diffuse from the polarization QW to the detection QW. The time evolution of the longitudinal resistance of the polarization QW is explained mainly by the nuclear spin diffusion in the in-plane direction. In contrast, that of the detection QW manifests much slower nuclear diffusion in the perpendicular direction through the AlGaAs barrier.
Turing pattern formation in the Brusselator system with nonlinear diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambino, G.; Lombardo, M. C.; Sammartino, M.; Sciacca, V.
2013-10-01
In this work we investigate the effect of density-dependent nonlinear diffusion on pattern formation in the Brusselator system. Through linear stability analysis of the basic solution we determine the Turing and the oscillatory instability boundaries. A comparison with the classical linear diffusion shows how nonlinear diffusion favors the occurrence of Turing pattern formation. We study the process of pattern formation both in one-dimensional and two-dimensional spatial domains. Through a weakly nonlinear multiple scales analysis we derive the equations for the amplitude of the stationary patterns. The analysis of the amplitude equations shows the occurrence of a number of different phenomena, including stable supercritical and subcritical Turing patterns with multiple branches of stable solutions leading to hysteresis. Moreover, we consider traveling patterning waves: When the domain size is large, the pattern forms sequentially and traveling wave fronts are the precursors to patterning. We derive the Ginzburg-Landau equation and describe the traveling front enveloping a pattern which invades the domain. We show the emergence of radially symmetric target patterns, and, through a matching procedure, we construct the outer amplitude equation and the inner core solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniha, Roman; King, John R.; Kovalenko, Sergii
2016-07-01
Complete descriptions of the Lie symmetries of a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with gradient-dependent diffusivity in one and two space dimensions are obtained. A surprisingly rich set of Lie symmetry algebras depending on the form of diffusivity and source (sink) in the equations is derived. It is established that there exists a subclass in 1-D space admitting an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of invariance so that it is linearisable. A special power-law diffusivity with a fixed exponent, which leads to wider Lie invariance of the equations in question in 2-D space, is also derived. However, it is shown that the diffusion equation without a source term (which often arises in applications and is sometimes called the Perona-Malik equation) possesses no rich variety of Lie symmetries depending on the form of gradient-dependent diffusivity. The results of the Lie symmetry classification for the reduction to lower dimensionality, and a search for exact solutions of the nonlinear 2-D equation with power-law diffusivity, also are included.
Surface lattice solitons in diffusive nonlinear media with spatially modulated nonlinearity.
Zhan, Kaiyun; Jiao, Zhiyong; Li, Xi; Jia, Yulei; Zhang, Hui
2015-09-01
Two families of gap and twisted surface lattice solitons in diffusive nonlinear periodic media with spatially modulated nonlinearity are reported. It is shown that the existence and stability of such solitons are extremely spatially modulated nonlinearity sensitive. For self-focusing nonlinearity, gap surface solitons belonging to the semi-infinite gap are stable in whole existence domain, twisted surface solitons are also linearly stable in low modulated strength region and a very narrow unstable region near the upper cutoff appears in high modulated strength region. In the self-defocusing case, surface gap solitons belonging to the first gap can propagate stably in whole existence domain except for an extremely narrow region close to the Bloch band, twisted solitons belonging to this gap are unstable in the entire existence domain. PMID:26368497
Conventions and nomenclature for double diffusion encoding NMR and MRI.
Shemesh, Noam; Jespersen, Sune N; Alexander, Daniel C; Cohen, Yoram; Drobnjak, Ivana; Dyrby, Tim B; Finsterbusch, Jurgen; Koch, Martin A; Kuder, Tristan; Laun, Fredrik; Lawrenz, Marco; Lundell, Henrik; Mitra, Partha P; Nilsson, Markus; Özarslan, Evren; Topgaard, Daniel; Westin, Carl-Fredrik
2016-01-01
Stejskal and Tanner's ingenious pulsed field gradient design from 1965 has made diffusion NMR and MRI the mainstay of most studies seeking to resolve microstructural information in porous systems in general and biological systems in particular. Methods extending beyond Stejskal and Tanner's design, such as double diffusion encoding (DDE) NMR and MRI, may provide novel quantifiable metrics that are less easily inferred from conventional diffusion acquisitions. Despite the growing interest on the topic, the terminology for the pulse sequences, their parameters, and the metrics that can be derived from them remains inconsistent and disparate among groups active in DDE. Here, we present a consensus of those groups on terminology for DDE sequences and associated concepts. Furthermore, the regimes in which DDE metrics appear to provide microstructural information that cannot be achieved using more conventional counterparts (in a model-free fashion) are elucidated. We highlight in particular DDE's potential for determining microscopic diffusion anisotropy and microscopic fractional anisotropy, which offer metrics of microscopic features independent of orientation dispersion and thus provide information complementary to the standard, macroscopic, fractional anisotropy conventionally obtained by diffusion MR. Finally, we discuss future vistas and perspectives for DDE. PMID:26418050
Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.
2015-09-01
The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of Vo/(kBT /e ) , where Vo is the amplitude of the driving voltage and kBT /e is the thermal voltage with kB as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D /λDL , where D is the ion diffusivity, λD is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O (Vo3) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in Vo. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing Vo. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.
A double-serpentine diffusion path for a ternary diffusion couple
Sohn, Y.H.; Dayananda, M.A.
2000-04-19
A double-serpentine diffusion path that crosses the straight line joining the terminal alloy compositions twice on a ternary isotherm is reported for a diffusion couple assembled with two {beta} (B{sub 2}) Fe-Ni-Al alloys and annealed at 1,000 C for 2 days. The couple developed a Ni concentration profile that exhibited two regions of mass loss separated by a region of mass gain on one side of the Matano plant. With an additional couple whose path intersected the double serpentine path, ternary interdiffusion coefficients were determined at the composition of intersection. Also, average values of the ternary interdiffusion coefficients, D{sub ij}{sup Fe} (i,j = Al, Ni), were determined over selected composition ranges of the couple and employed to model the concentration profiles. The cross D{sub NiAl}{sup Fe} coefficient was negative and comparable in magnitude to the main D{sub NiNi}{sup Fe} coefficient. The double-serpentine diffusion path was characterized by large diffusional interactions among the components and appreciable variations in the interdiffusion coefficients over different compositional ranges.
Double-Diffusive Convection in Low-Aspect Ratio Containers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pol, S.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Webb, S.
2008-11-01
Laboratory experiments and phenomenological modeling were undertaken to investigate the influence of container sidewalls on the evolution of diffusive layering in confined double-diffusive systems. Such flow configurations are common in engineering situations, including underground storage caverns of national strategic petroleum reserves. The laboratory flow configuration consisted of a linearly salt stratified fluid subjected to either heating from below or uniform heating from both the bottom and sidewalls. A number of different containers were used, allowing investigations over a range of governing parameters. The growth of the lowest mixed layer as well as multiple convecting layers aloft separated by diffusive interfaces were monitored using LIF, PIV and traversing temperature/conductivity probe techniques. The aspect ratio for side walls to become important was inferred by the bottom-layer growth measurements, which undergoes a transition of the growth law upon onset of side-wall effects. The combined side and bottom wall heating case was strikingly different from the bottom heating case, wherein layers of approximately equal heights are generated rather rapidly in the former as a result of convective plumes rising along the sidewalls and their arrest by the background stable density gradient. Theoretical arguments were advanced to explain and parameterize experimental observations.
Nonlinear diffusion equations as asymptotic limits of Cahn-Hilliard systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colli, Pierluigi; Fukao, Takeshi
2016-05-01
An asymptotic limit of a class of Cahn-Hilliard systems is investigated to obtain a general nonlinear diffusion equation. The target diffusion equation may reproduce a number of well-known model equations: Stefan problem, porous media equation, Hele-Shaw profile, nonlinear diffusion of singular logarithmic type, nonlinear diffusion of Penrose-Fife type, fast diffusion equation and so on. Namely, by setting the suitable potential of the Cahn-Hilliard systems, all these problems can be obtained as limits of the Cahn-Hilliard related problems. Convergence results and error estimates are proved.
Localized nonlinear excitations in diffusive Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks.
Moukam Kakmeni, F M; Inack, E M; Yamakou, E M
2014-05-01
We study localized nonlinear excitations in diffusive Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks. We show that the Hindmarsh-Rose model can be reduced to a modified Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation through the application of a perturbation technique. We equally report on the presence of envelop solitons of the nerve impulse in this neural network. From the biological point of view, this result suggests that neurons can participate in a collective processing of information, a relevant part of which is shared over all neurons but not concentrated at the single neuron level. By employing the standard linear stability analysis, the growth rate of the modulational instability is derived as a function of the wave number and systems parameters. PMID:25353873
Localized nonlinear excitations in diffusive Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moukam Kakmeni, F. M.; Inack, E. M.; Yamakou, E. M.
2014-05-01
We study localized nonlinear excitations in diffusive Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks. We show that the Hindmarsh-Rose model can be reduced to a modified Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation through the application of a perturbation technique. We equally report on the presence of envelop solitons of the nerve impulse in this neural network. From the biological point of view, this result suggests that neurons can participate in a collective processing of information, a relevant part of which is shared over all neurons but not concentrated at the single neuron level. By employing the standard linear stability analysis, the growth rate of the modulational instability is derived as a function of the wave number and systems parameters.
New variable separation solutions for the generalized nonlinear diffusion equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei-Yu, Ji; Shun-Li, Zhang
2016-03-01
The functionally generalized variable separation of the generalized nonlinear diffusion equations ut = A(u,ux)uxx + B(u,ux) is studied by using the conditional Lie-Bäcklund symmetry method. The variant forms of the considered equations, which admit the corresponding conditional Lie-Bäcklund symmetries, are characterized. To construct functionally generalized separable solutions, several concrete examples defined on the exponential and trigonometric invariant subspaces are provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11371293, 11401458, and 11501438), the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Tian Yuan Special Foundation (Grant No. 11426169), and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2015JQ1014).
Euler buckling and nonlinear kinking of double-stranded DNA.
Fields, Alexander P; Meyer, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Adam E
2013-11-01
The bending stiffness of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at high curvatures is fundamental to its biological activity, yet this regime has been difficult to probe experimentally, and literature results have not been consistent. We created a 'molecular vise' in which base-pairing interactions generated a compressive force on sub-persistence length segments of dsDNA. Short dsDNA strands (<41 base pairs) resisted this force and remained straight; longer strands became bent, a phenomenon called 'Euler buckling'. We monitored the buckling transition via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between appended fluorophores. For low-to-moderate concentrations of monovalent salt (up to ∼150 mM), our results are in quantitative agreement with the worm-like chain (WLC) model of DNA elasticity, without the need to invoke any 'kinked' states. Greater concentrations of monovalent salts or 1 mM Mg(2+) induced an apparent softening of the dsDNA, which was best accounted for by a kink in the region of highest curvature. We tested the effects of all single-nucleotide mismatches on the DNA bending. Remarkably, the propensity to kink correlated with the thermodynamic destabilization of the mismatched DNA relative the perfectly complementary strand, suggesting that the kinked state is locally melted. The molecular vise is exquisitely sensitive to the sequence-dependent linear and nonlinear elastic properties of dsDNA. PMID:23956222
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Si-Cong; Wan, Ren-Gang; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Fu, Xi-Hong; Cao, Jun-Sheng; Ning, Yong-Qiang
2015-12-01
A scheme for giant Kerr nonlinearity via tunneling in triangular triple quantum dot molecules is proposed. In such a system, the linear absorption and the Kerr nonlinearity depend critically on the energy splitting of the excited states and the tunneling intensity. With proper parameters, giant Kerr nonlinearity accompanied by vanishing absorption can be realized. The enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity is attributed to the interacting double dark resonances induced by the tunneling between the quantum dots, requiring no extra coupling laser fields.
Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage.
Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S
2015-09-01
The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of V_{o}/(k_{B}T/e), where V_{o} is the amplitude of the driving voltage and k_{B}T/e is the thermal voltage with k_{B} as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D/λ_{D}L, where D is the ion diffusivity, λ_{D} is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O(V_{o}^{3}) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in V_{o}. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing V_{o}. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer. PMID:26465471
Experimental investigation of a double-diffused MOS structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, H. C.; Halsor, J. L.
1976-01-01
Self-aligned polysilicon gate technology was applied to double-diffused MOS (DMOS) construction in a manner that retains processing simplicity and effectively eliminates parasitic overlap capacitance because of the self-aligning feature. Depletion mode load devices with the same dimensions as the DMOS transistors were integrated. The ratioless feature results in smaller dimension load devices, allowing for higher density integration with no increase in the processing complexity of standard MOS technology. A number of inverters connected as ring oscillators were used as a vehicle to test the performance and to verify the anticipated benefits. The propagation time-power dissipation product and process related parameters were measured and evaluated. This report includes (1) details of the process; (2) test data and design details for the DMOS transistor, the load device, the inverter, the ring oscillator, and a shift register with a novel tapered geometry for the output stages; and (3) an analytical treatment of the effect of the distributed silicon gate resistance and capacitance on the speed of DMOS transistors.
[Ultrasound image de-noising based on nonlinear diffusion of complex wavelet transform].
Hou, Wen; Wu, Yiquan
2012-04-01
Ultrasound images are easily corrupted by speckle noise, which limits its further application in medical diagnoses. An image de-noising method combining dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) with nonlinear diffusion is proposed in this paper. Firstly, an image is decomposed by DT-CWT. Then adaptive-contrast-factor diffusion and total variation diffusion are applied to high-frequency component and low-frequency component, respectively. Finally the image is synthesized. The experimental results are given. The comparisons of the image de-noising results are made with those of the image de-noising methods based on the combination of wavelet shrinkage with total variation diffusion, the combination of wavelet/multiwavelet with nonlinear diffusion. It is shown that the proposed image de-noising method based on DT-CWT and nonlinear diffusion can obtain superior results. It can both remove speckle noise and preserve the original edges and textural features more efficiently. PMID:22616185
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frank, T. D.
2008-02-01
We discuss two central claims made in the study by Bassler et al. [K.E. Bassler, G.H. Gunaratne, J.L. McCauley, Physica A 369 (2006) 343]. Bassler et al. claimed that Green functions and Langevin equations cannot be defined for nonlinear diffusion equations. In addition, they claimed that nonlinear diffusion equations are linear partial differential equations disguised as nonlinear ones. We review bottom-up and top-down approaches that have been used in the literature to derive Green functions for nonlinear diffusion equations and, in doing so, show that the first claim needs to be revised. We show that the second claim as well needs to be revised. To this end, we point out similarities and differences between non-autonomous linear Fokker-Planck equations and autonomous nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations. In this context, we raise the question whether Bassler et al.’s approach to financial markets is physically plausible because it necessitates the introduction of external traders and causes. Such external entities can easily be eliminated when taking self-organization principles and concepts of nonextensive thermostatistics into account and modeling financial processes by means of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations.
Multigrid approaches to non-linear diffusion problems on unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the nonlinearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) multigrid method which is used to solve the non-linear equations directly, a linear multigrid method which is used to solve the linear system arising from a Newton linearization of the non-linear system, and a hybrid scheme which is based on a non-linear FAS multigrid scheme, but employs a linear solver on each level as a smoother. Results indicate that all methods are equally effective at converging the non-linear residual in a given number of grid sweeps, but that the linear solver is more efficient in cpu time due to the lower cost of linear versus non-linear grid sweeps.
Vázquez, J. L.
2010-01-01
The goal of this paper is to state the optimal decay rate for solutions of the nonlinear fast diffusion equation and, in self-similar variables, the optimal convergence rates to Barenblatt self-similar profiles and their generalizations. It relies on the identification of the optimal constants in some related Hardy–Poincaré inequalities and concludes a long series of papers devoted to generalized entropies, functional inequalities, and rates for nonlinear diffusion equations. PMID:20823259
Nonlinear Theory of Anomalous Diffusion and Application to Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boon, Jean Pierre; Lutsko, James F.
2015-12-01
The nonlinear theory of anomalous diffusion is based on particle interactions giving an explicit microscopic description of diffusive processes leading to sub-, normal, or super-diffusion as a result of competitive effects between attractive and repulsive interactions. We present the explicit analytical solution to the nonlinear diffusion equation which we then use to compute the correlation function which is experimentally measured by correlation spectroscopy. The theoretical results are applicable in particular to the analysis of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of marked molecules in biological systems. More specifically we consider the cases of fluorescently labeled lipids in the plasma membrane and of fluorescent apoferritin (a spherically shaped oligomer) in a crowded dextran solution and we find that the nonlinear correlation spectra reproduce very well the experimental data indicating sub-diffusive molecular motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Bu, Zhen-Hui
2016-04-01
This paper is concerned with nonplanar traveling fronts in reaction-diffusion equations with combustion nonlinearity and degenerate Fisher-KPP nonlinearity. Our study contains two parts: in the first part we establish the existence of traveling fronts of pyramidal shape in R3, and in the second part we establish the existence and stability of V-shaped traveling fronts in R2.
An examination of double-diffusive processes in a mesoscale eddy in the Arctic Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bebieva, Yana; Timmermans, Mary-Louise
2016-01-01
Temperature and salinity measurements of an Atlantic Water mesoscale eddy in the Arctic Ocean's Canada Basin are analyzed to understand the effects of velocity shear on a range of double-diffusive processes. Double-diffusive structures in and around the eddy are examined through the transition from low shear (outside the eddy and within its solid body core) to high geostrophic shear zones at the eddy flanks. The geostrophic Richardson number takes large values where a double-diffusive staircase is observed and lowest values at the eddy flanks where geostrophic velocity is largest and a well-formed staircase is not present. A Thorpe scale analysis is used to estimate turbulent diffusivities in the flank regions. Double-diffusive and turbulent heat, salt, and buoyancy fluxes from the eddy are computed, and used to infer that the eddy decays on time scales of around 4-9 years. Fluxes highlight that Atlantic Water heat within the eddy can be fluxed downward into deeper water layers by means of both double-diffusive and turbulent mixing. Estimated lateral variations in vertical fluxes across the eddy allow for speculation that double diffusion speeds up the eddy decay, having important implications for the transfer of Atlantic Water heat in the Arctic Ocean.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pollmann, Konrad W.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Luttges, Marvin W.
1994-01-01
Microgravity can provide a diffusion-dominated environment for double-diffusion and diffusion-reaction experiments otherwise disrupted by buoyant convection or sedimentation. In sliding solvent diffusion cells, a diffusion interface between two liquid columns is achieved by aligning two offset sliding wells. Fluid in contact with the sliding lid of the cavities is subjected to an applied shear stress. The momentum change by the start/stop action of the well creates an additional hydrodynamical force. In microgravity, these viscous and inertial forces are sufficiently large to deform the diffusion interface and induce hydrodynamic transfer between the wells. A series of KC-135 parabolic flight experiments were conducted to characterize these effects and establish baseline data for microgravity diffusion experiments. Flow visualizations show the diffusion interface to be deformed in a sinusoidal fashion following well alignment. After the wells were separated again in a second sliding movement, the total induced liquid transfer was determined and normalized by the well aspect ratio. The normalized transfer decreased linearly with Reynolds number from 3.3 to 4.0% (w/v) for Re = 0.4 (Stokes flow) to a minimum of 1.0% for Re = 23 to 30. Reynolds numbers that provide minimum induced transfers are characterized by an interface that is highly deformed and unsuitable for diffusion measurements. Flat diffusion interfaces acceptable for diffusion measurements are obtained with Reynolds numbers on the order of 7 to 10. Microgravity experiments aboard a sounding rocket flight verified counterdiffusion of different solutes to be diffusion dominated. Ground control experiments showed enhanced mixing by double-diffusive convection. Careful selection of experimental parameters improves initial conditions and minimizes induced transfer rates.
Double-layer anisotropic light diffusion films fabricated using a two-step UV curing technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusama, Kentaro; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Katagiri, Baku; Orui, Tomoo; Shoshi, Satoru; Fujikake, Hideo
2016-04-01
We developed a novel light diffusion film with a double diffusion layer structure for high reflectivity and a wide diffusion angle range. We demonstrated that the internal layer structure of the light diffusion film is controlled by the diffusion angle of the ultraviolet (UV) light used for photopolymerization. We successfully fabricated two different diffusion layers in a single polymer film using a two-step UV curing process and achieved a wide diffusion angle range and high reflectivity normal to the film surface. Our light diffusion film can control the distribution of diffused light, and should contribute to the development of future low-power reflective displays with high reflectivity similar to the white paper.
Double-diffusive magnetic buoyancy instability in a quasi-two-dimensional Cartesian geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skinner, D. M.; Silvers, L. J.
2013-11-01
Magnetic buoyancy, believed to occur in the solar tachocline, is both an important part of large-scale solar dynamo models and the picture of how sunspots are formed. Given that in the tachocline region the ratio of magnetic diffusivity to thermal diffusivity is small it is important, for both the dynamo and sunspot formation pictures, to understand magnetic buoyancy in this regime. Furthermore, the tachocline is a region of strong shear and such investigations must involve structures that become buoyant in the double-diffusive regime which are generated entirely from a shear flow. In a previous study, we have illustrated that shear-generated double-diffusive magnetic buoyancy instability is possible in the tachocline. However, this study was severely limited due to the computational requirements of running three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations over diffusive time-scales. A more comprehensive investigation is required to fully understand the double-diffusive magnetic buoyancy instability and its dependency on a number of key parameters; such an investigation requires the consideration of a reduced model. Here we consider a quasi-two-dimensional model where all gradients in the x direction are set to zero. We show how the instability is sensitive to changes in the thermal diffusivity and also show how different initial configurations of the forced shear flow affect the behaviour of the instability. Finally, we conclude that if the tachocline is thinner than currently stated then the double-diffusive magnetic buoyancy instability can more easily occur.
Non-linear evolution of double tearing modes in tokamaks
Fredrickson, E.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.V.; Synakowski, E.
1999-12-17
The delta prime formalism with neoclassical modifications has proven to be a useful tool in the study of tearing modes in high beta, collisionless plasmas. In this paper the formalism developed for the inclusion of neoclassical effects on tearing modes in monotonic q-profile plasmas is extended to plasmas with hollow current profiles and double rational surfaces. First, the classical formalism of tearing modes in the Rutherford regime in low beta plasmas is extended to q profiles with two rational surfaces. Then it is shown that this formalism is readily extended to include neoclassical effects.
Submodels of model of nonlinear diffusion in the inhomogeneous medium involving absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirkunov, Yu. A.
2015-10-01
We study the five-parameter model, describing the process of nonlinear diffusion in an inhomogeneous medium in the presence of absorption, for which the differential equation of the model admits a continuous Lie group of transformations, acting on the set of its solutions. We found six submodels of the original model of nonlinear diffusion, with different symmetry properties. Of these six submodels, the five submodels with transient absorption, for which the absorption coefficient depends on time according to a power law, represent the greatest interest with a mathematical point of view and with the point of view of physical applications. For each of these nonlinear submodels, we obtained formulas for producing new solutions that contain arbitrary constants, and we found all invariant submodels. All essentially distinct invariant solutions describing these invariant submodels are found in an explicit form or are reduced to finding the solution of nonlinear integral equations. The presence of the arbitrary constants in the integral equations that determine these solutions provide new opportunities for analytical and numerical study of boundary value problems for the received submodels and, thus, for the original model of nonlinear diffusion. For the received invariant submodels, we studied diffusion processes for which at the initial moment of the time at a fixed point is specified as a concentration and its gradient or as a concentration and its velocity. Solving of boundary value problems describing these processes is reduced to the solving of nonlinear integral equations. We established the existence and uniqueness of solutions of these boundary value problems under some additional conditions. The obtained results can be used to study the diffusion of substances, diffusion of conduction electrons and other particles, diffusion of physical fields and propagation of heat in inhomogeneous medium, and also to study a turbulence (Leith model, differential
Submodels of model of nonlinear diffusion in the inhomogeneous medium involving absorption
Chirkunov, Yu. A.
2015-10-15
We study the five-parameter model, describing the process of nonlinear diffusion in an inhomogeneous medium in the presence of absorption, for which the differential equation of the model admits a continuous Lie group of transformations, acting on the set of its solutions. We found six submodels of the original model of nonlinear diffusion, with different symmetry properties. Of these six submodels, the five submodels with transient absorption, for which the absorption coefficient depends on time according to a power law, represent the greatest interest with a mathematical point of view and with the point of view of physical applications. For each of these nonlinear submodels, we obtained formulas for producing new solutions that contain arbitrary constants, and we found all invariant submodels. All essentially distinct invariant solutions describing these invariant submodels are found in an explicit form or are reduced to finding the solution of nonlinear integral equations. The presence of the arbitrary constants in the integral equations that determine these solutions provide new opportunities for analytical and numerical study of boundary value problems for the received submodels and, thus, for the original model of nonlinear diffusion. For the received invariant submodels, we studied diffusion processes for which at the initial moment of the time at a fixed point is specified as a concentration and its gradient or as a concentration and its velocity. Solving of boundary value problems describing these processes is reduced to the solving of nonlinear integral equations. We established the existence and uniqueness of solutions of these boundary value problems under some additional conditions. The obtained results can be used to study the diffusion of substances, diffusion of conduction electrons and other particles, diffusion of physical fields and propagation of heat in inhomogeneous medium, and also to study a turbulence (Leith model, differential
Chung, T.H.; Yoon, H.J.; Lee, J.K.
1995-12-31
It has been known that a driven nonlinear RLC circuit can exhibit period doubling (PD) and chaos. The nonlinear element in the circuit is a varacter diode whose capacitance varies as a function of the voltage across it. Capacitively coupled RF Discharge system also displayed a similar characteristic of the nonlinear RLC circuit. In this work, we present computational results obtained using spherical many-particle simulation models. The simulation codes is PDS1 (plasma device spherical one-dimensional) which utilize PIC technique plus Monte Carlo method for the charged particle-neutral collisions. Simulation can reinforce experiment by investigating new parameter regimes and physics associated with new regime outside those seen in the laboratory. When an electrical system with nonlinear impedance characteristics operates periodically with frequency f, higher harmonics will be generated by the nonlinearity at frequencies 2f, 3f, 4f, etc, and subharmonics will also be generated at frequencies f/2, 3f/2, 5f/2, etc. Above a certain power level of the driver, the subharmonics which is indicative of a period-doubling(PD) bifurcation becomes dominant. We plot the PD thresholds for varying pd(where p is the neutral gas pressure, and d is the gap distance). Period doubling bifurcations manifest themselves in driven system by an alternation of state variables between different values on successive cycles of the excitation waveforms. This corresponds to the generation of subharmonics(f/2) and odd-multiples of the half-harmonic frequency.
Enhanced nonlinear optical characteristics of copper-ion-doped double crossover DNAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Byeongho; Lee, Byung Jic; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Cho, Youngho; Kim, Chulki; Seo, Minah; Lee, Taikjin; Jhon, Young Min; Choi, Jaebin; Lee, Seok; Park, Sung Ha; Jun, Seong Chan; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jae Hun
2015-10-01
The modification of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples by sequencing the order of bases and doping copper ions opens the possibility for the design of novel nanomaterials exhibiting large optical nonlinearity. We investigated the nonlinear characteristics of copper-ion doped double crossover DNA samples for the first time to the best of our knowledge by using Z-scan and four-wave mixing methods. To accelerate the nonlinear characteristics, we prepared two types of unique DNA nanostructures composed of 148 base pairs doped with copper ions with a facile annealing method. The outstanding third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the copper-ion-doped DNA solution, 1.19 × 10-12 esu, was estimated by the conventional Z-scan measurement, whereas the four-wave mixing experiment was also investigated. In the visible spectral range, the copper-ion-doped DNA solution samples provided competent four-wave mixing signals with a remarkable conversion efficiency of -4.15 dB for the converted signal at 627 nm. The interactions between DNA and copper ions contribute to the enhancement of nonlinearity due to structural and functional changes. The present study signifies that the copper-ion-doped double crossover DNA is a potential candidate as a highly efficient novel material for further nonlinear optical applications.
Willert, Jeffrey; Park, H.; Taitano, William
2015-10-12
High-order/low-order (or moment-based acceleration) algorithms have been used to significantly accelerate the solution to the neutron transport k-eigenvalue problem over the past several years. Recently, the nonlinear diffusion acceleration algorithm has been extended to solve fixed-source problems with anisotropic scattering sources. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can extend this algorithm to k-eigenvalue problems in which the scattering source is anisotropic and a significant acceleration can be achieved. Lastly, we demonstrate that the low-order, diffusion-like eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently using a technique known as nonlinear elimination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meccia, Virna L.; Simoncelli, Simona; Sparnocchia, Stefania
2016-08-01
The physical reanalysis component of the Mediterranean Forecasting System is used to construct a high-resolution three-dimensional atlas of the Turner Angle. An assessment of the model quality shows a maximum degree of agreement with observations in the water column between 150 and 1000 m depth. The mean state of the favourable conditions for double diffusion processes is evaluated and the recent decadal variability is studied in terms of changes in the water mass properties. The results show that approximately 50% of the Mediterranean Sea is favourable to double diffusion processes, from which around 47% is associated with salt fingering. The Tyrrhenian, Ionian and southwestern Mediterranean are the most vulnerable basins to salt fingering, and the strongest processes can occur in the Tyrrhenian deep waters. Diffusive convection is most likely to occur in the Ionian, Aegean and eastern Mediterranean at vertical levels deeper than 1000 m. The observed gradual warming and salinification of the Mediterranean after 1997 decreased and increased the possibilities of the occurrence of salt fingers and double diffusive convections, respectively. The climatological atlas that is presented in this paper provides a three-dimensional picture of the regions that are either doubly stable or favourable to double diffusion instability and allows for the characterization of the diffusive properties of the water masses.
Nonlinear structure of the diffusing gas-metal interface in a thermonuclear plasma.
Molvig, Kim; Vold, Erik L; Dodd, Evan S; Wilks, Scott C
2014-10-01
This Letter describes the theoretical structure of the plasma diffusion layer that develops from an initially sharp gas-metal interface. The layer dynamics under isothermal and isobaric conditions is considered so that only mass diffusion (mixing) processes can occur. The layer develops a distinctive structure with asymmetric and highly nonlinear features. On the gas side of the layer the diffusion coefficient goes nearly to zero, causing a sharp "front," or well defined boundary between mix layer and clean gas with similarities to the Marshak thermal waves. Similarity solutions for the nonlinear profiles are found and verified with full ion kinetic code simulations. A criterion for plasma diffusion to significantly affect burn is given. PMID:25325648
Nonlinearity Effects of Lateral Density Diffusion Coefficient on Gain-Guided VCSEL Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Jian-Zhong; Cheung, Samson H.; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Electron and hole diffusions in the plane of semiconductor quantum wells play an important part in the static and dynamic operations of semiconductor lasers. In this paper, we apply a hydrodynamic model developed from the semiconductor Bloch equations to numerically study the effects of nonlinearity in the diffusion coefficient on single mode operation and direct modulation of a gain-guided InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well laser, operating not too far from threshold. We found that a small diffusion coefficient is advantageous for lowering the threshold current and increasing the modulation bandwidth. Most importantly, the effects of nonlinearity in the coefficient can be approximately reproduced by replacing the coefficient with an effective constant diffusion coefficient, which corresponds roughly to the half height density of the density distribution.
Yue, Yong; Croitoru, Mihai M; Bidani, Akhil; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Clark, John W
2006-03-01
This paper introduces a novel nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion method for ultrasound speckle suppression and edge enhancement. This method is designed to utilize the favorable denoising properties of two frequently used techniques: the sparsity and multiresolution properties of the wavelet, and the iterative edge enhancement feature of nonlinear diffusion. With fully exploited knowledge of speckle image models, the edges of images are detected using normalized wavelet modulus. Relying on this feature, both the envelope-detected speckle image and the log-compressed ultrasonic image can be directly processed by the algorithm without need for additional preprocessing. Speckle is suppressed by employing the iterative multiscale diffusion on the wavelet coefficients. With a tuning diffusion threshold strategy, the proposed method can improve the image quality for both visualization and auto-segmentation applications. We validate our method using synthetic speckle images and real ultrasonic images. Performance improvement over other despeckling filters is quantified in terms of noise suppression and edge preservation indices. PMID:16524086
Nonlinear diffusion in two-dimensional ordered porous media based on a free volume theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godec, A.; Gaberscek, M.; Jamnik, J.; Merzel, F.
2009-12-01
A continuum nonlinear diffusion model is developed to describe molecular transport in ordered porous media. An existing generic van der Waals equation of state based free volume theory of binary diffusion coefficients is modified and introduced into the two-dimensional diffusion equation. The resulting diffusion equation is solved numerically with the alternating-direction fully implicit method under Neumann boundary conditions. Two types of pore structure symmetries are considered, hexagonal and cubic. The former is modeled as parallel channels while in case of the latter equal-sized channels are placed perpendicularly thus creating an interconnected network. First, general features of transport in both systems are explored, followed by the analysis of the impact of molecular properties on diffusion inside and out of the porous matrix. The influence of pore size on the diffusion-controlled release kinetics is assessed and the findings used to comment recent experimental studies of drug release profiles from ordered mesoporous silicates.
Complex statistics and diffusion in nonlinear disordered particle chains
Antonopoulos, Ch. G.; Bountis, T.; Skokos, Ch.; Drossos, L.
2014-06-15
We investigate dynamically and statistically diffusive motion in a Klein-Gordon particle chain in the presence of disorder. In particular, we examine a low energy (subdiffusive) and a higher energy (self-trapping) case and verify that subdiffusive spreading is always observed. We then carry out a statistical analysis of the motion, in both cases, in the sense of the Central Limit Theorem and present evidence of different chaos behaviors, for various groups of particles. Integrating the equations of motion for times as long as 10{sup 9}, our probability distribution functions always tend to Gaussians and show that the dynamics does not relax onto a quasi-periodic Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser torus and that diffusion continues to spread chaotically for arbitrarily long times.
Fitting degradation of shoreline scarps by a nonlinear diffusion model
Andrews, D.J.; Buckna, R.C.
1987-01-01
The diffusion model of degradation of topographic features is a promising means by which vertical offsets on Holocene faults might be dated. In order to calibrate the method, we have examined present-day profiles of wave-cut shoreline scarps of late Pleistocene lakes Bonneville and Lahontan. A table is included that allows easy application of the model to scarps with simple initial shape. -from Authors
Nonlinear stability research on the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear.
Wang, Jun; Huang, Qingxue; An, Gaocheng; Qi, Qisong; Sun, Binyu
2015-10-01
This paper researches the stability of the nonlinear system taking the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear as an example. The hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear uses unsymmetrical electro-hydraulic proportional servo valve to control the cylinder with single piston rod, which can make best use of the space and reduce reversing shock. It is a typical nonlinear structure. The nonlinear state-space equations of the unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder system are built first, and the second Lyapunov method is used to evaluate its stability. Second, the software AMEsim is applied to simulate the nonlinear system, and the results indicate that the system is stable. At last, the experimental results show that the system unsymmetrical valve controlling the cylinder with single piston rod is stable and conforms to what is deduced by theoretical analysis and simulation. The construction and application of Lyapunov function not only provide the theoretical basis for using of unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder with single piston rod but also develop a new thought for nonlinear stability evaluation. PMID:26520981
Nonlinear stability research on the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Huang, Qingxue; An, Gaocheng; Qi, Qisong; Sun, Binyu
2015-10-01
This paper researches the stability of the nonlinear system taking the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear as an example. The hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear uses unsymmetrical electro-hydraulic proportional servo valve to control the cylinder with single piston rod, which can make best use of the space and reduce reversing shock. It is a typical nonlinear structure. The nonlinear state-space equations of the unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder system are built first, and the second Lyapunov method is used to evaluate its stability. Second, the software AMEsim is applied to simulate the nonlinear system, and the results indicate that the system is stable. At last, the experimental results show that the system unsymmetrical valve controlling the cylinder with single piston rod is stable and conforms to what is deduced by theoretical analysis and simulation. The construction and application of Lyapunov function not only provide the theoretical basis for using of unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder with single piston rod but also develop a new thought for nonlinear stability evaluation.
Water Uptake, Diameter Change, and Nonlinear Diffusion in Tree Stems
Parlange, Jean-Yves; Turner, Neil C.; Waggoner, Paul E.
1975-01-01
A diffusion model for phloem swelling and contraction is proposed in which the rate of water movement changes markedly with moisture content. Good agreement between the actual swelling of the phloem of cotton stems and that predicted by the model was obtained. This result implies that water moves more readily into the phloem when it becomes wetter. This model also explains the lag of shrinkage of pine stems behind the water potential of the foliage and predicts that the lag is related to the thickness of the phloem. PMID:16659060
Dynamics of self-pumped double PC mirrors based on photorefractive nonlinearity
Voronov, Aleksandr V; Shuvalov, Vladimir V
2004-05-31
It is shown that apart from a dynamic hologram formed in the self-crossing region of input beams [the first phase-conjugation (PC) channel] in a single-crystal double PC mirror, additional refractive-index gratings spontaneously develop, which form the second PC channel with the interaction geometry typical of two-crystal PC mirrors. The competition between these channels leads to a complicated spatiotemporal dynamics of generated nonlinear waves. Depending on the experimental conditions, PC with the efficiency of up to 70 % - 80 % is possible and dynamic structures can be formed from thin soliton-like filaments. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Joo, K; Ellis, J D; Buice, E S; Spronck, J W; Munnig Schmidt, R H
2010-02-05
This paper describes a novel heterodyne laser interferometer with no significant periodic nonlinearity for linear displacement measurements. Moreover, the optical configurations have the benefit of doubling the measurement resolution when compared to its respective traditional counterparts. Experimental results show no discernable periodic nonlinearity for a retro-reflector interferometer and plane mirror interferometer configurations with a noise level below 20 pm. The incoming laser beams of the interferometers are achieved by utilizing two single mode optical fibers. To determine the stability of the optical fiber couplers a fiber delivery prototype was also built and tested.
Concentration profiles for diffusion and nonlinear transport on fractals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giona, M.; Adrover, A.; Schwalm, W.; Schwalm, M.
1996-03-01
A Green function renormalization gives transport properties on fractal lattices (finitely or infinitely ramified) to arbitrary numerical precision. We continue an analysis of finite-difference transport modelsfootnote M. Giona et al., Fractals in the Natural and Applied Sciences, ed. M. Novak (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1994) pp. 153-163; M. Giona et al., Chem. E. Sci. (to appear). focusing on spatial concentration profiles, (2) nonlinear transport, (3) global properties from renormalization of the generating function Z(E) = int d φ exp[-φ^t (H -E I )φ/2] (Adjacency matrix H defines the lattice structure.) by methods not based on decimation. In (1) the Fourier transform of spatial concentration profile is computed as a dynamic structure factor. A perturbation expansion is developed in (2), and (3) presents formalism alternative to that of Tramblay and Southern(Tremblay, B. Southern, J. Phys. Lett. (Paris) 44), 843 (1984)..
Super heat diffusion in one-dimensional momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Wu, Zhiyuan; Xu, Lubo
2015-06-01
Heat diffusion processes in various one-dimensional total-momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices with symmetric interaction and asymmetric interaction are systematically studied. It is revealed that the asymmetry of interaction largely enhances the heat diffusion; while according to our existing studies for heat conduction in the same lattices, it slows the divergence of heat conductivity in a wide regime of system size. These findings violate the proposed relations that connect anomalous heat conduction and super heat diffusion. The generality of those expectations is thus questioned.
Influence of time delay and nonlinear diffusion on herbivore outbreak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Gui-Quan; Chakraborty, Amit; Liu, Quan-Xing; Jin, Zhen; Anderson, Kurt E.; Li, Bai-Lian
2014-05-01
Herbivore outbreaks, a major form of natural disturbance in many ecosystems, often have devastating impacts on their food plants. Understanding those factors permitting herbivore outbreaks to occur is a long-standing issue in conventional studies of plant-herbivore interactions. These studies are largely concerned with the relative importance of intrinsic biological factors and extrinsic environmental variations in determining the degree of herbivore outbreaks. In this paper, we illustrated that how the time delay associated with plant defense responses to herbivore attacks and the spatial diffusion of herbivore jointly promote outbreaks of herbivore population. Using a reaction-diffusion model, we showed that there exists a threshold of time delay in plant-herbivore interactions; when time delay is below the threshold value, there is no herbivore outbreak. However, when time delay is above the threshold value, periodic outbreak of herbivore emerges. Furthermore, the results confirm that during the outbreak period, plants display much lower density than its normal level but higher in the inter-outbreak periods. Our results are supported by empirical findings.
Nonlinear stability in reaction-diffusion systems via optimal Lyapunov functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombardo, S.; Mulone, G.; Trovato, M.
2008-06-01
We define optimal Lyapunov functions to study nonlinear stability of constant solutions to reaction-diffusion systems. A computable and finite radius of attraction for the initial data is obtained. Applications are given to the well-known Brusselator model and a three-species model for the spatial spread of rabies among foxes.
Analysis of optical instability in a double-coupler nonlinear fiber ring resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongpu; Ogusu, Kazuhiko
1998-12-01
Instability in a double-coupler nonlinear fiber ring resonator has been investigated by using a linear stability analysis. Numerical results show that although Ikeda instability appears in the positive-branch regions, it hardly interrupts bistable device application since the threshold power for instability is one or two orders of magnitude larger than the switching power for optical bistability. By the transient analysis when an optical pulse with a finite pulse duration is incident, we moreover confirm that period-doubling oscillations, being one of characteristics of Ikeda instability, take place in the unstable state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghebache, Siham; Tribeche, Mouloud
2016-04-01
Weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic (IA) double-layers (DLs), which accompany electronegative plasmas composed of positive ions, negative ions, and nonextensive electrons are investigated. A generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with a cubic nonlinearity is derived using a reductive perturbation method. Different types of electronegative plasmas inspired from the experimental studies of Ichiki et al. (2001) are discussed. It is shown that the IA wave phase velocity, in different mixtures of negative and positive ions, decreases as the nonextensive parameter q increases, before levelling-off at a constant value for larger q. Moreover, a relative increase of Q involves an enhancement of the IA phase velocity. Existence domains of either solitary waves or double-layers are then presented and their parametric dependence is determined. Owing to the electron nonextensivity, our present plasma model can admit compressive as well as rarefactive IA-DLs.
Frequency multiplying optoelectronic oscillator based on nonlinearly-coupled double loops.
Xu, Wei; Jin, Tao; Chi, Hao
2013-12-30
We propose and demonstrate a frequency multiplying optoelectronic oscillator with nonlinearly-coupled double loops based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, to generate high frequency microwave signals using only low-frequency devices. We find the final oscillation modes are only determined by the length of the master oscillation loop. Frequency multiplying signals are generated via nonlinearly-coupled double loops, the output of one loop being used to modulate the other. In the experiments, microwave signals at 10 GHz with -121 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset and 20 GHz with -112.8 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset are generated. Meanwhile, their side-mode suppression ratios are also evaluated and the maximum ratio of 70 dB is obtained. PMID:24514845
Some applications of nonlinear diffusion to processing of dynamic evolution images
Goltsov, Alexey N.; Nikishov, Sergey A.
1997-05-15
Model nonlinear diffusion equation with the most simple Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional was applied to locate boundaries between meaningful regions of low-level images. The method is oriented to processing images of objects that are a result of dynamic evolution: images of different organs and tissues obtained by radiography and NMR methods, electron microscope images of morphogenesis fields, etc. In the methods developed by us, parameters of the nonlinear diffusion model are chosen on the basis of the preliminary treatment of the images. The parameters of the Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional are extracted from the structure factor of the images. Owing to such a choice of the model parameters, the image to be processed is located in the vicinity of the steady-state of the diffusion equation. The suggested method allows one to separate distinct structures having specific space characteristics from the whole image. The method was applied to processing X-ray images of the lung.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Marc; Videau, Jean J.; Canioni, Lionel; Adamietz, Frédéric; Sarger, Laurent; Le Flem, Gilles
2000-01-01
All-optical communication systems are the subject of intense research related to the integration of nonlinear optical materials. In sodiocalcic borophosphate glasses that contain niobium oxide and exhibit high nonlinear optical indices, planar waveguides have been formed by a Ag Na ion-exchange technique. WKB analysis has been used to characterize the diffusion profiles of silver ions exchanged in glass substrate samples chemically by an electron microprobe technique and optically by an M -line technique. These methods permit the Ag penetration depth and diffusion profile shape and index profiles to be determined. The results are analyzed and discussed in relation to Ca 2 concentration and exchange conditions in glasses. The Ag diffusion in these glasses can be almost entirely controlled for index-profile engineering.
