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Sample records for nonlinear frequency generation

  1. Guided wave methods and apparatus for nonlinear frequency generation

    DOEpatents

    Durfee, III, Charles G.; Rundquist, Andrew; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2000-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the nonlinear generation of sum and difference frequencies of electromagnetic radiation propagating in a nonlinear material. A waveguide having a waveguide cavity contains the nonlinear material. Phase matching of the nonlinear generation is obtained by adjusting a waveguide propagation constant, the refractive index of the nonlinear material, or the waveguide mode in which the radiation propagates. Phase matching can be achieved even in isotropic nonlinear materials. A short-wavelength radiation source uses phase-matched nonlinear generation in a waveguide to produce high harmonics of a pulsed laser.

  2. Modulation of Radio Frequency Signals by Nonlinearly Generated Acoustic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Spencer Joseph

    Acousto-electromagnetic scattering is a process in which an acoustic excitation is utilized to induce modulation on an electromagnetic (EM) wave. This phenomenon can be exploited in remote sensing and detection schemes whereby target objects are mechanically excited by high powered acoustic waves resulting in unique object characterizations when interrogated with EM signals. Implementation of acousto-EM sensing schemes, however, are limited by a lack of fundamental understanding of the nonlinear interaction between acoustic and EM waves and inefficient simulation methods in the determination of the radiation patterns of higher order scattered acoustic fields. To address the insufficient simulation issue, a computationally efficient mathematical model describing higher order scattered sound fields, particularly of third-order in which a 40x increase in computation speed is achieved, is derived using a multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) expansion that expresses the sound field of any arbitrary axially symmetric beam as a series of Gaussian base functions. The third-order intermodulation (IM3) frequency components are produced by considering the cascaded nonlinear second-order effects when analyzing the interaction between the first- and second-order frequency components during the nonlinear scattering of sound by sound from two noncollinear ultrasonic baffled piston sources. The theory is extended to the modeling of the sound beams generated by parametric transducer arrays, showing that the MGB model can be efficiently used to calculate both the second- and third-order sound fields of the array. Additionally, a near-to-far-field (NTFF) transformation method is developed to model the far-field characteristics of scattered sound fields, extending Kirchhoff's theorem, typically applied to EM waves, determining the far-field patterns of an acoustic source from amplitude and phase measurements made in the near-field by including the higher order sound fields generated by the

  3. Nonlinear Cherenkov difference-frequency generation exploiting birefringence of KTP

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, R.; Du, L.; Wu, Y.; Hu, X. P. Zou, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S. N.; Sheng, Y.; Arie, A.

    2016-01-18

    In this letter, we demonstrate the realization of nonlinear Cherenkov difference-frequency generation (CDFG) exploiting the birefringence property of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) crystal. The pump and signal waves were set to be along different polarizations, thus the phase-matching requirement of CDFG, which is, the refractive index of the pump wave should be smaller than that of the signal wave, was fulfilled. The radiation angles and the intensity dependence of the CDFG on the pump wave were measured, which agreed well with the theoretical ones.

  4. Nonlinear optics at low powers: Alternative mechanism of on-chip optical frequency comb generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogov, Andrei S.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear optical effects provide a natural way of light manipulation and interaction and form the foundation of applied photonics, from high-speed signal processing and telecommunication to ultrahigh-bandwidth interconnects and information processing. However, relatively weak nonlinear response at optical frequencies calls for operation at high optical powers or boosting efficiency of nonlinear parametric processes by enhancing local-field intensity with high-quality-factor resonators near cavity resonance, resulting in reduced operational bandwidth and increased loss due to multiphoton absorption. We present an alternative to this conventional approach, with strong nonlinear optical effects at low local intensities, based on period-doubling bifurcations near nonlinear cavity antiresonance and apply it to low-power optical frequency comb generation in a silicon chip.

  5. Modulation of Radio Frequency Signals by Nonlinearly Generated Acoustic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Kirchhoff’s theorem, typically applied to EM waves, determining the far-field patterns of an acoustic source from amplitude and phase measurements made in...two noncollinear ultrasonic baffled piston sources. The theory is extended to the modeling of the sound beams generated by parametric transducer arrays ...typically applied to EM waves, determining the far-field patterns of an acoustic source from amplitude and phase measurements made in the near-field by

  6. Mapping the spatial overlap of excitons in a photosynthetic complex via coherent nonlinear frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Dawlaty, Jahan M; Bennett, Doran I G; Huxter, Vanessa M; Fleming, Graham R

    2011-07-28

    We experimentally demonstrate a nonlinear spectroscopic method that is sensitive to exciton-exciton interactions in a Frenkel exciton system. Spatial overlap of one-exciton wavefunctions leads to coupling between them, resulting in two-exciton eigenstates that have the character of many single-exciton pairs. The mixed character of the two-exciton wavefunctions gives rise to a four-wave-mixing nonlinear frequency generation signal. When only part of the linear excitation spectrum of the complex is excited with three spectrally tailored pulses with separate spatial directions, a frequency-shifted third-order nonlinear signal emerges in the phase-matched direction. We employ the nonlinear response function formalism to show that the emergence of the signal is mediated by and carries information about the two-exciton eigenstates of the system. We report experimental results for nonlinear frequency generation in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. Our theoretical analysis of the signal from FMO confirms that the emergence of the frequency-shifted signal is due to the interaction of spatially overlapped excitons. In this method, the signal intensity is directly measured in the frequency domain and does not require scanning of pulse delays or signal phase retrieval. The wavefunctions of the two-exciton states contain information about the spatial overlap of excitons and can be helpful in identifying coupling strengths and relaxation pathways. We propose this method as a facile experimental means of studying exciton correlations in systems with complicated electronic structures.

  7. Wide operation frequency band magnetostrictive vibration power generator using nonlinear spring constant by permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumachi, S.; Ueno, T.

    2016-04-01

    We study magnetostrictive vibration based power generator using iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol). The generator is advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric material in the point of high efficiency highly robust and low electrical impedance. Generally, the generator exhibits maximum power when its resonant frequency matches the frequency of ambient vibration. In other words, the mismatch of these frequencies results in significant decrease of the output. One solution is making the spring characteristics nonlinear using magnetic force, which distorts the resonant peak toward higher or lower frequency side. In this paper, vibrational generator consisting of Galfenol plate of 6 by 0.5 by 13 mm wound with coil and U shape-frame accompanied with plates and pair of permanent magnets was investigated. The experimental results show that lean of resonant peak appears attributed on the non-linear spring characteristics, and half bandwidth with magnets is 1.2 times larger than that without. It was also demonstrated that the addition of proof mass is effective to increase the sensitivity but also the bandwidth. The generator with generating power of sub mW order is useful for power source of wireless heath monitoring for bridge and factory machine.

  8. Group velocity mismatch-absent nonlinear frequency conversions for mid-infrared femtosecond pulses generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haizhe; Zhang, Lifu; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel group velocity mismatch (GVM) absent scheme for nonlinear optical parametric procedure in mid-infrared was developed with type-I quasi phase matching by use of an off-digital nonlinear optical coefficient d31. This was achieved by matching of the group velocities of the pump and the signal waves, while the phase velocities were quasi phase matched. The system employs MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 as the nonlinear medium. Desired group-velocity dispersion would be obtained via appropriately temperature regulation. To demonstrate its potential applications in ultrafast mid-infrared pulses generation, aiming at a typical mid-infrared wavelength of ~3.2 μm, design examples of two basic nonlinear frequency conversion procedures are studied for both the narrow-band seeding mid-IR optical parametric amplification (OPA) and the synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillation (SPOPO). Compared with the conventional scheme of type-0 QPM, the quantum-efficiency can be more than doubled with nearly unlimited bandwidth. The proposed GVM- absent phase matching design may provide a promising route to efficient and broadband sub-100 fs mid-infrared ultrafast pulses generation without group-velocity walk-off. PMID:26099837

  9. Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.-M.; Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-H.; Yu, N. E.; Boudrioua, A.; Kung, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510–555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020–1040 nm) and the idler (1090–1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510–520 nm and the 545–555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530–535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ∼10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.

  10. Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, C.-M.; Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Yu, N. E.; Boudrioua, A.; Kung, A. H.; Peng, L.-H.

    2014-12-01

    Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510-555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020-1040 nm) and the idler (1090-1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510-520 nm and the 545-555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530-535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ˜10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.

  11. Generation of High Frequency Response in a Dynamically Loaded, Nonlinear Soil Column

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-08-01

    Detailed guidance on linear seismic analysis of soil columns is provided in “Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary (ASCE 4, 1998),” which is currently under revision. A new Appendix in ASCE 4-2014 (draft) is being added to provide guidance for nonlinear time domain analysis which includes evaluation of soil columns. When performing linear analysis, a given soil column is typically evaluated with a linear, viscous damped constitutive model. When submitted to a sine wave motion, this constitutive model produces a smooth hysteresis loop. For nonlinear analysis, the soil column can be modelled with an appropriate nonlinear hysteretic soil model. For the model in this paper, the stiffness and energy absorption result from a defined post yielding shear stress versus shear strain curve. This curve is input with tabular data points. When submitted to a sine wave motion, this constitutive model produces a hysteresis loop that looks similar in shape to the input tabular data points on the sides with discontinuous, pointed ends. This paper compares linear and nonlinear soil column results. The results show that the nonlinear analysis produces additional high frequency response. The paper provides additional study to establish what portion of the high frequency response is due to numerical noise associated with the tabular input curve and what portion is accurately caused by the pointed ends of the hysteresis loop. Finally, the paper shows how the results are changed when a significant structural mass is added to the top of the soil column.

