Saturable Lorentz model for fully explicit three-dimensional modeling of nonlinear optics.
Varin, Charles; Bart, Graeme; Emms, Rhys; Brabec, Thomas
2015-02-09
Inclusion of the instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity in the FDTD framework leads to implicit equations that have to be solved iteratively. In principle, explicit integration can be achieved with the use of anharmonic oscillator equations, but it tends to be unstable and inappropriate for studying strong-field phenomena like laser filamentation. In this paper, we show that nonlinear susceptibility can be provided instead by a harmonic oscillator driven by a nonlinear force, chosen in a way to reproduce the polarization obtained from the solution of the quantum mechanical two-level equations. The resulting saturable, nonlinearly-driven, harmonic oscillator model reproduces quantitatively the quantum mechanical solutions of harmonic generation in the under-resonant limit, up to the 9th harmonic. Finally, we demonstrate that fully explicit leapfrog integration of the saturable harmonic oscillator is stable, even for the intense laser fields that characterize laser filamentation and high harmonic generation.
Whirley, R.G.
1991-05-01
This report is the User Manual for the 1991 version of DYNA3D, and also serves as an interim User Guide. DYNA3D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of three-dimensional solids and structures. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA3D includes solid, shell, beam, and truss elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding and single surface contact. Rigid materials provide added modeling flexibility. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA3D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. Along with the DYNA3D Example Problem Manual, this document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA3D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems. 73 refs., 49 figs.
Hoover, C G; DeGroot, A J; Sherwood, R J
2000-06-01
ParaDyn is a parallel version of the DYNA3D computer program, a three-dimensional explicit finite-element program for analyzing the dynamic response of solids and structures. The ParaDyn program has been used as a production tool for over three years for analyzing problems which range in size from a few tens of thousands of elements to between one-million and ten-million elements. ParaDyn runs on parallel computers provided by the Department of Energy Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) and the Department of Defense High Performance Computing and Modernization Program. Preprocessing and post-processing software utilities and tools are designed to facilitate the generation of partitioned domains for processors on a massively parallel computer and the visualization of both resultant data and boundary data generated in a parallel simulation. This manual provides a brief overview of the parallel implementation; describes techniques for running the ParaDyn program, tools and utilities; and provides examples of parallel simulations.
Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.
1993-11-01
This report is the User Manual for the 1993 version of DYNA3D, and also serves as a User Guide. DYNA3D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of three-dimensional solids and structures. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA3D includes solid, shell, beam, and truss elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding and single surface contact. Rigid materials provide added modeling flexibility. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA3D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. Along with the DYNA3D Example Problem Manual, this document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA3D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems.
Nonlinear stability and control of three-dimensional boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janke, Erik
The linear and nonlinear evolution of steady and traveling disturbances in three-dimensional incompressible boundary layer flows is studied using Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE). Extensive primary stability analyses for the model problems of Swept Hiemenz flow and the DLR Transition experiment on a swept flat plate are performed first. Second, and building upon these results, detailed secondary instability studies based on both the classical Floquet Theory and a novel approach that uses the nonlinear PSE are conducted. The investigations reveal a connection of unstable secondary eigenvalues to both the linear eigenvalue spectrum of the undisturbed mean flow and the continuous spectrum, as well as the existence of an absolute instability in the region of nonlinear amplitude saturation. Third, a passive technique for boundary layer transition control using leading edge roughness is examined utilizing a newly developed implicit solution method for the nonlinear PSE. The results confirm experimental observations and indicate possible means of delaying transition on swept wings. In the present work, both the solution of the boundary layer equations for the mean flow and the explicit PSE solver are based on a fourth-order-accurate compact scheme formulation in body-oriented coordinates. In the secondary instability analysis, the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method is applied.
Nonlinear wave interaction problems in the three-dimensional case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curró, C.; Manganaro, N.; Pavlov, M. V.
2017-01-01
Three-dimensional nonlinear wave interactions have been analytically described. The procedure under interest can be applied to three-dimensional quasilinear systems of first order, whose hydrodynamic reductions are homogeneous semi-Hamiltonian hydrodynamic type systems (i.e. possess diagonal form and infinitely many conservation laws). The interaction of N waves was studied. In particular we prove that they behave like simple waves and they distort after the collision region. The amount of the distortion can be analytically computed.
Nonlinear three-dimensional trajectory following: simulation and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hines, George H.
In light of recent military requirements for unmanned and autonomous vehicles, research into methods of designing arbitrary three-dimensional trajectories and controlling aircraft along them has become vital. In this report, we explore two methods of nonlinear control for the purpose of following three-dimensional trajectories and paths. First, prior work on a dynamic feedback linearization exploiting the differential flatness of the ideal airplane is adapted with the intent of implementing it on a physical testbed in MIT's Realtime indoor Autonomous Vehicle test ENvironment (RAVEN), but poor behavior—both in simulation and in hardware—under moderate levels of joint parameter uncertainty thwarted attempts at implementation. Additionally, the differential flatness technique in its pure form follows trajectories, which are sometimes inferior intuitively and practically to paths. In the context of unmanned air vehicle (UAV) flight in gusty environments, this motivated the extension of prior work on two-dimensional path following to three-dimensions, and simulations are presented in which the fully nonlinear controller derived from differential flatness follows a trajectory that is generated dynamically from a path. The three-dimensional path-following logic is actually implemented in RAVEN, and results are presented that demonstrate good vertical rise time in response to a step input and centimeter accuracy in vertical and lateral tracking. Future directions are proposed.
A naturally grown three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal
Xu, Tianxiang; Lu, Dazhi; Yu, Haohai Zhang, Huaijin Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Yong
2016-02-01
Nonlinear frequency conversion via three-dimensional (3D) quasi-phase matching (QPM) process is experimentally realized based on a Ba{sub 0.77}Ca{sub 0.23}TiO{sub 3} (BCT) crystal. The ferroelectric domains in BCT crystal are observed, and the results reveal that the antiparallel domains distribute in three dimensions and can provide 3D reciprocal lattice vectors for QPM processes. Broadband petal-like second-harmonic patterns are achieved, which are well consistent with the theoretical quasi-cubic model of 3D nonlinear photonic crystals. Our work not only promotes the development of QPM technique but also builds a platform for 3D nonlinear optics and quantum optics.
Nonlinear elasticity in rocks: A comprehensive three-dimensional description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lott, Martin; Remillieux, Marcel C.; Garnier, Vincent; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T. J.; Payan, Cédric
2017-07-01
We study theoretically and experimentally the mechanisms of nonlinear and nonequilibrium dynamics in geomaterials through dynamic acoustoelasticity testing. In the proposed theoretical formulation, the classical theory of nonlinear elasticity is extended to include the effects of conditioning. This formulation is adapted to the context of dynamic acoustoelasticity testing in which a low-frequency "pump" wave induces a strain field in the sample and modulates the propagation of a high-frequency "probe" wave. Experiments are conducted to validate the formulation in a long thin bar of Berea sandstone. Several configurations of the pump and probe are examined: the pump successively consists of the first longitudinal and first torsional mode of vibration of the sample while the probe is successively based on (pressure) P and (shear) S waves. The theoretical predictions reproduce many features of the elastic response observed experimentally, in particular, the coupling between nonlinear and nonequilibrium dynamics and the three-dimensional effects resulting from the tensorial nature of elasticity.
Phase matching in three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals
Chen Junjie; Chen Xianfeng
2009-07-15
The coupled-wave equations of three-wave interactions are generalized into three dimensions. The reciprocal lattice vectors (RLVs) of three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear photonic crystals (NPCs) which show some unique properties are analyzed in detail as compared to those in one- and two-dimensional cases. It is proposed as an example that the cross-distributing conical harmonic beams can be obtained from the 3D NPC by intentionally using the proper RLVs. Some other possible applications are suggested at the end of discussion.
Three-dimensional nonlinear vibration of gear pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eritenel, Tugan; Parker, Robert G.
2012-07-01
This work investigates the three-dimensional nonlinear vibration of gear pairs where the nonlinearity is due to portions of gear teeth contact lines losing contact (partial contact loss). The gear contact model tracks partial contact loss using a discretized stiffness network. The nonlinear dynamic response is obtained using the discretized stiffness network, but it is interpreted and discussed with reference to a lumped-parameter gear mesh model named the equivalent stiffness representation. It consists of a translational stiffness acting at a changing center of stiffness location (two parameters) and a twist stiffness. These four parameters, calculated from the dynamic response, change as the gears vibrate, and tracking their behavior as a post-processing tool illuminates the nonlinear gear response. There is a gear mesh twist mode where the twist stiffness is active in addition to the well-known mesh deflection mode where the translational stiffness is active. The twist mode is excited by periodic back and forth axial movement of the center of stiffness in helical gears. The same effect can occur in wide facewidth spur gears if tooth lead modifications or other factors such as shaft and bearing deflections disrupt symmetry about the axial centers of the mating teeth. Resonances of both modes are shown to be nonlinear due to partial and total contact loss. Comparing the numerical results with gear vibration experiments from the literature verifies the model and confirms partial contact loss nonlinearity in experiments.
An exactly solvable three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator
Schulze-Halberg, A.; Morris, J. R.
2013-11-15
Exact analytical, closed-form solutions, expressed in terms of special functions, are presented for the case of a three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator with a position dependent mass. This system is the generalization of the corresponding one-dimensional system, which has been the focus of recent attention. In contrast to other approaches, we are able to obtain solutions in terms of special functions, without a reliance upon a Rodrigues-type of formula. The wave functions of the quantum oscillator have the familiar spherical harmonic solutions for the angular part. For the s-states of the system, the radial equation accepts solutions that have been recently found for the one-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator, given in terms of associated Legendre functions, along with a constant shift in the energy eigenvalues. Radial solutions are obtained for all angular momentum states, along with the complete energy spectrum of the bound states.
An exactly solvable three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulze-Halberg, A.; Morris, J. R.
2013-11-01
Exact analytical, closed-form solutions, expressed in terms of special functions, are presented for the case of a three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator with a position dependent mass. This system is the generalization of the corresponding one-dimensional system, which has been the focus of recent attention. In contrast to other approaches, we are able to obtain solutions in terms of special functions, without a reliance upon a Rodrigues-type of formula. The wave functions of the quantum oscillator have the familiar spherical harmonic solutions for the angular part. For the s-states of the system, the radial equation accepts solutions that have been recently found for the one-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator, given in terms of associated Legendre functions, along with a constant shift in the energy eigenvalues. Radial solutions are obtained for all angular momentum states, along with the complete energy spectrum of the bound states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiroux, Robert Charles
The objective of this research was to produce a three dimensional, non-linear, dynamic simulation of the interaction between a hyperelastic wheel rolling over compactable soil. The finite element models developed to produce the simulation utilized the ABAQUS/Explicit computer code. Within the simulation two separate bodies were modeled, the hyperelastic wheel and a compactable soil-bed. Interaction between the bodies was achieved by allowing them to come in contact but not to penetrate the contact surface. The simulation included dynamic loading of a hyperelastic, rubber tire in contact with compactable soil with an applied constant angular velocity or torque, including a tow load, applied to the wheel hub. The constraints on the wheel model produced a straight and curved path. In addition the simulation included a shear limit between the tire and soil allowing for the introduction of slip. Soil properties were simulated using the Drucker-Prager, Cap Plasticity model available within the ABAQUS/Explicit program. Numerical results obtained from the three dimensional model were compared with related experimental data and showed good correlation for similar conditions. Numerical and experimental data compared well for both stress and wheel rut formation depth under a weight of 5.8 kN and a constant angular velocity applied to the wheel hub. The simulation results provided a demonstration of the benefit of three-dimensional simulation in comparison to previous two-dimensional, plane strain simulations.
Three-dimensional viscous-flow computations using a directionally hybrid implicit-explicit procedure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, Y. M.; Chaussee, D. S.
1983-01-01
A new, directionally dependent, hybrid numerical algorithm for solving the unsteady, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations has been developed and used to compute the viscous supersonic flow over complex configurations, which may generate local regions of embedded subsonic or streamwise separated flows or both. The new hybrid implicit-explicit algorithm is derived from the more general implicit Beam-Warming algorithm and is particularly suitable for viscous computations in which the grid spacing in the direction outward from the body is considerably smaller than the spacing in the other two directions. Numerical results obtained from both the hybrid and implicit schemes are presented and compared on the basis of numerical stability, convergence history, and computer and core memory requirements.
Development of an explicit non-staggered scheme for solving three-dimensional Maxwell's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheu, Tony W. H.; Chung, Y. W.; Li, J. H.; Wang, Y. C.
2016-10-01
An explicit finite-difference scheme for solving the three-dimensional Maxwell's equations in non-staggered grids is presented. We aspire to obtain time-dependent solutions of the Faraday's and Ampère's equations and predict the electric and magnetic fields within the discrete zero-divergence context (or Gauss's law). The local conservation laws in Maxwell's equations are numerically preserved using the explicit second-order accurate symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta temporal scheme. Following the method of lines, the spatial derivative terms in the semi-discretized Faraday's and Ampère's equations are approximated theoretically to obtain a highly accurate numerical phase velocity. The proposed fourth-order accurate space-centered finite difference scheme minimizes the discrepancy between the exact and numerical phase velocities. This minimization process considerably reduces the dispersion and anisotropy errors normally associated with finite difference time-domain methods. The computational efficiency of getting the same level of accuracy at less computing time and the ability of preserving the symplectic property have been numerically demonstrated through several test problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kai; Su, Zhongqing; Yuan, Shenfang
2017-04-01
Extending a two-dimensional analytical framework previously developed for understanding contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) in a beam-like structure bearing a contact crack[1], this study reports an analytical model for interpreting CAN induced due to the modulation from a "breathing" crack in a plate-like structure on propagating guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs) in a three-dimensional (3-D) scenario. The "breathing" crack is considered, in a 3-D manner, as a second source to excite additional wave fields. Thorough investigation of the interaction between the probing GUWs and the "breathing" crack leads to explicit, analytical and full-field description of additional wave fields. In this study, influences of reflected and diffracted waves by the crack on the motion of crack surfaces are scrutinized, yielding a depiction of the "breathing" behavior of the crack, beneficial for quantifying the crack-induced source at double frequency, with which the crack-induced nonlinearity (i.e. second harmonic) can be evaluated quantitatively, in conjunction with the use of an elasto-dynamic method. A nonlinearity index is consequently defined to represent the severity of the "breathing" crack. Results obtained from the 3-D model are compared with those from a finite element simulation, to affirm good agreement. This model does not request a benchmarking process against baseline signals for evaluation of damage.
Three-dimensional theory of weakly nonlinear Compton scattering
Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.; Hartemann, F. V.
2011-01-15
Nonlinear effects are known to occur in light sources when the wiggler parameter, or normalized 4-potential, A=e{radical}(-A{sub {mu}}A{sup {mu}})/m{sub 0}c, approaches unity. In this paper, it is shown that nonlinear spectral features can appear at arbitrarily low values of A if the fractional bandwidth of the undulator, {Delta}{phi}{sup -1}, is sufficiently small and satisfies the condition A{sup 2{Delta}{phi}{approx}}1. Consequences for the spectral brightness of Compton scattering light sources are outlined. Compton and Thomson scattering theories are compared with the Klein-Nishina cross-section formula to highlight differences in the case of narrow band gamma-ray operation. A weakly nonlinear Compton scattering theory is developed in one (plane wave) and three (local plane wave approximation) dimensions. Analytical models are presented and benchmarked against numerical calculations solving the Lorentz force equation with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. Finally, narrow band gamma-ray spectra are calculated for realistic laser and electron beams.
Three-dimensional effects in nonlinear fracture explored with interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfaff, Richard D.
The prospects for understanding fracture mechanics in terms of a general material constitutive description are explored. The effort consists of three distinct components.First, optical interferometry, in its various forms (Twyman-Green, diffraction moire, etc.), can potentially be used under a wide range of conditions to very accurately measure the displacement and strain fields associated with the deformation surrounding a cracktip. To broaden the range of fracture problems to which interferometry may be applied, certain of the necessary experimental improvements have been developed:1. High speed camera designs capable of extremely high (> 10(9) frames/second) framing rates with large array sizes, (> 4000 x 4000 pixels per frame) so that the application of optical techniques to solid mechanics may be considered without limitation on the rate of deformation.2. An accurate and adaptable device for dynamic loading of fracture specimens to high load levels utilizing electromagnetic (Lorentz force) loading with ultrahigh (> 2,000,000 Amp/cm(2)) current flux densities.3. Implementation of high sensitivity (2 nm), large range (2 nm x 3,200,000) interferometry achieved with wide field array sizes of 50,000 x 50,000 and 8 bit gray scale (error restricted to 1 bit) for surface deformation measurements on fracture specimens.Second, functional descriptions for certain aspects of the displacement fields associated with fracture specimens are developed. It is found that the fully three-dimensional crack tip field surrounding a through-thickness crack in a plate of elastic-plastic material shows a hierarchical structure of organization and that the primary aspects of the deformation field would seem to have a relatively simple form of expression if the deformation is viewed in a properly normalized form.Third, a comparison is made between interferometrically measured surface displacements for a notched 3-point-bend speciemn of a ductile heat treatment of 4340 steel and a
Three-Dimensional Effects in Nonlinear Fracture Explored with Interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfaff, Richard David
The prospects for understanding fracture mechanics in terms of a general material constitutive description are explored. The effort consists of three distinct components. First, optical interferometry, in its various forms (Twyman-Green, diffraction moire, etc.), can potentially be used under a wide range of conditions to very accurately measure the displacement and strain fields associated with the deformation surrounding a cracktip. To broaden the range of fracture problems to which interferometry may be applied, certain of the necessary experimental improvements have been developed: (1) High speed camera designs capable of extremely high (>10^9 frames/second) framing rates with large array sizes, (>4000 x 4000 pixels per frame) so that the application of optical techniques to solid mechanics may be considered without limitation on the rate of deformation. (2) An accurate and adaptable device for dynamic loading of fracture specimens to high load levels utilizing electromagnetic (Lorentz force) loading with ultrahigh (>2,000,000 Amp/cm^2) current flux densities. (3) Implementation of high sensitivity (2 nm), large range (2 nm x 3,200,000) interferometry achieved with wide field array sizes of 50,000 x 50,000 and 8 bit gray scale (error restricted to 1 bit) for surface deformation measurements on fracture specimens. Second, functional descriptions for certain aspects of the displacement fields associated with fracture specimens are developed. It is found that the fully three-dimensional crack tip field surrounding a through-thickness crack in a plate of elastic-plastic material shows a hierarchical structure of organization and that the primary aspects of the deformation field would seem to have a relatively simple form of expression if the deformation is viewed in a properly normalized form. Third, a comparison is made between interferometrically measured surface displacements for a notched 3-point-bend specimen of a ductile heat treatment of 4340 steel and a
Nonlinear multiscale analysis of three-dimensional echocardiographic sequences
Sarti, A. |; Mikula, K.; Sgallari, F.
1999-06-01
The authors introduce a new model for multiscale analysis of space-time echocardiographic sequences. The proposed nonlinear partial differential equation, representing the multiscale analysis, filters the sequence while keeping the space-time coherent structures. It combines the ideas of regularized Perona-Malik anisotropic diffusion and the Galilean invariant movie multiscale analysis of Alvarez, Guichard, Lions and Morel. A numerical method for solving the proposed partial differential equation is suggested and its stability is shown. Computational results on synthesized and real sequences are provided. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of the method is presented.
Nonlinear multiscale analysis of three-dimensional echocardiographic sequences.
Sarti, A; Mikula, K; Sgallari, F
1999-06-01
We introduce a new model for multiscale analysis of space-time echocardiographic sequences. The proposed nonlinear partial differential equation, representing the multiscale analysis, filters the sequence while keeping the space-time coherent structures. It combines the ideas of regularized Perona-Malik anisotropic diffusion and the Galilean invariant movie multiscale analysis of Alvarez, Guichard, Lions and Morel. A numerical method for solving the proposed partial differential equation is suggested and its stability is shown. Computational results on synthesized and real sequences are provided. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of the method is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong
2017-07-01
To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei-Ting; Li, Ying-Ying; Yang, Shi-Jie
2013-06-01
We study the Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a three-dimensional spherically symmetrical potential. Exact solutions to the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation are obtained for properly modulated radial nonlinearity. The solutions contain vortices with different winding numbers and exhibit the shell-soliton feature in the radial distributions.
Nonlinear characteristics analysis of vortex-induced vibration for a three-dimensional flexible tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhipeng; Jiang, Naibin; Zang, Fenggang; Zhang, Yixiong; Huang, Xuan; Wu, Wanjun
2016-05-01
Vortex-induced vibration of a three-dimensional flexible tube is one of the key problems to be considered in many engineering situations. This paper aims to investigate the nonlinear dynamic behaviors and response characteristics of a three-dimensional tube under turbulent flow. The three-dimensional unsteady, viscous, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model are solved with the finite volume approach, and the dynamic equilibrium equations are discretized by the finite element theory. A three-dimensional fully coupled numerical model for vortex-induced vibration of flexible tube is proposed. The model realized the fluid-structure interaction with solving the fluid flow and the structure vibration simultaneously. Based on this model, Response regimes, trajectory, phase difference, fluid force coefficient and vortex shedding frequency are obtained. The nonlinear phenomena of lock-in, phase-switch are captured successfully. Meanwhile, the limit cycle, bifurcation of lift coefficient and displacement are analyzed using phase portrait and Poincare section. The results reveal that, a quasi-upper branch occurs in the present fluid-flexible tube coupling system with high mass-damping and low mass ratio. There is no bifurcation of lift coefficient and lateral displacement occurred in the three-dimensional flexible tube submitted to uniform turbulent flow.
Three-dimensional nonlinear flutter analysis of long-span suspension bridges during erection.
Zhang, Xin-jun; Sun, Bing-nan; Xiang, Hai-fan
2003-01-01
In this work, the aerodynamic stability of the Yichang Suspension Bridge over Yangtze River during erection was determined by three-dimensional nonlinear flutter analysis, in which the nonlinearities of structural dynamic characteristics and aeroelastic forces caused by large deformation are fully considered. An interesting result obtained was that the bridge was more stable when the stiffening girders were erected in a non-symmetrical manner as opposed to the traditional symmetrical erection schedule. It was also found that the severe decrease in the aerodynamic stability was due to the nonlinear effects. Therefore, the nonlinear factors should be considered accurately in aerodynamic stability analysis of long-span suspension bridges during erection.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palmer, Grant
1989-01-01
This study presents a three-dimensional explicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing numerical algorithm applied to viscous hypersonic flows in thermochemical nonequilibrium. The algorithm employs a two-temperature physical model. Equations governing the finite-rate chemical reactions are fully-coupled to the gas dynamic equations using a novel coupling technique. The new coupling method maintains stability in the explicit, finite-rate formulation while allowing relatively large global time steps. The code uses flux-vector accuracy. Comparisons with experimental data and other numerical computations verify the accuracy of the present method. The code is used to compute the three-dimensional flowfield over the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle at one of its trajectory points.
An explicit three-dimensional nonhydrostatic numerical simulation of a tropical cyclone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripoli, G. J.
1992-01-01
A nonhydrostatic numerical simulation of a tropical cyclone is performed with explicit representation of cumulus on a meso-beta scale grid and for a brief period on a meso-gamma scale grid. Individual cumulus plumes are represented by a combination of explicit resolution and a 1.5 level closure predicting turbulent kinetic energy (TKE).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, A. F.
1983-01-01
A system of computer programs has been developed to model general three-dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinate to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface intersection curves. Internal details of the implementation of this system are explained, and maintenance procedures are specified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kew, Lee Ming; Ali, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd
2015-08-01
In this paper, new group iterative numerical schemes based on the centred and rotated (skewed) seven-point finite difference discretisations are proposed for the solution of a three dimensional second order hyperbolic telegraph equation, subject to specific initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions. Both schemes are shown to be of second order accuracies and unconditionally stable. The scheme derived from the rotated grid stencil results in a reduced linear system with lower computational complexity compared to the scheme derived from the centred approximation formula. A comparative study with other common point iterative methods based on the seven-point centred difference approximation together with their computational complexity analyses is also presented.
Some exact solutions of a system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space
Moskalyuk, S.S.
1988-02-01
Interactions that break the symmetry of systems of nonrelativistic Schroedinger equations but preserve their symmetry with respect to one-parameter subgroups of the Schroedinger group are described. Ansatzes for invariant solutions and the corresponding systems of reduced equations in invariant variables for Galileo-invariant Schroedinger equations are found. Exact solutions for the system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space for the generalized Hubbard model are obtained.
A fast method for fully nonlinear three-dimensional water wave simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clamond, D.; Fructus, D.; Grue, J.; Francius, M.
2003-04-01
Fully nonlinear simulations of freak waves in three-dimension are investigated by a rapid numerical procedure. The method solves the Laplace equation by using the Green function method, that is reformulated in a quickly computable way. This method has already been proved useful for two-dimensional problems. We investigate the three-dimensional effect on freak waves, evolution of wave groups, horse-shoe patterns, etc.
Three dimensional nonlinear magnetic AdS solutions through topological defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Momennia, M.; Panahiyan, S.
2015-09-01
Inspired by large applications of topological defects in describing different phenomena in physics, and considering the importance of three dimensional solutions in AdS/CFT correspondence, in this paper we obtain magnetic anti-de Sitter solutions of nonlinear electromagnetic fields. We take into account three classes of nonlinear electrodynamic models; first two classes are the well-known Born-Infeld like models including logarithmic and exponential forms and third class is known as the power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics. We investigate the effects of these nonlinear sources on three dimensional magnetic solutions. We show that these asymptotical AdS solutions do not have any curvature singularity and horizon. We also generalize the static metric to the case of rotating solutions and find that the value of the electric charge depends on the rotation parameter. Finally, we consider the quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction of Maxwell theory and we investigate the effects of nonlinearity as a correction. We study the behavior of the deficit angle in presence of these theories of nonlinearity and compare them with each other. We also show that some cases with negative deficit angle exists which are representing objects with different geometrical structure. We also show that in case of the static only magnetic field exists whereas by boosting the metric to rotating one, electric field appears too.
Fully nonlinear three-dimensional convection in a rapidly rotating layer
Julien, K.; Knobloch, E.
1999-06-01
Fully nonlinear three-dimensional convection in a rotating layer is studied for large Taylor numbers. In this regime, the leading order nonlinearity arises from the distortion of the horizontally averaged temperature profile. As a result, steady rolls, squares, hexagons, triangles, and a pattern called patchwork quilt all have identical Nusselt numbers. A similar degeneracy is present in overstable convection with six patterns having identical time-averaged Nusselt numbers and oscillation frequencies. These results are obtained via an asymptotic expansion in the Taylor number that determines, for each Rayleigh number, the time-averaged Nusselt number and oscillation frequency from the solution of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the vertical temperature profile. A number of other patterns are determined by a weakly nonlinear analysis that cannot be extended into the fully nonlinear regime by the present methods, but these patterns are necessarily unstable. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.
2013-02-01
A dynamic shear rheometer is again used to characterize the nonlinearly viscoelastic properties of asphalt binders at intermediate or high temperatures. In our previous work, the dynamic shear rheometer test results showed that, under certain conditions, a compressive normal force was generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to cyclic torque histories. This normal force could not be solely attributed to the Poynting effect and was also related to the tendency of the asphalt binder to dilate when subjected to shear loads. The generated normal force changed the state of stress and interacted with the shear behavior of asphalt binder. This effect was considered to be an "interaction nonlinearity" or "three-dimensional effect." The concept is explored further in this paper by developing a fundamental approach to modeling the observed behavior. In this approach, the octahedral shear stress is used to represent the three-dimensional stress state in Schapery's model of nonlinearly viscoelastic behavior. The model was successfully validated for several different loading histories. These results highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the three-dimensional stress state of the material.
On the Stability of Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers. Part 1; Linear and Nonlinear Stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janke, Erik; Balakumar, Ponnampalam
1999-01-01
The primary stability of incompressible three-dimensional boundary layers is investigated using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE). We compute the evolution of stationary and traveling disturbances in the linear and nonlinear region prior to transition. As model problems, we choose Swept Hiemenz Flow and the DLR Transition Experiment. The primary stability results for Swept Hiemenz Flow agree very well with computations by Malik et al. For the DLR Experiment, the mean flow profiles are obtained by solving the boundary layer equations for the measured pressure distribution. Both linear and nonlinear results show very good agreement with the experiment.
Moawad, S. M. Ibrahim, D. A.
2016-08-15
The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.
Simulation of three-dimensional nonlinear fields of ultrasound therapeutic arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuldashev, P. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.
2011-05-01
A novel numerical model was developed to simulate three-dimensional nonlinear fields generated by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) arrays. The model is based on the solution to the Westervelt equation; the developed algorithm makes it possible to model nonlinear pressure fields of periodic waves in the presence of shock fronts localized near the focus. The role of nonlinear effects in a focused beam of a two-dimensional array was investigated in a numerical experiment in water. The array consisting of 256 elements and intensity range on the array elements of up to 10 W/cm2 was considered. The results of simulations have shown that for characteristic intensity outputs of modern HIFU arrays, nonlinear effects play an important role and shock fronts develop in the pressure waveforms at the focus.
Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Meier, T.
2016-01-01
Nonlinearity is the driving force for numerous important effects in nature typically showing transitions between different regimes, regular, chaotic or catastrophic behavior. Localized nonlinear modes have been the focus of intense research in areas such as fluid and gas dynamics, photonics, atomic and solid state physics etc. Due to the richness of the behavior of nonlinear systems and due to the severe numerical demands of accurate three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations presently only little knowledge is available on the dynamics of complex nonlinear modes in 3D. Here, we investigate the dynamics of 3D non-coaxial matter wave vortices that are trapped in a parabolic potential and interact via a repulsive nonlinearity. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an unexpected and fascinating nonlinear regime that starts immediately when the nonlinearity is switched-on and is characterized by a smooth dynamics representing torque-free precession with nutations. The reported motion is proven to be robust regarding various effects such as the number of particles, dissipation and trap deformations and thus should be observable in suitably designed experiments. Since our theoretical approach, i.e., coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, is quite generic, we expect that the obtained novel dynamical behavior should also exist in other nonlinear systems. PMID:26964759
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, E. A.; Zinn, B. T.
1973-01-01
An analytical technique is developed to solve nonlinear three-dimensional, transverse and axial combustion instability problems associated with liquid-propellant rocket motors. The Method of Weighted Residuals is used to determine the nonlinear stability characteristics of a cylindrical combustor with uniform injection of propellants at one end and a conventional DeLaval nozzle at the other end. Crocco's pressure sensitive time-lag model is used to describe the unsteady combustion process. The developed model predicts the transient behavior and nonlinear wave shapes as well as limit-cycle amplitudes and frequencies typical of unstable motor operation. The limit-cycle amplitude increases with increasing sensitivity of the combustion process to pressure oscillations. For transverse instabilities, calculated pressure waveforms exhibit sharp peaks and shallow minima, and the frequency of oscillation is within a few percent of the pure acoustic mode frequency. For axial instabilities, the theory predicts a steep-fronted wave moving back and forth along the combustor.
Time domain computation of nonlinear diffraction loads upon three dimensional floating bodies
Ferrant, P.
1995-12-31
The diffraction of nonlinear regular waves of permanent form by three dimensional bodies is simulated numerically. The computation is based on a boundary integral equation method, with a mixed Euler-Lagrange approach for the time-stepping. The method is an extension of a previously developed linear time domain computational model for free surface flows (Ferrant 1993b). The behavior of the nonlinear model has first been tested on radiation and diffraction problems for submerged bodies, with satisfactory results (Ferrant 1994). In the present paper, the author reports on the extension of this model to the diffraction of nonlinear waves upon surface piercing bodies. Some numerical results obtained in the case of a bottom-mounted vertical cylinder in water of finite depth are presented and discussed.
Three dimensional nonlinear analysis of a single-grating rectangular waveguide Cerenkov maser
Xie, Wenqiu; Wang, Zi-Cheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding
2015-04-15
A three dimensional (3-D) nonlinear model for illustrating the beam-wave interaction in a single-grating rectangular waveguide sheet-beam Cerenkov maser is presented. The dynamical equations and the equations of motion are solved self-consistently to predict the device performance. Space-charge effects and Ohmic losses are considered in the model. A 1.03 THz backward wave oscillator and a 0.65 THz traveling wave tube are discussed as two illustrative examples.
Weiland, C.M.; Steck, L.K.; Dawson, P.B.
1995-10-10
The authors explore the impact of three-dimensional minimum travel time ray tracing on nonlinear teleseismic inversion. This problem has particular significance when trying to image strongly contrasting low-velocity bodies, such as magma chambers, because strongly refracted/and/or diffracted rays may precede the direct P wave arrival traditionally used in straight-ray seismic tomography. They use a simplex-based ray tracer to compute the three-dimensional, minimum travel time ray paths and employ an interative technique to cope with nonlinearity. Results from synthetic data show that their algorithm results in better model reconstructions compared with traditional straight-ray inversions. The authors reexamine the teleseismic data collected at Long Valley caldera by the U.S. Geological Survey. The most prominent feature of their result is a 25-30% low-velocity zone centered at 11.5 km depth beneath the northwestern quandrant of the caldera. Beneath this at a depth of 24.5 km is a more diffuse 15% low-velocity zone. In general, the low velocities tend to deepen to the south and east. The authors interpret the shallow feature to be the residual Long Valley caldera magma chamber, while the deeper feature may represent basaltic magmas ponded in the midcrust. The deeper position of the prominent low-velocity region in comparison to earlier tomographic images is a result of using three-dimensional rays rather than straight rays in the ray tracing. The magnitude of the low-velocity anomaly is a factor of {approximately}3 times larger than earlier models from linear arrival time inversions and is consistent with models based on observations of ray bending at sites within the caldera. These results imply the presence of anywhere from 7 to 100% partial melt beneath the caldera. 40 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, T.; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, A.; Alhuthali, M. S.
2015-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid in the presence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects is analyzed. Energy equation subject to nonlinear thermal radiation is taken into account. The flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic field is neglected for a small magnetic Reynolds number. Mathematical formulation is performed using boundary layer analysis. Newly proposed boundary condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is employed. The governing nonlinear mathematical problems are first converted into dimensionless expressions and then solved for the series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration. Convergence of the constructed solutions is verified. Effects of emerging parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and Nusselt number are also computed and analyzed. It is found that the thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of radiative effect.
Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinton, Gianmarco
2015-10-01
Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it
Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging
Pinton, Gianmarco
2015-10-28
Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Otto, S. R.; Bassom, Andrew P.
1992-01-01
The nonlinear development is studied of the most unstable Gortler mode within a general 3-D boundary layer upon a suitably concave surface. The structure of this mode was first identified by Denier, Hall and Seddougui (1991) who demonstrated that the growth rate of this instability is O(G sup 3/5) where G is the Gortler number (taken to be large here), which is effectively a measure of the curvature of the surface. Previous researchers have described the fate of the most unstable mode within a 2-D boundary layer. Denier and Hall (1992) discussed the fully nonlinear development of the vortex in this case and showed that the nonlinearity causes a breakdown of the flow structure. The effect of crossflow and unsteadiness upon an infinitesimal unstable mode was elucidated by Bassom and Hall (1991). They demonstrated that crossflow tends to stabilize the most unstable Gortler mode, and for certain crossflow/frequency combinations the Gortler mode may be made neutrally stable. These vortex configurations naturally lend themselves to a weakly nonlinear stability analysis; work which is described in a previous article by the present author. Here we extend the ideas of Denier and Hall (1992) to the three-dimensional boundary layer problem. It is found that the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear equations is best conducted using a method which is essentially an adaption of that utilized by Denier and Hall (1992). The influence of crossflow and unsteadiness upon the breakdown of the flow is described.
The nonlinear evolution of inviscid Goertler vortices in three-dimensional boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackaby, Nicholas; Dando, Andrew; Hall, Philip
1995-01-01
The nonlinear development of inviscid Gortler vortices in a three-dimensional boundary layer is considered. We do not follow the classical approach of weakly nonlinear stability problems and consider a mode which has just become unstable. Instead we extend the method of Blackaby, Dando, and Hall (1992), which considered the closely related nonlinear development of disturbances in stratified shear flows. The Gortler modes we consider are initially fast growing and we assume, following others, that boundary-layer spreading results in them evolving in a linear fashion until they reach a stage where their amplitudes are large enough and their growth rates have diminished sufficiently so that amplitude equations can be derived using weakly nonlinear and non-equilibrium critical-layer theories. From the work of Blackaby, Dando and Hall (1993) is apparent, given the range of parameters for the Gortler problem, that there are three possible nonlinear integro-differential evolution equations for the disturbance amplitude. These are a cubic due to viscous effects, a cubic which corresponds to the novel mechanism investigated in this previous paper, and a quintic. In this paper we shall concentrate on the two cubic integro-differential equations and in particular, on the one due to the novel mechanism as this will be the first to affect a disturbance. It is found that the consideration of a spatial evolution problem as opposed to temporal (as was considered in Blackaby, Dando, and Hall, 1992) causes a number of significant changes to the evolution equations.
Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth–I. Model and numerical method
Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Frieboes, H.B.; Cristini, V.
2012-01-01
This is the first paper in a two-part series in which we develop, analyze and simulate a diffuse interface continuum model of multispecies tumor growth and tumor-induced angiogenesis in two and three dimensions. Three dimensional simulations of nonlinear tumor growth and neovascularization using this diffuse interface model were recently presented in Frieboes et al. (2007), but that paper did not describe the details of the model or the numerical algorithm. This is done here. In this diffuse interface approach, sharp interfaces are replaced by narrow transition layers that arise due to differential adhesive forces among the cell-species. Accordingly, a continuum model of adhesion is introduced. The model is thermodynamically consistent, is related to recently developed mixture models, and thus is capable of providing a detailed description of tumor progression. The model is well-posed and consists of fourth-order nonlinear advection-reaction-diffusion equations (of Cahn-Hilliard-type) for the cell-species coupled with reaction-diffusion equations for the substrate components. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that when the diffuse interface thickness tends to zero, the system reduces to a classical sharp interface model. Using a new fully adaptive, nonlinear multigrid/finite difference method the system is simulated efficiently. In this first paper, we present simulations of unstable avascular tumor growth in two and three dimensions and demonstrate that our techniques now make large-scale three dimensional simulations of tumors with complex morphologies computationally feasible. In Part II of this study, we will investigate multispecies tumor invasion, tumor-induced angiogenesis and focus on the morphological instabilities that may underlie invasive phenotypes. PMID:18485374
Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Yan, R.; Aluie, H.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.
2016-02-15
The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.
Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Yan, R.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Aluie, H.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.
2016-02-02
The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. As a result, the vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.
Experimental tests of linear and nonlinear three-dimensional equilibrium models in DIII-D
King, Josh D.; Strait, Edward J.; Lazerson, Samuel A.; Ferraro, Nathaniel M.; Logan, Nikolas C.; Haskey, Shaun R.; Park, Jong-Kyu; Hanson, Jeremy M.; Lanctot, Matthew J.; Liu, Yueqiang; Nazikian, Raffi; Okabayashi, Michio; Paz-Soldan, Carlos A.; Shiraki, Daisuke; Turnbull, Alan D.
2015-07-01
DIII-D experiments using new detailed magnetic diagnostics show that linear, ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory quantitatively describes the magnetic structure (as measured externally) of three-dimensional equilibria resulting from applied fields with toroidal mode number n = 1, while a nonlinear solution to ideal MHD force balance, using the VMEC code, requires the inclusion of n ≥ 1 to achieve similar 2 agreement. These tests are carried out near ITER baseline parameters, providing a validated basis on which to exploit 3D fields for plasma control development. Scans of the applied poloidal spectrum and edge safety factor confirm that low-pressure, n =1 nonaxisymmetric tokamak equilibria are determined by a single, dominant, stable eigenmode. However, at higher beta, near the ideal kink mode stability limit in the absence of a conducting wall, the qualitative features of the 3D structure are observed to vary in a way that is not captured by ideal MHD.
Experimental tests of linear and nonlinear three-dimensional equilibrium models in DIII-D
King, Josh D.; Strait, Edward J.; Lazerson, Samuel A.; ...
2015-07-01
DIII-D experiments using new detailed magnetic diagnostics show that linear, ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory quantitatively describes the magnetic structure (as measured externally) of three-dimensional equilibria resulting from applied fields with toroidal mode number n = 1, while a nonlinear solution to ideal MHD force balance, using the VMEC code, requires the inclusion of n ≥ 1 to achieve similar 2 agreement. These tests are carried out near ITER baseline parameters, providing a validated basis on which to exploit 3D fields for plasma control development. Scans of the applied poloidal spectrum and edge safety factor confirm that low-pressure, n =1 nonaxisymmetricmore » tokamak equilibria are determined by a single, dominant, stable eigenmode. However, at higher beta, near the ideal kink mode stability limit in the absence of a conducting wall, the qualitative features of the 3D structure are observed to vary in a way that is not captured by ideal MHD.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zhiming; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoshi; Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Awais, Qasim; Yang, Jin
2016-12-01
Vibration, widely existing in an ambient environment with a variety of forms and wide-range of scales, recently becomes an attractive target for energy harvesting. However, its time-varying directions and frequencies render a lack of effective energy technology to scavenge it. Here, we report a rationally designed nonlinear magnetoelectric generator for broadband and multi-directional vibration energy harvesting. By using a stabilized three-dimensional (3D) magnetic interaction and spring force, the device working bandwidth was largely broadened, which was demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically. The multidirectional vibration energy harvesting was enabled by three identical suspended springs with equal intersection angles, which are all connected to a cylindrical magnet. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the nonlinear harvester can sustain large-amplitude oscillations over a wide frequency range, and it can generate power efficiently in an arbitrary direction. Moreover, the experimental data suggest that the proposed nonlinear energy harvester has the potential to scavenge vibrational energy over a broad range of ambient frequencies in 3D space.
On nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in three-dimensional boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Dominic A. R.; Smith, Frank T.
1993-01-01
The instability of an incompressible three-dimensional boundary layer (that is, one with cross-flow) is considered theoretically and computationally in the context of vortex/wave interactions. Specifically the work centers on two low amplitude, lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves which mutually interact to induce a weak longitudinal vortex flow; the vortex motion, in turn, gives rise to significant wave-modulation via wall-shear forcing. The characteristic Reynolds number is taken as a large parameter and, as a consequence, the waves' and the vortex motion are governed primarily by triple-deck theory. The nonlinear interaction is captured by a viscous partial-differential system for the vortex coupled with a pair of amplitude equations for each wave pressure. Three distinct possibilities were found to emerge for the nonlinear behavior of the flow solution downstream - an algebraic finite-distance singularity, far downstream saturation or far-downstream wave-decay (leaving pure vortex flow) - depending on the input conditions, the wave angles, and the size of the cross-flow.
Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators.
Driben, R; Konotop, V V; Malomed, B A; Meier, T
2016-07-01
The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3+3 harmonic-oscillator p-wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l=1 and m=1, 0, -1. The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p-wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l=1.
Nonlinear axisymmetric and three-dimensional vorticity dynamics in a swirling jet model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, J. E.; Meiburg, E.
1996-01-01
The mechanisms of vorticity concentration, reorientation, and stretching are investigated in a simplified swirling jet model, consisting of a line vortex along the jet axis surrounded by a jet shear layer with both azimuthal and streamwise vorticity. Inviscid three-dimensional vortex dynamics simulations demonstrate the nonlinear interaction and competition between a centrifugal instability and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities feeding on both components of the base flow vorticity. Under axisymmetric flow conditions, it is found that the swirl leads to the emergence of counterrotating vortex rings, whose circulation, in the absence of viscosity, can grow without bounds. Scaling laws are provided for the growth of these rings, which trigger a pinch-off mechanism resulting in a strong decrease of the local jet diameter. In the presence of an azimuthal disturbance, the nonlinear evolution of the flow depends strongly on the initial ratio of the azimuthal and axisymmetric perturbation amplitudes. The long term dynamics of the jet can be dominated by counterrotating vortex rings connected by braid vortices, by like-signed rings and streamwise braid vortices, or by wavy streamwise vortices alone.
Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Malomed, B. A.; Meier, T.
2016-07-01
The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3 +3 harmonic-oscillator p -wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l =1 and m =1 , 0, -1 . The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p -wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l =1 .
Yan, Zhenya; Konotop, V V
2009-09-01
It is shown that using the similarity transformations, a set of three-dimensional p-q nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations with inhomogeneous coefficients can be reduced to one-dimensional stationary NLS equation with constant or varying coefficients, thus allowing for obtaining exact localized and periodic wave solutions. In the suggested reduction the original coordinates in the (1+3) space are mapped into a set of one-parametric coordinate surfaces, whose parameter plays the role of the coordinate of the one-dimensional equation. We describe the algorithm of finding solutions and concentrate on power (linear and nonlinear) potentials presenting a number of case examples. Generalizations of the method are also discussed.
An Explicit Nonlinear Mapping for Manifold Learning.
Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Di; Zhang, Bo
2013-02-01
Manifold learning is a hot research topic in the held of computer science and has many applications in the real world. A main drawback of manifold learning methods is, however, that there are no explicit mappings from the input data manifold to the output embedding. This prohibits the application of manifold learning methods in many practical problems such as classification and target detection. Previously, in order to provide explicit mappings for manifold learning methods, many methods have been proposed to get an approximate explicit representation mapping with the assumption that there exists a linear projection between the high-dimensional data samples and their low-dimensional embedding. However, this linearity assumption may be too restrictive. In this paper, an explicit nonlinear mapping is proposed for manifold learning, based on the assumption that there exists a polynomial mapping between the high-dimensional data samples and their low-dimensional representations. As far as we know, this is the hrst time that an explicit nonlinear mapping for manifold learning is given. In particular, we apply this to the method of locally linear embedding and derive an explicit nonlinear manifold learning algorithm, which is named neighborhood preserving polynomial embedding. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data show that the proposed mapping is much more effective in preserving the local neighborhood information and the nonlinear geometry of the high-dimensional data samples than previous work.
2013-01-01
Background Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a standard imaging modality for identification of plaque formation in the coronary and peripheral arteries. Volumetric three-dimensional (3D) IVUS visualization provides a powerful tool to overcome the limited comprehensive information of 2D IVUS in terms of complex spatial distribution of arterial morphology and acoustic backscatter information. Conventional 3D IVUS techniques provide sub-optimal visualization of arterial morphology or lack acoustic information concerning arterial structure due in part to low quality of image data and the use of pixel-based IVUS image reconstruction algorithms. In the present study, we describe a novel volumetric 3D IVUS reconstruction algorithm to utilize IVUS signal data and a shape-based nonlinear interpolation. Methods We developed an algorithm to convert a series of IVUS signal data into a fully volumetric 3D visualization. Intermediary slices between original 2D IVUS slices were generated utilizing the natural cubic spline interpolation to consider the nonlinearity of both vascular structure geometry and acoustic backscatter in the arterial wall. We evaluated differences in image quality between the conventional pixel-based interpolation and the shape-based nonlinear interpolation methods using both virtual vascular phantom data and in vivo IVUS data of a porcine femoral artery. Volumetric 3D IVUS images of the arterial segment reconstructed using the two interpolation methods were compared. Results In vitro validation and in vivo comparative studies with the conventional pixel-based interpolation method demonstrated more robustness of the shape-based nonlinear interpolation algorithm in determining intermediary 2D IVUS slices. Our shape-based nonlinear interpolation demonstrated improved volumetric 3D visualization of the in vivo arterial structure and more realistic acoustic backscatter distribution compared to the conventional pixel-based interpolation method. Conclusions This
A three-dimensional nonlinear Timoshenko beam based on the core-congruential formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crivelli, Luis A.; Felippa, Carlos A.
1992-01-01
A three-dimensional, geometrically nonlinear two-node Timoshenkoo beam element based on the total Larangrian description is derived. The element behavior is assumed to be linear elastic, but no restrictions are placed on magnitude of finite rotations. The resulting element has twelve degrees of freedom: six translational components and six rotational-vector components. The formulation uses the Green-Lagrange strains and second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses as energy-conjugate variables and accounts for the bending-stretching and bending-torsional coupling effects without special provisions. The core-congruential formulation (CCF) is used to derived the discrete equations in a staged manner. Core equations involving the internal force vector and tangent stiffness matrix are developed at the particle level. A sequence of matrix transformations carries these equations to beam cross-sections and finally to the element nodal degrees of freedom. The choice of finite rotation measure is made in the next-to-last transformation stage, and the choice of over-the-element interpolation in the last one. The tangent stiffness matrix is found to retain symmetry if the rotational vector is chosen to measure finite rotations. An extensive set of numerical examples is presented to test and validate the present element.
Nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering of three-dimensional image data from two-photon microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broser, Philip J.; Schulte, Roland; Roth, A.; Helmchen, Fritjof; Waters, Jack; Lang, Stefan; Sakmann, Bert J.; Wittum, Gabriel
2005-03-01
Two-photon microscopy in combination with novel fluorescent labeling techniques enables imaging of three-dimensional neuronal morphologies in intact brain tissue. In principle it is now possible to automatically reconstruct the dendritic branching patterns of neurons from 3D fluorescence image stacks. In practice however, the signal-to-noise ratio can be low, in particular in the case of thin dendrites or axons imaged relatively deep in the tissue. Here we present a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter that enhances the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original dimensions of the structural elements. The key idea is to use structural information in the raw data -- the local moments of inertia -- to locally control the strength and direction of diffusion filtering. A cylindrical dendrite, for example, is effectively smoothed only parallel to its longitudinal axis, not perpendicular to it. This is demonstrated for artificial data as well as for in vivo 2-photon microscopic data from pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. In both cases noise is averaged out along the dendrites, leading to bridging of apparent gaps, while dendritic diameters are not affected. The filter is a valuable general tool for smoothing cellular processes and is well suited for preparing data for subsequent image segmentation and neuron reconstruction.
Experimental tests of linear and nonlinear three-dimensional equilibrium models in DIII-D
King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lanctot, M. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Turnbull, A. D.; Lazerson, S. A.; Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Nazikian, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Haskey, S. R.; Hanson, J. M.; Liu, Yueqiang; Shiraki, D.
2015-07-15
DIII-D experiments using new detailed magnetic diagnostics show that linear, ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory quantitatively describes the magnetic structure (as measured externally) of three-dimensional (3D) equilibria resulting from applied fields with toroidal mode number n = 1, while a nonlinear solution to ideal MHD force balance, using the VMEC code, requires the inclusion of n ≥ 1 to achieve similar agreement. These tests are carried out near ITER baseline parameters, providing a validated basis on which to exploit 3D fields for plasma control development. Scans of the applied poloidal spectrum and edge safety factor confirm that low-pressure, n = 1 non-axisymmetric tokamak equilibria are determined by a single, dominant, stable eigenmode. However, at higher beta, near the ideal kink mode stability limit in the absence of a conducting wall, the qualitative features of the 3D structure are observed to vary in a way that is not captured by ideal MHD.
A three-dimensional robust nonlinear terminal guidance law with ISS finite-time convergence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guilin; Ji, Haibo
2016-05-01
This paper presents a novel three-dimensional nonlinear terminal guidance law with finite-time convergence for intercepting manoeuvring targets. Different from the usual method of decoupling the missile-target relative motion into two-dimensional planes, this law is designed via using the coupled dynamics. The guidance law is derived based on the theory of finite-time input-to-state stability (ISS), which needs no assumption of the linearisation and the estimation of target accelerations. Under this law, the line-of-sight angular rates can be stabilised to a small domain of convergence around zero in finite time. The convergence rate and convergence domain can be adjusted by changing the guidance parameters. First, a sufficient condition on finite-time ISS of the guidance system is given, and is subsequently used to design the guidance law. Finally, simulation results are provided to show that the proposed guidance law possesses fast convergence rate and strong robustness to target manoeuvres.
2014-01-01
Background Minimal available information concerning hip morphology is the motivation for several researchers to study the difference between Asian and Western populations. Current use of a universal hip stem of variable size is not the best option for all femur types. This present study proposed a new design process of the cementless femoral stem using a three dimensional model which provided more information and accurate analysis compared to conventional methods. Methods This complete design cycle began with morphological analysis, followed by femoral stem design, fit and fill analysis, and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA). Various femur parameters for periosteal and endosteal canal diameters are measured from the osteotomy level to 150 mm below to determine the isthmus position. Results The results showed better total fit (53.7%) and fill (76.7%) canal, with more load distributed proximally to prevent stress shielding at calcar region. The stem demonstrated lower displacement and micromotion (less than 40 μm) promoting osseointegration between the stem–bone and providing primary fixation stability. Conclusion This new design process could be used as a preclinical assessment tool and will shorten the design cycle by identifying the major steps which must be taken while designing the femoral stem. PMID:24484753
Lee, P.-F.; Yeh, Alvin T.; Bayless, Kayla J.
2009-02-01
The interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are fundamental in mediating various steps of angiogenesis, including cell adhesion, migration and sprout formation. Here, we used a noninvasive and non-destructive nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technique to optically image endothelial sprouting morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. We simultaneously captured signals from collagen fibers and endothelial cells using second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), respectively. Dynamic 3D imaging revealed EC interactions with collagen fibers along with quantifiable alterations in collagen matrix density elicited by EC movement through and morphogenesis within the matrix. Specifically, we observed increased collagen density in the area between bifurcation points of sprouting structures and anisotropic increases in collagen density around the perimeter of lumenal structures, but not advancing sprout tips. Proteinase inhibition studies revealed membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase were utilized for sprout advancement and lumen expansion. Rho-associated kinase (p160ROCK) inhibition demonstrated that the generation of cell tension increased collagen matrix alterations. This study followed sprouting ECs within a 3D matrix and revealed that the advancing structures recognize and significantly alter their extracellular environment at the periphery of lumens as they progress.
Three-dimensional simulation of high-frequency nonlinear internal wave dynamics in Cayuga Lake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorostkar, Abbas; Boegman, Leon; Pollard, Andrew
2017-03-01
Three-dimensional (3-D) hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic versions of the MITgcm were applied to simulate the dynamics of the internal wave field (basin-scale seiches, nonlinear surges, and high-frequency nonlinear internal waves, NLIWs) in Cayuga Lake, NY. The simulations were performed using up to 226 million computational cells with several horizontal grid resolutions, varying from 450 × 450 m to 22 × 22 m. Vertical grid spacing was not varied and ranged from 0.5 to 2.95 m. The 22 × 22 m nonhydrostatic grid reproduced qualitatively the formation, propagation, and shoaling of observed NLIWs using >10 grid points along the wavelength and a grid lepticity λ of O(1). This ensured, respectively, that the waves were not aliased and physical dispersion predominated over numerical dispersion. Using a sensitivity analysis, we generalize that correctly simulating NLIWs in real domains, using second-order discretization, requires grid resolutions that are an order of magnitude smaller than the wavelength and amplitude with λ ˜ 2; consistent with published work on idealized domains. Local gyre-like circulation was simulated, near midbasin headlands, and transverse shoaling of NLIW packets on lateral boundaries was associated with topographic reflection and refraction, in agreement with published field observations from estuaries, which show NLIW propagation in long narrow quasi-2-D systems (e.g., Finger Lakes, lochs, fjords, estuaries, and straits) is fundamentally 3-D. These results, therefore, help fill the gap in understanding and correctly modeling the multiscale 3-D dynamics of NLIWs in complex natural systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahiya, Sumita; Mittal, Ramesh Chandra
2017-07-01
This paper employs a differential quadrature scheme for solving non-linear partial differential equations. Differential quadrature method (DQM), along with modified cubic B-spline basis, has been adopted to deal with three-dimensional non-linear Brusselator system, enzyme kinetics of Michaelis-Menten type problem and Burgers' equation. The method has been tested efficiently to three-dimensional equations. Simple algorithm and minimal computational efforts are two of the major achievements of the scheme. Moreover, this methodology produces numerical solutions not only at the knot points but also at every point in the domain under consideration. Stability analysis has been done. The scheme provides convergent approximate solutions and handles different cases and is particularly beneficial to higher dimensional non-linear PDEs with irregularities in initial data or initial-boundary conditions that are discontinuous in nature, because of its capability of damping specious oscillations induced by high frequency components of solutions.
Unsteady three-dimensional thermal field prediction in turbine blades using nonlinear BEM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.
1993-01-01
A time-and-space accurate and computationally efficient fully three dimensional unsteady temperature field analysis computer code has been developed for truly arbitrary configurations. It uses boundary element method (BEM) formulation based on an unsteady Green's function approach, multi-point Gaussian quadrature spatial integration on each panel, and a highly clustered time-step integration. The code accepts either temperatures or heat fluxes as boundary conditions that can vary in time on a point-by-point basis. Comparisons of the BEM numerical results and known analytical unsteady results for simple shapes demonstrate very high accuracy and reliability of the algorithm. An example of computed three dimensional temperature and heat flux fields in a realistically shaped internally cooled turbine blade is also discussed.
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Sheared Current Sheets: Transition to Non-linear Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gingell, Imogen; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Burgess, David; De Vita, Gaetano; Matteini, Lorenzo
2017-04-01
Systems of multiple current sheets arise in various situations in natural plasmas, such as at the heliospheric current sheet in the solar wind and in the heliosheath. Three-dimensional simulations have shown that such systems can develop turbulent-like fluctuations resulting from forward and inverse energy cascade. We study the transition to turbulence of such multiple current sheet systems, including the effects of adding a magnetic guide field and velocity shears across the current sheets. Three-dimensional hybrid simulations are performed of systems with eight narrow current sheets in a periodic geometry. We carry out a number of different analyses of the evolution of the fluctuations as the initially highly ordered state relaxes to one which resembles turbulence. Despite the evidence of forward and inverse cascade in the fluctuation power spectra, we find that none of the simulated cases have evidence of intermittency after the initial period of fast reconnection associated with the ion tearing instability at the current sheets. Cancellation analysis confirms that the simulations have not evolved to a state which can be identified as fully developed turbulence. The addition of velocity shears across the current sheets slows the evolution in the properties of the fluctuations, but by the end of the simulation they are broadly similar. However, if the simulation is constrained to be two-dimensional, differences are found, indicating that fully three-dimensional simulations are important when studying the evolution of an ordered equilibrium towards a turbulent-like state.
Nonlinear geometric scaling of coercivity in a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shishkin, I. S.; Mistonov, A. A.; Dubitskiy, I. S.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.
2016-08-01
Magnetization hysteresis loops of a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice based on the nickel inverse opal-like structure (IOLS) have been studied at room temperature. The samples are produced by filling nickel into the voids of artificial opal-like films. The spin ice behavior is induced by tetrahedral elements within the IOLS, which have the same arrangement of magnetic moments as a spin ice. The thickness of the films vary from a two-dimensional, i.e., single-layered, antidot array to a three-dimensional, i.e., multilayered, structure. The coercive force, the saturation, and the irreversibility field have been measured in dependence of the thickness of the IOLS for in-plane and out-of-plane applied fields. The irreversibility and saturation fields change abruptly from the antidot array to the three-dimensional IOLS and remain constant upon further increase of the number of layers n . The coercive force Hc seems to increase logarithmically with increasing n as Hc=Hc 0+α ln(n +1 ) . The logarithmic law implies the avalanchelike remagnetization of anisotropic structural elements connecting tetrahedral and cubic nodes in the IOLS. We conclude that the "ice rule" is the base of mechanism regulating this process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, S. G.
1983-01-01
A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2017-09-01
The present study elaborates three-dimensional flow of Williamson nanoliquid over a nonlinear stretchable surface. Fluid flow obeys Darcy–Forchheimer porous medium. A bidirectional nonlinear stretching surface generates the flow. Convective surface condition of heat transfer is taken into consideration. Further the zero nanoparticles mass flux condition is imposed at the boundary. Effects of thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion are considered. Assumption of boundary layer has been employed in the problem formulation. Convergent series solutions for the nonlinear governing system are established through the optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). Graphs have been sketched in order to analyze that how the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are affected by distinct emerging flow parameters. Skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt number are also computed and discussed.
Lyra, Wladimir
2014-07-01
Recently, Klahr and Hubbard claimed that a hydrodynamical linear overstability exists in protoplanetary disks, powered by buoyancy in the presence of thermal relaxation. We analyze this claim, confirming it through rigorous compressible linear analysis. We model the system numerically, reproducing the linear growth rate for all cases studied. We also study the saturated properties of the overstability in the shearing box, finding that the saturated state produces finite amplitude fluctuations strong enough to trigger the subcritical baroclinic instability (SBI). Saturation leads to a fast burst of enstrophy in the box, and a large-scale vortex develops in the course of the next ≈100 orbits. The amount of angular momentum transport achieved is of the order of α ≈ 10{sup –3}, as in compressible SBI models. For the first time, a self-sustained three-dimensional vortex is produced from linear amplitude perturbation of a quiescent base state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barthe, Christelle; Pinty, Jean-Pierre
2007-03-01
A complete lightning flash scheme is implemented in the three-dimensional (3-D) nonhydrostatic mesoscale model Méso-NH of the French community. The scheme, which is part of the electrical scheme, follows a new approach with two steps. First, lightning flashes are modeled as bidirectional leaders to mimic the vertical propagation of the initial discharge channels along the electric field. Then, a probabilistic branching algorithm is adapted from the dielectric breakdown concept to reinforce the flash propagation toward distant regions of high charge density but immersed in a weak electric field. This results in a high increase of the total length of the lightning flash channel and also in a better capture of the morphology of intracloud lightning flashes. The electrification and lightning schemes are tested for an ideal case of a supercellular storm. The model succeeds in reproducing the general features of a storm and the electric charge cycle. Sensitivity analyses show that the implementation of a branching stage is necessary and efficient enough to relax the growth of the electric field. The intracloud discharges generated by the model look realistic with a two-layer horizontal structure extending over tens of kilometers from the triggering area. The lightning flash length and the quantity of charge neutralized are ten times more important when the branching algorithm is taken into account. The main conclusion drawn from this study is the feasibility and the benefit of an advanced treatment of lightning flashes in 3-D numerical simulations with an electrification scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meakin, P.; Basagaoglu, H.; Succi, S.; Welhan, J.
2005-12-01
The onset of nonlinear flow in three-dimensional random disordered porous flow domains was analyzed using participation numbers based on local kinetic energies, and energy dissipation rates computed via non-equilibrium kinetic tensors. A three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model was used to simulate gravity-driven single-phase flow over a range of Reynolds numbers that included the crossover from linear to nonlinear flow. The simulations results indicated that the kinetic energy participation number characterized the onset of nonlinear flow in terms of transition to a more dispersed (uniform) distribution of kinetic energy densities as the flow rate increased. However, the energy dissipation participation number characterized the onset of nonlinear flow in terms of a transition to a more locally concentrated distribution of energy dissipation densities at higher flows. The flow regime transition characterized by the energy dissipation participation number occurred over a nearly equal or a narrower range of Reynolds numbers compared to the transition characterized by the kinetic energy participation number. The results also revealed that the boundary conditions (periodic vs. no-slip) parallel to the main flow direction have an insignificant effect on the magnitude of the critical Reynolds number, that characterizes the onset of nonlinear effects, although they did influence the spatial correlations of the pore-scale kinetic energy and the energy dissipation densities in all Cartesian directions. Flow domains with periodic boundaries resulted in less-localized (more dispersed) steady-state flows than domains with no-slip boundaries. These results should be useful for designing future experiment like those of Zeria et al. 2005 (Transport in Porous Media, 60:159-181) that would have significant potential implications in diverse fields.
Cavity light bullets: three-dimensional localized structures in a nonlinear optical resonator.
Brambilla, Massimo; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Patera, Giuseppe; Columbo, Lorenzo
2004-11-12
We consider the paraxial model for a nonlinear resonator with a saturable absorber beyond the mean-field limit. For accessible parametric domains we observe total radiation confinement and the formation of 3D localized bright structures. Different from freely propagating light bullets, here the self-organization proceeds from the resonator feedback, combined with diffraction and nonlinearity. Such "cavity" light bullets can be independently excited and erased by appropriate pulses, and once created, they endlessly travel the cavity round-trip.
Robey, H; Remington, B; Edwards, M; Perry, T; Wallace, R J; Louis, H; Drake, R; Leibrandt, D L; Harding, E C; Kuranz, C C; Blackburn, M; Knauer, J P
2004-03-19
We report results from the first experiments to explore the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from intentionally three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions at an embedded, decelerating interface in a high-Reynolds-number flow. The experiments used {approx}5 kJ of laser energy to produce a blast wave in polyimide and/or brominated plastic having an initial pressure of {approx}50 Mbars. This blast wave shocked and then decelerated the perturbed interface between first material and a lower-density, C foam. This caused the formation of a decelerating interface with an Atwood number {approx}2/3, producing a long-term positive growth rate for the RT instability. The initial perturbations were a 3D perturbation in an ''egg-crate'' pattern with feature spacings of 71 {micro}m in two orthogonal directions and peak-to-valley amplitudes of 5 {micro}m. The resulting RT spikes were observed to overtake the shock waves at the undisturbed, ''free-fall'' rate, and to subsequently deliver material from behind the interface to the forward shock. This result is unanticipated by prior simulations and models.
Liu, Z. X. Xia, T. Y.; Liu, S. C.; Ding, S. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Joseph, I.; Meyer, W. H.; Gao, X.; Xu, G. S.; Shao, L. M.; Li, G. Q.; Li, J. G.
2014-09-15
Experimental measurements of edge localized modes (ELMs) observed on the EAST experiment are compared to linear and nonlinear theoretical simulations of peeling-ballooning modes using the BOUT++ code. Simulations predict that the dominant toroidal mode number of the ELM instability becomes larger for lower current, which is consistent with the mode structure captured with visible light using an optical CCD camera. The poloidal mode number of the simulated pressure perturbation shows good agreement with the filamentary structure observed by the camera. The nonlinear simulation is also consistent with the experimentally measured energy loss during an ELM crash and with the radial speed of ELM effluxes measured using a gas puffing imaging diagnostic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Kun; Yan, Jiayong; Lü, Qingtian; Zhao, Jinhua; Hu, Hao
2017-04-01
A new inversion method using marine magnetotellurics is proposed based on previous studies using the nonlinear conjugate gradient method. A numerical example is used to verify the inversion algorithm and program. The inversion model and response resemble the synthetic model. Some technologies have been added to the inversion algorithm: parallel structure, terrain inversion and static shift correction.
Critical-layer nonlinearity in the resonance growth of three-dimensional waves in boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, Reda R.
1990-01-01
The nonlinear interactions of a triad of initially linear stability waves are addressed. The triad consisted of a single two-dimensional mode at a given frequency and two oblique modes with equal and opposite spanwise wave numbers. The oblique waves were at half the frequency and streamwise wave number of the two-dimensional mode. Attention was focused on the boundary-layer transition at low frequencies and high Reynolds numbers. A five-zoned structure and low-frequency scaling were used to derive the nonlinear-interaction equations. The initial nonlinear development of the waves was analyzed; the results indicated that the two-dimensional wave behaves according to linear theory. Nonlinear interactions caused exponential-of-an-exponential growth of the oblique modes. This resonant amplification of the subharmonic depended on the initial amplitude of the two-dimensional wave and on the initial phase angle between the two-dimensional wave and the oblique waves. The resonant growth of the oblique modes was more pronounced at lower frequencies than at higher frequencies. The results are in good agreement with experimental results and offer explanations of the observed process.
Three-dimensional finite-difference modeling of non-linear ground notion
Jones, E.M.; Olsen, K.B.
1997-08-01
We present a hybrid finite-difference technique capable of modeling non-linear soil amplification from the 3-D finite-fault radiation pattern for earthquakes in arbitrary earth models. The method is applied to model non-linear effects in the soils of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) from the 17 January 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquake. 0-7 Hz particle velocities are computed for an area of 17 km by 19 km immediately above the causative fault and 5 km below the surface where peak strike-parallel, strike-perpendicular, vertical, and total velocities reach values of 71 cm/s, 145 cm/s, 152 cm/s, and 180 cm/s, respectively. Selected Green`s functions and a soil model for the SFV are used to compute the approximate stress level during the earthquake, and comparison to the values for near-surface alluvium at the U.S. Nevada Test Site suggests that the non-linear regime may have been entered. We use selected values from the simulated particle velocity distribution at 5 km depth to compute the non-linear response in a soil column below a site within the Van Norman Complex in SFV, where the strongest ground motion was recorded. Since site-specific non- linear material parameters from the SFV are currently unavailable, values are taken from analyses of observed Test Site ground motions. Preliminary results show significant reduction of spectral velocities at the surface normalized to the peak source velocity due to non-linear effects when the peak velocity increases from 32 cm/s (approximately linear case) to 64 cm/s (30-92%), 93 cm/s (7-83%), and 124 cm/s (2-70%). The largest reduction occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gullbrand, Jessica
2003-01-01
In this paper, turbulence-closure models are evaluated using the 'true' LES approach in turbulent channel flow. The study is an extension of the work presented by Gullbrand (2001), where fourth-order commutative filter functions are applied in three dimensions in a fourth-order finite-difference code. The true LES solution is the grid-independent solution to the filtered governing equations. The solution is obtained by keeping the filter width constant while the computational grid is refined. As the grid is refined, the solution converges towards the true LES solution. The true LES solution will depend on the filter width used, but will be independent of the grid resolution. In traditional LES, because the filter is implicit and directly connected to the grid spacing, the solution converges towards a direct numerical simulation (DNS) as the grid is refined, and not towards the solution of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The effect of turbulence-closure models is therefore difficult to determine in traditional LES because, as the grid is refined, more turbulence length scales are resolved and less influence from the models is expected. In contrast, in the true LES formulation, the explicit filter eliminates all scales that are smaller than the filter cutoff, regardless of the grid resolution. This ensures that the resolved length-scales do not vary as the grid resolution is changed. In true LES, the cell size must be smaller than or equal to the cutoff length scale of the filter function. The turbulence-closure models investigated are the dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM), the dynamic mixed model (DMM), and the dynamic reconstruction model (DRM). These turbulence models were previously studied using two-dimensional explicit filtering in turbulent channel flow by Gullbrand & Chow (2002). The DSM by Germano et al. (1991) is used as the USFS model in all the simulations. This enables evaluation of different reconstruction models for the RSFS stresses. The DMM
Three-dimensional nonlinear analysis of an E× B drifting electron laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Ding, Wu; Du, Xiang Wan
1998-02-01
In this paper we numerically investigate the nonlinear evolution of the E × B drifting electron laser (DEL) [1, 2] for an amplifier configuration in which an electron beam propagates through a periodic magnetic field (wiggler) and undergoes a relativistic E × B drift in orthogonal static electric and magnetic fields. A set of coupled nonlinear differential equations is given in three dimensions which controls the self-consistent evolution of TE modes in a rectangular waveguide as well as the trajectories of an ensemble of electrons. Our numerical simulations are conducted to model a 35 GHz amplifier with an electron beam energy of 3.5 MeV. The results show that the radiation energy in the DEL mainly comes from the change in the kinetic energy of the electron beam, and the DEL, compared with the free-electron laser (FEL) with similar operating parameters, has higher interaction efficiency and peak power.
Gotteiner, N L; Han, G; Chandran, K B; Vonesh, M J; Bresticker, M; Greene, R; Oba, J; Kane, B J; Joob, A; McPherson, D D
1995-07-01
In vitro data have shown that the myocardium exhibits nonlinear passive stress-strain relationship and a non-linear pressure-volume relationship. A finite element (FE) analysis and optimization algorithm was used on three-dimensional reconstructed left ventricular (LV) geometry using echocardiographic images, along with hemodynamic measurements, in seven closed-chest dogs to show a nonlinear stress-strain relationship in vivo. Our analysis included the computation of Poisson's ratio from the measured volumetric strain of the myocardium and a simulated pericardial pressure load ("equivalent pericardial pressure") applied to the epicardial surface of the reconstructed LV. LV geometry was reconstructed in three or four incremental time steps in diastasis and the myocardium was assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic during these short intervals in this initial study. Simultaneous LV chamber pressure and equivalent pericardial pressure were incorporated into the algorithm to predict actual LV expansion. Computations were performed iteratively at each interval to compute the optimized elastic modulus. By performing the FE analysis and optimization at each interval (a step-wise linear analysis approach), a linear relationship between the myocardial elastic modulus and LV chamber pressure was derived (r = .87 to .98). Such a linear relationship is equivalent to an exponential myocardial stress-strain relationship in vivo. Detailed measurement of nonhomogeneous regional deformation are becoming possible with the advent of sophisticated imaging techniques. The methodology described in this study, with appropriate modifications in the FE analysis and optimization algorithms, can be applied to assess the complex three-dimensional pressure-deformation characteristics in vivo.
Three-Dimensional Ankle Moments and Nonlinear Summation of Rat Triceps Surae Muscles
Tijs, Chris; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Baan, Guus C.; Maas, Huub
2014-01-01
The Achilles tendon and epimuscular connective tissues mechanically link the triceps surae muscles. These pathways may cause joint moments exerted by each muscle individually not to sum linearly, both in magnitude and direction. The aims were (i) to assess effects of sagittal plane ankle angle (varied between 150° and 70°) on isometric ankle moments, in both magnitude and direction, exerted by active rat triceps surae muscles, (ii) to assess ankle moment summation between those muscles for a range of ankle angles and (iii) to assess effects of sagittal plane ankle angle and muscle activation on Achilles tendon length. At each ankle angle, soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles were first excited separately to assess ankle-angle moment characteristics and subsequently both muscles were excited simultaneously to investigate moment summation. The magnitude of ankle moment exerted by SO and GA, the SO direction in the transverse and sagittal planes, and the GA direction in the transverse plane were significantly affected by ankle angle. SO moment direction in the frontal and sagittal planes were significantly different from that of GA. Nonlinear magnitude summation varied between 0.6±2.9% and −3.6±2.9%, while the nonlinear direction summation varied between 0.3±0.4° and −0.4±0.7° in the transverse plane, between 0.5±0.4° and 0.1±0.4° in the frontal plane, and between 3.0±7.9° and 0.3±2.3° in the sagittal plane. Changes in tendon length caused by SO contraction were significantly lower than those during contraction of GA and GA+SO simultaneously. Thus, moments exerted by GA and SO sum nonlinearly both in the magnitude and direction. The limited degree of nonlinear summation may be explained by different mechanisms acting in opposite directions. PMID:25360524
Three-dimensional ankle moments and nonlinear summation of rat triceps surae muscles.
Tijs, Chris; van Dieën, Jaap H; Baan, Guus C; Maas, Huub
2014-01-01
The Achilles tendon and epimuscular connective tissues mechanically link the triceps surae muscles. These pathways may cause joint moments exerted by each muscle individually not to sum linearly, both in magnitude and direction. The aims were (i) to assess effects of sagittal plane ankle angle (varied between 150° and 70°) on isometric ankle moments, in both magnitude and direction, exerted by active rat triceps surae muscles, (ii) to assess ankle moment summation between those muscles for a range of ankle angles and (iii) to assess effects of sagittal plane ankle angle and muscle activation on Achilles tendon length. At each ankle angle, soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles were first excited separately to assess ankle-angle moment characteristics and subsequently both muscles were excited simultaneously to investigate moment summation. The magnitude of ankle moment exerted by SO and GA, the SO direction in the transverse and sagittal planes, and the GA direction in the transverse plane were significantly affected by ankle angle. SO moment direction in the frontal and sagittal planes were significantly different from that of GA. Nonlinear magnitude summation varied between 0.6±2.9% and -3.6±2.9%, while the nonlinear direction summation varied between 0.3±0.4° and -0.4±0.7° in the transverse plane, between 0.5±0.4° and 0.1±0.4° in the frontal plane, and between 3.0±7.9° and 0.3±2.3° in the sagittal plane. Changes in tendon length caused by SO contraction were significantly lower than those during contraction of GA and GA+SO simultaneously. Thus, moments exerted by GA and SO sum nonlinearly both in the magnitude and direction. The limited degree of nonlinear summation may be explained by different mechanisms acting in opposite directions.
Three-Dimensional Single-Mode Nonlinear Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, R.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.
2015-11-01
The nonlinear evolution of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (ART) instability is studied in three dimensions for conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion targets. The simulations are performed using our newly developed code ART3D and an astrophysical code AstroBEAR. The laser ablation can suppress the growth of the short-wavelength modes in the linear phase but may enhance their growth in the nonlinear phase because of the vortex-acceleration mechanism. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the bubble velocity grows faster than predicted in the classical 3-D theory. When compared to 2-D results, 3-D short-wavelength bubbles grow faster and do not reach saturation. The unbounded 3-D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes into the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume. A density plateau is observed inside a nonlinear ART bubble and the plateau density is higher for shorter-wavelength modes. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Nonlinear W∞ as asymptotic symmetry of three-dimensional higher spin AdS gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henneaux, Marc; Rey, Soo-Jong
2010-12-01
We investigate the asymptotic symmetry algebra of (2+1)-dimensional higher spin, anti-de Sitter gravity. We use the formulation of the theory as a Chern-Simons gauge theory based on the higher spin algebra hs(1 , 1). Expanding the gauge connection around asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime, we specify consistent boundary conditions on the higher spin gauge fields. We then study residual gauge transformation, the corresponding surface terms and their Poisson bracket algebra. We find that the asymptotic symmetry algebra is a nonlinearly realized W ∞ algebra with classical central charges. We discuss implications of our results to quantum gravity and to various situations in string theory.
Nonlinear, three-dimensional finite-element analysis of air-cooled gas turbine blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.; Gaugler, R. E.
1980-01-01
Cyclic stress-strain states in cooled turbine blades were calculated for a simulated mission of an advanced-technology commercial aircraft engine. The MARC, nonlinear, finite-element computer program was used for the analysis of impingement-cooled airfoils, with and without leading-edge film cooling. Creep was the predominant damage mode (ignoring hot corrosion), particularly artund film-cooling holes. Radially angled holes exhibited less creep than holes with axes normal to the surface. Beam-theory analyses of all-impingement-cooled airfoils gave fair agreement with MARC results for initial creep.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constantin, A.; Johnson, R. S.
2017-05-01
Using the salient properties of the flow observed in the equatorial Pacific as a guide, an asymptotic procedure is applied to the Euler equation written in a suitable rotating frame. Starting from the single overarching assumption of slow variations in the azimuthal direction in a two-layer, steady flow that is symmetric about the equator, a tractable, fully nonlinear, and three-dimensional system of model equations is derived, with the Coriolis terms consistent with the β-plane approximation retained. It is shown that this asymptotic system of equations can be solved exactly. The ability of this dynamical model to capture simultaneously fundamental oceanic phenomena, which are closely inter-related (such as upwelling/downwelling, zonal depth-dependent currents with flow reversal, and poleward divergence along the equator), is a novel and compelling feature that has hitherto been elusive. While details are presented for the equatorial flow in the Pacific, the analysis demonstrates that other flow configurations can be accommodated within the framework of this approach, depending on the choice of the underlying velocity profile and of the various parameters; the method is therefore applicable to a range of ocean flows with a similar three-dimensional structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, Jack R.; Mcrae, D. S.
1993-01-01
An efficient implicit method for the computation of steady, three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes flowfields is presented. A nonlinear iteration strategy based on planar Gauss-Seidel sweeps is used to drive the solution toward a steady state, with approximate factorization errors within a crossflow plane reduced by the application of a quasi-Newton technique. A hybrid discretization approach is employed, with flux-vector splitting utilized in the streamwise direction and central differences with artificial dissipation used for the transverse fluxes. Convergence histories and comparisons with experimental data are presented for several 3-D shock-boundary layer interactions. Both laminar and turbulent cases are considered, with turbulent closure provided by a modification of the Baldwin-Barth one-equation model. For the problems considered (175,000-325,000 mesh points), the algorithm provides steady-state convergence in 900-2000 CPU seconds on a single processor of a Cray Y-MP.
Maker, B.N.
1995-04-14
This report provides a user`s manual for NIKE3D, a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the finite strain static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node truss and beam elements, and 4-node membrane and shell elements. Over twenty constitutive models are available for representing a wide range of elastic, plastic, viscous, and thermally dependent material behavior. Contact-impact algorithms permit gaps, frictional sliding, and mesh discontinuities along material interfaces. Several nonlinear solution strategies are available, including Full-, Modified-, and Quasi-Newton methods. The resulting system of simultaneous linear equations is either solved iteratively by an element-by-element method, or directly by a factorization method, for which case bandwidth minimization is optional. Data may be stored either in or out of core memory to allow for large analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fil, A.; Nardon, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Orain, F.; Becoulet, M.; Beyer, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Guirlet, R.; Koslowski, H. R.; Lehnen, M.; Morales, J.; Pamela, S.; Passeron, C.; Reux, C.; Saint-Laurent, F.
2015-06-01
JOREK 3D non-linear MHD simulations of a D2 Massive Gas Injection (MGI) triggered disruption in JET are presented and compared in detail to experimental data. The MGI creates an overdensity that rapidly expands in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. It also causes the growth of magnetic islands ( m / n = 2 / 1 and 3/2 mainly) and seeds the 1/1 internal kink mode. O-points of all island chains (including 1/1) are located in front of the MGI, consistently with experimental observations. A burst of MHD activity and a peak in plasma current take place at the same time as in the experiment. However, the magnitude of these two effects is much smaller than in the experiment. The simulated radiation is also much below the experimental level. As a consequence, the thermal quench is not fully reproduced. Directions for progress are identified. Radiation from impurities is a good candidate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gajjar, J. S. B.
1995-01-01
We consider the nonlinear stability of a fully three-dimensional boundary layer flow in an incompressible fluid and derive an equation governing the nonlinear development of a stationary cross-flow vortex. The amplitude equation is a novel integro-differential equation which has spatial derivatives of the amplitude occurring in the kernal function. It is shown that the evolution of the cross-flow vortex is strongly coupled to the properties of an unsteady wall layer which is in fact driven by an unknown slip velocity, proportional to the amplitude of the cross-flow vortex. The work is extended to obtain the corresponding equation for rotating disk flow. A number of special cases are examined and the numerical solution for one of cases, and further analysis, demonstrates the existence of finite-distance as well as focussing type singularities. The numerical solutions also indicate the presence of a new type of nonlinear wave solution for a certain set of parameter values.
Three-Dimensional Multispecies Nonlinear Tumor Growth–II: Tumor Invasion and Angiogenesis
Frieboes, H.B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Cristini, V.
2010-01-01
We extend the diffuse interface model developed in Wise et al. (2008) to study nonlinear tumor growth in 3D. Extensions include the tracking of multiple viable cell species populations through a continuum diffuse-interface approach, onset and aging of discrete tumor vessels through angiogenesis, and incorporation of individual cell movement using a hybrid continuum-discrete approach. We investigate disease progression as a function of cellular-scale parameters such as proliferation and oxygen/nutrient uptake rates. We find that heterogeneity in the physiologically complex tumor microenvironment, caused by non-uniform distribution of oxygen, cell nutrients, and metabolites, as well as phenotypic changes affecting cellular-scale parameters, can be quantitatively linked to the tumor macro-scale as a mechanism that promotes morphological instability. This instability leads to invasion through tumor infiltration of surrounding healthy tissue. Models that employ a biologically-founded, multiscale approach, as illustrated in this work, could help to quantitatively link the critical effect of heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment with clinically observed tumor growth and invasion. Using patient tumor-specific parameter values, this approach may provide a predictive tool to characterize the complex in vivo tumor physiological characteristics and clinical response, and thus lead to improved treatment modalities and prognosis. PMID:20303982
Gaur, Gurudatt; Das, Amita
2012-07-15
The study of electron velocity shear driven instability in electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) regime in three dimensions has been carried out. It is well known that the instability is non-local in the plane defined by the flow direction and that of the shear, which is the usual Kelvin-Helmholtz mode, often termed as the sausage mode in the context of EMHD. On the other hand, a local instability with perturbations in the plane defined by the shear and the magnetic field direction exists which is termed as kink mode. The interplay of these two modes for simple sheared flow case as well as that when an external magnetic field exists has been studied extensively in the present manuscript in both linear and nonlinear regimes. Finally, these instability processes have been investigated for the exact 2D dipole solutions of EMHD equations [M. B. Isichenko and A. N. Marnachev, Sov. Phys. JETP 66, 702 (1987)] for which the electron flow velocity is sheared. It has been shown that dipoles are very robust and stable against the sausage mode as the unstable wavelengths are typically longer than the dipole size. However, we observe that they do get destabilized by the local kink mode.
Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg
2014-07-15
Nonlinear evolution of three dimensional electron shear flow instabilities of an electron current sheet (ECS) is studied using electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of the evolution on current sheet thickness is examined. For thin current sheets (half thickness =d{sub e}=c/ω{sub pe}), tearing mode instability dominates. In its nonlinear evolution, it leads to the formation of oblique current channels. Magnetic field lines form 3-D magnetic spirals. Even in the absence of initial guide field, the out-of-reconnection-plane magnetic field generated by the tearing instability itself may play the role of guide field in the growth of secondary finite-guide-field instabilities. For thicker current sheets (half thickness ∼5 d{sub e}), both tearing and non-tearing modes grow. Due to the non-tearing mode, current sheet becomes corrugated in the beginning of the evolution. In this case, tearing mode lets the magnetic field reconnect in the corrugated ECS. Later thick ECS develops filamentary structures and turbulence in which reconnection occurs. This evolution of thick ECS provides an example of reconnection in self-generated turbulence. The power spectra for both the thin and thick current sheets are anisotropic with respect to the electron flow direction. The cascade towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow.
Freeling, Jessica L; Rezvani, Khosrow
2016-01-01
The relatively low success rates of current colorectal cancer (CRC) therapies have led investigators to search for more specific treatments. Vertebrate models of colorectal cancer are essential tools for the verification of new therapeutic avenues such as gene therapy. The evaluation of colorectal cancer in mouse models has been limited due to the lack of an accurate quantitative and longitudinal noninvasive method. This work introduces a method of three-dimensional micro-ultrasound reconstruction and microbubble administration for the comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation of CRC progression. This approach enabled quantification of both tumor volume and relative vascularity using a well-established inducible murine model of colon carcinogenesis. This inducible model recapitulated the adenocarcinoma sequence that occurs in human CRC allowing systematic in situ evaluation of the ultrasound technique. The administration of intravenous microbubbles facilitated enhancement of colon vascular contrast and quantification of relative vascularity of the mid and distal colon of the mouse in three dimensions. In addition, two-dimensional imaging in the sagittal orientation of the colon using Non-Linear Contrast Mode enabled calculation of relative blood volume and perfusion as the microbubbles entered the colon microvasculature. Quantitative results provided by the outlined protocol represent a noninvasive tool that can more accurately define CRC development and progression. This ultrasound technique will allow the practical and economical longitudinal study of murine CRC in both basic and preclinical studies. PMID:28053998
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhongzheng; Zhao, Wenwen; Chen, Weifang
2016-11-01
Non-equilibrium effects play a vital role in high-speed and rarefied gas flows and the accurate simulation of these flow regimes are far beyond the capability of near-local-equilibrium Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. Eu proposed generalized hydrodynamic equations which are consistent with the laws of irreversible thermodynamics to solve this problem. Based on Eu's generalized hydrodynamics equations, a computation model, namely the nonlinear coupled constitutive relations (NCCR), was developed by R.S. Myong and applied successfully to one-dimensional shock wave structure and two-dimensional rarefied flows. In this paper, finite volume schemes, including LU-SGS time advance scheme, MUSCL interpolation and AUSMPW+ scheme, are firstly adopted to investigate NCCR model's validity and potential in three-dimensional complex hypersonic rarefied gas flows. Moreover, in order to solve the computational stability problems in 3D complex flows, a modified solution is developed for the NCCR model. Finally, the modified solution is tested for a slip complex flow over a 3D hollow cylinder-flare configuration. The numerical results show that the NCCR model by the modified solution yields good solutions in better agreement with the DSMC results and experimental data than NSF equations, and imply NCCR model's great potential capability in further application.