Nonlinear diffusion-wave equation for a gas in a regenerator subject to temperature gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugimoto, N.
2015-10-01
This paper derives an approximate equation for propagation of nonlinear thermoacoustic waves in a gas-filled, circular pore subject to temperature gradient. The pore radius is assumed to be much smaller than a thickness of thermoviscous diffusion layer, and the narrow-tube approximation is used in the sense that a typical axial length associated with temperature gradient is much longer than the radius. Introducing three small parameters, one being the ratio of the pore radius to the thickness of thermoviscous diffusion layer, another the ratio of a typical speed of thermoacoustic waves to an adiabatic sound speed and the other the ratio of a typical magnitude of pressure disturbance to a uniform pressure in a quiescent state, a system of fluid dynamical equations for an ideal gas is reduced asymptotically to a nonlinear diffusion-wave equation by using boundary conditions on a pore wall. Discussion on a temporal mean of an excess pressure due to periodic oscillations is included.
Javanainen, Juha
2010-05-15
We study theoretically an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well trap, both quantum-mechanically and classically, under conditions such that in the classical model an unstable equilibrium dissolves into large-scale oscillations of the atoms between the potential wells. Quantum mechanics alone does not exhibit such nonlinear dynamics, but measurements of the atom numbers in the potential wells may nevertheless cause the condensate to behave essentially classically.
Experimental investigation of the Marangoni effect on the stability of a double-diffusive layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanny, Josef; Chen, Chuan F.
1994-01-01
Stability experiments were carried out in 4-cm-thick, salt-stratified fluid layer by heating from below and cooling from above. The bottom boundary was rigid while the top was either free or rigid. The initial solute Rayleigh number varied from 2.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4.6 x 10(exp 7). For the rigid-free case, at initial solute Rayleigh numbers R(sub s) greater than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), thermal Marangoni instabilities were observed to onset along the free surface at a relatively low thermal Rayleigh number, R(sub t). The convection was very weak, and it had almost no effect on the concentration and temperature distributions. Double-diffusive instabilities along the top free surface were observed to onset at a higher R(sub t), with much stronger convection causing changes in the concentration and temperature distributions near the top. At a yet higher R(sub t), double-diffusive convection was observed to onset along the bottom boundary. Fluid motion in the layer then evolved into fully developed thermal convection of a homogeneous fluid without any further increase in the imposed Delta T. For layers with R(sub s) less than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), Marangoni and double-diffusive instabilities onset simultaneously along the free surface first, while double-diffusive instabilities along the bottom wall onset at a higher R(sub t).
Fluxes across double-diffusive interfaces: a one-dimensional-turbulence study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez, E.; Kerstein, A.; Lignell, D.
2010-12-01
Double-diffusive convection in the diffusive regime is believed to occur, for example, in the Arctic and Southern Oceans, in geothermally-heated salty lakes, and in massive stars and giant planets. It is of interest in all these systems to know the parametrization of the fluxes of heat and salt across double-diffusive interfaces. The present work is a parametric study of these fluxes using one-dimensional-turbulence (ODT) simulations. Its main distinction is that it considers a parameter space larger than previous studies, which includes the effect of background shear. Specifically, this work considers the effect on the fluxes of the stability parameter, Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, Lewis number, and Richardson number. The ratio of the Rayleigh number and the stability parameter is found to be a dominant parameter. This parameter can be seen as a ratio of destabilizing and stabilizing effects. Trends predicted by the simulations are in good agreement with previous models and available measurements.
Rediscovering Hydrogel-Based Double-Diffusion Systems for Studying Biomineralization
Dorvee, Jason R.; Boskey, Adele L.; Estroff, Lara A.
2012-01-01
For those seeking to model biomineralization in vitro, hydrogels can serve as excellent models of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. A major challenge posed in implementing such systems is the logistics involved, from fundamental engineering to experimental design. For the study of calcium phosphate (e.g., hydroxyapatite) formation, many researchers use hydrogel-based double-diffusion systems (DDSs). The various designs of these DDSs are seemingly as unique as their applications. In this Highlight, we present a survey of four distinct types of double-diffusion systems and evaluate them in the context of fundamental diffusion theory. Based upon this analysis, we present the design and evaluation of an optimized system. The techniques and framework for the evaluation and construction of a DDS presented here can be applied to any DDS that a researcher may want to implement for their particular studies of biomineralization. PMID:22962542
Nonlinear dynamics of bi-layered graphene sheet, double-walled carbon nanotube and nanotube bundle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajbhiye, Sachin O.; Singh, S. P.
2016-05-01
Due to strong van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the graphene sheets and nanotubes stick to each other and form clusters of these corresponding nanostructures, viz. bi-layered graphene sheet (BLGS), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) and nanotube bundle (NB) or ropes. This research work is concerned with the study of nonlinear dynamics of BLGS, DWCNT and NB due to nonlinear interlayer vdW forces using multiscale atomistic finite element method. The energy between two adjacent carbon atoms is represented by the multibody interatomic Tersoff-Brenner potential, whereas the nonlinear interlayer vdW forces are represented by Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential function. The equivalent nonlinear material model of carbon-carbon bond is used to model it based on its force-deflection relation. Newmark's algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear matrix equation governing the motion of the BLGS, DWCNT and NB. An impulse and harmonic excitations are used to excite these nanostructures under cantilevered, bridged and clamped boundary conditions. The frequency responses of these nanostructures are computed, and the dominant resonant frequencies are identified. Along with the forced vibration of these structures, the eigenvalue extraction problem of armchair and zigzag NB is also considered. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are extracted for the different length and boundary conditions of the nanotube bundle.
Nonlinear Waves in Reaction Diffusion Systems: The Effect of Transport Memory
HURD,ALAN J.; KENKRE,V.M.; MANNE,K.K.
1999-11-04
Motivated by the problem of determining stress distributions in granular materials, we study the effect of finite transport correlation times on the propagation of nonlinear wavefronts in reaction diffusion systems. We obtain new results such as the possibility of spatial oscillations in the wavefront shape for certain values of the system parameters and high enough wavefront speeds. We also generalize earlier known results concerning the minimum wavefront speed and shape-speed relationships stemming from the finiteness of the correlation times. Analytic investigations are made possible by a piece-wise linear representation of the nonlinearity.
Nonlinear preferential rewiring in fixed-size networks as a diffusion process.
Johnson, Samuel; Torres, Joaquín J; Marro, Joaquín
2009-05-01
We present an evolving network model in which the total numbers of nodes and edges are conserved, but in which edges are continuously rewired according to nonlinear preferential detachment and reattachment. Assuming power-law kernels with exponents alpha and beta , the stationary states which the degree distributions evolve toward exhibit a second-order phase transition-from relatively homogeneous to highly heterogeneous (with the emergence of starlike structures) at alpha=beta . Temporal evolution of the distribution in this critical regime is shown to follow a nonlinear diffusion equation, arriving at either pure or mixed power laws of exponents -alpha and 1-alpha . PMID:19518399
A new nonlinear finite volume scheme preserving positivity for diffusion equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Guangwei
2016-06-01
In this paper we present a new nonlinear finite volume scheme preserving positivity for diffusion equations. The main feature of the scheme is the assumption that the values of auxiliary unknowns are nonnegative is avoided. Two nonnegative parameters are introduced to define a new nonlinear two-point flux, in which one point is the cell-center and the other is the midpoint of cell-edge. The final flux on the edge is obtained by the continuity of normal flux. Numerical results show that the accuracy of both solution and flux for our new scheme is superior to that of some existing monotone schemes.
Double-Diffusive Convection During Growth of Halides and Selenides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, N. B.; Su, Ching-Hua; Duval, Walter M. B.
2015-01-01
several materials such as mercurous chloride, mercurous bromide, mercurous iodide, lead chloride lead bromide, lead iodide, thallium arsenic selenide, gallium selenide, zince sulfide zinc selenide and several crystals into devices. We have used both Bridgman and physical vapor transport (PVT) crystal growth methods. In the past have examined PVT growth numerically for conditions where the boundary of the enclosure is subjected to a nonlinear thermal profile. Since past few months we have been working on binary and ternary materials such as selenoiodides, doped zinc sulfides and mercurous chloro bromide and mercurous bromoiodides. In the doped and ternary materials thermal and solutal convection play extremely important role during the growth. Very commonly striations and banding is observed. Our experiments have indicated that even in highly purified source materials, homogeneity in 1-g environment is very difficult. Some of our previous numerical studies have indicated that gravity level less than 10-4 (?-g) helps in controlling the thermosolutal convection. We will discuss the ground based growth results of HgClxBr(1-x) and ZnSe growth results for the mm thick to large cm size crystals. These results will be compared with our microgravity experiments performed with this class of materials. For both HgCl-HgBr and ZnS-ZnSe the lattice parameters of the mixtures obey Vagard's law in the studied composition range. The study demonstrates that properties are very anisotropic with crystal orientation, and performance achievement requires extremely careful fabrication to utilize highest figure of merit. In addition, some parameters such as crystal growth fabrication, processing time, resolution, field of view and efficiency will be described based on novel solid solution materials. It was predicted that very similar to the pure compounds solid solutions also have very large anisotropy, and very precise oriented and homogeneous bulk and thin film crystals is required to achieve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyva, J. Francisco; Málaga, Carlos; Plaza, Ramón G.
2013-11-01
This paper studies a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for bacterial aggregation patterns on the surface of thin agar plates. It is based on the non-linear degenerate cross diffusion model proposed by Kawasaki et al. (1997) [5] and it includes a suitable nutrient chemotactic term compatible with such type of diffusion, as suggested by Ben-Jacob et al. (2000) [20]. An asymptotic estimation predicts the growth velocity of the colony envelope as a function of both the nutrient concentration and the chemotactic sensitivity. It is shown that the growth velocity is an increasing function of the chemotactic sensitivity. High resolution numerical simulations using Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), which include noise in the diffusion coefficient for the bacteria, are presented. The numerical results verify that the chemotactic term enhances the velocity of propagation of the colony envelope. In addition, the chemotaxis seems to stabilize the formation of branches in the soft-agar, low-nutrient regime.
Koh, Hye Ran; Wang, Xinlei; Myong, Sua
2016-08-01
TRBP, one of double strand RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), is an essential cofactor of Dicer in the RNA interference pathway. Previously we reported that TRBP exhibits repetitive diffusion activity on double strand (ds)RNA in an ATP independent manner. In the TRBP-Dicer complex, the diffusion mobility of TRBP facilitates Dicer-mediated RNA cleavage. Such repetitive diffusion of dsRBPs on a nucleic acid at the nanometer scale can be appropriately captured by several single molecule detection techniques. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide to four different single molecule fluorescence assays by which the diffusion activity of dsRBPs on dsRNA can be detected. One color assay, termed protein induced fluorescence enhancement enables detection of unlabeled protein binding and diffusion on a singly labeled RNA. Two-color Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) in which labeled dsRBPs is applied to labeled RNA, allows for probing the motion of protein along the RNA axis. Three color FRET reports on the diffusion movement of dsRBPs from one to the other end of RNA. The single molecule pull down assay provides an opportunity to collect dsRBPs from mammalian cells and examine the protein-RNA interaction at single molecule platform. PMID:27012177
Fabrication of ceramic microspheres by diffusion-induced sol-gel reaction in double emulsions.
Zhang, Lei; Hao, Shaochang; Liu, Bing; Shum, Ho Cheung; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng
2013-11-27
We demonstrate an approach to prepare zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) microspheres by carrying out a diffusion-induced sol-gel reaction inside double emulsion droplets. A glass capillary microfluidic device is introduced to generate monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions with a zirconium precursor as the inner phase. By adding ammonia to the continuous aqueous phase, the zirconium precursor solution is triggered to gel inside the emulsions. The double emulsion structure enhances the uniformity in the rate of the sol-gel reaction, resulting in sol-gel microspheres with improved size uniformity and sphericity. ZrO2 ceramic microspheres are formed following subsequent drying and sintering steps. Our approach, which combines double-emulsion-templating and sol-gel synthesis, has great potential for fabricating versatile ceramic microspheres for applications under high temperature and pressure. PMID:23865771
The diffusive interface at low stability: the importance of non-linearity and turbulent entrainment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudels, Bert
1991-03-01
The diffusion and convection at low temperature at an interface separating a cold, low salinity upper layer from a warmer, more saline lower layer are examined. The densities of the layers are assumed equal and an approximate, non-linear equation of state is used. The vertical transports are determined from the molecular, diffusive fluxes through the interface. The diffusion creates instabilities at the interface, which convect into the layers. The transition from diffusion to convection is estimated from a Rayleigh number based upon the penetration depth of the density anomaly. The convection occurs as quasi-stationary plumes, maintained by inflow of lighter/denser water, driven by horizontal pressure gradients induced by the density redistribution. The turbulent energy produced in the layers is calculated from the terminal vertical velocity of the buoyant parcels and the horizontal and vertical length scales of the convection. The turbulent energy density is found to depend on layer depth and buoyancy fluxes through the interface cannot be used directly as estimates of the turbulence production. Both turbulent entrainment and the non-linear equation of state could be of less importance for the transport though a diffusive interface in the oceans than what is inferred from corresponding laboratory experiments.
Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction
Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato
2014-01-01
The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608
Effects of radial diffuser hydraulic design on a double-suction centrifugal pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, H. C.; Zhang, Y. X.; Xu, C.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, Z. L.
2016-05-01
In order to study effects of radial diffuser on hydraulic performance of crude oil pump, the steady CFD numerical method is applied and one large double-suction oil pump running in long-distance pipeline is considered. The research focuses on analysing the influence of its diffuser vane profile on hydraulic performance of oil pump. The four different types of cylindrical vane have been designed by in-house codes mainly including double arcs (DA), triple arcs (TA), equiangular spiral line (ES) and linear variable angle spiral line (LVS). During design process diffuser vane angles at inlet and outlet are tentatively given within a certain range and then the wrapping angle of the four types of diffuser vanes can be calculated automatically. Under the given inlet and outlet angles, the linear variable angle spiral line profile has the biggest wrapping angle and profile length which is good to delay channel diffusion but bring more friction hydraulic loss. Finally the vane camber line is thickened at the certain uniform thickness distribution and the 3D diffuser models are generated. The whole flow passage of oil pump with different types of diffusers under various flow rate conditions are numerically simulated based on RNG k-ɛ turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The numerical results show that different types of diffusers can bring about great difference on the hydraulic performance of oil pump, of which the ES profile diffuser with its proper setting angle shows the best hydraulic performance and its inner flow field is improved obviously. Compared with the head data from model sample, all designed diffusers can make a certain improvement on head characteristic. At the large flow rate conditions the hydraulic efficiency increases obviously and the best efficiency point shift to the large flow rate range. The ES profile diffuser embodies the better advantages on pump performance which can be explained theoretically that the diffuser actually acts as a diffusion
Typical and rare fluctuations in nonlinear driven diffusive systems with dissipation.
Hurtado, Pablo I; Lasanta, A; Prados, A
2013-08-01
We consider fluctuations of the dissipated energy in nonlinear driven diffusive systems subject to bulk dissipation and boundary driving. With this aim, we extend the recently introduced macroscopic fluctuation theory to nonlinear driven dissipative media, starting from the fluctuating hydrodynamic equations describing the system mesoscopic evolution. Interestingly, the action associated with a path in mesoscopic phase space, from which large-deviation functions for macroscopic observables can be derived, has the same simple form as in nondissipative systems. This is a consequence of the quasielasticity of microscopic dynamics, required in order to have a nontrivial competition between diffusion and dissipation at the mesoscale. Euler-Lagrange equations for the optimal density and current fields that sustain an arbitrary dissipation fluctuation are also derived. A perturbative solution thereof shows that the probability distribution of small fluctuations is always Gaussian, as expected from the central limit theorem. On the other hand, strong separation from the Gaussian behavior is observed for large fluctuations, with a distribution which shows no negative branch, thus violating the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, as expected from the irreversibility of the dynamics. The dissipation large-deviation function exhibits simple and general scaling forms for weakly and strongly dissipative systems, with large fluctuations favored in the former case but heavily suppressed in the latter. We apply our results to a general class of diffusive lattice models for which dissipation, nonlinear diffusion, and driving are the key ingredients. The theoretical predictions are compared to extensive numerical simulations of the microscopic models, and excellent agreement is found. Interestingly, the large-deviation function is in some cases nonconvex beyond some dissipation. These results show that a suitable generalization of macroscopic fluctuation theory is capable of
Nonlinear Solver Approaches for the Diffusive Wave Approximation to the Shallow Water Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collier, N.; Knepley, M.
2015-12-01
The diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations (DSW) is a doubly-degenerate, nonlinear, parabolic partial differential equation used to model overland flows. Despite its challenges, the DSW equation has been extensively used to model the overland flow component of various integrated surface/subsurface models. The equation's complications become increasingly problematic when ponding occurs, a feature which becomes pervasive when solving on large domains with realistic terrain. In this talk I discuss the various forms and regularizations of the DSW equation and highlight their effect on the solvability of the nonlinear system. In addition to this analysis, I present results of a numerical study which tests the applicability of a class of composable nonlinear algebraic solvers recently added to the Portable, Extensible, Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc).
Exact kink solitons in the presence of diffusion, dispersion, and polynomial nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raposo, E. P.; Bazeia, D.
1999-03-01
We describe exact travelling-wave kink soliton solutions in some classes of nonlinear partial differential equations, such as generalized Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries-Huxley, and Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers-Huxley equations, as well as equations in the generic form ut + P( u) ux + vuxx - δuxxx = A( u), with polynomial functions P( u) and A( u) of u = u( x, t), whose generality allows the identification with a number of relevant equations in physics. We focus on the analysis of the role of diffusion, dispersion, nonlinear effects, and parity of the polynomials to the properties of the solutions, particularly their velocity of propagation. In addition, we show that, for some appropriate choices, these equations can be mapped onto equations of motion of relativistic (1 + 1)-dimensional φ4 and φ6 field theories of real scalar fields. Systems of two coupled nonlinear equations are also considered.
Determination of the effective thermal diffusivity of nanofluids by the double hot-wire technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murshed, S. M. S.; Leong, K. C.; Yang, C.
2006-12-01
This paper introduces a new transient double hot-wire technique for the direct measurement of the thermal diffusivity of nanofluids. A correlation to be used with the double hot-wire technique to calculate the effective thermal diffusivity of nanofluids is also developed. Several types of nanofluids were prepared by suspending different volume percentages (1-5%) of titanium dioxide (TiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and aluminium (Al) nanoparticles in ethylene glycol and engine oil. The thermal diffusivities of these nanofluids determined directly by this technique were found to increase substantially with the increased volume fraction of nanoparticles in base fluids. Based on the calibration results obtained for the base fluids, ethylene glycol and engine oil, the measurement error is estimated to be within 1.2%. The measured thermal diffusivities of nanofluids were found to be significantly higher than those calculated from the thermal diffusivity expression (i.e. αeff = keff/(ρ cp)eff) by using the effective thermal conductivities and volumetric specific heats obtained from the conventional hot-wire method and from the volume fraction mixture rule, respectively.
Evidence of enhanced double-diffusive convection below the main stream of the Kuroshio Extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagai, Takeyoshi; Inoue, Ryuichiro; Tandon, Amit; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu
2015-12-01
In this study, a Navis-MicroRider microstructure float and an EM-APEX float were deployed along the Kuroshio Extension Front. The observations deeper than 150 m reveal widespread interleaving thermohaline structures for at least 900 km along the front, presumably generated through mesoscale stirring and near-inertial oscillations. In these interleaving structures, microscale thermal dissipation rates χ are very high O(>10-7 K2s-1), while turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates ɛ are relatively low O(10-10-10-9 Wkg-1), with effective thermal diffusivity Kθ of O(10-3 m2s-1) consistent with the previous parameterizations for double-diffusion, and, Kθ is two orders of magnitude larger than the turbulent eddy diffusivity for density Kρ. The average observed dissipation ratio Γ in salt finger and diffusive convection favorable conditions are 1.2 and 4.0, respectively, and are larger than that for turbulence. Our results suggest that mesoscale subduction/obduction and near-inertial motions could catalyze double-diffusive favorable conditions, and thereby enhancing the diapycnal tracer fluxes below the Kuroshio Extension Front.
Double-diffusive fingering instability of a surfactant-glycerine-water drop in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kötter, K.; Markus, M.
2001-09-01
We present an experimental setup that allows easy visualization of single fingers formed by double diffusive convection. This setup consists of a drop (containing water and two solutes) that is injected at the bottom of a dish filled with water. The gravity-driven expansion of the drop induces a toroidal bulk flow of the surrounding water. This flow straightens and confines the fingers horizontally and quasi two-dimensionally. An extremely low diffusion coefficient of one of the two solutes (a surfactant in our case) causes unusually stable configurations. This stability is robust within a wide range of concentrations. Wavelength measurements agree well with theoretical estimations.
Control of the symmetry breaking in double-well potentials by the resonant nonlinearity management
Nistazakis, H. E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Malomed, B. A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2011-03-15
We introduce a one-dimensional model of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), combining the double-well potential, which is a usual setting for the onset of spontaneous-symmetry-breaking (SSB) effects, and time-periodic modulation of the nonlinearity, which may be implemented by means of the Feshbach-resonance-management (FRM) technique. Both cases of the nonlinearity that is repulsive or attractive on the average are considered. In the former case, the main effect produced by the application of the FRM is spontaneous self-trapping of the condensate in either of the two potential wells in parameter regimes where it would remain untrapped in the absence of the management. In the weakly nonlinear regime, the frequency of intrinsic oscillations in the FRM-induced trapped state is very close to half the FRM frequency, suggesting that the effect is accounted for by a parametric resonance. In the case of the attractive nonlinearity, the FRM-induced effect is the opposite, i.e., enforced detrapping of a state which is self-trapped in its unmanaged form. In the latter case, the frequency of oscillations of the untrapped mode is close to a quarter of the driving frequency, suggesting that a higher-order parametric resonance may account for this effect.
Nonlinear evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the double current sheet configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Aohua; Li, Jiquan; Liu, Jinyuan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2016-03-01
The nonlinear evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability driven by a radially antisymmetric shear flow in the double current sheet configuration is numerically investigated based on a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. Simulations reveal different nonlinear fate of the KH instability depending on the amplitude of the shear flow, which restricts the strength of the KH instability. For strong shear flows far above the KH instability threshold, the linear electrostatic-type KH instability saturates and achieves a vortex flow dominated quasi-steady state of the electromagnetic (EM) KH turbulence with large-amplitude zonal flows as well as zonal fields. The magnetic surfaces are twisted significantly due to strong vortices but without the formation of magnetic islands. However, for the shear flow just over the KH instability threshold, a weak EM-type KH instability is saturated and remarkably damped by zonal flows through modifying the equilibrium shear flow. Interestingly, a secondary double tearing mode (DTM) is excited subsequently in highly damped KH turbulence, behaving as a pure DTM in a flowing plasma as described in Mao et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 052304 (2014)]. However, the explosive growth phenomenon is replaced by a gradually growing oscillation due to the extremely twisted islands. As a result, the release of the magnetic energy becomes slow and the global magnetic reconnection tends to be gentle. A complex nonlinear interaction between the EM KH turbulence and the DTMs occurs for the medium shear flows above the KH instability threshold, turbulent EM fluctuations experience oscillatory nonlinear growth of the DTMs, finally achieves a quasi-steady state with the interplay of the fluctuations between the DTMs and the EM KH instability.
Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer.
Gao, Shiwu
2015-06-21
We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems. PMID:26093567
Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Shiwu
2015-06-01
We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems.
Nonlinear Elastic J-Integral Measurements in Mode I Using a Tapered Double Cantilever Beam Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macon, David J.
2006-01-01
An expression for the J-integral of a nonlinear elastic material is derived for an advancing crack in a tapered double cantilever beam fracture specimen. The elastic and plastic fracture energies related to the test geometry and how these energies correlates to the crack position are discussed. The dimensionless shape factors eta(sub el and eta(sub p) are shown to be equivalent and the deformation J-integral is analyzed in terms of the eta(sub el) function. The fracture results from a structural epoxy are interpreted using the discussed approach. The magnitude of the plastic dissipation is found to strongly depend upon the initial crack shape.
Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer
Gao, Shiwu
2015-06-21
We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems.
Enhanced nonlinear double excitation of He in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields.
Hishikawa, A; Fushitani, M; Hikosaka, Y; Matsuda, A; Liu, C-N; Morishita, T; Shigemasa, E; Nagasono, M; Tono, K; Togashi, T; Ohashi, H; Kimura, H; Senba, Y; Yabashi, M; Ishikawa, T
2011-12-01
Nonlinear, three-photon double excitation of He in intense extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser fields (∼24.1 eV, ∼5 TW/cm2) is presented. Resonances to the doubly excited states converging to the He+ N=3 level are revealed by the shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy and identified by theoretical calculations based on the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the two-electron atom under a laser field. It is shown that the three-photon double excitation is enhanced by intermediate Rydberg states below the first ionization threshold, giving a greater contribution to the photoionization yields than the two-photon process by more than 1 order of magnitude. PMID:22242995
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, B. A.; Al-Alimi, A. W.; Abas, A. F.; Harun, S. W.; Mahdi, M. A.
2012-05-01
A double frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium doped fiber laser (BEDFL) with figure-of-eight cavity have been successfully developed and tested. Double frequency spacing is achieved by using a piece of 2 km of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) as a gain medium. Figure-of-eight configuration removes the odd order Stokes signals via a four-port circulator. Fifteen Stokes channels are simultaneously generated with a spacing of 0.154 nm that is around 20 GHz, when the Brillouin pump and 980 nm pump powers are fixed at the optimized values of 6 dBm and 40 mW, respectively. Fourteen anti stoke channels are also obtained, which are generated through four wave mixing (FWM) process in the laser cavity. The output is smooth triangular comb. The BEFL can also be tuned from 1526.5 to 1567.5 nm.
Double-diffusive layers adjacent to cold chimney flows during transient mushy-layer growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Jin-Qiang; Xue, Qiwei; Wettlaufer, John
2013-03-01
We examine the cooling effect of chimney flows in the liquid region during transient upward growth of a mushy layer in solidifying aqueous ammonium chloride. Through drainage channels in a mushy layer, cold, relatively fresh fluid is carried into the warm, salt-stratified liquid region. Double-diffusive cells form due to the cooling effect of the chimney flows and evolve into a series of downwelling horizontal layers. Using shadowgraph methods and dyed fluids we demonstrate the vigorous flow circulations and compositional mixing within each layer. Vertical concentration and temperature profiles reveal the double-diffusive staircase structure across the layers. The downward velocity of the layers decreases as they approach to the mush-liquid interface, which is interpreted by a filling-box model representing the momentum and compositional transport of turbulent continuous plumes in a confined region. The present experiment provides insight to evaluate the solute fluxes from growing mushy layers.
Double-diffusive layering in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudels, Bert; Björk, Göran; Muench, Robin D.; Schauer, Ursula
1999-06-01
The central basins of the Arctic Ocean, below the surface mixed layer and remote from peripheral boundary currents, comprise an extremely low energy oceanic environment. Water masses having distinctly different Θ- S characteristics are organised throughout the central basins in extensive layers, consistent with occurrence of double-diffusive convection. In the Eurasian Basin, these structures can be explained by invoking formation along the narrow frontal region associated with the confluence of Fram Strait and Barents Sea waters north of the Kara Sea, and subsequent advection by the main circulation field. The presence of features in the interior of the basins requires a combination of processes that could include self-induced migration, through double-diffusive convection, as well as advection, across the central regions having weak horizontal gradients in temperature and salinity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karimbadi, H.; Krauss-Varban, D.
1992-01-01
A novel diffusion formalism that takes into account the finite width of resonances is presented. The resonance diagram technique is shown to reproduce the details of the particle orbits very accurately, and can be used to determine the acceleration/scattering in the presence of a given wave spectrum. Ways in which the nonlinear orbits can be incorporated into the diffusion equation are shown. The resulting diffusion equation is an extension of the Q-L theory to cases where the waves have large amplitudes and/or are coherent. This new equation does not have a gap at 90 deg in cases where the individual orbits can cross the gap. The conditions under which the resonance gap at 90-deg pitch angle exits are also examined.
DOUBLE-DIFFUSIVE MIXING IN STELLAR INTERIORS IN THE PRESENCE OF HORIZONTAL GRADIENTS
Medrano, M.; Garaud, P.; Stellmach, S.
2014-09-10
We have identified a potentially important source of mixing in stellar radiation zones which would arise whenever two conditions are satisfied: (1) the presence of an inverse vertical compositional gradient, and (2) the presence of density-compensating horizontal gradients of temperature and composition. The former can be caused by off-center nuclear burning, atomic diffusion, or surface accretion. The latter could be caused by rotation, tides, meridional flows, etc. The linear instability and its nonlinear development have been studied in an oceanographic context. It is known to drive the formation of stacks of fingering layers separated by diffusive interfaces, called intrusions. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of the process in the astrophysically relevant region of parameter space, we find similar results and demonstrate that the material transport in the intrusive regime can be highly enhanced compared with pure diffusion, even in systems which would otherwise be stable to fingering (thermohaline) convection.
Observations indicative of rain-induced double diffusion in the ocean surface boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walesby, K.; Vialard, J.; Minnett, P. J.; Callaghan, A. H.; Ward, B.
2015-05-01
Double diffusion can result in the formation of thermohaline staircases, typically observed in the ocean interior. The observations presented here were acquired in the ocean surface boundary layer with the autonomous microstructure Air-Sea Interaction Profiler. An intense rain event (rainfall rates of up to 35 mm/h) resulted in cooler, fresher water (up to 0.15 practical salinity unit (psu) over the upper 7-10 m) overlaying warmer, saltier water, a situation potentially conducive to double-diffusive mixing. Although not as crisp as interfaces in the interior ocean because of elevated background mixing, a total of 303 thermohaline interfaces were detected within and at the base of the fresh layer, with mean changes in temperature (T) and salinity (S) across interfaces of 20 × 10-3∘C and 22 × 10-3 psu, respectively. These results call for new studies to disambiguate whether such interfaces are formed through double-diffusive mixing or shear instabilities and understand any long-term impacts on near-surface stratification.
Minimal model for double diffusion and its application to Kivu, Nyos, and Powell Lake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toffolon, Marco; Wüest, Alfred; Sommer, Tobias
2015-09-01
Double diffusion originates from the markedly different molecular diffusion rates of heat and salt in water, producing staircase structures under favorable conditions. The phenomenon essentially consists of two processes: molecular diffusion across sharp interfaces and convective transport in the gravitationally unstable layers. In this paper, we propose a model that is based on the one-dimensional description of these two processes only, and—by self-organization—is able to reproduce both the large-scale dynamics and the structure of individual layers, while accounting for different boundary conditions. Two parameters characterize the model, describing the time scale for the formation of unstable water parcels and the optimal spatial resolution. Theoretical relationships allow for the identification of the influence of these parameters on the layer structure and on the mass and heat fluxes. The performances of the model are tested for three different lakes (Powell, Kivu, and Nyos), showing a remarkable agreement with actual microstructure measurements.
Diffusion ordered spectroscopy for resolution of double bonded cis, trans-isomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhari, Sachin Rama; Suryaprakash, N.
2012-06-01
NMR spectroscopic separation of double bonded cis- and trans-isomers, that have different molecular shapes but identical mass have been carried out using Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY). The mixtures of fumaric acid and maleic acid, that have similar hydrodynamic radii, have resolved been 'on the basis of their diffusion coefficients arising due to their different tendencies to associate with micelles or reverse micelles. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) have been used as the media to mimic the chromatographic conditions, modify the average mobility and to achieve differential diffusion rates. The best separation of the components has been achieved by Dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) in D2O solution.
Flight Experiment to Study Double-Diffusive Instabilities in Silver-Dopped Lead Bromide Crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, N. B.; Adam, J. D.; Zhang, Hui; Coriell, Sam. R.; Duval, Walter M. B.
2001-01-01
The main objective of the present program is to understand thermosolutal convection during crystal growth of PbBr2-AgBr alloys. This involves identification of the growth conditions for microgravity experiments delineating the microsegregation, observation of convecto-diffusive instabilities and comparison with theoretical models. The overall objectives can be summarized as follows: 1. Observe and study the double diffusive and morphological instabilities in controlled conditions and to compare with theoretically predicted convective and morphological instability curves. 2. Study the three-dimensional morphological instabilities and resulting cellular growth that occur near the onset of morphological instability in the bulk samples under purely diffusive conditions. 3. Understand the micro-and macro-segregation of silver dopant in lead bromide crystals in microgravity. 4. Provide basic data on convective behavior in alloy crystals grown by the commercially important Bridgman crystal growth process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroney, Timothy; Yang, Qianqian
2013-08-01
We develop a fast Poisson preconditioner for the efficient numerical solution of a class of two-sided nonlinear space-fractional diffusion equations in one and two dimensions using the method of lines. Using the shifted Grünwald finite difference formulas to approximate the two-sided (i.e. the left and right Riemann-Liouville) fractional derivatives, the resulting semi-discrete nonlinear systems have dense Jacobian matrices owing to the non-local property of fractional derivatives. We employ a modern initial value problem solver utilising backward differentiation formulas and Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov methods to solve these systems. For efficient performance of the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method it is essential to apply an effective preconditioner to accelerate the convergence of the linear iterative solver. The key contribution of our work is to generalise the fast Poisson preconditioner, widely used for integer-order diffusion equations, so that it applies to the two-sided space-fractional diffusion equation. A number of numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the preconditioner and the overall solution strategy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pershina, N. S.; Pershin, S. M.; Cech, M.; Prochazka, I.
2009-05-01
The efficiency of laser ablation drilling of metal and dielectric (ceramic, glasses, etc.) samples with single and multiple laser pulses per one laser shot was experimentally studied. The laser is operated on the fundamental (1064 nm) wavelength of Nd:YAG laser with 30 ns pulse length or its second (532 nm) and third (351 nm) harmonics, respectively. The laser shot repletion rate was 1 Hz. The pulses in train were separated by 25-45 μs interval. The crater depth and drilling speed dependence increasing on pulse number in multipulse train was studied. The laser ablation normalized per pulse energy in train dependence is not linear function. The strong ablation enhancement was observed. The optimal (in sense the total pulse energy using) drilling can be obtained with double pulse mode compared with 3 - 5 pulses. Nonlinear more than 6 fold increasing of crater depth produced by the second pulse in train was detected. The mechanism of selective increasing of the second pulse interaction efficiency with the hard target is discussed. Experimental results explained in terms of double pulse mode laser ablation model. Spectroscopy study of laser plasma was observed to confirm discussed model of high efficiency for two laser pulse laser ablation. Efficiency of double pulse mode compared with multipulse mode is discussed to be more perspective for various applications of laser ablation. The medicine (surgery, dentist, ophthalmology and so on) application is the most prospective, for instance, the teeth drilling or glaucoma perforation, can be done with smaller energy value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Najeeb Alam; Sultan, Faqiha
2015-05-01
This paper devotedly study the double diffusive Darcian convection flow of Eyring-Powell fluid from a cone embedded in a homogeneous porous medium with the effects of Soret and Dufour. Arising set of non-linear partial differential equations are transformed through a suitable self-similar transformation into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Further, the numerical and the analytical solutions of the governing equations are elucidated by using numerical method as well as non-perturbation scheme. Numerical values are presented through tables for the skin friction coefficients, Nusselt number and Sherwood number. The obtained results are validated by comparing the analytical results with previously published results obtained by bvp4c for the numerical values of physical quantities. The effect of various parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles is discussed and also shown graphically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iizuka, S.
1998-02-01
Potential Modification Due to C60- Production * Modifications of the Floating Potential and the Plasma Potential in a C60 Plasma * Properties of Strongly Electronegative Plasma Produced at Afterglow of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chlorine Plasma * 2.2 Particle Accelerations * Potential Structures Due to an Electron Beam-Excited Localized HF-Discharge (Invited) * Experiments and Computer Simulations of Electric Field Spikes in Electron Beam-Plasma Interaction * Magnetosonic Waves in Multi-Ion-Species Plasmas: Nonlinear Evolution and Ion Acceleration * Observation of Repetitive Electric Field Pulses Accompanying a Short Wave Train Near the Lower Hybrid Frequency in a High-Voltage Linear Plasma Discharge * Control of Potential Profile and Energy Transport to Machine Ends along Open Magnetic Field Lines in a Tandem Mirror * Observation of Ion Acceleration in Picosecond Laser Produced Plasma Expanding across a Magnetic Field * Pellet Ablation Characteristics and the Effect on the Potential in Toroidal Plasmas (Invited) * CHAPTER 3: CROSS-FIELD ELECTRIC FIELDS, VELOCITY SHEAR, AND VORTEX FORMATION * 3.1 Cross-Field Potential Structures * Laboratory Simulation of Transverse Magnetic Field Effects on Dynamics of Plasma Streams in Magnetosphere * Double-Layer-like and Sheath-like Potential Structures across Magnetic Field Lines * Relaxation of Virtual Cathode Oscillations due to Transverse Effects in a Crossed-Field Diode * Control of Radial Potential Profile and Related Low-Frequency Fluctuations in an ECR-Produced Plasma * Potential Formation in Magnetized Dusty Plasma * Potential Measurement Using Electrostatic Probe in Tokamak Boundary Plasma * Studies on Radial Electric Field and Confinement in Toroidal Plasmas (Invited) * 3.2 Velocity Shear * Space Chamber Investigations of Transverse Velocity Shear Driven Plasma Waves * Observations of the Velocity-Shear-Driven Instability in a Sodium Plasma (Invited) * The Effect of Negative Ions and Neutral Particle Collisions on the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casti, Alexander Robert Richard
1999-07-01
This work explores two problems in hydrodynamic stability theory whose primary mathematical distinction is the manner in which unstable equilibria relax to a stable state. The first problem involves a dissipative fluid for which the diffusive relaxation of a linear instability is the primary saturation mechanism. The second problem arises from a conservative system where the relaxation is governed either by linear instabilities or nonlinear interactions among linearly stable modes. The dissipative problem considers thermohaline convection and the diffusive relaxation of two-dimensional, convectively unstable rolls. For this situation, the disparate diffusion rates of the heat and salt play a crucial role not only in triggering an instability, but also in dictating the nature of the saturation. We study these issues in two particular contexts. In the first case the effect of a nonlinear, basic state salt profile on the bifurcation to instability is examined, and some of the possible patterns in the weakly nonlinear regime are discussed. The second case explores the dynamics of a salt field diffusing so slowly that it does not have time to redistribute itself on the timescale over which the weakly unstable pattern develops. This necessitates a mathematical description that differs from the amplitude equations traditionally employed to capture the nonlinear saturation. The conservative system comes from astrophysics and cosmology. Motivated by the coexistence of dark and luminous matter in the cosmos, we investigate the instabilities of two interpenetrating fluids that interact only through the gravitational field. The result of primary importance is that negative energy modes may exist if the relative motion is substantial. This fact can have dramatic consequences on the nonlinear stability of the system if linearly stable waves of different energy signature conspire to resonate. In the absence of dissipative forces, the nature of the saturation must be a nonlinear
On the effects of nonlinear boundary conditions in diffusive logistic equations on bounded domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Cosner, Chris
We study a diffusive logistic equation with nonlinear boundary conditions. The equation arises as a model for a population that grows logistically inside a patch and crosses the patch boundary at a rate that depends on the population density. Specifically, the rate at which the population crosses the boundary is assumed to decrease as the density of the population increases. The model is motivated by empirical work on the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We derive local and global bifurcation results which show that the model can have multiple equilibria and in some parameter ranges can support Allee effects. The analysis leads to eigenvalue problems with nonstandard boundary conditions.
Dynamics of a Diffusive Predator-Prey Model with General Nonlinear Functional Response
2014-01-01
We study a diffusive predator-prey model with nonconstant death rate and general nonlinear functional response. Firstly, stability analysis of the equilibrium for reduced ODE system is discussed. Secondly, sufficient and necessary conditions which guarantee the predator and the prey species to be permanent are obtained. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for the global asymptotical stability of the unique positive equilibrium of the system are derived by using the method of Lyapunov function. Finally, we show that there are no nontrivial steady state solutions for certain parameter configuration. PMID:24688422
Langrock, Carsten; Roussev, Rostislav V; Nava, Giovanni; Minzioni, Paolo; Argiolas, Nicola; Sada, Cinzia; Fejer, Martin M
2016-08-20
Photorefractive-damage- (PRD) resistant zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate is investigated as a substrate for the realization of annealed proton-exchanged (APE) waveguides. Its advantages are a favorable distribution coefficient, PRD resistance comparable to magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate, and a proton-diffusion behavior resembling congruent lithium niobate. A 1D model for APE waveguides was developed based on a previous model for congruently melting lithium niobate. Evidence for a nonlinear index dependence on concentration was found. PMID:27556972
Ultralow-power all-optical tunable double plasmon-induced transparencies in nonlinear metamaterials
Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn
2014-05-26
An all-optical tunable double plasmon-induced transparency is realized in a photonic metamaterial coated on the surface of a nanocomposite layer made of polycrystalline indium-tin oxide doped with gold nanoparticles. The local-field effect, quantum confinement effect, and hot-electron injection ensure a large optical nonlinearity for the nanocomposite. A shift of 120 nm in the central wavelength of transparency windows is reached under excitation with a weak pump laser with an intensity of 21 kW/cm{sup 2}. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by five orders of magnitude, while an ultrafast response time of 34.9 ps is maintained.
Nonlinear magnetodielectric effect in double-perovskite Gd2NiMnO6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, S. H.; Choi, H. Y.; Moon, J. Y.; Kim, M. K.; Jo, Y.; Lee, N.; Choi, Y. J.
2015-11-01
Magnetic and dielectric properties of the double perovskite Gd2NiMnO6 were investigated. Ferromagnetic order of alternating Ni2+ and Mn4+ spins arises below {{T}\\text{C}}=134 K and an additional order of Gd3+ spins occurs at {{T}\\text{Gd}}=33 K. The formation of short-range ferromagnetic clusters accompanied by a Griffiths phase-like feature below {{T}\\text{G}}=230 K is also suggested. Under the low enough dielectric loss at low temperature regime excluding the influence of the extrinsic effect, a highly nonlinear variation of the dielectric constant was achieved in application of the magnetic fields. Our finding offers an efficient approach to accomplish intrinsically coupled functionality utilizing both magnetic and dielectric quantities.
Rollover instability due to double diffusion in a stably stratified cylindrical tank
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmerman, William B.; Rees, Julia M.
2007-12-01
Double diffusion of a viscous fluid is simulated for heat leakage driven by buoyant convection under cryogenic storage conditions in a cylindrical tank with laminar flow. If the tank is stably stratified, there is a potential instability due to the inability of the fluid in the lower layer to release heat to the top vapor space, whereas the upper liquid layer can exchange heat and mass through sensible heat transfer and evaporation with the vapor space. Eventually, the lower layer becomes less dense due to thermal expansion and is no longer constrained in the stratification. The rapid rise and overturning of the fluid is termed rollover, and can be accompanied by a potentially explosive release of vapor. In this paper, hydrodynamics and heat and mass transport are used to study the stability characteristics of rollover. The transient state is used as a base state for a linear stability analysis which shows the transition from a "corner eddy" mode spinning down to spinning up is the driver for the rollover instability. Four different vapor-liquid interfacial boundary conditions are tested, with similar results for the time to rollover. Surprisingly, the long time prerollover state is dominated in the laminar flow regime by heat conduction and diffusion, as the expected double roll structure is suppressed and advection plays a small roll in the majority of the prerollover period. Scalings are suggested for controlling dimensionless groups on this prerollover basis that can be used as a guideline to determine the regime of double diffusion—a single roll or a double roll stratification, as well as the severity of the eventual rollover event. An energy analysis demonstrates the switch from practically advection free to free convection regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forster, F.; Mühlbacher, M.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Giedke, G.; Ludwig, S.