  12. Nonlinear mixing of Nd:YAG lasers; harmonic and sum frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear optical materials give rise to a number of phenomena under high intensity of the incident electric field, with nonlinear mixing being a prominent example. This article discusses such nonlinear mixing processes of Nd:YAG lasers in BBO outside the more common harmonics of the 1.064 μm transition (0.532 μm, 0.366 μm and 0.266 μm). In particular, harmonics of the less common 0.946 μm transition (0.473 μm and 0.315 μm) as well as sum frequency of the 1.052 and 1.319 μm transitions (0.585 μm) and its second harmonic (0.293 μm) is discussed.

  13. Generation of low-frequency nonlinear currents in plasma by an ultrashort pulse of high-frequency radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2015-07-15

    A kinetic theory of low-frequency currents induced in plasma by an ultrashort high-frequency radiation pulse is developed. General expressions for the currents flowing along the propagation direction of the pulse and along the gradient of the field energy density are analyzed both analytically and numerically for pulse durations longer or shorter than or comparable with the electron collision time in plasma. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear current flowing along the gradient of the field energy density can be described correctly only when the modification of the isotropic part of the electron distribution function is taken into account.

  14. Optical Generation and Detection of High-Frequency Focused Ultrasound and Associated Nonlinear Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baac, Hyoung Won

    In this thesis, optical generation and detection of high-frequency ultrasound are presented. On the generation side, high-efficiency optical transmitters have been devised and developed which can generate high-frequency and high-amplitude pressure. Conventional optoacoustic transmitters have suffered from poor optoacoustic energy conversion efficiency (10-7˜10-8). Therefore, pressure amplitudes were usually weak for long-range imaging (several cm) and too weak to induce any therapeutic effects. Here, far beyond such traditional regime, therapeutic pressure amplitudes of tens of MPa were achieved optoacoustically. First, high-efficiency optoacoustic sources were developed in planar geometries by using carbon nanotubepolymer composites. The planar transmitters could generate 18-fold stronger pressure than thin metallic films used as references, together with providing broadband and high-frequency spectra over 120 MHz. Then, the thin-film transmitters were formed on concave substrates to generate and simultaneously focus the ultrasound. Unprecedented optoacoustic pressure was achieved at lens focus: >50 MPa in positive and >20 MPa in negative peaks. These amplitudes were sufficient to induce strong shock waves and acoustic cavitation. Due to the high-frequency operation, such therapeutic pressure and the induced effects were tightly localized onto focal widths of 75microm in lateral and 400 microm in axial directions, which are an order of magnitude smaller than those of traditional piezoelectric transducers. The shock waves and the cavitation effects were investigated in various ways. High focal gains and short distances for shock formation were suggested as main features. The optoacoustic approach is expected to open numerous opportunities for a broad range of biomedical applications demanding high-accuracy treatment with minimal damage volumes around focal zones. For optical detection of ultrasound, optical microring resonators have been used due to their

  15. Nonlinear Frequency Compression

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  16. Influence of nanoscale temperature rises on photoacoustic generation: Discrimination between optical absorbers based on thermal nonlinearity at high frequency.

    PubMed

    Simandoux, Olivier; Prost, Amaury; Gateau, Jérôme; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate thermal-based nonlinear photoacoustic generation as a mean to discriminate between different types of absorbing particles. The photoacoustic generation from solutions of dye molecules and gold nanospheres (same optical densities) was detected using a high frequency ultrasound transducer (20 MHz). Photoacoustic emission was observed with gold nanospheres at low fluence for an equilibrium temperature around 4 °C, where the linear photoacoustic effect in water vanishes, highlighting the nonlinear emission from the solution of nanospheres. The photoacoustic amplitude was also studied as a function of the equilibrium temperature from 2 °C to 20 °C. While the photoacoustic amplitude from the dye molecules vanished around 4 °C, the photoacoustic amplitude from the gold nanospheres remained significant over the whole temperature range. Our preliminary results suggest that in the context of high frequency photoacoustic imaging, nanoparticles may be discriminated from molecular absorbers based on nanoscale temperature rises.

  17. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  18. Point-Wise Phase Matching for Nonlinear Frequency Generation in Dielectric Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Nan (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Lin, Guoping (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical resonator fabricated from a uniaxial birefringent crystal, such as beta barium borate. The crystal is cut with the optical axis not perpendicular to a face of the cut crystal. In some cases the optical axis lies in the plane of the cut crystal face. An incident (input) electromagnetic signal (which can range from the infrared through the visible to the ultraviolet) is applied to the resonator. An output signal is recovered which has a frequency that is an integer multiple of the frequency of the input signal. In some cases a prism is used to evanescently couple the input and the output signals to the resonator.

  19. A numerical model for the study of the difference frequency generated from nonlinear mixing of standing ultrasonic waves in bubbly liquids.

    PubMed

    Tejedor Sastre, María Teresa; Vanhille, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the behavior of nonlinear standing ultrasonic waves in bubbly liquids and the generation of the difference frequency by nonlinear mixing of several signals. To this end we present a new numerical model based on the finite-volume method and the finite-difference method. This model solves the differential system formed by the wave equation and a Rayleigh-Plesset equation coupling the acoustic pressure field with the bubble vibrations. We consider a resonator filled with a bubbly liquid excited by an ultrasonic pressure source. The numerical experiments presented here are performed by modifying the source amplitude and frequency, the void fraction in the liquid, as well as the length of the resonator. The results allow us to observe the physical effects due to the presence of the bubbles in the liquid: nonlinearity, dispersion, attenuation. The nonlinear frequency mixing performed in the resonator is also evidenced. The amplitude of the generated difference frequency is studied as a function of the pressure amplitude and for several primary frequencies. Our results suggest that a better response is obtained for primary frequencies situated below the bubble resonance. They show a very high difference-frequency amplitude response for a cavity resonant at one wavelength of the difference frequency in the bubbly medium. This analyze could be useful for some practical applications.

  20. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear & Nonlinear Transmission Lines & Simulation & Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    called as Lead-Zirconium-Titanate (PZT). For reduced dielectric losses, PZT is acquired normally de- poled . The acquired PZT material (type 4) was...line. In low-voltage NLTLs, varactor diodes are used as nonlinear medium since their diode junction capacitance varies with the inverse of the...nonlinearity and frequency response. For these tests, we used circular PZT samples de- poled by manufacturer (type 4 and type 8) of 20/25 mm diameter

  1. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear and Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) and Simulation and Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-27

    industrial applications, called as Lead-Zirconium-Titanate (PZT). For reduced dielectric losses, PZT is acquired normally de- poled . The acquired PZT...with the inverse of the applied reverse voltage [8], [9]. In this report, the experimental results of a varactor diode NLTL built with 30 sections are...breakdown (BD) strength, nonlinearity and frequency response. For these tests, we used circular PZT samples de- poled by manufacturer (type 4 and

  2. Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Nonlinear computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapira, Asia; Juwiler, Irit; Arie, Ady

    2011-08-01

    We propose a novel technique for arbitrary wavefront shaping in quadratic nonlinear crystals by introducing the concept of computer-generated holograms (CGHs) into the nonlinear optical regime. We demonstrate the method experimentally showing a conversion of a fundamental Gaussian beam pump light into the first three Hermite--Gaussian beams at the second harmonic in a stoichiometric lithium tantalate nonlinear crystal, and we characterize its efficiency dependence on the fundamental power and the crystal temperature. Nonlinear CGHs open new possibilities in the fields of nonlinear beam shaping, mode conversion, and beam steering.

  4. Microbubble cloud characterization by nonlinear frequency mixing.

    PubMed

    Cavaro, M; Payan, C; Moysan, J; Baqué, F

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the fourth generation forum, France decided to develop sodium fast nuclear reactors. French Safety Authority requests the associated monitoring of argon gas into sodium. This implies to estimate the void fraction, and a histogram indicating the bubble population. In this context, the present letter studies the possibility of achieving an accurate determination of the histogram with acoustic methods. A nonlinear, two-frequency mixing technique has been implemented, and a specific optical device has been developed in order to validate the experimental results. The acoustically reconstructed histograms are in excellent agreement with those obtained using optical methods.

  5. Low sidelobe nonlinear stepped-frequency waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebanov, Dmitry

    2008-04-01

    Frequency stepping is one of the known techniques employed by modern radars to attain high range resolution. One of the main advantages of this approach is that it allows to achieve wideband pulse compression through narrowband processing. It is also known that the traditional linear stepped-frequency waveform suffers from relatively high range sidelobes and grating lobes that appear due to periodicities in the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). An amplitude weighting (applied prior to the DFT) is typically used to reduce the near-in sidelobes. This results in undesirable losses in sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a new approach that may be used to derive families of nonlinear stepped-frequency waveforms that would have desired characteristics such as suppressed grating lobes and built-in low range sidelobes. Our approach is based on new analytical properties of stepped-frequency waveforms presented in the paper. We give examples of nonlinear waveforms generated by this approach and show that they exhibit improved performance when compared with traditional waveforms.

  6. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.

  7. Nonlinear optical protection against frequency agile lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, V.P.

    1988-08-04

    An eye-protection or equipment-filter device for protection from laser energy is disclosed. The device may be in the form of a telescope, binoculars, goggles, constructed as part of equipment such as image intensifiers or range designators. Optical elements focus the waist of the beam within a nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal or nonlinear optical element or fiber. The nonlinear elements produce a harmonic outside the visible spectrum in the case of crystals, or absorb the laser energy in the case of nonlinear fibers. Embodiments include protectors for the human eye as well as filters for sensitive machinery such as TV cameras, FLIR systems or other imaging equipment.