Dai, Chao-Qing; Wang, Yan
2014-01-01
The spatiotemporal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with power-law nonlinearity in -symmetric potentials is investigated, and two families of analytical three-dimensional spatiotemporal structure solutions are obtained. The stability of these solutions is tested by the linear stability analysis and the direct numerical simulation. Results indicate that solutions are stable below some thresholds for the imaginary part of -symmetric potentials in the self-focusing medium, while they are always unstable for all parameters in the self-defocusing medium. Moreover, some dynamical properties of these solutions are discussed, such as the phase switch, power and transverse power-flow density. The span of phase switch gradually enlarges with the decrease of the competing parameter k in -symmetric potentials. The power and power-flow density are all positive, which implies that the power flow and exchange from the gain toward the loss domains in the cell. PMID:24983624
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dake, Fumihiro
2016-08-01
Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (SIM) enlarges frequency cutoff laterally and axially by a factor of two, compared with conventional microscopy. However, its optical resolution is still fundamentally limited. It is necessary to introduce nonlinearity to enlarge frequency cutoff further. We propose three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) effect, which has a structured excitation pattern and a structured STED pattern, and both three-dimensional illumination patterns have the same lateral pitch and orientation. Theoretical analysis showed that nonlinearity induced by STED effect, which causes harmonics and contributes to enlarging frequency cutoff, depends on the phase difference between two structured illuminations and that the phase difference of π is the most efficient to increase nonlinearity. We also found that undesirable background fluorescence, which degenerates the contrast of structured pattern and limits the ability of SIM, can be reduced by our method. These results revealed that optical resolution improvement and background fluorescence reduction would be compatible. The feasibility study showed that our method will be realized with commercially available laser, having 3.5 times larger frequency cutoff compared with conventional microscopy.
Perillo, Evan P.; Liu, Yen-Liang; Huynh, Khang; Liu, Cong; Chou, Chao-Kai; Hung, Mien-Chie; Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Dunn, Andrew K.
2015-01-01
Molecular trafficking within cells, tissues and engineered three-dimensional multicellular models is critical to the understanding of the development and treatment of various diseases including cancer. However, current tracking methods are either confined to two dimensions or limited to an interrogation depth of ∼15 μm. Here we present a three-dimensional tracking method capable of quantifying rapid molecular transport dynamics in highly scattering environments at depths up to 200 μm. The system has a response time of 1 ms with a temporal resolution down to 50 μs in high signal-to-noise conditions, and a spatial localization precision as good as 35 nm. Built on spatiotemporally multiplexed two-photon excitation, this approach requires only one detector for three-dimensional particle tracking and allows for two-photon, multicolour imaging. Here we demonstrate three-dimensional tracking of epidermal growth factor receptor complexes at a depth of ∼100 μm in tumour spheroids. PMID:26219252
Kulak, R. F.; Fiala, C.
1980-03-01
This report presents the formulations used in the NEPTUNE code. Specifically, it describes the finite-element formulation of a three-dimensional hexahedral element for simulating the behavior of either fluid or solid continua. Since the newly developed hexahedral element and the original triangular plate element are finite elements, they are compatible in the sense that they can be combined arbitrarily to simulate complex reactor components in three-dimensional space. Because rate-type constitutive relations are used in conjunction with a velocity-strain tensor, the formulation is applicable to large deformation problems. This development can be used to simulate (1) the fluid adjacent to reactor components and (2) the concrete fill found in large reactor head closures.
Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves
2013-01-01
In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Do, K. D.
2017-02-01
Equations of motion of extensible and shearable slender beams with large translational and rotational motions under external loads in three-dimensional space are first derived in a vector form. Boundary feedback controllers are then designed to ensure that the beams are practically K∞-exponentially stable at the equilibrium. The control design, well-posedness, and stability analysis are based on two Lyapunov-type theorems developed for a class of evolution systems in Hilbert space. Numerical simulations on a slender beam immersed in sea water are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Jiashan
2017-09-01
The coupled quasilinear Keller-Segel-Navier-Stokes system is considered under Neumann boundary conditions for $n$ and $c$ and no-slip boundary conditions for $u$ in three-dimensional bounded domains $\\Omega\\subseteq \\mathbb{R}^3$ with smooth boundary, where $m>0,\\kappa\\in \\mathbb{R}$ are given constants, $\\phi\\in W^{1,\\infty}(\\Omega)$. If $ m> 2$, then for all reasonably regular initial data, a corresponding initial-boundary value problem for $(KSNF)$ possesses a globally defined weak solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganesh Kumar, K.; Rudraswamy, N. G.; Gireesha, B. J.; Krishnamurthy, M. R.
2017-09-01
Present exploration discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on three dimensional flow and heat transfer of a Jeffrey nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation. Here the flow is generated over bidirectional stretching sheet in the presence of applied magnetic field by accounting thermophoresis and Brownian motion of nanoparticles. Suitable similarity transformations are employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. Graphically results are presented and discussed for various parameters. Validation of the current method is proved by comparing our results with the existing results under limiting situations. It can be concluded that combined effect of Joule and viscous heating increases the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness.
Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations
Jiefang Zhang
1996-08-01
Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative {Phi}{sup 4}-model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation.
Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V
2014-08-01
We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkel, A.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.
2014-08-01
We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.
Jafari Bahman, F.; Maraghechi, B.
2013-02-15
Efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser is studied by three-dimensional and nonlinear simulation using tapered helical wiggler magnetic field or tapered ion-channel density. In order to reduce the saturation length, prebunched electron beam is used. A set of nonlinear and coupled differential equations are derived that provides the self-consistent description of the evolution of both an ensemble of electrons and the electromagnetic radiation. These equations are solved numerically to show that the combined effect of tapering and prebunching results in significant enhancement of power and considerable reduction of the saturation length. To have a deeper insight into the problem, an analytical treatment is also presented that uses the small signal theory to derive a modified pendulum equation.
Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Ahmad, Bashir
2015-01-01
This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid subject to the convective boundary condition. Flow is generated due to a nonlinear stretching of the surface in two lateral directions. Temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied through the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. Couple stress fluid is considered electrically conducting through a non-uniform applied magnetic field. Mathematical formulation is developed via boundary layer approach. Nonlinear ordinary differential systems are constructed by employing suitable transformations. The resulting systems have been solved for the convergent series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration profiles. Graphs are sketched to see the effects of different interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions. Numerical values are computed to analyze the values of skin-friction coefficients and Nusselt number. PMID:26714259
Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Ahmad, Bashir
2015-01-01
This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid subject to the convective boundary condition. Flow is generated due to a nonlinear stretching of the surface in two lateral directions. Temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied through the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. Couple stress fluid is considered electrically conducting through a non-uniform applied magnetic field. Mathematical formulation is developed via boundary layer approach. Nonlinear ordinary differential systems are constructed by employing suitable transformations. The resulting systems have been solved for the convergent series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration profiles. Graphs are sketched to see the effects of different interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions. Numerical values are computed to analyze the values of skin-friction coefficients and Nusselt number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Jean
1994-08-01
We have developed a three-dimensional finite element model to study wrench deformation of the crust regarded as an elasto-plastic material obeying Murrell's extension of Griffith's failure criterion. Numerical experiments using this model predict that the imposed basal wrenching is accommodated by an array of oblique Riedel-like shears and Y-shears (parallel to the direction of wrenching). The partitioning of deformation between the two types of structure depends on the width of the zone of imposed basal wrenching and the existence of a component of deformation in the x-direction (normal to the direction of wrenching). The Riedel shears are arranged in spiral-like structures that root into the basal wrench zone. In cross-section, the Riedel shears resemble wedge-shaped flower structures similar to those often observed in seismic cross-sections. The 'polarity' of the flower structures is positive (or palm-tree-like) in transpression experiments and negative (or tulip-like) in transtension experiments. The orientation of the Riedel shears throughout the crust obeys Mohr's hypothesis for incipient faulting combined with Murrell's failure criterion. The model also predicts plastic dilatancy inversely proportional to the square root of the confining pressure; this result agrees qualitatively with field observations and the results of sand-box experiments and quantitatively with direct measurement of dilatancy during high-pressure rock-deformation experiments.
Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2014-01-01
This article studies the viscous flow and heat transfer over a plane horizontal surface stretched non-linearly in two lateral directions. Appropriate wall conditions characterizing the non-linear variation in the velocity and temperature of the sheet are employed for the first time. A new set of similarity variables is introduced to reduce the boundary layer equations into self-similar forms. The velocity and temperature distributions are determined by two methods, namely (i) optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) and (ii) fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration based shooting technique. The analytic and numerical solutions are compared and these are found in excellent agreement. Influences of embedded parameters on momentum and thermal boundary layers are sketched and discussed. PMID:25198696
Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2014-01-01
This article studies the viscous flow and heat transfer over a plane horizontal surface stretched non-linearly in two lateral directions. Appropriate wall conditions characterizing the non-linear variation in the velocity and temperature of the sheet are employed for the first time. A new set of similarity variables is introduced to reduce the boundary layer equations into self-similar forms. The velocity and temperature distributions are determined by two methods, namely (i) optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) and (ii) fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration based shooting technique. The analytic and numerical solutions are compared and these are found in excellent agreement. Influences of embedded parameters on momentum and thermal boundary layers are sketched and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Xuesong; Lee, Sang Soo; Cowley, Stephen J.
1992-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of a pair of initially oblique waves in a high Reynolds Number Stokes layer is studied. Attention is focused on times when disturbances of amplitude epsilon have O(epsilon(exp 1/3)R) growth rates, where R is the Reynolds number. The development of a pair of oblique waves is then controlled by nonlinear critical-layer effects. Viscous effects are included by studying the distinguished scaling epsilon = O(R(exp -1)). This leads to a complicated modification of the kernel function in the integro-differential amplitude equation. When viscosity is not too large, solutions to the amplitude equation develop a finite-time singularity, indicating that an explosive growth can be introduced by nonlinear effects; we suggest that such explosive growth can lead to the bursts observed in experiments. Increasing the importance of viscosity generally delays the occurrence of the finite-time singularity, and sufficiently large viscosity may lead to the disturbance decaying exponentially. For the special case when the streamwise and spanwise wavenumbers are equal, the solution can evolve into a periodic oscillation. A link between the unsteady critical-layer approach to high-Reynolds-number flow instability, and the wave vortex approach is identified.
Tejedor Sastre, María Teresa; Vanhille, Christian
2017-11-01
The objective of this work is to develop versatile numerical models to study the nonlinear distortion of ultrasounds and the generation of low-ultrasonic frequency signals by nonlinear frequency mixing in two and three-dimensional resonators filled with bubbly liquids. The interaction of the acoustic field and the bubble vibrations is modeled through a coupled differential system formed by the multi-dimensional wave equation and a Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The numerical models we develop are based on multi-dimensional finite-volume techniques and a time discretization carried out by finite differences. Numerical experiments are performed for complex modes in many different cavities considering different kinds of boundary conditions and taking advantage of the dispersive character of the bubbly fluid to match specific resonances of the cavities. Results show the distribution of fundamental and harmonics for single frequency excitation and difference-frequency component for two-frequency excitation that are promoted by the strong nonlinearity of the bubbly medium. The numerous simulations analyzed suggest that the new numerical models developed and proposed in this paper are useful to understand the behavior of ultrasounds in bubbly liquids for sonochemical processes and applications of nonlinear frequency mixing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Three-dimensional light bullets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minardi, S.; Eilenberger, F.; Kartashov, Y. V.; Szameit, A.; Röpke, U.; Kobelke, J.; Schuster, K.; Bartelt, H.; Nolte, S.; Torner, L.; Lederer, F.; Tünnermann, A.; Pertsch, T.
2012-02-01
Three dimensional Light Bullets (3D-LBs) are the most symmetric solitary waves, being nonlinear optical wavepackets propagating without diffraction nor dispersion. Since their theoretical prediction, 3D-LB's have constituted a challenge in nonlinear science, due to the impossibility to avoid catastrophic collapse in conventional homogeneous nonlinear media. We have recently observed stable 3D-LBs in media with periodically modulated transverse refractive index profile. We found that higher order linear and nonlinear effects force the 3D-LBs to evolve along their propagation path and eventually decay. The evolution and decay mechanism entails spatiotemporal effects, which under certain conditions, leads to superluminally propagating wavepackets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bassom, Andrew P.; Seddougui, Sharon O.
1991-01-01
There exist two types of stationary instability of the flow over a rotating disc corresponding to the upper branch, inviscid mode and the lower branch mode, which has a triple deck structure, of the neutral stability curve. A theoretical study of the linear problem and an account of the weakly nonlinear properties of the lower branch modes have been undertaken by Hall and MacKerrell respectively. Motivated by recent reports of experimental sightings of the lower branch mode and an examination of the role of suction on the linear stability properties of the flow here, the effects are studied of suction on the nonlinear disturbance described by MacKerrell. The additional analysis required in order to incorporate suction is relatively straightforward and enables the derivation of an amplitude equation which describes the evolution of the mode. For each value of the suction, a threshold value of the disturbance amplitude is obtained; modes of size greater than this threshold grow without limit as they develop away from the point of neutral stability.
Explicit integration of Friedmann's equation with nonlinear equations of state
Chen, Shouxin; Gibbons, Gary W.; Yang, Yisong E-mail: gwg1@damtp.cam.ac.uk
2015-05-01
In this paper we study the integrability of the Friedmann equations, when the equation of state for the perfect-fluid universe is nonlinear, in the light of the Chebyshev theorem. A series of important, yet not previously touched, problems will be worked out which include the generalized Chaplygin gas, two-term energy density, trinomial Friedmann, Born-Infeld, two-fluid models, and Chern-Simons modified gravity theory models. With the explicit integration, we are able to understand exactly the roles of the physical parameters in various models play in the cosmological evolution which may also offer clues to a profound understanding of the problems in general settings. For example, in the Chaplygin gas universe, a few integrable cases lead us to derive a universal formula for the asymptotic exponential growth rate of the scale factor, of an explicit form, whether the Friedmann equation is integrable or not, which reveals the coupled roles played by various physical sectors and it is seen that, as far as there is a tiny presence of nonlinear matter, conventional linear matter makes contribution to the dark matter, which becomes significant near the phantom divide line. The Friedmann equations also arise in areas of physics not directly related to cosmology. We provide some examples ranging from geometric optics and central orbits to soap films and the shape of glaciated valleys to which our results may be applied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Xinwei; Zhou, Yu; Li, Yalun; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Shuyu
2016-02-01
We study the three-dimensional Fermi gas in an isotropic harmonic trap during the Bardeen- Cooper-Schrieffer superfluid to Bose-Einstein condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover, which is modeled by using the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GGPE) in the polytropic approximation. We analytically solved the 3D GGPE with a coupled modulus-phase transformation without introducing any additional integrability constraint, reaching the dark soliton-like solution. We find that the dark soliton identified undergoes an oscillation with a constant period over the whole BCS-BEC crossover region, although the amplitude of the dark soliton varies with polytropic index, demonstrating the peculiar nonlinear properties for the system modeled by using the 3D GGPE.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinho, Silvestre T.; Davila, C. G.; Camanho, P. P.; Iannucci, L.; Robinson, P.
2005-01-01
A set of three-dimensional failure criteria for laminated fiber-reinforced composites, denoted LaRC04, is proposed. The criteria are based on physical models for each failure mode and take into consideration non-linear matrix shear behaviour. The model for matrix compressive failure is based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion and it predicts the fracture angle. Fiber kinking is triggered by an initial fiber misalignment angle and by the rotation of the fibers during compressive loading. The plane of fiber kinking is predicted by the model. LaRC04 consists of 6 expressions that can be used directly for design purposes. Several applications involving a broad range of load combinations are presented and compared to experimental data and other existing criteria. Predictions using LaRC04 correlate well with the experimental data, arguably better than most existing criteria. The good correlation seems to be attributable to the physical soundness of the underlying failure models.
Horowitz, A; Sheinman, I; Lanir, Y
1988-02-01
A three dimensional incompressible and geometrically as well as materially nonlinear finite element is formulated for future implementation in models of cardiac mechanics. The stress-strain relations in the finite element are derived from a recently proposed constitutive law which is based on the histological composition of the myocardium. The finite element is formulated for large deformations and considers incompressibility by introducing the hydrostatic pressure as an additional variable. The results of passive loading cases simulated by this element allow to analyze the mechanical properties of ventricular wall segments, the main of which are that the circumferential direction is stiffer than the longitudinal one, that its shear stiffness is considerably lower than its tensile and compressive stiffness and that, due to its mechanically prominent role, the collagenous matrix may affect the myocardial perfusion.
Three-dimensional marginal separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1988-01-01
The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uzzal, R. U. A.; Ahmed, A. K. W.; Bhat, R. B.
2013-11-01
This paper presents dynamic contact loads at wheel-rail contact point in a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track model as well as dynamic response at vehicle-track component levels in the presence of wheel flats. The 17-degrees of freedom lumped mass vehicle is modelled as a full car body, two bogies and four wheelsets, whereas the railway track is modelled as two parallel Timoshenko beams periodically supported by lumped masses representing the sleepers. The rail beam is also supported by nonlinear spring and damper elements representing the railpad and ballast. In order to ensure the interactions between the railpads, a shear parameter beneath the rail beams has also been considered into the model. The wheel-rail contact is modelled using nonlinear Hertzian contact theory. In order to solve the coupled partial and ordinary differential equations of the vehicle-track system, modal analysis method is employed. Idealised Haversine wheel flats with the rounded corner are included in the wheel-rail contact model. The developed model is validated with the existing measured and analytical data available in the literature. The nonlinear model is then employed to investigate the wheel-rail impact forces that arise in the wheel-rail interface due to the presence of wheel flats. The validated model is further employed to investigate the dynamic responses of vehicle and track components in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration in the presence of single wheel flat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botte, V.; Tourlidakis, A.; Elder, R. L.
1998-11-01
A non-linear modelling of the Reynolds stresses has been incorporated into a Navier-Stokes solver for complex three-dimensional geometries. A k- model, adopting a modelling of the turbulent transport which is not based on the eddy viscosity, has been written in generalised co-ordinates and solved with a finite volume approach, using both a GMRES solver and a direct solver for the solution of the linear systems of equations. An additional term, quadratic in the main strain rate, has been introduced into the modelling of the Reynolds stresses to the basic Boussinesq's form; the corresponding constant has been evaluated through comparison with the experimental data. The computational procedure is implemented for the flow analysis in a 90° square section bend and the obtained results show that with the non-linear modelling a much better agreement with the measured data is obtained, both for the velocity and the pressure. The importance of the convection scheme is also discussed, showing how the effect of the non-linear correction added to the Reynolds stresses is effectively hidden by the additional numerical diffusion introduced by a low-order convection scheme as the first-order upwind scheme, thus making the use of higher order schemes necessary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Aparicio, José L.; Sosa, Horacio
2004-06-01
Magnetostriction is a phenomenon observed in all ferromagnetic materials. It couples elastic, electric, magnetic and in some situations also thermal fields and is of great industrial interest for use in sensors, actuators, adaptive or functional structures, robotics, transducers and MEMS. In this work, the governing equations of the three-field problem (i.e., the interactions of elastic, electric and magnetic effects) are formulated in three dimensions, accounting for non-linear (through magnetic body forces represented by the Maxwell tensor) and dynamic effects, and with constitutive equations resembling those of piezoelectricity. Through manipulation of Maxwell equations it is possible to find suitable expressions for developing the numerical weak, Galerkin and matrix forms in a natural way, including seven residuals (one for each nodal degree of freedom) and non-symmetric tangent, 'capacity' and mass consistent matrices. Simple backward Euler and central difference schemes can be used for the time domain integration. The only assumption made in this work for simplification is that the time variation of electric induction is negligible. This is justified by the relatively low frequencies ({\\ll }1 GHz) under which magnetostrictive materials usually work. The principal feature of the equations is the use of a magnetic potential (without much physical meaning) that allows a complete 'displacement' finite element formulation: all elastic, electric and magnetic nodal unknowns are zero derivatives. This allows the algorithm to be treated in a standard way, and important effects such as eddy currents can be obtained naturally. The formulation is implemented in the research finite element code FEAP. Although seven degrees of freedom per node is computer expensive to solve (especially for 3D problems), the current trend in the performance of computers, even personal ones, makes it worthwhile to build complete finite elements following the well-established (in mechanics
Mallory, Kristina; Van Gorder, Robert A
2015-07-01
Stationary solutions for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation modeling Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in three spatial dimensions by general forms of a potential are studied through a perturbation method and also numerically. Note that we study both repulsive and attractive BECs under similar frameworks in order to deduce the effects of the potentials in each case. After outlining the general framework, solutions for a collection of specific confining potentials of physical relevance to experiments on BECs are provided in order to demonstrate the approach. We make several observations regarding the influence of the particular potentials on the behavior of the BECs in these cases, comparing and contrasting the qualitative behavior of the attractive and repulsive BECs for potentials of various strengths and forms. Finally, we consider the nonperturbative where the potential or the amplitude of the solutions is large, obtaining various qualitative results. When the kinetic energy term is small (relative to the nonlinearity and the confining potential), we recover the expected Thomas-Fermi approximation for the stationary solutions. Naturally, this also occurs in the large mass limit. Through all of these results, we are able to understand the qualitative behavior of spherical three-dimensional BECs in weak, intermediate, or strong confining potentials.
Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Jie
2012-09-01
Localization of fatigue-related micro-cracks in pipelines is of increasing importance in industrial applications. A three-dimensional (3D) fatigue-crack imaging technique combining nonlinear guided waves with time reversal is proposed in this paper for potential applications in pipeline inspections. By using this method, the non-classical nonlinear guided waves generated from micro-cracks with hysteretic behavior are recorded, and the third harmonic waves are used to reconstruct the fatigue-crack images in a pipe by using a time reversal (TR) process. The feasibility of this method is examined by the imaging simulations for a steel pipe with varied defect areas. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is programmed to solve the wave equations under cylindrical coordinates, and simulate the experimental process of wave propagation. The results show that: (1) the proposed technique has excellent spatial retrofocusing capability; (2) the accuracy of defect localization and sizing depends on the crack orientation and the adopted guided wave mode; and (3) different displacement/stress components have varied sensitivities to the crack orientation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehrhardt, David A.; Allen, Matthew S.; Yang, Shifei; Beberniss, Timothy J.
2017-03-01
Spatially detailed dynamic measurements of thin, lightweight structures can be difficult to obtain due to the structure's low mass and complicated deformations under certain loading conditions. If traditional contacting sensors, such as accelerometers, strain gauges, displacement transducers, etc., are used, the total number of measurement locations available is limited by the weight added and the effect each sensor has on the local stiffness of the contact area. Other non-contacting sensors, such as Laser Doppler Vibrometers (LDV), laser triangulation sensors, proximity sensors, etc., do not affect the dynamics of a structure, but are limited to single point measurements. In contrast, a few recently developed non-contacting measurement techniques have been shown to be capable of simultaneously measuring the response over a wide measurement field. Two techniques are considered here: Continuous-Scan Laser Doppler Vibrometry (CSLDV) and high speed Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (3D DIC). With the use of these techniques, unprecedented measurement resolution can be achieved. In this work, the linear and nonlinear deformations of a clamped, nominally flat beam and plate under steady state sinusoidal loading will be measured using both techniques. In order to assess their relative merits, the linear natural frequencies, mode shapes, and nonlinear deformation shapes measured with each method are compared. Both measurement systems give comparable results in many cases, although 3D DIC is more accurate for spatially complex deformations at large amplitudes and CSLDV is more accurate at low amplitudes and when the spatial deformation pattern is simpler.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilal, S.; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Khan, Mair
Present work is communicated to identify characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional boundary layer flow of Williamson fluid confined by a bidirectional stretched surface. Conductivity of working fluid is assumed to be temperature dependent. Generative/absorptive heat transfer is also taken into account. Mathematical model is formulated in the form of partial expressions and then transmuted into ordinary differential equations with the help of newfangled set of similarity transformations. The resulting non-linear differential system of equations is solved numerically with the aid of Runge-Kutta algorithm supported by shooting method. Flow features are exemplified quantitatively through graphs. Scintillating results for friction factor and convective heat transfer are computed and scrutinized tabularly. Furthermore, the accuracy of present results is tested with existing literature and we found an excellent agreement. It is inferred that velocity along x-direction mounts whereas along y-direction depreciates for incrementing values of stretching ratio parameter. Moreover, it is also elucidated that non-linearity index tends to decrement the velocity and thermal distributions of fluid flow.
Three-dimensional singularities of a thin plasma slab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pegoraro, F.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sakai, J. I.; Tomassini, G.
2001-07-01
The three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear development of the interchangelike (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability of a thin slab of plasma exhibits interesting features with respect to its two-dimensional (2D) limit investigated by Bulanov, Pegoraro, and Sakai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 2292 (1999)]. We show that, contrary to the 2D case, the 3D evolution equations remain nonlinear when Lagrangian variables are adopted. Explicit solutions are found by the use of a generalized hodograph transformation. Both compression and rarefaction singularities are formed. Local solutions in the neighborhood of the singular points have a generic 2D character.
Three-dimensional singularities of a thin plasma slab.
Pegoraro, F; Bulanov, S V; Sakai, J I; Tomassini, G
2001-07-01
The three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear development of the interchange-like (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability of a thin slab of plasma exhibits interesting features with respect to its two-dimensional (2D) limit investigated by Bulanov, Pegoraro, and Sakai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 2292 (1999)]. We show that, contrary to the 2D case, the 3D evolution equations remain nonlinear when Lagrangian variables are adopted. Explicit solutions are found by the use of a generalized hodograph transformation. Both compression and rarefaction singularities are formed. Local solutions in the neighborhood of the singular points have a generic 2D character.
Grenier, R.R. Jr.; Luettich, R.A. Jr.; Westerink, J.J. ||
1995-07-01
The nonlinear frictional behavoir of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) models are compared in this study of tides in the Bight of Abaco. The shallow depths and the exisitence of an extensive set of tidal elevation data (five astronomical and two overtide constituents at 25 stations) from Filloux and Snyder (1979) offer an excellent opportunity to compare the effects of different frictional formulations. In addition, previous modeling efforts in the bight have consistently overpredicted the M(sub 6) and generally overdamped the O(sub 1) K(sub 1) and S(sub 2) tides. The results indicate that although the 2-D and 3-D models may be calibrated to produce nearly identical responses for the dominant M(sub 6) tide, there are systematic differences in the responses of the primary overtides. These differences are explained using analytical expanisions of the friction terms and are shown to be due to differences in terms that are nonlinear in velocity and in water level. The investigation concludes that the overgeneration of M(sub 6) and the overdamping of secondary astronomical tides will occur in 3-D models as well as 2-D models. Although several causes for these problems were considered, improvement in these constituents could be achieved only be modifying the standard quadratic friction or flow-dependent eddy viscosity relations to reproduce the nonlinear frictional effect relative to the linear frictional effect. The required modifications suggest the presence of a constant background velocity, residual turbulence field, or possibly the need for a more advanced frictional closure.
Three dimensional strained semiconductors
Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui
2016-11-08
In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.
Simulating Nonlinear Deformations of Solar Sail Membranes Using Explicit Time Integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, John T.; Chen, Tzikang; Sleight, David W.; Tessler, Alex
2004-01-01
In this study, the explicit time integration method is employed to predict deformation of highly flexible solar sail structural components. The nonlinear static analysis of a highly flexible ribbon structure is presented to demonstrate the need for having the explicit time integration method in the analysis toolbox for solar sail. Static analyses of the ribbon structure produce ambiquous results whereas the explicit time integration method determines the correct results. Extensive benchmarking examples are also presented to build confidence in the use of the explicit method. Previously determined nonlinear wrinkling deformations of solar sail membranes are found by the explicit method. As the explicit method is known to often require more computational time than nonlinear static methods, a study on mass scaling was also conducted. The computational times are reported for the nonlinear static and explicit time integration solutions to calibrate the advantage of using mass scaling for these problems.
Puso, M; Maker, B N; Ferencz, R M; Hallquist, J O
2000-03-24
This report provides the NIKE3D user's manual update summary for changes made from version 3.0.0 April 24, 1995 to version 3.3.6 March 24,2000. The updates are excerpted directly from the code printed output file (hence the Courier font and formatting), are presented in chronological order and delineated by NIKE3D version number. NIKE3D is a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the finite strain static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node truss and beam elements, and 4-node membrane and shell elements. Thirty constitutive models are available for representing a wide range of elastic, plastic, viscous, and thermally dependent material behavior. Contact-impact algorithms permit gaps, frictional sliding, and mesh discontinuities along material interfaces. Several nonlinear solution strategies are available, including Full-, Modified-, and Quasi-Newton methods. The resulting system of simultaneous linear equations is either solved iteratively by an element-by-element method, or directly by a direct factorization method.
Hill, Mary Catherine
1992-01-01
This report documents a new version of the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) which, with the new Parameter-Estimation Package that also is documented in this report, can be used to estimate parameters by nonlinear regression. The new version of MODFLOW is called MODFLOWP (pronounced MOD-FLOW*P), and functions nearly identically to MODFLOW when the ParameterEstimation Package is not used. Parameters are estimated by minimizing a weighted least-squares objective function by the modified Gauss-Newton method or by a conjugate-direction method. Parameters used to calculate the following MODFLOW model inputs can be estimated: Transmissivity and storage coefficient of confined layers; hydraulic conductivity and specific yield of unconfined layers; vertical leakance; vertical anisotropy (used to calculate vertical leakance); horizontal anisotropy; hydraulic conductance of the River, Streamflow-Routing, General-Head Boundary, and Drain Packages; areal recharge rates; maximum evapotranspiration; pumpage rates; and the hydraulic head at constant-head boundaries. Any spatial variation in parameters can be defined by the user. Data used to estimate parameters can include existing independent estimates of parameter values, observed hydraulic heads or temporal changes in hydraulic heads, and observed gains and losses along head-dependent boundaries (such as streams). Model output includes statistics for analyzing the parameter estimates and the model; these statistics can be used to quantify the reliability of the resulting model, to suggest changes in model construction, and to compare results of models constructed in different ways.
Biffle, J.H.
1993-02-01
JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y. Y.; Chen, S. H.; Zhao, W.
2017-07-01
An improved procedure for perturbation method is presented for constructing homoclinic solutions of strongly nonlinear self-excited oscillators. Compared with current perturbation methods based on nonlinear time transformations, the preference of the present method is that the explicit solutions, in respect to the original time variable, can be derived. In the paper, the equivalence and unified perturbation procedure with nonlinear time transformations, by which implicit solutions can be derived at nonlinear time scales, are firstly presented. Then an explicit generating homoclinic solution for power-law strongly nonlinear oscillator is derived with proposed hyperbolic function balance procedure. An approximation scheme is presented to improve the perturbation procedure and the explicit expression for nonlinear time transformation can be achieved. Applications and comparisons with other methods are performed to assess the advantage of the present method.
Three-dimensional implicit lambda methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Napolitano, M.; Dadone, A.
1983-01-01
This paper derives the three dimensional lambda-formulation equations for a general orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system and provides various block-explicit and block-implicit methods for solving them, numerically. Three model problems, characterized by subsonic, supersonic and transonic flow conditions, are used to assess the reliability and compare the efficiency of the proposed methods.
Three-dimensional nanomagnetism
Fernandez-Pacheco, Amalio; Streubel, Robert; Fruchart, Olivier; ...
2017-06-09
Magnetic nanostructures are being developed for use in many aspects of our daily life, spanning areas such as data storage, sensing and biomedicine. Whereas patterned nanomagnets are traditionally two-dimensional planar structures, recent work is expanding nanomagnetism into three dimensions; a move triggered by the advance of unconventional synthesis methods and the discovery of new magnetic effects. In three-dimensional nanomagnets more complex magnetic configurations become possible, many with unprecedented properties. Here we review the creation of these structures and their implications for the emergence of new physics, the development of instrumentation and computational methods, and exploitation in numerous applications.
Three dimensional quantum chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferretti, G.; Rajeev, S. G.; Yang, Z.
1992-02-01
The subject of this talk is the study of the low energy behavior of three (2+1) dimensional Quantum Chromodynamics. We show the existence of a phase where parity is unbroken and the flavor group U(2n) is broken into a subgroup U(n)×U(n). We derive the low energy effective action for the theory and show that it has solitonic excitations with Fermi statistic, to be identified with the three dimensional ``baryon''. Finally, we study the current algebra for this effective action and we find a co-homologically nontrivial generalization of Kac-Moody algebras to three dimension.
Three-dimensional metamaterials
Burckel, David Bruce
2012-06-12
A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.
Three-dimensional nanomagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Pacheco, Amalio; Streubel, Robert; Fruchart, Olivier; Hertel, Riccardo; Fischer, Peter; Cowburn, Russell P.
2017-06-01
Magnetic nanostructures are being developed for use in many aspects of our daily life, spanning areas such as data storage, sensing and biomedicine. Whereas patterned nanomagnets are traditionally two-dimensional planar structures, recent work is expanding nanomagnetism into three dimensions; a move triggered by the advance of unconventional synthesis methods and the discovery of new magnetic effects. In three-dimensional nanomagnets more complex magnetic configurations become possible, many with unprecedented properties. Here we review the creation of these structures and their implications for the emergence of new physics, the development of instrumentation and computational methods, and exploitation in numerous applications.
Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaheer, Saad
2014-03-01
Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.
Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Cho, Sungjong; Li, Xiongbing
2016-08-01
In absolute measurements of acoustic nonlinearity parameters, amplitudes of harmonics must be corrected for diffraction effects. In this study, we develop explicit multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) model-based diffraction corrections for the first three harmonics in weakly nonlinear, axisymmetric sound beams. The effects of making diffraction corrections on nonlinearity parameter estimation are investigated by defining "total diffraction correction (TDC)". The results demonstrate that TDC cannot be neglected even for harmonic generation experiments in the nearfield region.
Three dimensional interactive display
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vranish, John M. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.
Three-Dimensional Complex Variables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, E. Dale
1988-01-01
Report presents new theory of analytic functions of three-dimensional complex variables. While three-dimensional system subject to more limitations and more difficult to use than the two-dimensional system, useful in analysis of three-dimensional fluid flows, electrostatic potentials, and other phenomena involving harmonic functions.
Hamm, Peter; Lim, Manho; DeGrado, William F.; Hochstrasser, Robin M.
1999-01-01
A form of two-dimensional (2D) vibrational spectroscopy, which uses two ultrafast IR laser pulses, is used to examine the structure of a cyclic penta-peptide in solution. Spectrally resolved cross peaks occur in the off-diagonal region of the 2D IR spectrum of the amide I region, analogous to those in 2D NMR spectroscopy. These cross peaks measure the coupling between the different amide groups in the structure. Their intensities and polarizations relate directly to the three-dimensional structure of the peptide. With the help of a model coupling Hamiltonian, supplemented by density functional calculations, the spectra of this penta-peptide can be regenerated from the known solution phase structure. This 2D-IR measurement, with an intrinsic time resolution of less than 1 ps, could be used in all time regimes of interest in biology. PMID:10051590
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shollenberger, C. A.
1978-01-01
The ability of the potential flow analysis (POTFAN) to predict the influence of ground proximity on lift systems is examined. A two dimensional study employing vortex lattice methodology provides confidence that ground effect phenomenon can be predicted using discrete singularity representation. Two dimensional quasi-steady ascent and descent behavior determined provides guidance in interpreting three dimensional results. Steady and quasi-steady ground effect aerodynamic characteristics predicted by POTFAN are presented for several basic unpowered configurations. POTFAN results are compared with experimental data and results of other analytical methods. Modification of POTFAN to incorporate multienergy flow analysis is discussed. General aspects of thick jet models are examined to provide a basic for extending POTFAN's scope to include analysis of propulsive lift interactions.
Three dimensional Dirac semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaheer, Saad
We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent
Kanbara, Ryo; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Ochiai, Kent T; Kawai, Tatsushi; Tanaka, Yoshinobu
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop and report upon a methodology for a non-linear capacity 3D modeling finite element analysis evaluating the loading behavior of different partial denture designs. A 3D finite element model using human CT data was constructed. An original material constant conversion program was implemented in the data simulation of non-linear tissue behavior. The finite element method material properties of residual ridge mucosa were found to have seven material constants and six conversion points of stress values. Periodontal tissues were found to have three constants, and two conversion points. Three magnetic attachment partial denture designs with different bracing elements were evaluated. Technical procedures for finite element model simulation of nonlinear tissue behavior properties evaluating the oral behavior of prosthetic device designs are reported for prosthodontic testing. The use of horizontal cross-arch bracing positively impacts upon the comparative stability of the partial denture designs tested.
Three-dimensional ultrasound scanning.
Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace; Bax, Jeff
2011-08-06
The past two decades have witnessed developments of new imaging techniques that provide three-dimensional images about the interior of the human body in a manner never before available. Ultrasound (US) imaging is an important cost-effective technique used routinely in the management of a number of diseases. However, two-dimensional viewing of three-dimensional anatomy, using conventional two-dimensional US, limits our ability to quantify and visualize the anatomy and guide therapy, because multiple two-dimensional images must be integrated mentally. This practice is inefficient, and may lead to variability and incorrect diagnoses. Investigators and companies have addressed these limitations by developing three-dimensional US techniques. Thus, in this paper, we review the various techniques that are in current use in three-dimensional US imaging systems, with a particular emphasis placed on the geometric accuracy of the generation of three-dimensional images. The principles involved in three-dimensional US imaging are then illustrated with a diagnostic and an interventional application: (i) three-dimensional carotid US imaging for quantification and monitoring of carotid atherosclerosis and (ii) three-dimensional US-guided prostate biopsy.
Three-dimensional echocardiographic technology.
Salgo, Ivan S
2007-05-01
This article addresses the current state of the art of technology in three-dimensional echocardiography as it applies to transducer design, beam forming, display, and quantification. Because three-dimensional echocardiography encompasses many technical and clinical areas, this article reviews its strengths and limitations and concludes with an analysis of what to use when.
Three-Dimensional Photo Structures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vieth, Ken
2006-01-01
People influence lives in many ways. Through the author's desire to encourage high school students to reflect on the influential people in their lives, he developed this three-dimensional project in which they create a celebratory three-dimensional structure that shares their impressions of themselves and those who have influenced them. This…
Three-dimensional ultrasound scanning
Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace; Bax, Jeff
2011-01-01
The past two decades have witnessed developments of new imaging techniques that provide three-dimensional images about the interior of the human body in a manner never before available. Ultrasound (US) imaging is an important cost-effective technique used routinely in the management of a number of diseases. However, two-dimensional viewing of three-dimensional anatomy, using conventional two-dimensional US, limits our ability to quantify and visualize the anatomy and guide therapy, because multiple two-dimensional images must be integrated mentally. This practice is inefficient, and may lead to variability and incorrect diagnoses. Investigators and companies have addressed these limitations by developing three-dimensional US techniques. Thus, in this paper, we review the various techniques that are in current use in three-dimensional US imaging systems, with a particular emphasis placed on the geometric accuracy of the generation of three-dimensional images. The principles involved in three-dimensional US imaging are then illustrated with a diagnostic and an interventional application: (i) three-dimensional carotid US imaging for quantification and monitoring of carotid atherosclerosis and (ii) three-dimensional US-guided prostate biopsy. PMID:22866228
Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F
2016-07-01
In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xuesong; Lee, Sang S.; Cowley, Stephen J.
1993-08-01
The nonlinear evolution of a pair of initially linear oblique waves in a high-Reynolds-number shear layer is studied. Attention is focused on times when disturbances of amplitude epsilon have O(epsilon (exp 1/3) R) growth rates, where R is the Reynolds number. The development of a pair of oblique waves is then controlled by nonlinear critical-layer effects (Goldstein & Choi, 1989). Viscous effects are included by studying the distinguished scaling epsilon = O(R exp -1). When viscosity is not too large, solutions to the amplitude equation develop a finite-time singularity, indicating that an explosive growth can be induced by nonlinear effects; we suggest that such explosive growth is the precursor to certain of the bursts observed in experiments on Stokes layers and other shear layers. Increasing the importance of viscosity generally delays the occurrence of the finite-time singularity, and sufficiently large viscosity may lead to the disturbance decaying exponentially. For the special case when the streamwise and spanwise wavenumbers are equal, the solution can evolve into a periodic oscillation. A link between the unsteady critical-layer approach to high-Reynolds-number flow instability and the wave/vortex approach of Hall & Smith (1991) is identified.
He, L.; Denton, J.D. . Whittle Lab.)
1994-07-01
A three-dimensional nonlinear time-marching method of solving the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a simplified form has been developed for blade flutter calculations. The discretization of the equations is made using the cell-vertex finite volume scheme in space and the four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme in time. Calculations are carried out in a single-blade-passage domain and the phase-shifted periodic condition is implemented by using the shape correction method. The three-dimensional unsteady Euler solution is obtained at conditions of zero viscosity, and is validated against a well-established three-dimensional semi-analytical method. For viscous solutions, the time-step limitation on the explicit temporal discretization scheme is effectively relaxed by using a time-consistent two-grid time-marching technique. A transonic rotor blade passage flow (with tip-leakage) is calculated using the present three-dimensional unsteady viscous solution method. Calculated steady flow results agree well with the corresponding experiment and with other calculations. Calculated unsteady loadings due to oscillations of the rotor blades reveal some notable three-dimensional viscous flow features. The feasibility of solving the simplified thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver for oscillating blade flows at practical conditions is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maraghechi, B.; Jokar, M.; Bahman, F. Jafari; Naeimabadi, A.; Naeimabadi
2013-10-01
A nonlinear simulation of the E × B drifting electron laser (DEL) and the free-electron laser (FEL), in three dimensions, is presented for a prebunched electron beam to study efficiency enhancement. For the planar wiggler with flat pole faces, prebunching considerably shortens the saturation length, which favors the DEL compared to the FEL. Operation of the DEL with the planar wiggler with parabolic pole faces was not found to be possible due to the modulation of the E × B drift by the wiggler. However, simulation results of the FEL with this type of wiggler are reported.
Aversa, Raffaella; Apicella, Davide; Perillo, Letizia; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Ferrari, Marco; Apicella, Antonio
2009-05-01
In healthy conditions, modeling and remodeling collaborate to obtain a correct shape and function of bones. Loads on bones cause bone strains which generate signals that some cells can detect and respond to. Threshold ranges of such signals are genetically determined and are involved in the control of modeling and remodeling. The present study aimed at assessing the deformations transferred to surrounding bone by endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with endocrowns made up of high or low elastic modulus materials. The solid model consisted of a maxillary central incisor, the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the surrounding cortical and cancellous bone. Both composite and alumina endocrowns were simulated under load and compared to a sound tooth. Dynamic non-linear analyses were performed to validate discretization processes. Non-linear analyses were performed on teeth and surrounding bone to estimate strain variations according to restorative techniques. Strain values in cortical bone, spongy bone, alveolar cortex and tooth were evaluated. PDL allowed models to homogeneously transfer loads to bone. Strains developing in highly rigid restorations were estimated to activate bone modeling and remodeling. The higher deformability of composites could enable restorative systems to transfer limited strains to compact and spongy bone of tooth socket. Although composites could not prevent the physiological resorption of the alveolar bone, they could successfully reduce strain arising in tooth socket when compared to alumina. The PDL prevented bone to undergo high deformations, resulting in natural flexural movements of teeth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattar, F. P.; Teichmann, J.; Bissonnette, L. R.; Maccormack, R. W.