2015-12-01
The control of nuclear spins in quantum dots is essential to explore their many-body dynamics and exploit their prospects for quantum information processing. We present a unique combination of dynamic nuclear spin polarization and electric-dipole-induced spin resonance in an electrostatically defined double quantum dot (DQD) exposed to the strongly inhomogeneous field of two on-chip nanomagnets. Our experiments provide direct and unrivaled access to the nuclear spin polarization distribution and allow us to establish and characterize multiple fixed points. Further, we demonstrate polarization of the DQD environment by nuclear spin diffusion which significantly stabilizes the nuclear spins inside the DQD.
Compressible, diffusive, reactive flow simulations of the double Mach reflection phenomenon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziegler, J. L.; Deiterding, R.; Shepherd, J. E.; Pullin, D. I.
2010-11-01
We describe direct numerical simulations of the multi-component, compressible, reactive Navier-Stokes equations in two spatial dimensions. The simulations utilize a hybrid, WENO/centered-difference numerical method, with low numerical dissipation, high-order shock-capturing, and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). These features enable resolution of diffusive processes within reaction zones. A series of one- and two-dimensional test problems are used to verify the implementation, specifically the high-order accuracy of the diffusion terms, including a viscous shock wave, the decaying Lamb-Oseen vortex, laminar flame and unstable ZND detonation. High-resolution simulations are discussed of the reactive double Mach reflection phenomenon. The diffusive scales (shear/mixing/boundary layers and flame thicknesses) and weak shocks are resolved while the strong shocks emanating from the triple points are captured. Additionally, a minimally reduced chemistry and transport model for hydrocarbon detonation is used to accurately capture the induction time, chemical relaxation, and the diffusive mixing within vortical structures evolving from the triple-point shear layer.
Detecting compartmental non-Gaussian diffusion with symmetrized double-PFG MRI.
Paulsen, Jeffrey L; Özarslan, Evren; Komlosh, Michal E; Basser, Peter J; Song, Yi-Qiao
2015-11-01
Diffusion in tissue and porous media is known to be non-Gaussian and has been used for clinical indications of stroke and other tissue pathologies. However, when conventional NMR techniques are applied to biological tissues and other heterogeneous materials, the presence of multiple compartments (pores) with different Gaussian diffusivities will also contribute to the measurement of non-Gaussian behavior. Here we present symmetrized double PFG (sd-PFG), which can separate these two contributions to non-Gaussian signal decay as having distinct angular modulation frequencies. In contrast to prior angular d-PFG methods, sd-PFG can unambiguously extract kurtosis as an oscillation from samples with isotropic or uniformly oriented anisotropic pores, and can generally extract a combination of compartmental anisotropy and kurtosis. The method further fixes its sensitivity with respect to the time dependence of the apparent diffusion coefficient. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of the fourth cumulant (kurtosis) of diffusion and find it consistent with theoretical predictions. By enabling the unambiguous identification of contributions of compartmental kurtosis to the signal, sd-PFG has the potential to help identify the underlying micro-structural changes corresponding to current kurtosis based diagnostics, and act as a novel source of contrast to better resolve tissue micro-structure. PMID:26434812
Nonlinear vibration energy harvesting based on variable double well potential function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wei; Towfighian, Shahrzad
2016-04-01
Converting ambient mechanical energy to electricity, vibration energy harvesting, enables powering of the low-power remote sensors. Nonlinear energy harvesters have the advantage of a wider frequency spectrum compared to linear resonators making them more efficient in scavenging the broadband frequency of ambient vibrations. To increase the output power of the nonlinear resonators, we propose an energy harvester composed of a cantilever piezoelectric beam carrying a movable magnet facing a fixed magnet at a distance. The movable magnet on the beam is attached to a spring at the base of the beam. The spring-magnet system on the cantilever beam creates the variable double well potential function. The spring attached to the magnet is in its compressed position when the beam is not deflected, as the beam oscillates, the spring energy gradually releases and further increases the amplitude of vibration. To describe the motion of the cantilever beam, we obtained two coupled partial differential equations by assuming the cantilever beam as Euler-Bernoulli beam considering the effect of the moving magnet. Method of multiple scales is used to solve the coupled equations. The cantilever beam with the two magnets is a bi-stable system. Making one magnet movable can create internal resonance that is explored as a mechanism to increase the frequency bandwidth. The effect of system parameters on the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is investigated through numerical solutions. This study benefits vibration energy harvesting to achieve a higher performance when excited by the wideband ambient vibrations.
Non-Darcian effects on double-diffusive convection within a porous medium
Karimi-Fard, M.; Charrier-Mojtabi, M.C.; Vafai, K.
1997-06-01
Natural convection in porous media is widely encountered in nature and technological processes. Water movement in geothermal reservoirs, underground spreading of chemical wastes and other pollutants, thermal insulation, and solidification are just a few examples where the thermal natural convection or the combined thermosolutal natural convection in porous media are observed. This work describes a numerical study of double-diffusive natural convection in a square cavity filled with a porous medium. The flow is driven by a combined buoyancy effect due to both temperature and concentration variations. Several different flow models for porous media, such as Darcy flow, Forchheimer`s extension, Brinkman`s extension, and the generalized flow are considered. The coupled equations are solved using a finite volume approach with a projection algorithm for the momentum equation. Non-Darcian effects are analyzed through investigating the average heat and mass transfer rates. This study consists of a global analysis of each model and the comparison between them when the Darcy number varies. This work also focuses on the influence of the Lewis number on the inertial and boundary effects. It is shown that the inertial and boundary effects have a profound effect on the double-diffusive convection.
Effect of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy diffusion pathways in double perovskites
Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Pilania, Ghanshyam
2015-07-08
Perovskite structured oxides (ABO_{3}) are attractive for a number of technological applications, including as superionics because of the high oxygen conductivities they exhibit. Double perovskites (AA’BB’O_{6}) provide even more flexibility for tailoring properties. Using accelerated molecular dynamics, we examine the role of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy mobility in one model double perovskite SrLaTiAlO_{6}. We find that the mobility of the vacancy is very sensitive to the cation ordering, with a migration energy that varies from 0.6 to 2.7 eV. In the extreme cases, the mobility is both higher and lower than either of the two end member single perovskites. Further, the nature of oxygen vacancy diffusion, whether one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, also varies with cation ordering. We correlate the dependence of oxygen mobility on cation structure to the distribution of Ti^{4+} cations, which provide unfavorable environments for the positively charged oxygen vacancy. The results demonstrate the potential of using tailored double perovskite structures to precisely control the behavior of oxygen vacancies in these materials.
Effect of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy diffusion pathways in double perovskites
Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Pilania, Ghanshyam
2015-07-08
Perovskite structured oxides (ABO3) are attractive for a number of technological applications, including as superionics because of the high oxygen conductivities they exhibit. Double perovskites (AA’BB’O6) provide even more flexibility for tailoring properties. Using accelerated molecular dynamics, we examine the role of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy mobility in one model double perovskite SrLaTiAlO6. We find that the mobility of the vacancy is very sensitive to the cation ordering, with a migration energy that varies from 0.6 to 2.7 eV. In the extreme cases, the mobility is both higher and lower than either of the two end member single perovskites.more » Further, the nature of oxygen vacancy diffusion, whether one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, also varies with cation ordering. We correlate the dependence of oxygen mobility on cation structure to the distribution of Ti4+ cations, which provide unfavorable environments for the positively charged oxygen vacancy. The results demonstrate the potential of using tailored double perovskite structures to precisely control the behavior of oxygen vacancies in these materials.« less
Magnetic Damping of g-Jitter Induced Double-Diffusive Convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shu, Y.; Li, B. Q.; deGroh, H. C.
2001-01-01
This paper describes a numerical study of the g-jitter driven double diffusive convective flows, thermal and concentration distributions in binary alloy melt systems subject to an external magnetic field. The study is based on the finite element solution of transient magnetohydrodynamic equations governing the momentum, thermal and solutal transport in the melt pool. Numerical simulations are conducted using the synthesized single- and multi- frequency g-jitter as well as the real g-jitter data taken during space flights with or without an applied magnetic field. It is found that for the conditions studied, the main melt flow follows approximately a lineal- superposition of velocity components induced by individual g-jitter components, regardless of whether a magnetic field exists or not. The flow field is characterized by a recirculating double diffusive convection loop oscillating in time with a defined frequency equal to that of the driving g-jitter force. An applied magnetic field has little effect on the oscillating recirculating pattern, except around the moment in time when the flow reverses its direction. The field has no effect on the oscillation period, but it changes the phase angle. It is very effective in suppressing the flow intensity and produces a notable reduction of the solutal striation and time fluctuations in the melt. For a given magnetic field strength, the magnetic damping effect is more pronounced on the velocity associated with the largest g-jitter component present and/or the g-jitter spiking peaks. A stronger magnetic field is more effective in suppressing the melt convection and also is more helpful in bringing the convection in phase with the g-jitter driving force. The applied field is particularly useful in suppressing the effect of real g-jitter spikes on both flow and solutal distributions. With appropriately selected magnetic fields, the convective flows caused by g-jitter can be reduced sufficiently and diffusion dominant
Onset of Double-Diffusive Convection in a Rectangular Cavity and Its Generation Mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizushima, Jiro; Yasumizu, Yuto; Ohashi, Shunsuke
2013-08-01
Two-dimensional double diffusive convection in a binary fluid mixture filled in a container with a rectangular cross section is investigated by linear stability analyses, numerical simulations and numerical calculations of steady solutions in the present paper. We mainly consider an ethanol--water mixture as the binary fluid, in which heat and ethanol diffuse in different time scales affecting the fluid motion through buoyancy force and the Soret effect. The bottom of the cavity is kept at a higher temperature than the top, and the side boundary walls are assumed to be perfectly insulating. The impermeability condition of mass is applied on all the boundaries. We obtain the critical condition for the onset of double diffusive convection, and examine the flow field at the criticality. It is found that the most unstable mode of disturbance is oscillatory at the criticality for negative values of the separation number, though it is a steady mode of disturbance for positive or null values of the separation number. We discuss the driving mechanism of the steady and oscillatory convections by evaluating torques exerted on the fluid due to the buoyancy force, the pressure and the viscosity separately in each. We find in numerical simulations that the convection, even if it is oscillatory initially, always attains a steady state in due course in the case of a container with a square cross section. The bifurcation diagram of the steady convection is obtained numerically and the relation between the steady convection and the oscillatory mode of disturbance arising due to the linear instability is briefly discussed.
Smigel, Murray D.; Dalton, Larry R.; Hyde, James S.; Dalton, Lauraine A.
1974-01-01
The investigation of very slowly tumbling spin labels by nonlinear electron spin response techniques is discussed. Such techniques permit characterization of rotational processes with correlation times from 10-3 to 10-7 sec even though the linear spin response (ESR) technique is insensitive to motion in this region. Nonlinear techniques fall into two categories: (a) Techniques (referred to as passage techniques) in which the distribution of saturation throughout the spin system is determined both by the applied magnetic field modulation of the resonance condition and by the modulation of the resonance frequency induced by the molecular motion. The time dependence of this distribution produces phase and amplitude changes in the observed signals. (b) Techniques that measure the integral of the distribution function of the time required for saturated spin packets to move between pumped and observed portions of the spectrum [stationary and pulsed electron electron double resonance (ELDOR) techniques]. Quantitative analysis of passage ESR and stationary ELDOR techniques can be accomplished employing a density matrix treatment that explicitly includes the interaction of the spins with applied radiation and modulation fields. The effect of molecular motion inducing a random modulation of the anisotropic spin interactions can be calculated by describing the motion by the diffusion equation appropriate to the motional model assumed. For infinitesimal steps the eigen-functions of the diffusion operator are known analytically, while for random motion of arbitrary step size they are determined by diagonalizing the transition matrix appropriate for the step model used. The present communication reports investigation of the rotational diffusion of the spin label probes 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol-1-oxyl and 17β-hydroxy-4′,4′-dimethylspiro-[5α-androstane-3,2′-oxazolidin]-3′-oxyl in sec-butylbenzene. Experimental spectra are compared with computer simulations of
Evolution of Double-Diffusive Convection in Low-Aspect Ratio Containers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pol, Suhas; Fernando, Harindra; Webb, Stephen
2010-11-01
Laboratory experiments and phenomenological modeling were undertaken to investigate the influence of container sidewalls on the evolution of diffusive layering in confined double-diffusive systems. Such flow configurations are common in engineering situations, including underground storage caverns of national strategic petroleum reserves. The laboratory flow configuration consisted of a linearly salt stratified fluid subjected to either heating from below or uniform heating from both the bottom and sidewalls. The growth of the mixed layers separated by diffusive interfaces was monitored using PIV and traversing temperature/conductivity probe techniques. The importance of aspect ratio effects was inferred from the bottom-layer growth measurements, which undergoes a transition upon onset of side-wall effects (aspect ratio ˜ 1). A second transition was noticed at an aspect ratio ˜ 2 when elongated eddies break down in to smaller sizes. The combined side and bottom wall heating case was strikingly different from the bottom heating case, wherein layers of approximately equal heights are generated rather rapidly in the former as a result of convective plumes rising along the sidewalls and their arrest by the background stable density gradient. Theoretical arguments were advanced to explain and parameterize experimental observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suarez, F.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.
2008-12-01
A solar pond is a water body which is heated by absorption of solar radiation and which can provide long- term thermal storage for collected energy. To avoid large heat losses, convection must be suppressed close to the top of the pond. A salinity-gradient solar pond (SGSP) is an artificially stratified solar pond consisting of three thermally distinctive layers: the upper convective zone (UCZ), the non-convective zone (NCZ), and the lower convective zone (LCZ). The UCZ is a relatively thin layer of "cold" and "fresh" water. In the NCZ, the salt gradient suppresses convection within the pond, and thus, the NCZ acts as insulation for the LCZ. The LCZ is the layer where the salt concentration and temperature are the highest. The solar radiation that penetrates the pond's upper layers reaches the LCZ, which can approach temperatures greater than 90°C. Modeling the fluid dynamics of this system is difficult because it requires solution of a set of three second- order non-linear partial differential equations. In order to evaluate the thermal performance and stability of an SGSP, numerical simulation of both heat and mass are required but challenging as double-diffusive convection is likely to occur. Previous approaches have typically assumed no convective transport of solutes, which led to static salinity boundaries of the layers within the SGSP. A 2-D fully coupled numerical model that evaluates the transient performance of an SGSP is introduced. The model simulates the coupled momentum, heat, and mass transfer within the pond. The model can evaluate the influence of meteorological conditions on pond performance by properly describing the heat fluxes through the surface and the solar radiation absorption within the pond, which are typically not well included. Preliminary results show that in a one-week period, for a 1.0 m depth SGSP under summer conditions and without heat extraction, the thicknesses of the UCZ and LCZ increases from 0.1 to 0.2 m, and from 0.5 to 0
Median-prior tomography reconstruction combined with nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jianhua; Yu, Jun
2007-04-01
Positron emission tomography (PET) is becoming increasingly important in the fields of medicine and biology. Penalized iterative algorithms based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation for image reconstruction in emission tomography place conditions on which types of images are accepted as solutions. The recently introduced median root prior (MRP) favors locally monotonic images. MRP can preserve sharp edges, but a steplike streaking effect and much noise are still observed in the reconstructed image, both of which are undesirable. An MRP tomography reconstruction combined with nonlinear anisotropic diffusion interfiltering is proposed for removing noise and preserving edges. Analysis shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of producing better reconstructed images compared with those reconstructed by conventional maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), MAP, and MRP-based algorithms in PET image reconstruction.
Basko, D.M.
2011-07-15
Research Highlights: > In a one-dimensional disordered chain of oscillators all normal modes are localized. > Nonlinearity leads to chaotic dynamics. > Chaos is concentrated on rare chaotic spots. > Chaotic spots drive energy exchange between oscillators. > Macroscopic transport coefficients are obtained. - Abstract: The subject of this study is the long-time equilibration dynamics of a strongly disordered one-dimensional chain of coupled weakly anharmonic classical oscillators. It is shown that chaos in this system has a very particular spatial structure: it can be viewed as a dilute gas of chaotic spots. Each chaotic spot corresponds to a stochastic pump which drives the Arnold diffusion of the oscillators surrounding it, thus leading to their relaxation and thermalization. The most important mechanism of equilibration at long distances is provided by random migration of the chaotic spots along the chain, which bears analogy with variable-range hopping of electrons in strongly disordered solids. The corresponding macroscopic transport equations are obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passalacqua, Paola; Do Trung, Tien; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Sapiro, Guillermo; Dietrich, William E.
2010-03-01
A geometric framework for the automatic extraction of channels and channel networks from high-resolution digital elevation data is introduced in this paper. The proposed approach incorporates nonlinear diffusion for the preprocessing of the data, both to remove noise and to enhance features that are critical to the network extraction. Following this preprocessing, channels are defined as curves of minimal effort, or geodesics, where the effort is measured on the basis of fundamental geomorphological characteristics such as flow accumulation area and isoheight contours curvature. The merits of the proposed methodology, and especially the computational efficiency and accurate localization of the extracted channels, are demonstrated using light detection and ranging (lidar) data of the Skunk Creek, a tributary of the South Fork Eel River basin in northern California.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, Ryan I.; Fairweather, Graeme
2012-08-01
An alternating direction implicit (ADI) orthogonal spline collocation (OSC) method is described for the approximate solution of a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. Its efficacy is demonstrated on the solution of well-known examples of such systems, specifically the Brusselator, Gray-Scott, Gierer-Meinhardt and Schnakenberg models, and comparisons are made with other numerical techniques considered in the literature. The new ADI method is based on an extrapolated Crank-Nicolson OSC method and is algebraically linear. It is efficient, requiring at each time level only O(N) operations where N is the number of unknowns. Moreover, it is shown to produce approximations which are of optimal global accuracy in various norms, and to possess superconvergence properties.
Theoretical hypervelocity ballistic limit for single or double plates using nonlinear modal analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hui, David
1990-01-01
The original research on the use on nonlinear vibration technique to solve for the hypervelocity ballistic limit for double plates is examined. Such structure is commonly found in typical Space Station design where the incoming space or man-made debris would be fragmented upon hitting the outer plate (shield) and the subsequent impact on the main wall would result in a much reduced damge of the space station or spacecraft. The existing few theoretical impact equations do not agree well with each other. The existing computer code bumper used at NASA-Johnson Space Center appears to predict an unconservative ballistic limit when compared with experimental data where the velocity ranges from 3 km/s to 8 km/s. Such unconservative prediction is unacceptable from a practical safe design point of view. The bumper code is based on Wilkinson's (1968) paper and his equations have not been improved nor modified even though they are viewed with suspicion due to lack of agreement with experiments. To make matters worse, there is not another theory which is better than Wilkinson's equation and the designers are forced to use purely empirical Nysmith (1969) or semiempirical equations developed by Cour-Palais in 1969. The Cour-Palais equations were later modified empirically in 1989. The purpose of the present investigation is to examine the many assumptions of the Wilkinson equation. An attempt is made to present design charts based on the modified-Wilkinson equation so that the designer can get a feel of the ranges of the parameters which are of interest and discard a huge range of parameters, thus, significantly reducing the number of test shots required. The analysis is based on a solution of the governing nonlinear differential equations for a plate, assuming axisymmetric behavior using polar coordinates.
Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Garsia, Sole J; Jaque, D; Capmany, J; Bagayev, S N
1998-12-31
Stimulated emission as a result of the inter-Stark transition in the 1-{mu}m {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} channel of Nd{sup 3+} ions was excited for the first time in an acentric disordered Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}(NbO{sub 3}){sub 2} (x{approx}0.6) crystal. The low-threshold lasing of this crystal at the 1.0626 {mu}m wavelength was accompanied by diffuse intracavity generation of the second harmonic. (letters to the editor)
Tecon, Robin; Binggeli, Olivier; van der Meer, Jan R
2009-09-01
Bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous contaminants from oil and coal, is typically limited by poor accessibility of the contaminant to the bacteria. In order to measure PAH availability in complex systems, we designed a number of diffusion-based assays with a double-tagged bacterial reporter strain Burkholderia sartisoli RP037-mChe. The reporter strain is capable of mineralizing phenanthrene (PHE) and induces the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as a function of the PAH flux to the cell. At the same time, it produces a second autofluorescent protein (mCherry) in constitutive manner. Quantitative epifluorescence imaging was deployed in order to record reporter signals as a function of PAH availability. The reporter strain expressed eGFP proportionally to dosages of naphthalene or PHE in batch liquid cultures. To detect PAH diffusion from solid materials the reporter cells were embedded in 2 cm-sized agarose gel patches, and fluorescence was recorded over time for both markers as a function of distance to the PAH source. eGFP fluorescence gradients measured on known amounts of naphthalene or PHE served as calibration for quantifying PAH availability from contaminated soils. To detect reporter gene expression at even smaller diffusion distances, we mixed and immobilized cells with contaminated soils in an agarose gel. eGFP fluorescence measurements confirmed gel patch diffusion results that exposure to 2-3 mg lampblack soil gave four times higher expression than to material contaminated with 10 or 1 (mg PHE) g(-1). PMID:19490030
Lattice Boltzmann methods for some 2-D nonlinear diffusion equations:Computational results
Elton, B.H.; Rodrigue, G.H. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Levermore, C.D. . Dept. of Mathematics)
1990-01-01
In this paper we examine two lattice Boltzmann methods (that are a derivative of lattice gas methods) for computing solutions to two two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations of the form {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}t u = v ({partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x u + {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y u), where u = u({rvec x},t), {rvec x} {element of} R{sup 2}, v is a constant, and D(u) is a nonlinear term that arises from a Chapman-Enskog asymptotic expansion. In particular, we provide computational evidence supporting recent results showing that the methods are second order convergent (in the L{sub 1}-norm), conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Solutions computed via the lattice Boltzmann methods are compared with those computed by other explicit, second order, conservative, monotone finite difference methods. Results are reported for both the L{sub 1}- and L{sub {infinity}}-norms.
Convection and reaction in a diffusive boundary layer in a porous medium: Nonlinear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andres, Jeanne Therese H.; Cardoso, Silvana S. S.
2012-09-01
We study numerically the nonlinear interactions between chemical reaction and convective fingering in a diffusive boundary layer in a porous medium. The reaction enhances stability by consuming a solute that is unstably distributed in a gravitational field. We show that chemical reaction profoundly changes the dynamics of the system, by introducing a steady state, shortening the evolution time, and altering the spatial patterns of velocity and concentration of solute. In the presence of weak reaction, finger growth and merger occur effectively, driving strong convective currents in a thick layer of solute. However, as the reaction becomes stronger, finger growth is inhibited, tip-splitting is enhanced and the layer of solute becomes much thinner. Convection enhances the mass flux of solute consumed by reaction in the boundary layer but has a diminishing effect as reaction strength increases. This nonlinear behavior has striking differences to the density fingering of traveling reaction fronts, for which stronger chemical kinetics result in more effective finger merger owing to an increase in the speed of the front. In a boundary layer, a strong stabilizing effect of reaction can maintain a long-term state of convection in isolated fingers of wavelength comparable to that at onset of instability.
Linear and nonlinear evolution and diffusion layer selection in electrokinetic instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demekhin, E. A.; Shelistov, V. S.; Polyanskikh, S. V.
2011-09-01
In the present work, four nontrivial stages of electrokinetic instability are identified by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the full Nernst-Planck-Poisson-Stokes system: (i) a stage of the influence of the initial conditions (milliseconds); (ii) one-dimensional (1D) self-similar evolution (milliseconds-seconds); (iii) a primary instability of the self-similar solution (seconds); (iv) a nonlinear stage with secondary instabilities. The self-similar character of evolution at moderately large times is confirmed. Rubinstein and Zaltzman instability and noise-driven nonlinear evolution toward overlimiting regimes in ion-exchange membranes are numerically simulated and compared with theoretical and experimental predictions. The primary instability which happens during this stage is found to arrest a self-similar growth of the diffusion layer. It also specifies its characteristic length as was first experimentally predicted by Yossifon and Chang [G. Yossifon and H.-C. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.254501 101, 254501 (2008)]. A novel principle for the characteristic wave-number selection from the broadband initial noise is established.
Broser, Philip J; Schulte, R; Lang, S; Roth, A; Helmchen, Fritjof; Waters, J; Sakmann, Bert; Wittum, G
2004-01-01
Two-photon microscopy in combination with novel fluorescent labeling techniques enables imaging of three-dimensional neuronal morphologies in intact brain tissue. In principle it is now possible to automatically reconstruct the dendritic branching patterns of neurons from 3-D fluorescence image stacks. In practice however, the signal-to-noise ratio can be low, in particular in the case of thin dendrites or axons imaged relatively deep in the tissue. Here we present a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter that enhances the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original dimensions of the structural elements. The key idea is to use structural information in the raw data-the local moments of inertia-to locally control the strength and direction of diffusion filtering. A cylindrical dendrite, for example, is effectively smoothed only parallel to its longitudinal axis, not perpendicular to it. This is demonstrated for artificial data as well as for in vivo two-photon microscopic data from pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. In both cases noise is averaged out along the dendrites, leading to bridging of apparent gaps, while dendritic diameters are not affected. The filter is a valuable general tool for smoothing cellular processes and is well suited for preparing data for subsequent image segmentation and neuron reconstruction. PMID:15574067
Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ellison, Donald C. E-mail: nagataki@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2012-05-10
To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position-dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum- and space-dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification; (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs, as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Our generalized code combines these elements and describes the interplay between CR production and SNR evolution, including the nonlinear coupling of efficient diffusive shock acceleration, based mainly on the work of P. Blasi and coworkers, and a non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) calculation of thermal X-ray line emission. We believe that our generalized model will provide a consistent modeling platform for SNRs, including those interacting with molecular clouds, and improve the interpretation of current and future observations, including the high-quality spectra expected from Astro-H. SNR RX J1713.7-3946 is modeled as an example.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelder, Thomas F.; Schmidt, James F.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Hathaway, Michael D.
1987-01-01
The capabilities of two stators, one with controlled-diffusion (CD) blade sections and one with double-circular-arc (DCA) blade sections, were compared. A CD stator was designed and tested that had the same chord length but half the blades of the DCA stator. The same fan rotor (tip speed, 429 m/sec; pressure ratio, 1.65) was used with each stator row. The design and analysis system is briefly described. The overall stage and rotor performances with each stator are compared, as are selected blade element data. The minimum overall efficiency decrement across the stator was approximately 1 percentage point greater with the CD balde sections than with the DCA blade sections.
Flow reversal of fully developed double diffusive mixed convection in a vertical channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhatar, Nur Asiah Mohd; Saleh, Habibis; Hashim, Ishak
2015-10-01
The mixed convection flow within a vertical channel having internal heat generation at a rate proportional to a power of the temperature difference is considered. The analysis is concerning the studies of occurrence of flow reversal and the effects of three dimensionless parameters, identified as the internal heat parameter (G), a mixed convection parameter (λ) and the exponent (p) in the local heating term on the fully developed double diffusive mixed convection flow in a vertical channel. The governing equations are solved numerically via MAPLE. It was found that flow reversal occurs with larger values of internal heat parameter and mixed convection parameter, but smaller values of local-heating exponent. They also show that, unlike the internal heat parameter and the local-heating exponent, the mixed convection parameter do not give any significant effect on the temperature.
Effect of surface tension on the onset of convection in a double-diffusive layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. F.; Su, T. F.
1992-01-01
The effect of surface tension on the stability of a double-diffusive layer is considered using linear stability analysis. The surface tension is assumed to vary linearly with temperature and solute concentration. The eigenvalue problem is solved by the Galerkin method. Results show that the predicted stability boundary based on Marangoni effects alone is completely altered in the presence of buoyancy effects induced by low gravity levels (about 10 exp -5 g). At reduced gravity levels, salt-finger instability may onset in the overstable mode due to the stabilizing effect of surface tension. Fluid properties in terms of the Prandtl and the Lewis numbers have a profound effect on the stability conditions; opposite stability characteristics are found in salt solutions and in molten metals.
Fujimoto, Cy H.; Alam, Todd Michael; Cherry, Brian Ray; Cornelius, Christopher James
2005-02-01
Solid-state {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR was used to investigate sulfonated Diels-Alder poly(phenlylene) polymer membranes. Under high spinning speed {sup 1}H MAS conditions, the proton environments of the sulfonic acid and phenylene polymer backbone are resolved. A double-quantum (DQ) filter using the rotor-synchronized back-to-back (BABA) NMR multiple-pulse sequence allowed the selective suppression of the sulfonic proton environment in the {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra. This DQ filter in conjunction with a spin diffusion NMR experiment was then used to measure the domain size of the sulfonic acid component within the membrane. In addition, the temperature dependence of the sulfonic acid spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) was determined, providing an estimate of the activation energy for the proton dynamics of the dehydrated membrane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kranenborg, E. Jurjen; Dijkstra, Henk A.
1995-03-01
Layered double diffusive flow patterns in a laterally heated stably stratified liquid are considered in a configuration which allows for steady states to exist. For the heat/salt system, these flows are characterized by the thermal and solutal Rayleigh numbers RaT and RaS, or equivalently by RaT and the buoyancy ratio Rρ. The bifurcation structure of steady patterns with respect to RaT is computed for two cases: fixed RaS and fixed Rρ. For the first case, results in N. Tsitverblit and E. Kit [Phys. Fluids A 5, 1062 (1993)], are computed and extended, and it is shown that many of the previously found flow patterns are unstable; only in a small interval of RaT, multiple (linearly) stable steady states exist. For the second case, the physical relevance of the unstable steady states with respect to the evolution of the flow toward a stable steady state is demonstrated.
Design issues for lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor with higher breakdown voltage.
Sung, Kunsik; Won, Taeyoung
2013-05-01
In this paper, we discuss a new High-Side nLDMOSFET whose breakdown voltage is over 100 V while meeting the thermal budget for the conventional process. The proposed n-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET) has a feature in that the structure comprises a gap of 5 microm between the DEEP N-WELL and the center of the source, the surface of which is implanted by the NADJUST-layer for high breakdown voltage and simultaneously the low specific on-resistance. The computer simulation of the proposed High-Side nLDMOS exhibits BVdss of 126 V and R(ON,sp) of as low as 2.50 m(omega) x cm2. The NBL, which plays a significant role as a blocking layer against the punch-through seems to function as a hurdle for increasing the breakdown voltage. PMID:23858840
Yang, Zhixin; Wang, Shaowei; Zhao, Moli; Li, Shucai; Zhang, Qiangyong
2013-01-01
The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically. PMID:24312193
Local, global, and nonlinear screening in twisted double-layer graphene.
Lu, Chih-Pin; Rodriguez-Vega, Martin; Li, Guohong; Luican-Mayer, Adina; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Rossi, Enrico; Andrei, Eva Y
2016-06-14
One-atom-thick crystalline layers and their vertical heterostructures carry the promise of designer electronic materials that are unattainable by standard growth techniques. To realize their potential it is necessary to isolate them from environmental disturbances, in particular those introduced by the substrate. However, finding and characterizing suitable substrates, and minimizing the random potential fluctuations they introduce, has been a persistent challenge in this emerging field. Here we show that Landau-level (LL) spectroscopy offers the unique capability to quantify both the reduction of the quasiparticles' lifetime and the long-range inhomogeneity due to random potential fluctuations. Harnessing this technique together with direct scanning tunneling microscopy and numerical simulations we demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene buffer layer with a large twist angle is a very effective method to shield a 2D system from substrate interference that has the additional desirable property of preserving the electronic structure of the system under study. We further show that owing to its remarkable nonlinear screening capability a single graphene buffer layer provides better shielding than either increasing the distance to the substrate or doubling the carrier density and reduces the amplitude of the potential fluctuations in graphene to values even lower than the ones in AB-stacked bilayer graphene. PMID:27302949
From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence.
Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2016-01-01
Double-diffusive convection (DDC), which is the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering environments. Of great interests are scalars' transfer rate and flow structures. Here we systematically investigate DDC flow between two horizontal plates, driven by an unstable salinity gradient and stabilized by a temperature gradient. Counterintuitively, when increasing the stabilizing temperature gradient, the salinity flux first increases, even though the velocity monotonically decreases, before it finally breaks down to the purely diffusive value. The enhanced salinity transport is traced back to a transition in the overall flow pattern, namely from large-scale convection rolls to well-organized vertically oriented salt fingers. We also show and explain that the unifying theory of thermal convection originally developed by Grossmann and Lohse for Rayleigh-Bénard convection can be directly applied to DDC flow for a wide range of control parameters (Lewis number and density ratio), including those which cover the common values relevant for ocean flows. PMID:26699474
From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence
Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2016-01-01
Double-diffusive convection (DDC), which is the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering environments. Of great interests are scalars' transfer rate and flow structures. Here we systematically investigate DDC flow between two horizontal plates, driven by an unstable salinity gradient and stabilized by a temperature gradient. Counterintuitively, when increasing the stabilizing temperature gradient, the salinity flux first increases, even though the velocity monotonically decreases, before it finally breaks down to the purely diffusive value. The enhanced salinity transport is traced back to a transition in the overall flow pattern, namely from large-scale convection rolls to well-organized vertically oriented salt fingers. We also show and explain that the unifying theory of thermal convection originally developed by Grossmann and Lohse for Rayleigh–Bénard convection can be directly applied to DDC flow for a wide range of control parameters (Lewis number and density ratio), including those which cover the common values relevant for ocean flows. PMID:26699474
Double obstacle phase field approach to an inverse problem for a discontinuous diffusion coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deckelnick, Klaus; Elliott, Charles M.; Styles, Vanessa
2016-04-01
We propose a double obstacle phase field approach to the recovery of piece-wise constant diffusion coefficients for elliptic partial differential equations. The approach to this inverse problem is that of optimal control in which we have a quadratic fidelity term to which we add a perimeter regularization weighted by a parameter σ. This yields a functional which is optimized over a set of diffusion coefficients subject to a state equation which is the underlying elliptic PDE. In order to derive a problem which is amenable to computation the perimeter functional is relaxed using a gradient energy functional together with an obstacle potential in which there is an interface parameter ɛ. This phase field approach is justified by proving {{Γ }}- convergence to the functional with perimeter regularization as ε \\to 0. The computational approach is based on a finite element approximation. This discretization is shown to converge in an appropriate way to the solution of the phase field problem. We derive an iterative method which is shown to yield an energy decreasing sequence converging to a discrete critical point. The efficacy of the approach is illustrated with numerical experiments.
From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2015-11-01
The double diffusive convection (DDC), where the fluid density depends on two scalar components with very different molecular diffusivities, is frequently encountered in oceanography, astrophysics, and electrochemistry. In this talk we report a systematic study of vertically bounded DDC for various control parameters. The flow is driven by an unstable salinity difference between two plates and stabilized by a temperature difference. As the relative strength of temperature difference becomes stronger, the flow transits from a state with large-scale convection rolls, which is similar to the Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) flow, to a state with well-organised salt fingers. When the temperature difference increases further, the flow breaks down to a purely conductive state. During this transit the velocity decreases monotonically. Counterintuitively, the salinity transfer can be enhanced when a stabilising temperature field is applied to the system. This happens when convection rolls are replaced by salt fingers. In addition, we show that the Grossmann-Lohse theory originally developed for RB flow can be directly applied to the current problem and accurately predicts the salinity transfer rate for a wide range of control parameters. Supported by Stichting FOM and the National Computing Facilities (NCF), both sponsored by NWO. The simulations were conducted on the Dutch supercomputer Cartesius at SURFsara.
Diffuse magnetic neutron scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6
Nilsen, Gøran. J.; Thompson, Corey M.; Ehlers, Georg; Marjerrison, Casey A.; Greedan, John E.
2015-02-23
Here we investigated diffuse magnetic scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6 using polarized neutrons. Consistent with previous reports, the material shows two apparent transitions at 47 and 36 K to an eventual type I face-centered-cubic magnetic ground state. The (100) magnetic reflection shows different behavior from the five other observed reflections upon heating from 1.8 K, with the former broadening well beyond the resolution limit near 36 K. Closer examination of the latter group reveals a small, but clear, increase in peak widths between 36 and 47 K, indicating that this regime is dominated by short-range spin correlations.more » Diffuse magnetic scattering persists above 47 K near the position of (100) to at least 200 K, consistent with strong frustration. Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the diffuse scattering from 45 to 200 K finds that the spin-spin correlations between nearest and next-nearest neighbors are antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively, at temperatures near the upper ordering temperature, but both become antiferromagnetic and of similar magnitude above 100 K. The significance of this unusual crossover is discussed in light of the super-superexchange interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors in this material and the demands of type I order. The dimensionality of the correlations is addressed by reconstructing the scattering in the (hk0) plane using the RMC spin configurations. This indicates that one-dimensional spin correlations dominate at temperatures close to the first transition. In addition, a comparison between mean-field calculations and (hk0) scattering implies that further neighbor couplings play a significant role in the selection of the ground state. Finally, the results and interpretation are compared with those recently published for monoclinic Sr2YRuO6, and similarities and differences are emphasized.« less
Khan, Waqar A.; Uddin, Md Jashim; Ismail, A. I. Md.
2013-01-01
The effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions on the double-diffusive free convective flow of a nanofluid along a semi-infinite flat solid vertical plate are investigated numerically. It is assumed that free stream is moving. The governing boundary layer equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into a system of nonlinear, coupled similarity equations. The effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, solute and nanofluid concentration as well as on the reduced Nusselt number, reduced Sherwood number and the reduced nanoparticle Sherwood number are investigated and presented graphically. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions have not been investigated yet. It is found that the reduced local Nusselt, local solute and the local nanofluid Sherwood numbers increase with hydrodynamic slip and decrease with thermal slip parameters. PMID:23533566
Fournier, R.O.
1990-01-01
Much has been published about double-diffusive convection as a mechanism for explaining variations in composition and temperature within all-liquid natural systems. However, relatively little is known about the applicability of this phenomenon within the heterogeneous rocks of currently active geothermal systems where primary porosity may control fluid flow in some places and fractures may control it in others. The main appeal of double-diffusive convection within hydrothermal systems is-that it is a mechanism that may allow efficient transfer of heat mainly by convection, while at the same time maintaining vertical and lateral salinity gradients. The Salton Sea geothermal system exhibits the following reservoir characteristics: (1) decreasing salinity and temperature from bottom to top and center toward the sides, (2) a very high heat flow from the top of the system that seems to require a major component of convective transfer of heat within the chemically stratified main reservoir, and (3) a relatively uniform density of the reservoir fluid throughout the system at all combinations of subsurface temperature, pressure, and salinity. Double-diffusive convection can account for these characteristics very nicely whereas other previously suggested models appear to account either for the thermal structure or for the salinity variations, but not both. Hydrologists, reservoir engineers, and particularly geochemists should consider the possibility and consequences of double-diffusive convection when formulating models of hydrothermal processes, and of the response of reservoirs to testing and production. ?? 1990.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godsalve, Christopher
1992-01-01
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A theoretical study of optical bistability in passive nonlinear Fabry-Perot etalons is presented. The emphasis is on thermal nonlinearities. The analysis is also applied to etalons with competing thermal and electronic nonlinearities. Thermo-optic bistability is studied for liquid crystal filled etalons, and ZnSe interference filters. Electronic bistability and regenerative oscillations are modelled for InSb etalons. At the core of the thesis is a collection of analytical solutions for the time-dependent and steady-state diffusion equations. These are in cylindrical coordinates, and a large collection of boundary conditions are applied. This includes boundary conditions for combinations of highly conducting and poorly conducting thin films. On using a constant phase approximation of the illuminated area, switching dynamics are calculated through a Volterra equation after finding the appropriate Green's function. A fast numerical method is developed, and a way to extend the method to include the spatial variation in the phase is outlined. It is predicted that optically pixelated arrays of liquid-crystal switches larger than 64 x 64 could operate at 10kHz, and at 4muW power levels. Force cooling at 10kWm^{-1} must be used to achieve this. For optically pixelated ZnSe filters, 64 x 64 arrays could also operate at 10kHz, but at 4mW power levels. Again, force cooling at 10kWm^{-1} must be used, and the filter must be separated from a sapphire substrate by a polyimide or SiO_2 layer. If material pixelation is used, in combination with micro-bore forced cooling and thick spacer layers, switch energies as low as 500pJ are predicted for a 5 μm pixel radius. The switch powers can be as low as 10muW. Array sizes of 512 x 512 would require ~2W of laser power, and would operate at 10kHz. Taking the restricted power levels available for SEED array into account, it is predicted that thermo-optic switches could equal
Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.
2008-07-02
We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.
Zolotoverkh, I I; Kamysheva, A A; Kravtsov, N V; Lariontsev, E G; Firsov, V V; Chekina, S N
2008-10-31
Nonlinear phenomena appearing in a solid-state ring laser upon approaching the period-doubling bifurcation point of self-modulation oscillations and inside the doubling region are studied theoretically and experimentally. The bifurcation appears due to the parametric interaction of self-modulation oscillations of the first kind with relaxation oscillations. It is found that the bifurcation diagrams, time dependences of the intensities and power spectrum can significantly differ for counterpropagating waves because of the amplitude nonreciprocity of the ring resonator and the inequality of the moduli of the feedback coefficients. It is shown that when the self-modulation period is doubled, the widths of spectral peaks corresponding the self-modulation frequency and the fundamental relaxation frequency decrease. Noise precursors of doubling bifurcation are studied. It is found that the distance between the peaks of noise precursors increases with increasing the noise intensity. It is demonstrated experimentally that the noise modulation leads to the bifurcation point displacement, which increases with increasing the noise. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Weeratunga, S K; Kamath, C
2001-12-20
Removing noise from data is often the first step in data analysis. Denoising techniques should not only reduce the noise, but do so without blurring or changing the location of the edges. Many approaches have been proposed to accomplish this; in this paper, they focus on one such approach, namely the use of non-linear diffusion operators. This approach has been studied extensively from a theoretical viewpoint ever since the 1987 work of Perona and Malik showed that non-linear filters outperformed the more traditional linear Canny edge detector. They complement this theoretical work by investigating the performance of several isotropic diffusion operators on test images from scientific domains. They explore the effects of various parameters such as the choice of diffusivity function, explicit and implicit methods for the discretization of the PDE, and approaches for the spatial discretization of the non-linear operator etc. They also compare these schemes with simple spatial filters and the more complex wavelet-based shrinkage techniques. The empirical results show that, with an appropriate choice of parameters, diffusion-based schemes can be as effective as competitive techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.
2015-11-01
We consider quasi-stationary (travelling wave type) solutions to a general nonlinear reaction-convection-diffusion equation with arbitrary, autonomous coefficients. The second order nonlinear equation describing one dimensional travelling waves can be reduced to a first kind first order Abel equation. By using two integrability conditions for the Abel equation (the Chiellini lemma and the Lemke transformation), several classes of exact travelling wave solutions of the general reaction-convection-diffusion equation are obtained, corresponding to different functional relations imposed between the diffusion, convection and reaction functions. In particular, we obtain travelling wave solutions for two non-linear second order partial differential equations, representing generalizations of the standard diffusion equation and of the classical Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, to which they reduce for some limiting values of the model parameters. The models correspond to some specific, power law type choices of the reaction and convection functions, respectively. The travelling wave solutions of these two classes of differential equation are investigated in detail by using both numerical and semi-analytical methods.
Rényi entropy and improved equilibration rates to self-similarity for nonlinear diffusion equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrillo, J. A.; Toscani, G.