  8. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear micromechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Dario; Zanette, Damián H.; López, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical oscillators are present in almost every electronic device. They mainly consist of a resonating element providing an oscillating output with a specific frequency. Their ability to maintain a determined frequency in a specified period of time is the most important parameter limiting their implementation. Historically, quartz crystals have almost exclusively been used as the resonating element, but micromechanical resonators are increasingly being considered to replace them. These resonators are easier to miniaturize and allow for monolithic integration with electronics. However, as their dimensions shrink to the microscale, most mechanical resonators exhibit nonlinearities that considerably degrade the frequency stability of the oscillator. Here we demonstrate that, by coupling two different vibrational modes through an internal resonance, it is possible to stabilize the oscillation frequency of nonlinear self-sustaining micromechanical resonators. Our findings provide a new strategy for engineering low-frequency noise oscillators capitalizing on the intrinsic nonlinear phenomena of micromechanical resonators.

  9. Nonlinear frequency mixing in a resonant cavity: numerical simulations in a bubbly liquid.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé; Sinha, Dipen N

    2014-12-01

    The study of nonlinear frequency mixing for acoustic standing waves in a resonator cavity is presented. Two high frequencies are mixed in a highly nonlinear bubbly liquid filled cavity that is resonant at the difference frequency. The analysis is carried out through numerical experiments, and both linear and nonlinear regimes are compared. The results show highly efficient generation of the difference frequency at high excitation amplitude. The large acoustic nonlinearity of the bubbly liquid that is responsible for the strong difference-frequency resonance also induces significant enhancement of the parametric frequency mixing effect to generate second harmonic of the difference frequency.

  10. Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.

    PubMed

    Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.

  11. Absorption Transparencies for Efficient Nonlinear Optical Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Kenneth Kang-Hee

    The work presented in this thesis describes methods by which nonlinear optical generation of radiation can be enhanced with the use of absorption transparencies. Two experiments are discussed: (i) the use of a naturally occurring absorption transparency in zinc vapor for efficient generation of 104.8 nm radiation, and (ii) the creation of an induced transparency on a collisionally broadened resonance transition of lead, with which large enhancements in nonlinear optical processes may be possible. In both cases, the linear susceptibility is cancelled by a quantum interference. Since the nonlinear susceptibility does not cancel, large enhancements in nonlinear generation efficiency are possible. There is a naturally existing transparency in zinc, where two broad autoionizing levels are separated within a decay width. Because they decay predominantly to the same final continuum state, there is a sharp cancellation in both the absorption and the refractive index from the ground state. A correct choice of intermediate levels for the sum-frequency mixing process prevents a similar cancellation in the nonlinear susceptibility. We were able to generate 0.25 muJ per pulse of 104.8 nm radiation at 10 Hz using UV pump lasers with energies of about a mJ and pulse lengths of 5 ns. Unfortunately, such naturally existing transparencies are rare. However, electromagnetically induced transparencies can be created in a general manner and present the possibility of doing enhanced nonlinear optics in many systems. Especially of interest is the creation of induced transparencies on a resonance line at high densities, as such a transparency would be most useful for nonlinear optical applications. The effects of collisions need to be carefully considered, since collisional broadening is larger than lifetime broadening in such transitions. We create an induced transparency in the presence of collisions by using a strong field to couple the resonantly broadened state of lead to another

  12. Generating Second Harmonics In Nonlinear Resonant Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, William J.; Nabors, C. David; Byer, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Single-axial-mode lasers pump very-low-loss doubling crystals. Important advance in making resonant generation of second harmonics possible for diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers is recent development of monolithic nonplanar ring geometries in neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers that produce frequency-stable single-mode outputs. Other advance is development of high-quality MgO:LiNbO3 as electro-optically nonlinear material. Series of experiments devised to improve doubling efficiency of low-power lasers, and particularly of diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG lasers.

  13. Generation of single frequency blue light by highly efficient harmonic generation of IR laser diodes in resonance build-up cavities using nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Danekar, Koustubh; Aflakian, Nafiseh; Shiner, David

    2012-06-01

    Blue and UV lasers have a wide variety of applications, including atomic spectroscopy. We are particularly interested in 486 nm and 243 nm for hydrogen spectroscopy. Blue and UV laser diodes are at the early stages of development. At this time, harmonic generations (HG) is a viable technique to produce blue and UV light with well developed fiber coupled IR laser diodes. We recently reported a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber to fiber conversion efficiency of 71 percent overall. We used a PPKTP (Periodically Poled Potassium Titanyl Phosphate) crystal in an external build-up cavity. The 600 mW of blue at 486 nm was generated from second HG of a 972 nm PM fiber coupled laser diode [1]. PPKTP presents blue absorption (BA) and blue light induced IR absorption (BLIIRA) which cause thermal instability and inefficiency in the buildup cavity. Another crystal, PPSLT (Periodically Poled Lithium Tantalite) promises less BA and less BLIIRA. Our latest results for producing 486 nm using PPSLT and comparison with PPKTP will be presented. [4pt] [1] Koustrubh Danekar, Ali Khademian, and David Shiner, Opt. Lett. 36, 294 (2011)

  14. Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, O.; Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Otani, Y.

    2014-02-07

    We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.

  15. Nonlinear frequency response analysis of structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeger, Oliver; Wever, Utz; Simeon, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present a method for nonlinear frequency response analysis of mechanical vibrations of 3-dimensional solid structures. For computing nonlinear frequency response to periodic excitations, we employ the well-established harmonic balance method. A fundamental aspect for allowing a large-scale application of the method is model order reduction of the discretized equation of motion. Therefore we propose the utilization of a modal projection method enhanced with modal derivatives, providing second-order information. For an efficient spatial discretization of continuum mechanics nonlinear partial differential equations, including large deformations and hyperelastic material laws, we employ the concept of isogeometric analysis. Isogeometric finite element methods have already been shown to possess advantages over classical finite element discretizations in terms of higher accuracy of numerical approximations in the fields of linear vibration and static large deformation analysis. With several computational examples, we demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the modal derivative reduction method for nonlinear static computations and vibration analysis. Thus, the presented method opens a promising perspective on application of nonlinear frequency analysis to large-scale industrial problems.

  16. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  17. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  18. Simultaneous-Frequency Nonlinear Radar: Hardware Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Army Research Laboratory Simultaneous-Frequency Nonlinear Radar : Hardware Simulation by Gregory J Mazzaro, Kenneth I Ranney, Kyle A Gallagher...distribution unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position

  19. Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.

  20. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1982-08-10

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices. 11 figs.

  1. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices.

  2. Frequency conversion with nonlinear graphene photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-03-23

    Frequency conversion with nonlinear electronic components, a common approach for signal processing required in various communication applications, has found its operation bandwidth bottleneck due to the limited carrier mobility of the traditional materials. Meanwhile, fiber-optics communications are playing a significant role in communication services due to their excellent signal transmission properties. However, the transmitted optical signals had to be converted to electrical signals with photodetectors before frequency conversion was performed through conventional electronic devices, which make this conversion system very complex and costly. Hence, to develop a compact device that can achieve the photodetection and frequency conversion functions simultaneously is critical and significative. Here, we have proposed a novel concept for frequency conversion and demonstrated a nonlinear graphene photodetector based frequency converter that performs frequency conversion from optical signals directly. With this new concept, a frequency doubling signal at 4 GHz was obtained from a 2 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal. Moreover, using a 10 MHz intensity-modulated optical signal and another 3 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal, we show the frequency up-conversion to 3 ± 0.01 GHz. In particular, the frequency down-conversion to 100 MHz was achieved successfully by using a 2 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal and another 2.1 GHz intensity-modulated optical signal. Considering the broadband optical absorption, strong saturable absorption, high carrier mobility, and short photogenerated carrier lifetime of the graphene material, graphene photodetectors have the potential to achieve the frequency conversion of millimeter-wave band, which will open promising prospects in the domain of microwave photonics for next-gen communication systems.

  3. Nonlinear mixing of laser generated narrowband Rayleigh surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakre, Chaitanya; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2017-02-01

    This research presents the nonlinear mixing technique of two co-directionally travelling Rayleigh surface waves generated and detected using laser ultrasonics. The optical generation of Rayleigh waves on the specimen is obtained by shadow mask method. In conventional nonlinear measurements, the inherently small higher harmonics are greatly influenced by the nonlinearities caused by coupling variabilities and surface roughness between the transducer and specimen interface. The proposed technique is completely contactless and it should be possible to eliminate this problem. Moreover, the nonlinear mixing phenomenon yields not only the second harmonics, but also the sum and difference frequency components, which can be used to measure the acoustic nonlinearity of the specimen. In this paper, we will be addressing the experimental configurations for this technique. The proposed technique is validated experimentally on Aluminum 7075 alloy specimen.

  4. Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenshan; Vasudev, Alok P; Brongersma, Mark L

    2011-09-23

    Plasmonics provides a route to develop ultracompact optical devices on a chip by using extreme light concentration and the ability to perform simultaneous electrical and optical functions. These properties also make plasmonics an ideal candidate for dynamically controlling nonlinear optical interactions at the nanoscale. We demonstrate electrically tunable harmonic generation of light from a plasmonic nanocavity filled with a nonlinear medium. The metals that define the cavity also serve as electrodes that can generate high direct current electric fields across the nonlinear material. A fundamental wave at 1.56 micrometers was frequency doubled and modulated in intensity by applying a moderate external voltage to the electrodes, yielding a voltage-dependent nonlinear generation with a normalized magnitude of ~7% per volt.

  5. Measuring Complex Sum Frequency Spectra with a Nonlinear Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bisson, Patrick J; Marmolejos, Joam M; Shultz, Mary Jane

    2016-06-02

    Currently, the only techniques capable of delivering molecular-level data on buried or soft interfaces are the nonlinear spectroscopic methods: sum frequency generation (SFG) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Deducing molecular information from spectra requires measuring the complex components-the amplitude and the phase-of the surface response. A new interferometer has been developed to determine these components with orders-of-magnitude improvement in uncertainty compared with current methods. Both the sample and reference spectra are generated within the interferometer, hence the label nonlinear interferometer. The interferometer configuration provides experimenters with wide latitude for both the sample enclosure and reference material choice and is thus widely applicable. The instrument is described and applied to the well-studied octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) film. The OTS spectra support the interpretation that variation in fabrication solvent water content and substrate preparation account for differences in OTS spectra reported in the literature.