1979-01-01
The paper presents a three-dimensional analysis of the nonlinear light matter interaction in a hydrodynamic context. It is reported that the resulting equations are a generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations subjected to an internal potential which depends solely upon the fluid density. In addition, three numerical approaches are presented to solve the governing equations using an extension of McCormack predict-corrector scheme. These are a uniform grid, a dynamic rezoned grid, and a splitting technique. It is concluded that the use of adaptive mapping and splitting techniques with McCormack two-level predictor-corrector scheme results in an efficient and reliable code whose storage requirements are modest compared with other second order methods of equal accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Meng, Xiaohong; Li, Fang
2017-07-01
Generalized inversion is one of the important steps in the quantitative interpretation of gravity data. With appropriate algorithm and parameters, it gives a view of the subsurface which characterizes different geological bodies. However, generalized inversion of gravity data is time consuming due to the large amount of data points and model cells adopted. Incorporating of various prior information as constraints deteriorates the above situation. In the work discussed in this paper, a method for fast nonlinear generalized inversion of gravity data is proposed. The fast multipole method is employed for forward modelling. The inversion objective function is established with weighted data misfit function along with model objective function. The total objective function is solved by a dataspace algorithm. Moreover, depth weighing factor is used to improve depth resolution of the result, and bound constraint is incorporated by a transfer function to limit the model parameters in a reliable range. The matrix inversion is accomplished by a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. With the above algorithm, equivalent density vectors can be obtained, and interpolation is performed to get the finally density model on the fine mesh in the model domain. Testing on synthetic gravity data demonstrated that the proposed method is faster than conventional generalized inversion algorithm to produce an acceptable solution for gravity inversion problem. The new developed inversion method was also applied for inversion of the gravity data collected over Sichuan basin, southwest China. The established density structure in this study helps understanding the crustal structure of Sichuan basin and provides reference for further oil and gas exploration in this area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.
2016-04-01
This paper presents a parallelized modeling technique for the efficient simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics introduced by the wave interaction with fatigue cracks. The elastodynamic wave equations with contact effects are formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The LISA formulation is extended to capture the contact-impact phenomena during the wave damage interaction based on the penalty method. A Coulomb friction model is integrated into the computation procedure to capture the stick-slip contact shear motion. The LISA procedure is coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized supercomputing on powerful graphic cards. Both the explicit contact formulation and the parallel feature facilitates LISA's superb computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). The theoretical formulations based on the penalty method is introduced and a guideline for the proper choice of the contact stiffness is given. The convergence behavior of the solution under various contact stiffness values is examined. A numerical benchmark problem is used to investigate the new LISA formulation and results are compared with a conventional contact finite element solution. Various nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are successfully captured using this contact LISA formulation, including the generation of nonlinear higher harmonic responses. Nonlinear mode conversion of guided waves at fatigue cracks is also studied.
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, D.; Reichart, A.
2000-06-27
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke
2000-01-01
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mura, John M.
1989-01-01
Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)
Three-dimensional stellarator codes
Garabedian, P. R.
2002-01-01
Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367
Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krumpe, Norm
2005-01-01
Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…
Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mura, John M.
1989-01-01
Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)
Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krumpe, Norm
2005-01-01
Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…
An edge-based smoothed triangle element for non-linear explicit dynamic analysis of shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Gang; Cui, Xiangyang; Li, Guangyao; Wu, Suzhen
2011-07-01
The paper presents an edge-based smoothed triangular element (EST) for nonlinear analysis of shell structures using an explicit dynamic formulation. In order to improve the accuracy and the convergence of the shell element without additional parameters, the gradient smoothing operation is performed to the strain rates in the smoothing domains associated with the edges of triangular elements. An edge coordinate system is defined local on the edges of the triangular element for the strain smoothing operation. The material nonlinearities for the dynamic solution are treated by using the updated Lagrangian description and an elastic-plastic constitutive law. The shear strains in the element formulation are approximated using the discrete shear gap method to mitigate the shear locking, and this element can be applicable for both thin shells and thick shells. Numerical results for elastic and elastic-plastic problems show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed shell element.
Explicit finite-difference time domain for nonlinear analysis of waveguide modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barakat, N. M.; Shabat, M. M.; El-Azab, S.; Jaeger, Dieter
2003-07-01
The Finite Difference Time Domain Technique is at present the most widely used tool employed in the study of light propagation in various photonic waveguide structure. In this paper we derived an explicit finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for solving the wave equation in a four optical waveguiding rectangular structure. We derive the stability condition to achieve the stability in nonlinear media region, we also check that the wave equation used is consistence and convergent with the approximate finite difference equation. Our method is tested against some previous problems and we find a high degree of accuracy, moreover it is easy for programming. Numerical results are illustrated for a rectangular waveguide with four layers, where one of these layers is a nonlinear medium.
Three-dimensional magnetic field annihilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jardine, M.; Allen, H. R.; Grundy, R. E.
1993-11-01
We present a family of three-dimensional nonlinear solutions for magnetic field annihilation in a current sheet, including the effects of resistivity and viscosity. The different members of the family are characterized by the imposed vorticity of the flow that brings the field lines together. Since in a three- dimensional flow the vorticity can be increased by the stretching of vortex lines (an effect that is absent in two dimensions), we find some striking differences to our previous two-dimensional analysis. In both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses, above a certain critical imposed vorticity omegacrit, the flow breaks up into cells with current sheet is completely altered. In the two-dimensional analysis, omegacrit is a steeply increasing function of the viscous Reynolds number R, whereas in the three-dimensional case, it quickly asymptotes to only omegacrit = 2v0/L where v0 and L are the characteristic velocity and length scale of the flow, respectively. The width of the current sheet, which depends on the speed at which field lines are carried into it, also responds differently to an increase in R. In two dimensions, the current sheet narrows for all vorticities, but three dimensions, it narrows when the imposed vorticity is negative and widens when it is positive. Also we find that the current density within the current sheet varies as the nature of the flow is changed, rather than being constant as in the the two-dimensional case. Finally, we find that there is a minimum value of the plasma beta betamin below which the plasma pressure is negative. For the nonsheared (neutral current sheet) case, betamin increases rapidly with the magnetic Reynolds number Rm such that this type of annihilation is only possible for a high-beta plasma. For a sheared magnetic field, however, betamin is much lower, making this type of annihilation more relevant to the sonar corona.
Three-dimensional perspective visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hussey, Kevin
1991-01-01
It was demonstrated that image processing computer graphic techniques can provide an effective means of physiographic analysis of remotely sensed regions through the use of three-dimensional perspective rendering. THe methods used to simulate and animate three-dimensional surfaces from two-dimensional imagery and digital elevation models are explained. A brief historic look at JPL's efforts in this field and several examples of animations, illustrating the evolution of these techniques from 1985, are shown. JPL's current research in this area is discussed along with examples of technology transfer and potential commercial application. The software is part of the VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) image processing system which was developed at the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of JPL.
Facial three-dimensional morphometry.
Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G
1996-01-01
Three-dimensional facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 40 men and 40 women, with a new noninvasive computerized method. Subjects ranged in age between 19 and 32 years, had sound dentitions, and no craniocervical disorders. For each subject, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared camera coupled device (CCD) cameras, real time hardware for the recognition of markers, and software for the three-dimensional reconstruction of landmarks' x, y, z coordinates. From these landmarks, 15 linear and 10 angular measurements, and four linear distance ratios were computed and averaged for sex. For all angular values, both samples showed a narrow variability and no significant gender differences were demonstrated. Conversely, all the linear measurements were significantly higher in men than in women. The highest intersample variability was observed for the measurements of facial height (prevalent vertical dimension), and the lowest for the measurements of facial depth (prevalent horizontal dimension). The proportions of upper and lower face height relative to the anterior face height showed a significant sex difference. Mean values were in good agreement with literature data collected with traditional methods. The described method allowed the direct and noninvasive calculation of three-dimensional linear and angular measurements that would be usefully applied in clinics as a supplement to the classic x-ray cephalometric analyses.
Three dimensional electromagnetic wavepackets in a plasma: Spatiotemporal modulational instability
Borhanian, J.; Hosseini Faradonbe, F.
2014-04-15
The nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic beam with relativistic collisionless unmagnetized plasma is investigated by invoking the reductive perturbation technique, resting on the model of three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with cubic nonlinearity which incorporates the effects of self-focusing, self-phase modulation, and diffraction on wave propagation. Relying on the derived NLS equation, the occurrence of spatiotemporal modulational instability is investigated in detail.
Three dimensional quantum geometry and deformed symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joung, E.; Mourad, J.; Noui, K.
2009-05-01
We study a three dimensional noncommutative space emerging in the context of three dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity. Our starting point is the assumption that the isometry group is deformed to the Drinfeld double D(SU(2)). We generalize to the deformed case the construction of E3 as the quotient of its isometry group ISU(2) by SU(2). We show that the algebra of functions on E3 becomes the noncommutative algebra of SU(2) distributions, C(SU(2))∗, endowed with the convolution product. This construction gives the action of ISU(2) on the algebra and allows the determination of plane waves and coordinate functions. In particular, we show the following: (i) plane waves have bounded momenta; (ii) to a given momentum are associated several SU(2) elements leading to an effective description of ϕ ɛC(SU(2))∗ in terms of several physical scalar fields on E3; (iii) their product leads to a deformed addition rule of momenta consistent with the bound on the spectrum. We generalize to the noncommutative setting the "local" action for a scalar field. Finally, we obtain, using harmonic analysis, another useful description of the algebra as the direct sum of the algebra of matrices. The algebra of matrices inherits the action of ISU(2): rotations leave the order of the matrices invariant, whereas translations change the order in a way we explicitly determine.
THE THREE DIMENSIONAL THERMAL HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.
KALINICHENKO,S.D.; KOHUT,P.; KROSHILIN,A.E.; KROSHILIN,V.E.; SMIRNOV,A.V.
2003-05-04
BAGIRA - a thermal-hydraulic program complex was primarily developed for using it in nuclear power plant simulator models, but is also used as a best-estimate analytical tool for modeling two-phase mixture flows. The code models allow consideration of phase transients and the treatment of the hydrodynamic behavior of boiling and pressurized water reactor circuits. It provides the capability to explicitly model three-dimensional flow regimes in various regions of the primary and secondary circuits such as, the mixing regions, circular downcomer, pressurizer, reactor core, main primary loops, the steam generators, the separator-reheaters. In addition, it is coupled to a severe-accident module allowing the analysis of core degradation and fuel damage behavior. Section II will present the theoretical basis for development and selected results are presented in Section III. The primary use for the code complex is to realistically model reactor core behavior in power plant simulators providing enhanced training tools for plant operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevorkian, J.; Li, Y. P.
1987-08-01
The first part of this paper summarizes the mathematical modeling of free electron lasers (FEL), and the remainder concerns general perturbation methods for solving free electron laser (FEL) and other strictly nonlinear oscillatory problems with slowly varying parameters and small perturbations. We review and compare the methods of Kuzmak-Luke and of near-identity averaging transformations. In order to implement the calculation of explicit solutions we develop two approximation schemes. The first involves use of finite Fourier series to present either the leading approximation of the solution or the transformation of the governing equations to a standard form appropriate for the method of averaging. In the second scheme we fit a cubic polynomial to the potential such that the leading approximation is expressible in terms of elliptic functions. The ideas are illustrated with a number of examples which are also solved numerically to assess the accuracy of the various approximations.
Chakrabarty, Ankush; Buzzard, Gregery T; Corless, Martin J; Zak, Stanislaw H; Rundell, Ann E
2014-01-01
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critical in maintaining homeostasis under physical and psychological stress by modulating cortisol levels in the body. Dysregulation of cortisol levels is linked to numerous stress-related disorders. In this paper, an automated treatment methodology is proposed, employing a variant of nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC), called explicit MPC (EMPC). The controller is informed by an unknown input observer (UIO), which estimates various hormonal levels in the HPA axis system in conjunction with the magnitude of the stress applied on the body, based on measured concentrations of adreno-corticotropic hormones (ACTH). The proposed closed-loop control strategy is tested on multiple in silico patients and the effectiveness of the controller performance is demonstrated.
Quasicrystalline three-dimensional foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, S. J.; Graner, F.; Mosseri, R.; Sadoc, J.-F.
2017-03-01
We present a numerical study of quasiperiodic foams, in which the bubbles are generated as duals of quasiperiodic Frank–Kasper phases. These foams are investigated as potential candidates to the celebrated Kelvin problem for the partition of three-dimensional space with equal volume bubbles and minimal surface area. Interestingly, one of the computed structures falls close to (but still slightly above) the best known Weaire–Phelan periodic candidate. In addition we find a correlation between the normalized bubble surface area and the root mean squared deviation of the number of faces, giving an additional clue to understanding the main geometrical ingredients driving the Kelvin problem.
Q kink of the nonlinear O(3) {sigma} model involving an explicitly broken symmetry
Loginov, A. Yu.
2011-05-15
The (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear O(3) {sigma} model involving an explicitly broken symmetry is considered. Sphalerons are known to exist in this model. These sphalerons are of a topological origin and are embedded kinks of the sine-Gordon model. In the case of a compact spatial manifold S{sup 1}, sine-Gordon multikinks exist in the model. It is shown that the model admits a nonstatic generalization of the sine-Gordon kink/multikink, Q kink/multikink. Explicit expressions are obtained for the dependence of the Q kink energy and charge on the phase frequency of rotation. The Q kink is studied for stability, and expressions are obtained for the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of the operator of quadratic fluctuations. It is shown that the Q kink is unstable over the entire admissible frequency range {omega} Element-Of [-1, 1]. The one-loop quantum correction to the static-kink mass is calculated, and the Q-kink zero mode is quantized. It is shown that, in a general static case, the field equations of the model are integrable in quadratures.
Three-dimensional vortex methods
Greengard, C.A.
1984-08-01
Three-dimensional vortex methods for the computation of incompressible fluid flow are presented from a unified point of view. Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms; in both of them, the vorticity is evaluated by a discretization of the spatial derivative of the flow map. The fact that the filament method, the one which is most often used in practice, can be formulated as a version of the Beale and Majda algorithm in a curved coordinate system is used to give a convergence theorem for the filament method. The method of Anderson is also discussed, in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. This remains true even when time discretization is taken into account. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed. 36 references, 4 figures.
Three-dimensional aromatic networks.
Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo
2014-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.
Three-dimensional display technologies.
Geng, Jason
2013-01-01
The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.
Three-dimensional coil inductor
Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent
2002-01-01
A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.
Three-dimensional vortex methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greengard, C. A.
1984-08-01
Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms. The method of Anderson in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field is discussed. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed.
The three-dimensional evolution of a plane wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maekawa, H.; Moser, R. D.; Mansour, N. N.
1993-01-01
In the past three decades, linear stability analysis has led to a comprehensive understanding of the linear stages of transition in plane wakes. Our understanding of the nonlinear and turbulent stages is less developed. Nonlinear theory developed by Papageorgiou and Smith was used to study the long-wavelength regime in wakes. The nonlinear and turbulent stages were investigated experimentally, and few numerical studies examined the early nonlinear stages of forced wakes. The evolution of three dimensional disturbances in an incompressible wake is investigated using direct numerical simulations. The instantaneous three-dimaensional structures and corresponding statistics are presented.
Explicit solutions for the buckling of an imperfect strut on a nonlinear foundation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagrange, Romain; Averbuch, Daniel; Ifpen Team
2013-03-01
We perform a theoretical and numerical study of the buckling of an imperfect finite strut on a nonlinear elastic Winkler type foundation. The imperfection is introduced by considering an initially deformed shape which is a sine function with an half wavelength. The length of the strut is chosen such that the first buckling mode is excited and the restoring force is either a bi-linear or an exponential profile. Considering these two profiles, we show (exact piecewise solution theory, explicit Galerkin method, numerical resolution) that the system is subcritical, imperfection sensitive and the deflection is an amplification of the default. For small imperfection sizes, the equilibrium paths hit a limit point which is asymptotic to the Euler load for a critical imperfection amplitude. This critical amplitude is determined analytically and does not depend on the choice of the restoring force. The decrease of the maximum value of the axial force supported by the beam as a function of the imperfection magnitude is determined. We show that the leading term of the development has a different exponent than in subcritical buckling of elastic systems, and that the exponent values depend on the regularization.
Explicit Nonlinear Finite Element Geometric Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Springs under Various Loads
Kong, Y. S.; Omar, M. Z.; Chua, L. B.; Abdullah, S.
2013-01-01
This study describes the effects of bounce, brake, and roll behavior of a bus toward its leaf spring suspension systems. Parabolic leaf springs are designed based on vertical deflection and stress; however, loads are practically derived from various modes especially under harsh road drives or emergency braking. Parabolic leaf springs must sustain these loads without failing to ensure bus and passenger safety. In this study, the explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE) method is implemented because of the complexity of experimental testing A series of load cases; namely, vertical push, wind-up, and suspension roll are introduced for the simulations. The vertical stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is related to the vehicle load-carrying capability, whereas the wind-up stiffness is associated with vehicle braking. The roll stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is correlated with the vehicle roll stability. To obtain a better bus performance, two new parabolic leaf spring designs are proposed and simulated. The stress level during the loadings is observed and compared with its design limit. Results indicate that the newly designed high vertical stiffness parabolic spring provides the bus a greater roll stability and a lower stress value compared with the original design. Bus safety and stability is promoted, as well as the load carrying capability. PMID:24298209
Three-dimensional colloidal lithography.
Nagai, Hironori; Poteet, Austen; Zhang, Xu A; Chang, Chih-Hao
2017-03-24
Light interactions with colloidal particles can generate a variety of complex three-dimensional (3D) intensity patterns, which can be utilized for nanolithography. The study of particle-light interactions can add more types of intensity patterns by manipulating key factors. Here we investigate a novel 3D nanolithography technique using colloidal particles under two-beam coherent illuminations. The fabricated 3D nanostructures are hollow, nested within periodic structures, and possess multiple chamber geometry. The effects of incident angles and particle size on the fabricated nanostructures were examined. The relative phase shift between particle position and interference pattern is identified as another significant parameter influencing the resultant nanostructures. A numerical model has been developed to show the evolution of nanostructure geometry with phase shifts, and experimental studies confirm the simulation results. Through the introduction of single colloidal particles, the fabrication capability of Lloyd's mirror interference can now be extended to fabrication of 3D nanostructure with complex shell geometry. The fabricated hollow nanostructures with grating background could find potential applications in the area of photonics, drug delivery, and nanofluidics.
Three-dimensional colloidal lithography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagai, Hironori; Poteet, Austen; Zhang, Xu A.; Chang, Chih-Hao
2017-03-01
Light interactions with colloidal particles can generate a variety of complex three-dimensional (3D) intensity patterns, which can be utilized for nanolithography. The study of particle-light interactions can add more types of intensity patterns by manipulating key factors. Here we investigate a novel 3D nanolithography technique using colloidal particles under two-beam coherent illuminations. The fabricated 3D nanostructures are hollow, nested within periodic structures, and possess multiple chamber geometry. The effects of incident angles and particle size on the fabricated nanostructures were examined. The relative phase shift between particle position and interference pattern is identified as another significant parameter influencing the resultant nanostructures. A numerical model has been developed to show the evolution of nanostructure geometry with phase shifts, and experimental studies confirm the simulation results. Through the introduction of single colloidal particles, the fabrication capability of Lloyd’s mirror interference can now be extended to fabrication of 3D nanostructure with complex shell geometry. The fabricated hollow nanostructures with grating background could find potential applications in the area of photonics, drug delivery, and nanofluidics.
Three-dimensional display technologies
Geng, Jason
2014-01-01
The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827
Three-dimensional laser microvision.
Shimotahira, H; Iizuka, K; Chu, S C; Wah, C; Costen, F; Yoshikuni, Y
2001-04-10
A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 mum; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 mum.
Three-Dimensional Laser Microvision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimotahira, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Keigo; Chu, Sun-Chun; Wah, Christopher; Costen, Furnie; Yoshikuni, Yuzo
2001-04-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 m; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 m.
Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory
Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten
2014-01-01
Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered ‘quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338
Three-dimensional polarization algebra.
R Sheppard, Colin J; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto
2016-10-01
If light is focused or collected with a high numerical aperture lens, as may occur in imaging and optical encryption applications, polarization should be considered in three dimensions (3D). The matrix algebra of polarization behavior in 3D is discussed. It is useful to convert between the Mueller matrix and two different Hermitian matrices, representing an optical material or system, which are in the literature. Explicit transformation matrices for converting the column vector form of these different matrices are extended to the 3D case, where they are large (81×81) but can be generated using simple rules. It is found that there is some advantage in using a generalization of the Chandrasekhar phase matrix treatment, rather than that based on Gell-Mann matrices, as the resultant matrices are of simpler form and reduce to the two-dimensional case more easily. Explicit expressions are given for 3D complex field components in terms of Chandrasekhar-Stokes parameters.
Finan, C.H. III
1980-12-01
Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are solved simultaneously to avoid syncronization errors.
PLOT3D- DRAWING THREE DIMENSIONAL SURFACES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canright, R. B.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is a package of programs to draw three-dimensional surfaces of the form z = f(x,y). The function f and the boundary values for x and y are the input to PLOT3D. The surface thus defined may be drawn after arbitrary rotations. However, it is designed to draw only functions in rectangular coordinates expressed explicitly in the above form. It cannot, for example, draw a sphere. Output is by off-line incremental plotter or online microfilm recorder. This package, unlike other packages, will plot any function of the form z = f(x,y) and portrays continuous and bounded functions of two independent variables. With curve fitting; however, it can draw experimental data and pictures which cannot be expressed in the above form. The method used is division into a uniform rectangular grid of the given x and y ranges. The values of the supplied function at the grid points (x, y) are calculated and stored; this defines the surface. The surface is portrayed by connecting successive (y,z) points with straight-line segments for each x value on the grid and, in turn, connecting successive (x,z) points for each fixed y value on the grid. These lines are then projected by parallel projection onto the fixed yz-plane for plotting. This program has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 with on-line CDC microfilm recorder.
Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional turbomachinery flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caughey, David A.
1989-01-01
Research was performed in the general area of computational aerodynamics, with particular emphasis on the development of efficient techniques for the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for transonic flows through the complex blade passages associated with turbomachines. In particular, multigrid methods were developed, using both explicit and implicit time-stepping schemes as smoothing algorithms. The specific accomplishments of the research have included: (1) the development of an explicit multigrid method to solve the Euler equations for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows based upon the multigrid implementation of Jameson's explicit Runge-Kutta scheme (Jameson 1983); (2) the development of an implicit multigrid scheme for the three-dimensional Euler equations based upon lower-upper factorization; (3) the development of a multigrid scheme using a diagonalized alternating direction implicit (ADI) algorithm; (4) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid method to solve the Euler equations of inviscid flow for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows; and also (5) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid scheme to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional turbomachinery flows.
[Three-dimensional printing and oral medicine].
Hu, M
2017-04-09
After 30 years of development, three-dimensional printing technology has made great progress, and the model and surgical guide have been clinically applied. The three-dimensional printing of titanium and other metal prosthesis and dental crown after adequate research will be applied clinically, and three-dimensional bioprinting and related biological materials need further study. Three-dimensional printing provides opportunities for the development of oral medicine, which will change the way of clinical work, teaching and research. The dentists should integrate multi-disciplinary knowledge and understand the essence of new technology to meet the challenges of the era of digital medicine.
Three dimensional identification card and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Li, Chao; Li, Hao; Liu, Zhao
2016-10-01
Three dimensional Identification Card, with its three-dimensional personal image displayed and stored for personal identification, is supposed be the advanced version of the present two-dimensional identification card in the future [1]. Three dimensional Identification Card means that there are three-dimensional optical techniques are used, the personal image on ID card is displayed to be three-dimensional, so we can see three dimensional personal face. The ID card also stores the three-dimensional face information in its inside electronics chip, which might be recorded by using two-channel cameras, and it can be displayed in computer as three-dimensional images for personal identification. Three-dimensional ID card might be one interesting direction to update the present two-dimensional card in the future. Three-dimension ID card might be widely used in airport custom, entrance of hotel, school, university, as passport for on-line banking, registration of on-line game, etc...
Three-dimensional map construction.
Jenks, G F; Brown, D A
1966-11-18
Three-dimensional maps are useful tools which have been neglected for some time. They shouldbe more commonly used, and familiarity with the techniques discussed in this article should dispel any qualms anyone might ve about needing artistic talent to nstruct them. The saving in time esulting from the use of an anamorphoser provides a further incentive. The anamorphoser transformations discussed above were all prepared by using straight slits, oriented at right angles to each other and placed so that all planes of the elements were parallel to each other. It is possible to vary these conditions in an infinite number of ways and thereby produce nonparallel tranceformations. Some of these variations are illustrated in Fig. 10. All the illustrations in Fig. 10 are transformations of the planimetric weather map shown in Fig. 8A. The variations used for the maps of Fig. 10 are as follows. (A) All planes parallel, with a curved rear slit; (B) all planes parallel, with curved slits front and rear; ( C) all planes parallel, with S-shaped rear slit; (D) all planes parallel, with an undulating rear slit; (E) all planes parallel, with curved front and undulating rear slit; (F) plane of the original rotated on the horizontal axis-both slits curved; (G) plane of the original rotated on thevertical axis- both slits curved; (H) plane of the original rotated on the horizontal axis -both slits straight. These are only a few of the many transformations which can be made with an anamorphoser, butthey do point toward some interesting possibilities. For example, it appears that maps based onone projection might be altered to satisfy the coordinates of a completely different projection. Note, for example, the change of parallels from concave to convex curves (Figs. 8A and 10A) and the change from converging meridians to diverging meridians (Figs. 8A and l0G). Similarly, the grids of maps B, F, and H of Fig. 10 approximate projections which are quite different from the original. Other
Area MT Encodes Three-Dimensional Motion
Huk, Alexander C.; Cormack, Lawrence K.; Kohn, Adam
2014-01-01
We use visual information to determine our dynamic relationship with other objects in a three-dimensional (3D) world. Despite decades of work on visual motion processing, it remains unclear how 3D directions—trajectories that include motion toward or away from the observer—are represented and processed in visual cortex. Area MT is heavily implicated in processing visual motion and depth, yet previous work has found little evidence for 3D direction sensitivity per se. Here we use a rich ensemble of binocular motion stimuli to reveal that most neurons in area MT of the anesthetized macaque encode 3D motion information. This tuning for 3D motion arises from multiple mechanisms, including different motion preferences in the two eyes and a nonlinear interaction of these signals when both eyes are stimulated. Using a novel method for functional binocular alignment, we were able to rule out contributions of static disparity tuning to the 3D motion tuning we observed. We propose that a primary function of MT is to encode 3D motion, critical for judging the movement of objects in dynamic real-world environments. PMID:25411482
Lattice theory of three-dimensional cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Esterling, D. M.
1976-01-01
The problem of the stability of a three-dimensional crack is analyzed within a lattice-statics approximation. The consequence of introducing a jog into the crack face as well as the effects of various nonlinear-force laws are studied. The phenomenon of lattice trapping (upper and lower bounds on the applied stress for an equilibrium crack of given length) is again obtained. It is possible to obtain some physical insight into which aspects of the force law are critical for crack stability. In particular, the inadequacy of a thermodynamic approach - which relates the critical stress to a surface energy corresponding to the area under the cohesive-force-vs-displacement curve - is demonstrated. Surface energy is a global property of the cohesive-force law. Crack stability is sensitive to much more refined aspects of the cohesive-force law. Crack healing is sensitive to the long-range portion of the cohesive force. Crack expansion is sensitive to the position of the maximum in the cohesive-force relation.
Three-dimensional modeling of tsunami waves
Mader, C.L.
1985-01-01
Two- and three-dimensional, time-dependent, nonlinear, incompressible, viscous flow calculations of realistic models of tsunami wave formation and run up have been performed using the Los Alamos-developed SOLA-3D code. The results of the SOLA calculations are compared with shallow-water, long-wave calculations for the same problems using the SWAN code. Tsunami wave formation by a continental slope subsidence has been examined using the two numerical models. The SOLA waves were slower than the SWAN waves and the interaction with the shoreline was more complicated for the SOLA waves. In the SOLA calculation, the first wave was generated by the cavity being filled along the shoreline close to the source of motion. The second wave was generated by the cavity being filled from the deep water end. The two waves interacted along the shoreline resulting in the second wave being the largest wave with a velocity greater than the first wave. The second wave overtook the first wave at later times and greater distances from the source. In the SWAN calculation, the second wave was smaller than the first wave. 6 refs.
Three-dimensional Spontaneous Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beresnyak, Andrey
2017-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is best known from observations of the Sun where it causes solar flares. Observations estimate the reconnection rate as a small, but non-negligible fraction of the Alfvén speed, so-called fast reconnection. Until recently, the prevailing pictures of reconnection were either of resistivity or plasma microscopic effects, which was contradictory to the observed rates. Alternative pictures were either of reconnection due to the stochasticity of magnetic field lines in turbulence or the tearing instability of the thin current sheet. In this paper we simulate long-term three-dimensional nonlinear evolution of a thin, planar current sheet subject to a fast oblique tearing instability using direct numerical simulations of resistive-viscous magnetohydrodynamics. The late-time evolution resembles generic turbulence with a ‑5/3 power spectrum and scale-dependent anisotropy, so we conclude that the tearing-driven reconnection becomes turbulent reconnection. The turbulence is local in scale, so microscopic diffusivity should not affect large-scale quantities. This is confirmed by convergence of the reconnection rate toward ∼ 0.015{v}{{A}} with increasing Lundquist number. In this spontaneous reconnection, with mean field and without driving, the dissipation rate per unit area also converges to ∼ 0.006ρ {v}{{A}}3, and the dimensionless constants 0.015 and 0.006 are governed only by self-driven nonlinear dynamics of the sheared magnetic field. Remarkably, this also means that a thin current sheet has a universal fluid resistance depending only on its length to width ratio and to {v}{{A}}/c.
Free convection nanofluid flow in the stagnation-point region of a three-dimensional body.
Farooq, Umer; Xu, Hang
2014-01-01
Analytical results are presented for a steady three-dimensional free convection flow in the stagnation point region over a general curved isothermal surface placed in a nanofluid. The momentum equations in x- and y-directions, energy balance equation, and nanoparticle concentration equation are reduced to a set of four fully coupled nonlinear differential equations under appropriate similarity transformations. The well known technique optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is used to obtain the exact solution explicitly, whose convergence is then checked in detail. Besides, the effects of the physical parameters, such as the Lewis number, the Brownian motion parameter, the thermophoresis parameter, and the buoyancy ratio on the profiles of velocities, temperature, and concentration, are studied and discussed. Furthermore the local skin friction coefficients in x- and y-directions, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are examined for various values of the physical parameters.
Free Convection Nanofluid Flow in the Stagnation-Point Region of a Three-Dimensional Body
Farooq, Umer
2014-01-01
Analytical results are presented for a steady three-dimensional free convection flow in the stagnation point region over a general curved isothermal surface placed in a nanofluid. The momentum equations in x- and y-directions, energy balance equation, and nanoparticle concentration equation are reduced to a set of four fully coupled nonlinear differential equations under appropriate similarity transformations. The well known technique optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is used to obtain the exact solution explicitly, whose convergence is then checked in detail. Besides, the effects of the physical parameters, such as the Lewis number, the Brownian motion parameter, the thermophoresis parameter, and the buoyancy ratio on the profiles of velocities, temperature, and concentration, are studied and discussed. Furthermore the local skin friction coefficients in x- and y-directions, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are examined for various values of the physical parameters. PMID:25114954
Three-dimensional gravity and string ghosts
Carlip, S. ); Kogan, I.I. )
1991-12-23
It is known that much of the structure of string theory can be derived from three-dimensional topological field theory and gravity. We show here that, at least for simple topologies, the string diffeomorphism ghosts can also be explained in terms of three-dimensional physics.
The Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Vertical Jet in Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, L. R.
A three dimensional numerical model of vertical turbulent jet in waves is established by using the nonlinear k - ɛ turbulence model with VOF method. And a lot of numerical experiments with different wave parameters are carried out. Based on the numerical experiments results, the paper put emphases upon the analysis of the relations between the distributions of the pollutant concentration and water waves’ parameters in the jet initial entrainment.
Three-dimensional inelastic analysis methods for hot section components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Todd, E. S.
1987-01-01
The objective of this program is to produce a series of new computer codes that permit more accurate and efficient three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis of combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. Each code embodies a progression of mathematical models for increasingly comprehensive representation of the geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of nonlinear material response that distinguish these three groups of hot section components.
Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György
2009-01-01
The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…
Microlaser-based three-dimensional display
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Eric B.; Bergstedt, Robert; Hargis, David E.; Higley, Paul D.
1999-08-01
Three dimensional (3D) displays are critical for viewing complex multi-dimensional information and for viewing representations of the three dimensional real world. A teaming arrangement between Laser Power Corporation (LPC) and Specialty Devices, Inc. (SDI) has led to the feasibility demonstration of a directly-viewed three dimensional volumetric display. LPC has developed red, green, and blue (RGB) diode pumped solid state microlaser display technology for use as a high resolution, high brightness display engine for the three dimensional display. Concurrently, SDI has developed a unique technology for viewing high resolution three dimensional volumetric images without external viewing aids (eye wear). When coupled to LPC's display engine, the resultant all solid state three dimensional display presets a true, physical three dimensionality which is directly viewable from all angles by multiple viewers without additional viewing equipment (eye wear). The resultant volumetric display will further enable applications such as the 'virtual sandbox,' visualization of radar and sonar data, air traffic control, remote surgery and diagnostics, and CAD workstations.
Stable three-dimensional modon soliton in plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashkin, Volodymyr M.
2017-09-01
We derive the nonlinear equations that describe coupled drift waves and ion acoustic waves in a plasma. We show that when the coupling to ion acoustic waves is negligible, the reduced nonlinear equation is a generalization of the Hasegawa-Mima equation to the three-dimensional (3D) case. We find an exact analytical solution of this equation in the form of a 3D soliton drift wave (3D modon). By numerical simulations we study collisions between the modons and show that the collisions can be fully elastic.
Three-dimensional laser window formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verhoff, Vincent G.
1992-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report discusses in detail the aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formation of these windows. Included in this discussion are the design criteria, bonding mediums, and evaluation testing for three-dimensional laser windows.
Three-dimensional velocity measurements using LDA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchhave, Preben
The design requirements for and development of an LDA that measures the three components of the fluid velocity vector are described. The problems encountered in LDA measurements in highly turbulent flows, multivariate response, velocity bias, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and dynamic range, are discussed. The use of the fringe and/or the reference beam methods to measure the three velocity components, and the use of color, frequency shift, and polarization to separate three velocity projections are examined. Consideration is given to the coordinate transformation, the presentation of three-dimensional LDA data, and the possibility of three-dimensional bias correction. Procedures for conducting three-dimensional LDA measurements are proposed.
COMOC: Three dimensional boundary region variant, programmer's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orzechowski, J. A.; Baker, A. J.
1974-01-01
The three-dimensional boundary region variant of the COMOC computer program system solves the partial differential equation system governing certain three-dimensional flows of a viscous, heat conducting, multiple-species, compressible fluid including combustion. The solution is established in physical variables, using a finite element algorithm for the boundary value portion of the problem description in combination with an explicit marching technique for the initial value character. The computational lattice may be arbitrarily nonregular, and boundary condition constraints are readily applied. The theoretical foundation of the algorithm, a detailed description on the construction and operation of the program, and instructions on utilization of the many features of the code are presented.
Three-dimensional radiation transfer modeling in a dicotyledon leaf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govaerts, Yves M.; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Verstraete, Michel M.; Ustin, Susan L.
1996-11-01
The propagation of light in a typical dicotyledon leaf is investigated with a new Monte Carlo ray-tracing model. The three-dimensional internal cellular structure of the various leaf tissues, including the epidermis, the palisade parenchyma, and the spongy mesophyll, is explicitly described. Cells of different tissues are assigned appropriate morphologies and contain realistic amounts of water and chlorophyll. Each cell constituent is characterized by an index of refraction and an absorption coefficient. The objective of this study is to investigate how the internal three-dimensional structure of the tissues and the optical properties of cell constituents control the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Model results compare favorably with laboratory observations. The influence of the roughness of the epidermis on the reflection and absorption of light is investigated, and simulation results confirm that convex cells in the epidermis focus light on the palisade parenchyma and increase the absorption of radiation.
Three-dimensional simulations of the implosion of inertial confinement fusion targets
Town, R.P.J.; Bell, A.R. )
1991-09-30
The viability of inertial confinement fusion depends crucially on implosion symmetry. A spherical three-dimensional hydrocode called PLATO has been developed to model the growth in asymmetries during an implosion. Results are presented in the deceleration phase which show indistinguishable linear growth rates, but greater nonlinear growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability than is found in two-dimensional cylindrical simulations. The three-dimensional enhancement of the nonlinear growth is much smaller than that found by Sakagami and Nishihara.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayek, Mohamed
2016-04-01
This work develops a simple exact and explicit solution of the one-dimensional transient and nonlinear Richards' equation for soils in a special case of exponential water retention curve and power law hydraulic conductivity. The exact solution is obtained as traveling wave based on the approach proposed by Philip (1957, 1967) and adopted by Zlotnik et al. (2007). The obtained solution is novel, and it expresses explicitly the water content as function of the depth and time. It can be useful to model infiltration into semi-infinite soils with time-dependent boundary conditions and infiltration with constant boundary condition but space-dependent initial condition. A complete analytical inverse procedure based on the proposed analytical solution is presented which allows the estimation of hydraulic parameters. The proposed exact solution is also important for the verification of numerical schemes as well as for checking the implementation of time-dependent boundary conditions.
Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.
Three dimensional optic tissue culture and process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Cardwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioreactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms normal, functional tissue organization and extracellular matrix.
Device fabrication: Three-dimensional printed electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Jennifer A.; Ahn, Bok Y.
2015-02-01
Can three-dimensional printing enable the mass customization of electronic devices? A study that exploits this method to create light-emitting diodes based on 'quantum dots' provides a step towards this goal.
Three-dimensional printing of surgical anatomy.
Powers, Mary K; Lee, Benjamin R; Silberstein, Jonathan
2016-05-01
Over the past decade, three-dimensional printing for the medical field has been expanding rapidly throughout all of medicine. This manuscript reviews the current and potential applications for three-dimensional printing, including education, presurgical planning, surgical simulation, bioprinting, and printed surgical equipment. Three-dimensional printing has proved most relevant in the fields of craniofacial, plastic, orthopedics, and especially, urologic surgery. This review focuses on several examples of how three-dimensional printing can be utilized, with emphasis on renal models for renal cell carcinoma, ureteral stents, and staghorn calculus. From an education standpoint, both patients and residents can benefit from the use of three-dimensional printed models, and even skilled surgeons report better understanding of complex procedures by using printed models. Three-dimensional printing in the field of medicine is growing quickly, and will soon be incorporated into the way residents are taught and patients are educated. For surgical simulation in a variety of disease processes, this will be particularly useful for urologic surgery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleiber, R.; Hatzky, R.; Könies, A.; Mishchenko, A.; Sonnendrücker, E.
2016-03-01
A new algorithm for electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations, the so called "pullback transformation scheme" proposed by Mishchenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 092110 (2014)] is motivated as an explicit time integrator reset after each full timestep and investigated in detail. Using a numerical dispersion relation valid in slab geometry, it is shown that the linear properties of the scheme are comparable to those of an implicit v∥ -scheme. A nonlinear extension of the mixed variable formulation, derived consistently from a field Lagrangian, is proposed. The scheme shows excellent numerical properties with a low statistical noise level and a large time step especially for MHD modes. The example of a nonlinear slab tearing mode simulation is used to illustrate the properties of different formulations of the physical model equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Renaud, Earl W.; Tan, Choon S.
1991-01-01
The three dimensional viscous flow through a planar turbine cascade is numerically simulated by direct solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow dependence in the spanwise direction is represented by direct expansion in Chebyshev polynomials, while the discretization on planes parallel to the endwalls is accomplished using the spectral element method. Elemental mapping from the physical to the computational space uses an algebraic mapping technique. A fractional time stepping method that consists of an explicit nonlinear convective step, an implicit pressure correction step, and an implicit viscous step is used to advance the Navier-Stokes equations forward in time. Results computed at moderate Reynolds numbers show a three dimensional endwall flow separation, a midspan separation of the blade suction surface boundary layer, and other three-dimensional features such as the presence of a saddle point flow in the endwall region. In addition, the computed skin friction lines are shown to be orthogonal to the surface vorticity lines, demonstrating the accuracy achievable in the present method.
On three-dimensional trace anomaly from holographic local RG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Ken; Hosoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Akihiro
2017-01-01
Odd-dimensional quantum field theories (QFTs) can have nonzero trace anomalies if external fields are introduced and some ingredients needed to make Lorentz scalars with appropriate mass dimensions (or weights) are supplied. We have studied a three-dimensional QFT and explicitly computed the trace of the stress tensor using the holographic local renormalization group (RG). We have checked some properties of vector beta functions and the Wess-Zumino consistency condition; however, we have found that the anomalies vanish on fixed points. We clarify what is responsible for the vanishing trace anomalies.
Three-dimensional time dependent computation of turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, D.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.
1975-01-01
The three-dimensional, primitive equations of motion are solved numerically for the case of isotropic box turbulence and the distortion of homogeneous turbulence by irrotational plane strain at large Reynolds numbers. A Gaussian filter is applied to governing equations to define the large scale field. This gives rise to additional second order computed scale stresses (Leonard stresses). The residual stresses are simulated through an eddy viscosity. Uniform grids are used, with a fourth order differencing scheme in space and a second order Adams-Bashforth predictor for explicit time stepping. The results are compared to the experiments and statistical information extracted from the computer generated data.
Distributional properties of the three-dimensional Poisson Delaunay cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muche, Lutz
1996-07-01
This paper gives distributional properties of geometrical characteristics of the Delaunay tessellation generated by a stationary Poisson point process in ℝ3. The considerations are based on a well-known formula given by Miles which describes the size and shape of the "typical" three-dimensional Poisson Delaunay cell. The results are the probability density functions for its volume, the area, and the perimeter of one of its faces, the angle spanned in a face by two of its edges, and the length of an edge. These probability density functions are given in integral form. Formulas for higher moments of these characteristics are given explicitly.
Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escalante, Alberto; Osmart Ochoa-Gutiérrez, H.
2017-03-01
In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev-Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev-Jackiw and Dirac's formalism are briefly discussed.
Hawkins, Rhoda J.; Poincloux, Renaud; Bénichou, Olivier; Piel, Matthieu; Chavrier, Philippe; Voituriez, Raphaël
2011-01-01
We present a model of cell motility generated by actomyosin contraction of the cell cortex. We identify, analytically, dynamical instabilities of the cortex and show that they yield steady-state cortical flows, which, in turn, can induce cell migration in three-dimensional environments. This mechanism relies on the regulation of contractility by myosin, whose transport is explicitly taken into account in the model. Theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data of tumor cells migrating in three-dimensional matrigel and suggest that this mechanism could be a general mode of cell migration in three-dimensional environments. PMID:21889440
Three-dimensional separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.
1982-01-01
The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be construed as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.
Topology of three-dimensional separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Peake, D. J.
1981-01-01
Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.
Three-dimensional separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.
1982-01-01
The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be constrained as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.
Vision in our three-dimensional world.
Parker, Andrew J
2016-06-19
Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Vision in our three-dimensional world
2016-01-01
Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595
Three dimensional boundary conditions in supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudman, S.; Marconi, F.