2014-12-01
We investigate the large-time asymptotics of nonlinear diffusion equations ut = Δup in dimension n ⩾ 1, in the exponent interval p > n/(n + 2), when the initial datum u0 is of bounded second moment. Precise rates of convergence to the Barenblatt profile in terms of the relative Rényi entropy are demonstrated for finite-mass solutions defined in the whole space when they are re-normalized at each time t > 0 with respect to their own second moment, as proposed by Carrillo et al (2006 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 180 127-49) and Toscani (2005 J. Evol. Eqns 5 185-203). The analysis shows that, in the range p > max((n - 1)/n, n/(n + 2)), the relative Rényi entropy exhibits a better decay, for intermediate times, with respect to the standard Ralston-Newman entropy. The result follows by a suitable use of sharp Gagliardo-Nirenberg-Sobolev inequalities considered by Dolbeault and Toscani (2013 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Anal. 30 917-34), and their information-theoretical proof (Savaré and Toscani 2014 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 60 2687-93), known as concavity of Rényi entropy power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Yuzhu
2002-11-01
The 1994 Levitus climatological atlas is used to calculate the Turner angle (named after J. Stewart Turner) to examine which oceanic water masses are favorable for double-diffusion in the form of diffusive convection or salt-fingering and which are doubly stable. This atlas complements the Levitus climatology. It reveals the major double-diffusive signals associated with large-scale water-mass structure. In total, about 44% of the oceans display double-diffusion, of which 30% is salt-fingering and 14% is diffusive double-diffusion. Results show that various central and deep waters are favorable for salt-fingering. The former is due to positive evaporation minus precipitation, and the latter is due to thermohaline circulation, i.e. the southward spreading of relatively warm, salty North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) overlying cold, fresh Antarctic Bottom Water. In the northern Indian Ocean and eastern North Atlantic, favorable conditions for salt-fingering are found throughout the water column. The Red Sea (including the Persian Gulf) and Mediterranean Sea are the sources of warm, salty water for the ocean. As consequence, temperature and salinity in these outflow regions both decrease from the sea surface to the bottom. On the other hand, ocean currents are in general sluggish in these regions. In the polar and subpolar regions of Arctic and Antarctic, Okhotsk Sea, Gulf of Alaska, the subpolar gyre of the North Pacific, the Labrador Sea, and the Norwegian Sea, the upper layer water is favorable for diffusive convection because of high latitude surface cooling and ice melting. Weak and shallow diffusive convection is also found throughout tropical regions and the Bay of Bengal. The former is due to excessive precipitation over evaporation and rain cooling, and the latter is due to both precipitation and river runoff. Diffusive convection in the ocean's interior is unique to the South Atlantic between Antarctic Intermediate Water and upper NADW (uNADW). It is the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurganov, Alexander; Tadmor, Eitan
2000-05-01
Central schemes may serve as universal finite-difference methods for solving nonlinear convection-diffusion equations in the sense that they are not tied to the specific eigenstructure of the problem, and hence can be implemented in a straightforward manner as black-box solvers for general conservation laws and related equations governing the spontaneous evolution of large gradient phenomena. The first-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme (P. D. Lax, 1954) is the forerunner for such central schemes. The central Nessyahu-Tadmor (NT) scheme (H. Nessyahu and E. Tadmor, 1990) offers higher resolution while retaining the simplicity of the Riemann-solver-free approach. The numerical viscosity present in these central schemes is of order O((Δx)2r/Δt). In the convective regime where Δt∼Δx, the improved resolution of the NT scheme and its generalizations is achieved by lowering the amount of numerical viscosity with increasing r. At the same time, this family of central schemes suffers from excessive numerical viscosity when a sufficiently small time step is enforced, e.g., due to the presence of degenerate diffusion terms. In this paper we introduce a new family of central schemes which retain the simplicity of being independent of the eigenstructure of the problem, yet which enjoy a much smaller numerical viscosity (of the corresponding order O(Δx)2r-1)). In particular, our new central schemes maintain their high-resolution independent of O(1/Δt), and letting Δt ↓ 0, they admit a particularly simple semi-discrete formulation. The main idea behind the construction of these central schemes is the use of more precise information of the local propagation speeds. Beyond these CFL related speeds, no characteristic information is required. As a second ingredient in their construction, these central schemes realize the (nonsmooth part of the) approximate solution in terms of its cell averages integrated over the Riemann fans of varying size. The semi-discrete central scheme is
Nonlinear Diffusions and Stable-Like Processes with Coefficients Depending on the Median or VaR
Kolokoltsov, Vassili N.
2013-08-01
The paper is devoted to the well-posedness for nonlinear McKean-Vlasov type diffusions with coefficients depending on the median or, more generally, on the {alpha}-quantile of the underlying distribution. The median is not a continuous function on the space of probability measures equipped with the weak convergence. This is one reason why well-posedness of the SDE considered in the paper does not follow by standard arguments.
Radio emission and nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays in the supernova SN 1993J
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatischeff, V.
2009-05-01
Aims: The extensive observations of the supernova SN 1993J at radio wavelengths make this object a unique target for the study of particle acceleration in a supernova shock. Methods: To describe the radio synchrotron emission we use a model that couples a semianalytic description of nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration with self-similar solutions for the hydrodynamics of the supernova expansion. The synchrotron emission, which is assumed to be produced by relativistic electrons propagating in the postshock plasma, is worked out from radiative transfer calculations that include the process of synchrotron self-absorption. The model is applied to explain the morphology of the radio emission deduced from high-resolution VLBI imaging observations and the measured time evolution of the total flux density at six frequencies. Results: Both the light curves and the morphology of the radio emission indicate that the magnetic field was strongly amplified in the blast wave region shortly after the explosion, possibly via the nonresonant regime of the cosmic-ray streaming instability operating in the shock precursor. The amplified magnetic field immediately upstream from the subshock is determined to be Bu ≈ 50 (t/1 { day})-1 G. The turbulent magnetic field was not damped behind the shock but carried along by the plasma flow in the downstream region. Cosmic-ray protons were efficiently produced by diffusive shock acceleration at the blast wave. We find that during the first 8.5 years after the explosion, about 19% of the total energy processed by the forward shock was converted to cosmic-ray energy. However, the shock remained weakly modified by the cosmic-ray pressure. The high magnetic field amplification implies that protons were rapidly accelerated to energies well above 1015 eV. The results obtained for this supernova support the scenario that massive stars exploding into their former stellar wind are a major source of Galactic cosmic-rays of energies above 1015 eV. We
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amin Bacha, Bakht; Ghafoor, Fazal; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Rahman, A.
2014-04-01
A four level double lambda-type atomic configuration is extended to polychromatic pump fields driven from the ground to the same excited hyperfine sublevel. Multiple superluminal regions are observed in the gain peak regions and between the two pairs of gain peak regions. Furthermore, the effect of cross Kerr nonlinearity is introduced in the system by applying an additional driving field. Large enhancement in the superluminality is observed as compared to the previously observed superluminality without the Kerr nonlinearity. The results clearly show a small negative group velocity of - 0.72 m s-1 with a negative time delay of -42.2 ms in the presence of the Kerr field. In this connection, useful theoretical techniques are presented for the enhancement of slow and fast light propagation. This generalized model is adjustable with the current applied technologies of cloaking devices and spacial mode images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnon, Ali; Lensky, Nadav; Selker, John
2015-04-01
Summer thermo-haline stratification in a hypersaline lake involves conditions favorable for double diffusion (DD) diapycnal flux and precipitation (or dissolution) of halite crystals. Quantifying these processes and their role on the stratification of the Dead Sea is the aim of this study. The thermal structure of the metalimnion of the Dead Sea was investigated in high spatial and temporal resolution by means of fiber optics temperature sensing during May-Dec 2012. This high resolution method enabled achieving very detailed and unique information of the thermal morphology: a continuous record of temperature- depth profiles allowing quantitative investigation of the thermal morphology dynamics by defining objective parameters as metalimnion's thickness, depth, slope (dT/dz max), and sharpness of the thermocline's boundaries (d2T/dz2 max and min). Along the season sharpening of the thermal profile occurs gradually with the build-up of stratification, from a relatively wide curved temperature profile in early spring to a very sharp step metalimnion (<1m, >10°C) at mid-summer-fall time. The sharpening was expressed by the thinning of the metalimnion and thermocline, increase in slope of the thermocline, and increase in sharpness of the boundaries of the thermocline. The transition from a gradual to a sharp interface initiated with the formation of a staircase of 5 sharp steps in the thermal profile, merging gradually and collapsing into a single abrupt change in temperature. This sharp single step lasted from early September until stratification diminished in early December. We calculate diapycnal flux (salinity and heat) based on measured data (rise in temperature and salinity of the hypolimnion, expected salinity increase from level measurements and water balance). The Maximum slope and sharpness of the metalimnion was achieved at the beginning of September, synchronous with the onset of heat and salinity diapycnal flux. Having the basic conditions for salt
Smirnov, Sergey V; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, Sergey V
2014-01-13
For the first time we report the results of both numerical simulation and experimental observation of second-harmonic generation as an example of non-linear frequency conversion of pulses generated by passively mode-locked fiber master oscillator in different regimes including conventional (stable) and double-scale (partially coherent and noise-like) ones. We show that non-linear frequency conversion efficiency of double-scale pulses is slightly higher than that of conventional picosecond laser pulses with the same energy and duration despite strong phase fluctuations of double-scale pulses. PMID:24515065
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Anke; Brendler, Vinzenz; Nebelung, Cordula
2005-06-01
The paper presents examples illustrating the current blind predictive capabilities of the diffuse double layer model (DDLM) as the model requiring the smallest set of parameters and thus being most suitable for substituting even more empiric sorption approaches such as distribution coefficients K D. The general strategy for the selection of numerical data are discussed. Based on the information about the minerals compiled in the sorption database RES 3T (Rossendorf Expert System for Surface and Sorption Thermodynamics), first a set of relevant surface species is generated. Then relevant surface complexation parameters are taken from RES 3T: the binding site density for the minerals, the surface protolysis constants, and the stability constants for all relevant surface complexes. To be able to compare and average thermodynamic constants originating from different sources, a normalization concept is applied. Our demonstration is based on a blind prediction exercise, i.e., the goal was not to provide optimal fits. The system considered is Cu(II) sorption onto goethite. The predictions are compared with raw data from three independent experimental investigations. The calculations were performed with the FITEQL 3.2 code. In most cases the model predictions represented the experimental sorption values for the sorbed amount of Cu(II), expressed as conventional distribution coefficients, within one order of magnitude or better. We conclude that the application of DDLM can indeed be used for estimating distribution coefficients for contaminants in well defined mineral systems. A stepwise strategy of species selection, data collection, normalization, and averaging is outlined. The SCM database so far assembled within the RES 3T project is able to provide the parameter sets.
Salinity variations in submarine hydrothermal systems by layered double-diffusive convection
Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J. )
1989-09-01
Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the salinity variations in vent fluids of sea floor geothermal systems. New experiments reacting diabase and evolved seawater were carried out to reproduce earlier published observations of Cl depletions attributed to formation of an ephemeral Cl-bearing mineral. The absence of any Cl depletions in the present study suggests that the formation of Cl-bearing minerals is not sufficiently widespread to account for the observed salinity variations in the vent fluids. A re-evaluation of both field and laboratory evidence has led to a new model for subseafloor circulation that accounts for salinity variations as well as other chemical and mineralogic observations. In place of a simple single-pass convection system, the authors propose that the sea floor systems consist of two vertically nested convection cells in which a brine layer at depth heats and drives an overlying seawater cell. Such layering of salinities, a process known in fluid mechanics as double-diffusive convection, is an expected result when convection is induced in saline fluids. The process provides for stable high-temperature heat transfer upward from the cracking front adjacent to the magma, and for limited chemical exchange of the brine with the overlying seawater to explain salinity variations and high metal contents in the vent fluids. The brine also provides an effective medium to produce the secondary mineral assemblages observed in rocks from the mid-ocean ridges and ophiolites unsuccessfully produced in laboratory studies using seawater. The brine originates from the two-phase separation of seawater during magmatic/tectonic events and accumulates and remains relatively stable in the region immediately above the magma chamber.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsitverblit, N.
1995-04-01
As has recently been reported by Tsitverblit and Kit [Phys. Fluids A 5, 1062 (1993)], a vertical rectangular enclosure containing stably stratified brine and differentially heated from its side walls is characterized by complex steady bifurcation phenomena. In the present work, the structure of steady solutions in the enclosure has been studied in detail for several values of the salinity Rayleigh number, RaS, fixed near the commencement of the double-diffusive region. It was found that when the thermal Rayleigh number, RaT, is either very small or sufficiently large, the steady solution is unique while in an intermediate region of this parameter, there exists a great variety of the multiple steady flows, being the result of nondegenerate hysteresis points and isolas of asymmetric solutions forming as RaS is increased. In particular, at the maximal value of RaS considered there have been observed symmetric and asymmetric one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-cell flows. Despite the multiplicity of the flow patterns, a critical interval of the buoyancy ratio has been distinguished, above and below which the generic characteristics of the steady solutions were found to resemble the respective features of the ``successive'' and ``simultaneous'' regimes of layer formation whose existence was established in previous studies. Although the set of the steady solutions has been found to contain no linearly stable multicell flows, the perturbation was so long retained in the close proximity of the unstable steady solutions that such flows could be easily observable in the experiment. In spite of the appreciably different range of the Rayleigh numbers, the physically meaningful parameters suggested in previous studies were found to be represented in the present results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kefayati, GH. R.
2015-11-01
Double-diffusive mixed convection of pseudoplastic fluids between two-square concentric duct annuli has been analyzed by FDLBM. Results indicate that the augmentation of Richardson number decreases heat and mass transfer. The fall of the power law index declines heat and mass transfer at Ri = 0.00062 and 0.01. The increase in the size of the adiabatic body enhances the heat and mass transfer in the lid-driven enclosure generally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polyanin, Andrei D.; Zhurov, Alexei I.
2014-03-01
We propose a new method for constructing exact solutions to nonlinear delay reaction-diffusion equations of the form ut=kuxx+F(u,w), where u=u(x,t),w=u(x,t-τ), and τ is the delay time. The method is based on searching for solutions in the form u=∑n=1Nξn(x)ηn(t), where the functions ξn(x) and ηn(t) are determined from additional functional constraints (which are difference or functional equations) and the original delay partial differential equation. All of the equations considered contain one or two arbitrary functions of a single argument. We describe a considerable number of new exact generalized separable solutions and a few more complex solutions representing a nonlinear superposition of generalized separable and traveling wave solutions. All solutions involve free parameters (in some cases, infinitely many parameters) and so can be suitable for solving certain problems and testing approximate analytical and numerical methods for nonlinear delay PDEs. The results are extended to a wide class of nonlinear partial differential-difference equations involving arbitrary linear differential operators of any order with respect to the independent variables x and t (in particular, this class includes the nonlinear delay Klein-Gordon equation) as well as to some partial functional differential equations with time-varying delay.
Sun, Wen-Rong; Tian, Bo Jiang, Yan; Zhen, Hui-Ling
2014-04-15
Plasmas are the main constituent of the Universe and the cause of a vast variety of astrophysical, space and terrestrial phenomena. The inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation is hereby investigated, which describes the propagation of an electron plasma wave packet with a large wavelength and small amplitude in a medium with a parabolic density and constant interactional damping. By virtue of the double Wronskian identities, the equation is proved to possess the double-Wronskian soliton solutions. Analytic one- and two-soliton solutions are discussed. Amplitude and velocity of the soliton are related to the damping coefficient. Asymptotic analysis is applied for us to investigate the interaction between the two solitons. Overtaking interaction, head-on interaction and bound state of the two solitons are given. From the non-zero potential Lax pair, the first- and second-order rogue-wave solutions are constructed via a generalized Darboux transformation, and influence of the linear and parabolic density profiles on the background density and amplitude of the rogue wave is discussed. -- Highlights: •Double-Wronskian soliton solutions are obtained and proof is finished by virtue of some double Wronskian identities. •Asymptotic analysis is applied for us to investigate the interaction between the two solitons. •First- and second-order rogue-wave solutions are constructed via a generalized Darboux transformation. •Influence of the linear and parabolic density profiles on the background density and amplitude of the rogue wave is discussed.
Chiang, Han-Wei; Rode, Johann C.; Choudhary, Prateek; Rodwell, Mark J. W.
2014-01-21
The DC current gain in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP double-heterojunction bipolar transistors is computed based on a drift-diffusion model, and is compared with experimental data. Even in the absence of other scaling effects, lateral diffusion of electrons to the base Ohmic contacts causes a rapid reduction in DC current gain as the emitter junction width and emitter-base contact spacing are reduced. The simulation and experimental data are compared in order to examine the effect of carrier lateral diffusion on current gain. The impact on current gain due to device scaling and approaches to increase current gain are discussed.
Tonkin, J.W.; Balistrieri, L.S.; Murray, J.W.
2004-01-01
Manganese oxides are important scavengers of trace metals and other contaminants in the environment. The inclusion of Mn oxides in predictive models, however, has been difficult due to the lack of a comprehensive set of sorption reactions consistent with a given surface complexation model (SCM), and the discrepancies between published sorption data and predictions using the available models. The authors have compiled a set of surface complexation reactions for synthetic hydrous Mn oxide (HMO) using a two surface site model and the diffuse double layer SCM which complements databases developed for hydrous Fe (III) oxide, goethite and crystalline Al oxide. This compilation encompasses a range of data observed in the literature for the complex HMO surface and provides an error envelope for predictions not well defined by fitting parameters for single or limited data sets. Data describing surface characteristics and cation sorption were compiled from the literature for the synthetic HMO phases birnessite, vernadite and ??-MnO2. A specific surface area of 746 m2g-1 and a surface site density of 2.1 mmol g-1 were determined from crystallographic data and considered fixed parameters in the model. Potentiometric titration data sets were adjusted to a pH1EP value of 2.2. Two site types (???XOH and ???YOH) were used. The fraction of total sites attributed to ???XOH (??) and pKa2 were optimized for each of 7 published potentiometric titration data sets using the computer program FITEQL3.2. pKa2 values of 2.35??0.077 (???XOH) and 6.06??0.040 (???YOH) were determined at the 95% confidence level. The calculated average ?? value was 0.64, with high and low values ranging from 1.0 to 0.24, respectively. pKa2 and ?? values and published cation sorption data were used subsequently to determine equilibrium surface complexation constants for Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd 2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn 2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Sr2+ and Zn 2+. In addition, average model parameters were used to predict additional
Scaling laws and flow structures of double diffusive convection in the finger regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2016-09-01
Direct numerical simulations are conducted for double diffusive convection (DDC) bounded by two parallel plates, with fluid properties similar to the values of seawater. The DDC flow is driven by an unstable salinity difference and stabilized at the same time by a temperature difference. For these conditions the flow can be in the finger regime. We develop scaling laws for three key response parameters of the system: The non-dimensional salinity flux $Nu_S$ mainly depends on the salinity Rayleigh number $Ra_S$, which measures the strength of the salinity difference, and exhibits a very weak dependence on the density ratio $\\Lambda$, which is the ratio of the buoyancy forces induced by two scalar differences. The non-dimensional flow velocity $Re$ and the non-dimensional heat flux $Nu_T$ are dependent on both $Ra_S$ and $\\Lambda$. However, the rescaled Reynolds number $Re\\Lambda^{\\alpha^{\\rm eff}_u}$ and the rescaled convective heat flux $(Nu_T-1)\\Lambda^{\\alpha^{\\rm eff}_T}$ depend only on $Ra_S$. The two exponents are dependent on the fluid properties and are determined from the numerical results. Moreover, the behaviors of $Nu_S$ and $Re\\Lambda^{\\alpha^{\\rm eff}_u}$ agree with the predictions of the Grossmann-Lohse theory which was originally developed for the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard flow. The non-dimensional salt-finger width and the thickness of the velocity boundary layers, after being rescaled by $\\Lambda^{\\alpha^{\\rm eff}_u/2}$, collapse and obey a similar power-law scaling relation with $Ra_S$. When $Ra_S$ is large enough, salt fingers do not extend from one plate to the other and horizontal zonal flows emerge in the bulk region. We then show that the current scaling strategy can be successfully applied to the experimental results of a heat-copper-ion system~(Hage and Tilgner, Phys. Fluids, 22, 076603, 2010).
Duarte-Carvajalino, Julio M.; Sapiro, Guillermo; Harel, Noam; Lenglet, Christophe
2013-01-01
Registration of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DW-MRIs) is a key step for population studies, or construction of brain atlases, among other important tasks. Given the high dimensionality of the data, registration is usually performed by relying on scalar representative images, such as the fractional anisotropy (FA) and non-diffusion-weighted (b0) images, thereby ignoring much of the directional information conveyed by DW-MR datasets itself. Alternatively, model-based registration algorithms have been proposed to exploit information on the preferred fiber orientation(s) at each voxel. Models such as the diffusion tensor or orientation distribution function (ODF) have been used for this purpose. Tensor-based registration methods rely on a model that does not completely capture the information contained in DW-MRIs, and largely depends on the accurate estimation of tensors. ODF-based approaches are more recent and computationally challenging, but also better describe complex fiber configurations thereby potentially improving the accuracy of DW-MRI registration. A new algorithm based on angular interpolation of the diffusion-weighted volumes was proposed for affine registration, and does not rely on any specific local diffusion model. In this work, we first extensively compare the performance of registration algorithms based on (i) angular interpolation, (ii) non-diffusion-weighted scalar volume (b0), and (iii) diffusion tensor image (DTI). Moreover, we generalize the concept of angular interpolation (AI) to non-linear image registration, and implement it in the FMRIB Software Library (FSL). We demonstrate that AI registration of DW-MRIs is a powerful alternative to volume and tensor-based approaches. In particular, we show that AI improves the registration accuracy in many cases over existing state-of-the-art algorithms, while providing registered raw DW-MRI data, which can be used for any subsequent analysis. PMID:23596381
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.
1997-01-01
Melt convection, along with species diffusion and segregation on the solidification interface are the primary factors responsible for species redistribution during HgCdTe crystal growth from the melt. As no direct information about convection velocity is available, numerical modeling is a logical approach to estimate convection. Furthermore influence of microgravity level, double-diffusion and material properties should be taken into account. In the present study, HgCdTe is considered as a binary alloy with melting temperature available from a phase diagram. The numerical model of convection and solidification of binary alloy is based on the general equations of heat and mass transfer in two-dimensional region. Mathematical modeling of binary alloy solidification is still a challenging numericial problem. A Rigorous mathematical approach to this problem is available only when convection is not considered at all. The proposed numerical model was developed using the finite element code FIDAP. In the present study, the numerical model is used to consider thermal, solutal convection and a double diffusion source of mass transport.
Malyarenko, Dariya I.; Pang, Yuxi; Senegas, Julien; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Ross, Brian D.; Chenevert, Thomas L.
2015-01-01
Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting bias due to gradient nonlinearity (GNL) causes substantial errors in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for anatomical regions imaged distant from magnet isocenter. Our previously-described approach allowed effective removal of spatial ADC bias from three orthogonal DWI measurements for mono-exponential media of arbitrary anisotropy. The present work evaluates correction feasibility and performance for quantitative diffusion parameters of the two-component IVIM model for well-perfused and nearly isotropic renal tissue. Sagittal kidney DWI scans of a volunteer were performed on a clinical 3T MRI scanner near isocenter and offset superiorly. Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting due to GNL resulted both in shift and broadening of perfusion-suppressed ADC histograms for off-center DWI relative to unbiased measurements close to isocenter. Direction-average DW-bias correctors were computed based on the known gradient design provided by vendor. The computed bias maps were empirically confirmed by coronal DWI measurements for an isotropic gel-flood phantom. Both phantom and renal tissue ADC bias for off-center measurements was effectively removed by applying pre-computed 3D correction maps. Comparable ADC accuracy was achieved for corrections of both b-maps and DWI intensities in presence of IVIM perfusion. No significant bias impact was observed for IVIM perfusion fraction. PMID:26811845
Nonlinear dynamics of double-pass cross-polarized wave generation in the saturation regime.
Iliev, Marin; Meier, Amanda K; Greco, Michael; Durfee, Charles G
2015-01-10
The conversion efficiency of cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation can be improved using two separate thinner nonlinear crystals versus a single thick one, due to the evolution of the beam sizes and individual phases after the first crystal. In this paper, we present an alternative scheme in which a curved mirror is used to reimage a plane just after the BaF2 crystal for a second pass. We also develop a simple analytic model for XPW conversion that describes the origin of a nonlinear phase mismatch and nonlinear lensing for both the fundamental wave and XPW. Coupled with the numerical solution for the process and the Fresnel propagation after the first pass, we also explore the factors that affect the efficiency of saturated, seeded XPW conversion. These include the development of the on-axis relative phase difference in the first crystal and after it (during free-space propagation), mode matching, wavefront curvature difference, and crystal tuning angle. We also experimentally demonstrate that the beam quality of the XPW signal after the second pass can be improved by the reimaging. PMID:25967620
Lai, C S; Wirt, M D; Yin, J J; Froncisz, W; Feix, J B; Kunicki, T J; Hyde, J S
1986-01-01
Electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) techniques employing [14N], [15N] 16-Doxylstearate spin-label pairs have been used to measure the lateral diffusion constant, D, of lipids in the surface membrane of intact human blood platelets. For freshly prepared platelets, D is 1.0 X 10(-8) cm2/s at 37 degrees C and for platelets stored for 3 d at room temperature under accepted routine blood bank conditions, D is 2.6 X 10(-8) cm2/s at 37 degrees C. This is the first time that D in the surface membrane of platelets is reported. The marked increase in D for stored platelets may be attributed at least partly to loss of cholesterol during storage, suggesting a correlation between lipid lateral diffusion and cholesterol levels in cell membranes. PMID:3019445
Simulation of double layers in a model auroral circuit with nonlinear impedance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. A.
1986-01-01
A reduced circuit description of the U-shaped potential structure of a discrete auroral arc, consisting of the flank transmission line plus parallel-electric-field region, is used to provide the boundary condition for one-dimensional simulations of the double-layer evolution. The model yields asymptotic scalings of the double-layer potential, as a function of an anomalous transport coefficient alpha and of the perpendicular length scale l(a) of the arc. The arc potential phi(DL) scales approximately linearly with alpha, and for alpha fixed phi (DL) about l(a) to the z power. Using parameters appropriate to the auroral zone acceleration region, potentials of phi (DPL) 10 kV scale to projected ionospheric dimensions of about 1 km, with power flows of the order of magnitude of substorm dissipation rates.
Toward a nonlinearity model for a heterodyne interferometer: not based on double-frequency mixing.
Hu, Pengcheng; Bai, Yang; Zhao, Jinlong; Wu, Guolong; Tan, Jiubin
2015-10-01
Residual periodic errors detected in picometer-level heterodyne interferometers cannot be explained by the model based on double-frequency mixing. A new model is established and proposed in this paper for analysis of these errors. The multi-order Doppler frequency shift ghost beams from measurement beam itself are involved in final interference leading to multi-order periodic errors, whether or not frequency-mixing originating from the two incident beams occurs. For model validation, a novel setup free from double-frequency mixing is constructed. The analyzed measurement signal shows that phase mixing of measurement beam itself can lead to multi-order periodic errors ranging from tens of picometers to one nanometer. PMID:26480108
Wang, Y.
2013-07-01
Nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) can improve the performance of a neutron transport solver significantly especially for the multigroup eigenvalue problems. The high-order transport equation and the transport-corrected low-order diffusion equation form a nonlinear system in NDA, which can be solved via a Picard iteration. The consistency of the correction of the low-order equation is important to ensure the stabilization and effectiveness of the iteration. It also makes the low-order equation preserve the scalar flux of the high-order equation. In this paper, the consistent correction for a particular discretization scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with discrete ordinates method (S{sub N}) and continuous finite element method (CFEM) is proposed for the multigroup neutron transport equation. Equations with the anisotropic scatterings and a void treatment are included. The Picard iteration with this scheme has been implemented and tested with RattleS{sub N}ake, a MOOSE-based application at INL. Convergence results are presented. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiguercha, Djlalli; Bennis, Anne-claire; Ezersky, Alexander
2015-04-01
The elliptical motion in surface waves causes an oscillating motion of the sand grains leading to the formation of ripple patterns on the bottom. Investigation how the grains with different properties are distributed inside the ripples is a difficult task because of the segration of particle. The work of Fernandez et al. (2003) was extended from one-dimensional to two-dimensional case. A new numerical model, based on these non-linear diffusion equations, was developed to simulate the grain distribution inside the marine sand ripples. The one and two-dimensional models are validated on several test cases where segregation appears. Starting from an homogeneous mixture of grains, the two-dimensional simulations demonstrate different segregation patterns: a) formation of zones with high concentration of light and heavy particles, b) formation of «cat's eye» patterns, c) appearance of inverse Brazil nut effect. Comparisons of numerical results with the new set of field data and wave flume experiments show that the two-dimensional non-linear diffusion equations allow us to reproduce qualitatively experimental results on particles segregation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Mirza Zahid; Li, Fuguo; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zhanwei; Li, Pan; Wu, Tao
2015-07-01
The present study comprises the determination of constitutive relationship for thermo-mechanical processing of INCONEL 718 through double multivariate nonlinear regression, a newly developed approach which not only considers the effect of strain, strain rate, and temperature on flow stress but also explains the interaction effect of these thermo-mechanical parameters on flow behavior of the alloy. Hot isothermal compression experiments were performed on Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical testing machine in the temperature range of 1153 to 1333 K within the strain rate range of 0.001 to 10 s-1. The deformation behavior of INCONEL 718 is analyzed and summarized by establishing the high temperature deformation constitutive equation. The calculated correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error ( AARE) underline the precision of proposed constitutive model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouffard, M.; Labrosse, M.; Choblet, M.; Fournier, M.; Aubert, M.; Tackley, M.
2015-10-01
Convection in the liquid layers of planetary interiors is usually driven by a combination of thermal and compositional sources of buoyancy. The low molecular diffusivity of composition causes troubles in the description of this field on the Eulerian grids typically employed in current codes of geodynamo because numerical diffusion on these grids is potentially larger than the real diffusivity. We developed a Lagrangian description of composition based on a method of tracers. The absence of numerical diffusion inherent to this method allows modeling of thermo-chemical convection with infinite Lewis number. The validation of this new tool on benchmark cases will be presented at EPSC as well as its first applications to the ocean of Ganymede with consistently coupled boundary condi- tions for temperature and composition.
Noise-induced transitions in a double-well oscillator with nonlinear dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Vladimir V.; Neiman, Alexander B.; Vadivasova, Tatyana E.; Anishchenko, Vadim S.
2016-05-01
We develop a model of bistable oscillator with nonlinear dissipation. Using a numerical simulation and an electronic circuit realization of this system we study its response to additive noise excitations. We show that depending on noise intensity the system undergoes multiple qualitative changes in the structure of its steady-state probability density function (PDF). In particular, the PDF exhibits two pitchfork bifurcations versus noise intensity, which we describe using an effective potential and corresponding normal form of the bifurcation. These stochastic effects are explained by the partition of the phase space by the nullclines of the deterministic oscillator.
Noise-induced transitions in a double-well oscillator with nonlinear dissipation.
Semenov, Vladimir V; Neiman, Alexander B; Vadivasova, Tatyana E; Anishchenko, Vadim S
2016-05-01
We develop a model of bistable oscillator with nonlinear dissipation. Using a numerical simulation and an electronic circuit realization of this system we study its response to additive noise excitations. We show that depending on noise intensity the system undergoes multiple qualitative changes in the structure of its steady-state probability density function (PDF). In particular, the PDF exhibits two pitchfork bifurcations versus noise intensity, which we describe using an effective potential and corresponding normal form of the bifurcation. These stochastic effects are explained by the partition of the phase space by the nullclines of the deterministic oscillator. PMID:27300883
Measurement of the absorption of nonlinear crystals used for high-average-power frequency doubling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Guido; Seidel, Stefan
1997-07-01
The absorption coefficients of nonlinear crystals for fundamental and second harmonic wave are of great importance for high average power second harmonic generation. A practical method to measure low absorption coefficients for high average power second harmonic generation. A practical method to measure low absorption coefficients is to use an interferometric laser calorimeter with high power lasers. Therefore Q-switched Nd:YAG laser systems with intracavity second harmonic generation are used. The measurements are made with optical powers up to 300 W and 45 W, respectively. Because of the high power, the resolution limit for the absorption coefficients is 0.001 percent/cm. The absorption coefficients of KTP and LBO crystals of different manufacturers are determined. The results are used for a numerical model which takes into account the decrease of conversion efficiency due to thermal effects caused by the absorption of laser power in the nonlinear crystal. This model describes saturation effects which appear in the range of 100 W in the green using a KTP crystal. A new idea for compensation of thermal effects will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshavkumar Kamaliya, Parth; Patel, Yashavant Kumar Dashrathlal
2016-01-01
Double arm configuration using parallel manipulator mimic the human arm motions either for planar or spatial space. These configurations are currently lucrative for researchers as it also replaces human workers without major redesign of work-place in industries. Humans' joint ranges limitation of arms can be resolved by replacement of either revolute or spherical joints in manipulator. Hence, the scope of maximum workspace utilization is prevailed. Planar configuration with five revolute joints (5R) is considered to imitate human arm motions in a plane using Double Arm Manipulator (DAM). Position analysis for tool that can be held in end links of configuration is carried out using Pro/mechanism in Creo® as well as SimMechanics. D-H parameters are formulated and its results derived using developed MATLAB programs are compared with mechanism simulation as well as SimMechanics results. Inverse kinematics model is developed for trajectory planning in order to trace tool trajectory in a continuous and smooth sequence. Polynomial functions are derived for position, velocity and acceleration for linear and non-linear curves in joint space. Analytical results obtained for trajectory planning are validated with simulation results of Creo®.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, R. P.; Banerjee, Malay; Chandra, Peeyush
2014-07-01
The present study investigates a prey predator type model for conservation of ecological resources through taxation with nonlinear harvesting. The model uses the harvesting function as proposed by Agnew (1979) [1] which accounts for the handling time of the catch and also the competition between standard vessels being utilized for harvesting of resources. In this paper we consider a three dimensional dynamic effort prey-predator model with Holling type-II functional response. The conditions for uniform persistence of the model have been derived. The existence and stability of bifurcating periodic solution through Hopf bifurcation have been examined for a particular set of parameter value. Using numerical examples it is shown that the system admits periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic solutions. It is observed that the system exhibits periodic doubling route to chaos with respect to tax. Many forms of complexities such as chaotic bands (including periodic windows, period-doubling bifurcations, period-halving bifurcations and attractor crisis) and chaotic attractors have been observed. Sensitivity analysis is carried out and it is observed that the solutions are highly dependent to the initial conditions. Pontryagin's Maximum Principle has been used to obtain optimal tax policy to maximize the monetary social benefit as well as conservation of the ecosystem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muriano, Alejandro; Salvador, J.-Pablo; Galve, Roger; Marco, M.-Pilar; Thayil K. N., Anisha; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Soria, Silvia
2011-01-01
We report the non linear fluorescence real-time detection of methylboldenone, an androgenic anabolic steroid used illegally as growth promoter based on a resonant sensing chip: a double grating waveguide structure. The limit of detection of this synthetic steroid is two orders of magnitude lower than the Minimum Required Performance Limit required by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The immunoreagents have been have been immobilized onto the surface of the resonant sensor after being activated with phosphonohexanoic acid spacers. The developed immunosensor presents great potential as a robust sensing device for fast and early detection of illegal dopants and food contaminants.
Ziegler, Ronny; Nielsen, Tim; Koehler, Thomas; Grosenick, Dirk; Steinkellner, Oliver; Hagen, Axel; Macdonald, Rainer; Rinneberg, Herbert
2009-08-20
We report on the nonlinear reconstruction of local absorption and fluorescence contrast in tissuelike scattering media from measured time-domain diffuse reflectance and transmittance of laser as well as laser-excited fluorescence radiation. Measurements were taken at selected source-detector offsets using slablike diffusely scattering and fluorescent phantoms containing fluorescent heterogeneities. Such measurements simulate in vivo data that would be obtained employing a scanning, time-domain fluorescence mammograph, where the breast is gently compressed between two parallel glass plates, and source and detector optical fibers scan synchronously at various source-detector offsets, allowing the recording of laser and fluorescence mammograms. The diffusion equations modeling the propagation of the laser and fluorescence radiation were solved in frequency domain by the finite element method simultaneously for several modulation frequencies using Fourier transformation and preprocessed experimental data. To reconstruct the concentration of the fluorescent contrast agent, the Born approximation including higher-order reconstructed photon densities at the excitation wavelength was used. Axial resolution was determined that can be achieved by various detection schemes. We show that remission measurements increase the depth resolution significantly.
Mirouh, G. M.; Garaud, P.; Traxler, A. L.; Wood, T. S.; Stellmach, S.
2012-05-01
The process referred to as 'semi-convection' in astrophysics and 'double-diffusive convection in the diffusive regime' in Earth and planetary sciences occurs in stellar and planetary interiors in regions which are stable according to the Ledoux criterion but unstable according to the Schwarzschild criterion. In this series of papers, we analyze the results of an extensive suite of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of the process, and ultimately propose a new 1D prescription for heat and compositional transport in this regime which can be used in stellar or planetary structure and evolution models. In a preliminary study of the phenomenon, Rosenblum et al. showed that, after saturation of the primary instability, a system can evolve in one of two possible ways: the induced turbulence either remains homogeneous, with very weak transport properties, or transitions into a thermo-compositional staircase where the transport rate is much larger (albeit still smaller than in standard convection). In this paper, we show that this dichotomous behavior is a robust property of semi-convection across a wide region of parameter space. We propose a simple semi-analytical criterion to determine whether layer formation is expected or not, and at what rate it proceeds, as a function of the background stratification and of the diffusion parameters (viscosity, thermal diffusivity, and compositional diffusivity) only. The theoretical criterion matches the outcome of our numerical simulations very adequately in the computationally accessible 'planetary' parameter regime and can be extrapolated to the stellar parameter regime. Subsequent papers will address more specifically the question of quantifying transport in the layered case and in the non-layered case.
Option pricing beyond Black-Scholes based on double-fractional diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleinert, H.; Korbel, J.
2016-05-01
We show how the prices of options can be determined with the help of double-fractional differential equation in such a way that their inclusion in a portfolio of stocks provides a more reliable hedge against dramatic price drops than the use of options whose prices were fixed by the Black-Scholes formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wicks, Thomas J.; Hill, Antony A.
2012-05-01
Linear and nonlinear stability analyses were performed on a fluid layer with a concentration-based internal heat source. Clear bimodal behaviour in the neutral curve (with stationary and oscillatory modes) is observed in the region of the onset of oscillatory convection, which is a previously unobserved phenomenon in radiation-induced convection. The numerical results for the linear instability analysis suggest a critical value γ c of γ, a measure for the strength of the internal heat source, for which oscillatory convection is inhibited when γ > γ c . Linear instability analyses on the effect of varying the ratio of the salt concentrations at the upper and lower boundaries conclude that the ratio has a significant effect on the stability boundary. A nonlinear analysis using an energy approach confirms that the linear theory describes the stability boundary most accurately when γ is such that the linear theory predicts the onset of mostly stationary convection. Nevertheless, the agreement between the linear and nonlinear stability thresholds deteriorates for larger values of the solute Rayleigh number for any value of γ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikhzadeh, G. A.; Dastmalchi, M.; Khorasanizadeh, H.
2013-12-01
The effect of wall temperature variations on double diffusive natural convection of Al2O3-water nanofluid in a differentially heated square enclosure with constant temperature hot and cold vertical walls is studied numerically. Transport mechanisms of nanoparticles including Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis that cause heterogeneity are considered in non-homogeneous model. The hot and cold wall temperatures are varied, but the temperature difference between them is always maintained 5 °C. The thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity and density and thermophoresis diffusion and Brownian motion coefficients are considered variable with temperature and volume fraction of nanoparticles. The governing equations are discretized using the control volume method. The results show that nanoparticle transport mechanisms affect buoyancy force and cause formation of small vortexes near the top and bottom walls of the cavity and reduce the heat transfer. By increasing the temperature of the walls the effect of transport mechanisms decreases and due to enhanced convection the heat transfer rate increases.
Performance comparison of nonlinear crystals for frequency doubling of an 894nm Cs vapor laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, B. V.; Shaffer, M. K.; Lu, Y.; Naumann, B.; Genda, T.; Knize, R. J.
2010-11-01
An examination of the efficiencies of three commonly used nonlinear crystals (PPKTP, LBO, and BiBO) when generating second harmonic of a Cesium laser is presented. The experiment investigates both the intracavity and single pass second harmonic generation of 895 nm Cs laser light when operating in quasi-CW and in CW modes and pumped by several watts. A degradation of the conversion efficiencies for each crystal was observed when high fundamental powers or a high duty cycle of the pump were used. For a Cs laser operating at 894nm, PPKTP is found to be the optimal crystal for intracavity SHG in both pulsed and CW modes when operating at SHG powers of several watts. At higher powers, however, the increased absorption coefficient of PPKTP at 447nm, compared to that of BiBO or LBO, may become significant to where another crystal will be more appropriate for this application. Maximum blue light power obtained with PPKTP crystal was about 1.5W in CW mode and 2.5W in QCW.
First passage time distributions of anomalous biased diffusion with double absorbing barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Gang; Qiu, Xiaogang
2014-10-01
We investigate the first passage time (FPT) problem of anomalous diffusion governed by the Galilei variant fractional diffusion-advection equation in the semi-infinite and finite domains subject to an absorbing boundary condition. We obtain explicit solutions for the FPT distributions and the corresponding Laplace transforms for both zero and constant drift cases by using the method of separation of variables as well as the properties of the Fox H function. An important relation between the FPT distributions corresponding to one and two absorbing barriers is revealed to determine the conditional FPT distributions. It shows that the proportion between the conditional FPT distributions only depends on the general Péclet number. We further discuss the asymptotic behavior of the FPT distributions and confirm our theoretical analysis by numerical results.
Updated estimate of double diffusive fluxes in the C-SALT region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veronis, George
2007-05-01
The choice of a characteristic magnitude in an earlier article by Lee and Veronis [1991. On the difference between tracer and geostrophic velocities obtained from the C-SALT data. Deep-Sea Research 38, 555-568], using inverse methods on the C-SALT data was based on an inappropriate velocity. As a result, the estimated magnitudes of the vertical diffusivities resulting from salt fingers were too large. The present paper corrects that error and yields a vertical diffusivity for salinity of 0.89×10 -4 m 2/s, which is consistent with a value derived from a tracer release experiment [Schmitt et al., 2005. Enhanced diapycnal mixing by salt fingers in the thermocline of the tropical Atlantic. Science 308, 685-688].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasegawa, Hideo
2011-11-01
We have studied dynamical responses and the Jarzynski equality (JE) of classical open systems described by the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model with the nonlocal system-bath coupling. In the derived non-Markovian Langevin equation, the nonlinear nonlocal dissipative term and state-dependent diffusion term yielding multiplicative colored noise satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Simulation results for harmonic oscillator systems have shown the following: (a) averaged responses of the system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouklas, Nikolaos; Landis, Chad M.; Huang, Rui
2015-06-01
Hydrogels are capable of coupled mass transport and large deformation in response to external stimuli. In this paper, a nonlinear, transient finite element formulation is presented for initial boundary value problems associated with swelling and deformation of hydrogels, based on a nonlinear continuum theory that is consistent with classical theory of linear poroelasticity. A mixed finite element method is implemented with implicit time integration. The incompressible or nearly incompressible behavior at the initial stage imposes a constraint to the finite element discretization in order to satisfy the Ladyzhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi (LBB) condition for stability of the mixed method, similar to linear poroelasticity as well as incompressible elasticity and Stokes flow; failure to choose an appropriate discretization would result in locking and numerical oscillations in transient analysis. To demonstrate the numerical method, two problems of practical interests are considered: constrained swelling and flat-punch indentation of hydrogel layers. Constrained swelling may lead to instantaneous surface instability for a soft hydrogel in a good solvent, which can be regulated by assuming a stiff surface layer. Indentation relaxation of hydrogels is simulated beyond the linear regime under plane strain conditions, in comparison with two elastic limits for the instantaneous and equilibrium states. The effects of Poisson's ratio and loading rate are discussed. It is concluded that the present finite element method is robust and can be extended to study other transient phenomena in hydrogels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hongmin; Zhang, Zhitao; Luo, Qingming; Zeng, Shaoqun
2007-02-01
Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is a powerful technique to obtain the stacks of neuronal individual or population morphologies deep inside brain tissue in vivo. However, the stacks often suffer from increasing noises with depth because of light scattering of specimen and optical distortion of microscopic system. Therefore, deconvolution becomes a more useful and a crucial approach to restore the original details of neuronal structure in fluorescence images. Since Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm is appropriate for Poisson process of microscopy but sensitive to noise, we propose a scheme that it pre-filters noise via Perona-Malik nonlinear anisotropic diffusion before performing regularized Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm. In contrast to other restoration approaches, the preliminary denoising of Perona-Malik diffusion model provides a better trade-off between noise reduction and edge preservation, and helps to following regularized Richardson-Lucy deconvolution procedure. Experimental results have shown that proposed scheme is effective and robust for restoring noisy two-photon fluorescence images.