  6. Frequency Response and Gap Tuning for Nonlinear Electrical Oscillator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Harish S.; Vaz, Garnet J.

    2013-01-01

    We study nonlinear electrical oscillator networks, the smallest example of which consists of a voltage-dependent capacitor, an inductor, and a resistor driven by a pure tone source. By allowing the network topology to be that of any connected graph, such circuits generalize spatially discrete nonlinear transmission lines/lattices that have proven useful in high-frequency analog devices. For such networks, we develop two algorithms to compute the steady-state response when a subset of nodes are driven at the same fixed frequency. The algorithms we devise are orders of magnitude more accurate and efficient than stepping towards the steady-state using a standard numerical integrator. We seek to enhance a given network's nonlinear behavior by altering the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian, i.e., the resonances of the linearized system. We develop a Newton-type method that solves for the network inductances such that the graph Laplacian achieves a desired set of eigenvalues; this method enables one to move the eigenvalues while keeping the network topology fixed. Running numerical experiments using three different random graph models, we show that shrinking the gap between the graph Laplacian's first two eigenvalues dramatically improves a network's ability to (i) transfer energy to higher harmonics, and (ii) generate large-amplitude signals. Our results shed light on the relationship between a network's structure, encoded by the graph Laplacian, and its function, defined in this case by the presence of strongly nonlinear effects in the frequency response. PMID:24223751

  7. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves at low frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Fan, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves are popular to characterize the nonlinearity of materials. However, the widely used nonlinear Lamb mode suffers from two associated complications: inherent dispersive and multimode natures. To overcome these, the symmetric Lamb mode (S0) at low frequency region is explored. At the low frequency region, the S0 mode is little dispersive and easy to generate. However, the secondary mode still exists, and increases linearly for significant distance. Numerical simulations and experiments are used to validate the nonlinear features and therefore demonstrate an easy alternative for nonlinear Lamb wave applications.

  9. Functional possibilities of nonlinear crystals for frequency conversion: uniaxial crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Yu M; Arapov, Yu D; Kasyanov, I V; Grechin, S G; Nikolaev, P P

    2016-01-31

    The method and results of the analysis of phase-matching and nonlinear properties for all point groups of symmetry of uniaxial crystals that determine their functional possibilities for solving various problems of nonlinear frequency conversion of laser radiation are presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. Broadband frequency tripling in locally ordered nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2013-02-25

    We propose and fabricate a LiNbO₃-based nonlinear photonic crystal with locally ordered ferroelectric domains. The nonlinearity modulation provides sets of uniformly distributed reciprocal lattice vectors, ensuring broadband high frequency conversion efficiency. Frequency tripling via cascading is demonstrated in the range of 1400-1830 nm, with energy conversion efficiency up to ∼15%.

  11. Nonlinear Cavity and Frequency Comb Radiations Induced by Negative Frequency Field Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourés, Cristian Redondo; Faccio, Daniele; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Optical Kerr frequency combs (KFCs) are an increasingly important optical metrology tool with applications ranging from ultraprecise spectroscopy to time keeping. KFCs may be generated in compact resonators with extremely high quality factors. Here, we show that the same features that lead to high quality frequency combs in these resonators also lead to an enhancement of nonlinear emissions that may be identified as originating from the presence of a negative frequency (NF) component in the optical spectrum. While the negative frequency component of the spectrum is naturally always present in the real-valued optical field, it is not included in the principal theoretical model used to model nonlinear cavities, i.e., the Lugiato-Lefever equation. We therefore extend these equations in order to include the contribution of NF components and show that the predicted emissions may be studied analytically, in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations. These results are of importance for a variety of fields, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, mode-locked lasers, nonlinear plasmonics, and polaritonics.

  12. Nonlinear Cavity and Frequency Comb Radiations Induced by Negative Frequency Field Effects.

    PubMed

    Lourés, Cristian Redondo; Faccio, Daniele; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-11-06

    Optical Kerr frequency combs (KFCs) are an increasingly important optical metrology tool with applications ranging from ultraprecise spectroscopy to time keeping. KFCs may be generated in compact resonators with extremely high quality factors. Here, we show that the same features that lead to high quality frequency combs in these resonators also lead to an enhancement of nonlinear emissions that may be identified as originating from the presence of a negative frequency (NF) component in the optical spectrum. While the negative frequency component of the spectrum is naturally always present in the real-valued optical field, it is not included in the principal theoretical model used to model nonlinear cavities, i.e., the Lugiato-Lefever equation. We therefore extend these equations in order to include the contribution of NF components and show that the predicted emissions may be studied analytically, in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations. These results are of importance for a variety of fields, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, mode-locked lasers, nonlinear plasmonics, and polaritonics.

  13. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  14. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    DOEpatents

    Nakamura, N.M.I.

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base is described. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  15. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    DOEpatents

    Nakamura, Michiyuki

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Also, apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  16. Nonlinear multiferroic phase shifters for microwave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2014-02-03

    A nonlinear microwave phase shifter based on a planar multiferroic composite has been studied. The multiferroic structure is fabricated in the form of a bilayer consisting of yttrium iron garnet and barium strontium titanate. The principle of operation of the device is based on the linear and nonlinear control of the phase shift of the hybrid spin-electromagnetic waves propagating in the bilayer. The linear control is realized with magnetic and electric fields. The nonlinear control is provided by the input power of microwave signal. The device showed a nonlinear phase shift up to 250°, electric field induced phase shift up to 330°, and magnetic field induced phase shift of more than 180°.

  17. Computed Linear/Nonlinear Acoustic Response of a Cascade for Single/Multi Frequency Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Hixon, R.; Sawyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines mode generation and propagation characteristics of a 2-D cascade due to incident vortical disturbances using a time domain approach. Full nonlinear Euler equations are solved employing high order accurate spatial differencing and time marching techniques. The solutions show the generation and propagation of mode orders that are expected from theory. Single frequency excitations show linear response over a wide range of amplitudes. The response for multi-frequency excitations tend to become nonlinear due to interaction between frequencies and self interaction.

  18. Electronic power generators for ultrasonic frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an ultrasonic frequency electronic power generator are discussed. The principle design elements of the generator are illustrated. The generator provides an inductive load with an output power of two kilowatts and a variable output frequency in the fifteen to thirty KiloHertz range. The method of conducting the tests and the results obtained with selected materials are analyzed.

  19. Nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation with structured fundamental wave.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haigang; Li, Jun; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-07-11

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated that nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic can be achieved in real time when a fundamental wave with the phase periodically modulated, termed as structured fundamental wave, incident in a homogeneous nonlinear medium. The diffraction of second harmonic originates from the structured fundamental wave, rather than the grating of a nonlinear photonic crystal. Nonlinear second harmonic generation, in forms of both one- and two-dimensional, was investigated in our experiment. This method circumvents the limitation of nonlinear photonic crystals in some extend and has potential applications in nonlinear frequency conversion, optical signal processing and beam shaping, etc.

  20. Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixin; Chen, Shumei; Pholchai, Nitipat; Reineke, Bernhard; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-06-01

    The capability of locally engineering the nonlinear optical properties of media is crucial in nonlinear optics. Although poling is the most widely employed technique for achieving locally controlled nonlinearity, it leads only to a binary nonlinear state, which is equivalent to a discrete phase change of π in the nonlinear polarizability. Here, inspired by the concept of spin-rotation coupling, we experimentally demonstrate nonlinear metasurfaces with homogeneous linear optical properties but spatially varying effective nonlinear polarizability with continuously controllable phase. The continuous phase control over the local nonlinearity is demonstrated for second and third harmonic generation by using nonlinear metasurfaces consisting of nanoantennas of C3 and C4 rotational symmetries, respectively. The continuous phase engineering of the effective nonlinear polarizability enables complete control over the propagation of harmonic generation signals. Therefore, this method seamlessly combines the generation and manipulation of harmonic waves, paving the way for highly compact nonlinear nanophotonic devices.

  1. Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy using inverted visible pulses.

    PubMed

    Weeraman, Champika; Mitchell, Steven A; Lausten, Rune; Johnston, Linda J; Stolow, Albert

    2010-05-24

    We present a broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (BB-VSFG) scheme using a novel ps visible pulse shape. We generate the fs IR pulse via standard procedures and simultaneously generate an 'inverted' time-asymmetric narrowband ps visible pulse via second harmonic generation in the pump depletion regime using a very long nonlinear crystal which has high group velocity mismatch (LiNbO3). The 'inverted' ps pulse shape minimally samples the instantaneous nonresonant response but maximally samples the resonant response, maintaining high spectral resolution. We experimentally demonstrate this scheme, presenting SFG spectra of canonical organic monolayer systems in the C-H stretch region (2800-3000 cm(-1)).

  2. Nonlinear harmonic generation in distributed optical klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    H.P. Freund; George R. Neil

    2001-12-01

    A distributed optical klystron has the potential for dramatically shortening the total interaction length in high-gain free-electron lasers (INP 77-59, Novosibirsk, 1977; Nucl. Instr. and Meth A 304 (1991) 463) in comparison to a single-wiggler-segment configuration. This shortening can be even more dramatic if a nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is used to reach the desired wavelength. An example operating at a 4.5{angstrom} fundamental and a 1.5{angstrom} harmonic is discussed.