1981-01-01
A theoretical analysis of the flow pattern at a solid surface in three dimensional supersonic flow is presented. The additional information necessary to overcome the nonuniqueness associated with the body tangency condition in three dimensions was developed. The analysis is based on the fact that three dimensional waves propagate locally exactly as they do in axisymmetric flow when viewed in the osculating plane to the streamline. The supersonic flow over an infinite swept corner is examined by both the classical solution and the three dimensional solution in the osculating plane and the results are shown to be identical. A simple numerical algorithm is proposed which accounts for the three wave surfaces that interact at a solid boundary.
Three-dimensional stability of vortex arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, A. C.; Saffman, P. G.
1982-12-01
The stability to three-dimensional disturbances of three classical steady vortex configurations in an incompressible inviscid fluid is studied in the limit of small vortex cross-sectional area and long axial disturbance wavelength. The configurations examined are the single infinite vortex row, the Karman vortex street of staggered vortices and the symmetric vortex street. It is shown that the single row is most unstable to a two-dimensional disturbance, while the Karman vortex street is most unstable to a three-dimensional disturbance over a significant range of street spacing ratios. The symmetric vortex street is found to be most unstable to three-dimensional or two-dimensional symmetric disturbances depending on the spacing ratio of the street. Short remarks are made concerning the relevance of the calculations to the observed instabilities in free shear layer, wake and boundary-layer type flows.
Three-dimensional light bullets in anisotropic microdispersive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sazonov, Sergey V.; Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Kalinovich, Alexey A.; Komissarova, Maria V.; Zakharova, Irina G.
2017-05-01
Three-dimensional light bullets in Kerr media are known to be unstable. Different schemes were proposed to overcome this obstacle. One of them is to use a nonlinear parametric interaction. Such a type of interaction can be achieved in anisotropic micro-dispersive media where space dispersion is of importance. These media allow us to reach a simultaneous approximate fulfillment of group and phase matching. To study the general (3+1)D case we apply both an approximate analytical approach and numerical simulations. We suggest that nonlinear refraction manifests itself earlier than diffraction and dispersion. Both the general (3+1)D case and axial-symmetry case are studied. With the help of averaged Lagrangian method analytical solutions are derived provided that the fixed relation between the negative coefficients of the group velocity dispersion on both harmonics holds. We demonstrate that a spatiotemporal light bullet propagates for at least 300 nonlinear lengths in anisotropic media at second harmonic generation.
Fabrication of three dimensional microstructure fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ying; Ma, Jie; Chen, Zhe; Lu, Huihui; Zhong, Yongchun
2015-05-01
A method of fabricating three dimensional (3D) microstructured fiber is presented. Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were coated around the surface of a micro-fiber through isothermal heating evaporation induced self-assembly method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image shows that the colloidal crystal has continuous, uniform, and well-ordered face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, with [111] crystallographic direction normal to the surface of micro-fiber. This micro-fiber with three-dimensional photonic crystals structure is very useful in the applications of micro-fiber sensors or filters.
Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappelli, Andrea; Randellini, Enrico; Sisti, Jacopo
2017-05-01
Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.
Three-dimensional displays and stereo vision.
Westheimer, Gerald
2011-08-07
Procedures for three-dimensional image reconstruction that are based on the optical and neural apparatus of human stereoscopic vision have to be designed to work in conjunction with it. The principal methods of implementing stereo displays are described. Properties of the human visual system are outlined as they relate to depth discrimination capabilities and achieving optimal performance in stereo tasks. The concept of depth rendition is introduced to define the change in the parameters of three-dimensional configurations for cases in which the physical disposition of the stereo camera with respect to the viewed object differs from that of the observer's eyes.
Three-dimensional crack closure behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawicke, D. S.; Grandt, A. F., Jr.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1990-01-01
A crack closure measurement technique involving fatigue striations was used to produce a three-dimensional crack opening load profile for 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. The crack opening load profile, determined through the specimen thickness, was compared with crack opening load measurements made with strain gages and displacement gages. The results of this study indicate that a significant three-dimensional variation in crack closure behavior occurs in the alloy examined. An understanding of this phehomenon is important in understanding crack growth behavior, predicting crack shape changes, and interpreting 'standard' crack closure measurement techniques.
Three-dimensional stochastic vortex flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, R.; Pulvirenti, M.
1989-08-01
It is well known that the dynamics of point vortices approximate, under suitable limits, the two-dimensional Euler flow for an ideal fluid. To find particle models for three-dimensional flows is a more intricate problem. A stochastic version of the algorithm introduced by Beale amd Maida (1982) for simulating the behavior of a three-dimensional Euler flow is introduced here, and convergence to the Navier-Stokes (NS) flow in R exp 3 is shown. The result is based on a stochastic Lagrangian picture of the NS equations.
Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.
Numerical solutions of the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic alpha model.
Mininni, Pablo D; Montgomery, David C; Pouquet, Annick
2005-04-01
We present direct numerical simulations and alpha -model simulations of four familiar three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence effects: selective decay, dynamic alignment, inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, and the helical dynamo effect. The MHD alpha model is shown to capture the long-wavelength spectra in all these problems, allowing for a significant reduction of computer time and memory at the same kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers. In the helical dynamo, not only does the alpha model correctly reproduce the growth rate of magnetic energy during the kinematic regime, it also captures the nonlinear saturation level and the late generation of a large scale magnetic field by the helical turbulence.
Three-dimensional inelastic approximate analysis code (MOMM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meister, Jeffrey P.
1988-01-01
The Mechanics of Materials Model (MOMM) is one of a series of new stand-alone three dimensional nonlinear structural analysis codes. Incorporation of a general purpose finite element computer code into the hot section design process was severely limited by the high costs involved. MOMM is a stiffness method finite element code that uses an internally generated network of beams to characterize hot section component behavior. The method was proposed as a fast, easy to use, computationally efficient tool for approximate analyses. MOMM incorporates a wide variety of analysis capabilities, material models, and load type specifiers instrumental for the analysis of hot section components.
Low-frequency three-dimensional ultrasonic tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncharsky, A. V.; Romanov, S. Yu.; Seryozhnikov, S. Yu.
2016-05-01
The possibility of making ultrasonic 3D tomographs for medical diagnostics of soft tissues was established. The choice of frequencies of ultrasonic pulses of 300-500 kHz was due to low absorption in soft tissues within this range. The reverse problems of ultrasonic tomography, which are three-dimensional and nonlinear, have been considered in a model that takes into account both wave effects and absorption. The effectiveness of algorithms to solve the reverse problems that were developed has been illustrated by model calculations. The velocity configuration has been shown to be recovered better than the function that describes absorption in soft tissues.
Spectral method for obtaining three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
Hirshman, S.P.; Lee, D.K.
1985-07-01
A description is given of a new code, MOMCON (spectral moments with constraints), that obtains three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria in a fixed toroidal domain using a Fourier expansion for the inverse coordinates (R,Z) representing nested magnetic surfaces. A set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations for the spectral coefficients of (R,Z) is solved using an accelerated steepest descent method. A stream function lambda is introduced to improve the mode convergence properties of the Fourier series for R and Z. Constraint equations relating the m greater than or equal to 2 moments of R and Z are solved to define a unique poloidal angle.
A three dimensional model of the Venusian thermosphere with superrotation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stevens-Rayburn, D. R.; Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.
1986-01-01
An improved three dimensional spectral model of the thermosphere of Venus is described. The model solves the Navier-Stokes equations and includes nonlinear effects for an arbitrary number of atmospheric species. A two dimensional axisymmetric model of the superrotation of the thermosphere is also presented. This model addresses the Pioneer-Venus mission finding, which suggested the thermospheric rotation rate to be much higher than that of the planet as seen from the asymmetric distribution of hydrogen and helium. Both models include the effects of an anisotropic eddy diffusion that is consistent with atmospheric mixing length theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lafontaine, N. M.; Rossi, R.; Cervera, M.; Chiumenti, M.
2015-03-01
Low-order finite elements face inherent limitations related to their poor convergence properties. Such difficulties typically manifest as mesh-dependent or excessively stiff behaviour when dealing with complex problems. A recent proposal to address such limitations is the adoption of mixed displacement-strain technologies which were shown to satisfactorily address both problems. Unfortunately, although appealing, the use of such element technology puts a large burden on the linear algebra, as the solution of larger linear systems is needed. In this paper, the use of an explicit time integration scheme for the solution of the mixed strain-displacement problem is explored as an alternative. An algorithm is devised to allow the effective time integration of the mixed problem. The developed method retains second order accuracy in time and is competitive in terms of computational cost with the standard irreducible formulation.
1987-08-01
solution of the Korteweg-de Vries equation ( KdV ), working our way up to the derivation of the multi-soliton solution of the sine-Gordon equation (sG...SOLITARY WAVE SOLUTIONS OF NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS j DiS~~Uj~l. _’UDistribution/Willy Hereman AvaiiLi -itY Codes Technical Summary Report...Key Words: soliton theory, solitary waves, coupled KdV , evolution equations , direct methods, Harry Dym, sine-Gordon Mathematics Department, University
Three-dimensional chiral photonic superlattices.
Thiel, M; Fischer, H; von Freymann, G; Wegener, M
2010-01-15
We investigate three-dimensional photonic superlattices composed of polymeric helices in various spatial checkerboard-like arrangements. Depending on the relative phase shift and handedness of the chiral building blocks, different circular-dichroism resonances appear or are suppressed. Samples corresponding to four different configurations are fabricated by direct laser writing. The measured optical transmittance spectra are in good agreement with numerical calculations.
Three-dimensional RF structure calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, R. K.; Browman, M. J.; Weiland, T.
1989-04-01
The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described.
Three-dimensional rf structure calculations
Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.
1988-01-01
The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.
Growing Three-Dimensional Cocultures Of Cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, David A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.
1995-01-01
Laboratory process provides environmental conditions favoring simultaneous growth of cocultures of mammalian cells of more than one type. Cultures become three-dimensional tissuelike assemblies serving as organoid models of differentiation of cells. Process used, for example, to study growth of human colon cancers, starting from mixtures of normal colonic fibroblasts and partially differentiated colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Spectral tomography of three-dimensional objects
Bulygin, F.V.; Levin, G.G.
1995-12-01
Spectral tomography is a new field in optical tomography concerned with studies of the internal space-spectral structure of polychromatic objects. In this paper, methods for obtaining projections spectral structure of three-dimensional objects and algorithms for its reconstruction are proposed and described. The results of the spectral-tomography reconstruction of the object structure are presented. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.
AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E
2015-01-01
Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.
Three dimensional reconnection in astrophysical plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spicer, D. S.
1990-01-01
Theoretical issues related to three-dimensional reconnection and its application to the space and astrophysical environment are reviewed. Consideration is given to the meaning of reconnection in three dimensions, the way in which periodic and nonperiodic magnetic topologies alter the physics of reconnections, and the effects of chaotic magnetic fields on the reconnection process.
[Three Dimensional Display in Nuclear Medicine].
Teraoka, Satomi; Souma, Tsutomu
2015-01-01
Imaging techniques to obtain a tomographic image in nuclear medicine such as PET and SPECT are widely used. It is necessary to interpreting all of the tomographic images obtained in order to accurately evaluate the individual lesion, whereas three dimensional display is often useful in order to overview and evaluate the feature of the entire lesion or disease such as the position, size and abnormal pattern. In Japan, the use of three dimensional image analysis workstation with an application of the co-registration and image fusion between the functional images such as PET or SPECT and anatomical images such as CT or MRI has been generalized. In addition, multimodality imaging system such as a PET/CT and SPECT/CT has been widespread. Therefore, it is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy using three dimensionally image fusion to functional images with poor anatomical information. In this commentary, as an example of a three dimensional display that are commonly used in nuclear medicine examination in Japan, brain regions, cardiac region and bone and tumor region will be introduced separately.
Three Dimensional Display Of Meteorological Scientific Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grotch, Stanley L.
1988-01-01
Even a cursory reading of any daily newspaper shows that we are in the midst of a dramatic revolution in computer graphics. Virtually every day some new piece of hardware or software is announced, adding to the tools available to the working scientist. Three dimensional graphics form a significant part of this revolution having become virtually commonplace in advertising and on television.
Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah; Reichert, Anke
2001-01-01
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Three-Dimensional Pointers for Stereoscopic Projection.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayman, H. J. G.
1984-01-01
Because class size often limits student opportunity to handle individual models, teachers use stereoscopic projections to demonstrate structural features. Describes three-dimensional pointers for use with different projection systems so teachers can indicate a particular atom or bond to entire classes, avoiding the perspective problems inherent in…
Growing Three-Dimensional Cocultures Of Cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, David A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.
1995-01-01
Laboratory process provides environmental conditions favoring simultaneous growth of cocultures of mammalian cells of more than one type. Cultures become three-dimensional tissuelike assemblies serving as organoid models of differentiation of cells. Process used, for example, to study growth of human colon cancers, starting from mixtures of normal colonic fibroblasts and partially differentiated colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Three-Dimensional Visualization of Particle Tracks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Julian, Glenn M.
1993-01-01
Suggests ways to bring home to the introductory physics student some of the excitement of recent discoveries in particle physics. Describes particle detectors and encourages the use of the Standard Model along with real images of particle tracks to determine three-dimensional views of tracks. (MVL)
Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications
Griffin, Michelle F.; Butler, Peter E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Methods: Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Discussion: Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice. PMID:26301002
Three-dimensional patterning methods and related devices
Putnam, Morgan C.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Warren, Emily L.
2016-12-27
Three-dimensional patterning methods of a three-dimensional microstructure, such as a semiconductor wire array, are described, in conjunction with etching and/or deposition steps to pattern the three-dimensional microstructure.
Efficient and Extensible Quasi-Explicit Modular Nonlinear Multiscale Battery Model: GH-MSMD
Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Lawrence-Simon, Jake; ...
2017-03-24
Complex physics and long computation time hinder the adoption of computer aided engineering models in the design of large-format battery cells and systems. A modular, efficient battery simulation model -- the multiscale multidomain (MSMD) model -- was previously introduced to aid the scale-up of Li-ion material and electrode designs to complete cell and pack designs, capturing electrochemical interplay with 3-D electronic current pathways and thermal response. Here, this paper enhances the computational efficiency of the MSMD model using a separation of time-scales principle to decompose model field variables. The decomposition provides a quasi-explicit linkage between the multiple length-scale domains andmore » thus reduces time-consuming nested iteration when solving model equations across multiple domains. In addition to particle-, electrode- and cell-length scales treated in the previous work, the present formulation extends to bus bar- and multi-cell module-length scales. We provide example simulations for several variants of GH electrode-domain models.« less
Three-dimensional trajectory optimization in constrained airspace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Ran
This dissertation deals with the generation of three-dimensional optimized trajectory in constrained airspace. It expands the previously used two-dimensional aircraft model to a three-dimensional model and includes the consideration of complex airspace constraints not included in previous trajectory optimization studies. Two major branches of optimization methods, indirect and direct methods, are introduced and compared. Both of the methods are applied to solve a two-dimensional minimum-time-to-climb (MTTC) problem. The solution procedure is described in detail. Two traditional problems, the Brachistochrone problem and Zermelo's problem, are solved using the direct collocation and nonlinear programming method. Because analytical solutions to these problems are known. These solutions provide verification of the numerical methods. Three discretization methods, trapezoidal, Hermite-Simpson and Chebyshev Pseudospectral (CP) are introduced and applied to solve the Brachistochrone problem. The solutions obtained using these discretization methods are compared with the analytical results. An 3-D aircraft model with six state variables and two control variables are presented. Two primary trajectory optimization problems are considered using this model in the dissertation. One is to assume that the aircraft climbs up from sea level to a desired altitude in a square cross section cylinder of arbitrary height. Another is to intercept a constant velocity, constant altitude target in minimum time starting from sea level. Results of the optimal trajectories are compared with the results from the proportional navigation guidance law. Field of View constraint is finally considered in this interception problem. The CP discretization and nonlinear programming method is shown to have advantages over indirect methods in solving three-dimensional (3-D) trajectory optimization problems with multiple controls and complex constraints. Conclusions from both problems are presented and
Three dimensional inelastic finite element analysis of laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Kamat, M. P.
1980-01-01
Formulations of the inelastic response of laminated composites to thermal and mechanical loading are used as the basis for development of the computer NALCOM (Nonlinear Analysis of Laminated Composites) computer program which uses a fully three dimensional isoparametric finite element with 24 nodes and 72 degrees of freedom. An incremental solution is performed with nonlinearities introduced as pseudoloads computed for initial strains. Equilibrium iteration may be performed at every step. Elastic and elastic-plastic response of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy graphite/epoxy and problems of curing 0/90 sub s Gr/Ep laminates with and without circular holes are analyzed. Mechanical loading of + or - 45sub s Gr/Ep laminates is modeled and symmetry conditions which exist in angle-ply laminates are discussed. Results are compared to experiments and other analytical models when possible. All models are seen to agree reasonably well with experimetnal results for off-axis tensile coupons. The laminate analyses show the three dimensional effects which are present near holes and free corners.
Inversion of multiwavelength radiometer measurements by three-dimensional filtering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenkranz, P. W.; Baumann, W. T.
1980-01-01
Remote sensing data from satellites typically have three dimensions: scan position, spacecraft position, and wavelength. Inversion of the radiometric data to infer geophysical parameters is a filtering problem in which the dimension of wavelength (or channel number) is transformed into a dimension of geophysical parameters, and the most general solution is a three-dimensional filter. Linear filters have the advantages of computational speed and easily described transfer functions; but often the measurements are nonlinear functions of the parameters to be inferred. To the extent that the nonlinear inversion problem is overdetermined, it can be modeled by a critically determined linear problem. As an example, inversion of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data by means of a three-dimensional Wiener Filter is described. Atmospheric water vapor content, rain liquid water content, surface wind speed and surface temperature are the parameters inferred from the measurements. Nonprecipitating liquid water and water vapor scale height are also modeled but not retrieved. The a priori statistics on which the filter is trained have the effect of governing the selection of a trade-off point of noise as a function of resolution (in all three retrieval dimensions).
Rail supporting transducer posts for three-dimensional force measurement.
Jin, Z; Kobetic, R
1997-12-01
Parallel bars supported on transducer posts were designed, instrumented and calibrated to measure three-dimensional (3-D) forces applied to the rails. These instrumented rails were designed for measuring forces applied by paraplegic patients during development and evaluation of functional electrical stimulation (FES) patterns for standing, side stepping, and ascending and descending stairs. The focus of this study was on the adaptation of the system for measuring support forces during stair climbing and descent. The specific problems with crosstalk among the three axes, nonlinearity, and hysteresis were investigated. In this design, the crosstalk between axes was less than 5%, nonlinearity was less than 2% of full scale, and force accuracy was better than 5%.
Three-dimensional rogue waves in nonstationary parabolic potentials.
Yan, Zhenya; Konotop, V V; Akhmediev, N
2010-09-01
Using symmetry analysis we systematically present a higher-dimensional similarity transformation reducing the (3+1) -dimensional inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with variable coefficients and parabolic potential to the (1+1) -dimensional NLS equation with constant coefficients. This transformation allows us to relate certain class of localized exact solutions of the (3+1) -dimensional case to the variety of solutions of integrable NLS equation of the (1+1) -dimensional case. As an example, we illustrated our technique using two lowest-order rational solutions of the NLS equation as seeding functions to obtain rogue wavelike solutions localized in three dimensions that have complicated evolution in time including interactions between two time-dependent rogue wave solutions. The obtained three-dimensional rogue wavelike solutions may raise the possibility of relative experiments and potential applications in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates.
Three-dimensional rogue waves in nonstationary parabolic potentials
Yan Zhenya; Konotop, V. V.; Akhmediev, N.
2010-09-15
Using symmetry analysis we systematically present a higher-dimensional similarity transformation reducing the (3+1)-dimensional inhomogeneous nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation with variable coefficients and parabolic potential to the (1+1)-dimensional NLS equation with constant coefficients. This transformation allows us to relate certain class of localized exact solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional case to the variety of solutions of integrable NLS equation of the (1+1)-dimensional case. As an example, we illustrated our technique using two lowest-order rational solutions of the NLS equation as seeding functions to obtain rogue wavelike solutions localized in three dimensions that have complicated evolution in time including interactions between two time-dependent rogue wave solutions. The obtained three-dimensional rogue wavelike solutions may raise the possibility of relative experiments and potential applications in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates.
Three Dimensional Particle Tracking in Superfluid Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Megson, Peter
2016-11-01
Superfluid helium is a macroscopic quantum state which exhibits exotic physical properties, such as flow without friction and ballistic heat transport. Superfluid flow is irrotational except about line-like topological phase defects with quantized circulation, known as quatized vortices. The presence of these vortices and their dynamics is the dominating factor of turbulence in superfluid flows. One commonly studied regime of superfluid turbulence is thermal counterflow, where a local heat flux drives the formation and growth of a tangle of vortices. This talk will present experimental studies of counterflow turbulence performed using a multi-camera three-dimensional imaging apparatus with micron-sized ice tracer particles as well as fluorescent nanoparticles. In particular, we will discuss the measurement of three-dimensional velocties and their autocorrelations. Additionally, we are developing new techniques for optical studies of bulk superfluid helium, with particular focus on characterizing tracer particles and particle dispersal mechanisms. Funding from NSF DMR-1407472.
Three-dimensional trabecular alignment model.
Bono, Eric S; Smolinski, Patrick; Casagranda, Al; Xu, Junde
2003-04-01
Trabecular alignment theory has been used to quantify Wolff's Law of bone remodeling. A three-dimensional finite element scheme was developed to analyze the bone remodeling phenomenon. The mathematical model proposed by Mullender et al. and later modified by Smith et al. was adopted to simulate the surface-based trabecular resorption and formation processes. Enhancements incorporated into the previous model include: mapping into three-dimensions, controlling the remodeling signal's passage through marrow, controlling the finite distance the signal may pass through the bone matrix, and including non-bone material in the finite element model. After the model is explained and thoroughly studied, three-dimensional implant surface geometries are simulated.
Analysis of three-dimensional transonic compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bourgeade, A.
1984-01-01
A method for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow around the blades of a compressor or of a propeller is given. The method is based on the use of the velocity potential, on the hypothesis that the flow is inviscid, irrotational and isentropic. The equation of the potential is solved in a transformed space such that the surface of the blade is mapped into a plane where the periodicity is implicit. This equation is in a nonconservative form and is solved with the help of a finite difference method using artificial time. A computer code is provided and some sample results are given in order to demonstrate the influence of three-dimensional effects and the blade's rotation.
Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales
Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.
2010-01-01
Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446
Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics.
Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna
2014-09-01
Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.
Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics
Mao, Teresa
2014-01-01
Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337
Arching in three-dimensional clogging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Török, János; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Balázs; Somfai, Ellák; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf; Börzsönyi, Tamás
2017-06-01
Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based). The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.
Three-dimensional effects on airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chevallier, J. P.
1983-01-01
The effects of boundary layer flows along the walls of wind tunnels were studied to validate the transfer of two dimensional calculations to three dimensional transonic flowfield calculations. Results from trials in various wind tunnels were examind to determine the effects of the wall boundary flow on the control surfaces of an airfoil. Models sliding along a groove in the wall of a channel at sub- and transonic speeds were examined, with the finding that with either nonuniformities in the groove, or even if the channel walls are uniform, the lateral boundary layer can cause variations in the central flow region or alter the onset of shock at the transition point. Models for the effects in both turbulence and in the absence of turbulence are formulated, and it is noted that the characteristics of individual wind tunnels must be studied to quantify any existing three dimensional effects.
Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data
Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.
1991-06-14
The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site.
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, Steven J.
1996-01-01
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, S.J.
1996-12-31
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.
Bootstrapping the Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Ising Model.
Bobev, Nikolay; El-Showk, Sheer; Mazáč, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F
2015-07-31
We implement the conformal bootstrap program for three dimensional conformal field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and find universal constraints on the spectrum of operator dimensions in these theories. By studying the bounds on the dimension of the first scalar appearing in the operator product expansion of a chiral and an antichiral primary, we find a kink at the expected location of the critical three dimensional N=2 Wess-Zumino model, which can be thought of as a supersymmetric analog of the critical Ising model. Focusing on this kink, we determine, to high accuracy, the low-lying spectrum of operator dimensions of the theory, as well as the stress-tensor two-point function. We find that the latter is in an excellent agreement with an exact computation.
Simulation of complex three-dimensional flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diewert, G. S.; Rothmund, H. J.; Nakahashi, K.
1985-01-01
The concept of splitting is used extensively to simulate complex three dimensional flows on modern computer architectures. Used in all aspects, from initial grid generation to the determination of the final converged solution, splitting is used to enhance code vectorization, to permit solution driven grid adaption and grid enrichment, to permit the use of concurrent processing, and to enhance data flow through hierarchal memory systems. Three examples are used to illustrate these concepts to complex three dimensional flow fields: (1) interactive flow over a bump; (2) supersonic flow past a blunt based conical afterbody at incidence to a free stream and containing a centered propulsive jet; and (3) supersonic flow past a sharp leading edge delta wing at incidence to the free stream.
Three dimensional contact/impact methodology
Kulak, R.F.
1987-01-01
The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper.
Three-dimensional bio-printing.
Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi
2015-05-01
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.
Three-dimensional metallic boron nitride.
Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru
2013-12-04
Boron nitride (BN) and carbon are chemical analogues of each other and share similar structures such as one-dimensional nanotubes, two-dimensional nanosheets characterized by sp(2) bonding, and three-dimensional diamond structures characterized by sp(3) bonding. However, unlike carbon which can be metallic in one, two, and three dimensions, BN is an insulator, irrespective of its structure and dimensionality. On the basis of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, we propose a tetragonal phase of BN which is both dynamically stable and metallic. Analysis of its band structure, density of states, and electron localization function confirms the origin of the metallic behavior to be due to the delocalized B 2p electrons. The metallicity exhibited in the studied three-dimensional BN structures can lead to materials beyond conventional ceramics as well as to materials with potential for applications in electronic devices.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA; York, Jeremy [Bothell, WA
2009-06-30
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.
2006-09-26
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set
Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.
2003-06-24
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA
2001-10-02
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Method and apparatus for three dimensional braiding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A machine for three-dimensional braiding of fibers is provided in which carrier members travel on a curved, segmented and movable braiding surface. The carrier members are capable of independent, self-propelled motion along the braiding surface. Carrier member position on the braiding surface is controlled and monitored by computer. Also disclosed is a yarn take-up device capable of maintaining tension in the braiding fiber.
Method and apparatus for three dimensional braiding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
A machine for three-dimensional braiding of fibers is provided in which carrier members travel on a curved, segmented and movable braiding surface. The carrier members are capable of independent, self-propelled motion along the braiding surface. Carrier member position on the braiding surface is controlled and monitored by computer. Also disclosed is a yarn take-up device capable of maintaining tension in the braiding fiber.
Three dimensional boundary layers in internal flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bodonyi, R. J.
1987-01-01
A numerical study of the effects of viscous-inviscid interactions in three-dimensional duct flows is presented. In particular interacting flows for which the oncoming flow is not fully-developed were considered. In this case there is a thin boundary layer still present upstream of the surface distortion, as opposed to the fully-developed pipe flow situation wherein the flow is viscous across the cross section.
Three-dimensional accelerating electromagnetic waves.
Bandres, Miguel A; Alonso, Miguel A; Kaminer, Ido; Segev, Mordechai
2013-06-17
We present a general theory of three-dimensional non-paraxial spatially-accelerating waves of the Maxwell equations. These waves constitute a two-dimensional structure exhibiting shape-invariant propagation along semicircular trajectories. We provide classification and characterization of possible shapes of such beams, expressed through the angular spectra of parabolic, oblate and prolate spheroidal fields. Our results facilitate the design of accelerating beams with novel structures, broadening scope and potential applications of accelerating beams.
Three Dimensional Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging
1995-12-01
to upsample the projection data in order to get sufficient image quality. Working within these memory constraints, three-dimensional images were... metallic film on the windscreen in order to block reflections from the cockpit. Photographs and scale drawings of the model are shown in Figures 11 and...as well as spurious responses in the final image. Theoretically, sufficient resolution should have been available without upsampling the original data
Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.
1990-01-01
The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.
Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics
2014-09-30
sound can occur and produce significant three-dimensional (3-D) sound propagation effects. The long-term goals of this project are targeted on...efficient and accurate 3D acoustics models for studying underwater sound propagation in complex ocean environments. The ultimate scientific...objective is to study the underlying physics of the 3-D sound propagation effects caused jointly by physical oceanographic processes and geological features
Lossless compression for three-dimensional images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Xiaoli; Pearlman, William A.
2004-01-01
We investigate and compare the performance of several three-dimensional (3D) embedded wavelet algorithms on lossless 3D image compression. The algorithms are Asymmetric Tree Three-Dimensional Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (AT-3DSPIHT), Three-Dimensional Set Partitioned Embedded bloCK (3D-SPECK), Three-Dimensional Context-Based Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet coefficients (3D-CB-EZW), and JPEG2000 Part II for multi-component images. Two kinds of images are investigated in our study -- 8-bit CT and MR medical images and 16-bit AVIRIS hyperspectral images. First, the performances by using different size of coding units are compared. It shows that increasing the size of coding unit improves the performance somewhat. Second, the performances by using different integer wavelet transforms are compared for AT-3DSPIHT, 3D-SPECK and 3D-CB-EZW. None of the considered filters always performs the best for all data sets and algorithms. At last, we compare the different lossless compression algorithms by applying integer wavelet transform on the entire image volumes. For 8-bit medical image volumes, AT-3DSPIHT performs the best almost all the time, achieving average of 12% decreases in file size compared with JPEG2000 multi-component, the second performer. For 16-bit hyperspectral images, AT-3DSPIHT always performs the best, yielding average 5.8% and 8.9% decreases in file size compared with 3D-SPECK and JPEG2000 multi-component, respectively. Two 2D compression algorithms, JPEG2000 and UNIX zip, are also included for reference, and all 3D algorithms perform much better than 2D algorithms.
Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.
Three-Dimensional Ocean Noise Modeling
2015-03-01
particular attention paid to the case of Gaussian canyon . The solution to the three-dimensional wave equation in Cartesian co-ordinates can be written...in terms of a modal decomposition, carried out in the vertical and across- canyon horizontal directions. Work Completed 1. Nx2D and 3D Noise PE...azimuth in the Hudson Canyon [Figure 2). Additionally, the PE-reciprocity noise model was used to estimate the size, speed and distance from the
Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arkin, Ronald C.
1989-01-01
Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.
Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in weightlessness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scano, A.
1981-01-01
An experiment is described the aim of which is to record a three dimensional ballistocardiogram under the condition of weightlessness and to compare it with tracings recorded on the same subject on the ground as a means of clarifying the meaning of ballistocardiogram waves in different physiological and perphaps pathological conditions. Another purpose is to investigate cardiovascular and possibly fluid adaptations to weightlessness from data collected almost simultaneously on the same subjects during the other cardiovascular during the other cardiovascular and metabolic experiments.
Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.
1985-01-01
The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.
Three-Dimensional (3D) Distribution
2009-03-11
witnessed by ongoing efforts in both Afghanistan and Iraq , must turn distribution challenges into opportunities by mastering Three-Dimensional (3D...sustainment. 5 Joint Logistics Functions •Supply •Services •Maintenance •Transportation • Health Service Support •General Engineering Joint Personnel...Maintenance •Transportation • Health Service Support •Explosive Ordinance Disposal •Human Resource Support •Legal Support •Religious Support •Financial
Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.
Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H
2015-11-01
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions.
Real Imagery as a Three Dimensional Display
1991-12-01
under two categories--stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays. The difference between these two displays is that autostereoscopic displays do not...require the use of special viewing glasses whereas stereoscopic displays do. In order to place a minimum incumbrance on the viewer, the autostereoscopic ...fooled into believing that the scene is three dimensional. This is accomplished even though the second view that normally comes with an autostereoscopic
Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.
Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel
2010-01-01
Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.
Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets
Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W
2013-01-01
Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201
Three-dimensional printing of the retina
Lorber, Barbara; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Martin, Keith R.
2016-01-01
Purpose of review Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal. Recent findings It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made. Summary Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing. PMID:27045545
Three-dimensional printing of the retina.
Lorber, Barbara; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Martin, Keith R
2016-05-01
Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal. It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made. Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing.
Three-Dimensional Imaging. Chapter 10
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.
1999-01-01
This chapter is concerned with three-dimensional imaging of fluid flows. Although relatively young, this field of research has already yielded an enormous range of techniques. These vary widely in cost and complexity, with the cheapest light sheet systems being within the budgets of most laboratories, and the most expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems available to a select few. Taking the view that the most likely systems to be developed are those using light sheets, the authors will relate their knowledge and experience of such systems. Other systems will be described briefly and references provided. Flows are inherently three-dimensional in structure; even those generated around nominally 2-D surface geometry. It is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists and engineers that the three-dimensionalities, both large and small scale, are important in terms of overall flow structure and species, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore, we are accustomed to seeing the world in three dimensions, so it is natural that we should wish to view, measure and interpret flows in three-dimensions. Unfortunately, 3-D images do not lend themselves to convenient presentation on the printed page, and this task is one of the challenges facing us.
Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizzi, Stephen A.
2005-01-01
The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.
Reconfigurable, braced, three-dimensional DNA nanostructures.
Goodman, Russell P; Heilemann, Mike; Doose, Sören; Erben, Christoph M; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Turberfield, Andrew J
2008-02-01
DNA nanotechnology makes use of the exquisite self-recognition of DNA in order to build on a molecular scale. Although static structures may find applications in structural biology and computer science, many applications in nanomedicine and nanorobotics require the additional capacity for controlled three-dimensional movement. DNA architectures can span three dimensions and DNA devices are capable of movement, but active control of well-defined three-dimensional structures has not been achieved. We demonstrate the operation of reconfigurable DNA tetrahedra whose shapes change precisely and reversibly in response to specific molecular signals. Shape changes are confirmed by gel electrophoresis and by bulk and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements. DNA tetrahedra are natural building blocks for three-dimensional construction; they may be synthesized rapidly with high yield of a single stereoisomer, and their triangulated architecture conveys structural stability. The introduction of shape-changing structural modules opens new avenues for the manipulation of matter on the nanometre scale.
Teaching and Assessing Three-Dimensional M
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bateman, Robert C., Jr.; Booth, Deborah; Sirochman, Rudy; Richardson, Jane; Richardson, David
2002-05-01
Structural concepts such as the exact arrangement of a protein in three dimensions are crucial to almost every aspect of biology and chemistry, yet most of us have not been educated in three-dimensional literacy and all of us need a great deal of help in order to perceive and to communicate structural information successfully. It is in the undergraduate biochemistry course where students learn most concepts of molecular structure pertinent to living systems. We are addressing the issue of three-dimensional structural literacy by having undergraduate students construct kinemages, which are plain text scripts derived from Protein Data Bank coordinate files that can be viewed with the program MAGE. These annotated, interactive, three-dimensional illustrations are designed to develop a molecular story and allow exploration in the world of that story. In the process, students become familiar with the structure-based scientific literature and the Protein Data Bank. Our assessment to date has shown that students perceive kinemage authorship to be more helpful in understanding protein structure than simply viewing prepared kinemages. In addition, students perceived kinemage authorship as being beneficial to their career and a significant motivation to learn biochemistry.
Three-Dimensional Imaging. Chapter 10
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.
1999-01-01
This chapter is concerned with three-dimensional imaging of fluid flows. Although relatively young, this field of research has already yielded an enormous range of techniques. These vary widely in cost and complexity, with the cheapest light sheet systems being within the budgets of most laboratories, and the most expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems available to a select few. Taking the view that the most likely systems to be developed are those using light sheets, the authors will relate their knowledge and experience of such systems. Other systems will be described briefly and references provided. Flows are inherently three-dimensional in structure; even those generated around nominally 2-D surface geometry. It is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists and engineers that the three-dimensionalities, both large and small scale, are important in terms of overall flow structure and species, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore, we are accustomed to seeing the world in three dimensions, so it is natural that we should wish to view, measure and interpret flows in three-dimensions. Unfortunately, 3-D images do not lend themselves to convenient presentation on the printed page, and this task is one of the challenges facing us.
Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.
2000-03-01
A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.
Three-dimensional boundary layer stability and transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, M. R.; Li, F.
1992-01-01
Nonparallel and nonlinear stability of a three-dimensional boundary layer, subject to crossflow instability, is investigated using parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Both traveling and stationary disturbances are considered and nonparallel effect on crossflow instability is found to be destabilizing. Our linear PSE results for stationary disturbances agree well with the results from direct solution of Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Spalart (1989). Nonlinear calculations have been carried out for stationary vortices and the computed wall vorticity pattern results in streamwise streaks which resemble remarkably well with the surface oil-flow visualizations in swept-wing experiments. Other features of the stationary vortex development (half-mushroom structure, inflected velocity profiles, vortex doubling, etc.) are also captured in our nonlinear calculations. Nonlinear interaction of the stationary amplitude of the stationary vortex is large as compared to the traveling mode, and the stationary vortex dominates most of the downstream development. When the two modes have the same initial amplitude, the traveling mode dominates the downstream development owing to its higher growth rate, and there is a tendency for the stationary mode to be suppressed. The effect of nonlinear wave development on the skin-friction coefficient is also computed.
Leblond, Hervé; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru
2005-03-01
We consider basic types of two-dimensional (2D) vortex solitons in a three-wave model combining quadratic chi((2)) and self-defocusing cubic chi((3))(-) nonlinearities. The system involves two fundamental-frequency (FF) waves with orthogonal polarizations and a single second-harmonic (SH) one. The model makes it possible to introduce a 2D soliton, with hidden vorticity (HV). Its vorticities in the two FF components are S(1,2) = +/-1 , whereas the SH carries no vorticity, S(3) = 0 . We also consider an ordinary compound vortex, with 2S(1) = 2S(2) = S(3) = 2 . Without the chi((3))(-) terms, the HV soliton and the ordinary vortex are moderately unstable. Within the propagation distance z approximately 15 diffraction lengths, Z(diffr), the former one turns itself into a usual zero-vorticity (ZV) soliton, while the latter splits into three ZV solitons (the splinters form a necklace pattern, with its own intrinsic dynamics). To gain analytical insight into the azimuthal instability of the HV solitons, we also consider its one-dimensional counterpart, viz., the modulational instability (MI) of a one-dimensional CW (continuous-wave) state with "hidden momentum," i.e., opposite wave numbers in its two components, concluding that such wave numbers may partly suppress the MI. As concerns analytical results, we also find exact solutions for spreading localized vortices in the 2D linear model; in terms of quantum mechanics, these are coherent states with angular momentum (we need these solutions to accurately define the diffraction length of the true solitons). The addition of the chi((3))(-) interaction strongly stabilizes both the HV solitons and the ordinary vortices, helping them to persist over z up to 50 Z(diffr). In terms of the possible experiment, they are completely stable objects. After very long propagation, the HV soliton splits into two ZV solitons, while the vortex with S(3) = 2S(1,2) = 2 splits into a set of three or four ZV solitons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monjur, Mehjabin S.; Fouda, Mohamed F.; Shahriar, Selim M.
2016-12-01
We describe an automatic event recognition (AER) system based on a three-dimensional spatio-temporal correlator (STC) that combines the techniques of holographic correlation and photon echo based temporal pattern recognition. The STC is shift invariant in space and time. It can be used to recognize rapidly an event (e.g., a short video clip) that may be present in a large video file, and determine the temporal location of the event. Using polar Mellin transform, it is possible to realize an STC that is also scale and rotation invariant spatially. Numerical simulation results of such a system are presented using quantum mechanical equations of evolution. For this simulation we have used the model of an idealized, decay-free two level system of atoms with an inhomogeneous broadening that is larger than the inverse of the temporal resolution of the data stream. We show how such a system can be realized by using a lambda-type three level system in atomic vapor, via adiabatic elimination of the intermediate state. We have also developed analytically a three dimensional transfer function of the system, and shown that it agrees closely with the results obtained via explicit simulation of the atomic response. The analytical transfer function can be used to determine the response of an STC very rapidly. In addition to the correlation signal, other nonlinear terms appear in the explicit numerical model. These terms are also verified by the analytical model. We describe how the AER can be operated in a manner such that the correlation signal remains unaffected by the additional nonlinear terms. We also show how such a practical STC can be realized using a combination of a porous-glass based Rb vapor cell, a holographic video disc, and a lithium niobate crystal.
Quasi-three-dimensional simulations of deep convection
Hertenstein, R.F.A.; Cotton, W.R.; Weissbluth, M.J.
1991-01-01
Simulations of deep convection along the Florida sea-breeze front have previously been carried out in two dimensions using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. These experiments were in good agreement with observations, capturing the propagation of the sea-breeze fronts and the associated convection as well as the eventual collision of the two sea-breeze fronts from opposite shores, leading to more fully developed deep convection. We have extended this simulation by adding enough points in the third dimension to capture the three-dimensional convective cells. We have two goals with this work. First we will use this experiment as a step towards fully three-dimensional simulations of Mesoscale Convective Systems in which interactive-grid nests are used to explicitly simulate convective processes. A second goal is to use the results of these simulations as a synthetic data set. We can then run simulations of the same case using a convective parameterization scheme, compare the results of the parameterization run to the synthetic data set, and use diagnostic analyses to refine the parameterization scheme. 2 refs.
Quasi-three-dimensional simulations of deep convection
Hertenstein, R.F.A.; Cotton, W.R.; Weissbluth, M.J.
1991-12-31
Simulations of deep convection along the Florida sea-breeze front have previously been carried out in two dimensions using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. These experiments were in good agreement with observations, capturing the propagation of the sea-breeze fronts and the associated convection as well as the eventual collision of the two sea-breeze fronts from opposite shores, leading to more fully developed deep convection. We have extended this simulation by adding enough points in the third dimension to capture the three-dimensional convective cells. We have two goals with this work. First we will use this experiment as a step towards fully three-dimensional simulations of Mesoscale Convective Systems in which interactive-grid nests are used to explicitly simulate convective processes. A second goal is to use the results of these simulations as a synthetic data set. We can then run simulations of the same case using a convective parameterization scheme, compare the results of the parameterization run to the synthetic data set, and use diagnostic analyses to refine the parameterization scheme. 2 refs.
Building on architectural principles for three-dimensional metallosupramolecular construction.
Smulders, Maarten M J; Riddell, Imogen A; Browne, Colm; Nitschke, Jonathan R
2013-02-21
Over the last two decades the field of metallosupramolecular self-assembly has emerged as a promising research area for the development of intricate, three-dimensional structures of increasing complexity and functionality. The advent of this area of research has strongly benefited from design principles that considered the ligand geometry and metal coordination geometry, thus opening up routes towards rationally designed classical (Archimedean or Platonic) architectures. In this tutorial review, we will focus on more recent developments in the design and synthesis of three-dimensional suprastructures which have non-classical architectures (non-Archimedean/Platonic solids) and we will explicitly address the secondary effects responsible for their formation. Three classes of metallosupramolecular assemblies will be discussed: architectures formed through the combination of a single ligand and metal, heteroleptic structures and heterometallic structures. It is hoped that our exposition may suggest how different principles employed in these three classes of structures might be combined to create even greater complexity and potential for function.
A deterministic method for transient, three-dimensional neutron transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goluoglu, Sedat
A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable is the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle variables of the neutron flux are computed using the three-dimensional (3-D) discrete ordinates code TORT. The resulting time-dependent, 3-D code is called TDTORT. The flux shape calculated by TORT is used to compute the point kinetics parameters (e.g., reactivity, generation time, etc.). The amplitude function is calculated by solving the point kinetics equations using LSODE (Livermore Solver of Ordinary differential Equations). Several transient 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D benchmark problems are used to verify TDTORT. The results show that methodology and code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed to serve as a benchmarking tool for other less accurate models and codes. More importantly, a new computational tool based on transport theory now exists for analyzing the dynamic behavior of complex neutronic systems.