Bykov, Andrei M.; Osipov, Sergei M.; Ellison, Donald C.; Vladimirov, Andrey E. E-mail: osm2004@mail.ru E-mail: avenovo@gmail.com
2014-07-10
We present a nonlinear Monte Carlo model of efficient diffusive shock acceleration where the magnetic turbulence responsible for particle diffusion is calculated self-consistently from the resonant cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instability, together with non-resonant short- and long-wavelength CR-current-driven instabilities. We include the backpressure from CRs interacting with the strongly amplified magnetic turbulence which decelerates and heats the super-Alfvénic flow in the extended shock precursor. Uniquely, in our plane-parallel, steady-state, multi-scale model, the full range of particles, from thermal (∼eV) injected at the viscous subshock to the escape of the highest energy CRs (∼PeV) from the shock precursor, are calculated consistently with the shock structure, precursor heating, magnetic field amplification, and scattering center drift relative to the background plasma. In addition, we show how the cascade of turbulence to shorter wavelengths influences the total shock compression, the downstream proton temperature, the magnetic fluctuation spectra, and accelerated particle spectra. A parameter survey is included where we vary shock parameters, the mode of magnetic turbulence generation, and turbulence cascading. From our survey results, we obtain scaling relations for the maximum particle momentum and amplified magnetic field as functions of shock speed, ambient density, and shock size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sourav; Saha, Sumon
2016-07-01
Entropy optimization is a major concern for designing modern thermal management system. In the present work, entropy analysis in a square cavity with an isothermal hollow cylinder at the center is carried out for magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) double diffusive convection. Galerkin weighted residuals method of finite element formulation is adopted for the numerical solution. Entropies due to fluid flow, heat, and mass transfer are computed for wide range of Hartmann (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 50) and Lewis numbers (1 ≤ Le ≤ 15), and buoyancy ratios (-5 ≤ N ≤ 5) at constant Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. It is found that the influence of buoyancy ratio is prominent on entropy generation, which also depends on both Lewis and Hartmann numbers. The ratio N = -1 shows minimum entropy generation for any combination of Lewis and Hartman numbers. Visualization of isentropic contours and the variation of total entropy with the governing parameters provide remarkable evidences of entropy optimization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlad, Marcel Ovidiu; Moran, Federico; Tsuchiya, Masa; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Oefner, Peter J.; Ross, John
2002-06-01
We study a general class of nonlinear macroscopic evolution equations with ``transport'' and ``reaction'' terms which describe the dynamics of a species of moving individuals (atoms, molecules, quasiparticles, organisms, etc.). We consider that two types of individuals exist, ``not marked'' and ``marked,'' respectively. We assume that the concentrations of both types of individuals are measurable and that they obey a neutrality condition, that is, the kinetic and transport properties of the ``not marked'' and ``marked'' individuals are identical. We suggest a response experiment, which consists in varying the fraction of ``marked'' individuals with the preservation of total fluxes, and show that the response of the system can be represented by a linear superposition law even though the underlying dynamics of the system is in general highly nonlinear. The linear response law is valid even for large perturbations and is not the result of a linearization procedure but rather a necessary consequence of the neutrality condition. First, we apply the response theorem to chemical kinetics, where the ``marked species'' is a molecule labeled with a radioactive isotope and there is no kinetic isotope effect. The susceptibility function of the response law can be related to the reaction mechanism of the process. Secondly we study the geographical distribution of the nonrecurrent, nonreversible neutral mutations of the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome from human populations and show that the fraction of mutants at a given point in space and time obeys a linear response law of the type introduced in this paper. The theory may be used for evaluating the geographic position and the moment in time where and when a mutation originated.
Zeng, Y; Albertus, P; Klein, R; Chaturvedi, N; Kojic, A; Bazant, MZ; Christensen, J
2013-06-07
Mathematical models of batteries which make use of the intercalation of a species into a solid phase need to solve the corresponding mass transfer problem. Because solving this equation can significantly add to the computational cost of a model, various methods have been devised to reduce the computational time. In this paper we focus on a comparison of the formulation, accuracy, and order of the accuracy for two numerical methods of solving the spherical diffusion problem with a constant or non-constant diffusion coefficient: the finite volume method and the control volume method. Both methods provide perfect mass conservation and second order accuracy in mesh spacing, but the control volume method provides the surface concentration directly, has a higher accuracy for a given numbers of mesh points and can also be easily extended to variable mesh spacing. Variable mesh spacing can significantly reduce the number of points that are required to achieve a given degree of accuracy in the surface concentration (which is typically coupled to the other battery equations) by locating more points where the concentration gradients are highest. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaughnessy, J. D.; Groom, N. J.; Nene, V. D.
1973-01-01
The effects of two types of control-system nonlinearities, sensor deadband and actuator breakout torque, on the pointing capability of a Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) double-gimbal experiment isolation and control system are investigated. A composite structural model of a flexible experiment package connected through frictionless double gimbals to a flexible carrier vehicle is used for this investigation. Contributions of the primary carrier control system to experiment pointing are neglected. Pointing errors onboard the experiment package due to random crew-motion input into the carrier vehicle are computed. A stability investigation is performed to verify control-system stability with nominal nonlinearities and gains. Indications are that there is no stability problem due to the nonlinearities. A nonlinearity sensitivity study is carried out to determine the effects on pointing accuracy. Its results indicate that nominal ATM control system nonlinearities limit the pointing accuracy to approximately 0.4 arc second in the presence of crew motion. Methods of reducing the error to less than 0.1 arc second are discussed.
Alipour, Mojtaba
2014-07-17
Double-hybrid (DH) density functionals are now among the most applied methods for quantum chemical calculations within density functional theory (DFT). In this work, a new DH density functional is developed for linear and nonlinear optical properties of molecules and hydrogen-bonded nanoclusters. The proposed functional, denominated as PBEDH-P (-P stands for polarizability), is based on Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation functionals and includes 68% Hartree-Fock exchange and 31% correlation from second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). From the obtained results, PBEDH-P is shown to be accurate for the calculations of hyperpolarizability, isotropic and anisotropic polarizabilities, and dipole moment of molecules and hydrogen-bonded nanoclusters of H2O (neutral, protonated, and deprotonated), NH3, HF, and binary mixtures of HF-H2O. This novel DH functional not only reveals a considerable improvement in comparison to the recently proposed parameter-free and parametrized DHs but also seems to be superior to the MP2 method in some cases. Moreover, we find that using only contributions of electron pairs with opposite spin for the perturbative part within scaled opposite-spin scheme does not represent a great improvement over PBEDH-P. On the whole, our study nominates PBEDH-P as a promising model for the calculations of electric response properties, where the DH density functionals again come into play and further evidence of the quality of these approximations are highlighted. PMID:25003513
Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Jaque, D; Garsia, Sole J; Capmany, J; Bagayev, S N; Ueda, Ken-ichi
1999-02-28
A new cw laser with self-frequency doubling and summation of 1-{mu}m oscillation ({sup 4}F{sub 3/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 11/2}) was constructed on the basis of an orthorhombic Nd{sup 3+}:Ba{sub 2}NaNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} crystal. The {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} inter-Stark transition was used to excite cw 1.3-{mu}m stimulated emission from this ferroelectric. (letters to the editor)
Double depth-enhanced 3D integral imaging in projection-type system without diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Xiao-xue; Sun, Yu; Xie, Yan; Liu, Shao-peng
2015-05-01
Integral imaging is a three dimensional (3D) display technology without any additional equipment. A new system is proposed in this paper which consists of the elemental images of real images in real mode (RIRM) and the ones of virtual images in real mode (VIRM). The real images in real mode are the same as the conventional integral images. The virtual images in real mode are obtained by changing the coordinates of the corresponding points in elemental images which can be reconstructed by the lens array in virtual space. In order to reduce the spot size of the reconstructed images, the diffuser in conventional integral imaging is given up in the proposed method. Then the spot size is nearly 1/20 of that in the conventional system. And an optical integral imaging system is constructed to confirm that our proposed method opens a new way for the application of the passive 3D display technology.
Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics mixed convection flow in a rotating medium with double diffusion
Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan
2015-05-15
Exact solutions of an unsteady Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow over an impulsively started vertical plate in a rotating medium are presented. The effects of thermal radiative and thermal diffusion on the fluid flow are also considered. The governing equations are modelled and solved for velocity, temperature and concentration using Laplace transforms technique. Expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained and their numerical results are presented graphically. Skin friction, Sherwood number and Nusselt number are also computed and presented in tabular forms. The determined solutions can generate a large class of solutions as special cases corresponding to different motions with technical relevance. The results obtained herein may be used to verify the validation of obtained numerical solutions for more complicated fluid flow problems.
Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics mixed convection flow in a rotating medium with double diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan
2015-05-01
Exact solutions of an unsteady Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow over an impulsively started vertical plate in a rotating medium are presented. The effects of thermal radiative and thermal diffusion on the fluid flow are also considered. The governing equations are modelled and solved for velocity, temperature and concentration using Laplace transforms technique. Expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained and their numerical results are presented graphically. Skin friction, Sherwood number and Nusselt number are also computed and presented in tabular forms. The determined solutions can generate a large class of solutions as special cases corresponding to different motions with technical relevance. The results obtained herein may be used to verify the validation of obtained numerical solutions for more complicated fluid flow problems.
Wen, Z. X.; Lu, J.; Bai, B. F.
2010-03-01
Flow and temperature fields during the solidification of hypereutectic and hypoeutectic NH{sub 4}Cl-H{sub 2}O solution in rectangular cavities were measured by a particle image velocimetry(PIV) and a weak perturbation thermocouple network, respectively. Double-diffusive convections caused by the coupling effects of temperature and solute gradients were studied by the experiment. During the solidification of hypereutectic solution, the rejected water near the solidification interface will lead to dilute solute layers and double-diffusive interfaces. As the continued rejection of water, the layer and interface will evolve into instability and a multi-layer and multi-interface structure will be formed. To the hypoeutectic solution, the rejection of NH{sub 4}Cl near the solidification interface will form a dense solute layer. When the thickness of the dense solute layer is large enough, the coupling effects of stabilizing solute gradient and unstable temperature gradient will lead to new solute layers. The solute layers and double-diffusive interfaces will evolve stably and have no breakup of the double-diffusive interfaces during the solidification of hypoeutectic solution.
Alka,; Goyal, Amit; Gupta, Rama; Kumar, C. N.; Raju, Thokala Soloman
2011-12-15
We demonstrate that the competing cubic-quintic nonlinearity induces propagating solitonlike dark(bright) solitons and double-kink solitons in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with self-steepening and self-frequency shift. Parameter domains are delineated in which these optical solitons exist. Also, fractional-transform solitons are explored for this model. It is shown that the nonlinear chirp associated with each of these optical pulses is directly proportional to the intensity of the wave and saturates at some finite value as the retarded time approaches its asymptotic value. We further show that the amplitude of the chirping can be controlled by varying the self-steepening term and self-frequency shift.
Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Rui
2014-03-28
In this work, the resolving limit of maskless direct laser writing is overcome by cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion, where the nonlinear reverse saturation absorption can induce the formation of below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot, and the thermal diffusion manipulation can make the heat quantity at the central region of energy absorption spot propagate along the thin film thickness direction. The temperature at the central region of energy absorption spot transiently reaches up to melting point and realizes nanolithography. The sample “glass substrate/AgInSbTe” is prepared, where AgInSbTe is taken as nonlinear reverse saturation absorption thin film. The below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot is simulated theoretically and verified experimentally by near-field spot scanning method. The “glass substrate/Al/AgInSbTe” sample is prepared, where the Al is used as thermal conductive layer to manipulate the thermal diffusion channel because the thermal diffusivity coefficient of Al is much larger than that of AgInSbTe. The direct laser writing is conducted by a setup with a laser wavelength of 650 nm and a converging lens of NA=0.85, the lithographic marks with a size of about 100 nm are obtained, and the size is only about 1/10 the incident focused spot. The experimental results indicate that the cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion is a good method to realize nanolithography in maskless direct laser writing with visible light.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Min; Li, Ze-Hong; Liu, Xiao-Long; Xie, Jia-Xiong; Deng, Guang-Min; Zhang, Bo
2011-12-01
A novel planar vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (VDMOS) structure with an ultra-low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp), whose distinctive feature is the use of inhomogeneous floating p-islands in the n-drift region, is proposed. The theoretical limit of its Ron,sp is deduced, the influence of structure parameters on the breakdown voltage (BV) and Ron,sp are investigated, and the optimized results with BV of 83 V and Ron,sp of 54 mΩ·mm2 are obtained. Simulations show that the inhomogeneous-floating-islands metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has a superior “Ron,sp/BV" trade-off to the conventional VDMOS (a 38% reduction of Ron,sp with the same BV) and the homogeneous-floating-islands MOSFET (a 10% reduction of Ron,sp with the same BV). The inhomogeneous-floating-islands MOSFET also has a much better body-diode characteristic than the superjunction MOSFET. Its reverse recovery peak current, reverse recovery time and reverse recovery charge are about 50, 80 and 40% of those of the superjunction MOSFET, respectively.
Mimouni, N.; Chikh, S.; Rahli, O.; Bennacer, R.
2014-07-15
Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of double diffusion natural convection in an elongated enclosure filled with a binary fluid saturating a porous medium are carried out in the present work. The Boussinesq approximation is made in the formulation of the problem, and Neumann boundary conditions for temperature and concentration are adopted, respectively, on vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity. The used numerical method is based on the control volume approach, with the third order quadratic upstream interpolation scheme in approximating the advection terms. A semi implicit method algorithm is used to handle the velocity-pressure coupling. To avoid the excessively high computer time inherent to the solution of 3D natural convection problems, full approximation storage with full multigrid method is used to solve the problem. A wide range of the controlling parameters (Rayleigh-Darcy number Ra, lateral aspect ratio Ay, Lewis number Le, and the buoyancy ration N) is investigated. We clearly show that increasing the depth of the cavity (i.e., the lateral aspect ratio) has an important effect on the flow patterns. The 2D perfect parallel flows obtained for small lateral aspect ratio are drastically destabilized by increasing the cavity lateral dimension. This yields a 3D fluid motion with a much more complex flow pattern and the usually considered 2D parallel flow model cannot be applied.
Elton, A.B.H.
1990-09-24
A numerical theory for the massively parallel lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann methods for computing solutions to nonlinear advective-diffusive systems is introduced. The convergence theory is based on consistency and stability arguments that are supported by the discrete Chapman-Enskog expansion (for consistency) and conditions of monotonicity (in establishing stability). The theory is applied to four lattice methods: Two of the methods are for some two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations. One of the methods is for the one-dimensional lattice method for the one-dimensional viscous Burgers equation. And one of the methods is for a two-dimensional nonlinear advection-diffusion equation. Convergence is formally proven in the L{sub 1}-norm for the first three methods, revealing that they are second-order, conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Computational results which support the theory for lattice methods are presented. In addition, a domain decomposition strategy using mesh refinement techniques is presented for lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann methods. The strategy allows concentration of computational resources on regions of high activity. Computational evidence is reported for the strategy applied to the lattice gas method for the one-dimensional viscous Burgers equation. 72 refs., 19 figs., 28 tabs.
Macías-Díaz, J E; Macías, Siegfried; Medina-Ramírez, I E
2013-12-01
In this manuscript, we present a computational model to approximate the solutions of a partial differential equation which describes the growth dynamics of microbial films. The numerical technique reported in this work is an explicit, nonlinear finite-difference methodology which is computationally implemented using Newton's method. Our scheme is compared numerically against an implicit, linear finite-difference discretization of the same partial differential equation, whose computer coding requires an implementation of the stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method. Our numerical results evince that the nonlinear approach results in a more efficient approximation to the solutions of the biofilm model considered, and demands less computer memory. Moreover, the positivity of initial profiles is preserved in the practice by the nonlinear scheme proposed. PMID:23850847
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. L.
1977-01-01
In a study of cosmic ray propagation in interstellar and interplanetary space, a perturbed orbit resonant scattering theory for pitch angle diffusion in a slab model of magnetostatic turbulence is slightly generalized and used to compute the diffusion coefficient for spatial propagation parallel to the mean magnetic field. This diffusion coefficient has been useful for describing the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic rays, and for explaining the diffusive phase in solar flares in which the initial anisotropy of the particle distribution decays to isotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finsterbusch, Jürgen
2011-01-01
Experiments with two diffusion weightings applied in direct succession in a single acquisition, so-called double- or two-wave-vector diffusion-weighting (DWV) experiments at short mixing times, have been shown to be a promising tool to estimate cell or compartment sizes, e.g. in living tissue. The basic theory for such experiments predicts that the signal decays for parallel and antiparallel wave vector orientations differ by a factor of three for small wave vectors. This seems to be surprising because in standard, single-wave-vector experiments the polarity of the diffusion weighting has no influence on the signal attenuation. Thus, the question how this difference can be understood more pictorially is often raised. In this rather educational manuscript, the phase evolution during a DWV experiment for simple geometries, e.g. diffusion between parallel, impermeable planes oriented perpendicular to the wave vectors, is considered step-by-step and demonstrates how the signal difference develops. Considering the populations of the phase distributions obtained, the factor of three between the signal decays which is predicted by the theory can be reproduced. Furthermore, the intermediate signal decay for orthogonal wave vector orientations can be derived when investigating diffusion in a box. Thus, the presented “phase gymnastics” approach may help to understand the signal modulation observed in DWV experiments at short mixing times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rionero, Salvatore
2013-05-01
Either for its great geophysical relevance or the frequent occurrence of porous materials in real life, research on convective-diffusive fluid motions in porous horizontal layers has a notable relevance, which is increasing with the number of salts dissolved in the fluid. In the present paper, porous horizontal layers heated from below and salted by m salts partly from above and partly from below are studied forall min {N}. In the Darcy-Boussinesq scheme it is shown that: (i) the L2 solutions are bounded, uniquely determined, and asymptotically converging toward an absorbing set; (ii) for each Fourier component of the perturbations to the thermal conduction solution, there exists an own nonlinear admissible evolution system; (iii) subcritical instabilities do not exist and the conditions of linear stability also guarantee the global nonlinear stability; (iv) global nonlinear stability is guaranteed by the general condition (1.2) holding forall min {N}; (v) condition (1.2) is hidden in the Darcy-Boussinesq equations, it can be found by substituting the salt concentration fields via new suitable unknown fields and looking for symmetries and skew-symmetries in the new system of equations. The present paper - originating from Rionero ["Absence of subcritical instabilities and global nonlinear stability for porous ternary diffusive-convective fluid mixtures," Phys. Fluids 24, 104101 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4757858 - generalizes the properties (ii)-(iv) (obtained for m = 2) to any min {N} and furnishes the newly obtained properties (i) and (v). We stress the relevant physical meaning of (1.2). In fact (1.2) - in simple algebraic closed form - guarantees that the onset of convection cannot occur and appears to be useful not only for theoreticians but also for experimentalists in the research field of physics of fluids. Analogously, conditions guaranteeing the onset of convection - in simple algebraic closed form (cf. d6.18 d6.19">(6.18) and (6.19) reversed) - are furnished.
PRINGLE,SCOTT E.; COOPER,CLAY A.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.
2000-12-21
An experimental investigation was conducted to study double-diffusive finger convection in a Hele-Shaw cell by layering a sucrose solution over a more-dense sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The solutal Rayleigh numbers were on the order of 60,000, based upon the height of the cell (25 cm), and the buoyancy ratio was 1.2. A full-field light transmission technique was used to measure a dye tracer dissolved in the NaCl solution. They analyze the concentration fields to yield the temporal evolution of length scales associated with the vertical and horizontal finger structure as well as the mass flux. These measures show a rapid progression through two early stages to a mature stage and finally a rundown period where mass flux decays rapidly. The data are useful for the development and evaluation of numerical simulators designed to model diffusion and convection of multiple components in porous media. The results are useful for correct formulation at both the process scale (the scale of the experiment) and effective scale (where the lab-scale processes are averaged-up to produce averaged parameters). A fundamental understanding of the fine-scale dynamics of double-diffusive finger convection is necessary in order to successfully parameterize large-scale systems.
Sah, O.P.; Goswami, K.S. )
1994-10-01
Considering an unmagnetized plasma consisting of relativistic drifting electrons and nondrifting thermal ions and by using reductive perturbation method, a usual Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation and a generalized form of KdV equation are derived. It is found that while the former governs the dynamics of a small-amplitude rarefactive modified electron acoustic (MEA) soliton, the latter governs the dynamics of a weak compressive modified electron acoustic double layer. The influences of relativistic effect on the propagation of such a soliton and double layer are examined. The relevance of this investigation to space plasma is pointed out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wen-Chao; Yao, Jun; Chen, Zhang-Xin
2014-02-01
Based on Huang's accurate tri-sectional nonlinear kinematic equation (1997), a dimensionless simplified mathematical model for nonlinear flow in one-dimensional semi-infinite long porous media with low permeability is presented for the case of a constant flow rate on the inner boundary. This model contains double moving boundaries, including an internal moving boundary and an external moving boundary, which are different from the classical Stefan problem in heat conduction: The velocity of the external moving boundary is proportional to the second derivative of the unknown pressure function with respect to the distance parameter on this boundary. Through a similarity transformation, the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) system is transformed into a linear PDE system. Then an analytical solution is obtained for the dimensionless simplified mathematical model. This solution can be used for strictly checking the validity of numerical methods in solving such nonlinear mathematical models for flows in low-permeable porous media for petroleum engineering applications. Finally, through plotted comparison curves from the exact analytical solution, the sensitive effects of three characteristic parameters are discussed. It is concluded that with a decrease in the dimensionless critical pressure gradient, the sensitive effects of the dimensionless variable on the dimensionless pressure distribution and dimensionless pressure gradient distribution becomemore serious; with an increase in the dimensionless pseudo threshold pressure gradient, the sensitive effects of the dimensionless variable become more serious; the dimensionless threshold pressure gradient (TPG) has a great effect on the external moving boundary but has little effect on the internal moving boundary. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wen-Chao; Yao, Jun; Chen, Zhang-Xin
2014-01-01
Based on Huang's accurate tri-sectional nonlinear kinematic equation (1997), a dimensionless simplified mathematical model for nonlinear flow in one-dimensional semi-infinite long porous media with low permeability is presented for the case of a constant flow rate on the inner boundary. This model contains double moving boundaries, including an internal moving boundary and an external moving boundary, which are different from the classical Stefan problem in heat conduction: The velocity of the external moving boundary is proportional to the second derivative of the unknown pressure function with respect to the distance parameter on this boundary. Through a similarity transformation, the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) system is transformed into a linear PDE system. Then an analytical solution is obtained for the dimensionless simplified mathematical model. This solution can be used for strictly checking the validity of numerical methods in solving such nonlinear mathematical models for flows in low-permeable porous media for petroleum engineering applications. Finally, through plotted comparison curves from the exact analytical solution, the sensitive effects of three characteristic parameters are discussed. It is concluded that with a decrease in the dimensionless critical pressure gradient, the sensitive effects of the dimensionless variable on the dimensionless pressure distribution and dimensionless pressure gradient distribution become more serious; with an increase in the dimensionless pseudo threshold pressure gradient, the sensitive effects of the dimensionless variable become more serious; the dimensionless threshold pressure gradient (TPG) has a great effect on the external moving boundary but has little effect on the internal moving boundary.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, A. J.
1982-01-01
A theory of fringe localization in rapid-double-exposure, diffuse-illumination holographic interferometry was developed. The theory was then applied to compare holographic measurements with laser anemometer measurements of shock locations in a transonic axial-flow compressor rotor. The computed fringe localization error was found to agree well with the measured localization error. It is shown how the view orientation and the curvature and positional variation of the strength of a shock wave are used to determine the localization error and to minimize it. In particular, it is suggested that the view direction not deviate from tangency at the shock surface by more than 30 degrees.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langenbruch, C.
2015-12-01
In August 2014 segmented lateral dyke growth has been observed in a rifting event at Bardarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. The temporal evolution of the magma source and the physical nature of magma flow process during dyke propagation and arrest are unclear. The epidemic-type aftershock sequence model has been used to detect fluid signals in seismicity data. We use the earthquake catalog recorded during the rifting event to reconstruct the magma flow signal at the feeding source of the dyke. We find that the segmentation of dyke growth is caused by a pulsating nature of the magma flow source. We identify two main magma flow pulses, which initiate and propagate the two main segments of the dyke. During phases of dyke arrest magma flow pulses are low and cannot further propagate the dyke. We use the reconstructed magma flow signal to set up a numerical model of non-linear magma pressure diffusion. By using the magma pressure changes resulting from magma flow, we simulate the earthquake catalog caused by the reduction of the effective principal stress. We observe an excellent agreement between the spatio-temporal characteristics of the simulated earthquake catalog and recorded seismicity. Our results suggest that the process of magma pressure relaxation can be described as a non-linear diffusion process. Because the opening of the dyke creates significant new fracture volume, the permeability of the rock is strongly increasing and the diffusion process becomes highly non-linear. Our analysis is based on lessons learned from analysis of seismicity observed during hydraulic fracturing of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Despite large differences in scale, the underlying physical processes are comparable. Finally, we analyze the decay of seismic activity after start of the effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. The magma flow strongly decreases and seismic activity decays according to Omori's law, which describes the decay of aftershock activity after tectonic
Williams, Richard; Grim, Joel; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Tupitsyn, Eugene; Rowe, Emmanuel; Buliga, Vladimir M.; Burger, Arnold
2013-10-01
Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, R. T.; Grim, Joel Q.; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, S.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E.; Rowe, E.; Buliga, V. M.; Burger, A.
2013-09-01
Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moll, Ryan; Garaud, Pascale; Stellmach, Stephan
2016-05-01
Oscillatory double-diffusive convection (ODDC; also known as semi-convection) refers to a type of double-diffusive instability that occurs in regions of planetary and stellar interiors that have a destabilizing thermal stratification and a stabilizing mean molecular weight stratification. In this series of papers, we use an extensive suite of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations to quantify the transport of heat and chemical species by ODDC. Rosenblum et al. first showed that ODDC can either spontaneously form layers that significantly enhance the transport of heat and chemical species compared to microscopic transport or remain in a state dominated by large-scale gravity waves, in which there is a more modest enhancement of the turbulent transport rates. Subsequent studies in this series focused on identifying under what conditions layers form and quantifying transport through layered systems. Here we proceed to characterize transport through systems that are unstable to ODDC, but do not undergo spontaneous layer formation. We measure the thermal and compositional fluxes in non-layered ODDC from both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D numerical simulations, and show that 3D simulations are well approximated by similar simulations in a 2D domain. We find that the turbulent mixing rate in this regime is weak and can, to a first-level approximation, be neglected. We conclude by summarizing the findings of papers I through III into a single prescription for transport systems unstable to ODDC.
Studies of Kink-AntiKink Collisions in 1+1 D in φ^4 and Double Sine Gordon Nonlinear Wave Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fasano, Christopher G.
1996-11-01
The manner in which kink and antikink solutions interact in nonlinear systems is strongly dependent upon the velocities in the collision. In certain velocity regions, the kink and antikink annihilate, while in other regions they bounce off of one another. We present studies of multiple bounce solutions for the collision of kinks and antikinks in a 1 + 1 dimensional φ^4 and Double Sine-Gordon systems. We confirm the existence of a repeated level structure for velocities at which 3, 4, 5, and 6 bounce solutions occur φ^4 as presented by previous authors ( Michael Peyrard and David K. Campbell, Physica 9D) (1983) 33, Peter Anninos, Samuel Oliveira, and Richard A. Matzner, Phys. Rev. D44 (1991) 1147 and we characterize the onset of each multiple bounce solution. The positions of these levels may be described by a simple extension of previous works, and imply that the system follows a specific ``route'' to ``chaotic'' annihilation. An analysis of kink-antinkink collisions in the Double-Sine Gordon equation will also be presented. This analysis reveals both interesting similarities and differences when compared to φ^4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glaus, M. A.; Aertsens, M.; Appelo, C. A. J.; Kupcik, T.; Maes, N.; Van Laer, L.; Van Loon, L. R.
2015-09-01
Enhanced mass transfer rates have been frequently observed in diffusion studies with alkaline and earth alkaline elements in compacted clay minerals and clay rocks. Whether this phenomenon - often termed surface diffusion - is also relevant for more strongly sorbing species is an open question. We therefore investigated the diffusion of Sr2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ in compacted illite with respect to variations of the concentration of the background electrolyte, pH and carbonate. New experimental techniques were developed in order to avoid artefacts stemming from the confinement of the clay sample. A distinct dependence of the effective diffusion coefficients on the concentration of the background electrolyte was observed for all three elements. A similar correlation was found for the sorption distribution ratio (Rd) derived from tracer breakthrough in the case of Sr2+, while this dependence was much weaker for Co2+ and Zn2+. Model calculations using Phreeqc resulted in a good agreement with the experimental data when it was assumed that the cationic species, present in the electrical double layer (EDL) of the charged clay surface, are mobile. Species bound to the specific surface complexation sites at the clay edges were assumed to be immobile. An assessment of the mobility of the type of cationic elements studied here in argillaceous media thus requires an analysis of their distribution among specifically sorbed surface species and species in the EDL. The normal approach of deriving unknown effective diffusion coefficients from reference values of an uncharged water tracer may significantly underestimate the mobility of metal cations in argillaceous media.
Rashidi, Mohammad M.; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J.; Freidoonimehr, Navid
2014-01-01
In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, , local Nusselt number, , and local Sherwood number are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360
Bao, Shanyong; Ma, Chunrui; Chen, Garry; Xu, Xing; Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Chonglin; Zhang, Yamei; Bettis, Jerry L; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Dong, Chuang; Zhang, Qingyu
2014-01-01
Surface exchange and oxygen vacancy diffusion dynamics were studied in double-perovskites LnBaCo2O5.5+δ (LnBCO) single-crystalline thin films (Ln = Er, Pr; -0.5 < δ < 0.5) by carefully monitoring the resistance changes under a switching flow of oxidizing gas (O2) and reducing gas (H2) in the temperature range of 250 ~ 800 °C. A giant resistance change ΔR by three to four orders of magnitude in less than 0.1 s was found with a fast oscillation behavior in the resistance change rates in the ΔR vs. t plots, suggesting that the oxygen vacancy exchange diffusion with oxygen/hydrogen atoms in the LnBCO thin films is taking the layer by layer oxygen-vacancy-exchange mechanism. The first principles density functional theory calculations indicate that hydrogen atoms are present in LnBCO as bound to oxygen forming O-H bonds. This unprecedented oscillation phenomenon provides the first direct experimental evidence of the layer by layer oxygen vacancy exchange diffusion mechanism. PMID:24751601
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Yusuke; Yamada, Yoshio
2016-07-01
This paper deals with a free boundary problem for diffusion equation with a certain class of bistable nonlinearity which allows two positive stable equilibrium states as an ODE model. This problem models the invasion of a biological species and the free boundary represents the spreading front of its habitat. Our main interest is to study large-time behaviors of solutions for the free boundary problem. We will completely classify asymptotic behaviors of solutions and, in particular, observe two different types of spreading phenomena corresponding to two positive stable equilibrium states. Moreover, it will be proved that, if the free boundary expands to infinity, an asymptotic speed of the moving free boundary for large time can be uniquely determined from the related semi-wave problem.
Keyes, Joseph T.; Simon, Bruce R.; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.
2013-01-01
Purpose Arterial wall mass transport properties dictate local distribution of biomolecules or locally delivered dugs. Knowing how these properties vary between coronary artery locations could provide insight into how therapy efficacy is altered between arterial locations. Methods We introduced an indocarbocyanine drug surrogate to the lumens of left anterior descending and right coronary (LADC; RC) arteries from pigs with or without a pressure gradient. Interstitial fluorescent intensity was measured on live samples with multiphoton microscopy. We also measured binding to porcine coronary SMCs in monoculture. Results Diffusive transport constants peaked in the middle sections of the LADC and RC arteries by 2.09 and 2.04 times, respectively, compared to the proximal and distal segments. There was no statistical difference between the average diffusivity value between LADC and RC arteries. The convection coefficients had an upward trend down each artery, with the RC being higher than the LADC by 3.89 times. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the convective and diffusive transport of lipophilic molecules changes between the LADC and the RC arteries as well as along their length. These results may have important implications in optimizing drug delivery for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PMID:23224981
Barber, Jared; Tanase, Roxana; Yotov, Ivan
2016-06-01
Several Kalman filter algorithms are presented for data assimilation and parameter estimation for a nonlinear diffusion model of epithelial cell migration. These include the ensemble Kalman filter with Monte Carlo sampling and a stochastic collocation (SC) Kalman filter with structured sampling. Further, two types of noise are considered -uncorrelated noise resulting in one stochastic dimension for each element of the spatial grid and correlated noise parameterized by the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion resulting in one stochastic dimension for each KL term. The efficiency and accuracy of the four methods are investigated for two cases with synthetic data with and without noise, as well as data from a laboratory experiment. While it is observed that all algorithms perform reasonably well in matching the target solution and estimating the diffusion coefficient and the growth rate, it is illustrated that the algorithms that employ SC and KL expansion are computationally more efficient, as they require fewer ensemble members for comparable accuracy. In the case of SC methods, this is due to improved approximation in stochastic space compared to Monte Carlo sampling. In the case of KL methods, the parameterization of the noise results in a stochastic space of smaller dimension. The most efficient method is the one combining SC and KL expansion. PMID:27085426
Yoshida, Kenichiro; Nishidate, Izumi
2014-01-01
To rapidly derive a result for diffuse reflectance from a multilayered model that is equivalent to that of a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS), we propose a combination of a layered white MCS and the adding-doubling method. For slabs with various scattering coefficients assuming a certain anisotropy factor and without absorption, we calculate the transition matrices for light flow with respect to the incident and exit angles. From this series of precalculated transition matrices, we can calculate the transition matrices for the multilayered model with the specific anisotropy factor. The relative errors of the results of this method compared to a conventional MCS were less than 1%. We successfully used this method to estimate the chromophore concentration from the reflectance spectrum of a numerical model of skin and in vivo human skin tissue. PMID:25426319
Petri, H; Pierchalla, P; Tronnier, H
1990-11-20
Growth and quality of hair was studied after treatment with Pantogar, another prescription (Verum-2) and placebo for four months in 60 patients with diffuse effluvium capillorum and agnogenic structural alternations of hair. Efficacy was assessed by measurements of swelling, dye-binding and thickness for hair-quality and evaluation of hair-density and trichograms for hair-growth. Statistical analysis of swelling properties and trichogram data indicated that Pantogar was effective, the second preparation improved quality of hair and retarded hair loss. Placebo was ineffective judged by the used parameters. Tolerance of the treatment was good and adverse effects could not be substantiated. PMID:1709511
Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2008-03-01
We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. L.
1976-01-01
The propagation of charged particles through interstellar and interplanetary space has often been described as a random process in which the particles are scattered by ambient electromagnetic turbulence. In general, this changes both the magnitude and direction of the particles' momentum. Some situations for which scattering in direction (pitch angle) is of primary interest were studied. A perturbed orbit, resonant scattering theory for pitch-angle diffusion in magnetostatic turbulence was slightly generalized and then utilized to compute the diffusion coefficient for spatial propagation parallel to the mean magnetic field, Kappa. All divergences inherent in the quasilinear formalism when the power spectrum of the fluctuation field falls off as K to the minus Q power (Q less than 2) were removed. Various methods of computing Kappa were compared and limits on the validity of the theory discussed. For Q less than 1 or 2, the various methods give roughly comparable values of Kappa, but use of perturbed orbits systematically results in a somewhat smaller Kappa than can be obtained from quasilinear theory.
Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Huang, Chenghui; Wei, Yong; Shen, Hongyuan; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Lingxiong; Chen, Zhenqiang
2009-11-23
A high power and efficient 588 nm yellow light is demonstrated through intracavity frequency doubling of an acousto-optic Q-switched self-frequency Raman laser. A 30-mm-length double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO(4) crystal was utilized for efficient self-Raman laser operation by reducing the thermal effects and increasing the interaction length for the stimulated Raman scattering. A 15-mm-length LBO with non-critical phase matching (theta = 90 degrees, phi = 0 degrees) cut was adopted for efficient second-harmonic generation. The focus position of incident pump light and both the repetition rate and the duty cycle of the Q-switch have been optimized. At a repetition rate of 110 kHz and a duty cycle of 5%, the average power of 588 nm light is up to 7.93 W while the incident pump power is 26.5 W, corresponding to an overall diode-yellow conversion efficiency of 30% and a slope efficiency of 43%. PMID:19997395
Das, Malay Kumar; Rao, Kalakuntala Rama
2006-01-01
The preparation of zidovudine-loaded ethylcellulose microspheres by w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method with high entrapment capacity and sustained release is described. A mixed solvent system (MSS) consisting of acetonitrile and dichloromethane in a 1:1 ratio and light liquid paraffin was selected as primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. Span 80 was used as the secondary surfactant for stabilizing the external oil phase. Spherical free flowing microspheres were obtained. The prepared microspheres were characterized by entrapment efficiency, in vitro release behavior, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drug-loaded microspheres showed 32 - 55% entrapment capacity. The in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various processing and formulation parameters to give sustained release of drug from the microspheres. The DSC thermograms confirmed the absence of any drug-polymer interaction. SEM studies showed that the microspheres were spherical and porous in nature. The in vitro release profiles from microspheres of different polymer-drug ratios were best fitted to Higuchi model with high correlation coefficient and the n value obtained from Korsmeyer-Peppas model was ranged between 0.23 - 0.54. The drug release was found to be diffusion controlled mechanism. PMID:17514878
Punga, Anna Rostedt; Eriksson, Annika; Alimohammadi, Mohammad
2015-11-01
Despite the extensive use of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) in medical and cosmetic treatments, the potential spreading of BoNTA to surrounding tissues remains unknown. A patient with hemifacial paralysis upon blepharospasm treatment with low dose of BoNTA, prompted us to investigate the spreading effect. A randomised, double-blind study was conducted in which 5 healthy women (33-52 years) were treated with different doses of onabotulinum toxin unilaterally in the corrugator muscle. Parameters of efficacy and diffusion (CMAP; EMG and jitter analysis) in both glabellar and frontalis muscles were assessed at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks following BoNTA injection. CMAP of the treated glabellar muscles was reduced to approximately 40% in all dose groups. Additionally, contralateral CMAP reduction was observed in 3 of 5 subjects. These data confirm regional diffusion of BoNTA in facial muscle application, which raises question on the reliability of split-face models in BoNTA studies. PMID:25766591
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yesilgul, U.; Al, E. B.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E.
2016-08-01
In the present study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and relative change of the refractive index in asymmetric GaAs/GaAlAs double quantum wells under intense laser fields are theoretically investigated. The electric field is oriented along the growth direction of the heterostructure while the magnetic field is taken in-plane. The intense laser field is linear polarization along the growth direction. Our calculations are made using the effective-mass approximation and the compact density-matrix approach. Intense laser effects on the system are investigated with the use of the Floquet method with the consequent change in the confinement potential of heterostructures. Our results show that the increase of the electric and magnetic fields blue-shifts the peak positions of the total absorption coefficient and of the total refractive index while the increase of the intense laser field firstly blue-shifts the peak positions and later results in their red-shifting.
Ngoko Djiokap, J M; Manakov, N L; Meremianin, A V; Hu, S X; Madsen, L B; Starace, Anthony F
2014-11-28
Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum. We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse. PMID:25494069
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kepshire, Dax S.; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.
2007-04-01
Subsurface tomography with diffuse light has been investigated with a noncontact approach to characterize the performance of absorption and fluorescence imaging. Using both simulations and experiments, the reconstruction of local subsurface heterogeneity is demonstrated, but the recovery of target size and fluorophore concentration is not linear when changes in depth occur, whereas the mean position of the object for experimental fluorescent and absorber targets is accurate to within 0.5 and 1.45 mm when located within the first 10 mm below the surface. Improvements in the linearity of the response with depth appear to remain challenging and may ultimately limit the approach to detection rather than characterization applications. However, increases in tissue curvature and/or the addition of prior information are expected to improve the linearity of the response. The potential for this type of imaging technique to serve as a surgical guide is highlighted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Tanmoy; Biswas, Debabrata
2013-12-01
We explore and experimentally demonstrate the phenomena of amplitude death (AD) and the corresponding transitions through synchronized states that lead to AD in coupled intrinsic time-delayed hyperchaotic oscillators interacting through mean-field diffusion. We identify a novel synchronization transition scenario leading to AD, namely transitions among AD, generalized anticipatory synchronization (GAS), complete synchronization (CS), and generalized lag synchronization (GLS). This transition is mediated by variation of the difference of intrinsic time-delays associated with the individual systems and has no analogue in non-delayed systems or coupled oscillators with coupling time-delay. We further show that, for equal intrinsic time-delays, increasing coupling strength results in a transition from the unsynchronized state to AD state via in-phase (complete) synchronized states. Using Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory, we derive the stability conditions that predict the parametric region of occurrence of GAS, GLS, and CS; also, using a linear stability analysis, we derive the condition of occurrence of AD. We use the error function of proper synchronization manifold and a modified form of the similarity function to provide the quantitative support to GLS and GAS. We demonstrate all the scenarios in an electronic circuit experiment; the experimental time-series, phase-plane plots, and generalized autocorrelation function computed from the experimental time series data are used to confirm the occurrence of all the phenomena in the coupled oscillators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillipson, Rebecca; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.
2016-04-01
The bright low-mass X-ray binary 4U1705-44 exhibits long-term semi-periodic variability with a timescale of several hundred days. The All-Sky Monitor (ASM) aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Japanese X-ray All-Sky Monitor (MAXI) aboard the International Space Station together have continuously observed the source from December 1995 through the present. The combined ASM-MAXI data provides a continuous time series over fifty times the length of the timescale of interest. The phase space embedding of the flux versus its first derivative shows a strong resemblance to a double-welled nonlinear oscillator. When comparing our time series against well-known nonlinear oscillators, we find that 4U1705-44 exhibits behavior akin to the Duffing oscillator. Topological analysis can help us identify ‘fingerprints’ in the phase space of a system unique to its equations of motion. If such ‘fingerprints’ are the same between two systems, then their equations of motion must be closely related. We therefore found a range of parameters for which the Duffing oscillator closely follows the time evolution of 4U1705-44 and from this range chose 6 different numerical Duffing time series. We can extract low-period, unstable periodic orbits from both the 4U1705-44 and numerical Duffing time series and compare their topological information in phase space, such as their relative rotation rates. We argue that the associated period-1 orbit in 4U1705-44 has a period between 130 and 170 days. The driving periods of our 6 numerical time series correspond to 140 to 175 days. Assigning a logical sequence name to each orbit, the relative rotation rates can be compiled into a unique ‘intertwining’ matrix. The numerical Duffing time series and the 4U1705-44 intertwining matrices are identical, which provides strong evidence that they share the same underlying template. The implications of this equivalence suggests that we can look to the Duffing equation to describe the X
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geirsdottir, A.; Thordarson, T.; Miller, G. H.; Larsen, D. J.; Ólafsdóttir, S.