  3. Chaos and nonlinearities in high harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiordilino, Emilio

    2016-11-01

    Linearity is a fundamental postulate of quantum mechanics which is occasionally the subject of debate. This paper investigates the possibility of checking this assumption by using a laser field. We study the corrections caused by the presence of a small nonlinearity in the Hamiltonian of a quantum system. As a model we use a simplified two-level quantum system whose states are coupled by a small off-diagonal term proportional to the population of the upper level. The nonlinearity causes spontaneous decay of the upper level, shift and broadening of the line and the sensitive dependence of the final state on the initial condition. The presence of a strong laser field, resonant with the atomic transition, enhances the population transfer among the levels and introduces quantitative and qualitative modifications of the spectra of high order harmonic generation (HHG); these are cumulative effects which can be subject to experimental checks. Experiments are needed in order to set an upper limit to the nonlinear term.

  4. Wheel/rail noise generation due to nonlinear effects and parametric excitation.

    PubMed

    Nordborg, Anders

    2002-04-01

    Two models are developed, one in the time domain and another in the frequency domain, to explain when a wheel/rail noise generation model requires the inclusion of discrete supports, parametric excitation, and the nonlinear contact spring. Numerical simulations indicate the inclusion of discrete supports to describe low frequency response, and also at higher frequencies, especially where the rail is very smooth or has a corrugation/wavelength corresponding to the pinned-pinned frequency. With a corrugation, it may become essential to include the nonlinear contact spring, as contact loss occurs at high corrugation amplitudes. As nonlinearity causes force generation over a broad frequency range, some contributions excite wheel resonances, resulting in high radiation levels, that require the inclusion of wheel/rail nonlinear effects and parametric excitation for accurate prediction.

  5. Frequency domain stability analysis of nonlinear active disturbance rejection control system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqing; Pu, Fan; Chang, Kai

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies three methods (i.e., root locus analysis, describing function method and extended circle criterion) to approach the frequency domain stability analysis of the fast tool servo system using nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) algorithm. Root locus qualitative analysis shows that limit cycle is generated because the gain of the nonlinear function used in ADRC varies with its input. The parameters in the nonlinear function are adjustable to suppress limit cycle. In the process of root locus analysis, the nonlinear function is transformed based on the concept of equivalent gain. Then, frequency domain description of the nonlinear function via describing function is presented and limit cycle quantitative analysis including estimating prediction error is presented, which virtually and theoretically demonstrates that the describing function method cannot guarantee enough precision in this case. Furthermore, absolute stability analysis based on extended circle criterion is investigated as a complement.

  6. Low frequency ac waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, O.W.

    1983-11-22

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stablization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  7. Low frequency AC waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, Oscar W.

    1986-01-01

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stabilization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform itself. The cosine is synthesized by squaring the triangular waveform, raising the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  8. Nonlinear ultrasonics for in situ damage detection during high frequency fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anish; Torbet, Christopher J.; Jones, J. Wayne; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we report the use of the feedback signal of an ultrasonic fatigue system to dynamically deduce fatigue damage accumulation via changes in the nonlinear ultrasonic parameter. The applicability of this parameter in comparison to the resonant frequency for assessment of fatigue damage accumulation in a wrought aluminum alloy has been demonstrated, without the need for coupling fluids or independent generation of incident ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic nonlinearity increased and the resonant frequency of the system decreased with initiation and propagation of the major crack. The nonlinear ultrasonic parameter shows greater sensitivity to damage accumulation than the resonant frequency. The number of cycles for crack propagation, estimated based on the changes in the nonlinear ultrasonic parameter, is in very good agreement with calculated crack growth rates based on the fractography studies.

  9. Nonlinear Frequency Chirping of beta-induced Aflven eigenmode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huasen

    2011-10-01

    The β-induced Alfvén eigenmode (BAE) is studied using global gyrokinetic toroidal code GTC. Linear simulations show that kinetic effects modify BAE mode structure and reduce the frequency relative to the MHD theory. Both passing and trapped energetic particles contribute to BAE excitation through transit and bounce- precessional resonance, respectively. Nonlinear simulations show that the unstable BAE saturates due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction with both thermal and energetic particles. The saturated amplitude exhibits a coherent oscillation with an asymmetric growing and damping phase. Wavelet analysis shows that the mode frequency has a strong chirping associated with the oscillation of the mode amplitude. Analysis of nonlinear wave-particle interaction shows that the frequency chirping is induced by the nonlinear evolution of coherent structures in the energetic particle phase space of toroidal angle and precessional frequency. Controlled simulations further find that thermal particle nonlinearity plays a key role in controlling the saturation amplitude. We will also report self-consistent energetic particle transport from turbulence simulation with wave-particle and wave-wave nonlinearity treated on the same footing for the first time. Work in collaboration with W. Deng, I. Holod, Z. Lin, Y. Xiao and supported by DOE SciDAC GSEP Center and INCITE Program.

  10. Compensation for nonlinear effects in an optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexed signal using adaptive modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidin, A. S.; Sidelnikov, O. S.; Fedoruk, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    We study the influence of nonlinear effects on symbol error statistics when a 16-QAM orthogonal frequency-division multiplexed signal is transmitted in a 1000 {\\text{km}} length of fibre. A technique of adaptive modulation is proposed for generating signals that are resistant to nonlinear distortions. A considerable improvement of the transmission quality is shown to take effect in using an adaptive modulation scheme.

  11. Cascade frequency generation regime in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, D B; Dmitriev, Aleksandr K; Gorelik, P; Vong, Franko; Zondy, J J

    2009-05-31

    In a parametric oscillator of a special two-sectional design based on a lithium niobate periodic structure, a cascade frequency generation regime was observed in which a signal wave pumped a secondary parametric oscillator, producing secondary signal and idler waves. The secondary parametric oscillator can be tuned in a broad range of {approx}200 nm with respect to a fixed wavelength of the primary idler wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  12. Generation of a frequency comb and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hagmann, Mark J; Yarotski, Dmitry A

    2013-12-03

    Apparatus for generating a microwave frequency comb (MFC) in the DC tunneling current of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by fast optical rectification, cause by nonlinearity of the DC current vs. voltage curve for the tunneling junction, of regularly-spaced, short pulses of optical radiation from a focused mode-locked, ultrafast laser, directed onto the tunneling junction, is described. Application of the MFC to high resolution dopant profiling in semiconductors is simulated. Application of the MFC to other measurements is described.

  13. Nonlinear subharmonic generation in nonuniform plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1980-07-01

    Direct subharmonic wave generation in a nonuniform plasma is considered. That mechanism exists only when leaking surface waves can be parametrically excited. An expression for the instability growth rate, which includes collisions, resonance absorption and leaking losses, is derived. A possibility of generating subharmonics at omega(0)/4, 3-omega(0)/4, and 5-omega(0)/4, where omega(0) is the pump wave frequency, is pointed out, and the corresponding field intensities are estimated. The conditions for total energy absorption are discussed, and the pump wave intensity, which produces complete absorption, is obtained for a plasma with a steep density gradient.

  14. Frequency bands of strongly nonlinear homogeneous granular systems.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Joseph; Jayaprakash, K R; Ngo, Duc; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Vakakis, Alexander F; Daraio, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Recent numerical studies on an infinite number of identical spherical beads in Hertzian contact showed the presence of frequency bands [Jayaprakash, Starosvetsky, Vakakis, Peeters, and Kerschen, Nonlinear Dyn. 63, 359 (2011)]. These bands, denoted here as propagation and attenuation bands (PBs and ABs), are typically present in linear or weakly nonlinear periodic media; however, their counterparts are not intuitive in essentially nonlinear periodic media where there is a complete lack of classical linear acoustics, i.e., in "sonic vacua." Here, we study the effects of PBs and ABs on the forced dynamics of ordered, uncompressed granular systems. Through numerical and experimental techniques, we find that the dynamics of these systems depends critically on the frequency and amplitude of the applied harmonic excitation. For fixed forcing amplitude, at lower frequencies, the oscillations are large in amplitude and governed by strongly nonlinear and nonsmooth dynamics, indicating PB behavior. At higher frequencies the dynamics is weakly nonlinear and smooth, in the form of compressed low-amplitude oscillations, indicating AB behavior. At the boundary between the PB and the AB large-amplitude oscillations due to resonance occur, giving rise to collisions between beads and chaotic dynamics; this renders the forced dynamics sensitive to initial and forcing conditions, and hence unpredictable. Finally, we study asymptotically the near field standing wave dynamics occurring for high frequencies, well inside the AB.

  15. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves Through Scattering by Thermal Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C. E.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, B.; Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Ganguli, G.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear interactions involving whistler wave turbulence are important contributors to radiation belt dynamics, including the acceleration and loss of trapped electrons. Given sufficient whistler energy density, nonlinear scattering from thermal electrons can substantially change the wave normal angle, while inducing a small frequency shift [Ganguli et al., 2010]. This nonlinear process is being studied in the NRL Space Physics Simulation Chamber (SPSC) in scaled magnetospheric conditions. The plasma response as a function of transmitted lower hybrid wave amplitude is monitored with magnetic loop antennas. Measurements of the magnetic field vectors for the pump and daughter waves allow for the determination of wave distribution functions, which indicate the power distribution as a function of wave-normal angle and azimuthal angle. The wave distribution functions measured in the experiment demonstrate a dramatic change in propagation direction when the launched wave amplitude exceeds a small threshold (δB / B ~ 4 × 10-7). The experimental results support the theory of electromagnetic whistler wave generation through nonlinear scattering of electrostatic lower hybrid waves by thermal electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere [Crabtree et al, 2012].