Pickup ion distributions from three-dimensional neutral exospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartle, R. E.; Sarantos, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.
2011-10-01
Pickup ions formed from ionized neutral exospheres in flowing plasmas have phase space distributions that reflect their source's spatial distributions. Phase space distributions of the ions are derived from the Vlasov equation with a delta function source using three-dimensional neutral exospheres. The ExB drift produced by plasma motion picks up the ions while the effects of magnetic field draping, mass loading, wave particle scattering, and Coulomb collisions near a planetary body are ignored. Previously, one-dimensional exospheres were treated, resulting in closed form pickup ion distributions that explicitly depend on the ratio rg/H, where rg is the ion gyroradius and H is the neutral scale height at the exobase. In general, the pickup ion distributions, based on three-dimensional neutral exospheres, cannot be written in closed form, but can be computed numerically. They continue to reflect their source's spatial distributions in an implicit way. These ion distributions and their moments are applied to several bodies, including He+ and Na+ at the Moon, H2+ and CH4+ at Titan, and H+ at Venus. The best places to use these distributions are upstream of the Moon's surface, the ionopause of Titan, and the bow shock of Venus.
Multigrid for hypersonic viscous two- and three-dimensional flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, E.; Swanson, R. C.; Vatsa, V. N.; White, J. A.
1991-01-01
The use of a multigrid method with central differencing to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for hypersonic flows is considered. The time dependent form of the equations is integrated with an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme accelerated by local time stepping and implicit residual smoothing. Variable coefficients are developed for the implicit process that removes the diffusion limit on the time step, producing significant improvement in convergence. A numerical dissipation formulation that provides good shock capturing capability for hypersonic flows is presented. This formulation is shown to be a crucial aspect of the multigrid method. Solutions are given for two-dimensional viscous flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil and three-dimensional flow over a blunt biconic.
Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations solutions on dynamic grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belk, D. M.; Janus, J. M.; Whitfield, D. L.
1985-01-01
A method is presented for solving the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations on dynamic grids based on flux vector splitting. The equations are cast in curvilinear coordinates and a finite volume discretization is used for handling arbitrary geometries. The discretized equations are solved using an explicit upwind second-order predictor corrector scheme that is stable for a CFL of 2. Characteristic variable boundary conditions are developed and used for unsteady impermeable surfaces and for the far-field boundary. Dynamic-grid results are presented for an oscillating air-foil and for a store separating from a reflection plate. For the cases considered of stores separating from a reflection plate, the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the store are significantly different from forces obtained by steady-state aerodynamics with the body inclination angle changed to account for plunge velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.
2017-04-01
The representation theory of three dimensional real and complex Lie groups is reviewed from the perspective of harmonic functions defined over certain appropriate manifolds. An explicit construction of all unitary representations is given. The realisations obtained are shown to be related with each other by either natural operations as real forms or Inönü-Wigner contractions.
Two-loop effective Kähler potential in three-dimensional N = 2 SQED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merzlikin, B. S.
2017-03-01
We consider three-dimensional Abelian N = 2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter model with two chiral superfields and study local superspace contributions to low-energy effective action in the matter superfields sector of the theory. Using supergraph technique we compute the effective Kähler potential in the explicit form up to the two-loop approximation.
Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios
Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.
1994-11-01
We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.
Three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic subcycle solitons.
Esirkepov, Timur; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Bulanov, Sergei V; Pegoraro, Francesco
2002-12-30
Three-dimensional (3D) relativistic electromagnetic subcycle solitons were observed in 3D particle-in-cell simulations of an intense short-laser-pulse propagation in an underdense plasma. Their structure resembles that of an oscillating electric dipole with a poloidal electric field and a toroidal magnetic field that oscillate in phase with the electron density with frequency below the Langmuir frequency. On the ion time scale, the soliton undergoes a Coulomb explosion of its core, resulting in ion acceleration, and then evolves into a slowly expanding quasineutral cavity.
Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease
COLOMBO, CHIARA; TAMBORINI, GLORIA; PEPI, MAURO; ALIMENTO, MARINA; FIORENTINI, CESARE
2007-01-01
This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic) and quantitative advantages of this technique. PMID:21977273
Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease.
Colombo, Chiara; Tamborini, Gloria; Pepi, Mauro; Alimento, Marina; Fiorentini, Cesare
2007-01-01
This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic) and quantitative advantages of this technique.
The Three-Dimensional Structure of Mimivirus
Klose, Thomas; Kuznetsov, Yurii G.; Xiao, Chuan; Sun, Siyang; McPherson, Alexander; Rossmann, Michael G.
2010-01-01
Mimivirus, the prototypic member of the new family of Mimiviridae, is the largest virus known to date. Progress has been made recently in determining the three-dimensional structure of the 0.75-μm diameter virion using cryo-electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. These showed that the virus is composed of an outer layer of dense fibers surrounding an icosahedrally shaped capsid and an internal membrane sac enveloping the genomic material of the virus. Additionally, a unique starfish-like structure at one of the fivefold vertices, required by the virus for infecting its host, has been defined in more detail. PMID:20551678
Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support
Bernard, Patrick; Dauchier, Jean-Michel; Simonneau, Olivier
1999-07-27
Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m
Three-dimensional ultrasonic colloidal crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.
2016-05-01
Colloidal assembly represents a powerful method for the fabrication of functional materials. In this article, we describe how acoustic radiation forces can guide the assembly of colloidal particles into structures that serve as microscopic elements in novel acoustic metadevices or act as phononic crystals. Using a simple three-dimensional orthogonal system, we show that a diversity of colloidal structures with orthorhombic symmetry can be assembled with megahertz-frequency (MHz) standing pressure waves. These structures allow rapid tuning of acoustic properties and provide a new platform for dynamic metamaterial applications.
Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel
2012-11-01
Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.
Sculptra: the new three-dimensional filler.
Sherman, Richard N
2006-10-01
Sculptra, the synthetic injectable poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), is a revolutionary three-dimensional filler lasting 18 to 24 months. This unique volumizing agent is best used to globally restore volume to the lower two thirds of the face in patients who have lipoatrophy. Sculptra is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nonimmunogenic derivative of the alpha-hydroxy-acid family. The size and the slow degradation kinetics of PLLA microparticles act as a stimulus for collagen production, providing lasting volume enhancement in lipoatrophy patients.
High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler
Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.
1999-01-01
A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.
Three-dimensional simulations of burning thermals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspden, Andy; Bell, John; Woosley, Stan
2010-11-01
Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a bubble rises due to gravity, it becomes deformed by shear instabilities and transitions to a turbulent buoyant vortex ring. Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) introduced the entrainment assumption, which can be applied to inert thermals. In this study, we use the entrainment assumption, suitably modified to account for burning, to predict the late-time asymptotic behaviour of these turbulent buoyant vortex rings in SNe Ia. The theory is validated against three- dimensional simulations with adaptive mesh refinement at effective resolutions up to 4096^3.
Validation of three-dimensional Euler methods for vibrating cascade aerodynamics
Gerolymos, G.A.; Vallet, I.
1996-10-01
The purpose of this work is to validate a time-nonlinear three-dimensional Euler solver for vibrating cascades aerodynamics by comparison with available theoretical semi-analytical results from flat-plate cascades. First the method is validated with respect to the purely two-dimensional theory of Verdon (for supersonic flow) by computing two-dimensional vibration (spanwise constant) in linear three-dimensional cascades. Then the method is validated by comparison with the theoretical results of Namba and the computational results of He and Denton, for subsonic flow in a linear three-dimensional cascade with three-dimensional vibratory mode. Finally the method is compared with results of Chi from two subsonic rotating annular cascades of helicoiedal flat plates. Quite satisfactory agreement is obtained for all the cases studied. A first code-to-code comparison is also presented.
HINT modeling of three-dimensional tokamaks with resonant magnetic perturbation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Yasuhiro
2017-05-01
In order to consider the nonlinear three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium response of the resonant magnetic perturbation field, the nonlinear 3D equilibrium is discussed for the 3D perturbed tokamak. To model the magnetic topology, a nonlinear 3D equilibrium calculation code, which has been developed in stellarator research, is applied to the perturbed tokamak. That code does not assume the existence of perfectly nested flux surfaces. In the nonlinear 3D equilibrium calculation, the change of the magnetic topology is due to the nonlinear 3D equilibrium response, which is the lowest order plasma response appearing in the 3D steady state. The parallel current flow along perturbed field lines three-dimensionally drives the perturbed field to break the magnetic topology. This effect is significant along the separatrix and must be considered to interpret the experimental observations.
In-lab three-dimensional printing
Partridge, Roland; Conlisk, Noel; Davies, Jamie A.
2012-01-01
The development of the microscope in 1590 by Zacharias Janssenby and Hans Lippershey gave the world a new way of visualizing details of morphogenesis and development. More recent improvements in this technology including confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical projection tomography (OPT) have enhanced the quality of the resultant image. These technologies also allow a representation to be made of a developing tissue’s three-dimensional (3-D) form. With all these techniques however, the image is delivered on a flat two-dimensional (2-D) screen. 3-D printing represents an exciting potential to reproduce the image not simply on a flat screen, but in a physical, palpable three-dimensional structure. Here we explore the scope that this holds for exploring and interacting with the structure of a developing organ in an entirely novel way. As well as being useful for visualization, 3-D printers are capable of rapidly and cost-effectively producing custom-made structures for use within the laboratory. We here describe the advantages of producing hardware for a tissue culture system using an inexpensive in-lab printer. PMID:22652907
Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru
2010-11-01
Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.
Three-dimensional terahertz wave imaging.
Zhang, X-C
2004-02-15
Pulsed terahertz (THz) wave sensing and imaging is a coherent measurement technology. Like radar, based on the phase and amplitude of the THz pulse at each frequency, THz waves provide temporal and spectroscopic information that allows us to develop various three-dimensional (3D) terahertz tomographic imaging modalities. The 3D THz tomographic imaging methods we investigated include THz time-of-flight tomography, THz computed tomography (CT) and THz binary lens tomography. THz time-of-flight uses the THz pulses as a probe beam to temporally mark the target, and then constructs a 3D image of the target using the THz waves scattered by the target. THz CT is based on geometrical optics and inspired from X-ray CT. THz binary lens tomography uses the frequency-dependent focal-length property of binary lenses to obtain tomographic images of an object. Three-dimensional THz imaging has potential in such applications as non-destructive inspection. The interaction between a coherent THz pulse and an object provides rich information about the object under study; therefore, 3D THz imaging can be used to inspect or characterize dielectric and semiconductor objects. For example, 3D THz imaging has been used to detect and identify the defects inside a Space Shuttle insulation tile.
Three-dimensional turbopump flowfield analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, O. P.; Belford, K. A.; Ni, R. H.
1992-01-01
A program was conducted to develop a flow prediction method applicable to rocket turbopumps. The complex nature of a flowfield in turbopumps is described and examples of flowfields are discussed to illustrate that physics based models and analytical calculation procedures based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are needed to develop reliable design procedures for turbopumps. A CFD code developed at NASA ARC was used as the base code. The turbulence model and boundary conditions in the base code were modified, respectively, to: (1) compute transitional flows and account for extra rates of strain, e.g., rotation; and (2) compute surface heat transfer coefficients and allow computation through multistage turbomachines. Benchmark quality data from two and three-dimensional cascades were used to verify the code. The predictive capabilities of the present CFD code were demonstrated by computing the flow through a radial impeller and a multistage axial flow turbine. Results of the program indicate that the present code operated in a two-dimensional mode is a cost effective alternative to full three-dimensional calculations, and that it permits realistic predictions of unsteady loadings and losses for multistage machines.
Three-dimensional singular points in aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unal, Aynur
1988-01-01
When three-dimensional separation occurs on a body immersed in a flow governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the geometrical surfaces formed by the three vector fields (velocity, vorticity and the skin-friction) and a scalar field (pressure) become interrelated through topological maps containing their respective singular points and extremal points. A mathematically consistent description of these singular points becomes inevitable when we want to study the geometry of the separation. A separated stream surface requires, for example, the existence of a saddle-type singular point on the skin-friction surface. This singular point is actually, in the proper language of mathematics, a saddle of index two. The index is a measure of the dimension of the outset (set leaving the singular point). Hence, when a saddle of index two is specified, a two dimensional surface that becomes separated from the osculating plane of the saddle is implied. The three-dimensional singular point is interpreted mathematically and the most common aerodynamical singular points are discussed through this perspective.
Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.
2011-11-01
Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.
Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James
2003-05-01
Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).
Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography
Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.
2005-04-01
Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.
Long pathlength, three-dimensional absorbance microchip.
Collins, Greg E; Lu, Qin; Pereira, Nicholas; Wu, Peter
2007-04-15
A long pathlength, three-dimensional U-type flow cell was microfabricated and evaluated for improved absorbance detection on a glass microdevice. A small diameter hole (75mum) was laser etched in a thin glass substrate whose thickness (100mum) defined much of the pathlength of the cell. This substrate was thermally bonded and sandwiched between two different glass substrates. The top substrate contained a typical injection cross and separation microchannel. Projecting out of the plane of the separation device was a 126mum pathlength flow cell as defined by the laser etched hole and the attached microchannels. The flow cell was connected to a microchannel on the bottom substrate that led to a waste reservoir. The planar, flat windows on the top and bottom of this device made light introduction and collection a simple matter using a light emitting diode (LED) and microscope objective. The experimentally obtained detection limit for rhodamine B was determined to be 0.95muM, which is nearly identical to the theoretical limit calculated by Beer's Law. A separation of three fluorescent dyes was performed, and direct comparisons were made between the transmittance changes through the narrow pathlength separation microchannel and the adjacent long pathlength, three-dimensional U-type flow cell.
Two component-three dimensional catalysis
Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.
2002-01-01
This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.
Three dimensional force balance of asymmetric droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Cho, Kun; Weon, Byung Mook
2016-11-01
An equilibrium contact angle of a droplet is determined by a horizontal force balance among vapor, liquid, and solid, which is known as Young's law. Conventional wetting law is valid only for axis-symmetric droplets, whereas real droplets are often asymmetric. Here we show that three-dimensional geometry must be considered for a force balance for asymmetric droplets. By visualizing asymmetric droplets placed on a free-standing membrane in air with X-ray microscopy, we are able to identify that force balances in one side and in other side control pinning behaviors during evaporation of droplets. We find that X-ray microscopy is powerful for realizing the three-dimensional force balance, which would be essential in interpretation and manipulation of wetting, spreading, and drying dynamics for asymmetric droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).
Three-dimensional television: a broadcaster's perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jolly, S. J. E.; Armstrong, M.; Salmon, R. A.
2009-02-01
The recent resurgence of interest in the stereoscopic cinema and the increasing availability to the consumer of stereoscopic televisions and computer displays are leading broadcasters to consider, once again, the feasibility of stereoscopic broadcasting. High Definition Television is now widely deployed, and the R&D departments of broadcasters and consumer electronics manufacturers are starting to plan future enhancements to the experience of television. Improving the perception of depth via stereoscopy is a strong candidate technology. In this paper we will consider the challenges associated with the production, transmission and display of different forms of "three-dimensional" television. We will explore options available to a broadcaster wishing to start a 3D service using the technologies available at the present time, and consider how they could be improved to enable many more television programmes to be recorded and transmitted in a 3D-compatible form, paying particular attention to scenarios such as live broadcasting, where the workflows developed for the stereoscopic cinema are inapplicable. We will also consider the opportunities available for broadcasters to reach audiences with "three-dimensional" content via other media in the near future: for example, distributing content via the existing stereoscopic cinema network, or over the Internet to owners of stereoscopic computer displays.
Three-Dimensional Dynamical Instabilities in Galactic Ionization Fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whalen, Daniel J.; Norman, Michael L.
2008-01-01
Ionization front instabilities have long been of interest for their suspected role in a variety of phenomena in the Galaxy, from the formation of bright rims and "elephant trunks" in nebulae to triggered star formation in molecular clouds. Numerical treatments of these instabilities have historically been limited in both dimensionality and input physics, leaving important questions about their true evolution unanswered. We present the first three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical calculations of both R-type (rarefied) and D-type (dense) ionization front instabilities in Galactic environments (i.e., solar-metallicity gas). Consistent with linear stability analyses of planar D-type fronts, our models exhibit many short-wavelength perturbations that grow at early times and later evolve into fewer large-wavelength structures. The simulations demonstrate that both self-consistent radiative transfer and three-dimensional flow introduce significant morphological differences to unstable modes when compared to earlier two-dimensional approximate models. We find that the amplitude of the instabilities in the nonlinear regime is primarily determined by the efficiency of cooling within the shocked neutral shell. Strong radiative cooling leads to long, extended structures with pronounced clumping, while weaker cooling leads to saturated modes that devolve into turbulent flows. These results suggest that expanding H II regions may either promote or provide turbulent support against the formation of later generations of stars, with potential consequences for star formation rates in the Galaxy today.
Three dimensional dynamics of a flexible Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, N. A.; Cartmell, M. P.
2016-03-01
This paper presents a new flexural model for the three dimensional dynamics of the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether (MMET) concept. This study has uncovered the relationships between planar and nonplanar motions, and the effect of the coupling between these two parameters on pragmatic circular and elliptical orbits. The tether sub-spans are modelled as stiffened strings governed by partial differential equations of motion, with specific boundary conditions. The tether sub-spans are flexible and elastic, thereby allowing three dimensional displacements. The boundary conditions lead to a specific frequency equation and the eigenvalues from this provide the natural frequencies of the orbiting flexible motorised tether when static, accelerating in monotonic spin, and at terminal angular velocity. A rotation transformation matrix has been utilised to get the position vectors of the system's components in an assumed inertial frame. Spatio-temporal coordinates are transformed to modal coordinates before applying Lagrange's equations, and pre-selected linear modes are included to generate the equations of motion. The equations of motion contain inertial nonlinearities which are essentially of cubic order, and these show the potential for intricate intermodal coupling effects. A simulation of planar and non-planar motions has been undertaken and the differences in the modal responses, for both motions, and between the rigid body and flexible models are highlighted and discussed.
Three-dimensional wave evolution on electrified falling films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomlin, Ruben; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Pavliotis, Greg
2016-11-01
We consider the full three-dimensional model for a thin viscous liquid film completely wetting a flat infinite solid substrate at some non-zero angle to the horizontal, with an electric field normal to the substrate far from the flow. Thin film flows have applications in cooling processes. Many studies have shown that the presence of interfacial waves increases heat transfer by orders of magnitude due to film thinning and convection effects. A long-wave asymptotics procedure yields a Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with a non-local term to model the weakly nonlinear evolution of the interface dynamics for overlying film arrangements, with a restriction on the electric field strength. The non-local term is always linearly destabilising and produces growth rates proportional to the cube of the magnitude of the wavenumber vector. A sufficiently strong electric field is able promote non-trivial dynamics for subcritical Reynolds number flows where the flat interface is stable in the absence of an electric field. We present numerical simulations where we observe rich dynamical behavior with competing attractors, including "snaking" travelling waves and other fully three-dimensional wave formations.
Three-dimensional wave evolution on electrified falling films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomlin, Ruben; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Pavliotis, Greg
2016-11-01
We consider the full three-dimensional model for a thin viscous liquid film completely wetting a flat infinite solid substrate at some non-zero angle to the horizontal, with an electric field normal to the substrate far from the flow. Thin film flows have applications in cooling processes. Many studies have shown that the presence of interfacial waves increases heat transfer by orders of magnitude due to film thinning and convection effects. A long-wave asymptotics procedure yields a Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with a non-local term to model the weakly nonlinear evolution of the interface dynamics for overlying film arrangements, with a restriction on the electric field strength. The non-local term is always linearly destabilising and produces growth rates proportional to the cube of the magnitude of the wavenumber vector. A sufficiently strong electric field is able promote non-trivial dynamics for subcritical Reynolds number flows where the flat interface is stable in the absence of an electric field. We present numerical simulations where we observe rich dynamical behavior with competing attractors, including "snaking" travelling waves and other fully three-dimensional wave formations. EPSRC studentship (RJT).
A Semi-Implicit, Three-Dimensional Model for Estuarine Circulation
Smith, Peter E.
2006-01-01
A semi-implicit, finite-difference method for the numerical solution of the three-dimensional equations for circulation in estuaries is presented and tested. The method uses a three-time-level, leapfrog-trapezoidal scheme that is essentially second-order accurate in the spatial and temporal numerical approximations. The three-time-level scheme is shown to be preferred over a two-time-level scheme, especially for problems with strong nonlinearities. The stability of the semi-implicit scheme is free from any time-step limitation related to the terms describing vertical diffusion and the propagation of the surface gravity waves. The scheme does not rely on any form of vertical/horizontal mode-splitting to treat the vertical diffusion implicitly. At each time step, the numerical method uses a double-sweep method to transform a large number of small tridiagonal equation systems and then uses the preconditioned conjugate-gradient method to solve a single, large, five-diagonal equation system for the water surface elevation. The governing equations for the multi-level scheme are prepared in a conservative form by integrating them over the height of each horizontal layer. The layer-integrated volumetric transports replace velocities as the dependent variables so that the depth-integrated continuity equation that is used in the solution for the water surface elevation is linear. Volumetric transports are computed explicitly from the momentum equations. The resulting method is mass conservative, efficient, and numerically accurate.
An implicit immersed boundary method for three-dimensional fluid-membrane interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, D. V.; White, J.; Peraire, J.; Lim, K. M.; Khoo, B. C.
2009-12-01
We present an implicit immersed boundary method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations capable of handling three-dimensional membrane-fluid flow interactions. The goal of our approach is to greatly improve the time step by using the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method (JFNK) to advance the location of the elastic membrane implicitly. The most attractive feature of this Jacobian-free approach is Newton-like nonlinear convergence without the cost of forming and storing the true Jacobian. The Generalized Minimal Residual method (GMRES), which is a widely used Krylov-subspace iterative method, is used to update the search direction required for each Newton iteration. Each GMRES iteration only requires the action of the Jacobian in the form of matrix-vector products and therefore avoids the need of forming and storing the Jacobian matrix explicitly. Once the location of the boundary is obtained, the elastic forces acting at the discrete nodes of the membrane are computed using a finite element model. We then use the immersed boundary method to calculate the hydrodynamic effects and fluid-structure interaction effects such as membrane deformation. The present scheme has been validated by several examples including an oscillatory membrane initially placed in a still fluid, capsule membranes in shear flows and large deformation of red blood cells subjected to stretching force.
On the Secondary Instability of Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janke, Erik; Balakumar, Ponnampalam
One of the possible transition scenarios in three-dimensional boundary layers, the saturation of stationary crossflow vortices and their secondary instability to high-frequency disturbances, is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) and Floquet theory. Starting from nonlinear PSE solutions, we investigate the region where a purely stationary crossflow disturbance saturates for its secondary instability characteristics utilizing global and local eigenvalue solvers that are based on the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method and a Newton-Raphson technique, respectively. Results are presented for swept Hiemenz flow and the DLR swept flat plate experiment. The main focuses of this study are on the existence of multiple roots in the eigenvalue spectrum that could explain experimental observations of time-dependent occurrences of an explosive growth of traveling disturbances, on the origin of high-frequency disturbances, as well as on gaining more information about threshold amplitudes of primary disturbances necessary for the growth of secondary disturbances.
Unsteady three-dimensional marginal separation, including breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1990-01-01
A situation involving a three-dimensional marginal separation is considered, where a (steady) boundary layer flow is on the verge of separating at a point (located along a line of symmetry/centerline). At this point, a triple-deck is included, thereby permitting a small amount of interaction to occur. Unsteadiness is included within this interaction region through some external means. It is shown that the problem reduces to the solution of a nonlinear, unsteady, partial-integro system, which is solved numerically by means of time-marching together with a pseudo-spectral method spatially. A number of solutions to this system are presented which strongly suggest a breakdown of this system may occur, at a finite spatial position, at a finite time. The structure and details of this breakdown are then described.
Three-dimensional MHD analysis of heliotron plasma with RMP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichiguchi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Sato, M.; Todo, Y.; Nicolas, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Narushima, Y.; Carreras, B. A.
2015-07-01
The interaction between pressure driven modes and magnetic islands generated by a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) in the large helical device (LHD) is numerically analyzed. In this analysis, three-dimensional treatment is essential in the equilibrium and dynamics calculations, because the equilibrium pressure profile is deformed by the RMP. The deformation changes the linear mode structure from the interchange type to the ballooning-like type that is localized around the X-point of the island in the equilibrium magnetic field including the RMP. This mode causes a pressure collapse in the nonlinear evolution, which spreads from the X-point to the core. Therefore, the spatial phase of the collapse is fixed to the island geometry. The fixed phase agrees with the LHD experimental results with a natural error field.
Curved singular beams for three-dimensional particle manipulation.
Zhao, Juanying; Chremmos, Ioannis D; Song, Daohong; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Efremidis, Nikolaos K; Chen, Zhigang
2015-07-13
For decades, singular beams carrying angular momentum have been a topic of considerable interest. Their intriguing applications are ubiquitous in a variety of fields, ranging from optical manipulation to photon entanglement, and from microscopy and coronagraphy to free-space communications, detection of rotating black holes, and even relativistic electrons and strong-field physics. In most applications, however, singular beams travel naturally along a straight line, expanding during linear propagation or breaking up in nonlinear media. Here, we design and demonstrate diffraction-resisting singular beams that travel along arbitrary trajectories in space. These curved beams not only maintain an invariant dark "hole" in the center but also preserve their angular momentum, exhibiting combined features of optical vortex, Bessel, and Airy beams. Furthermore, we observe three-dimensional spiraling of microparticles driven by such fine-shaped dynamical beams. Our findings may open up new avenues for shaped light in various applications.
Three-dimensional force microscopy of cells in biopolymer networks.
Steinwachs, Julian; Metzner, Claus; Skodzek, Kai; Lang, Nadine; Thievessen, Ingo; Mark, Christoph; Münster, Stefan; Aifantis, Katerina E; Fabry, Ben
2016-02-01
We describe a technique for the quantitative measurement of cell-generated forces in highly nonlinear three-dimensional biopolymer networks that mimic the physiological situation of living cells. We computed forces of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells from the measured network deformations around the cells using a finite-element approach based on a constitutive equation that captures the complex mechanical properties of diverse biopolymers such as collagen gels, fibrin gels and Matrigel. Our measurements show that breast carcinoma cells cultured in collagen gels generated nearly constant forces regardless of the collagen concentration and matrix stiffness. Furthermore, time-lapse force measurements showed that these cells migrated in a gliding motion with alternating phases of high and low contractility, elongation, migratory speed and persistence.
Three-dimensional kinematic reconnection of plasmoids with nulls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lau, Yun-Tung; Finn, John M.
1992-01-01
The global nonlinear dynamics of magnetic field lines in plasmoids with a pair of nulls, where B = 0, is studied. The aim of this analysis is to describe the separatrix surfaces on which singularities can occur in ideal magnetohydrodynamics because of topological changes in the field. These separatrix surfaces should locate the boundary layers associated with 3D reconnection in the presence of resistivity or inertia. It is found that the field lines exhibit chaotic scattering with several properties in common with plasmoid models without nulls (in which one component of the magnetic field never changes sign). In particular, the singular surfaces can be fractal, implying complex current density structures down to the dissipation scale. These generic features are expected to exist in typical coronal magnetic geometries exhibiting three-dimensional reconnection and the formation of current sheets.
An autocorrelation method for three-dimensional strain analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thissen, Christopher J.; Brandon, Mark T.
2015-12-01
We present a method of finite-strain estimation using the autocorrelation properties of deformed rock. Autocorrelation is the correlation of an image with itself as a function of an offset or lag. In two and three dimensions, the lag has both distance and direction. Many geologic materials are initially isotropic, which means that the autocorrelation function (ACF) will be initially isotropic as well. Deformation imposes an anisotropic distortion, which can be measured using the Ramsay and Fry strain methods for example, but can also be estimated from the ACF. X-ray tomography now provides a rapid way to measure the three-dimensional ACF of a geologic sample. Strain parameters are estimated by using a non-linear, best-fit method to minimize the anisotropy in the ACF. The ACF method works best for materials where the objects are internally uniform and contrast strongly with the matrix and other grains.
Curved singular beams for three-dimensional particle manipulation
Zhao, Juanying; Chremmos, Ioannis D.; Song, Daohong; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Chen, Zhigang
2015-01-01
For decades, singular beams carrying angular momentum have been a topic of considerable interest. Their intriguing applications are ubiquitous in a variety of fields, ranging from optical manipulation to photon entanglement, and from microscopy and coronagraphy to free-space communications, detection of rotating black holes, and even relativistic electrons and strong-field physics. In most applications, however, singular beams travel naturally along a straight line, expanding during linear propagation or breaking up in nonlinear media. Here, we design and demonstrate diffraction-resisting singular beams that travel along arbitrary trajectories in space. These curved beams not only maintain an invariant dark “hole” in the center but also preserve their angular momentum, exhibiting combined features of optical vortex, Bessel, and Airy beams. Furthermore, we observe three-dimensional spiraling of microparticles driven by such fine-shaped dynamical beams. Our findings may open up new avenues for shaped light in various applications. PMID:26166011
Three-Dimensional, Nondestructive Imaging of Low Density Materials
Kinney, J.H.; Haupt, D.L.; Lemay, J.D.
1999-10-29
The goal of this study was to develop a three-dimensional imaging method for studies of deformation in low-density materials during loading, and to implement finite element solutions of the elastic equations based on the images. Specimens of silica-reinforced polysiloxane foam pads, 15 mm in diameter by 1 mm thick, were used for this study. The nominal pore density was 50%, and the pores approximated interconnected spheres. The specimens were imaged with microtomography at {approx}16{micro}m resolution. A rotating stage with micrometer driven compression allowed imaging of the foams during deformation with precise registration of the images. A finite element mesh, generated from the image voxels, was used to calculate the mechanical properties of the structure, and the results were compared with conventional mechanical testing. The foam exhibited significant nonlinear behavior with compressive loading. The finite-element calculations from the images, which were in excellent agreement with experimental data, suggested that nonlinear behavior in the load displacement curves arises from buckling of the cell walls during compression and not from any nonlinear properties of the base elastomer. High-resolution microtomography, coupled with efficient finite-element modeling, shows promise for improving our understanding of the deformation behavior of cellular materials.
Magneto Transport in Three Dimensional Carbon Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Timir; Wang, Lei; Jaroszynski, Jan; Yin, Ming; Alameri, Dheyaa
Electrical properties of self-assembled three dimensional nanostructures are interesting topic. Here we report temperature dependence of magneto transport in such carbon nanostructures with periodic spherical voids. Specimens with different void diameters in the temperature range from 200 mK to 20 K were studied. Above 2 K, magnetoresistance, MR = [R(B) - R(0)] / R(0), crosses over from quadratic to a linear dependence with the increase of magnetic field [Wang et al., APL 2015; DOI:10.1063/1.4926606]. We observe MR to be non-saturating even up to 18 Tesla. Furthermore, MR demonstrates universality because all experimental data can be collapsed on to a single curve, as a universal function of B/T. Below 2 K, magnetoresistance saturates with increasing field. Quantum Hall like steps are also observed in this low temperature regime. Remarkably, MR of our sample displays orientation independence, an attractive feature for technological applications.
Three-dimensional hologram display system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)
2009-01-01
The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.
Three-dimensional elastic lidar winds
Buttler, W.T.
1996-07-01
Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three- dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain following winds in the Rio Grande valley.
Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry
Spagnolo, Nicolò; Aparo, Lorenzo; Vitelli, Chiara; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2012-01-01
Quantum interferometry uses quantum resources to improve phase estimation with respect to classical methods. Here we propose and theoretically investigate a new quantum interferometric scheme based on three-dimensional waveguide devices. These can be implemented by femtosecond laser waveguide writing, recently adopted for quantum applications. In particular, multiarm interferometers include “tritter” and “quarter” as basic elements, corresponding to the generalization of a beam splitter to a 3- and 4-port splitter, respectively. By injecting Fock states in the input ports of such interferometers, fringe patterns characterized by nonclassical visibilities are expected. This enables outperforming the quantum Fisher information obtained with classical fields in phase estimation. We also discuss the possibility of achieving the simultaneous estimation of more than one optical phase. This approach is expected to open new perspectives to quantum enhanced sensing and metrology performed in integrated photonics. PMID:23181189
Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry.
Spagnolo, Nicolò; Aparo, Lorenzo; Vitelli, Chiara; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2012-01-01
Quantum interferometry uses quantum resources to improve phase estimation with respect to classical methods. Here we propose and theoretically investigate a new quantum interferometric scheme based on three-dimensional waveguide devices. These can be implemented by femtosecond laser waveguide writing, recently adopted for quantum applications. In particular, multiarm interferometers include "tritter" and "quarter" as basic elements, corresponding to the generalization of a beam splitter to a 3- and 4-port splitter, respectively. By injecting Fock states in the input ports of such interferometers, fringe patterns characterized by nonclassical visibilities are expected. This enables outperforming the quantum Fisher information obtained with classical fields in phase estimation. We also discuss the possibility of achieving the simultaneous estimation of more than one optical phase. This approach is expected to open new perspectives to quantum enhanced sensing and metrology performed in integrated photonics.
Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology
Sulkin, Matthew S.; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M.; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R.
2013-01-01
Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories. PMID:24043254
Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.
Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R
2013-12-01
Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.
Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen
2016-02-01
It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics.
Three dimensional polymer waveguide using hybrid lithography.
Wang, Huanran; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Minghui; Chen, Changming; Wang, Xibin; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming; Yi, Yunji
2015-10-01
A three dimensional polymer waveguide with taper structure was demonstrated and fabricated by a reliable and effective hybrid lithography. The hybrid lithography consists of lithography to fabricate a polymer waveguide and gray scale lithography to fabricate a polymer taper structure. Laser ablation and shadow aluminum evaporation were designed for gray scale lithography. The length of the gray scale region ranging from 20 to 400 μm could be controlled by the laser power, the ablation speed, and the aluminum thickness. The slope angle was determined by the length of the gray scale region and the thickness of the photoresist. The waveguide taper structure could be transferred to the lower layer by the etching method. The taper structure can be used for integration of the waveguide with different dimensions.
Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewicki, David G.; Sane, Ashok D.; Drago, Raymond J.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.
1998-01-01
Three-dimensional crack growth simulation was performed on a split-tooth gear design using boundary element modeling and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth simulation was performed on a case study to evaluate crack propagation paths. Tooth fracture was predicted from the crack growth simulation for an initial crack in the tooth fillet region. Tooth loads on the uncracked mesh of the split-tooth design were up to five times greater than those on the cracked mesh if equal deflections of the cracked and uncracked teeth were considered. Predicted crack shapes as well as crack propagation life are presented based on calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack growth theories.
Three-dimensional modular electronic interconnection system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolotin, Gary S. (Inventor); Cardone, John (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A three-dimensional connection system uses a plurality of printed wiring boards with connectors completely around the printed wiring boards, and connected by an elastomeric interface connector. The device includes internal space to allow room for circuitry. The device is formed by stacking an electronics module, an elastomeric interface board on the electronics module such that the interface board's exterior makes electrical connection with the connectors around the perimeter of the interface board, but the internal portion is open to allow room for the electrical devices on the printed wiring board. A plurality of these devices are stacked between a top stiffener and a bottom device, and held into place by alignment elements.
Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues.
Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2014-03-01
This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.
The Three-Dimensional EIT Wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gilbert, H. R.; Lawrence, G. R.; Ofman, L.; Wu, S. T.; Warmuth, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
An EIT wave is an impulsive disturbance which has been observed in the EUV, Soft X-ray and white light corona, with corresponding observations in the chromosphere. The effects of these disturbances can be observed across the entire solar disk of the Sun, and throughout the inner heliosphere as well. However, the picture is not complete; observations alone do not establish a complete understanding of the nature of this three-dimensional phenomenon. A number of associated phenomena have been documented, though in most cases causality has not determined. Additionally, it is unclear which factors govern the impulse's ability to affect regions of the corona and heliosphere. We discuss the various observations and the models which provided links between the associated phenomena.
Simplification of three-dimensional density maps.
Natarajan, Vijay; Edelsbrunner, Herbert
2004-01-01
We consider scientific data sets that describe density functions over three-dimensional geometric domains. Such data sets are often large and coarsened representations are needed for visualization and analysis. Assuming a tetrahedral mesh representation, we construct such representations with a simplification algorithm that combines three goals: the approximation of the function, the preservation of the mesh topology, and the improvement of the mesh quality. The third goal is achieved with a novel extension of the well-known quadric error metric. We perform a number of computational experiments to understand the effect of mesh quality improvement on the density map approximation. In addition, we study the effect of geometric simplification on the topological features of the function by monitoring its critical points.
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Of Ultrasound Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lalouche, Robert C.; Bickmore, Dan; Tessler, Franklin N.; Mankovich, Nicholas J.; Huang, H. K.; Kangarloo, Hooshang
1989-05-01
We have established a three-dimensional (3-D) imaging facility for reconstruction of serial two-dimensional (2-D) ultrasound images. In the facility, contiguous 2-D images are captured directly at the clinical site from the real-time video signals of a Labsonics serial ultrasound imager. The images are digitized and stored on an IBM PC. They are then transferred over an Ethernet communication network to the Image Processing Laboratory. Finally, the serial images are reformatted and the 3-D images are reconstructed on a Pixar image computer. The reconstruction method involves grey level remapping, slice interpolation, tissue classification, surface enhancement, illumination, projection, and display. We have demonstrated that 3-D ultra-sound images can be created which bring out features difficult to discern in 2-D ultrasound images.
Scaffolding for Three-Dimensional Embryonic Vasculogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P.; Aday, Sezin; Ferreira, Lino S.
Biomaterial scaffolds have great potential to support efficient vascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Vascular cell fate-specific biochemical and biophysical cues have been identified and incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials to efficiently direct embryonic vasculogenesis. The resulting vascular-like tissue can be used for regenerative medicine applications, further elucidation of biophysical and biochemical cues governing vasculogenesis, and drug discovery. In this chapter, we give an overview on the following: (1) developmental cues for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into vascular cells, (2) 3D vascular differentiation in embryoid bodies (EBs), (3) preparation of 3D scaffolds for the vascular differentiation of hESCs, and (4) the most significant studies combining scaffolding and hESCs for development of vascular-like tissue.
Versatile three-dimensional cryogenic micropositioning device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heil, J.; Böhm, A.; Primke, M.; Wyder, P.
1996-01-01
A simple design for a mechanically driven three-dimensional cryogenic micropositioner is presented. The design is based on a parallelogram structure constructed from leaf springs and wires. Actuation is achieved by the elastic deformation of the parallelogram by screws. Positions within a volume of roughly (2 mm)3 are attainable. The precision and reproducibility of positioning are in the μm-range. The deviations from linearity are smaller than 10% for the whole working range and the deviation from orthogonality is smaller than 3°. Calibration measurements performed on a Cu-mesh with a lattice constant of 60 μm are presented. In an experiment investigating the ballistic transport of carriers in the semimetal Bi, two such devices are used. The first one is used as a scanning unit for an optical fiber and the second one is used as micropositioner for a Cu point contact.
Multiscale modeling of three-dimensional genome
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter
The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.
Automatic three-dimensional underground mine mapping
Huber, D.F.; Vandapel, N.
2006-01-15
For several years, our research group has been developing methods for automated modeling of three-dimensional environments. In September 2002, we were given the opportunity to demonstrate our mapping capability in an underground coal mine. The opportunity arose as a result of the Quecreek mine accident, in which an inaccurate map caused miners to breach an abandoned, water-filled mine, trapping them for several days. Our field test illustrates the feasibility and potential of high-resolution 3D mapping of an underground coal mine using a cart-mounted 3D laser scanner In this paper we present our experimental setup, the automatic 3D modeling method used, and the results of the field test.
Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues
Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2014-03-15
This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.
AAOGlimpse: Three-dimensional Data Viewer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shortridge, Keith
2011-10-01
AAOGlimpse is an experimental display program that uses OpenGL to display FITS data (and even JPEG images) as 3D surfaces that can be rotated and viewed from different angles, all in real-time. It is WCS-compliant and designed to handle three-dimensional data. Each plane in a data cube is surfaced in the same way, and the program allows the user to travel through a cube by 'peeling off' successive planes, or to look into a cube by suppressing the display of data below a given cutoff value. It can blink images and can superimpose images and contour maps from different sources using their world coordinate data. A limited socket interface allows communication with other programs.
Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis.
Erler, Janine T; Weaver, Valerie M
2009-01-01
Tumor progression ensues within a three-dimensional microenvironment that consists of cellular and non-cellular components. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypoxia are two non-cellular components that potently influence metastasis. ECM remodeling and collagen cross-linking stiffen the tissue stroma to promote transformation, tumor growth, motility and invasion, enhance cancer cell survival, enable metastatic dissemination, and facilitate the establishment of tumor cells at distant sites. Matrix degradation can additionally promote malignant progression and metastasis. Tumor hypoxia is functionally linked to altered stromal-epithelial interactions. Hypoxia additionally induces the expression of pro-migratory, survival and invasion genes, and up-regulates expression of ECM components and modifying enzymes, to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Synergistic interactions between matrix remodeling and tumor hypoxia influence common mechanisms that maximize tumor progression and cooperate to drive metastasis. Thus, clarifying the molecular pathways by which ECM remodeling and tumor hypoxia intersect to promote tumor progression should identify novel therapeutic targets.
Three dimensional carbon-nanotube polymers.
Zhao, Zhisheng; Xu, Bo; Wang, Li-Min; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; He, Julong; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Hui-Tian; Tian, Yongjun
2011-09-27
Eight fascinating sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes have been uncovered using a newly developed ab initio particle-swarm optimization methodology for crystal structure prediction. These crystalline allotropes can be viewed respectively as three-dimensional (3D) polymers of (4,0), (5,0), (7,0), (8,0), (9,0), (3,3), (4,4), and (6,6) carbon nanotubes, termed 3D-(n, 0) or 3D-(n, n) carbons. The ground-state energy calculations show that the carbons all have lower energies than C(60) fullerene, and some are energetically more stable than the van der Waals packing configurations of their nanotube parents. Owing to their unique configurations, they have distinctive electronic properties, high Young's moduli, high tensile strength, ultrahigh hardness, good ductility, and low density, and may be potentially applied to a variety of needs.
Three-dimensional cultured glioma cell lines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Marley, Garry M. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
Three-dimensional glioma spheroids were produced in vitro with size and histological differentiation previously unattained. The spheroids were grown in liquid media suspension in a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Rotating Wall Bioreactor without using support matrices such as microcarrier beads. Spheroid volumes of greater than 3.5 cu mm and diameters of 2.5 mm were achieved with a viable external layer or rim of proliferating cells, a transitional layer beneath the external layer with histological differentiation, and a degenerative central region with a hypoxic necrotic core. Cell debris was evident in the degenerative central region. The necrotics centers of some of the spheroids had hyaline droplets. Granular bodies were detected predominantly in the necrotic center.
Localized shear generates three-dimensional transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Lachlan D.; Rudman, Murray; Lester, Daniel R.; Metcalfe, Guy
2017-04-01
Understanding the mechanisms that control three-dimensional (3D) fluid transport is central to many processes, including mixing, chemical reaction, and biological activity. Here a novel mechanism for 3D transport is uncovered where fluid particles are kicked between streamlines near a localized shear, which occurs in many flows and materials. This results in 3D transport similar to Resonance Induced Dispersion (RID); however, this new mechanism is more rapid and mutually incompatible with RID. We explore its governing impact with both an abstract 2-action flow and a model fluid flow. We show that transitions from one-dimensional (1D) to two-dimensional (2D) and 2D to 3D transport occur based on the relative magnitudes of streamline jumps in two transverse directions.