2011-12-01
Because of the strong influence of oceanic heat transport on terrestrial climates throughout the northern North Atlantic, Iceland's climate should reflect key attributes of North Atlantic circulation changes throughout the Holocene. High-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions from well dated Icelandic lake sediment cores, synchronized using tephra layers and paleomagnetic secular variations, reveal concordant abrupt changes, each accompanied by dramatic increases in sediment accumulation rates indicating accelerated erosional processes. Orbitally forced summer insolation decreases are reflected in a first-order cooling trend, but this trend is dominated by abrupt changes in state in the catchments, including stepped increases in periglacial activity, decreases in vegetation cover, and glacier growth. Many of these stepwise changes are associated with dated Icelandic explosive tephra-producing eruptions such as the 10180 BP Saksunarvatn, ~7000 BP H5, ~4300 BP H4, ~3800 BP H-S and ~2980 BP H3, but also repeated diffusive basaltic eruptions accompanied by high sulfur loading in the atmosphere. The strongest disturbances occur during the last 2 ka, beginning about 550 AD with shorter periods of relative summer warmth such as between 950 and 1250 AD. However, this warmth was punctuated by multi-decadal cold intervals, the most apparent around 1150 AD. The transition into the Little Ice Age is recorded by initial summer cooling 1250-1300 AD, more severe drops in summer temperatures 1450 to 1550 AD, followed by cold spikes in the early 1600s, mid 1700s and mid 1800s AD, when peak summer cold was achieved. The lake systems record LIA cold perturbations that coincide with periods of known, severe explosive and effusive volcanism, with subsequent re-equilibration in a new state. We conclude from our paleoclimate studies that both explosive and effusive eruptions, if sustained long enough, may have acted as regional cooling triggers.
Wood, T. S.; Garaud, P.; Stellmach, S.
2013-05-10
Regions of stellar and planetary interiors that are unstable according to the Schwarzschild criterion, but stable according to the Ledoux criterion, are subject to a form of oscillatory double-diffusive (ODD) convection often called ''semi-convection''. In this series of papers, we use an extensive suite of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations to quantify the transport of heat and composition by ODD convection, and ultimately propose a new 1D prescription that can be used in stellar and planetary structure and evolution models. The first paper in this series demonstrated that under certain conditions ODD convection spontaneously transitions from an initial homogeneous state of weak wave-breaking turbulence into a staircase of fully convective layers, which results in a substantial increase in the transport of heat and composition. Here, we present simulations of ODD convection in this layered regime, we describe the dynamical behavior of the layers, and we derive empirical scaling laws for the transport through layered convection.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bune, Andris; Gillies, Donald; Lehoczky, Sandor
1999-01-01
General 2-D and 3-D finite element model of non-dilute alloy solidification was used to simulate growth of HgCdTe in terrestrial and microgravity conditions. Parametric research was undertaken to investigate effects of gravity level, gravity vector orientation and growth velocity on the pattern of melt convection, shape of crystal/melt interface and radial thermal gradient. Verification of the model was undertaken by comparison with previously published results. For low growth velocities plane front solidification occurs. The location and the shape of the interface was determined using melting temperatures obtained from the HgCdTe liquidus curve. The low thermal conductivity of the solid HgCdTe causes thermal short circuit through the ampoule walls, resulting in curved isotherms in the vicinity of the interface. Double-diffusive convection in the melt is caused by radial temperature gradients and by material density inversion with temperature. Cooling from below and the rejection at the solid-melt interface of the heavier HgTe-rich solute each tend to reduce convection. Because of these complicating factors dimensional rather then non-dimensional modeling was performed. For gravity levels higher then 10(exp -7) of terrestrial one it was found that the maximum convection velocity is extremely sensitive to gravity vector orientation and can be reduced at least by 50% by choosing proper orientation of the ampoule. The predicted interface shape is in agreement with one obtained experimentally by quenching.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.
1999-01-01
A general 2-D and 3-D finite element model of non-dilute alloy solidification was used to simulate growth of HgCdTe in terrestrial and microgravity conditions. Verification of the 3-D model was undertaken by comparison with previously published results on convection in an inclined cylinder. For low growth velocities, plane front solidification occurs. The location and the shape of the interface were determined using melting temperatures obtained from the HgCdTe liquidus curve. The low thermal conductivity of the solid HgCdTe causes a thermal short circuit through the ampoule walls, resulting in curved isotherms in the vicinity of the interface. Double-diffusive convection in the melt is caused by radial temperature gradients and by material density inversion due to the combined effects of composition and temperature. Cooling from below and the rejection at the solid-melt interface of the heavier HgTe-rich solute each tend to reduce convection. Because of these complicating factors, dimensional rather than non-dimensional modeling was performed. the predicted interface shape is in agreement with one obtained experimentally by quenching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, L.; Liu, H.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Houseworth, J. E.; Sonnenthal, E. L.
2011-12-01
One advantage of emplacing nuclear waste in a clay formation is the potential self-sealing capability due to clay swelling. The swelling properties of the near-field host clay rock can be altered due to geochemical factors, including changes in groundwater geochemistry, proportions of exchangeable cations, and swelling clay mineral abundances. The clay host rock can also undergo geochemical changes due to the interaction with the engineered barrier system (EBS) materials. In this paper, coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) models are linked with a swelling model based on diffuse double layer (DDL) theory and changes in the swelling properties of clay host rocks in the near field area are evaluated. Findings based on THC simulations using the reaction-transport code TOUGHREACT include: 1) Significant changes in the swelling pressure could be expected depending on various hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions. The change of hydration rate of the EBS (via the adjustment of tortuosity) could have significant effect on the swelling pressure. 2) Geochemically-induced swelling/shrinkage only occurs in the near-field area, within a few meters from the EBS interface. 3) Swelling/shrinkage induced porosity change is generally much smaller than that caused by mineral precipitation/dissolution. 4) The geochemically-induced swelling/shrinkage of host clay rock is the combined effect of variation in the pore water geochemistry, exchangeable cations, and smectite abundance. Neglecting any of these three latter factors might lead to a miscalculation of the geochemically-induced swelling pressure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.
1998-01-01
Numerical simulation of the HgCdTe growth by the vertical Bridgman method was performed using FIDAP finite element code. Double-diffusive melt convection is analyzed, as the primary factor at controls inhomogeneity of the solidified material. Temperature and concentration fields in the model are also coupled via material properties, such as thermal and solutal expansion coefficients with the dependence on both temperature and concentration, and melting temperature evaluation from pseudobinary CdTe-HgTe phase diagram. Experimental measurements were used to obtain temperature boundary conditions. Parametric study of the melt convection dependence on the gravity conditions was undertaken. It was found, that the maximum convection velocity in the melt can be reduced under certain conditions. Optimal conditions to obtain a near flat solidified interface are discussed. The predicted interface shape is in agreement with one obtained experimentally by quenching. The results of 3-D calculations are compared with previous 2- D findings. A video film featuring 3-D melt convection will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jyh-Ling; Lin, Cang-Ting
2013-08-01
A new polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) lateral double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor power device combining super-lateral-growth technology and shielding-trench oxide structures (STO-LDMOSFET) is introduced. The trench oxide offers a platform for amorphous silicon lateral growth through excimer laser annealing; this not only enables stable control of the crystallization of poly-Si but also promotes the blocking ability of devices. The breakdown voltages of the manufactured devices with and without trench oxide are 460 and 387 V, respectively, increasing by approximately 73 V. The characteristics of poly-Si treated with an excimer laser were obtained by low-temperature poly-Si LDMOSFET (LTPS-LDMOSFET) measurement and simulation. Then, STO-LDMOSFETs were studied by simulation. The results showed that the STO-LDMOSFET with a 150 cm2 V-1 s-1 mobility had a breakdown voltage and a specific on-resistance of approximately 450 V and 16 Ω cm2, respectively, at a 40 µm drift region length.
Chowdhury, Raju; Parvin, Salma; Khan, Md Abdul Hakim
2016-08-01
The problem of double-diffusive natural convection of Al2O3 -water nanofluid in a porous triangular enclosure in presence of heat generation has been studied numerically in this paper. The bottom wall of the cavity is heated isothermally, the left inclined wall is non-isothermal and the right inclined wall is considered to be cold. The concentration is higher at bottom wall, lower at right inclined wall and non-isoconcentration at left inclined wall of the cavity. The governing equations are transformed to the dimensionless form and solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual technique of finite element method. The results are obtained in terms of streamlines, isotherms, isoconcentrations, average Nueeslt number (Nu) and average Sherwood number (Sh) for the parameters thermal Rayleigh number (RaT ), dimensionless heat generation parameter (λ), solid volume fraction (ϕ) and Lewis number (Le) while Prandtl number (Pr), Buoyancy ratio (N) and Darcy number (Da) are considered to be fixed. It is observed that flow pattern, temperature fields and concentration fields are affected by the variation of above considered parameters. PMID:27579447
Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita
2014-01-01
Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines. PMID:25763152
Perkins, F.W.; Sun, Y.C.
1980-11-01
The steady-state solution of the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equations is reduced to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the case of double-layer (potential drop) boundary conditions. Solutions with no relative electron-ion drifts are found. The kinetic stability is discussed. Suggestions for creating these states in experiments and computer simulations are offered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Na, Kyoung-Il; Kah, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sang-Gi; Koo, Jin-Gun; Kim, Jongdae; Yang, Yil-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho
2012-05-01
The vertical power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with deep trench structures are the most promising candidates to overcome the trade-off relationship between the ON-resistance (R ON ) and the blocking voltage (BV DS ). Especially, 100 V/100 A rated trench power MOSFETs are used in components of many power systems, such as motors and LED lighting drive ICs, DC-DC converters in electric vehicles, and so on. In this work, we studied variations of the electrical characteristics, such as threshold voltage (V TH ), BV DS , and drain current drivability, with p-well doping concentration via the SILVACO simulator. From simulation results, we found the BV DS and the drain current (I D ) as functions of the p-well doping concentration at an ion implantation energy of 80 keV. With increasing of p-well doping concentration in the guard ring region, both V TH and BV DS slowly increased, but I D decreased, because the boron lateral diffusion during the fabrication process below gate trench region affected the doping concentration of the p-body at the active region. Additionally, 100 V/100 A rated trench double-diffused MOSFETs (TDMOSFETs) with meshes and stripes were successfully developed by using a silicon deep etching process. The variations in the electrical properties, such as V TH , BV DS , and drain current drivability, of the two different kinds of fabricated devices, with cell design and density in TDMOSFETs were also studied. The BV DS and the V TH in the stripe-type TDMOSFET were 110 and 3 V, respectively. However, the V TH of mesh-type device was smaller 0.5 V than that of stripe-type because of corner effect. The BV DS improved about 20 V compared to stripe-type TDMOSFET due to edge termination, and the maximum drain current (I D.MAX ) was improved by about 10% due to an increase in the gate width at the same chip size. These effects were reflected in devices with different cell densities. When the cell density was increased, however
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, J. S.; Veronis, G.
2004-03-01
This study has been motivated by two oceanographic observations: an increased rate of melting of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, and the advance of an anomalously warm tongue of Atlantic water across the Arctic below the halocline over the last few decades. A series of laboratory experiments has been carried out in order to explore the physical principles underlying these phenomena, and the possibility that the extra heating at depth is responsible for the enhanced melting rate. A tank was filled with salt solution having various constant vertical density gradients. A block of ice one third of the length of the tank was floated on the surface at one end, and the rest of the surface and the walls of the tank were insulated. When no extra heat was supplied the melting rate (loss of weight of the ice in 1 h) systematically decreased as the stratification was changed from homogeneous fluid to increasingly large density gradients, while keeping the salinity of the solution in contact with the ice constant. An analogue of the intruding Atlantic water was produced by heating the lower portion of the vertical end wall at the end of the tank opposite to the ice end, keeping its temperature constant, and using the same range of salinity gradients as in the unheated experiments. Again the melting rate decreased as the density gradient was increased, but for low gradients it was larger than that in the unheated experiments. Above a certain intermediate gradient there was no significant difference in melting rate between the unheated and heated runs. The melting data were supplemented by photographs and vertical temperature and salinity profiles. The upward transfer of heat from the body of the fluid to melt the ice was clearly double-diffusive: overturning layers, separated by 'diffusive' interfaces, were visible on shadowgraphs, and the thickness of the layers decreased as the density gradient increased. The mean thickness of the layers through the depth of the tank also
Aydogan, Ebru; Comoglu, Tansel; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge; Dogan, Murat; Comoglu, Selcuk; Dogan, Aysegul; Basci, Nursabah
2015-01-01
Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. In conventional therapy recommended dose for pregabalin is 75 mg twice daily or 50 mg three times a day, with maximum dosage of 600 mg/d. To achieve maximum therapeutic effect with a low risk of adverse effects and to reduce often drug dosing, modified release preparations; such as microspheres might be helpful. However, most of the microencapsulation techniques have been used for lipophilic drugs, since hydrophilic drugs like pregabalin, showed low-loading efficiency and rapid dissolution of compounds into the aqueous continous phase. The purpose of this study was to improve loading efficiency of a water-soluble drug and modulate release profiles, and to test the efficiency of the prepared microspheres with the help of animal modeling studies. Pregabalin is a water soluble drug, and it was encapsulated within anionic acrylic resin (Eudragit S 100) microspheres by water in oil in oil (w/o/o) double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Dichloromethane and corn oil were chosen primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. The presence of internal water phase was necessary to form stable emulsion droplets and it accelerated the hardening of microspheres. Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as surfactants to stabilize the water and corn oil phases, respectively. The optimum concentration of Tween 80 was 0.25% (v/v) and Span 80 was 0.02% (v/v). The volume of the continous phase was affected the size of the microspheres. As the volume of the continous phase increased, the size of microspheres decreased. All microsphere formulations were evaluated with the help of in vitro characterization parameters. Microsphere formulations (P1-P5) exhibited entrapment efficiency ranged between 57.00 ± 0.72 and 69.70 ± 0.49%; yield ranged between 80.95 ± 1.21 and 93.05 ± 1.42%; and mean particle size were
Kurita, Daisuke; Miura, Katsuhiro; Nakagawa, Masaru; Ohtake, Shimon; Sakagami, Masashi; Uchino, Yoshihito; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Kiso, Satomi; Hojo, Atsuko; Kodaira, Hitomi; Yagi, Mai; Hirabayashi, Yukio; Kobayashi, Yujin; Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Kura, Yoshimasa; Sugitani, Masahiko; Takei, Masami
2015-06-01
Even after the advent of rituximab, clinical outcomes of conventional immuno-chemotherapy for high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remain unsatisfactory. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of R-Double-CHOP (R-D-CHOP), consisting of rituximab (375 mg/m(2), day -2), cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m(2), day 1, 2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2), day 1, 2), vincristine [1.4 mg/m(2) (maximum 2.0 mg/body), day 1], and prednisolone (50 mg/m(2), day 1-5), followed by consolidation high-dose chemotherapy. This treatment was given to 51 de novo DLBCL patients with a median age of 54 (range 19-65), who were categorized as high/high-intermediate risk by the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index. Treatment was given every 3 weeks up to three courses. The overall response and the complete response rate for R-D-CHOP were 94 and 78 %, respectively. A total of 30 responders proceeded to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT), whereas 16 received high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) alternatively. The 3-year overall survival and the event-free survival for all patients were 78 and 61 %, respectively. Major adverse events included hematological toxicities, but there were no treatment-related deaths during the observation period. We conclude that the R-D-CHOP regimen followed by HDC/ASCT or HD-MTX is a promising treatment option for younger patients with highly advanced DLBCL. PMID:25776837
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da, Ma; Xiao-Rong, Luo; Jie, Wei; Qiao, Tan; Kun, Zhou; Jun-Feng, Wu
2016-04-01
A new ultra-low specific on-resistance (R on,sp) vertical double diffusion metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (VDMOS) with continuous electron accumulation (CEA) layer, denoted as CEA-VDMOS, is proposed and its new current transport mechanism is investigated. It features a trench gate directly extended to the drain, which includes two PN junctions. In on-state, the electron accumulation layers are formed along the sides of the extended gate and introduce two continuous low-resistance current paths from the source to the drain in a cell pitch. This mechanism not only dramatically reduces the R on,sp but also makes the R on,sp almost independent of the n-pillar doping concentration (N n). In off-state, the depletion between the n-pillar and p-pillar within the extended trench gate increases the N n, and further reduces the R on,sp. Especially, the two PN junctions within the trench gate support a high gate–drain voltage in the off-state and on-state, respectively. However, the extended gate increases the gate capacitance and thus weakens the dynamic performance to some extent. Therefore, the CEA-VDMOS is more suitable for low and medium frequencies application. Simulation indicates that the CEA-VDMOS reduces the R on,sp by 80% compared with the conventional super-junction VDMOS (CSJ-VDMOS) at the same high breakdown voltage (BV). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176069 and 61376079) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. ZYGX2014Z006).
Zhang, Q.; Chung, I.; Jang, J. I.; Ketterson, J. B.; Kanatzidis, M. G.
2009-07-06
The new cation [Sb{sub 7}S{sub 8}Br{sub 2}]{sup 3+} has a double-cubane structure and forms as the [AlCl{sub 4}]{sup -} salt from the ionic liquid EMIMBr-AlCl{sub 3} (EMIM = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium) at 165 C. The compound is noncentrosymmetric with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and exhibits second-harmonic and difference-frequency nonlinear optical response across a wide range of the visible and near-infrared regions.
Habib, S.
1994-10-01
We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ``quantum diffusion`` terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source.
Nonlinear Ehrenfest's urn model.
Casas, G A; Nobre, F D; Curado, E M F
2015-04-01
Ehrenfest's urn model is modified by introducing nonlinear terms in the associated transition probabilities. It is shown that these modifications lead, in the continuous limit, to a Fokker-Planck equation characterized by two competing diffusion terms, namely, the usual linear one and a nonlinear diffusion term typical of anomalous diffusion. By considering a generalized H theorem, the associated entropy is calculated, resulting in a sum of Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis entropic forms. It is shown that the stationary state of the associated Fokker-Planck equation satisfies precisely the same equation obtained by extremization of the entropy. Moreover, the effects of the nonlinear contributions on the entropy production phenomenon are also analyzed. PMID:25974470
Weak double layers in the auroral ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, M. K.; Crystal, T. L.; Lotko, W.; Barnes, C.
1987-01-01
Previous work on the evolution of weak double layers in a hydrogen plasma was extended to include H(+) and O(+) with relative drift. The relative drift between hydrogen and oxygen ions due to a quasi-static parallel electric field gives rise to a strong linear fluid instability which dominates the ion-acoustic mode at the bottom of the auroral acceleration region. This ion-ion instability can modify ion distributions at lower altitudes and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of weak double layers at higher altitudes in the ion-acoustic regime. Ion hole formation can occur for smaller relative electron-ion drifts than seen in previous simulations, due to the hydrogen-oxygen two-stream instability. This results in local modification of the ion distributions in phase space, and a partial filling of the valley between the hydrogen and oxygen peaks, which would be expected at higher altitudes on auroral field lines. The observed velocity diffusion does not necessarily preclude ion hole and double layer formation in hydrogen in the ion-acoustic regime. These simulation results are consistent with the experimentally measured persistence of separate hydrogen and oxygen peaks, and the observation of weak double layers above an altitude of 3000 km on auroral field lines.
Diffuse-charge dynamics in electrochemical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazant, Martin Z.; Thornton, Katsuyo; Ajdari, Armand
2004-08-01
The response of a model microelectrochemical system to a time-dependent applied voltage is analyzed. The article begins with a fresh historical review including electrochemistry, colloidal science, and microfluidics. The model problem consists of a symmetric binary electrolyte between parallel-plate blocking electrodes, which suddenly apply a voltage. Compact Stern layers on the electrodes are also taken into account. The Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations are first linearized and solved by Laplace transforms for small voltages, and numerical solutions are obtained for large voltages. The “weakly nonlinear” limit of thin double layers is then analyzed by matched asymptotic expansions in the small parameter ɛ=λD/L , where λD is the screening length and L the electrode separation. At leading order, the system initially behaves like an RC circuit with a response time of λDL/D (not λD2/D ), where D is the ionic diffusivity, but nonlinearity violates this common picture and introduces multiple time scales. The charging process slows down, and neutral-salt adsorption by the diffuse part of the double layer couples to bulk diffusion at the time scale, L2/D . In the “strongly nonlinear” regime (controlled by a dimensionless parameter resembling the Dukhin number), this effect produces bulk concentration gradients, and, at very large voltages, transient space charge. The article concludes with an overview of more general situations involving surface conduction, multicomponent electrolytes, and Faradaic processes.
Park, Gi Dae; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan
2015-08-01
Multicomponent metal oxide hollow-nanosphere decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders are prepared by spray pyrolysis with nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The double-layer NiFe2O4@NiO-hollow-nanosphere decorated rGO composite powders are prepared using the first target material. The NiFe-alloy-nanopowder decorated rGO powders are prepared as an intermediate product by post-treatment under the reducing atmosphere of the NiFe2O4/NiO-decorated rGO composite powders obtained by spray pyrolysis. The different diffusion rates of Ni (83 pm for Ni(2+)) and Fe (76 pm for Fe(2+), 65 pm for Fe(3+)) cations with different radii during nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion result in multiphase and double-layer NiFe2O4@NiO hollow nanospheres. The mean size of the hollow NiFe2O4@NiO nanospheres decorated uniformly within crumpled rGO is 14 nm. The first discharge capacities of the nanosphere-decorated rGO composite powders with filled NiFe2O4/NiO and hollow NiFe2O4@NiO at a current density of 1 A g(-1) are 1168 and 1319 mA h g(-1), respectively. Their discharge capacities for the 100th cycle are 597 and 951 mA h g(-1), respectively. The discharge capacity of the NiFe2O4@NiO-hollow-nanosphere-decorated rGO composite powders at the high current density of 4 A g(-1) for the 400th cycle is 789 mA h g(-1). PMID:26186601
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillipson-Nichols, Rebecca A.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.
2015-01-01
4U 1705-44 is a bright low mass x-ray binary (LMXB) containing a neutron star and a close, low mass companion. The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor obtained approximately 14 years of daily monitoring on 4U 1705-44 in the 2-20 keV energy range. Understanding the x-ray variability of 4U1705-44 is critical to the study of all low mass x-ray binaries because they share many of the same global characteristics in their high-amplitude transitions and non-periodic variability. After comparing the longterm light curve and phase space trajectories of 4U1705-44 to various nonlinear oscillators, the Duffing Oscillator was revealed to be a strong candidate to describe these systems. The parameters of the Duffing equation were optimized and six solutions sharing the same characteristics as 4U1705-44 were found. Striking commonalities were revealed via a phase-space analysis of both 4U1705-44 and the six Duffing solutions: the low-order driving period is no less than 87 days and spans up to 180 days, which is seenand highlighted in the power spectra, zero-crossings and close returns analysis of4U1705-44. Furthermore, the driving frequency of all six Duffing solutions tend toconverge to a range of 3.6 - 4.5, corresponding to driving periods in the range from 130 to 175 days, in agreement with that found in 4U1705-44. Nonlinear analysis methods such as close returns and zero-crossings of the Duffing solutions also show the same trends. This strongly suggests that 4U1705-44 shares the same topological characteristics as the Duffing equation. With further analysis, we hope to develop a model to explain why 4U1705-44 shares the unique topology of the Duffing Oscillator specifically, rather than those of other families of nonlinear differential equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al, E. B.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.
2015-09-01
The combined effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes related to the intersubband transitions within the conduction band of asymmetric GaAs /Ga1-xAlxAs double inverse parabolic quantum wells are studied using the effective-mass approximation and the compact density-matrix approach. The results are presented as a function of the incident photon energy for the different values of the electromagnetic fields and the structure parameters such as quantum well width and the Al concentration at the well center. It is found that the optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes are strongly affected not only by the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields but also by the structure parameters of the system.
Probability tree algorithm for general diffusion processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingber, Lester; Chen, Colleen; Mondescu, Radu Paul; Muzzall, David; Renedo, Marco
2001-11-01
Motivated by path-integral numerical solutions of diffusion processes, PATHINT, we present a tree algorithm, PATHTREE, which permits extremely fast accurate computation of probability distributions of a large class of general nonlinear diffusion processes.
Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes.
Biesheuvel, P M; Bazant, M Z
2010-03-01
The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization, and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions) valid in the limit of thin double layers (compared to typical pore dimensions). We illustrate the theory for the case of a dilute, symmetric, binary electrolyte using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model of the double layer, for which simple formulae are available for salt adsorption and capacitive charging of the diffuse part of the double layer. We solve the full GCS mean-field theory numerically for realistic parameters in capacitive deionization, and we derive reduced models for two limiting regimes with different time scales: (i) in the "supercapacitor regime" of small voltages and/or early times, the porous electrode acts like a transmission line, governed by a linear diffusion equation for the electrostatic potential, scaled to the RC time of a single pore, and (ii) in the "desalination regime" of large voltages and long times, the porous electrode slowly absorbs counterions, governed by coupled, nonlinear diffusion equations for the pore-averaged potential and salt concentration. PMID:20365735
Nonlinear phased array imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croxford, Anthony J.; Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.
2016-04-01
A technique is presented for imaging acoustic nonlinearity within a specimen using ultrasonic phased arrays. Acoustic nonlinearity is measured by evaluating the difference in energy of the transmission bandwidth within the diffuse field produced through different focusing modes. The two different modes being classical beam forming, where delays are applied to different element of a phased array to physically focus the energy at a single location (parallel firing) and focusing in post processing, whereby one element at a time is fired and a focused image produced in post processing (sequential firing). Although these two approaches are linearly equivalent the difference in physical displacement within the specimen leads to differences in nonlinear effects. These differences are localized to the areas where the amplitude is different, essentially confining the differences to the focal point. Direct measurement at the focal point are however difficult to make. In order to measure this the diffuse field is used. It is a statistical property of the diffuse field that it represents the total energy in the system. If the energy in the diffuse field for both the sequential and parallel firing case is measured then the difference between these, within the input signal bandwidth, is largely due to differences at the focal spot. This difference therefore gives a localized measurement of where energy is moving out of the transmission bandwidth due to nonlinear effects. This technique is used to image fatigue cracks and other damage types undetectable with conventional linear ultrasonic measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrilyuk, A. I.
2013-05-01
It has been shown that the hydrogen photochromism, i.e., photochromism arising in WO3 films due to hydrogen atoms detached from hydrogen donor molecules under the action of light, is massively impacted by proton diffusion. The control of the diffusion can be established by the combined use of two types of hydrogen-containing molecules; one (organic) playing the role of the hydrogen donor, whereas the other (water) provides pathways for the proton diffusion. The film morphology highly influences formation of the proton conducting water wires in pores of the WO3 films. The spirit is that the hydrogen photospillover is used here: the hydrogen atoms detached from the hydrogen donor molecules adsorbed on the surface of the highly disordered WO3 films flow to the polycrystalline WO3 films along the special water pathways that are formed in the highly disordered films. The hydrogen spillover triggered by light makes it possible to create the photochromic systems with enhanced photochromic sensitivity and special optical characteristics of the photochromic state.
Nonlinear optical Galton board
Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Perez, A.; Roldan, Eugenio
2007-06-15
We generalize the concept of optical Galton board (OGB), first proposed by Bouwmeester et al. [Phys. Rev. A 61, 013410 (2000)], by introducing the possibility of nonlinear self-phase modulation on the wave function during the walker evolution. If the original Galton board illustrates classical diffusion, the OGB, which can be understood as a grid of Landau-Zener crossings, illustrates the influence of interference on diffusion, and is closely connected with the quantum walk. Our nonlinear generalization of the OGB shows new phenomena, the most striking of which is the formation of nondispersive pulses in the field distribution (solitonlike structures). These exhibit a variety of dynamical behaviors, including ballistic motion, dynamical localization, nonelastic collisions, and chaotic behavior, in the sense that the dynamics is very sensitive to the nonlinearity strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebbi, Akbar; Abbaszadeh, Mostafa; Dehghan, Mehdi
2013-05-01
The aim of this paper is to study the high order difference scheme for the solution of modified anomalous fractional sub-diffusion equation. The time fractional derivative is described in the Riemann-Liouville sense. In the proposed scheme we discretize the space derivative with a fourth-order compact scheme and use the Grünwald-Letnikov discretization of the Riemann-Liouville derivative to obtain a fully discrete implicit scheme. We analyze the solvability, stability and convergence of the proposed scheme using the Fourier method. The convergence order of method is O(τ+h4). Numerical examples demonstrate the theoretical results and high accuracy of the proposed scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Losse, F.
2005-09-01
This paper presents 262 measurements of visual binaries. They essentially come from a three years evaluation period of cheap CCD sensors coupled with either off the shelves or modified webcam electronics. The evaluation cycle and results are largely described in Bulletin n°40 de la Commission des Etoiles Doubles (Sept. 2002 - Société Astronomique de France). These devices can produce measurements as consistent as those obtained with a filar micrometer on the same 8" telescope. The most recent measurements (epoch 2004+) were obtained with an "Audine" camera shipped with a KAF400. Besides the stars visited for evaluation purpose, we present some systems of interest : 17 orbital binaries, 35 neglected systems, 15 confirmations and 2 discoveries of a third component in already known systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu-Ru, Wang; Yi-He, Liu; Zhao-Jiang, Lin; Dong, Fang; Cheng-Zhou, Li; Ming, Qiao; Bo, Zhang
2016-02-01
An analytical model for a novel triple reduced surface field (RESURF) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) field effect transistor with n-type top (N-top) layer, which can obtain a low on-state resistance, is proposed in this paper. The analytical model for surface potential and electric field distributions of the novel triple RESURF SOI LDMOS is presented by solving the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson’s equation, which can also be applied to single, double and conventional triple RESURF SOI structures. The breakdown voltage (BV) is formulized to quantify the breakdown characteristic. Besides, the optimal integrated charge of N-top layer (Qntop) is derived, which can give guidance for doping the N-top layer. All the analytical results are well verified by numerical simulation results, showing the validity of the presented model. Hence, the proposed model can be a good tool for the device designers to provide accurate first-order design schemes and physical insights into the high voltage triple RESURF SOI device with N-top layer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376080), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014A030313736), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. ZYGX2013J030).
Gureghian, A.B.
1990-08-01
Analytical solutions based on the Laplace transforms are presented for the one-dimensional, transient, advective-dispersive transport of a reacting radionuclide through a discrete planar fracture with constant aperture subject to diffusion in the surrounding rock matrix where both regions of solute migration display residual concentrations. The dispersion-free solutions, which are of closed form, are also reported. The solution assumes that the ground-water flow regime is under steady-state and isothermal conditions and that the rock matrix is homogeneous, isotropic, and saturated with stagnant water. The verification of the solution was performed by means of related analytical solutions dealing with particular aspects of the transport problem under investigation on the one hand, and a numerical solution capable of handling the complete problem on the other. The integrals encountered in the general solution are evaluated by means of a composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature scheme. 9 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.
Nilsen, Gøran. J.; Thompson, Corey M.; Ehlers, Georg; Marjerrison, Casey A.; Greedan, John E.
2015-02-23
Here we investigated diffuse magnetic scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba_{2}YRuO_{6} using polarized neutrons. Consistent with previous reports, the material shows two apparent transitions at 47 and 36 K to an eventual type I face-centered-cubic magnetic ground state. The (100) magnetic reflection shows different behavior from the five other observed reflections upon heating from 1.8 K, with the former broadening well beyond the resolution limit near 36 K. Closer examination of the latter group reveals a small, but clear, increase in peak widths between 36 and 47 K, indicating that this regime is dominated by short-range spin correlations. Diffuse magnetic scattering persists above 47 K near the position of (100) to at least 200 K, consistent with strong frustration. Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the diffuse scattering from 45 to 200 K finds that the spin-spin correlations between nearest and next-nearest neighbors are antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively, at temperatures near the upper ordering temperature, but both become antiferromagnetic and of similar magnitude above 100 K. The significance of this unusual crossover is discussed in light of the super-superexchange interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors in this material and the demands of type I order. The dimensionality of the correlations is addressed by reconstructing the scattering in the (hk0) plane using the RMC spin configurations. This indicates that one-dimensional spin correlations dominate at temperatures close to the first transition. In addition, a comparison between mean-field calculations and (hk0) scattering implies that further neighbor couplings play a significant role in the selection of the ground state. Finally, the results and interpretation are compared with those recently published for monoclinic Sr_{2}YRuO_{6}, and similarities and differences are emphasized.
``Once Nonlinear, Always Nonlinear''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackstock, David T.
2006-05-01
The phrase "Once nonlinear, always nonlinear" is attributed to David F. Pernet. In the 1970s he noticed that nonlinearly generated higher harmonic components (both tones and noise) don't decay as small signals, no matter how far the wave propagates. Despite being out of step with the then widespread notion that small-signal behavior is restored in "old age," Pernet's view is supported by the Burgers-equation solutions of the early 1960s. For a plane wave from a sinusoidally vibrating source in a thermoviscous fluid, the old-age decay of the nth harmonic is e-nαx, not e-n2αx (small-signal expectation), where α is the absorption coefficient at the fundamental frequency f and x is propagation distance. Moreover, for spherical waves (r the distance) the harmonic diminishes as e-nαx/rn, not e-n2αx/r. While not new, these results have special application to aircraft noise propagation, since the large propagation distances of interest imply old age. The virtual source model may be used to explain the "anomalous" decay rates. In old age most of the nth harmonic sound comes from virtual sources close to the receiver. Their strength is proportional to the nth power of the local fundamental amplitude, and that sets the decay law for the nth harmonic.
Dakhlaoui, Hassen
2015-04-07
In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values for carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zotov, N.; Feydt, J.; Walther, T.; Ludwig, A.
2006-10-01
Double-period [(Pt 1.7 nm/Fe 0.9 nm) 5Fe( tFe2)] 8 and [(Pt 1.8 nm/Fe 0.6 nm) 5Fe( tFe2)] 8 multilayers with different thickness tFe2 (between 0.23 and 4.32 nm) of the additional Fe layers, prepared by combinatorial sputter deposition, show differences in the mosaic spread and the vertical interfacial roughness when deposited on native or thermally oxidised Si wafers. Simulations of the wide-angle X-ray scattering intensities revealed the presence of interdiffusion in the (Pt/Fe) 5 bilayers and systematic variations of the grain sizes, perpendicular to the film surface, as well as the rms variations of the two superlattice periods with the total film thickness. A comparison of ω-rocking scans shows an increase of the correlated vertical roughness of the (Pt/Fe) 5 multilayers with the total multilayer thickness.
Nonlinear Landau damping in the ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiwamoto, Y.; Benson, R. F.
1978-01-01
A model is presented to explain the non-resonant waves which give rise to the diffuse resonance observed near 3/2 f sub H by the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, where f sub H is the ambient electron cyclotron frequency. In a strictly linear analysis, these instability driven waves will decay due to Landau damping on a time scale much shorter than the observed time duration of the diffuse resonance. Calculations of the nonlinear wave particle coupling coefficients, however, indicate that the diffuse resonance wave can be maintained by the nonlinear Landau damping of the sounder stimulated 2f sub H wave. The time duration of the diffuse resonance is determined by the transit time of the instability generated and nonlinearly maintained diffuse resonance wave from the remote short lived hot region back to the antenna. The model is consistent with the Alouette/ISIS observations, and clearly demonstrates the existence of nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the ionosphere.
Shafaei Arvajeh, M R; Lehto, N; Garmo, Ø A; Zhang, H
2013-01-01
In situ deployments of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) can provide direct information on complex dissociation rates in natural waters. Recent advances in understanding the dynamics of the interactions of metal complexes within DGT devices have highlighted the characteristics of the binding layer, but there are few data to complement these theoretical developments. In this work the penetration into the Chelex binding layer of complexes of Ni with nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and Suwannee River fulvic and humic acids (FA and HA) in solution at pH 7 was investigated by deployment of DGT devices with two sequential binding layers, a "front" and a "back" layer. In Ni-NTA experiments, the masses of Ni bound by the front and back binding layers were similar, as predicted for slowly dissociating complexes. For Ni-FA/HA solutions, a higher mass of Ni was taken up by the front binding layer, consistent with fast dissociation from a high proportion of the binding sites. The ratio of Ni in the front to back binding layers was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for solutions of Ni-HA compared to those of Ni-FA, indicating that Ni-HA complexes are less labile than Ni-FA complexes in similar solutions (FA = 10 mg L(-1) and HA = 8 mg L(-1)). A dynamic numerical model of the complexes in a DGT system was used to estimate the dissociation rate constants that provided the best agreement with the experimental data. Values obtained of 2 ± 0.5 × 10(-4) s(-1) for Ni-NTA and 2.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) for Ni-FA when FA = 20 mg L(-1) and 3.42 × 10(-4) s(-1) for Ni-HA when HA = 8 mg L(-1), could be rationalized with current knowledge of the dynamics of these systems. This approach can improve kinetic information obtainable using DGT and widen the range of considered complex labilities. PMID:23153338
Sköldenberg, Olof; Rysinska, Agata; Chammout, Ghazi; Salemyr, Mats; Muren, Olle; Bodén, Henrik; Eisler, Thomas
2016-01-01
Introduction In vitro, Vitamin-E-diffused, highly cross-linked polyethylene (PE) has been shown to have superior wear resistance and improved mechanical properties when compared to those of standard highly cross-linked PE liners used in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety of a new cemented acetabular cup with Vitamin-E-doped PE regarding migration, head penetration and clinical results. Methods and analysis In this single-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial, we will include 50 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis scheduled for THA and randomise them in a 1:1 ratio to a cemented cup with either argon gas-sterilised PE (control group) or Vitamin-E-diffused PE (vitamin-e group). All patients and the assessor of the primary outcome will be blinded and the same uncemented stem will be used for all participants. The primary end point will be proximal migration of the cup at 2 years after surgery measured with radiostereometry. Secondary end points include proximal migration at other follow-ups, total migration, femoral head penetration, clinical outcome scores and hip-related complications. Patients will be followed up at 3 months and at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years postoperatively. Results Results will be analysed using 95% CIs for the effect size. A regression model will also be used to adjust for stratification factors. Ethics and dissemination The ethical committee at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study. The first results from the study will be disseminated to the medical community via presentations and publications in relevant medical journals when the last patient included has been followed up for 2 years. Trial registration number NCT02254980. PMID:27388352
Double layers and double wells in arbitrary degenerate plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2016-06-01
Using the generalized hydrodynamic model, the possibility of variety of large amplitude nonlinear excitations is examined in electron-ion plasma with arbitrary electron degeneracy considering also the ion temperature effect. A new energy-density relation is proposed for plasmas with arbitrary electron degeneracy which reduces to the classical Boltzmann and quantum Thomas-Fermi counterparts in the extreme limits. The pseudopotential method is employed to find the criteria for existence of nonlinear structures such as solitons, periodic nonlinear structures, and double-layers for different cases of adiabatic and isothermal ion fluids for a whole range of normalized electron chemical potential, η0, ranging from dilute classical to completely degenerate electron fluids. It is observed that there is a Mach-speed gap in which no large amplitude localized or periodic nonlinear excitations can propagate in the plasma under consideration. It is further revealed that the plasma under investigation supports propagation of double-wells and double-layers the chemical potential and Mach number ranges of which are studied in terms of other plasma parameters. The Mach number criteria for nonlinear waves are shown to significantly differ for cases of classical with η0 < 0 and quantum with η0 > 0 regimes. It is also shown that the localized structure propagation criteria possess significant dissimilarities for plasmas with adiabatic and isothermal ions. Current research may be generalized to study the nonlinear structures in plasma containing positrons, multiple ions with different charge states, and charged dust grains.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.
1998-01-01
A numerical calculation for a non-dilute alloy solidification was performed using the FIDAP finite element code. For low growth velocities plane front solidification occurs. The location and the shape of the interface was determined using melting temperatures from the HgCdTe liquidus curve. The low thermal conductivity of the solid HgCdTe causes thermal short circuit through the ampoule walls, resulting in curved isotherms in the vicinity of the interface. Double-diffusive convection in the melt is caused by radial temperature gradients and by material density inversion with temperature. Cooling from below and the rejection at the solid-melt interface of the heavier HgTe-rich solute each tend to reduce convection. Because of these complicating factors dimensional rather then non-dimensional modeling was performed. Estimates of convection contributions for various gravity conditions was performed parametrically. For gravity levels higher then 1 0 -7 of earth's gravity it was found that the maximum convection velocity is extremely sensitive to gravity vector orientation and can be reduced at least by factor of 50% for precise orientation of the ampoule in the microgravity environment. The predicted interface shape is in agreement with one obtained experimentally by quenching. The results of 3-D modeling are compared with previous 2-D finding. A video film featuring melt convection will be presented.
Zhou, Xin; Qiao, Ming; He, Yitao; Li, Zhaoji; Zhang, Bo
2015-11-16
Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current (I{sub dlin}) and threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradations for the thin layer SOI field p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) are investigated. Two competition degradation mechanisms are revealed and the hot-carrier conductance modulation model is proposed. In the channel, hot-hole injection induced positive oxide trapped charge and interface trap gives rise to the V{sub th} increasing and the channel conductance (G{sub ch}) decreasing, then reduces I{sub dlin}. In the p-drift region, hot-electron injection induced negative oxide trapped charge enhances the conductance of drift doping resistance (G{sub d}), and then increases I{sub dlin}. Consequently, the eventual I{sub dlin} degradation is controlled by the competition of the two mechanisms due to conductance modulation in the both regions. Based on the model, it is explained that the measured I{sub dlin} anomalously increases while the V{sub th} is increasing with power law. The thin layer field pLDMOS exhibits more severe V{sub th} instability compared with thick SOI layer structure; as a result, it should be seriously evaluated in actual application in switching circuit.
Dissipative nonlinear dynamics in holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Pallab; Ghosh, Archisman
2014-02-01
We look at the response of a nonlinearly coupled scalar field in an asymptotically AdS black brane geometry and find a behavior very similar to that of known dissipative nonlinear systems like the chaotic pendulum. Transition to chaos proceeds through a series of period-doubling bifurcations. The presence of dissipation, crucial to this behavior, arises naturally in a black hole background from the ingoing conditions imposed at the horizon. AdS/CFT translates our solution to a chaotic response of O, the operator dual to the scalar field. Our setup can also be used to study quenchlike behavior in strongly coupled nonlinear systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Min Chan; Song, Kwang Ho
2016-08-01
The effect of cross diffusion on the onset of the gravitational instabilities in a Hele-Shaw cell saturated with a ternary solution is analyzed. Based on the linear stability theory, new stability equations are derived in the global domain and then transformed into the similar domain. These stability equations are solved by employing various methods such as an initial value problem approach and quasi-steady state approximations (QSSA's). Through the initial growth rate analysis without the QSSA, we prove that initially the system is unconditionally stable. However, the QSSA in the global domain showed that the system can be initially unstable for a certain condition. Based on the QSSA in the similar domain (QSSAζ), we obtain the critical time for the onset of instability motion. As expected, the higher |" separators=" δ 21 β | makes the system more unstable, i.e., accelerates the onset of instability motion; here δ21 and β represent the normalized cross diffusion coefficient and the ratio of densification coefficients, respectively. Based on the linear analysis, fully nonlinear analyses are also conducted by using the Fourier spectral method. The present nonlinear analyses show that the double-diffusive and diffusive-layer convection-type of instabilities are possible for the positive and negative δ21β-values, respectively. From the present nonlinear analysis, the system having δ22 > 1 prefers the instabilities with a larger wavelength than the system having δ22 < 1. Here δ22 is the normalized normal diffusion coefficient of component B.
Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.
2016-04-01
We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
Koseff, J.R.