  16. Nonlinear Frequency Chirping of β-induced Alfven Eigenmode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huasen

    2012-03-01

    The β-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) have been observed in many tokamaks. The BAE oscillates with the GAM frequency φ0, and therefore, has strong interactions with both thermal and energetic particles. In this work, linear gyrokinetic particle simulations show that nonperturbative contributions by energetic particles and kinetic effects of thermal particles modify BAE mode structure and frequency relative to the MHD theory. Gyrokinetic simulations have been verified by theory-simulation comparison and by benchmark with MHD-gyrokinetic hybrid simulation. Nonlinear simulations show that the unstable BAE saturates due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions with thermal and energetic particles. Wavelet analysis shows that the mode frequency chirping occurs in the absence of sources and sinks, thus it complements the standard ``bump-on-tail'' paradigm for the frequency chirping of Alfven eigenmodes. Analysis of nonlinear wave-particle interactions shows that the frequency chirping is induced by the nonlinear evolution of coherent structures in the energetic particle phase space of (ζ,φd) with toroidal angle ζ and precessional frequency φd. The dynamics of the coherent structures is controlled by the formation and destruction of phase space islands of energetic particles in the canonical variables of (ζ,Pζ) with canonical angular momentum Pζ. Our studies use the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) recently upgraded with a comprehensive formulation for simulating kinetic-MHD processes. In collaborations with GTC team and SciDAC GSEP Center.

  17. CFD Data Generation Process for Nonlinear Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arslan, Alan; Magee, Todd; Unger, Eric; Hartwich, Peter; Agrawal, Shreekant; Giesing, Joseph; Bharadvaj, Bala; Chaderjian, Neal; Murman, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a process to generate a CFD database for the non-linear loads process capability for critical loads evaluation at Boeing Long Beach. The CFD simulations were performed for wing/body configurations at high angles of attack and Reynolds numbers with transonic and elastic deflection effects. Convergence criteria had to be tailored for loads applications rather than the usual drag performance. The time-accurate approach was subsequently adopted in order to improve convergence and model possible unsteadiness in the flowfield. In addition, uncertainty issues relating to the turbulence model and grid resolution in areas of high vortical flows were addressed and investigated for one of the cases.

  18. The transmissibility of nonlinear energy sink based on nonlinear output frequency-response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Ye-Wei; Ding, Hu; Chen, Li-Qun

    2017-03-01

    For the first time, a new representation of transmissibility based on nonlinear output frequency-response functions (NOFRFs) is proposed in the present study. Furthermore, the transmissibility is applied to evaluate the vibration isolation performance of a nonlinear energy sink (NES) in frequency domain. A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) structure with the NES attached system is adopted. Numerical simulations have been performed for the 2-DOF structure. Moreover, the effects of NES parameters on the transmissibility of the nonlinear system are evaluated. By increasing the viscous damping and mass, as well as decreasing the cubic nonlinear stiffness of the NES, the analytical results show that the transmissibility of the 2-DOF structure with NES is reduced over all resonance regions. Therefore, the present paper produces a novel method for NES design in frequency domain.

  19. Frequency spectra of nonlinear elastic pulse-mode waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kadish, A.; TenCate, J.A.; Johnson, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The frequency spectrum of simple waves is used to derive a closed form analytical representation for the frequency spectrum of damped nonlinear pulses in elastic materials. The damping modification of simple wave theory provides an efficient numerical method for calculating propagating wave forms. The spectral representation, which is neither pulse length nor amplitude limited, is used to obtain estimates for parameters of the nonlinear state relation for a sandstone sample from published experimental data, and the results are compared with those of other theories. The method should have broad application to many solids.

  20. A Stepped Frequency Sweeping Method for Nonlinearity Measurement of Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yumiao; Dong, Yonggui; Huang, Xianxiang; Zhang, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    In order to measure the nonlinear features of micromechanical resonators, a free damped oscillation method based on stair-stepped frequency sinusoidal pulse excitation is investigated. In the vicinity of the resonant frequency, a frequency stepping sinusoidal pulse sequence is employed as the excitation signal. A set of free vibration response signals, containing different degrees of nonlinear dynamical characteristics, are obtained. The amplitude-frequency curves of the resonator are acquired from the forced vibration signals. Together with a singular spectrum analysis algorithm, the instantaneous amplitudes and instantaneous frequencies are extracted by a Hilbert transform from the free vibration signals. The calculated Backbone curves, and frequency response function (FRF) curves are distinct and can be used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the resonator. Taking a Duffing system as an example, numerical simulations are carried out for free vibration response signals in cases of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The results show that this method displays better anti-noise performance than FREEVIB. A vibrating ring microgyroscope is experimentally tested. The obtained Backbone and FRF curves agree with those obtained by the traditional frequency sweeping method. As a test technique, the proposed method can also be used to for experimentally testing the dynamic characteristics of other types of micromechanical resonators. PMID:27754381

  1. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Bockstiegel, C.

    2015-08-10

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.

  2. Extension of a nonlinear systems theory to general-frequency unsteady transonic aerodynamic responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.

  3. Discrete- and finite-bandwidth-frequency distributions in nonlinear stability applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehl, Joseph J.

    2017-02-01

    A new "wave packet" formulation of the parabolized stability equations method is presented. This method accounts for the influence of finite-bandwidth-frequency distributions on nonlinear stability calculations. The methodology is motivated by convolution integrals and is found to appropriately represent nonlinear energy transfer between primary modes and harmonics, in particular nonlinear feedback, via a "nonlinear coupling coefficient." It is found that traditional discrete mode formulations overestimate nonlinear feedback by approximately 70%. This results in smaller maximum disturbance amplitudes than those observed experimentally. The new formulation corrects this overestimation, accounts for the generation of side lobes responsible for spectral broadening, and results in disturbance representation more consistent with the experiment than traditional formulations. A Mach 6 flared-cone example is presented.

  4. Wavelength conversion of incoherent light by sum-frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi

    2014-06-02

    In this paper, we reveal that some kinds of optical nonlinearities are further enhanced when incoherent light, instead of a laser, is used as a pump light. This idea was confirmed both theoretically and experimentally in the case of sum-frequency generation (SFG) using the optical second nonlinearity. The conversion efficiency of the SFG with incoherent light pumping increased as the bandwidth of the incoherent pump light decreased, finally reaching twice the conversion efficiency of conventional second harmonic generation (SHG) by laser pumping. This method dramatically relaxes the severe requirements of phase matching in the nonlinear optical process. The conversion efficiency became less sensitive to misalignment of the wavelength of pump light and also of device operation temperature when the bandwidth of the incoherent pump light was sufficiently broad, although the improvement of the conversion efficiency had an inverse relationship with the insensitivity to the phase-matching condition. The temperature tuning range was enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the conventional SHG method. As an example of a promising application of this new idea, we performed the generation of quantum entangled photon-pairs using cascaded optical nonlinearities (SFG and the subsequent spontaneous parametric down conversion) in a single periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide device, in which the incoherent light was used as the pump source for both the parametric processes. We have achieved high fidelity exceeding 99% in quantum-state tomography experiments.

  5. Nonlinear harmonic generation and proposed experimental verification in SASE FELs.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.; Freund, H. P.; Milton, S. V.

    1999-08-24

    Recently, a 3D, polychromatic, nonlinear simulation code was developed to study the growth of nonlinear harmonics in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs). The simulation was applied to the parameters for each stage of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) SASE FEL, intended for operation in the visible, UV, and short UV wavelength regimes, respectively, to study the presence of nonlinear harmonic generation. Significant nonlinear harmonic growth is seen. Here, a discussion of the code development, the APS SASE FEL, the simulations and results, and, finally, the proposed experimental procedure for verification of such nonlinear harmonic generation at the APS SASE FEL will be given.

  6. Nonlinear Flow Generation By Electrostatic Turbulence In Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.

    2010-07-07

    Global gyrokinetic simulations have revealed an important nonlinear flow generation process due to the residual stress produced by electrostatic turbulence of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM). In collisionless TEM (CTEM) turbulence, nonlinear residual stress generation by both the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of broken symmetry in the parallel wave number spectrum is identified for the first time. Concerning the origin of the symmetry breaking, turbulence self-generated low frequency zonal flow shear has been identified to be a key, universal mechanism in various turbulence regimes. Simulations reported here also indicate the existence of other mechanisms beyond E × B shear. The ITG turbulence driven “intrinsic” torque associated with residual stress is shown to increase close to linearly with the ion temperature gradient, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in various devices. In CTEM dominated regimes, a net toroidal rotation is driven in the cocurrent direction by “intrinsic” torque, consistent with the experimental trend of observed intrinsic rotation. The finding of a “flow pinch” in CTEM turbulence may offer an interesting new insight into the underlying dynamics governing the radial penetration of modulated flows in perturbation experiments. Finally, simulations also reveal highly distinct phase space structures between CTEM and ITG turbulence driven momentum, energy and particle fluxes, elucidating the roles of resonant and non-resonant particles.

  7. Nonlinear systems for frequency conversion from IR to RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolasinski, Brian D.

    The objective of this dissertation is to evaluate and develop novel sources for tunable narrowband IR generation, tunable narrowband THz generation, and ultra-wideband RF generation to be used in possible non-destructive evaluation systems. Initially a periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) based optical parametric amplifier (OPA) is designed using a double-pass configuration where a small part of the pump is used on the first pass to generate a signal, which is reflected and filtered by an off-axis etalon. The portion of the pump that is not phase matched on the first pass is retro-reflected back into the PPLN crystal and is co-aligned with the narrow bandwidth filtered signal and amplified. We demonstrate that the system is tunable in the 1.4 microm -1.6 microm signal range with a linewidth of 5.4 GHz. Next the outputs of seeded, dual periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric amplifiers (OPA) are combined in the nonlinear crystal 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) to produce a widely tunable narrowband THz source via difference frequency generation (DFG). We have demonstrated that this novel configuration enables the system to be seamlessly tuned, without mode-hops, from 1.2 THz to 26.3 THz with a minimum bandwidth of 3.1 GHz. The bandwidth of the source was measured by using the THz transmission spectrum of water vapor lines over a 3-meter path length. By selecting of the DFG pump wavelength to be at 1380 nm and the signal wavelength to tune over a range from 1380 nm to 1570 nm, we produced several maxima in the output THz spectrum that was dependent on the phase matching ability of the DAST crystal and the efficiency of our pyro-electric detector. Due to the effects of dispersive phase matching, filter absorption of the THz waves, and two-photon absorption multiple band gaps in the overall spectrum occur and are discussed. Employing the dual generator scheme, we have obtained THz images at several locations in the

  8. Persistent subplasma-frequency kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear waves

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, T. W.; Tyshetskiy, Y.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.