Three-Dimensional Reflectance Traction Microscopy
Jones, Christopher A. R.; Groves, Nicholas Scott; Sun, Bo
2016-01-01
Cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments exhibit very different biochemical and biophysical phenotypes compared to the behavior of cells in two-dimensional (2D) environments. As an important biomechanical measurement, 2D traction force microscopy can not be directly extended into 3D cases. In order to quantitatively characterize the contraction field, we have developed 3D reflectance traction microscopy which combines confocal reflection imaging and partial volume correlation postprocessing. We have measured the deformation field of collagen gel under controlled mechanical stress. We have also characterized the deformation field generated by invasive breast cancer cells of different morphologies in 3D collagen matrix. In contrast to employ dispersed tracing particles or fluorescently-tagged matrix proteins, our methods provide a label-free, computationally effective strategy to study the cell mechanics in native 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:27304456
Three-dimensional image contrast using biospeckle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godinho, Robson Pierangeli; Braga, Roberto A., Jr.
2010-09-01
The biospeckle laser (BSL) has been applied in many areas of knowledge and a variety of approaches has been presented to address the best results in biological and non-biological samples, in fast or slow activities, or else in defined flow of materials or in random activities. The methodologies accounted in the literature consider the apparatus used in the image assembling and the way the collected data is processed. The image processing steps presents in turn a variety of procedures with first or second order statistics analysis, and as well with different sizes of data collected. One way to access the biospeckle in defined flow, such as in capillary blood flow in alive animals, was the adoption of the image contrast technique which uses only one image from the illuminated sample. That approach presents some problems related to the resolution of the image, which is reduced during the image contrast processing. In order to help the visualization of the low resolution image formed by the contrast technique, this work presents the three-dimensional procedure as a reliable alternative to enhance the final image. The work based on a parallel processing, with the generation of a virtual map of amplitudes, and maintaining the quasi-online characteristic of the contrast technique. Therefore, it was possible to generate in the same display the observed material, the image contrast result and in addiction the three-dimensional image with adjustable options of rotation. The platform also offers to the user the possibility to access the 3D image offline.
Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology.
Liu, Yun; Kau, Chung How; Talbert, Leslie; Pan, Feng
2014-09-01
The objectives of this study were to evaluate sexual dimorphism for facial features within Chinese and African American populations and to compare the facial morphology by sex between these 2 populations. Three-dimensional facial images were acquired by using the portable 3dMDface System, which captured 189 subjects from 2 population groups of Chinese (n = 72) and African American (n = 117). Each population was categorized into male and female groups for evaluation. All subjects in the groups were aged between 18 and 30 years and had no apparent facial anomalies. A total of 23 anthropometric landmarks were identified on the three-dimensional faces of each subject. Twenty-one measurements in 4 regions, including 19 distances and 2 angles, were not only calculated but also compared within and between the Chinese and African American populations. The Student's t-test was used to analyze each data set obtained within each subgroup. Distinct facial differences were presented between the examined subgroups. When comparing the sex differences of facial morphology in the Chinese population, significant differences were noted in 71.43% of the parameters calculated, and the same proportion was found in the African American group. The facial morphologic differences between the Chinese and African American populations were evaluated by sex. The proportion of significant differences in the parameters calculated was 90.48% for females and 95.24% for males between the 2 populations. The African American population had a more convex profile and greater face width than those of the Chinese population. Sexual dimorphism for facial features was presented in both the Chinese and African American populations. In addition, there were significant differences in facial morphology between these 2 populations.
Material properties derived from three-dimensional shape representations.
Marlow, Phillip J; Anderson, Barton L
2015-10-01
Retinal image structure is due to a complex mixture of physical sources that includes the surface's 3D shape, light-reflectance and transmittance properties, and the light field. The visual system can somehow discriminate between these different sources of image structure and recover information about the objects and surfaces in the scene. There has been significant debate about the nature of the representations that are used to derive surface reflectance properties such as specularity (gloss). Specularity could be derived either directly from 2D image properties or by exploiting information that can only be derived from representations in which 3D shape has been made explicit. We recently provided evidence that 3D shape information can play a critical role in the perception of material specularity, but the shape manipulation in our prior study also significantly changed 2D image properties (Marlow, Todorović, & Anderson, 2015). Here, we held fixed all monocularly visible 2D image properties and manipulated 3D shape stereoscopically. When binocularly fused, the depicted 3D shapes induced striking transformations in the surfaces' apparent material properties, which vary from matte to 'metallic'. Our psychophysical measurements of perceived specularity reveal that 3D shape information can play a critical role in material perception for both singly-curved surfaces and more complex geometries that curve in two directions. These results provide strong evidence that the perception of material specularity can depend on physical constraints derived from representations in which three-dimensional shape has been made explicit.
Three-dimensional computations of cross-flow injection and combustion in a supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, M. H.
1989-01-01
A low-storage version of the SPARK3D code which is based on the temporally second-order accurate MacCormack (1969) explicit scheme is used to solve the governing equations for three-dimensional chemically reacting flows with finite-rate chemistry. The code includes a fourth-order compact spatial scheme capable of providing higher order spatial accuracy, and it is used to study two-dimensional linear advection, two-dimensional Euler flow, and three-dimensional viscous flow. Also considered are the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen in a supersonic cross stream.
Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equation solutions using flux vector splitting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitfield, D. L.
1983-01-01
A method for numerically solving the three dimensional unsteady Euler equations using flux vector splitting is developed. The equations are cast in curvilinear coordinates and a finite volume discretization is used. An explicit upwind second-order predictor-corrector scheme is used to solve the discretized equations. The scheme is stable for a CFL number of two and local time stepping is used to accelerate convergence for steady-state problems. Characteristic variable boundary conditions are developed and used in the far field and at surfaces. No additional dissipation terms are included in the scheme. Numerical results are compared with results from an existing three dimensional Euler code and experimental data.
DYNA2D: A nonlinear, explicit, two-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics: User manual
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whirley, R. G.; Engelmann, B. E.
1992-04-01
This report is the User Manual for the 1992 version of DYNA2D, and also serves as an interim User Guide. DYNA2D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of two-dimensional solids. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA2D incorporates a large deformation formulation to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Also, a variety of equations of state are available for modeling the hydrodynamic response of many materials, including explosives and propellants. In addition, DYNA2D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact, and a new automatic contact option. DYNA2D contains a rezoner to allow nodes to be repositioned when the finite element mesh becomes excessively distorted during a calculation. This rezoner can be used in either an interactive graphics mode or an automatic mode. In addition, DYNA2D now contains a general remeshing option which allows a completely new mesh to be defined for a body during an analysis. A real-time analysis display option allows the analyst to view an evolving graphical display of the analysis results as they are calculated. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA2D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. This document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA2D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems.
Modeling the three-dimensional river antidunes using a depth-integrated hydrodynamic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasaki, T.; Inoue, T.; Yabe, H.
2016-12-01
Dynamics of bedforms in rivers have been extensively studied in the last decades, however, the three-dimensionality of the river bedforms have been poorly understood because of the lack of experimental, theoretical and numerical works. Understanding the three-dimensional river bedorms is therefore one of challenging research topic in the engineering and the geomorphological research communities. Here, we propose a modeling of the three-dimensional river antidunes using a reduced horizontal two-dimensional morphodynamic model, which consists of a horizontal two-dimensional depth-integrated hydrodynamic model and a non-equilibrium bedload transport model. We use a simple submodel, which describes a phase lag of bed shear stress, into a depth-integrated shallow water flow model. First, a linear stability analysis is performed to understand the linear response of the morphodynamic model to a three-dimensional wavy bed perturbation. The analysis shows that the model could explain both the three-dimensional antidune instability and free bar instability. The dominant streamwise wavelength and spanwise mode of the antidunes obtained by the linear analysis are consistent with the results of experimental flumes. We then carried out numerical simulations to replicate the nonlinear dynamics of the three-dimensional antidunes and associated water surface deformation in straight channels. The numerical simulations show that the model is able to capture the formation and development of upstream-migrating antidunes and a co-evolution of the antidunes and alternate bars.
Hall, Matthew S.; Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Wu, Mingming
2012-01-01
Three-dimensional cell culture is becoming mainstream as it is recognized that many animal cell types require the biophysical and biochemical cues within the extracellular matrices to perform truly physiologically realistic functions. However, tools for characterizing cellular mechanical environment are largely limited to cell culture plated on a two-dimensional substrate. We present a three-dimensional traction microscopy that is capable of mapping three-dimensional stress and strain within a soft and transparent extracellular matrix using a fluorescence microscope and a simple forward data analysis algorithm. We validated this technique by mapping the strain and stress field within the bulk of a thin polyacrylamide gel layer indented by a millimeter-size glass ball, together with a finite-element analysis. The experimentally measured stress and strain fields are in excellent agreements with results of the finite-element simulation. The unique contributions of the presented three-dimensional traction microscopy technique are: 1), the use of a fluorescence microscope in contrast with the confocal microscope that is required for the current three-dimensional traction microscopes in the literature; 2), the determination of the pressure field of an incompressible gel from strains; and 3), the simple forward-data-analysis algorithm. Future application of this technique for mapping animal cell traction in three-dimensional nonlinear biological gels is discussed. PMID:22677377
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedele, R.; Jovanović, D.; Eliasson, B.; de Nicola, S.; Shukla, P. K.
2010-03-01
On the basis of recent investigations, a newly developed analytical procedure is used for constructing a wide class of localized solutions of the controlled three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) that governs the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a spatio-temporally varying external potential. The controlled 3D GPE is decomposed into a two-dimensional (2D) linear Schrödinger equation (called the `transverse equation’) and a one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (called the `longitudinal equation’), constrained by a variational condition for the controlling potential. The latter corresponds to the requirement for the minimization of the control operation in the transverse plane. Then, the above class of localized solutions are constructed as the product of the solutions of the transverse and longitudinal equations. A consistency condition between the transverse and longitudinal solutions yields a relationship between the transverse and longitudinal restoring forces produced by the external trapping potential well through a `controlling parameter’ (i.e. the average, with respect to the transverse profile, of the nonlinear inter-atomic interaction term of the GPE). It is found that the longitudinal profile supports localized solutions in the form of bright, dark or grey solitons with time-dependent amplitudes, widths and centroids. The related longitudinal phase is varying in space and time with time-dependent curvature radius and wavenumber. In turn, all the above parameters (i.e. amplitudes, widths, centroids, curvature radius and wavenumbers) can be easily expressed in terms of the controlling parameter. It is also found that the transverse profile has the form of Hermite-Gauss functions (depending on the transverse coordinates), and the explicit spatio-temporal dependence of the controlling potential is self-consistently determined. On the basis of these exact 3D analytical solutions, a stability
A three-dimensional fast solver for arbitrary vorton distributions
Strickland, J.H.; Baty, R.S.
1994-05-01
A method which is capable of an efficient calculation of the three-dimensional flow field produced by a large system of vortons (discretized regions of vorticity) is presented in this report. The system of vortons can, in turn, be used to model body surfaces, container boundaries, free-surfaces, plumes, jets, and wakes in unsteady three-dimensional flow fields. This method takes advantage of multipole and local series expansions which enables one to make calculations for interactions between groups of vortons which are in well-separated spatial domains rather than having to consider interactions between every pair of vortons. In this work, series expansions for the vector potential of the vorton system are obtained. From such expansions, the three components of velocity can be obtained explicitly. A Fortran computer code FAST3D has been written to calculate the vector potential and the velocity components at selected points in the flow field. In this code, the evaluation points do not have to coincide with the location of the vortons themselves. Test cases have been run to benchmark the truncation errors and CPU time savings associated with the method. Non-dimensional truncation errors for the magnitudes of the vector potential and velocity fields are on the order of 10{sup {minus}4}and 10{sup {minus}3} respectively. Single precision accuracy produces errors in these quantities of up to 10{sup {minus}5}. For less than 1,000 to 2,000 vortons in the field, there is virtually no CPU time savings with the fast solver. For 100,000 vortons in the flow, the fast solver obtains solutions in 1 % to 10% of the time required for the direct solution technique depending upon the configuration.
Three dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mowatt, S.; Skews, B.
2011-09-01
An investigation into a three-dimensional, curved shock wave interacting with a three-dimensional, curved boundary layer on a slender body is presented. Three different nose profiles mounted on a cylindrical body were tested in a supersonic wind tunnel and numerically simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The conical and hemispherical nose profiles tested were found to generate shock waves of sufficient strength to separate the boundary layer on the cylinder, while the shock wave generated by the ogival profile did not separate the boundary layer. For the separated flow, separation was found to occur predominantly on the windward side of the cylinder with the lee-side remaining shielded from the direct impact of the incident shock wave. A thickening of the boundary layer on the lee-side of all the profiles was observed, and in the conical and hemispherical cases this leads to the re-formation of the incident shock wave some distance away from the surface of the cylinder. A complex reflection pattern off the shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) was also identified for the separated flow cases. For comparative purposes, an inviscid simulation was performed using the hemispherical profile. Significant differences between the viscous and inviscid results were noted including the absence of a boundary layer leading to a simplified shock wave reflection pattern forming. The behaviour of the incident shock wave on the lee-side of the cylinder was also affected with the shock wave amalgamating on the surface of the cylinder instead of away from the surface as per the viscous case. Test data from the wind tunnel identified two separation lines present on the cylindrical surface of the hemispherical SWBLI generator. The pair of lines were not explicitly evident in the original CFD simulations run, but were later identified in a high-resolution simulation.
Inelastic transient dynamic analysis of three-dimensional problems by BEM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmad, S.; Banerjee, P. K.
1990-01-01
A general direct boundary element formulation and its numerical implementation for solving transient dynamic problems of three-dimensional isotropic homogeneous or piecewise homogeneous solids involving material nonlinearities are presented. The algorithm produces accurate results for static nonlinear problems by using large time steps. When a large value of yield stress is selected, the incremental inelastic transient algorithm produces results identical to those obtained by elastodynamic analysis.
From fractures to conduits: perspectives from three-dimensional simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladd, T.; Starchenko, V.; Marra, C.
2016-12-01
Fractures take up only about 1% of the subsurface pore space, but they frequently make the most important contribution to groundwater transport. The increase in permeability due to dissolution of the fracture surfaces gives rise to a number of questions that are important for waste storage systems, sequestration, oil and gas recovery, and dam stability. In numerical simulations, fractures are usually represented by an aperture field, with the three-dimensional equations for flow and transport replaced by averages over the local aperture. We have examined the validity of this approximation by comparing results from aperture-averaged models with results from three-dimensional simulations where the motion of the dissolving surfaces is explicitly accounted for. We find that an aperture-averaged model does not correctly describe flow in the tube-like conduits that develop as the fracture dissolves, nor does it correctly capture the mass transfer from bulk solution to the dissolving surfaces. We have used three-dimensional simulations, with a mesh that conforms to the evolving fracture surfaces, to investigate dissolution beyond the point where reactant first reaches the outlet. We have found that elliptical conduits evolve very early in the dissolution, even prior to breakthrough. They can be nucleated from local enhancements of aperture, from spatially random aperture distributions, or even from variations in the central plane of an otherwise smooth fracture. The shape of the conduit depends on flow rate: at small flow rates they are circular, but expand horizontally into elliptical shapes as the flow rate increases. We have found significant differences between fractures dissolving under constant flow rate (typical of laboratory experiments) and fractures dissolving under a constant pressure drop, possibly coupled with a flow rate limit (more typical of field conditions). Conduits form over a much wider range of flow rates when driven by a pressure difference than
Primary and Secondary Three Dimensional Microbatteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirigliano, Nicolas
Today's MEMS devices are limited more so by the batteries that supply their power than the fabrication methods used to build them. Thick battery electrodes are capable of providing adequate energy, but long and tortuous diffusion pathways lead to low power capabilities. On the other hand, thin film batteries can operate at significant current densities but require large surface areas to supply practical energy. This dilemma can be solved by either developing new high capacity materials or by engineering new battery designs that decouple power and energy. Three dimensional batteries redesign traditional configurations to create nonplanar interfaces between battery components. This can be done by introducing hierarchical structures into the electrode shape. Designs such as these provide a maximum surface area over which chemical reactions can occur. Furthermore, by maintaining small feature sizes, ion diffusion and electronic transport distances can remain minimal. Manipulating these properties ensures fast kinetics that are required for high power situations. Energy density is maximized by layering material in the vertical direction, thus ensuring a minimal footprint area. Three dimensional carbon electrodes are fabricated using basic MEMS techniques. A silicon mold is anisotropically etched to produce channels of a predetermined diameter. The channels are then filled using an infiltration technique with electrode slurry. Once dried, the mold is attached to a current collector and etched using a XeF2 process. Electrodes of varying feature sizes have been fabricated using this method with aspect ratios ranging from 3.5:1 to 7:1. 3D carbon electrodes are shown to obtain capacities over 8 mAh/cm2 at 0.1 mA/cm2, or nearly 700% higher than planar carbon electrodes. When assembled with a planar cathode, the battery cell produced an average discharge capacity of 40 J/cm 2 at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. This places the energy density values slightly less than thick
Development of three-dimensional nanoengineered architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuura, Naomi
2003-10-01
Nanostructured arrays with feature sizes <100 nm are desirable for a wide variety of applications in the fields of optics and electronics. One limitation of traditional lithographic methods is that such small feature sizes are difficult to cost-effectively pattern at high throughputs. Consequently, it is very important to develop novel strategies for rapidly fabricating three-dimensional nanostructured arrays. True engineering of nanoscale architectures also requires the ability to control the material composition and the structural arrangement which, until now, has been limited. This thesis demonstrates two new high-throughput methods of three-dimensional nanostructured synthesis. These techniques yield large-area, array-type nanostructures with 2D and 3D periodicities, with feature sizes <100 nm. Specifically, 2D periodic air-hole arrays and 3D periodic ferroelectric inverse opal films are fabricated. In the first part of the thesis, 2D periodic, nanoporous arrays were fabricated for the first time using conventional, broad-beam ion implantation of heavy ions through self-organized, nanochannel alumina (NCA) templates. The significant features of this technique are that minimum feature sizes of ˜40 nm are achievable in a parallel process over a large area (˜cm 2) using a non-material specific process, with successful nanoscale patterning achieved in both single crystal InP and SrTiO3. In addition, this work represents the first study of the selective etch character of amorphous SrTiO3. The nanoengineering of complex profiles, including membrane structures, is also demonstrated using this novel technique. In the second part of the thesis, the first fabrication of 3D periodic, ferroelectric, BaTiO3 inverse opals, and a simple, adjustable process for the fabrication of large, high-quality, inverse opal ferroelectric films are reported. Highly ordered, ferroelectric, Pb-doped Ba0.7Sr 0.3TiO3 (BST) inverse opal films were fabricated by spin-coating a sol
Flow Fields Over Unsteady Three Dimensional Dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardy, R. J.; Reesink, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.
2013-12-01
The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and the increase in flow resistance. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239μm) mobile bed was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, which provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of flow over the four static beds. The numerical predicted flow is analyzed through a series of approaches, and included: i) standard Reynolds decomposition to the flow fields; ii) Eulerian coherent structure detection methods based on the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor; iii) Lagrangian coherent structure identification methods based upon direct Lyapunov exponents (DLE). The results show that superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow region in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the point of flow reattachment, which may be important for
Understanding three-dimensional damage envelopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browning, John; Harland, Sophie; Meredith, Philip; Healy, David; Mitchell, Tom
2017-04-01
Microcrack damage leading to failure in rocks evolves in response to differential loading. This loading is often visualized in a two-dimensional stress space through the use of Mohr-Coulomb diagrams. The vast majority of experimental studies investigate damage evolution and rock failure using conventional triaxial stress states (σ1 > σ2 = σ3) in which the results can be easily represented in a Mohr-Coulomb plot. However, in nature the stress state is in general truly triaxial (σ1 > σ2 > σ3) and as such comprises a 3D stress state potentially leading to more complexity. By monitoring acoustic wave velocities and acoustic emissions we have shown that damage is generated in multiple orientations depending on the loading directions and hence principal stress directions. Furthermore, crack growth is shown to be a function of differential stress regardless of the mean stress. As such, new cracks can form due to a decrease in the minimum principal stress, which reduces mean stress but increases the differential stress. Although the size of individual cracks is not affected by the intermediate principal stress it has been shown that the σ2 plays a key role in suppressing the total amount of crack growth and concentrates this damage in a single plane. Hence, the differential stress at which rocks fail (i.e. the rock strength) will be significantly increased under true triaxial stress conditions than under the much more commonly applied condition of conventional triaxial stress. Through a series of cyclic loading tests we investigated the Kaiser effect, we show that while individual stress states are important, the stress path by which this stress state is reached is equally important. Whether or not a stress state has been 'visited' before is also vitally important in determining and understanding damage envelopes. Finally, we show that damage evolution can be anisotropic and must be considered as a three-dimensional problem. It is unclear how damage envelopes
Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupont, Aurélie; Lamb, Don C.
2011-11-01
Single particle tracking (SPT) in biological systems is a quickly growing field. Many new technologies are being developed providing new tracking capabilities, which also lead to higher demands and expectations for SPT. Following a single biomolecule as it performs its function provides quantitative mechanistic information that cannot be obtained in classical ensemble methods. From the 3D trajectory, information is available over the diffusional behavior of the particle and precise position information can also be used to elucidate interactions of the tracked particle with its surroundings. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) SPT is a very valuable tool for investigating cellular processes. This review presents recent progress in 3D SPT, from image-based techniques toward more sophisticated feedback approaches. We focus mainly on the feedback technique known as orbital tracking. We present here a modified version of the original orbital tracking in which the intensities from two z-planes are simultaneously measured allowing a concomitant wide-field imaging. The system can track single particles with a precision down to 5 nm in the x-y plane and 7 nm in the axial direction. The capabilities of the system are demonstrated using single virus tracing to follow the infection pathway of Prototype Foamy Virus in living cells.Single particle tracking (SPT) in biological systems is a quickly growing field. Many new technologies are being developed providing new tracking capabilities, which also lead to higher demands and expectations for SPT. Following a single biomolecule as it performs its function provides quantitative mechanistic information that cannot be obtained in classical ensemble methods. From the 3D trajectory, information is available over the diffusional behavior of the particle and precise position information can also be used to elucidate interactions of the tracked particle with its surroundings. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) SPT is a very valuable tool for
A new three-dimensional topology optimization method based on moving morphable components (MMCs)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Weisheng; Li, Dong; Yuan, Jie; Song, Junfu; Guo, Xu
2017-04-01
In the present paper, a new method for solving three-dimensional topology optimization problem is proposed. This method is constructed under the so-called moving morphable components based solution framework. The novel aspect of the proposed method is that a set of structural components is introduced to describe the topology of a three-dimensional structure and the optimal structural topology is found by optimizing the layout of the components explicitly. The standard finite element method with ersatz material is adopted for structural response analysis and the shape sensitivity analysis only need to be carried out along the structural boundary. Compared to the existing methods, the description of structural topology is totally independent of the finite element/finite difference resolution in the proposed solution framework and therefore the number of design variables can be reduced substantially. Some widely investigated benchmark examples, in the three-dimensional topology optimization designs, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quartapelle, L.; Verri, M.
1995-09-01
This paper investigates the application of spectral methods to the simulation of three-dimensional incompressible viscous flows within spherical or cylindrical boundaries. The Navier-Stokes equations for the primitive variables are considered and a generalized unsteady Stokes problem is derived, using an explicit time discretization of the nonlinear term. A split formulation of the linearized problem is then chosen by introducing a separate Poisson equation for the pressure supplemented by conditions of an integral character which assure that the incompressibility and the velocity boundary condition are simultaneously and exactly satisfied. After expanding the variables in convenient orthogonal bases, these integral conditions assume the form of one-dimensional integrals over the radial variable for the expansion coefficients of pressure, and are shown to involve the modified Bessel functions of half-odd order, in spherical coordinates, and of integer order, in the case of cylindrical regions with periodic boundary conditions along the axis. Such integral conditions represent the counterpart for pressure of the vorticity integral conditions introduced by Dennis for studying plane and axisymmetric flows and reduce the solution of the three-dimensional unsteady Stokes equations within spherical and cylindrical boundaries to a sequence of uncoupled second-order ordinary differential equations for only scalar unknowns. A Chebyshev spectral approximation is then considered to resolve the radial structure of the flow field. Numerical results are given to illustrate the convergence properties of the discrete equations obtained by the tau projection method. The problem of the efficient evaluation of the nonlinear term is not examined in the present paper. Finally, for the sake of completeness, the treatment of coordinate singularity in regions bounded by a single spherical or cylindrical surface is also discussed.
Two and three dimensional magnetotelluric inversion
Booker, J.
1993-01-01
Electrical conductivity depends on properties such as the presence of ionic fluids in interconnected pores that are difficult to sense with other remote sensing techniques. Thus improved imaging of underground electrical structure has wide practical importance in exploring for groundwater, mineral and geothermal resources, and in assessing the diffusion of fluids in oil fields and waste sites. Because the electromagnetic inverse problem is fundamentally multi-dimensional, most imaging algorithms saturate available computer power long before they can deal with the complete data set. We have developed an algorithm to directly invert large multi-dimensional data sets that is orders of magnitude faster than competing methods. We have proven that a two-dimensional (2D) version of the algorithm is highly effective for real data and have made substantial progress towards a three-dimensional (3D) version. We are proposing to cure identified shortcomings and substantially expand the utility of the existing 2D program, overcome identified difficulties with extending our method to three-dimensions (3D) and embark on an investigation of related EM imaging techniques which may have the potential for even further increasing resolution.
Three-dimensional simulations of fracture dissolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starchenko, Vitaliy; Marra, Cameron J.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.
2016-09-01
Numerical studies of fracture dissolution are frequently based on two-dimensional models, where the fracture geometry is represented by an aperture field h(x,y). However, it is known that such models can break down when the spatial variations in aperture are rapid or large in amplitude; for example, in a rough fracture or when instabilities in the dissolution front develop into pronounced channels (or wormholes). Here we report a finite-volume implementation of a three-dimensional reactive transport model using the OpenFOAM® toolkit. Extensions to the OpenFOAM source code have been developed which displace and then relax the mesh in response to variations in the surface concentration; up to 100-fold increases in fracture aperture are possible without remeshing. Our code has simulated field-scale fractures with physical dimensions of about 10 m. We report simulations of smooth fractures, with small, well-controlled perturbations in fracture aperture introduced at the inlet. This allows for systematic convergence studies and for detailed comparisons with results from a two-dimensional model. Initially, the fracture aperture develops similarly in both models, but as local inhomogeneities develop the results start to diverge. We investigate numerically the onset of instabilities in the dissolution of fractures with small random variations in the initial aperture field. Our results show that elliptical cross sections, which are characteristic of karstic conduits, can develop very rapidly, on time scales of 10-20 years in calcite rocks.
Three-dimensional Diffusive Strip Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Ruiz, Daniel; Meunier, Patrice; Duchemin, Laurent; Villermaux, Emmanuel
2016-11-01
The Diffusive Strip Method (DSM) is a near-exact numerical method developed for mixing computations at large Péclet number in two-dimensions. The method consists in following stretched material lines to compute a-posteriori the resulting scalar field is extended here to three-dimensional flows, following surfaces. We describe its 3D peculiarities, and show how it applies to a simple Taylor-Couette configuration with non-rotating boundary conditions at the top end, bottom and outer cylinder. This flow produces an elaborate, although controlled, steady 3D flow which relies on the Ekman pumping arising from the rotation of the inner cylinder is both studied experimentally, and numerically modeled. A recurrent two-cells structure appears formed by stream tubes shaped as nested tori. A scalar blob in the flow experiences a Lagrangian oscillating dynamics with stretchings and compressions, driving the mixing process, and yielding both rapidly-mixed and nearly pure-diffusive regions. A triangulated-surface method is developed to calculate the blob elongation and scalar concentration PDFs through a single variable computation along the advected blob surface, capturing the rich evolution observed in the experiments.
Three-dimensional adaptive soft phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babaee, Sahab; Wang, Pai; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-06-01
We report a new class of three-dimensional (3D) adaptive phononic crystals whose dynamic response is controlled by mechanical deformation. Using finite element analysis, we demonstrate that the bandgaps of the proposed 3D structure can be fully tuned by the externally applied deformation. In fact, our numerical results indicate that the system acts as a reversible phononic switch: a moderate level of applied strain (i.e., -0.16) is sufficient to completely suppress the bandgap, and upon the release of applied strain, the deformed structure recovers its original shape, which can operate with a sizable bandgap under dynamic loading. In addition, we investigate how material damping significantly affects the propagation of elastic waves in the proposed 3D soft phononic crystal. We believe that our results pave the way for the design of a new class of soft, adaptive, and re-configurable 3D phononic crystals, whose bandgaps can be easily tuned and switched on/off by controlling the applied deformation.
Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gutin, Mikhail; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Olga
2009-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an advanced method of noninvasive infrared imaging of tissues in depth. Heretofore, commercial OCT systems for 3D imaging have been designed principally for external ophthalmological examination. As explained below, such systems have been based on a one-dimensional OCT principle, and in the operation of such a system, 3D imaging is accomplished partly by means of a combination of electronic scanning along the optical (Z) axis and mechanical scanning along the two axes (X and Y) orthogonal to the optical axis. In 3D OCT, 3D imaging involves a form of electronic scanning (without mechanical scanning) along all three axes. Consequently, the need for mechanical adjustment is minimal and the mechanism used to position the OCT probe can be correspondingly more compact. A 3D OCT system also includes a probe of improved design and utilizes advanced signal- processing techniques. Improvements in performance over prior OCT systems include finer resolution, greater speed, and greater depth of field.
Three dimensional imaging with randomly distributed sensors.
DaneshPanah, Mehdi; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward A
2008-04-28
As a promising three dimensional passive imaging modality, Integral Imaging (II) has been investigated widely within the research community. In virtually all of such investigations, there is an implicit assumption that the collection of elemental images lie on a simple geometric surface (e.g. flat, concave, etc), also known as pickup surface. In this paper, we present a generalized framework for 3D II with arbitrary pickup surface geometry and randomly distributed sensor configuration. In particular, we will study the case of Synthetic Aperture Integral Imaging (SAII) with random location of cameras in space, while all cameras have parallel optical axes but different distances from the 3D scene. We assume that the sensors are randomly distributed in 3D volume of pick up space. For 3D reconstruction, a finite number of sensors with known coordinates are randomly selected from within this volume. The mathematical framework for 3D scene reconstruction is developed based on an affine transform representation of imaging under geometrical optics regime. We demonstrate the feasibility of the methods proposed here by experimental results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D imaging using randomly distributed sensors.
Generation of three-dimensional medical thermograms.
Chan, F H; So, A T; Lam, F K
1996-01-01
To visualise non-invasively human organs in their true form and shape has intrigued mankind for centuries. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is one recent development that has brought us closer to fulfilling the age-old quest of non-invasive visualisation so that diagnoses by doctors can be efficiently enhanced. Nowadays, 3D CT and MRI images have been very popular. Thermography is an important medical imaging technique that displays the temperature distribution on the surface of a human organ and it has been proved to be significant in offering a unique physiological reflection of pathology that may confirm or enhance the anatomic findings of other diagnostic imaging modalities. It is the only imaging modality that can evaluate pain whereas plain radiographs, CT and MRI, etc. can only depict structural anatomic abnormalities that may not always coincide with patients' clinical complaints. It is against this background that 3D thermograms have been developed. A set of comprehensive calibration procedures for the 3-camera system have been designed based on different models for the optical and infrared cameras. The accuracy of the results is high enough to produce 3D thermograms that can be used to correlate with the 3D images from other medical imaging modalities. One important achievement of the system is that the resultant 3D images are absolutely dimensioned and hence, it is particularly favourable for fully autonomous applications with robots. The system can also provide an overall picture of both the structural abnormalities and nervous responses of patients.
Three dimensional characterization and archiving system
Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.
1995-12-01
The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations.
Three dimensional characterization and archiving system
Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.
1995-10-01
The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surface to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled by Coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The ICAS fills the need for high speed automated organic analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry sensors, and also by radionuclide sensors which combines alpha, beta, and gamma counting.
Three-dimensional laser velocimeter simultaneity detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, James L. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
A three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimeter has laser optics for a first channel positioned to create a probe volume in space, and laser optics and for second and third channels, respectively, positioned to create entirely overlapping probe volumes in space. The probe volumes and overlap partially in space. The photodetector is positioned to receive light scattered by a particle present in the probe volume, while photodetectors and are positioned to receive light scattered by a particle present in the probe volume. The photodetector for the first channel is directly connected to provide a first channel analog signal to frequency measuring circuits. The first channel is therefore a primary channel for the system. Photodetectors and are respectively connected through a second channel analog signal attenuator to frequency measuring circuits and through a third channel analog signal attenuator to frequency measuring circuits. The second and third channels are secondary channels, with the second and third channels analog signal attenuators and controlled by the first channel measurement burst signal on line. The second and third channels analog signal attenuators and attenuate the second and third channels analog signals only when the measurement burst signal is false.
Three-Dimensional Printed Graphene Foams.
Sha, Junwei; Li, Yilun; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Wang, Tuo; Dong, Pei; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Smith, Robert H; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M
2017-07-25
An automated metal powder three-dimensional (3D) printing method for in situ synthesis of free-standing 3D graphene foams (GFs) was successfully modeled by manually placing a mixture of Ni and sucrose onto a platform and then using a commercial CO2 laser to convert the Ni/sucrose mixture into 3D GFs. The sucrose acted as the solid carbon source for graphene, and the sintered Ni metal acted as the catalyst and template for graphene growth. This simple and efficient method combines powder metallurgy templating with 3D printing techniques and enables direct in situ 3D printing of GFs with no high-temperature furnace or lengthy growth process required. The 3D printed GFs show high-porosity (∼99.3%), low-density (∼0.015g cm(-3)), high-quality, and multilayered graphene features. The GFs have an electrical conductivity of ∼8.7 S cm(-1), a remarkable storage modulus of ∼11 kPa, and a high damping capacity of ∼0.06. These excellent physical properties of 3D printed GFs indicate potential applications in fields requiring rapid design and manufacturing of 3D carbon materials, for example, energy storage devices, damping materials, and sound absorption.
Three-dimensional modelling of Venus photochemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stolzenbach, Aurélien; Lefèvre, Franck; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Määttänen, Anni; Bekki, Slimane
2014-05-01
We have developed a new code of the Venus atmospheric chemistry based on our photochemical model already in use for Mars (e.g., Lefèvre et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2004). For Venus, the code also includes a parameterized treatment of cloud microphysics that computes the composition of sulphuric acid droplets and their number density based on a given droplet size distribution in altitude. We coupled this photochemical-microphysical package to the LMD general circulation model of Venus (Lebonnois et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2010) with a sedimentation module recently added. We will describe preliminary results obtained with this first three-dimensional model of the Venus photochemistry. The space and time distribution of key chemical species as well as the modelled clouds characteristics will be detailed and compared to observations performed from Venus Express and from the Earth (e.g. Knollenberg and Hunten, J. Geophys. Res., 1980 ; Wilquet et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009 ; Sandor et al., Icarus, 2012).
Three-Dimensional Modelling of Venus Photochemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stolzenbach, A.; Lefèvre, F.; Lebonnois, S.; Maattanen, A. E.; Bekki, S.
2015-12-01
We have developed a new code of the Venus atmospheric chemistry based on our photochemical model already in use for Mars (e.g., Lefèvre et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2004). For Venus, the code also includes a parameterized treatment of cloud microphysics that computes the composition of sulphuric acid droplets and their number density based on a given droplet size distribution in altitude and latitude. We coupled this photochemical-microphysical package to the LMD general circulation model of Venus (Lebonnois et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2010) with a sedimentation module that takes into account the parametrized droplet size distribution. We will describe the results obtained with this first three-dimensional model of the Venus photochemistry. The space and time distribution of key chemical species as well as the modelled clouds characteristics will be detailed and compared to observations performed from Venus Express and from the Earth (e.g. Knollenberg and Hunten, J. Geophys. Res., 1980 ; Wilquet et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009 ; Sandor et al., Icarus, 2012 ; Mahieux et al., PSS, 2014 ; Marcq et al., 2015, PSS).
Three-dimensional landing zone ladar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savage, James; Goodrich, Shawn; Burns, H. N.
2016-05-01
Three-Dimensional Landing Zone (3D-LZ) refers to a series of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) programs to develop high-resolution, imaging ladar to address helicopter approach and landing in degraded visual environments with emphasis on brownout; cable warning and obstacle avoidance; and controlled flight into terrain. Initial efforts adapted ladar systems built for munition seekers, and success led to a the 3D-LZ Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) , a 27-month program to develop and demonstrate a ladar subsystem that could be housed with the AN/AAQ-29 FLIR turret flown on US Air Force Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters. Following the JCTD flight demonstration, further development focused on reducing size, weight, and power while continuing to refine the real-time geo-referencing, dust rejection, obstacle and cable avoidance, and Helicopter Terrain Awareness and Warning (HTAWS) capability demonstrated under the JCTD. This paper summarizes significant ladar technology development milestones to date, individual LADAR technologies within 3D-LZ, and results of the flight testing.
Three-dimensional visualization for large models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roth, Michael W.
2001-09-01
High-resolution (0.3-1 m) digital-elevation data is widely available from commercial sources. Whereas the production of two-dimensional (2D) mapping products from such data is standard practice, the visualization of such three-dimensional (3D) data has been problematic. The basis for this problem is the same as that for the large-model problem in computer graphics-- large amounts of geometry are difficult for current rendering algorithms and hardware. This paper describes a cost-effective solution to this problem that has two parts. First is the employment of the latest in cost-effective 3D chips and video boards that have recently emerged. The second part is the employment of quad-tree data structures for efficient data storage and retrieval during rendering. The result is the capability for real-time display of large (over tens of millions of samples) digital elevation models on modest PC-based systems. This paper shows several demonstrations of this approach using airborne lidar data. The implication of this work is a paradigm shift for geo-spatial information systems--3D data can now be as easy to use as 2D data.
Three-dimensional transverse vibration of microtubules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Si; Wang, Chengyuan; Nithiarasu, Perumal
2017-06-01
A three-dimensional (3D) transverse vibration was reported based on the molecular structural mechanics model for microtubules (MTs), where the bending axis of the cross section rotates in an anticlockwise direction and the adjacent half-waves oscillate in different planes. Herein, efforts were invested to capturing the physics behind the observed phenomenon and identifying the important factors that influence the rotation angle between two adjacent half waves. A close correlation was confirmed between the rotation of the oscillation planes and the helical structures of the MTs, showing that the 3D mode is a result of the helicity found in the MTs. Subsequently, the wave length-dependence and the boundary condition effects were also investigated for the 3D transverse vibration of the MTs. In addition, the vibration frequency was found to remain the same in the presence or absence of the bending axis rotation. This infers that the unique vibration mode is merely due to the bending axis rotation of the cross section, but no significant torsion occurs for the MTs.
A three-dimensional human walking model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Q. S.; Qin, J. W.; Law, S. S.
2015-11-01
A three-dimensional human bipedal walking model with compliant legs is presented in this paper. The legs are modeled with time-variant dampers, and the model is able to characterize the gait pattern of an individual using a minimal set of parameters. Feedback control, for both the forward and lateral movements, is implemented to regulate the walking performance of the pedestrian. The model provides an improvement over classic invert pendulum models. Numerical studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of leg stiffness and attack angle. Simulation results show that when walking at a given speed, increasing the leg stiffness with a constant attack angle results in a longer step length, a higher step frequency, a faster walking speed and an increase in both the peak vertical and lateral ground reaction forces. Increasing the attack angle with a constant leg stiffness results in a higher step frequency, a decrease in the step length, an increase in the total energy of the system and a decrease in both the peak vertical and lateral ground reaction forces.
Three dimensional characterization and archiving system
Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.
1996-04-01
The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate.
Three-dimensional planning in craniomaxillofacial surgery
Rubio-Palau, Josep; Prieto-Gundin, Alejandra; Cazalla, Asteria Albert; Serrano, Miguel Bejarano; Fructuoso, Gemma Garcia; Ferrandis, Francisco Parri; Baró, Alejandro Rivera
2016-01-01
Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) planning in oral and maxillofacial surgery has become a standard in the planification of a variety of conditions such as dental implants and orthognathic surgery. By using custom-made cutting and positioning guides, the virtual surgery is exported to the operating room, increasing precision and improving results. Materials and Methods: We present our experience in the treatment of craniofacial deformities with 3D planning. Software to plan the different procedures has been selected for each case, depending on the procedure (Nobel Clinician, Kodak 3DS, Simplant O&O, Dolphin 3D, Timeus, Mimics and 3-Matic). The treatment protocol is exposed step by step from virtual planning, design, and printing of the cutting and positioning guides to patients’ outcomes. Conclusions: 3D planning reduces the surgical time and allows predicting possible difficulties and complications. On the other hand, it increases preoperative planning time and needs a learning curve. The only drawback is the cost of the procedure. At present, the additional preoperative work can be justified because of surgical time reduction and more predictable results. In the future, the cost and time investment will be reduced. 3D planning is here to stay. It is already a fact in craniofacial surgery and the investment is completely justified by the risk reduction and precise results. PMID:28299272
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, A.F.; Petersen, R.W.
1992-12-31
The present invention relates to integrated circuit packaging technology, and particularly to three dimensional packages involving high density stacks of integrated circuits. A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow ``dummy chips`` are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned on the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
Tip selection in three-dimensional dendrites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foster, M. R.; Tanveer, S.
2004-11-01
Dendrites are well-known to have a fully three-dimensional structure, often with four equally-spaced fins emanating from the steady parabolic tip, the pattern for which has now a good theoretical foundation.(McFadden, Coriell & Sekerka, J. Crys. Growth) 208 (2000) The four fins are of course related to four-fold crystalline anisotropy of quite small magnitude. We follow Tanveer(Tanveer, S. Phys. Rev. A) 40 (1989) in carefully exploring the matching of the inner solution in the neighborhood of the singularity nearest the real line to the small-surface-energy regular perturbation expansion, in order to obtain the (selected) tip radius and the amplitude of the fin. We consider the case for which the anisotropy parameter, α, is much larger than a dimensionless capillary length to the 4/7 power. We confirm what was already found in a slightly different parameter range(Ben Amar & Brener, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 71 (1993)--that the inner equation is essentially that of the two-dimensional case, with azimuthally-dependent parameters. We compare our results with those of Ben Amar & Brener.
FRET Imaging in Three-dimensional Hydrogels
Taboas, Juan M.
2016-01-01
Imaging of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for examining cell biology in real-time. Studies utilizing FRET commonly employ two-dimensional (2D) culture, which does not mimic the three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment. A method to perform quenched emission FRET imaging using conventional widefield epifluorescence microscopy of cells within a 3D hydrogel environment is presented. Here an analysis method for ratiometric FRET probes that yields linear ratios over the probe activation range is described. Measurement of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels is demonstrated in chondrocytes under forskolin stimulation using a probe for EPAC1 activation (ICUE1) and the ability to detect differences in cAMP signaling dependent on hydrogel material type, herein a photocrosslinking hydrogel (PC-gel, polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and a thermoresponsive hydrogel (TR-gel). Compared with 2D FRET methods, this method requires little additional work. Laboratories already utilizing FRET imaging in 2D can easily adopt this method to perform cellular studies in a 3D microenvironment. It can further be applied to high throughput drug screening in engineered 3D microtissues. Additionally, it is compatible with other forms of FRET imaging, such as anisotropy measurement and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), and with advanced microscopy platforms using confocal, pulsed, or modulated illumination. PMID:27500354
Three-dimensional Printing in the Intestine.