1990-04-03
The major accomplishments of our initial research period (August 1, 1987, to March 1, 1990) are as follows; we completed construction of the experimental facility. Originally, it had been our intent to modify an existing facility in our laboratory. When this became impractical we constructed a new stand-alone facility. Modified an existing three-dimensional numerical code developed in our laboratory, SEAFLOS1, by incorporating a salinity transport equation. Developed experimental and analytical techniques, and performed both physical and numerical experiments for a wide range of initial and boundary conditions. Focused our overall research effort to answer the following four questions pertaining to the formation of convective intrusions due to lateral temperature gradients established by sidewall heating. (1) What is the internal structure of the convective intrusions as a function of the initial stratification and sidewall heating rates (2) What is the correct scaling for the initial vertical dimension of the intrusions (3) How does the merging process vary as a function of initial stratification and sidewall heating rate (4) Is the sidewall heating critical for continued propagation of the intrusions, or is it merely a trigger which releases the internal instability in the fluid
Approximate Solutions Of Equations Of Steady Diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, Larry D.
1992-01-01
Rigorous analysis yields reliable criteria for "best-fit" functions. Improved "curve-fitting" method yields approximate solutions to differential equations of steady-state diffusion. Method applies to problems in which rates of diffusion depend linearly or nonlinearly on concentrations of diffusants, approximate solutions analytic or numerical, and boundary conditions of Dirichlet type, of Neumann type, or mixture of both types. Applied to equations for diffusion of charge carriers in semiconductors in which mobilities and lifetimes of charge carriers depend on concentrations.
Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev
2014-05-01
Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.
Nonlinear differential equations
Dresner, L.
1988-01-01
This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.
Nonlinear optical protection against frequency agile lasers
McDowell, V.P.
1988-08-04
An eye-protection or equipment-filter device for protection from laser energy is disclosed. The device may be in the form of a telescope, binoculars, goggles, constructed as part of equipment such as image intensifiers or range designators. Optical elements focus the waist of the beam within a nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal or nonlinear optical element or fiber. The nonlinear elements produce a harmonic outside the visible spectrum in the case of crystals, or absorb the laser energy in the case of nonlinear fibers. Embodiments include protectors for the human eye as well as filters for sensitive machinery such as TV cameras, FLIR systems or other imaging equipment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, W. J.; Stanton, T. P.
2006-12-01
During the 2005 Maud Rise Nonlinear Equation of State Study (MaudNESS) field program, more than 1300 profiles of temperature, conductivity and fast-response micro-conductivity were made in the vicinity of Maud Rise, Weddell Sea over a series of 13 drift stations. Stratification is particularly weak on the flanks of Maud Rise and the water column is likely susceptible to cabbeling, thermobaric, and/or double diffusive instabilities. A record of heat flux and turbulent diffusivity within the pycnocline was generated from the micro-conductivity measurements. Although the pycnocline is very unstable to double diffusive instability, the measured fluxes are larger than those predicted based on established double diffusive flux laws. Much of the variability in pycnocline heat flux is related to the stability of the water column with respect to diapycnal cabbeling. Excluding two drifts closest to the summit of Maud Rise, the average heat flux in areas that were stable with respect to cabbeling was ~3 W/m2 and the average heat flux in areas that were unstable was ~30 W/m2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wadle, Stephen; Wuest, Daniel; Cantalupo, John; Lakes, Roderic S.
1994-01-01
Holographic diffusers are prepared using silver halide (Agfa 8E75 and Kodak 649F) and photopolymer (Polaroid DMP 128 and DuPont 600, 705, and 150 series) media. It is possible to control the diffusion angle in three ways: by selection of the properties of the source diffuser, by control of its subtended angle, and by selection of the holographic medium. Several conventional diffusers based on refraction or scattering of light are examined for comparison.
Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion
Tesar, A.
1995-12-01
In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.
Double heterojunction bipolar phototransistor model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horak, Michal
2003-07-01
An analytical mathematical model of the double heterojunction NpN bipolar phototransistor with abrupt heterojunctions in three terminal configuration is presented. The thermionic-filed emission and diffusion of injected carriers is considered and the Ebers-Moll type relations for the collector and emitter current are obtained. Several steady state characteristics of the phototransistor structure are calculated (optical gain, quantum efficiency, responsivity).
Pivovarov, Sergey
2009-04-01
This work presents a simple solution for the diffuse double layer model, applicable to calculation of surface speciation as well as to simulation of ionic adsorption within the diffuse layer of solution in arbitrary salt media. Based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficient for uni-bivalent exchange on clay, K(GT)(Me(2+)/M(+))=(Q(Me)(0.5)/Q(M)){M(+)}/{Me(2+)}(0.5), (Q is the equivalent fraction of cation in the exchange capacity, and {M(+)} and {Me(2+)} are the ionic activities in solution) may be calculated as [surface charge, mueq/m(2)]/0.61. The obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation was applied to calculation of ionic exchange on clays and to simulation of the surface charge of ferrihydrite in 0.01-6 M NaCl solutions. In addition, a new model of acid-base properties was developed. This model is based on assumption that the net proton charge is not located on the mathematical surface plane but diffusely distributed within the subsurface layer of the lattice. It is shown that the obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation makes such calculations possible, and that this approach is more efficient than the original diffuse double layer model. PMID:19159896
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuyama, Hidenao
Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.
Midorikawa, Katsumi
2010-10-08
We report nonlinear multiphoton processes in atoms and molecules by intense high harmonics and their applications to attosecond pulse characterization. Phase matched high harmonics by a loosely focusing geometry produce highly focusable intensity with fully spatiotemporal coherence, which is sufficient to induce nonlinear optical phenomena in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray (XUV) region. With this XUV coherent light source, two-photon double ionization in He is demonstrated with 42-eV high harmonic photons. On the other hand, when intense high harmonics around 20 eV is subjected to N{sub 2} molecules, occurrence of Coulomb explosion following to two-photon double ionization is observed in attosecond temporal precision. Taking advantage of larger cross section of two-photon ionization in molecules, we successfully perform the interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train with the ion signals produced by Coulomb explosion of nitrogen molecules. The result reveals the phase relation between attosecond pulses in the train.
Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity
Mehl, S.
2007-01-01
The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
SjöBerg, Daniel
2003-04-01
We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a cylindrical waveguide with an arbitrary cross section filled with a nonlinear material. The electromagnetic field is expanded in the usual eigenmodes of the waveguide, and the coupling between the modes is quantified. We derive the wave equations governing each mode with special emphasis on the situation with a dominant TE mode. The result is a strictly hyperbolic system of nonlinear partial differential equations for the dominating mode, whereas the minor modes satisfy hyperbolic systems of linear, nonstationary, and partial differential equations. A growth estimate is given for the minor modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milgrom, Mordehai
2002-02-01
I investigate the properties of forces on bodies in theories governed by the generalized Poisson equation μ(|ϕ| /a0)ϕ] ∝ Gρ, for the potential ϕ produced by a distribution of sources ρ. This equation describes, inter alia, media with a response coefficient, μ, that depends on the field strength, such as in nonlinear, dielectric or diamagnetic, media; nonlinear transport problems with field-strength-dependent conductivity or diffusion coefficient; nonlinear electrostatics, as in the Born-Infeld theory; certain stationary potential flows in compressible fluids, in which case the forces act on sources or obstacles in the flow. The expressions for the force on a point charge are derived exactly for the limits of very low and very high charge. The force on an arbitrary body in an external field of asymptotically constant gradient, -g0, is shown to be F = Qg0, where Q is the total effective charge of the body. The corollary Q = 0 → F = 0 is a generalization of d'Alembert's paradox. I show that for G > 0 (as in Newtonian gravity) two point charges of the same (opposite) sign still attract (repel). The opposite is true for G < 0. I discuss its generalization to extended bodies and derive virial relations.
Dark soliton solutions of (N+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demiray, Seyma Tuluce; Bulut, Hasan
2016-06-01
In this study, we investigate exact solutions of (N+1)-dimensional double sinh-Gordon equation and (N+1)-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation by using generalized Kudryashov method. (N+1)-dimensional double sinh-Gordon equation and (N+1)-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation can be returned to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by suitable transformation. Then, generalized Kudryashov method has been used to seek exact solutions of the (N+1)-dimensional double sinh-Gordon equation and (N+1)-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation. Also, we obtain dark soliton solutions for these (N+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations. Finally, we denote that this method can be applied to solve other nonlinear evolution equations.
Replicator dynamics with diffusion on multiplex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Requejo, R. J.; Díaz-Guilera, A.
2016-08-01
In this study we present an extension of the dynamics of diffusion in multiplex graphs, which makes the equations compatible with the replicator equation with mutations. We derive an exact formula for the diffusion term, which shows that, while diffusion is linear for numbers of agents, it is necessary to account for nonlinear terms when working with fractions of individuals. We also derive the transition probabilities that give rise to such macroscopic behavior, completing the bottom-up description. Finally, it is shown that the usual assumption of constant population sizes induces a hidden selective pressure due to the diffusive dynamics, which favors the increase of fast diffusing strategies.
Weakly nonlinear electrophoresis of a highly charged colloidal particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnitzer, Ory; Zeyde, Roman; Yavneh, Irad; Yariv, Ehud
2013-05-01
At large zeta potentials, surface conduction becomes appreciable in thin-double-layer electrokinetic transport. In the linear weak-field regime, where this effect is quantified by the Dukhin number, it is manifested in non-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobilities. In this paper we go beyond linear response, employing the recently derived macroscale model of Schnitzer and Yariv ["Macroscale description of electrokinetic flows at large zeta potentials: Nonlinear surface conduction," Phys. Rev. E 86, 021503 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021503] as the infrastructure for a weakly nonlinear analysis of spherical-particle electrophoresis. A straightforward perturbation in the field strength is frustrated by the failure to satisfy the far-field conditions, representing a non-uniformity of the weak-field approximation at large distances away from the particle, where salt advection becomes comparable to diffusion. This is remedied using inner-outer asymptotic expansions in the spirit of Acrivos and Taylor ["Heat and mass transfer from single spheres in Stokes flow," Phys. Fluids 5, 387 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706630], with the inner region representing the particle neighborhood and the outer region corresponding to distances scaling inversely with the field magnitude. This singular scheme furnishes an asymptotic correction to the electrophoretic velocity, proportional to the applied field cubed, which embodies a host of nonlinear mechanisms unfamiliar from linear electrokinetic theories. These include the effect of induced zeta-potential inhomogeneity, animated by concentration polarization, on electro-osmosis and diffuso-osmosis; bulk advection of salt; nonuniform bulk conductivity; Coulomb body forces acting on bulk volumetric charge; and the nonzero electrostatic force exerted upon the otherwise screened particle-layer system. A numerical solution of the macroscale model validates our weakly nonlinear analysis.
Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.
1988-01-01
Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.
Reaction-diffusion waves in biology.
Volpert, V; Petrovskii, S
2009-12-01
The theory of reaction-diffusion waves begins in the 1930s with the works in population dynamics, combustion theory and chemical kinetics. At the present time, it is a well developed area of research which includes qualitative properties of travelling waves for the scalar reaction-diffusion equation and for system of equations, complex nonlinear dynamics, numerous applications in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine. This paper reviews biological applications of reaction-diffusion waves. PMID:20416847
Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.
Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato
2014-01-01
The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film. PMID:24552718
Changes in "thermal lens" measure diffusivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, A.; Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.
1980-01-01
In an extension of "thermal lens" effect to new applications and better resolution, two laser beams combine to rapidly measure thermal diffusivity and other molecular dynamic properties. New double-beam technique handles very small samples unlike classical techniques for measuring diffusivity. It can be used for measurements on samples undergoing stress, making it applicable to data collection for structural engineering.
New double soft emission theorems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye
2015-09-01
We study the behavior of the tree-level S-matrix of a variety of theories as two particles become soft. By analogy with the recently found subleading soft theorems for gravitons and gluons, we explore subleading terms in double soft emissions. We first consider double soft scalar emissions and find subleading terms that are controlled by the angular momentum operator acting on hard particles. The order of the subleading theorems depends on the presence or not of color structures. Next we obtain a compact formula for the leading term in a double soft photon emission. The theories studied are a special Galileon, Dirac-Born-Infeld, Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar, nonlinear sigma model and Yang-Mills-Scalar. We use the recently found Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of these theories in order to give a simple proof of the leading order part of all these theorems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)
1987-01-01
Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.
Wavelength-doubling optical parametric oscillator
Armstrong, Darrell J.; Smith, Arlee V.
2007-07-24
A wavelength-doubling optical parametric oscillator (OPO) comprising a type II nonlinear optical medium for generating a pair of degenerate waves at twice a pump wavelength and a plurality of mirrors for rotating the polarization of one wave by 90 degrees to produce a wavelength-doubled beam with an increased output energy by coupling both of the degenerate waves out of the OPO cavity through the same output coupler following polarization rotation of one of the degenerate waves.
Nonlinear integrable ion traps
Nagaitsev, S.; Danilov, V.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge
2011-10-01
Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolláth, Z.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Buchler, J. R.; Yecko, P.
1998-07-01
The numerical hydrodynamic modeling of beat Cepheid behavior has been a long-standing quest in which purely radiative models have failed miserably. We find that beat pulsations occur naturally when turbulent convection is accounted for in our hydrodynamics codes. The development of a relaxation code and of a Floquet stability analysis greatly facilitates the search for and analysis of beat Cepheid models. The conditions for the occurrence of beat behavior can be understood easily and at a fundamental level with the help of amplitude equations. Here a discriminant \\Dscr arises whose sign decides whether single-mode or double-mode pulsations can occur in a model, and this \\Dscr depends only on the values of the nonlinear coupling coefficients between the fundamental and the first overtone modes. For radiative models \\Dscr is always found to be negative, but with sufficiently strong turbulent convection its sign reverses.
Riemann equation for prime number diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie
2015-05-01
This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.
2016-06-01
Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senoo, Y.
The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.
Ray-theory approach to electrical-double-layer interactions.
Schnitzer, Ory
2015-02-01
A novel approach is presented for analyzing the double-layer interaction force between charged particles in electrolyte solution, in the limit where the Debye length is small compared with both interparticle separation and particle size. The method, developed here for two planar convex particles of otherwise arbitrary geometry, yields a simple asymptotic approximation limited to neither small zeta potentials nor the "close-proximity" assumption underlying Derjaguin's approximation. Starting from the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann formulation, boundary-layer solutions describing the thin diffuse-charge layers are asymptotically matched to a WKBJ expansion valid in the bulk, where the potential is exponentially small. The latter expansion describes the bulk potential as superposed contributions conveyed by "rays" emanating normally from the boundary layers. On a special curve generated by the centers of all circles maximally inscribed between the two particles, the bulk stress-associated with the ray contributions interacting nonlinearly-decays exponentially with distance from the center of the smallest of these circles. The force is then obtained by integrating the traction along this curve using Laplace's method. We illustrate the usefulness of our theory by comparing it, alongside Derjaguin's approximation, with numerical simulations in the case of two parallel cylinders at low potentials. By combining our result and Derjaguin's approximation, the interaction force is provided at arbitrary interparticle separations. Our theory can be generalized to arbitrary three-dimensional geometries, nonideal electrolyte models, and other physical scenarios where exponentially decaying fields give rise to forces. PMID:25768505
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Penas, Victor A.; Riccioni, Fabio
2016-06-01
We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O( D, D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O( D, D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.
The Design and its Verification of the Double Rotor Double Cage Induction Motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Sumita; Deb, Nirmal K.; Biswas, Sujit K.
2016-06-01
The concept of a double rotor motor presented earlier and its equivalent circuit has been developed, showing a non-linear parameter content. The two rotors (which are recommended to be double cage type for development of high starting torque) can run with equal or unequal speed independently, depending on their individual loading. This paper presents the elaborate design procedure, step-by-step, for the double rotor double cage motor and verifies the designed data with that obtained from three separate tests (compared to two for conventional motor) on a prototype, such that optimum performance can be obtained from the motor.
Self-Frequency-Doubling Glass-Fiber Laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selker, Mark D.; Dallas, Joseph L.
1993-01-01
Specially prepared germanium and phosphorous-doped glass optical fiber doped with neodymium shown to act as self-frequency-doubling laser. Self-frequency-doubling fiber laser with further refinements, eliminates need for expensive, easily damaged, nonlinear crystals currently used. Enables one to avoid loss and damage mechanisms associated with interfaces of nonlinear crystals as well as to eliminate angle/temperature phase-matching tuning.
Scaling of chaos in strongly nonlinear lattices
Mulansky, Mario
2014-06-15
Although it is now understood that chaos in complex classical systems is the foundation of thermodynamic behavior, the detailed relations between the microscopic properties of the chaotic dynamics and the macroscopic thermodynamic observations still remain mostly in the dark. In this work, we numerically analyze the probability of chaos in strongly nonlinear Hamiltonian systems and find different scaling properties depending on the nonlinear structure of the model. We argue that these different scaling laws of chaos have definite consequences for the macroscopic diffusive behavior, as chaos is the microscopic mechanism of diffusion. This is compared with previous results on chaotic diffusion [M. Mulansky and A. Pikovsky, New J. Phys. 15, 053015 (2013)], and a relation between microscopic chaos and macroscopic diffusion is established.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicolet, M. A.
1983-01-01
The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.
Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals
Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.
1998-09-08
Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.
Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals
Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.
1998-01-01
Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.
Diffusion of Ellipsoids in Bacterial Suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yi; Lai, Lipeng; Tai, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Kechun; Xu, Xinliang; Cheng, Xiang
2016-02-01
Active fluids such as swarming bacteria and motile colloids exhibit exotic properties different from conventional equilibrium materials. As a peculiar example, a spherical tracer immersed inside active fluids shows an enhanced translational diffusion, orders of magnitude stronger than its intrinsic Brownian motion. Here, rather than spherical tracers, we investigate the diffusion of isolated ellipsoids in a quasi-two-dimensional bacterial bath. Our study shows a nonlinear enhancement of both translational and rotational diffusions of ellipsoids. More importantly, we uncover an anomalous coupling between particles' translation and rotation that is strictly prohibited in Brownian diffusion. The coupling reveals a counterintuitive anisotropic particle diffusion, where an ellipsoid diffuses fastest along its minor axis in its body frame. Combining experiments with theoretical modeling, we show that such an anomalous diffusive behavior arises from the generic straining flow of swimming bacteria. Our work illustrates an unexpected feature of active fluids and deepens our understanding of transport processes in microbiological systems.
Diffusion of Ellipsoids in Bacterial Suspensions.
Peng, Yi; Lai, Lipeng; Tai, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Kechun; Xu, Xinliang; Cheng, Xiang
2016-02-12
Active fluids such as swarming bacteria and motile colloids exhibit exotic properties different from conventional equilibrium materials. As a peculiar example, a spherical tracer immersed inside active fluids shows an enhanced translational diffusion, orders of magnitude stronger than its intrinsic Brownian motion. Here, rather than spherical tracers, we investigate the diffusion of isolated ellipsoids in a quasi-two-dimensional bacterial bath. Our study shows a nonlinear enhancement of both translational and rotational diffusions of ellipsoids. More importantly, we uncover an anomalous coupling between particles' translation and rotation that is strictly prohibited in Brownian diffusion. The coupling reveals a counterintuitive anisotropic particle diffusion, where an ellipsoid diffuses fastest along its minor axis in its body frame. Combining experiments with theoretical modeling, we show that such an anomalous diffusive behavior arises from the generic straining flow of swimming bacteria. Our work illustrates an unexpected feature of active fluids and deepens our understanding of transport processes in microbiological systems. PMID:26919019
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabre, Antoine; Hristov, Jordan
2016-04-01
Closed form approximate solutions to nonlinear transient heat conduction with linearly temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity have been developed by the integral-balance integral method under transient conditions. The solutions uses improved direct approaches of the integral method and avoid the commonly used linearization by the Kirchhoff transformation. The main steps in the new solutions are improvements in the integration technique of the double-integration technique and the optimization of the exponent of the approximate parabolic profile with unspecified exponent. Solutions to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems have been developed as examples by the classical Heat-balance integral method (HBIM) and the Double-integration method (DIM). Additional examples with HBIM and DIM solutions to cases when the Kirchhoff transform is initially applied have been developed.
Nonlinear parallel momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lu; Wen, Tiliang; Diamond, P. H.
2015-05-01
Most existing theoretical studies of momentum transport focus on calculating the Reynolds stress based on quasilinear theory, without considering the nonlinear momentum flux- ⟨ v ˜ r n ˜ u ˜ ∥ ⟩ . However, a recent experiment on TORPEX found that the nonlinear toroidal momentum flux induced by blobs makes a significant contribution as compared to the Reynolds stress [Labit et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032308 (2011)]. In this work, the nonlinear parallel momentum flux in strong electrostatic turbulence is calculated by using a three dimensional Hasegawa-Mima equation, which is relevant for tokamak edge turbulence. It is shown that the nonlinear diffusivity is smaller than the quasilinear diffusivity from Reynolds stress. However, the leading order nonlinear residual stress can be comparable to the quasilinear residual stress, and so may be important to intrinsic rotation in tokamak edge plasmas. A key difference from the quasilinear residual stress is that parallel fluctuation spectrum asymmetry is not required for nonlinear residual stress.
New Nonlinear Multigrid Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xie, Dexuan
1996-01-01
The nonlinear multigrid is an efficient algorithm for solving the system of nonlinear equations arising from the numerical discretization of nonlinear elliptic boundary problems. In this paper, we present a new nonlinear multigrid analysis as an extension of the linear multigrid theory presented by Bramble. In particular, we prove the convergence of the nonlinear V-cycle method for a class of mildly nonlinear second order elliptic boundary value problems which do not have full elliptic regularity.
Diffusion, Viscosity and Crystal Growth in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myerson, Allan S.
1996-01-01
The diffusivity of TriGlycine Sulfate (TGS), Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP), Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADF) and other compounds of interest to microgravity crystal growth, in supersaturated solutions as a function of solution concentration, 'age' and 'history was studied experimentally. The factors that affect the growth of crystals from water solutions in microgravity have been examined. Three non-linear optical materials have been studied, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and triglycine sulfate (TGC). The diffusion coefficient and viscosity of supersaturated water solutions were measured. Also theoretical model of diffusivity and viscosity in a metastable state, model of crystal growth from solution including non-linear time dependent diffusivity and viscosity effect and computer simulation of the crystal growth process which allows simulation of the microgravity crystal growth were developed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah
2013-01-01
Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foy, Barry G.
1977-01-01
Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)
Haba, Z
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727
[Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics
Not Available
1994-01-01
Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday`s law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm`s law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile.
Nonlinear vibration and radiation from a panel with transition to chaos induced by acoustic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, Lucio; Frendi, Abdelkader; Brown, Donald E.
1992-01-01
The dynamic response of an aircraft panel forced at resonance and off-resonance by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence is investigated experimentally and numerically. Linear, nonlinear (period doubling) and chaotic responses are obtained by increasing the sound pressure level of the excitation. The response time history is sensitive to the input level and to the frequency of excitation. The change in response behavior is due to a change in input conditions, triggered either naturally or by modulation of the bandwidth of the incident waves. Off-resonance, bifurcation is diffused and difficult to maintain, thus the panel response drifts into a linear behavior. The acoustic pressure emanated by the panel is either linear or nonlinear as is the vibration response. The nonlinear effects accumulate during the propagation with distance. Results are also obtained on the control of the panel response using damping tape on aluminum panel and using a graphite epoxy panel having the same size and weight. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results.
Diffusion Simulation and Lifetime Calculation at RHIC
Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.
2009-01-02
The beam lifetime is an important parameter for any storage ring. For protons in RHIC it is dominated by the non-linear nature of the head-on collisions that causes the particles to diffuse outside the stable area in phase space. In this report we show results from diffusion simulation and lifetime calculation for the 2006 and 2008 polarized proton runs in RHIC.
Photorefractive surface nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Pengfei; Feng, Tianrun; Wang, Sainan; Han, Rong; Hu, Zhijian; Zhang, Tianhao; Tian, Jianguo; Xu, Jingjun
2016-05-01
We report an alternate type of nonlinear waveguides, photorefractive surface nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays, which can be directly induced by photorefractive surface waves in virtue of diffusion and drift nonlinearities. The amplitude of such nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays has an apodized envelope owing to the diffusion nonlinearity. The refractive-index change of the apodized tails converges to a nonzero value which can be handily adjusted by an external electric field. Moreover, the chirp parameters such as amplitude, sign (positive or negative), and initial position can be conveniently adjusted by an external electric field, background illumination, incident beam, etc. Then the guided-wave properties of this type of waveguide arrays are analyzed by using the transfer matrix method. Owing to the flexible tail and the nonlinear chirp, the dispersion curves of the index-guided modes can be tailored by an external electric field and the dispersion curves of ordinary and extraordinary Bragg guided modes couple, intertwine, and anticross with each other. Meanwhile, there is a clear "competition" in the coupling hybrid mode near anticrossing.
Piezoelectric monolayers as nonlinear energy harvesters.
López-Suárez, Miquel; Pruneda, Miguel; Abadal, Gabriel; Rurali, Riccardo
2014-05-01
We study the dynamics of h-BN monolayers by first performing ab-initio calculations of the deformation potential energy and then solving numerically a Langevine-type equation to explore their use in nonlinear vibration energy harvesting devices. An applied compressive strain is used to drive the system into a nonlinear bistable regime, where quasi-harmonic vibrations are combined with low-frequency swings between the minima of a double-well potential. Due to its intrinsic piezoelectric response, the nonlinear mechanical harvester naturally provides an electrical power that is readily available or can be stored by simply contacting the monolayer at its ends. Engineering the induced nonlinearity, a 20 nm2 device is predicted to harvest an electrical power of up to 0.18 pW for a noisy vibration of 5 pN. PMID:24722065
Feng, Xia; Ma, Jun-Wu; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Ya-Min; Jin, Ye; Zhou, Guang-Qing; He, Ji-Jun; Guo, Jian-Hong; Qi, Shu-yun; Lin, Mi; Cai, Hu; Liu, Xiang-Tao
2016-01-01
The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG) analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01). In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings. PMID:26930597
Feng, Xia; Ma, Jun-Wu; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Ya-Min; Jin, Ye; Zhou, Guang-Qing; He, Ji-Jun; Guo, Jian-Hong; Qi, Shu-yun; Lin, Mi; Cai, Hu; Liu, Xiang-Tao
2016-01-01
The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG) analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01). In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings. PMID:26930597
Entropic Step Doubling on W(430).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conrad, Edward H.; Dey, Srijata; West, James; Kiriukhin, Sergei
1996-03-01
We present high resolution low energy electron diffraction (LEED) results for the W(430) surface. Unlike every other system studied to date, single atomic height steps on this surface become energetically unfavorable at elevated temperatures. Above 940 K, a two phase mixture of single and double height steps forms. The transition to double height steps is predicted on the basis of a simple model provided that unconventional defect energetics are invoked. Specifically, double height steps cost more than twice as much energy as single height steps, while kinks on the double height steps cost less energy than kinks on single height steps. Recent theoretical calculations independently confirm this energetics hierarchy. (W. Xu, J.B. Adams and T.L. Einstein (to be published).) The existence of the doubling transition sheds new light on previous self diffusion coefficient measurements for other stepped tungsten surfaces. (Y.M. Gong and R. Gomer, J. Chem. Phys. 88), 1359 (1988); 88, 1370 (1988).
2012-01-01
A model of the electro-diffusion of ions in porous electrodes is applied to analyze the dynamics of capacitive-mixing extraction of energy from salinity gradients with carbon porous electrodes. The complex time-evolution of the cell voltage observed in experiments is satisfactorily described. The asymmetry on the duration of the solution-change steps performed in open circuit is found to be due to the nonlinear voltage–concentration relationship of the electric double layers and to a current that redistributes the counterions along the depth of the electrode leading to nonuniform charge and salt adsorption. The validated model is an essential tool for the design and optimization of renewable energy extraction by this technique. PMID:24319518
Anderson, Robert C.
1976-06-22
1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pesic, Peter
2003-10-01
The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.
Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.
1986-04-01
The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The ..cap omega..-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig.
Parabolic Perturbation of a Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problem Arising in Physiology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colli, P.; Grasselli, M.
We study a transport-diffusion initial value problem where the diffusion codlicient is "small" and the transport coefficient is a time function depending on the solution in a nonlinear and nonlocal way. We show the existence and the uniqueness of a weak solution of this problem. Moreover we discuss its asymptotic behaviour as the diffusion coefficient goes to zero, obtaining a well-posed first-order nonlinear hyperbolic problem. These problems arise from mathematical models of muscle contraction in the framework of the sliding filament theory.
Progress in MOSFET double-layer metalization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gassaway, J. D.; Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.
1980-01-01
Report describes one-year research effort in VLSL fabrication. Four activities are described: theoretical study of two-dimensional diffusion in SOS (silicon-on-sapphire); setup of sputtering system, furnaces, and photolithography equipment; experiments on double layer metal; and investigation of two-dimensional modeling of MOSFET's (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors).
Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics and Synchronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ning
Alan Turing's work on morphogenesis, more than half a century ago, continues to motivate and inspire theoretical and experimental biologists even today. That said, there are very few experimental systems for which Turing's theory is applicable. In this thesis we present an experimental reaction-diffusion system ideally suited for testing Turing's ideas in synthetic "cells" consisting of microfluidically produced surfactant-stabilized emulsions in which droplets containing the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillatory chemical reactants are dispersed in oil. The BZ reaction has become the prototype of nonlinear dynamics in chemistry and a preferred system for exploring the behavior of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Our system consists of a surfactant stabilized monodisperse emulsion of drops of aqueous BZ solution dispersed in a continuous phase of oil. In contrast to biology, here the chemistry is understood, rate constants are measured and interdrop coupling is purely diffusive. We explore a large set of parameters through control of rate constants, drop size, spacing, and spatial arrangement of the drops in lines and rings in one-dimension (1D) and hexagonal arrays in two-dimensions (2D). The Turing model is regarded as a metaphor for morphogenesis in biology but not for prediction. Here, we develop a quantitative and falsifiable reaction-diffusion model that we experimentally test with synthetic cells. We quantitatively establish the extent to which the Turing model in 1D describes both stationary pattern formation and temporal synchronization of chemical oscillators via reaction-diffusion and in 2D demonstrate that chemical morphogenesis drives physical differentiation in synthetic cells.
A new hydrodynamic analysis of double layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hora, Heinrich
1987-01-01
A genuine two-fluid model of plasmas with collisions permits the calculation of dynamic (not necessarily static) electric fields and double layers inside of plasmas including oscillations and damping. For the first time a macroscopic model for coupling of electromagnetic and Langmuir waves was achieved with realistic damping. Starting points were laser-produced plasmas showing very high dynamic electric fields in nonlinear force-produced cavitous and inverted double layers in agreement with experiments. Applications for any inhomogeneous plasma as in laboratory or in astrophysical plasmas can then be followed up by a transparent hydrodynamic description. Results are the rotation of plasmas in magnetic fields and a new second harmonic resonance, explanation of the measured inverted double layers, explanation of the observed density-independent, second harmonics emission from laser-produced plasmas, and a laser acceleration scheme by the very high fields of the double layers.
Frequency Doubling Broadband Light in Multiple Crystals
ALFORD,WILLIAM J.; SMITH,ARLEE V.
2000-07-26
The authors compare frequency doubling of broadband light in a single nonlinear crystal with doubling in five crystals with intercrystal temporal walk off compensation, and with doubling in five crystals adjusted for offset phase matching frequencies. Using a plane-wave, dispersive numerical model of frequency doubling they study the bandwidth of the second harmonic and the conversion efficiency as functions of crystal length and fundamental irradiance. For low irradiance the offset phase matching arrangement has lower efficiency than a single crystal of the same total length but gives a broader second harmonic bandwidth. The walk off compensated arrangement gives both higher conversion efficiency and broader bandwidth than a single crystal. At high irradiance, both multicrystal arrangements improve on the single crystal efficiency while maintaining broad bandwidth.
Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis
Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen
2011-01-01
Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a single sample ion and a background electrolyte consisting of a single co-ion and a counterion in the absence of any processes that might change the ionization states of the constituents. If the ionic diffusivities are assumed to be the same for all constituents the concentration of sample ion is shown to obey a one dimensional advection diffusion equation with a concentration dependent advection velocity. If the analyte concentration is sufficiently low in a suitable non-dimensional sense, Burgers’ equation is recovered, and thus, the time dependent problem is exactly solvable with arbitrary initial conditions. In the case of small diffusivity either a leading edge or trailing edge shock is formed depending on the electrophoretic mobility of the sample ion relative to the background ions. Analytical formulas are presented for the shape, width and migration velocity of the sample peak and it is shown that axial dispersion at long times may be characterized by an effective diffusivity that is exactly calculated. These results are consistent with known observations from physical and numerical simulation experiments. PMID:20238181
A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion
Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.
1998-09-01
The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques.
Levenson, L.
1963-09-01
A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander
At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at
Sampling diffusive transition paths
F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian
2006-10-12
We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.
Sampling diffusive transition paths.
Miller, Thomas F; Predescu, Cristian
2007-04-14
The authors address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with the sampling of infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with the sampling of the coarse features of long paths. The fine-feature sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm, and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. The authors use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature. PMID:17444696
Diffusion path representation for two-phase ternary diffusion couples
Dayananda, M A; Venkatasubramanian, R
1986-01-01
Several two-phase, solid-solid diffusion couples from diffusion studies in the ternary Cu-Ni-Zn, Fe-Ni-Al and Cu-Ag-Au systems were investigated for their analytical representation on the basis of characteristic path parameters. The concentration profiles were examined in terms of relative concentration variables for cross-over compositions and internal consistency. The diffusion paths delineated single or double S-shaped curves crossing the straight line joining the terminal alloy compositions once or thrice. Cross-over compositions were identified in the individual phase regions or at an interface. Based on the symmetry between the path segments on either side of cross-over compositions, the paths were analytically represented with the aid of cross-over compositions and path slopes at these compositions, considered as path parameters. Exprestion for the ratios of diffusion depth on the two sides of the Matano plane were derived in terms of cross-over compositions and the estimated ratios of diffusion depths were found to be consistent with those observed from the concentration profiles.
Generating Second Harmonics In Nonlinear Resonant Cavities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kozlovsky, William J.; Nabors, C. David; Byer, Robert L.
1990-01-01
Single-axial-mode lasers pump very-low-loss doubling crystals. Important advance in making resonant generation of second harmonics possible for diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers is recent development of monolithic nonplanar ring geometries in neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers that produce frequency-stable single-mode outputs. Other advance is development of high-quality MgO:LiNbO3 as electro-optically nonlinear material. Series of experiments devised to improve doubling efficiency of low-power lasers, and particularly of diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG lasers.
Exact solutions for logistic reaction-diffusion equations in biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbridge, P.; Bradshaw-Hajek, B. H.
2016-08-01
Reaction-diffusion equations with a nonlinear source have been widely used to model various systems, with particular application to biology. Here, we provide a solution technique for these types of equations in N-dimensions. The nonclassical symmetry method leads to a single relationship between the nonlinear diffusion coefficient and the nonlinear reaction term; the subsequent solutions for the Kirchhoff variable are exponential in time (either growth or decay) and satisfy the linear Helmholtz equation in space. Example solutions are given in two dimensions for particular parameter sets for both quadratic and cubic reaction terms.
Atomistic Simulations of Ion Diffusion in Clay Barriers: Diffusive Path Energy Barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton, A. G.; Kozaki, T.
2010-12-01
Ion diffusion in clay-rich media is an important transport process relevant to models of contaminant fate and transport in groundwater and risk assessments for the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Smectite clay minerals are used as a buffer material in the geologic disposal of HLW due to their low permeability. Ion diffusion experiments with water-saturated, compacted clays have revealed a non-linear trend in which the diffusive energy barrier in clay media at dry densities near 1.0 Mg m-3 exhibited a smaller energy barrier to diffusion than in liquid water (Kozaki, et al. 2005). Although it is likely that the decreased energy barrier is related to preferential diffusion along smectite basal surfaces, experimental methods cannot unambiguously isolate this diffusion pathway. Atomistic simulations were designed to isolate this diffusive pathway and to test if the decreased energy barrier is related to preferential diffusion along the smectite basal surface. In addition, the simulations provide an atomic-scale perspective of this diffusion pathway as a function of temperature. In the present study, we report the energy barrier to diffusion for sodium ions (Na+) at the smectite basal surface. The energy barrier to diffusion at the Na-montmorillonite basal surface was determined by investigating the temperature dependence of ion diffusion through a series of long (9.0 ns) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the canonical ensemble (NVT). We show that the energy barrier to diffusion at the clay basal surface is less than the energy barrier to diffusion in free water and demonstrate that this methodology can provide results that are consistent with laboratory diffusion experiments and nanoscale insights into the interpretation of macroscale experimental investigations of ion diffusion in smectite-rich media. Kozaki, T., A. Fujishima, et al. (2005). Engineering Geology, 81(3): 246-254.
Finite gyroradius corrections in the theory of perpendicular diffusion 2. Strong velocity diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalchi, A.
2016-01-01
The current paper is a sequel to an article where we have started to incorporate finite gyroradius effects in the theory of perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with turbulent magnetic fields. In the previous paper we have focused on the case that velocity diffusion is suppressed and we derived corrections to the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. In the current article we focus on the limit of strong non-linear velocity diffusion. If finite gyroradius effects are not present, we derive the well-known limit where the perpendicular diffusion coefficient is directly proportional to the parallel diffusion coefficient. As in the previous paper, we employ different turbulence models as examples, namely the slab model, noisy slab turbulence, and the two-dimensional model. We show that finite gyroradius effects reduce the perpendicular mean free path in all considered cases except for the slab model where such effects do not occur.
When linear stability does not exclude nonlinear instability
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Pelinovsky, D. E.; Saxena, A.
2015-05-29
We describe a mechanism that results in the nonlinear instability of stationary states even in the case where the stationary states are linearly stable. In this study, this instability is due to the nonlinearity-induced coupling of the linearization’s internal modes of negative energy with the continuous spectrum. In a broad class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations considered, the presence of such internal modes guarantees the nonlinear instability of the stationary states in the evolution dynamics. To corroborate this idea, we explore three prototypical case examples: (a) an antisymmetric soliton in a double-well potential, (b) a twisted localized mode in a one-dimensional lattice with cubic nonlinearity, and (c) a discrete vortex in a two-dimensional saturable lattice. In all cases, we observe a weak nonlinear instability, despite the linear stability of the respective states.
When linear stability does not exclude nonlinear instability
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Pelinovsky, D. E.; Saxena, A.
2015-05-29
We describe a mechanism that results in the nonlinear instability of stationary states even in the case where the stationary states are linearly stable. In this study, this instability is due to the nonlinearity-induced coupling of the linearization’s internal modes of negative energy with the continuous spectrum. In a broad class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations considered, the presence of such internal modes guarantees the nonlinear instability of the stationary states in the evolution dynamics. To corroborate this idea, we explore three prototypical case examples: (a) an antisymmetric soliton in a double-well potential, (b) a twisted localized mode in a one-dimensionalmore » lattice with cubic nonlinearity, and (c) a discrete vortex in a two-dimensional saturable lattice. In all cases, we observe a weak nonlinear instability, despite the linear stability of the respective states.« less
Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Diffusion Inside Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Samplers
2015-01-01
Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters. PMID:25877251
Analysis of tilt by modulated speckles generated with a double aperture pupil mask
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molina Prado, Martha Lucía; Bolognini, Néstor; Tebaldi, Myrian
2015-03-01
We present a method based on modulated speckles to detect tilt movement of a diffusing surface. In our proposal a speckle image of the speckle produced by a reflective diffusing surface is formed by a lens having a double aperture. The double aperture yields to an interference process so that the resulting speckle distribution is fringe modulated. The tilting of the diffusing surface is mapped as a shifting of the speckle. Then, the double aperture pupil lens system maps the speckle shifting into a fringes shifting. We study the system performance in terms of the diffuser tilt. Experimental results that confirm our proposal are presented.
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.
Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V
2015-07-31
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters. PMID:26274421
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.
2015-07-01
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yi; Zhang, Xingyi; Zhou, You-He
2016-07-01
The vibration of a permanent magnet (PM) levitated upon a high temperature superconductor (HTS) shows anomalous motion under external disturbance. In this paper we construct a cantilevered beam experimental setup composed of a bulk PM and a thermally insulated cylindrical YBa2Cu3O x superconductor. When the levitation system is disturbed by vertical excitation, the thermal character of the superconductor surface could be measured directly. Our experiments on a clean and large single-domain superconductor show that a giant temperature spike appears once the levitated PM experiences period doubling oscillation. We develop a numerical simulation for the analysis of the nonlinear vibration of the levitated PM coupled with the nonlinear electromagnetic force between the PM and HTS, taking into account heat diffusion. Using this procedure, we explore the electromagnetic and thermal properties at the thermally insulated HTS surface when the levitated PM shows a period doubling vibration. We find a remarkable difference between the experimental results and simulation. In order to interpret this temperature difference, we suggest a type of flux motion triggered by the electromagnetic force when it is far larger than the pinning force of the superconductor. The quantitative approach is based on the analysis process of the partial flux jump as a result of the flux creep. Finally, the calculated result is shown to be very close to the experimental result.
Murray, David H.; Tamm, Lukas K.; Kiessling, Volker
2009-01-01
Planar model membranes, like supported lipid bilayers and surface-tethered vesicles, have been proven to be useful tools for the investigation of complex biological functions in a significantly less complex membrane environment. In this study, we introduce a supported double membrane system that should be useful for studies that target biological processes in the proximity of two lipid bilayers such as the periplasm of bacteria and mitochondria or the small cleft between pre-and postsynaptic neuronal membranes. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) were tethered to a preformed supported bilayer by a biotin-streptavidin tether. We show from single particle tracking (SPT) experiments that these vesicle are mobile above the plane of the supported membrane. At higher concentrations, the tethered vesicles fuse to form a second continuous bilayer on top of the supported bilayer. The distance between the two bilayers was determined by fluorescence interference contrast (FLIC) microscopy to be between 16 and 24 nm. The lateral diffusion of labeled lipids in the second bilayer was very similar to that in supported membranes. SPT experiments with reconstituted syntaxin-1A show that the mobility of transmembrane proteins was not improved when compared with solid supported membranes. PMID:19236921
Ray-theory approach to electrical-double-layer interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnitzer, Ory
2015-02-01
A novel approach is presented for analyzing the double-layer interaction force between charged particles in electrolyte solution, in the limit where the Debye length is small compared with both interparticle separation and particle size. The method, developed here for two planar convex particles of otherwise arbitrary geometry, yields a simple asymptotic approximation limited to neither small zeta potentials nor the "close-proximity" assumption underlying Derjaguin's approximation. Starting from the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann formulation, boundary-layer solutions describing the thin diffuse-charge layers are asymptotically matched to a WKBJ expansion valid in the bulk, where the potential is exponentially small. The latter expansion describes the bulk potential as superposed contributions conveyed by "rays" emanating normally from the boundary layers. On a special curve generated by the centers of all circles maximally inscribed between the two particles, the bulk stress—associated with the ray contributions interacting nonlinearly—decays exponentially with distance from the center of the smallest of these circles. The force is then obtained by integrating the traction along this curve using Laplace's method. We illustrate the usefulness of our theory by comparing it, alongside Derjaguin's approximation, with numerical simulations in the case of two parallel cylinders at low potentials. By combining our result and Derjaguin's approximation, the interaction force is provided at arbitrary interparticle separations. Our theory can be generalized to arbitrary three-dimensional geometries, nonideal electrolyte models, and other physical scenarios where exponentially decaying fields give rise to forces.
Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Juanjuan; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang
2015-01-01
The enhancement of the optical nonlinear effects at nanoscale is important in the on-chip optical information processing. We theoretically propose the mechanism of the great Kerr nonlinearity enhancement by using anisotropic Purcell factors in a double-Λ type four-level system, i.e., if the bisector of the two vertical dipole moments lies in the small/large Purcell factor axis in the space, the Kerr nonlinearity will be enhanced/decreased due to the spontaneously generated coherence accordingly. Besides, when the two dipole moments are parallel, the extremely large Kerr nonlinearity increase appears, which comes from the double population trapping. Using the custom-designed resonant plasmonic nanostructure which gives an anisotropic Purcell factor environment, we demonstrate the effective nanoscale control of the Kerr nonlinearity. Such controllable Kerr nonlinearity may be realized by the state-of-the-art nanotechnics and it may have potential applications in on-chip photonic nonlinear devices. PMID:26670939
Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Juanjuan; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang
2015-01-01
The enhancement of the optical nonlinear effects at nanoscale is important in the on-chip optical information processing. We theoretically propose the mechanism of the great Kerr nonlinearity enhancement by using anisotropic Purcell factors in a double-Λ type four-level system, i.e., if the bisector of the two vertical dipole moments lies in the small/large Purcell factor axis in the space, the Kerr nonlinearity will be enhanced/decreased due to the spontaneously generated coherence accordingly. Besides, when the two dipole moments are parallel, the extremely large Kerr nonlinearity increase appears, which comes from the double population trapping. Using the custom-designed resonant plasmonic nanostructure which gives an anisotropic Purcell factor environment, we demonstrate the effective nanoscale control of the Kerr nonlinearity. Such controllable Kerr nonlinearity may be realized by the state-of-the-art nanotechnics and it may have potential applications in on-chip photonic nonlinear devices. PMID:26670939
Geometrically nonlinear analysis of adhesively bonded joints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dattaguru, B.; Everett, R. A., Jr.; Whitcomb, J. D.; Johnson, W. S.
1982-01-01
A geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis of cohesive failure in typical joints is presented. Cracked-lap-shear joints were chosen for analysis. Results obtained from linear and nonlinear analysis show that nonlinear effects, due to large rotations, significantly affect the calculated mode 1, crack opening, and mode 2, inplane shear, strain-energy-release rates. The ratio of the mode 1 to mode 2 strain-energy-relase rates (G1/G2) was found to be strongly affected by he adhesive modulus and the adherend thickness. The ratios between 0.2 and 0.8 can be obtained by varying adherend thickness and using either a single or double cracked-lap-shear specimen configuration. Debond growth rate data, together with the analysis, indicate that mode 1 strain-energy-release rate governs debond growth. Results from the present analysis agree well with experimentally measured joint opening displacements.
Electron dynamics with radiation and nonlinear wigglers
Jowett, J.M.
1986-06-01
The physics of electron motion in storage rings is described by supplementing the Hamiltonian equations of motion with fluctuating radiation reaction forces to describe the effects of synchrotron radiation. This leads to a description of radiation damping and quantum diffusion in single-particle phase-space by means of Fokker-Planck equations. For practical purposes, most storage rings remain in the regime of linear damping and diffusion; this is discussed in some detail with examples, concentrating on longitudinal phase space. However special devices such as nonlinear wigglers may permit the new generation of very large rings to go beyond this into regimes of nonlinear damping. It is shown how a special combined-function wiggler can be used to modify the energy distribution and current profile of electron bunches.
All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers
Diebel, Falko Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S.
2014-06-30
We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.
A Huygens principle for diffusion and anomalous diffusion in spatially extended systems
Gottwald, Georg A.; Melbourne, Ian
2013-01-01
We present a universal view on diffusive behavior in chaotic spatially extended systems for anisotropic and isotropic media. For anisotropic systems, strong chaos leads to diffusive behavior (Brownian motion with drift) and weak chaos leads to superdiffusive behavior (Lévy processes with drift). For isotropic systems, the drift term vanishes and strong chaos again leads to Brownian motion. We establish the existence of a nonlinear Huygens principle for weakly chaotic systems in isotropic media whereby the dynamics behaves diffusively in even space dimension and exhibits superdiffusive behavior in odd space dimensions. PMID:23653481
Wang, Chi-Jen
2013-01-01
In this thesis, we analyze both the spatiotemporal behavior of: (A) non-linear “reaction” models utilizing (discrete) reaction-diffusion equations; and (B) spatial transport problems on surfaces and in nanopores utilizing the relevant (continuum) diffusion or Fokker-Planck equations. Thus, there are some common themes in these studies, as they all involve partial differential equations or their discrete analogues which incorporate a description of diffusion-type processes. However, there are also some qualitative differences, as shall be discussed below.
Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, J. C.; Nie, R. S.
2013-05-01
Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water). The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.
A double-double/double-single computation package
Bailey, David H.
2004-12-01
The DDFUNIDSFUN software permits a new or existing Fortran-90 program to utilize double-double precision (approx. 31 digits) or double-single precision (approx. 14 digits) arithmetic. Double-double precision is required by a rapidly expandirtg body of scientific computations in physics and mathematics, for which the conventional 64-bit IEEE computer arithmetic (about 16 decimal digit accuracy) is not sufficient. Double-single precision permits users of systems that do not have hardware 64-bit IEEE arithmetic (such as some game systems) to perform arithmetic at a precision nearly as high as that of systems that do. Both packages run significantly faster Than using multiple precision or arbitrary precision software for this purpose. The package includes an extensive set of low-level routines to perform high-precision arithmetic, including routines to calculate various algebraic and transcendental functions, such as square roots, sin, ccc, exp, log and others. In addition, the package includes high-level translation facilities, so that Fortran programs can utilize these facilities by making only a few changes to conventional Fortran programs. In most cases, the only changes that are required are to change the type statements of variables that one wishes to be treated as multiple precision, plus a few other minor changes. The DDFUN package is similar in functionality to the double-double part of the GD package, which was previously written at LBNL. However, the DDFUN package is written exclusively in Fortran-90, thus avoidIng difficulties that some users experience when using GD, which includes both Fortran-90 and C++ code.
A double-double/double-single computation package
2004-12-01
The DDFUNIDSFUN software permits a new or existing Fortran-90 program to utilize double-double precision (approx. 31 digits) or double-single precision (approx. 14 digits) arithmetic. Double-double precision is required by a rapidly expandirtg body of scientific computations in physics and mathematics, for which the conventional 64-bit IEEE computer arithmetic (about 16 decimal digit accuracy) is not sufficient. Double-single precision permits users of systems that do not have hardware 64-bit IEEE arithmetic (such as some game systems)more » to perform arithmetic at a precision nearly as high as that of systems that do. Both packages run significantly faster Than using multiple precision or arbitrary precision software for this purpose. The package includes an extensive set of low-level routines to perform high-precision arithmetic, including routines to calculate various algebraic and transcendental functions, such as square roots, sin, ccc, exp, log and others. In addition, the package includes high-level translation facilities, so that Fortran programs can utilize these facilities by making only a few changes to conventional Fortran programs. In most cases, the only changes that are required are to change the type statements of variables that one wishes to be treated as multiple precision, plus a few other minor changes. The DDFUN package is similar in functionality to the double-double part of the GD package, which was previously written at LBNL. However, the DDFUN package is written exclusively in Fortran-90, thus avoidIng difficulties that some users experience when using GD, which includes both Fortran-90 and C++ code.« less
Analysis and correction of gradient nonlinearity bias in ADC measurements
Malyarenko, Dariya I.; Ross, Brian D.; Chenevert, Thomas L.
2013-01-01
Purpose Gradient nonlinearity of MRI systems leads to spatially-dependent b-values and consequently high non-uniformity errors (10–20%) in ADC measurements over clinically relevant field-of-views. This work seeks practical correction procedure that effectively reduces observed ADC bias for media of arbitrary anisotropy in the fewest measurements. Methods All-inclusive bias analysis considers spatial and time-domain cross-terms for diffusion and imaging gradients. The proposed correction is based on rotation of the gradient nonlinearity tensor into the diffusion gradient frame where spatial bias of b-matrix can be approximated by its Euclidean norm. Correction efficiency of the proposed procedure is numerically evaluated for a range of model diffusion tensor anisotropies and orientations. Results Spatial dependence of nonlinearity correction terms accounts for the bulk (75–95%) of ADC bias for FA = 0.3–0.9. Residual ADC non-uniformity errors are amplified for anisotropic diffusion. This approximation obviates need for full diffusion tensor measurement and diagonalization to derive a corrected ADC. Practical scenarios are outlined for implementation of the correction on clinical MRI systems. Conclusions The proposed simplified correction algorithm appears sufficient to control ADC non-uniformity errors in clinical studies using three orthogonal diffusion measurements. The most efficient reduction of ADC bias for anisotropic medium is achieved with non-lab-based diffusion gradients. PMID:23794533
The Cambridge Double Star Atlas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil
2015-12-01
Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.
Spatial frequency doubling - Retinal or central. [visual illusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richards, W.; Felton, T. B.
1973-01-01
When a wide field is sinusoidally modulated both in space and in time, the spatial frequency of the pattern will appear doubled at high rates of modulation. Kelly (1966) proposed that this illusion is due to temporal integration of the nonlinear brightness response of the visual system. The anatomical locus of this temporal integrator is uncertain, and could be subcortical. Results indicate that spatial frequency doubling follows binocular disparity detection and is thus a cortical phenomenon.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...
Shaping the nonlinear near field.
Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus
2016-01-01
Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states. PMID:26762487
NONLINEAR ASTEROSEISMOLOGY OF RR LYRAE
Molnar, L.; Kollath, Z.; Szabo, R.; Bryson, S.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Kolenberg, K.
2012-09-20
The observations of the Kepler Space Telescope revealed that fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars may show various radial overtones. The presence of multiple radial modes may allow us to conduct nonlinear asteroseismology: comparison of mode amplitudes and frequency shifts between observations and models. Here we report the detection of three radial modes in the star RR Lyr, the eponym of the class, using the Kepler short cadence data: besides the fundamental mode, both the first and the ninth overtones can be derived from the data set. RR Lyrae shows period doubling, but switches occasionally to a state where a pattern of six pulsation cycles repeats instead of two. We found hydrodynamic models that show the same three modes and the period-six state, allowing for comparison with the observations.
Shaping the nonlinear near field
Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus
2016-01-01
Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states. PMID:26762487
Kato, Akio
2006-11-14
The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.
Nonlinear-optical frequency-doubling metareflector: pulsed regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, A. K.; Myslivets, S. A.
2016-01-01
The properties of backward-wave second-harmonic metareflector operating in pulse regime are investigated. It is made of metamaterial which enables phase matching of contra-propagating fundamental and second-harmonic waves. References are given to the works that prove such a possibility. Physical principles underlying differences in the proposed and standard settings as well as between continuous-wave and pulsed regimes are discussed. Pulsed regime is more practicable and has a broader scope of applications. A set of partial differential equations which describe such a reflector with the account for losses are solved numerically. It is shown that unlike second-harmonic generation in standard settings, contra-propagating pulse of second harmonic may become much longer than the incident fundamental one and the difference grows with decrease in the input pulse length as compared to thickness of the metaslab. The revealed properties are important for applications and may manifest themselves beyond the optical wavelength range.
Cosmological baryon diffusion and nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Applegate, James H.; Hogan, Craig J.; Scherrer, Robert J.
1987-02-01
The diffusion rate of baryons through the big-bang plasma is calculated. Fluctuations in baryon density in the early Universe lead to inhomogeneities in the neutron-proton ratio, due to the differential diffusion of these particles through the radiation plasma. For certain types of nonlinear fluctuations, some nucleosynthesis would occur in very neutron-rich regions. Nuclear products of homogeneous neutron-enriched regions are evaluated numerically using a standard reaction network and these results are used to estimate final abundances in an inhomogeneous universe. Net deuterium and lithium abundances tend to increase and the net helium abundance tends to decrease compared to an unperturbed standard model. It is suggested that pronounced nonlinear baryon-density fluctuations produced in QCD- or electroweak-epoch phase transitions could alter abundances sufficiently to make a closed baryonic universe consistent with current observations of these elements. In such a model the abundance of heavier elements (C,N,O, etc.) increases significantly and approaches observable levels. Abundances can be used to place constraints on extreme scenarios for phase transitions at these epochs.
Parallel flow diffusion battery
Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.
1984-01-01
A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.
Parallel flow diffusion battery
Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung
1984-08-07
A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access) The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.
Regularized lattice Boltzmann model for a class of convection-diffusion equations.
Wang, Lei; Shi, Baochang; Chai, Zhenhua
2015-10-01
In this paper, a regularized lattice Boltzmann model for a class of nonlinear convection-diffusion equations with variable coefficients is proposed. The main idea of the present model is to introduce a set of precollision distribution functions that are defined only in terms of macroscopic moments. The Chapman-Enskog analysis shows that the nonlinear convection-diffusion equations can be recovered correctly. Numerical tests, including Fokker-Planck equations, Buckley-Leverett equation with discontinuous initial function, nonlinear convection-diffusion equation with anisotropic diffusion, are carried out to validate the present model, and the results show that the present model is more accurate than some available lattice Boltzmann models. It is also demonstrated that the present model is more stable than the traditional single-relaxation-time model for the nonlinear convection-diffusion equations. PMID:26565368
Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2013-01-01
Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377
Tristability and self-oscillations in a double resonator system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velikovich, A. L.; Golubev, G. P.; Golubchenko, V. P.; Luchinsky, D. G.
1991-01-01
A system consisting of two coupled Fabry-Perot resonators, one of them nonlinear, with an additional feedback between them is studied experimentally and theoretically. The dependence between the phase shift δφ of the resonator 2 and the laser-induced thermal load Q applied to the resonator 1 is essentially nonlinear. This nonlinearity of the additional feedback in the double resonator system is shown to make possible its self-oscillations and the existence of the tristable 8-shaped hysteresis curves. The frequencies of the observed self-oscillations are in the range from 100 Hz to 100 kHz, their shapes varying from sinusoidal to square and sawtooth.
Riemann equation for prime number diffusion.
Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie
2015-05-01
This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed. PMID:26026319
Derrien, Thibault J-Y; Krüger, Jörg; Itina, Tatiana E; Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Bonse, Jörn
2013-12-01
The formation of near-wavelength laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on silicon upon irradiation with sequences of Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulse pairs (pulse duration 150 fs, central wavelength 800 nm) is studied theoretically. For this purpose, the nonlinear generation of conduction band electrons in silicon and their relaxation is numerically calculated using a two-temperature model approach including intrapulse changes of optical properties, transport, diffusion and recombination effects. Following the idea that surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) can be excited when the material turns from semiconducting to metallic state, the "SPP active area" is calculated as function of fluence and double-pulse delay up to several picoseconds and compared to the experimentally observed rippled surface areas. Evidence is presented that multi-photon absorption explains the large increase of the rippled area for temporally overlapping pulses. For longer double-pulse delays, relevant relaxation processes are identified. The results demonstrate that femtosecond LIPSS on silicon are caused by the excitation of SPP and can be controlled by temporal pulse shaping. PMID:24514516
Nonlinear rotordynamics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Day, W. B.
1985-01-01
The special nonlinearities of the Jeffcott equations in rotordynamics are examined. The immediate application of this analysis is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the LOX pump of the SSME during hot firing ground testing. Deadband, side force and rubbing are three possible sources of inducing nonlinearity in the Jeffcott equations. The present analysis initially reduces these problems to the same mathematical description. A special frequency, named the nonlinear natural frequency is defined and used to develop the solutions of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations as asympotic expansions. This nonlinear natural frequency which is the ratio of the cross-stiffness and the damping, plays a major role in determining response frequencies. Numerical solutions are included for comparison with the analysis. Also, nonlinear frequency-response tables are made for a typical range of values.
The modification of the nonlinear guiding center theory
Qin, G.; Zhang, L.-H. E-mail: lhzhang@spaceweather.ac.cn
2014-05-20
We modify the NonLinear Guiding Center theory for perpendicular diffusion by replacing the spectral amplitude of the two-component model of magnetic turbulence with that of the two-dimensional model (following Shalchi), and replacing the constant a {sup 2}, which indicates the degree particles following the magnetic field line, with the variable a'{sup 2} as a function of the magnetic turbulence. We combine the modified model with the NonLinear PArallel diffusion theory to solve perpendicular and parallel diffusion coefficients simultaneously. It is shown that the new model agrees better with simulations. Furthermore, we fit the numerical results of the new model with polynomials, so that the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients can be calculated directly without iteration of integrations, and many numerical calculations can be reduced.
Semi-monolithic cavity for external resonant frequency doubling and method of performing the same
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)
1999-01-01
The fabrication of an optical cavity for use in a laser, in a frequency doubling external cavity, or any other type of nonlinear optical device, can be simplified by providing the nonlinear crystal in combination with a surrounding glass having an index of refraction substantially equal to that of the nonlinear crystal. The closed optical path in this cavity is formed in the surrounding glass and through the nonlinear crystal which lies in one of the optical segments of the light path. The light is transmitted through interfaces between the surrounding glass in the nonlinear crystal through interfaces which are formed at the Brewster-angle to minimize or eliminate reflection.
Stationary nonlinear Airy beams
Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.
2011-08-15
We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.
Diffusion, Peer Pressure, and Tailed Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecconi, Fabio; Marsili, Matteo; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos
2002-08-01
We present a general, physically motivated nonlinear and nonlocal advection equation in which the diffusion of interacting random walkers competes with a local drift arising from a kind of peer pressure. We show, using a mapping to an integrable dynamical system, that on varying a parameter the steady-state behavior undergoes a transition from the standard diffusive behavior to a localized stationary state characterized by a tailed distribution. Finally, we show that recent empirical laws on economic growth can be explained as a collective phenomenon due to peer pressure interaction.
A Relation for Nanodroplet Diffusion on Smooth Surfaces
Li, Chu; Huang, Jizu; Li, Zhigang
2016-01-01
In this work, we study the diffusion of nanodroplets on smooth surfaces through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and theoretical analyses. Molecular dynamics simulations show that nanodroplet surface diffusion is different from that of single molecules and solid particles. The dependence of nanodroplet diffusion coefficient on temperature undergoes a transition from linear to nonlinear as the surface wettability is weakened due to the coupling of temperature and surface energy. We also develop a simple relation for the diffusion coefficient by using the contact angle and contact radius of the droplet. It works well for a wide range of surface wettabilities and different sized nanodroplets, as confirmed by MD simulations. PMID:27215471
A Relation for Nanodroplet Diffusion on Smooth Surfaces.
Li, Chu; Huang, Jizu; Li, Zhigang
2016-01-01
In this work, we study the diffusion of nanodroplets on smooth surfaces through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and theoretical analyses. Molecular dynamics simulations show that nanodroplet surface diffusion is different from that of single molecules and solid particles. The dependence of nanodroplet diffusion coefficient on temperature undergoes a transition from linear to nonlinear as the surface wettability is weakened due to the coupling of temperature and surface energy. We also develop a simple relation for the diffusion coefficient by using the contact angle and contact radius of the droplet. It works well for a wide range of surface wettabilities and different sized nanodroplets, as confirmed by MD simulations. PMID:27215471
Organic nonlinear optical materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Umegaki, S.
1987-01-01
Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.
Nonlinear optics at interfaces
Chen, C.K.
1980-12-01
Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.
Double-hit and double-protein-expression lymphomas: aggressive and refractory lymphomas.
Sarkozy, Clémentine; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Coiffier, Bertrand
2015-11-01
Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) is a subgroup of aggressive lymphomas with both MYC and BCL2 gene rearrangements, characterised by a rapidly progressing clinical course that is refractory to aggressive treatment and short survival. Over time, the definition was modified and now includes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MYC translocation combined with an additional translocation involving BCL2 or BCL6. Some cases that have a similar clinical course with concomitant overexpression of MYC or BCL2 proteins were recently characterised as immunohistochemical double-hit lymphomas (ie, double-protein-expression lymphomas [DPLs]). The clinical course of these DPLs is worse than so-called standard DLBCL but suggested by some studies to be slightly better than DHL, although there is overlap between the two categories. Present treatment does not allow cure or long-term survival in patients with genetic or immunohistochemical double-hit lymphomas, but several new drugs are being developed. PMID:26545844
Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas
Hnat, B.
2011-09-22
Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.
Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hnat, B.
2011-09-01
Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.
Z-scan: A simple technique for determination of third-order optical nonlinearity
Singh, Vijender; Aghamkar, Praveen
2015-08-28
Z-scan is a simple experimental technique to measure intensity dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of third-order nonlinear optical materials. This technique is used to measure the sign and magnitude of both real and imaginary part of the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of nonlinear optical materials. In this paper, we investigate third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ag-polymer composite film by using single beam z-scan technique with Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser (λ=532 nm) at 5 ns pulse. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of permethylazine were found to be 9.64 × 10{sup −7} cm/W, 8.55 × 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/W and 5.48 × 10{sup −10} esu, respectively.
Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator
Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.
2014-04-24
A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.
Nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling in coupled waveguide arrays
Khomeriki, Ramaz
2010-07-15
The possibility of direct observation of the nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling effect with a device consisting of two waveguide arrays connected to a tilted reduced refractive index barrier is discussed. Numerical simulations on this realistic setup are interpreted via a simplified double-well system and different asymmetric tunneling scenarios are predicted varying just the injected beam intensity.
Nonlinear optical properties of Rh610 sensitized DNA-CTMA characterized by Z-Scan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dancus, I.; Vlad, V. I.; Petris, A.; Rau, I.; Kajzar, F.; Meghea, A.; Tane, A.
2013-06-01
In this paper, we show our preliminary results in the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of dye sensitized DNA. We are measuring the nonlinear refractive indices of the DNA with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) surfactant, doped with Rhodamine 610 dissolved in butanol. The measurements are made using the Double Z-Scan method using a femtosecond laser at 1030nm as light source working in mode-locked and un-mode-locked regime respectively for discriminating fast nonlinearities from the slow ones.
Friction and nonlinear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manini, N.; Braun, O. M.; Tosatti, E.; Guerra, R.; Vanossi, A.
2016-07-01
The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction.
Friction and nonlinear dynamics.
Manini, N; Braun, O M; Tosatti, E; Guerra, R; Vanossi, A
2016-07-27
The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction. PMID:27249652
Nonlinear Optics and Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)
2007-01-01
Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.
Aqueous diffusion in repository and backfill environments
Conca, J.L.; Apted, M.; Arthur, R.
1993-12-31
Aqueous diffusion coefficients have been experimentally determined in a variety of porous/fractured geologic and engineered media. For performance assessment applications, the purely diffusive flux must be separated from retardation effects. The simple diffusion coefficient, D, does not include any transient chemical effects, e.g., sorption, which lower the diffusion coefficient for some finite time period until equilibrium is reached. D is primarily a function of volumetric water content, {theta}, and not material characteristics. At high water contents, D gradually declines as water content decreases, from 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/sec at {theta} {approximately}0.5%. Although surface diffusion has a strong experimental basis in the transport of gases along metal surfaces experimental evidence for aqueous geologic/backfill/engineered systems strongly indicates that surface diffusion is not important, even in bentonite, because of the extremely poor connectivity among electric double-layers and the extremely low diffusivities and high {partial_derivative}C/{partial_derivative}x at small area/point contacts which more than negate the increased flux along intragrain surfaces.
Crossover from Ballistic to Diffusive Thermal Transport in Carbon Nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takahiro; Konabe, Satoru; Shiomi, Junichiro; Maruyama, Shigeo
2009-09-01
We present a theoretical scheme that seamlessly handles the crossover from fully ballistic to diffusive thermal transport regimes and apply it to carbon nanotubes. At room temperature, micrometer-length nanotubes belong to the intermediate regime in which ballistic and diffusive phonons coexist. According to our scheme, the thermal conductance of these nanotubes exhibit anomalous nonlinear dependence of tube length due to this coexistence. This result is in excellent agreement with molecular-dynamics simulation results showing the nonlinear thermal conductance. Additionally, we clarify the mechanism of crossover in terms of the length-dependent characteristic frequency.
Diffusion Acceleration Schemes for Self-Adjoint Angular Flux Formulation with a Void Treatment
Yaqi Wang; Hongbin Zhang; Richard C. Martineau
2014-02-01
A Galerkin weak form for the monoenergetic neutron transport equation with a continuous finite element method and discrete ordinate method is developed based on self-adjoint angular flux formulation. This weak form is modified for treating void regions. A consistent diffusion scheme is developed with projection. Correction terms of the diffusion scheme are derived to reproduce the transport scalar flux. A source iteration that decouples the solution of all directions with both linear and nonlinear diffusion accelerations is developed and demonstrated. One-dimensional Fourier analysis is conducted to demonstrate the stability of the linear and nonlinear diffusion accelerations. Numerical results of these schemes are presented.
Nonlinear electrophoresis in the presence of dielectric decrement.
Figliuzzi, B; Chan, W H R; Buie, C R; Moran, J L
2016-08-01
The nonlinear phenomena that occur in the electric double layer (EDL) that forms at charged surfaces strongly influence electrokinetic effects, including electro-osmosis and electrophoresis. In particular, saturation effects due to either dielectric decrement or ion crowding effects are of paramount importance. Dielectric decrement significantly influences the ionic concentration in the EDL at high ζ potential, leading to the formation of a condensed layer near the particle's surface. In this article, we present a model incorporating both steric effects due to the finite size of ions and dielectric decrement to describe the physics in the electric double layer. The model remains valid in both weakly and strongly nonlinear regimes, as long as the electric double layer remains in quasiequilibrium. We apply this model to the study of two archetypal problems in electrokinetics, namely the electrophoresis of particles with fixed surface charges and the electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles. PMID:27627400
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca
2012-05-01
Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.
Tiny Molybdenites Tell Diffusion Tales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.
2014-12-01
Diffusion invokes micron-scale exchange during crystal growth and dissolution in magma chambers on short time-scales. Fundamental to interpreting such data are assumptions on magma-fluid dynamics at all scales. Nevertheless, elemental diffusion profiles are used to estimate time scales for magma storage, eruption, and recharge. An underutilized timepiece to evaluate diffusion and 3D mobility of magmatic fluids is high-precision Re-Os dating of molybdenite. With spatially unique molybdenite samples from a young ore system (e.g., 1 Ma) and a double Os spike, analytical errors of 1-3 ka unambiguously separate events in time. Re-Os ages show that hydrous shallow magma chambers locally recharge and expel Cu-Mo-Au-silica as superimposed stockwork vein networks at time scales less than a few thousand years [1]. Re-Os ages provide diffusion rates controlled by a dynamic crystal mush, accumulation and expulsion of metalliferous fluid, and magma reorganization after explosive crystallization events. Importantly, this approach has broad application far from ore deposits. Here, we use Re-Os dating of molybdenite to assess time scales for generating and diffusing metals through the deep crust. To maximize opportunity for chemical diffusion, we use a continental-scale Sveconorwegian mylonite zone for the study area. A geologically constrained suite of molybdenite samples was acquired from quarry exposures. Molybdenite, previously unreported, is extremely scarce. Tiny but telling molybdenites include samples from like occurrences to assure geologic accuracy in Re-Os ages. Ages range from mid-Mesoproterozoic to mid-Neoproterozoic, and correspond to early metamorphic dehydration of a regionally widespread biotite-rich gneiss, localized melting of gneiss to form cm-m-scale K-feldspar ± quartz pods, development of vapor-rich, vuggy mm stringers that serve as volatile collection surfaces in felsic leucosomes, and low-angle (relative to foliation) cross-cutting cm-scale quartz veins
Nonlinear theory of collisionless trapped ion modes
Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.
1996-03-01
A simplified two field nonlinear model for collisionless trapped-ion-mode turbulence has been derived from nonlinear bounce-averaged drift kinetic equations. The renormalized thermal diffusivity obtained from this analysis exhibits a Bohm-like scaling. A new nonlinearity associated with the neoclassical polarization density is found to introduce an isotope-dependent modification to this Bohm-like diffusivity. The asymptotic balance between the equilibrium variation and the finite banana width induced reduction of the fluctuation potential leads to the result that the radial correlation length decreases with increasing plasma current. Other important conclusions from the present analysis include the predictions that (i) the relative density fluctuation level {delta}n/n{sub 0} is lower than the conventional mixing length estimate, {Delta}r/L{sub n} (ii) the ion temperature fluctuation level {delta}T{sub i}/T{sub i} significantly exceeds the density fluctuation level {delta}n/n{sub 0}; and (iii) the parallel ion velocity fluctuation level {delta}v{sub i}{sub {parallel}}/v{sub Ti} is expected to be negligible.
Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles in noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Shalchi, A.; Hussein, M. E-mail: m_hussein@physics.umanitoba.ca
2014-10-10
A model for noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence was recently proposed. This model was already used to study the random walk of magnetic field lines. In the current article we use the same model to investigate the diffusion of energetic particles across the mean magnetic field. To compute the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, two analytical theories are used, namely, the Non-Linear Guiding Center theory and the Unified Non-Linear Transport (UNLT) theory. It is shown that the two theories provide different results for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. We also perform test-particle simulations for the aforementioned turbulence model. We show that only the UNLT theory describes perpendicular transport accurately, confirming that this is a powerful tool in diffusion theory.
Generating multi-double-scroll attractors via nonautonomous approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Qinghui; Xie, Qingguo; Shen, Yi; Wang, Xiaoping
2016-08-01
It is a common phenomenon that multi-scroll attractors are realized by introducing the various nonlinear functions with multiple breakpoints in double scroll chaotic systems. Differently, we present a nonautonomous approach for generating multi-double-scroll attractors (MDSA) without changing the original nonlinear functions. By using the multi-level-logic pulse excitation technique in double scroll chaotic systems, MDSA can be generated. A Chua's circuit, a Jerk circuit, and a modified Lorenz system are given as designed example and the Matlab simulation results are presented. Furthermore, the corresponding realization circuits are designed. The Pspice results are in agreement with numerical simulation results, which verify the availability and feasibility of this method.
Generating multi-double-scroll attractors via nonautonomous approach.
Hong, Qinghui; Xie, Qingguo; Shen, Yi; Wang, Xiaoping
2016-08-01
It is a common phenomenon that multi-scroll attractors are realized by introducing the various nonlinear functions with multiple breakpoints in double scroll chaotic systems. Differently, we present a nonautonomous approach for generating multi-double-scroll attractors (MDSA) without changing the original nonlinear functions. By using the multi-level-logic pulse excitation technique in double scroll chaotic systems, MDSA can be generated. A Chua's circuit, a Jerk circuit, and a modified Lorenz system are given as designed example and the Matlab simulation results are presented. Furthermore, the corresponding realization circuits are designed. The Pspice results are in agreement with numerical simulation results, which verify the availability and feasibility of this method. PMID:27586606
Purging of multilayer insulation by gas diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sumner, I. E.; Spuckler, C. M.
1976-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the time required to purge a multilayer insulation (MLI) panel with gaseous helium by means of gas diffusion to obtain a condensable (nitrogen) gas concentration of less than 1 percent within the panel. Two flat, rectangular MLI panel configurations, one incorporating a butt joint, were tested. The insulation panels consisted of 15 double-aluminized Mylar radiation shields separated by double silk net spacers. The test results indicated that the rate which the condensable gas concentration at the edge or at the butt joint of an MLI panel was reduced was a significant factor in the total time required to reduce the condensable gas concentration within the panel to less than 1 percent. The experimental data agreed well with analytical predictions made by using a simple, one-dimensional gas diffusion model in which the boundary conditions at the edge of the MLI panel were time dependent.
Biktashev, V. N.; Tsyganov, M. A.
2016-01-01
Solitons, defined as nonlinear waves which can reflect from boundaries or transmit through each other, are found in conservative, fully integrable systems. Similar phenomena, dubbed quasi-solitons, have been observed also in dissipative, “excitable” systems, either at finely tuned parameters (near a bifurcation) or in systems with cross-diffusion. Here we demonstrate that quasi-solitons can be robustly observed in excitable systems with excitable kinetics and with self-diffusion only. This includes quasi-solitons of fixed shape (like KdV solitons) or envelope quasi-solitons (like NLS solitons). This can happen in systems with more than two components, and can be explained by effective cross-diffusion, which emerges via adiabatic elimination of a fast but diffusing component. We describe here a reduction procedure can be used for the search of complicated wave regimes in multi-component, stiff systems by studying simplified, soft systems. PMID:27491430
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biktashev, V. N.; Tsyganov, M. A.
2016-08-01
Solitons, defined as nonlinear waves which can reflect from boundaries or transmit through each other, are found in conservative, fully integrable systems. Similar phenomena, dubbed quasi-solitons, have been observed also in dissipative, “excitable” systems, either at finely tuned parameters (near a bifurcation) or in systems with cross-diffusion. Here we demonstrate that quasi-solitons can be robustly observed in excitable systems with excitable kinetics and with self-diffusion only. This includes quasi-solitons of fixed shape (like KdV solitons) or envelope quasi-solitons (like NLS solitons). This can happen in systems with more than two components, and can be explained by effective cross-diffusion, which emerges via adiabatic elimination of a fast but diffusing component. We describe here a reduction procedure can be used for the search of complicated wave regimes in multi-component, stiff systems by studying simplified, soft systems.
Biktashev, V N; Tsyganov, M A
2016-01-01
Solitons, defined as nonlinear waves which can reflect from boundaries or transmit through each other, are found in conservative, fully integrable systems. Similar phenomena, dubbed quasi-solitons, have been observed also in dissipative, "excitable" systems, either at finely tuned parameters (near a bifurcation) or in systems with cross-diffusion. Here we demonstrate that quasi-solitons can be robustly observed in excitable systems with excitable kinetics and with self-diffusion only. This includes quasi-solitons of fixed shape (like KdV solitons) or envelope quasi-solitons (like NLS solitons). This can happen in systems with more than two components, and can be explained by effective cross-diffusion, which emerges via adiabatic elimination of a fast but diffusing component. We describe here a reduction procedure can be used for the search of complicated wave regimes in multi-component, stiff systems by studying simplified, soft systems. PMID:27491430
Controllable optical bistability in triple quantum dot nanostructure via double tunnel coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafarzadeh, Hossein
2014-08-01
The behavior of optical bistability in triple quantum dot nanostructure using double tunnel coupling inside a unidirectional ring cavity is investigated. Also, the linear and nonlinear absorption of the system are investigated. The double tunneling between the quantum dots can change the absorption of the system. The threshold of OB can be controlled by the intensity of the double tunneling and the detuning of probe field. This may be employed for the development of new types of nanoelectronic devices for realizing switching process.
Nonlinear Dynamics in the Ultradian Rhythm of Desmodium motorium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jyh-Phen; Engelmann, Wolfgang; Baier, Gerold
1995-12-01
The dynamics of the lateral leaflet movement of Desmodium motorium is studied. Simple periodic, quasiperiodic and aperiodic time series are observed. The long-scale dynamics may either be uniform or composed of several prototypic oscillations (one of them reminiscent of homoclinic chaos). Diffusively coupled nonlinear oscillators may account for the variety of ultradian rhythms.
Nonlinear Analysis of Surface EMG Time Series of Back Muscles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolton, Donald C.; Zurcher, Ulrich; Kaufman, Miron; Sung, Paul
2004-10-01
A nonlinear analysis of surface electromyography time series of subjects with and without low back pain is presented. The mean-square displacement and entropy shows anomalous diffusive behavior on intermediate time range 10 ms < t < 1 s. This behavior implies the presence of correlations in the signal. We discuss the shape of the power spectrum of the signal.
Zweig, George
2016-05-01
An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis. PMID:27250151
Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks
Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z.; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks. PMID:26173555
Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks.
Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D V; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks. PMID:26173555
Restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Wei; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Nagao, Raphael; Kiss, István Z.; Tang, Yang; Koseska, Aneta; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-07-01
Oscillatory behaviour is essential for proper functioning of various physical and biological processes. However, diffusive coupling is capable of suppressing intrinsic oscillations due to the manifestation of the phenomena of amplitude and oscillation deaths. Here we present a scheme to revoke these quenching states in diffusively coupled dynamical networks, and demonstrate the approach in experiments with an oscillatory chemical reaction. By introducing a simple feedback factor in the diffusive coupling, we show that the stable (in)homogeneous steady states can be effectively destabilized to restore dynamic behaviours of coupled systems. Even a feeble deviation from the normal diffusive coupling drastically shrinks the death regions in the parameter space. The generality of our method is corroborated in diverse non-linear systems of diffusively coupled paradigmatic models with various death scenarios. Our study provides a general framework to strengthen the robustness of dynamic activity in diffusively coupled dynamical networks.
Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalysts extrudates
Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.
1992-01-01
Objective is to determine the relation between the size and shape of coal and petroleum micromolecules and their diffusion rates in catalyst pore structures. Diffusivity measurements will be performed with aged catalysts from coal liquefaction pilot plants. During this period, equilibrium adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption isotherm needed in the data analysis. The equilibrium isotherm for quinoline in cyclohexane with fresh Shell 324 (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) catalyst was found to be nonlinear and well represented by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The effective diffusivity was found to be less than the estimated pore diffusivity for nonrestrictive diffusion, indicating pore restriction for quinoline diffusion in cyclohexane with Shell 324 catalyst.
COMPARISON OF NUMERICAL SCHEMES FOR SOLVING A SPHERICAL PARTICLE DIFFUSION EQUATION
A new robust iterative numerical scheme was developed for a nonlinear diffusive model that described sorption dynamics in spherical particle suspensions. he numerical scheme had been applied to finite difference and finite element models that showed rapid convergence and stabilit...
Computer simulation of the velocity diffusion of cosmic rays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaiser, T. B.; Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.
1977-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation experiments were performed in order to study the velocity diffusion of charged particles in a static turbulent magnetic field. By following orbits of particles moving in a large ensemble of random magnetic field realizations with suitable chosen statistical properties, a pitch-angle diffusion coefficient is derived. Results are presented for a variety of particle rigidities and rms random field strengths and compared with the predictions of standard quasi-linear theory and the nonlinear partially averaged field theory.
Nonlocalized modulation of periodic reaction diffusion waves: The Whitham equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Mathew A.; Noble, Pascal; Rodrigues, L. Miguel; Zumbrun, Kevin
2013-02-01
In a companion paper, we established nonlinear stability with detailed diffusive rates of decay of spectrally stable periodic traveling-wave solutions of reaction diffusion systems under small perturbations consisting of a nonlocalized modulation plus a localized ( L 1) perturbation. Here, we determine time-asymptotic behavior under such perturbations, showing that solutions consist of a leading order of a modulation whose parameter evolution is governed by an associated Whitham averaged equation.
Galactic civilizations: Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.
1978-01-01
The interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations is reexamined by potential theory; both numerical and analytical solutions are derived for the nonlinear partial differential equations which specify a range of relevant models, drawn from blast wave physics, soil science, and, especially, population biology. An essential feature of these models is that, for all civilizations, population growth must be limited by the carrying capacity of the environment. Dispersal is fundamentally a diffusion process; a density-dependent diffusivity describes interstellar emigration. Two models are considered: the first describing zero population growth (ZPG), and the second which also includes local growth and saturation of a planetary population, and for which an asymptotic traveling wave solution is found.
Temperature Diffusion Waves in Magnetized Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, M. A.; Morales, G. J.; Maggs, J. E.
2002-11-01
Fluctuations of localized heat sources manifest themselves as temperature diffusion waves throughout the plasma surrounding the source, with anisotropic propagation characteristics due to the anisotropic nature of the thermal conductivity. In fact, fluctuations in electron temperature have been observed experimentally in studies of heat transport in magnetized temperature filaments (Burke et al., Phys. Plasmas, 7, 1397, 2000) where the anisotropic nature was of paramount interest. Here, the theory of temperature diffusion waves in a magnetized plasma is presented, and the properties of these waves are investigated both analytically and numerically. Results from the one-dimensional (parallel), linear theory of diffusion waves are used to shed light on the results obtained by a two-dimensional (parallel and perpendicular) transport code. Features that are investigated include the spatial structure of wave amplitude and phase, the effect that the size of the source region has on the spatial structure (i.e., radial localization), and the strongly nonlinear (large amplitude source fluctuations) limit.
Microfabricated diffusion source
Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.
2008-07-15
A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.
Nonlinear ordinary difference equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caughey, T. K.
1979-01-01
Future space vehicles will be relatively large and flexible, and active control will be necessary to maintain geometrical configuration. While the stresses and strains in these space vehicles are not expected to be excessively large, their cumulative effects will cause significant geometrical nonlinearities to appear in the equations of motion, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by material properties. Since the only effective tool for the analysis of such large complex structures is the digital computer, it will be necessary to gain a better understanding of the nonlinear ordinary difference equations which result from the time discretization of the semidiscrete equations of motion for such structures.
Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2011-11-01
Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control.
Diffusion at the magnetopause: A theoretical perspective
Winske, D.; Thomas, V.A.; Omidi, N.
1994-04-01
This paper discusses theoretical aspects of cross-field wave-particle transport at the magnetopause. The basic framework for calculating the transport based on second order-theory is reviewed. Instabilities that give rise to the waves which then lead to particle scattering and diffusion are discussed, and in particular, the lower hybrid drift instability is emphasized. The linear and nonlinear properties of this instability are presented, along with results from revelant computer simulations. Other potential diffusion processes at the magnetopause are also described. The overall conclusion, supported by wave and particle observations, is that wave-particle diffusion is a relatively weak process at the magnetopause. Further, it is argued that this line of research, while illuminating potential new mechanisms, cannot address the more important question of diffusion and transport on a spatial scale of many ion gyroradii over a temporal scale of many ion gyroperiods. A new paradigm to examine the global aspects of magnetopause transport on ion scales using hybrid code methods is presented. Results of two-dimensional hybrid simulations show that the structure of the magnetopause for northward interplanetary magnetic field is reproduced, and the resulting transport in this case is due to waves below the ion gyrofrequency. Diffusion in the presence of viscous transport due to the kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is then discussed. The potential for the study of particle diffusion, viscous interactions and magnetic reconnection simultaneously through this paradigm is also addressed.
Water diffusivity in human nail plate.
Gunt, Hemali B; Miller, Matthew A; Kasting, Gerald B
2007-12-01
The diffusivity of water in human nail at 32 degrees C was determined for cadaveric, human finger nails having water contents ranging from 0.536 g H(2)O/g dry nail to 0.035 g H(2)O/g dry nail by measuring the desorption of tritiated water from nails suspended in water or in the vapor phase above salt solutions yielding a range of relative humidities (RH). Diffusivity increased with increasing RH from (7.7 +/- 1.3) x 10(-10) cm(2) s(-1) at 15% RH to (3.2 +/- 1.1) x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) in the liquid phase study at 100% RH, a more than 400-fold increase. The diffusivity values, which may be understood in terms of the equilibrium water content of the nail and a free volume theory for diffusion in hydrophilic polymers, were consistent with water diffusivities measured in other keratinized tissues including wool, horn and the corneocyte phase of stratum corneum. Analysis of the tritium desorption data was complicated by a tritium exchange process between (3)H(2)O and nail keratin, the kinetics of which are presented in part. The combination of the concentration-dependent water diffusivity with the natural water activity gradient in nail in vivo leads to the prediction of a nonlinear steady-state water concentration profile in human nail in vivo which, in turn, has implications for ungual drug delivery. PMID:17786922
Cosmic Ray Diffusion Tensor Throughout the Heliosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, C.; Bieber, J. W.; Breech, B.; Burger, R. A.; Clem, J.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2008-12-01
We calculate the cosmic ray diffusion tensor based on a recently developed model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the expanding solar wind [Breech et al., 2008.]. Parameters of this MHD model are tuned by using published observations from Helios, Voyager 2, and Ulysses. We present solutions of two turbulence parameter sets and derive the characteristics of the cosmic ray diffusion tensor for each. We determine the parallel diffusion coefficient of the cosmic ray following the method presented in Bieber et al. [1995]. We use the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory to obtain the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of the cosmic ray [Matthaeus et al. 2003]. We find that (1) the radial mean free path decreases from 1 AU to 20 AU for both turbulence scenarios; (2) after 40 AU the radial mean free path is nearly constant; (3) the radial mean free path is dominated by the parallel component before 20 AU, after which the perpendicular component becomes important; (4) the rigidity P dependence of the parallel component of the diffusion tensor is proportional to P.404 for one turbulence scenario and P.374 for the other at 1 AU from 0.1 GVto 10 GV, but in the outer heliosphere its dependence becomes stronger above 4 GV; (5) the rigidity P dependence of the perpendicular component of the diffusion tensor is very weak. Supported by NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator grant NNX07AH73G and by NASA Heliophysics Theory grant NNX08AI47G.