    2009-04-15

    Driving a one-dimensional collisionless Maxwellian (Vlasov) plasma with a sufficiently strong longitudinal ponderomotive driver for a sufficiently long time results in a self-sustaining nonsinusoidal wave train with well-trapped electrons even for frequencies well below the plasma frequency, i.e., in the plasma wave spectral gap. Typical phase velocities of these waves are somewhat above the electron thermal velocity. This new nonlinear wave is being termed a kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) wave. The drive duration must exceed the bounce period {tau}{sub B} of the trapped electrons subject to the drive, as calculated from the drive force and the linear plasma response to the drive. For a given wavenumber a wide range of KEEN wave frequencies can be readily excited. The basic KEEN structure is essentially kinetic, with the trapped electron density variation being almost completely shielded by the free electrons, leaving just enough net charge to support the wave.

  9. Nonlinear frequency coupling in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Waskoenig, J.; Gans, T.

    2010-05-03

    Plasma ionization, and associated mode transitions, in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas are governed through nonlinear frequency coupling in the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. Ionization in low-power mode is determined by the nonlinear coupling of electron heating and the momentary local plasma density. Ionization in high-power mode is driven by electron avalanches during phases of transient high electric fields within the boundary sheath. The transition between these distinctly different modes is controlled by the total voltage of both frequency components.

  10. Quantitative analysis of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Brent O; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Miller, Kyle G

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, quantitative understanding of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator is developed. The indicator is derived from an ensemble-averaged, frequency-domain version of the generalized Burgers equation, which can be rearranged in order to directly compare the effects of nonlinearity, absorption, and geometric spreading on the pressure spectrum level with frequency and distance. The nonlinear effect is calculated using pressure-squared-pressure quadspectrum. Further theoretical development has given an expression for the role of the normalized quadspectrum, referred to as Q/S by Morfey and Howell [AIAA J. 19, 986-992 (1981)], in the spatial rate of change of the pressure spectrum level. To explore this finding, an investigation of the change in level for initial sinusoids propagating as plane waves through inviscid and thermoviscous media has been conducted. The decibel change with distance, calculated through Q/S, captures the growth and decay of the harmonics and indicates that the most significant changes in level occur prior to sawtooth formation. At large distances, the inviscid case results in a spatial rate of change that is uniform across all harmonics. For thermoviscous media, large positive nonlinear gains are observed but offset by absorption, which leads to a greater overall negative spatial rate of change for higher harmonics.

  11. The word frequency effect during sentence reading: A linear or nonlinear effect of log frequency?

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P; Staub, Adrian

    2016-10-20

    The effect of word frequency on eye movement behaviour during reading has been reported in many experimental studies. However, the vast majority of these studies compared only two levels of word frequency (high and low). Here we assess whether the effect of log word frequency on eye movement measures is linear, in an experiment in which a critical target word in each sentence was at one of three approximately equally spaced log frequency levels. Separate analyses treated log frequency as a categorical or a continuous predictor. Both analyses showed only a linear effect of log frequency on the likelihood of skipping a word, and on first fixation duration. Ex-Gaussian analyses of first fixation duration showed similar effects on distributional parameters in comparing high- and medium-frequency words, and medium- and low-frequency words. Analyses of gaze duration and the probability of a refixation suggested a nonlinear pattern, with a larger effect at the lower end of the log frequency scale. However, the nonlinear effects were small, and Bayes Factor analyses favoured the simpler linear models for all measures. The possible roles of lexical and post-lexical factors in producing nonlinear effects of log word frequency during sentence reading are discussed.

  12. Generating nonlinear FM chirp waveforms for radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Nonlinear FM waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents design and implementation techniques for Nonlinear FM waveforms.

  13. Frequency generation and synthesis in the DRSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanloock, P.; Devlieghere, J.

    1992-06-01

    The feasibility of a Tunable Frequency Converter (TFC) concept envisaged on board of the Data Relay System Satellites (DRSS), which requires a synthesizer with state of the art phase noise performance that is locked to a common, ultrastable oscillator, is addressed. The DRSS Ka band communication links are discussed with reference to the DRS system and the TCF. The aim is to provide an autonomous TCF unit demonstrating that the advanced channel selection scheme, with all frequency translations locked to one common reference, is feasible. Concept tradeoff and key elements of the frequency synthesizer are outlined. White noise filtering and reference frequency selection of the reference generator are discussed. The TFC unit allows payload reconfigurability via the frequency setting. The concept is extendable to all TFC types on board of the DRSS.

  14. High frequency plasma generator for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, H.; Divergilio, W. F.; Fosnight, V. V.; Komatsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program to experimentally develop two new types of plasma generators for 30 cm electrostatic argon ion thrusters are presented. The two plasma generating methods selected for this study were by radio frequency induction (RFI), operating at an input power frequency of 1 MHz, and by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at an operating frequency of 5.0 GHz. Both of these generators utilize multiline cusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement and beam profile optimization. The program goals were to develop a plasma generator possessing the characteristics of high electrical efficiency (low eV/ion) and simplicity of operation while maintaining the reliability and durability of the conventional hollow cathode plasma sources. The RFI plasma generator has achieved minimum discharge losses of 120 eV/ion while the ECH generator has obtained 145 eV/ion, assuming a 90% ion optical transparency of the electrostatic acceleration system. Details of experimental tests with a variety of magnet configurations are presented.

  15. Linear and Nonlinear Molecular Spectroscopy with Laser Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picque, Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    The regular pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser can give rise to a comb spectrum of millions of laser modes with a spacing precisely equal to the pulse repetition frequency. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. They are now becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, including molecular spectroscopy. Recent experiments of multi-heterodyne frequency comb Fourier transform spectroscopy (also called dual-comb spectroscopy) have demonstrated that the precisely spaced spectral lines of a laser frequency comb can be harnessed for new techniques of linear absorption spectroscopy. The first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential of dual-comb spectroscopy without moving parts for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex broad spectral bandwidth molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Michelson-based Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. The resolution improves proportionally to the measurement time. Therefore longer recordings allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. Moreover, since laser frequency combs involve intense ultrashort laser pulses, nonlinear interactions can be harnessed. Broad spectral bandwidth ultra-rapid nonlinear molecular spectroscopy and imaging with two laser frequency combs is demonstrated with coherent Raman effects and two-photon excitation. Real-time multiplex accessing of hyperspectral images may dramatically expand the range of applications of nonlinear microscopy. B. Bernhardt et al., Nature Photonics 4, 55-57 (2010); A. Schliesser et al. Nature Photonics 6, 440-449 (2012); T. Ideguchi et al. arXiv:1201.4177 (2012) T

  16. Material candidates for optical frequency comb generation in microspheres.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Nicolas; Afshar V, Shahraam; François, Alexandre; Monro, Tanya M

    2015-06-01

    This paper evaluates the opportunities for using materials other than silica for optical frequency comb generation in whispering gallery mode microsphere resonators. Different materials are shown to satisfy the requirement of dispersion compensation in interesting spectral regions such as the visible or mid-infrared and for smaller microspheres. This paper also analyses the prospects of comb generation in microspheres within aqueous solution for potential use in applications such as biosensing. It is predicted that to achieve comb generation with microspheres in aqueous solution the visible low-loss wavelength window of water needs to be exploited. This is because efficient comb generation necessitates ultra-high Q-factors, which are only possible for cavities with low absorption of the evanescent field outside the cavity. This paper explores the figure of merit for nonlinear interaction efficiency and the potential for dispersion compensation at unique wavelengths for a host of microsphere materials and dimensions and in different surroundings.

  17. Nonlinear Connectivity in the Human Stretch Reflex Assessed by Cross-Frequency Phase Coupling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Yao, Jun; van der Helm, Frans C T; Dewald, Julius P A; Schouten, Alfred C

    2016-12-01

    Communication between neuronal populations is facilitated by synchronization of their oscillatory activity. Although nonlinearity has been observed in the sensorimotor system, its nonlinear connectivity has not been widely investigated yet. This study investigates nonlinear connectivity during the human stretch reflex based on neuronal synchronization. Healthy participants generated isotonic wrist flexion while receiving a periodic mechanical perturbation to the wrist. Using a novel cross-frequency phase coupling metric, we estimate directional nonlinear connectivity, including time delay, from the perturbation to brain and to muscle, as well as from brain to muscle. Nonlinear phase coupling is significantly stronger from the perturbation to the muscle than to the brain, with a shorter time delay. The time delay from the perturbation to the muscle is 33 ms, similar to the reported latency of the spinal stretch reflex at the wrist. Source localization of nonlinear phase coupling from the brain to the muscle suggests activity originating from the motor cortex, although its effect on the stretch reflex is weak. As such nonlinear phase coupling between the perturbation and muscle activity is dominated by the spinal reflex loop. This study provides new evidence of nonlinear neuronal synchronization in the stretch reflex at the wrist joint with respect to spinal and transcortical loops.

  18. Nonlinear amplitude frequency characteristics of attenuation in rock under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinskii, E. I.