Wengerter, Brian C; Emre, Gulus; Park, Jea Young; Geibel, John
2016-08-01
Intestinal transplantation remains a life-saving option for patients with severe intestinal failure. With the advent of advanced tissue engineering techniques, great strides have been made toward manufacturing replacement tissues and organs, including the intestine, which aim to avoid transplant-related complications. The current paradigm is to seed a biocompatible support material (scaffold) with a desired cell population to generate viable replacement tissue. Although this technique has now been extended by the three-dimensional (3D) printing of geometrically complex scaffolds, the overall approach is hindered by relatively slow turnover and negative effects of residual scaffold material, which affects final clinical outcome. Methods recently developed for scaffold-free 3D bioprinting may overcome such obstacles and should allow for rapid manufacture and deployment of "bioprinted organs." Much work remains before 3D bioprinted tissues can enter clinical use. In this brief review we examine the present state and future perspectives of this nascent technology before full clinical implementation. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Three Dimensional Characterization of the Mundrabilla Meteorite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Carpenter, P. K.
2003-01-01
The differentiated meteorite, Mundrabilla, exhibits a rare structure of primary kamacite/taenite, and at least 25 volume % of sulfide (troilite and daubreelite). The structure has been investigated in three dimensions using the technique of gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) with a radioactive (60)Co isotope as the source of the flux. Using CT, a 50 kg slab with dimensions 12.6 x 8.2 x approx. 70 cm has been sectioned at 1 mm intervals over 50 cm length, and the three dimensional structure is at present being evaluated. These data revealed, in addition to the metallic and troilite-rich phases, the presence and distribution of graphite-rich cones (up to 5 cm long), and small (1-2 mm), low density particles. The graphite cones are readily visible on the surfaces of many of the sections of Mundrabilla, while the smaller phases have a density (determined from CT) of approximately 2.9 g/cc, and are assumed to be silicate inclusions. CT spatial resolution is not adequate to elucidate the shapes of these particles. One can only state that they show no directionality and are equiaxed.
Three-dimensional imaging in craniofacial surgery.
Zonneveld, F W; Lobregt, S; van der Meulen, J C; Vaandrager, J M
1989-01-01
Over the past decade, three-dimensional (3-D) imaging has been developed to such a stage of perfection and to such a level of interactive selective imaging of specific anatomic and pathologic structures that craniofacial surgeons can now use this technique effectively in the planning of complicated reconstructive surgery. In addition, modeling techniques have been devised that can be used in surgical simulation and in the manufacture of implants and prosthetic devices. The technical aspects of 3-D imaging are discussed in relation to their applications in craniofacial surgery, and reference is made to the literature describing these techniques in full detail. The results are illustrated with cases that the authors have processed by means of: (a) a clinical research program that was developed on a general purpose computer which provided full flexibility in changing and improving the reconstruction algorithms (Lobregt algorithms and DEC VAX 750 computer), (b) a system under development (Pixar PICS 2000), and (c) a commercial system (Cemax 1500X). Finally, a number of emerging techniques are discussed such as surgical stimulation (electronic sculpting), and trends such as multimodality imaging.
Three Dimensional Characterization of the Mundrabilla Meteorite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Carpenter, P. K.
2003-01-01
The differentiated meteorite, Mundrabilla, exhibits a rare structure of primary kamacite/taenite, and at least 25 volume % of sulfide (troilite and daubreelite). The structure has been investigated in three dimensions using the technique of gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) with a radioactive (60)Co isotope as the source of the flux. Using CT, a 50 kg slab with dimensions 12.6 x 8.2 x approx. 70 cm has been sectioned at 1 mm intervals over 50 cm length, and the three dimensional structure is at present being evaluated. These data revealed, in addition to the metallic and troilite-rich phases, the presence and distribution of graphite-rich cones (up to 5 cm long), and small (1-2 mm), low density particles. The graphite cones are readily visible on the surfaces of many of the sections of Mundrabilla, while the smaller phases have a density (determined from CT) of approximately 2.9 g/cc, and are assumed to be silicate inclusions. CT spatial resolution is not adequate to elucidate the shapes of these particles. One can only state that they show no directionality and are equiaxed.
a Three-Dimensional Orbit for Capella
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branham, Richard L.
2008-09-01
Semidefinite programming is applied to 169 interferometric observations of Capella, made between 1919 and 1999, and 221 double-line radial velocities, obtained between 1896 and 1991, to calculate a three-dimensional orbit. The data are reduced with the robust L 1 criterion. The orbit is nearly circular, eccentricity of 0.00508, with a semimajor axis of 0farcs056 and period of 104.039 days. The mass of the primary is calculated to be 3.049 M sun, that of the secondary 2.569 M sun, and the parallax of the system is calculated to be 74.85 mas. Another orbit is calculated, but using only the best data, Mark III interferometric observations, and Coralie radial velocities. Although the mean errors for this orbit are considerably smaller, reasons are given for preferring the orbit calculated from all of the data as opposed to only the best data: the residuals are more random, the parallax agrees better with van Leeuwen's re-reduction of the Hipparcos parallax, and the Shannon uncertainty is lower.
Magnetophotonic response of three-dimensional opals.
Caicedo, José Manuel; Pascu, Oana; López-García, Martín; Canalejas, Víctor; Blanco, Alvaro; López, Cefe; Fontcuberta, Josep; Roig, Anna; Herranz, Gervasi
2011-04-26
Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D-MPCs) are being postulated as appropriate platforms to tailor the magneto-optical spectral response of magnetic materials and to incorporate this functionality in a new generation of optical devices. By infiltrating self-assembled inverse opal structures with monodisperse nickel nanoparticles we have fabricated 3D-MPCs that show a sizable enhancement of the magneto-optical signal at frequencies around the stop-band edges of the photonic crystals. We have established a proper methodology to disentangle the intrinsic magneto-optical spectra from the nonmagnetic optical activity of the 3D-MPCs. The results of the optical and magneto-optical characterization are consistent with a homogeneous magnetic infiltration of the opal structure that gives rise to both a red-shift of the optical bandgap and a modification of the magneto-optical spectral response due to photonic bandgap effects. The results of our investigation demonstrate the potential of 3D-MPCs fabricated following the approach outlined here and offer opportunities to adapt the magneto-optical spectral response at optical frequencies by appropriate design of the opal structure or magnetic field strength.
Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis
Erler, Janine T.; Weaver, Valerie M.
2009-01-01
Tumor progression ensues within a three-dimensional microenvironment that consists of cellular and non-cellular components. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypoxia are two non-cellular components that potently influence metastasis. ECM remodeling and collagen cross-linking stiffen the tissue stroma to promote transformation, tumor growth, motility and invasion, enhance cancer cell survival, enable metastatic dissemination, and facilitate the establishment of tumor cells at distant sites. Matrix degradation can additionally promote malignant progression and metastasis. Tumor hypoxia is functionally linked to altered stromal-epithelial interactions. Hypoxia additionally induces the expression of pro-migratory, survival and invasion genes, and up-regulates expression of ECM components and modifying enzymes, to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Synergistic interactions between matrix remodeling and tumor hypoxia influence common mechanisms that maximize tumor progression and cooperate to drive metastasis. Thus, clarifying the molecular pathways by which ECM remodeling and tumor hypoxia intersect to promote tumor progression should identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:18814043
Three-dimensional laparoscopy: Principles and practice.
Sinha, Rakesh Y; Raje, Shweta R; Rao, Gayatri A
2017-01-01
The largest challenge for laparoscopic surgeons is the eye-hand coordination within a three-dimensional (3D) scene observed on a 2D display. The 2D view on flat screen laparoscopy is cerebrally intensive. The loss of binocular vision on a 2D display causes visual misperceptions, mainly loss of depth perception and adds to the surgeon's fatigue. This compromises the safety of laparoscopy. The 3D high-definition view with great depth perception and tactile feedback makes laparoscopic surgery more acceptable, safe and cost-effective. It improves surgical precision and hand-eye coordination, conventional and all straight stick instruments can be used, capital expenditure is less and recurring cost and annual maintenance cost are less. In this article, we have discussed the physics of 3D laparoscopy, principles of depth perception, and the different kinds of 3D systems available for laparoscopy. We have also discussed our experience of using 3D laparoscopy in over 2000 surgeries in the last 4 years.
Three-dimensional charge coupled device
Conder, Alan D.; Young, Bruce K. F.
1999-01-01
A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.
Three-Dimensional Imaging of Viral Infections.
Risco, Cristina; de Castro, Isabel Fernández; Sanz-Sánchez, Laura; Narayan, Kedar; Grandinetti, Giovanna; Subramaniam, Sriram
2014-11-01
Three-dimensional (3D) imaging technologies are beginning to have significant impact in the field of virology, as they are helping us understand how viruses take control of cells. In this article we review several methodologies for 3D imaging of cells and show how these technologies are contributing to the study of viral infections and the characterization of specialized structures formed in virus-infected cells. We include 3D reconstruction by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using serial sections, electron tomography, and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). We summarize from these methods selected contributions to our understanding of viral entry, replication, morphogenesis, egress and propagation, and changes in the spatial architecture of virus-infected cells. In combination with live-cell imaging, correlative microscopy, and new techniques for molecular mapping in situ, the availability of these methods for 3D imaging is expected to provide deeper insights into understanding the structural and dynamic aspects of viral infection.
Three-dimensional instability of isolated vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallaire, F.; Chomaz, J.-M.
2003-08-01
We study the three-dimensional stability of the family of vortices introduced by Carton and McWilliams [Mesoscale/Synoptic Coherent Structures in Geophysical Turbulence, edited by Nikhoul and Jamart (Elsevier, New York, 1989)] describing isolated vortices. For these vortices, the circulation vanishes outside their core over a distance depending on a single parameter, the steepness α. We proceed to the direct numerical simulation of the linear impulse response to obtain both temporal and spatio-temporal instability results. In the temporal instability framework, growth rates are calculated as a function of the axial wavenumber k and the azimuthal wavenumber m. The stability analysis is performed at a Reynolds number of Re=667. It is shown that the most unstable mode is the axisymmetric mode m=0, regardless of the steepness parameter in the investigated range. When the steepness α is increased the band of unstable azimuthal modes widens, i.e., larger m are destabilized. The study of the spatio-temporal spreading of the wave packet shows that the m=2 mode is always the fastest traveling mode, for all studied values of the steepness parameter.
Globographic visualisation of three dimensional joint angles.
Baker, Richard
2011-07-07
Three different methods for describing three dimensional joint angles are commonly used in biomechanics. The joint coordinate system and Cardan/Euler angles are conceptually quite different but are known to represent the same underlying mathematics. More recently the globographic method has been suggested as an alternative and this has proved particularly attractive for the shoulder joint. All three methods can be implemented in a number of ways leading to a choice of angle definitions. Very recently Rab has demonstrated that the globographic method is equivalent to one implementation of the joint coordinate system. This paper presents a rigorous analysis of the three different methods and proves their mathematical equivalence. The well known sequence dependence of Cardan/Euler is presented as equivalent to configuration dependence of the joint coordinate system and orientation dependence of globographic angles. The precise definition of different angle sets can be easily visualised using the globographic method using analogues of longitude, latitude and surface bearings with which most users will already be familiar. The method implicitly requires one axis of the moving segment to be identified as its principal axis and this can be extremely useful in helping define the most appropriate angle set to describe the orientation of any particular joint. Using this technique different angle sets are considered to be most appropriate for different joints and examples of this for the hip, knee, ankle, pelvis and axial skeleton are outlined.
Static stability of a three-dimensional space truss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaker, John F.
1995-05-01
and two-dimensional failure models of the system and its important components. From knowledge gained through preliminary analyses a foundation is developed for three-dimensional analyses of the FASTMast structure. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) analysis presented here involves a FASTMast system one-tenth the size of the actual flight unit. Although this study does not yield failure analysis results that apply directly to the flight article, it does establish a method by which the full-scale mast can be evaluated.
Three-Dimensional Frame Buffers For Interactive Analysis Of Three-Dimensional Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunter, Gregory M.
1986-02-01
Two-dimensional data such as photos, x-rays, various types of satellite images, sonar, radar, seismic plots, etc., in many cases must be analyzed using frame buffers for purposes of medical diagnoses, crop estimates, mineral exploration, and so forth. In many cases the same types of sensors used to gather such samples in two dimensions can gather 3D data for even more effective analysis. Just as 2D arrays of data can be analyzed using frame buffers, three-dimensional data can be analyzed using SOLIDS-BUFFER memories. Image processors deal with samples from two-dimensional arrays and are based on frame buffers. The SOLIDS PROCESSOR system deals with samples from a three-dimensional volume, or solid, and is based on a 3D frame buffer. This paper focuses upon the SOLIDS-BUFFER system as used in the INSIGHT SOLIDS-PROCESSOR system from Phoenix Data Systems.
Interactive graphical tools for three-dimensional mesh redistribution
Dobbs, Lauri Ann
1996-03-01
Three-dimensional meshes modeling nonlinear problems such as sheet metal forming, metal forging, heat transfer during welding, the propagation of microwaves through gases, and automobile crashes require highly refined meshes in local areas to accurately represent areas of high curvature, stress, and strain. These locally refined areas develop late in the simulation and/or move during the course of the simulation, thus making it difficult to predict their exact location. This thesis is a systematic study of new tools scientists can use with redistribution algorithms to enhance the solution results and reduce the time to build, solve, and analyze nonlinear finite element problems. Participatory design techniques including Contextual Inquiry and Design were used to study and analyze the process of solving such problems. This study and analysis led to the in-depth understanding of the types of interactions performed by FEM scientists. Based on this understanding, a prototype tool was designed to support these interactions. Scientists participated in evaluating the design as well as the implementation of the prototype tool. The study, analysis, prototype tool design, and the results of the evaluation of the prototype tool are described in this thesis.
On a Modified Form of Navier-Stokes Equations for Three-Dimensional Flows
Venetis, J.
2015-01-01
A rephrased form of Navier-Stokes equations is performed for incompressible, three-dimensional, unsteady flows according to Eulerian formalism for the fluid motion. In particular, we propose a geometrical method for the elimination of the nonlinear terms of these fundamental equations, which are expressed in true vector form, and finally arrive at an equivalent system of three semilinear first order PDEs, which hold for a three-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. Next, we present the related variational formulation of these modified equations as well as a general type of weak solutions which mainly concern Sobolev spaces. PMID:25918743
On a modified form of navier-stokes equations for three-dimensional flows.
Venetis, J
2015-01-01
A rephrased form of Navier-Stokes equations is performed for incompressible, three-dimensional, unsteady flows according to Eulerian formalism for the fluid motion. In particular, we propose a geometrical method for the elimination of the nonlinear terms of these fundamental equations, which are expressed in true vector form, and finally arrive at an equivalent system of three semilinear first order PDEs, which hold for a three-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. Next, we present the related variational formulation of these modified equations as well as a general type of weak solutions which mainly concern Sobolev spaces.
Geroux, Christopher M.; Deupree, Robert G.
2015-02-10
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of full amplitude RR Lyrae stars have been computed for several models across the instability strip. The three-dimensional nature of the calculations allows convection to be treated without reference to a phenomenological approach such as the local mixing length theory. Specifically, the time-dependent interaction of large-scale eddies and radial pulsation is controlled by conservation laws, while the effects of smaller convective eddies are simulated by an eddy viscosity model. The light amplitudes for these calculations are quite similar to those of our previous two-dimensional calculations in the middle of the instability strip, but somewhat lower near the red edge, the fundamental blue edge, and for the one first overtone model we computed. The time-dependent interaction between the radial pulsation and the convective energy transport is essentially the same in three dimensions as it is in two dimensions. There are some differences between the light curves of the two- and three-dimensional simulations, particularly during decreasing light. Reasons for the differences, both numerical and physical, are explored.
Three-dimensional kinematics of wheelchair propulsion.
Rao, S S; Bontrager, E L; Gronley, J K; Newsam, C J; Perry, J
1996-09-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) biomechanical model was used to determine upper extremity kinematics of 16 male subjects with low-level paraplegia while performing wheelchair propulsion (WCP). A six-camera VICON motion analysis system was used to acquire the coordinate data of ten anatomic markers. Joint axes for the wrist and elbow were defined along with the planes of motion for the upper arm (humerus) and trunk. The group's mean and standard deviation profiles were graphed for eight of the nine rotations measured during WCP. Variability in the intercycle and intersubject movement patterns were calculated using the root mean square standard deviation (RMS sigma) and the coefficient of variation (CV). Motion pattern similarities were quantified using the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC). The intercycle (Nc > or = 6) motion patterns of individual subjects were highly consistent, similar, and repeatable during WCP. This was confirmed by low CVc values (3-31%), high CMCc values (0.724-0.996) and RMS sigma c values below 3.2 degrees. For the group, mean values of the propulsion velocity, cadence, and propulsion cycle duration were 89.7 m/min, 66.1 pushes/min, and 0.96 s, respectively. Humeral plane and rotation showed large excursions (76.1-81.6 degrees), while trunk lean and forearm carrying angle displayed relatively small ranges of motion (5.5-10.9 degrees). The intersubject (N3 = 16) motion patterns were less similar compared to individual intercycle patterns. This was evidenced by higher CVc values (12-128%) and lower CMC3 values (0.418-0.935). Intersubject humeral patterns were the most consistent while trunk lean was the least consistent. Intersubject root mean square standard deviations (RMS sigma c) were more than three times the corresponding intercycle values for all nine rotations.
Three-dimensional topological insulator based nanospaser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paudel, Hari P.; Apalkov, Vadym; Stockman, Mark I.
2016-04-01
After the discovery of the spaser (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), first proposed by Bergman and Stockman in 2003, it has become possible to deliver optical energy beyond the diffraction limit and generate an intense source of an optical field. The spaser is a nanoplasmonic counterpart of a laser. One of the major advantages of the spaser is its size: A spaser is a truly nanoscopic device whose size can be made smaller than the skin depth of a material to a size as small as the nonlocality radius (˜1 nm). Recently, an electrically pumped graphene based nanospaser has been proposed that operates in the midinfrared region and utilizes a nanopatch of graphene as a source of plasmons and a quantum-well cascade as its gain medium. Here we propose an optically pumped nanospaser based on three-dimensional topological insulator (3D TI) materials, such as Bi2Se3 , that operates at an energy close to the bulk band-gap energy ˜0.3 eV and uses the surface as a source for plasmons and its bulk as a gain medium. Population inversion is obtained in the bulk and the radiative energy of the exciton recombination is transferred to the surface plasmons of the same material to stimulate spasing action. This is truly a nanoscale spaser as it utilizes the same material for dual purposes. We show theoretically the possibility of achieving spasing with a 3D TI. As the spaser operates in the midinfrared spectral region, it can be a useful device for a number of applications, such as nanoscopy, nanolithography, nanospectroscopy, and semiclassical information processing.
Remote Dynamic Three-Dimensional Scene Reconstruction
Yang, You; Liu, Qiong; Ji, Rongrong; Gao, Yue
2013-01-01
Remote dynamic three-dimensional (3D) scene reconstruction renders the motion structure of a 3D scene remotely by means of both the color video and the corresponding depth maps. It has shown a great potential for telepresence applications like remote monitoring and remote medical imaging. Under this circumstance, video-rate and high resolution are two crucial characteristics for building a good depth map, which however mutually contradict during the depth sensor capturing. Therefore, recent works prefer to only transmit the high-resolution color video to the terminal side, and subsequently the scene depth is reconstructed by estimating the motion vectors from the video, typically using the propagation based methods towards a video-rate depth reconstruction. However, in most of the remote transmission systems, only the compressed color video stream is available. As a result, color video restored from the streams has quality losses, and thus the extracted motion vectors are inaccurate for depth reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a precise and robust scheme for dynamic 3D scene reconstruction by using the compressed color video stream and their inaccurate motion vectors. Our method rectifies the inaccurate motion vectors by analyzing and compensating their quality losses, motion vector absence in spatial prediction, and dislocation in near-boundary region. This rectification ensures the depth maps can be compensated in both video-rate and high resolution at the terminal side towards reducing the system consumption on both the compression and transmission. Our experiments validate that the proposed scheme is robust for depth map and dynamic scene reconstruction on long propagation distance, even with high compression ratio, outperforming the benchmark approaches with at least 3.3950 dB quality gains for remote applications. PMID:23667417
Three-dimensional, dynamic meteorology of Titan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, J.; Adamkovics, M.; Caballero, R.; Turtle, E. P.; Arias, T.; Sayanagi, K. M.
2011-12-01
Titan exhibits an active weather cycle involving methane. Because of low insolation and a stabilizing antigreenhouse effect [McKay et al. 1989], moist convection on Titan cannot be maintained purely through surface evaporative fluxes, indicating that moisture convergence provided by large-scale modes of circulation is important for convective cloud formation [e.g., Mitchell et al. 2006; Barth & Rafkin 2010]. Recent Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images of Titan have revealed large-scale clouds with an interesting array of morphologies and characteristics. Most strikingly, an arrow-shaped cloud oriented eastward was observed at the equator on 27 September 2010 [Turtle et al. 2011a], followed by observations of surface wetting which gradually diminished over several months [Turtle et al. 2011b]. We demonstrate a process for the physical interpretation of individual observed storms and their aggregate effect on surface erosion through a combined analysis of cloud observations and simulations [Mitchell et al. in press]. We show that planetary-scale Kelvin waves naturally arising in a new, three-dimensional version of our Titan general circulation model (GCM) robustly organize convection into chevron-shaped storms at Titan's equator during the current season, as observed. The phasing of this mode with another, much slower one causes a 20-fold increase in precipitation rates over the average, each producing up to several centimeters of precipitation over 1000-km-scale regions, with important implications for observed fluvial features [Langhans et al. 2011]. Our initial results indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing Titan's methane weather. I will discuss prospects for extending our analysis to other Titan observations.
[Three-dimensional reconstruction of heart valves].
Flachskampf, F A; Kühl, H; Franke, A; Frielingsdorf, J; Klues, H; Krebs, W; Hanrath, P
1995-08-01
The reconstruction of three-dimensional data sets from two-dimensional echocardiographic images offers several fundamental advantages: 1. more complete data than present in the few standard 2D-view; 2. off-line generation of any desired plane, cut, or perspective after the data set has been acquired; 3. access to quantitative parameters like surface areas (e.g., of valve leaflets or portions of leaflets), volumes, and others, without geometric assumptions. The mitral valve has been the focus of several studies using various techniques of reconstruction of transthoracic or transesophageal images. These studies have shown the mitral annulus to be a non-planar, "saddle-shaped" structure, with an average distance of highest to lowest points of 14 mm in normals. This recognition of mitral annular non-planarity has led to a more stringent echocardiographic definition of mitral valve prolapse. Further studies have shown systolic shrinkage of mitral annular area by about 30% and systolic apico-basal translation of the annulus by approximately 1 cm in normals. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, the annulus is flattened, and both cyclic change in annular area and apico-basal translation are significantly reduced. 3D-studies of the left ventricular outflow tract in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy allow measurement of outflow tract and leaflet surface areas and dynamic spatial visualization of systolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral leaflet. Automated techniques to reconstruct the full grey value data set from a high number of parallel or rotational transesophageal planes allow impressive visualization of normal and diseased mitral and aortic valves or valve prostheses, with special emphasis on generating "surgical" views and perspectives, which cannot be obtained by conventional tomographic imaging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A three-dimensional model of vasculogenesis.
Valarmathi, Mani T; Davis, Jeffrey M; Yost, Michael J; Goodwin, Richard L; Potts, Jay D
2009-02-01
Postnatal bone marrow contains various subpopulations of resident and circulating stem cells (HSCs, BMSCs/MSCs) and progenitor cells (MAPCs, EPCs) that are capable of differentiating into one or more of the cellular components of the vascular bed in vitro as well as contribute to postnatal neo-vascularization in vivo. When rat BMSCs were seeded onto a three-dimensional (3-D) tubular scaffold engineered from topographically aligned type I collagen fibers and cultured either in vasculogenic or non-vasculogenic media for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days, the maturation and co-differentiation into endothelial and/or smooth muscle cell lineages were observed. Phenotypic induction of these substrate-grown cells was assayed at transcript level by real-time PCR and at protein level by confocal microscopy. In the present study, the observed upregulation of transcripts coding for vascular phenotypic markers is reminiscent of an in vivo expression pattern. Immunolocalization of vasculogenic lineage-associated markers revealed typical expression patterns of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. These endothelial cells exhibited high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition to the induced monolayers of endothelial cells, the presence of numerous microvascular capillary-like structures was observed throughout the construct. At the level of scanning electron microscopy, smooth-walled cylindrical tube-like structures with smooth muscle cells and/or pericytes attached to its surface were elucidated. Our 3-D culture system not only induces the maturation and differentiation of BMSCs into vascular cell lineages but also supports microvessel morphogenesis. Thus, this unique in vitro model provides an excellent platform to study the temporal and spatial regulation of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis, as well as attack the lingering limit in developing engineered tissues, that is perfusion.
Three-dimensional ring current decay model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, Thomas E.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Ho, George C.; Hamilton, Douglas C.
1995-01-01
This work is an extension of a previous ring current decay model. In the previous work, a two-dimensional kinetic model was constructed to study the temporal variations of the equatorially mirroring ring current ions, considering charge exchange and Coulomb drag losses along drift paths in a magnetic dipole field. In this work, particles with arbitrary pitch angle are considered. By bounce averaging the kinetic equation of the phase space density, information along magnetic field lines can be inferred from the equator. The three-dimensional model is used to simulate the recovery phase of a model great magnetic storm, similar to that which occurred in early February 1986. The initial distribution of ring current ions (at the minimum Dst) is extrapolated to all local times from AMPTE/CCE spacecraft observations on the dawnside and duskside of the inner magnetosphere spanning the L value range L = 2.25 to 6.75. Observations by AMPTE/CCE of ring current distributions over subsequent orbits during the storm recovery phase are compared to model outputs. In general, the calculated ion fluxes are consistent with observations, except for H(+) fluxes at tens of keV, which are always overestimated. A newly invented visualization idea, designated as a chromogram, is used to display the spatial and energy dependence of the ring current ion differential flux. Important features of storm time ring current, such as day-night asymmetry during injection and drift hole on the dayside at low energies (less than 10 keV), are manifested in the chromogram representation. The pitch angle distribution is well fit by the function, J(sub o)(1 + Ay(sup n)), where y is sine of the equatorial pitch angle. The evolution of the index n is a combined effect of charge exchange loss and particle drift. At low energies (less than 30 keV), both drift dispersion and charge exchange are important in determining n.
Three-dimensional diffusion with helical persistence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larralde, Hernán; Leyvraz, François
2015-07-01
We formulate the the problem of persistent diffusion in three dimensions from the perspective of the Frenet-Serret equations. In contrast to one and two-dimensional systems, in three-dimensions persistent diffusion is, in general, a third order process. In this paper we derive a Fokker-Planck equation for the process and we calculate its effective diffusion constant. We also provide expressions for the asymptotic average displacement of the walk, as well as explicit expressions for the Fourier-Laplace transform of the correlations between the tangent, normal and binormal vectors of the motion.
Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics
2015-09-30
Tsong Lin Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, MA 02543 phone: (508) 289-2329 fax...commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons, sub-bottom layers, surface waves, internal waves and...study canonical environmental models of shelfbreak front systems [1] and nonlinear internal wave ducts [2-3]. 3-D parabolic-equation wave propagation
Kourtzanidis, K. Boeuf, J. P.; Rogier, F.
2014-12-15
Recent experiments have demonstrated that a freely localized 100 GHz microwave discharge can propagate towards the microwave source with high speed, forming a complex pattern of self-organized filaments. We present three-dimensional simulations of the formation and propagation of such patterns that reveal more information on their nature and interaction with the electromagnetic waves. The developed three-dimensional Maxwell-plasma solver permits the study of different forms of incident field polarization. Results for linear and circular polarization of the wave are presented and comparisons with recent experiments show a good overall agreement. The three dimensional simulations provide a quantitative analysis of the parameters controlling the time and length scales of the strongly non-linear plasma dynamics and could be useful for potential microwave plasma applications such as aerodynamic flow and combustion control.
Three-dimensional Casimir piston for massive scalar fields
Lim, S.C. Teo, L.P.
2009-08-15
We consider Casimir force acting on a three-dimensional rectangular piston due to a massive scalar field subject to periodic, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Exponential cut-off method is used to derive the Casimir energy. It is shown that the divergent terms do not contribute to the Casimir force acting on the piston, thus render a finite well-defined Casimir force acting on the piston. Explicit expressions for the total Casimir force acting on the piston is derived, which show that the Casimir force is always attractive for all the different boundary conditions considered. As a function of a - the distance from the piston to the opposite wall, it is found that the magnitude of the Casimir force behaves like 1/a{sup 4} when a{yields}0{sup +} and decays exponentially when a{yields}{infinity}. Moreover, the magnitude of the Casimir force is always a decreasing function of a. On the other hand, passing from massless to massive, we find that the effect of the mass is insignificant when a is small, but the magnitude of the force is decreased for large a in the massive case.
Three-dimensional adaptive grid-embedding Euler technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Roger L.; Dannenhoffer, John F., III
1994-06-01
A new three-dimensional adaptive-grid Euler procedure is presented that automatically detects high-gradient regions in the flow and locally subdivides the computational grid in these regions to provide a uniform, high level of accuracy over the entire domain. A tunable, semistructured data system is utilized that provides global topological unstructured-grid flexibility along with the efficiency of a local, structured-grid system. In addition, this structure data allows for the flow solution algorithm to be executed on a wide variety of parallel/vector computing platforms. An explicit, time-marching, control volume procedure is used to integrate the Euler equations to a steady state. In addition, a multiple-grid procedure is used throughout the embedded-grid regions as well as on subgrids coarser than the initial grid to accelerate convergence and properly propagate disturbance waves through refined-grid regions. Upon convergence, high flow gradient regions, where it is assumed that large truncation errors in the solution exist, are detected using a combination of directional refinement vectors that have large components in areas of these gradients. The local computational grid is directionally subdivided in these regions and the flow solution is reinitiated. Overall convergence occurs when a prespecified level of accuracy is reached. Solutions are presented that demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present procedure.
New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.
1994-01-01
A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coaser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with a special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.
New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.
1994-05-01
A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coarser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.
New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.
1994-05-01
A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coaser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with a special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.
Three-Dimensional Multi-fluid Moment Simulation of Ganymede
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L.; Germaschewski, K.; Hakim, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Dong, C.
2016-12-01
Plasmas in space environments, such as solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere, are often constituted of multiple species. Conventional MHD-based, single-fluid systems, have additional complications when multiple fluid species are introduced. We suggest space application of an alternative multi-fluid moment approach, treating each species on equal footing using exact evolution equations for moments of their distribution function, and electromagnetic fields through full Maxwell equations. Non-ideal effects like Hall effect, inertia, and even tensorial pressures, are self-consistently embedded without the need to explicitly solve a complicated Ohm's law. Previously, we have benchmarked this approach in classical test problems like the Orszag-Tang vortex and GEM reconnection challenge problem. Recently, we performed three-dimensional two-fluid simulation of the magnetosphere of Ganymede, using both five-moment (scalar pressures) and ten-moment (tensorial pressures) models. In both models, the formation of Alfven wing structure due to subsonic inflow is correctly captured, and the magnetic field data agree well with in-situ measurements from the Galileo flyby G8. The ten-moment simulation also showed the contribution of pressure tensor divergence to the reconnecting electric field. Initial results of coupling to state-of-art global simulation codes like OpenGGCM will also be shown, which will in the future provide a rigorous way for integration of ionospheric physics.
Three dimensional unstructured multigrid for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1991-01-01
The three dimensional Euler equations are solved on unstructured tetrahedral meshes using a multigrid strategy. The driving algorithm consists of an explicit vertex-based finite element scheme, which employs an edge-based data structure to assemble the residuals. The multigrid approach employs a sequence of independently generated coarse and fine meshes to accelerate the convergence to steady-state of the fine grid solution. Variables, residuals and corrections are passed back and forth between the various grids of the sequence using linear interpolation. The addresses and weights for interpolation are determined in a preprocessing stage using linear interpolation. The addresses and weights for interpolation are determined in a preprocessing stage using an efficient graph traversal algorithm. The preprocessing operation is shown to require a negligible fraction of the CPU time required by the overall solution procedure, while gains in overall solution efficiencies greater than an order of magnitude are demonstrated on meshes containing up to 350,000 vertices. Solutions using globally regenerated fine meshes as well as adaptively refined meshes are given.
Implicit solution of three-dimensional internal turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michelassi, V.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Martelli, F.
1991-01-01
The scalar form of the approximate factorization method was used to develop a new code for the solution of three dimensional internal laminar and turbulent compressible flows. The Navier-Stokes equations in their Reynolds-averaged form were iterated in time until a steady solution was reached. Evidence was given to the implicit and explicit artificial damping schemes that proved to be particularly efficient in speeding up convergence and enhancing the algorithm robustness. A conservative treatment of these terms at the domain boundaries was proposed in order to avoid undesired mass and/or momentum artificial fluxes. Turbulence effects were accounted for by the zero-equation Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and the q-omega two-equation model. The flow in a developing S-duct was then solved in the laminar regime in a Reynolds number (Re) of 790 and in the turbulent regime at Re equals 40,000 by using the Baldwin-Lomax model. The Stanitz elbow was then solved by using an invicid version of the same code at M sub inlet equals 0.4. Grid dependence and convergence rate were investigated, showing that for this solver the implicit damping scheme may play a critical role for convergence characteristics. The same flow at Re equals 2.5 times 10(exp 6) was solved with the Baldwin-Lomax and the q-omega models. Both approaches show satisfactory agreement with experiments, although the q-omega model was slightly more accurate.
Holzapfel, Gerhard A; Ogden, Ray W
2010-05-06
This paper provides the first analysis of the three-dimensional state of residual stress and stretch in an artery wall consisting of three layers (intima, media and adventitia), modelled as a circular cylindrical tube. The analysis is based on experimental results on human aortas with non-atherosclerotic intimal thickening documented in a recent paper by Holzapfel et al. (Holzapfel et al. 2007 Ann. Biomed. Eng. 35, 530-545 (doi:10.1007/s10439-006-9252-z)). The intima is included in the analysis because it has significant thickness and load-bearing capacity, unlike in a young, healthy human aorta. The mathematical model takes account of bending and stretching in both the circumferential and axial directions in each layer of the wall. Previous analysis of residual stress was essentially based on a simple application of the opening-angle method, which cannot accommodate the three-dimensional residual stretch and stress states observed in experiments. The geometry and nonlinear kinematics of the intima, media and adventitia are derived and the associated stress components determined explicitly using the nonlinear theory of elasticity. The theoretical results are then combined with the mean numerical values of the geometrical parameters and material constants from the experiments to illustrate the three-dimensional distributions of the stretches and stresses throughout the wall. The results highlight the compressive nature of the circumferential stress in the intima, which may be associated with buckling of the intima and its delamination from the media, and show that the qualitative features of the stretch and stress distributions in the media and adventitia are unaffected by the presence or absence of the intima. The circumferential residual stress in the intima increases significantly as the associated residual deformation in the intima increases while the corresponding stress in the media (which is compressive at its inner boundary and tensile at its outer boundary
Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Ogden, Ray W.
2010-01-01
This paper provides the first analysis of the three-dimensional state of residual stress and stretch in an artery wall consisting of three layers (intima, media and adventitia), modelled as a circular cylindrical tube. The analysis is based on experimental results on human aortas with non-atherosclerotic intimal thickening documented in a recent paper by Holzapfel et al. ( Holzapfel et al. 2007 Ann. Biomed. Eng. 35, 530–545 (doi:10.1007/s10439-006-9252-z)). The intima is included in the analysis because it has significant thickness and load-bearing capacity, unlike in a young, healthy human aorta. The mathematical model takes account of bending and stretching in both the circumferential and axial directions in each layer of the wall. Previous analysis of residual stress was essentially based on a simple application of the opening-angle method, which cannot accommodate the three-dimensional residual stretch and stress states observed in experiments. The geometry and nonlinear kinematics of the intima, media and adventitia are derived and the associated stress components determined explicitly using the nonlinear theory of elasticity. The theoretical results are then combined with the mean numerical values of the geometrical parameters and material constants from the experiments to illustrate the three-dimensional distributions of the stretches and stresses throughout the wall. The results highlight the compressive nature of the circumferential stress in the intima, which may be associated with buckling of the intima and its delamination from the media, and show that the qualitative features of the stretch and stress distributions in the media and adventitia are unaffected by the presence or absence of the intima. The circumferential residual stress in the intima increases significantly as the associated residual deformation in the intima increases while the corresponding stress in the media (which is compressive at its inner boundary and tensile at its outer
On the development of efficient algorithms for three dimensional fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacCormack, R. W.
The difficulties of constructing efficient algorithms for three-dimensional flow are discussed. Reasonable candidates are analyzed and tested, and most are found to have obvious shortcomings. Yet, there is promise that an efficient class of algorithms exist between the severely time-step sized-limited explicit or approximately factored algorithms and the computationally intensive direct inversion of large sparse matrices by Gaussian elimination.
Large-Scale Numerical Analysis of Three-Dimensional Seismic Waves.
1984-05-31
400,000 nodes) from Yucca Flat , Nevada Test Site. Analysis is based on an explicit, finite element, elastic wave solver designed for fully vectorized... waves through a detailed 3-D inhomogeneous model in Yucca Flat would enable us to quantify the strength of the diffracted transverse motion...ANALYSIS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC WAVES 0 L By G. L. Wojcik D. K. Vaughan Prepared for: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Boiling AFB
Three-dimensional carbon nanotube based photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flicker, Jack
2011-12-01
Photovoltaic (PV) cells with a three dimensional (3D) morphology are an exciting new research thrust with promise to create cheaper, more efficient solar cells. This work introduces a new type of 3D PV device based on carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. These arrays are paired with the thin film heterojunction, CdTe/CdS, to form a complete 3D carbon nanotube PV device (3DCNTPV). Marriage of a complicated 3D structure with production methods traditionally used for planar CdTe solar cell is challenging. This work examines the problems associated with processing these types of cells and systematically alters production methods of the semiconductor layers and electrodes to increase the short circuit current (Isc), eliminate parasitic shunts, and increase the open circuit voltage (Voc). The main benefit of 3D solar cell is the ability to utilize multiple photon interactions with the solar cell surface. The three dimensionality allows photons to interact multiple times with the photoactive material, which increases the absorption and the overall power output over what is possible with a two dimensional (2D) morphology. To quantify the increased power output arising from these multiple photon interactions, a new absorption efficiency term, eta3D, is introduced. The theoretical basis behind this new term and how it relates to the absorption efficiency of a planar cell, eta 2D, is derived. A unique model for the average number of multiple photon impingements, Gamma, is proposed based on three categories of 3D morphology: an infinite trench, an enclosed box, and an array of towers. The derivation of eta3D and Gamma for these 3D PV devices gives a complete picture of the enhanced power output over 2D cells based on CNT array height, pitch, radius, and shape. This theory is validated by monte carlo simulations and experiment. This new type of 3D PV devices has been shown to work experimentally. The first 3DCNTPV cells created posses Isc values of 0.085 to 17.872mA/cm2 and Voc values
Numerical investigations in three-dimensional internal flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, William C.
1991-01-01
The present study is a preliminary investigation into the behavior of the flow within a 28 degree total geometric turning angle hypothetical Mach 10 inlet as calculated with the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Comparison between the two-dimensional and three-dimensional solutions have been made. The overall compression is not significantly different between the two-dimensional and center plane three dimensional solutions. Approximately one-half to two-thirds of the inlet flow at the exit of the inlet behave nominally two-dimensionally. On the other hand, flow field non-uniformities in the three-dimensional solution indicate the potential significance of the sidewall boundary layer flows ingested into the inlet. The tailoring of the geometry at the inlet shoulder and on the cowl obtained in the two-dimensional parametric design study have also proved to be effective at controlling the boundary layer behavior in the three-dimensional code. The three-dimensional inlet solution remained started indicating that the two-dimensional design had a sufficient margin to allow for three-dimensional flow field effects. Although confidence is being gained in the use of SCRAM3D (three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes code) as applied to similar flow fields, the actual effects of the three-dimensional flow fields associated with sidewalls and wind tunnel installations can require verification with ground-based experiments.
Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geng, Jason
2005-01-01
A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the
Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studied
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewicki, David G.
1999-01-01
Gears used in current helicopters and turboprops are designed for light weight, high margins of safety, and high reliability. However, unexpected gear failures may occur even with adequate tooth design. To design an extremely safe system, the designer must ask and address the question, "What happens when a failure occurs?" With gear-tooth bending fatigue, tooth or rim fractures may occur. A crack that propagates through a rim will be catastrophic, leading to disengagement of the rotor or propeller, loss of an aircraft, and possible fatalities. This failure mode should be avoided. A crack that propagates through a tooth may or may not be catastrophic, depending on the design and operating conditions. Also, early warning of this failure mode may be possible because of advances in modern diagnostic systems. One concept proposed to address bending fatigue fracture from a safety aspect is a splittooth gear design. The prime objective of this design would be to control crack propagation in a desired direction such that at least half of the tooth would remain operational should a bending failure occur. A study at the NASA Lewis Research Center analytically validated the crack-propagation failsafe characteristics of a split-tooth gear. It used a specially developed three-dimensional crack analysis program that was based on boundary element modeling and principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack shapes as well as the crack-propagation life were predicted on the basis of the calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack-propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack-growth theories. The preceding figures show the effect of the location of initial cracks on crack propagation. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth was simulated in a case study to evaluate crack-propagation paths. Tooth
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view to the southeast, from between the cloud layers and over the north center of the region. The tall white clouds in the lower cloud deck are probably much like large terrestrial thunderclouds. They may be regions where atmospheric water powers vertical convection over large horizontal distances.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756 nm. This model is overly simplistic, but is based on
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view to the northeast, from between the cloud layers and above the streaks in the lower cloud leading towards the hotspot. The upper haze layer has some features that match the lower cloud, such as the bright streak in the foreground of the frame. These are probably thick clouds that span several tens of vertical kilometers.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756 nm. This model is overly
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view to the west, from between the cloud layers and over the patchy white clouds to the east of the hotspot. This is probably an area where moist convection is occurring over large horizontal distances, similar to the atmosphere over the equatorial ocean on Earth. The clouds are high and thick, and are observed to change rapidly over short time scales.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view from the southwest looking northeast, from an altitude just above the high haze layer. The streaks in the lower cloud leading towards the hotspot are visible. The upper haze layer is mostly flat, with notable small peaks that can be matched with features in the lower cloud. In reality, these areas may represent a continuous vertical cloud column.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view to the northeast, from between the cloud layers and above the streaks in the lower cloud leading towards the hotspot. The hotspot is clearly visible as a deep blue feature. The cloud streaks end near the hotspot, consistent with the idea that clouds traveling along these streak lines descend and evaporate as they approach the hotspot. The upper haze layer is slightly bowed upwards above the hotspot.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view from above and to the south of the visualized area, showing the entire model. The entire region is overlain by a thin, transparent haze. In places the haze is high and thick, especially to the east (to the right of) the hotspot.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756 nm. This model is overly simplistic, but is based on more sophisticated studies of Jupiter's cloud structure. The upper
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view to the northeast, from between the cloud layers and above the streaks in the lower cloud leading towards the hotspot. The hotspot is clearly visible as a deep blue feature. The cloud streaks end near the hotspot, consistent with the idea that clouds traveling along these streak lines descend and evaporate as they approach the hotspot. The upper haze layer is slightly bowed upwards above the hotspot.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view to the northeast, from between the cloud layers and above the streaks in the lower cloud leading towards the hotspot. The upper haze layer has some features that match the lower cloud, such as the bright streak in the foreground of the frame. These are probably thick clouds that span several tens of vertical kilometers.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756 nm. This model is overly
Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.
This frame is a view to the southeast, from between the cloud layers and over the north center of the region. The tall white clouds in the lower cloud deck are probably much like large terrestrial thunderclouds. They may be regions where atmospheric water powers vertical convection over large horizontal distances.
Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.
The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756 nm. This model is overly simplistic, but is based on