    2006-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of change in strain amplitude on the frequency dependence of attenuation in samples of sandstone, smoky quartz and duralumin. The measurements were performed using the reflection method on pulse frequency of 1 MHz in the strain range ~(0.3-2.0) × 10-6 under a confining pressure of 20 MPa. The attenuation in rocks is nonlinearly dependent on frequency and strain amplitude. In sandstone for P-waves and in smoky quartz for P- and S-waves, the dependences Q-1p(f) and Q-1s(f) have the attenuation peak. With increasing amplitude, the peak frequency can shift towards both the lower and the higher frequencies. It depends on the location of the frequency of an incident (input) pulse with respect to the peak frequency on the frequency axis. For sandstone the peak frequency of P-waves shifts towards the higher frequencies. For smoky quartz the shift of peak frequency is absent in P-waves, and S-waves shift towards the lower frequencies. The attenuation at the incident frequency always monotonically decreases with amplitude, and the other frequency components have complex or monotonic characters depending on the location of the incident frequency in the relaxation spectrum. Q-1p(f) in duralumin has monotonic character, i.e. a relaxation peak in the measurement frequency band is absent. Attenuation strongly decreases with increasing frequency and weakly depends on strain amplitude. The curve Q-1s(f) has an attenuation peak, and its character essentially depends on strain amplitude. With increasing amplitude, the peak frequency shifts towards the lower frequencies. The unusual increase of peak frequency of the P-wave spectrum in the bottom reflection in comparison with peak frequency in spectrum of the initial reflection is detected. The unusual behaviour of attenuation is explained by features of the joint action of viscoelastic and microplastic mechanisms. These results can be used for improving methods

  19. Nonlinear ring resonator: spatial pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir Y.; Lachinova, Svetlana L.; Irochnikov, Nikita G.

    2000-03-01

    We consider theoretically spatial pattern formation processes in a unidirectional ring cavity with thin layer of Kerr-type nonlinear medium. Our method is based on studying of two coupled equations. The first is a partial differential equation for temporal dynamics of phase modulation of light wave in the medium. It describes nonlinear interaction in the Kerr-type lice. The second is a free propagation equation for the intracavity field complex amplitude. It involves diffraction effects of light wave in the cavity.

  20. Observations of Ionospheric ELF and VLF Wave Generation by Excitation of the Thermal Cubic Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Fujimaru, S.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Gołkowski, M.

    2013-12-01

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves.

  1. Observations of ionospheric ELF and VLF wave generation by excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Moore, R C; Fujimaru, S; Kotovsky, D A; Gołkowski, M

    2013-12-06

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves.

  2. Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Nonlinear Flight Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Nonlinear Flight Systems AF02T002 Phase II Final Report Contract No. FA9550-04-C-0032 Principal...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Report for 14 April 2004-14 April 2006 Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Nonlinear Flight...A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Unmanned aerial vehicle and smart munition systems need robust, real-time path generation and

  3. Nonlinear mode interactions and frequency-jump effects in a doubly tuned oscillator configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, J.; Lashinsky, H.

    1980-05-01

    Frequency-jump effects associated with nonlinear mode competition are investigated in an oscillator configuration consisting of a passive linear resonance system coupled to an active nonlinear resonance system. These effects give rise to a hysteresis pattern whose height and width can be related to system parameters such as the resonance frequencies, dissipation, coupling coefficient, etc. It is noted that these effects offer a novel means of determining these parameters in cases in which conventional techniques may not be desirable or as advantageous. The analysis provides an qualitative explanation of empirical observations in a recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiment (Timsit and Daniels, 1976). The results also apply to other nonlinear resonance systems such as lasers, microwave generators, and electronic oscillators.

  4. Nonlinear control of high-frequency phonons in spider silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Dirk; Gomopoulos, Nikolaos; Koh, Cheong Y.; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Kremer, Friedrich; Thomas, Edwin L.; Fytas, George

    2016-10-01

    Spider dragline silk possesses superior mechanical properties compared with synthetic polymers with similar chemical structure due to its hierarchical structure comprised of partially crystalline oriented nanofibrils. To date, silk’s dynamic mechanical properties have been largely unexplored. Here we report an indirect hypersonic phononic bandgap and an anomalous dispersion of the acoustic-like branch from inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering experiments under varying applied elastic strains. We show the mechanical nonlinearity of the silk structure generates a unique region of negative group velocity, that together with the global (mechanical) anisotropy provides novel symmetry conditions for gap formation. The phononic bandgap and dispersion show strong nonlinear strain-dependent behaviour. Exploiting material nonlinearity along with tailored structural anisotropy could be a new design paradigm to access new types of dynamic behaviour.

  5. High frequency electromagnetic detection by nonlinear conduction modulation in graphene nanowire diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, M.; Thorsell, M.; Strupiński, W.; Rorsman, N.

    2015-10-01

    We present graphene nanowires implemented as dispersion free self switched microwave diode detectors. The microwave properties of the detectors are investigated using vector corrected large signal measurements in order to determine the detector responsivity and noise equivalent power (NEP) as a function of frequency, input power, and device geometry. We identify two distinct conductance nonlinearities which generate detector responsivity: an edge effect nonlinearity near zero bias due to lateral gating of the nanowire structures, and a velocity saturation nonlinearity which generates current compression at high power levels. The scaling study shows that detector responsivity obeys an exponential scaling law with respect to nanowire width, and a peak responsivity (NEP) of 250 V/W (50 pW/ √{ Hz } ) is observed in detectors of the smallest width. The results are promising as the devices exhibit responsivities which are comparable to state of the art self switched detectors in semiconductor technologies.

  6. Phase-matching conditions for nonlinear frequency conversion by use of aligned molecular gases.

    PubMed

    Bartels, R A; Wagner, N L; Baertschy, M D; Wyss, J; Murnane, M M; Kapteyn, H C

    2003-03-01

    Transient birefringence can be induced in a gas of anisotropic molecules by an intense polarized laser pulse. We propose to use this birefringence to phase match nonlinear optical frequency-conversion processes. The conditions for anisotropic phase matching are derived, and experimental conditions required for phase-matched third-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core fiber are presented. We show that these conditions are experimentally feasible over a significant parameter range, making possible a new type of nonlinear optics.

  7. Toward an adjustable nonlinear low frequency acoustic absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, R.; Bellizzi, S.; Cochelin, B.; Herzog, P.; Mattei, P. O.

    2011-10-01

    A study of the targeted energy transfer (TET) phenomenon between an acoustic resonator and a thin viscoelastic membrane has recently been presented in the paper [R. Bellet et al., Experimental study of targeted energy transfer from an acoustic system to a nonlinear membrane absorber, Journal of Sound and Vibration 329 (2010) 2768-2791], providing a new path to passive sound control in the low frequency domain where no efficient dissipative device exists. This paper presents experimental results showing that a loudspeaker used as a suspended piston working outside its range of linearity can also be used as a nonlinear acoustic absorber. The main advantage of this technology of absorber is the perspective to adjust independently the device parameters (mass, nonlinear stiffness and damping) according to the operational conditions. To achieve this purpose, quasi-static and dynamic tests have been performed on three types of commercial devices (one with structural modifications), in order to define the constructive characteristics that it should present. An experimental setup has been developed using a one-dimensional acoustic linear system coupled through a box (acting as a weak spring) to a loudspeaker used as a suspended piston acting as an essentially nonlinear oscillator. The tests carried out on the whole vibro-acoustic system have showed the occurrence of the acoustic TET from the acoustic media to the suspended piston and demonstrated the efficiency of this new kind of absorber at low frequencies over a wide frequency range. Moreover, the experimental analyses conducted with different NES masses have confirmed that it is possible to optimize the noise absorption with respect to the excitation level of the acoustic resonator.

  8. Combined Linear and Nonlinear Radar: Waveform Generation and Capture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    10  Figure 10. Directional coupler and linear/nonlinear receiver chain. ............................................10...electronic targets. The HP 778D dual- directional coupler provides one port for sampling the forward (transmit, Tx) waveform and another port for...loss under 3 dB. Figure 10. Directional coupler and linear/nonlinear receiver chain. 3.2 MATLAB Graphical User Interface The AWG7052 generator

  9. Nonlinear heating of ions by electron cyclotron frequency waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zestanakis, P. A.; Hizanidis, K.; Ram, A. K.; Kominis, Y.

    2010-11-01

    We study the nonlinear interaction of ions with electron cyclotron (EC) wave packets in a magnetized plasma. Previous studies have shown that such interactions with high frequency electrostatic lower hybrid waves can lead to coherent energization of ions. It requires the frequency bandwidth of the wave packet to be broader than the ion cyclotron frequency [1,2]. For the electromagnetic high frequency EC waves we have developed a more general theory, based on the Lie transform canonical perturbation method [3,4]. We apply the theory to the case of two overlapping EC beams. The wave frequency of each beam is assumed to be frequency modulated with a modulation bandwidth comparable to the ion cyclotron frequency. We present results for both X-mode and O-mode and illustrate the conditions for ion energization. [4pt] [1] D. Benisti, A. K. Ram, and A. Bers, Phys. Plasmas 5, 3224 (1998). [0pt] [2] A. K. Ram, A. Bers, and D. Benisti , J. Geophys. Res. 103, 9431 (1998). [0pt] [3] J.R. Cary and A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Fluids 24, 1238 (1981). [0pt] [4] R.L. Dewar, J. Phys A-Math. Gen 9, 2043 (1976).

  10. Frequency and time generation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M.

    1981-01-01

    High precision quartz crystal oscillators, cesium beam atomic resonators, and cesium beam atomic standards for time and frequency generation equipment for ground, airborne, and space use are described. Because of the high risk factors involved, and the commercial applications of these products being too far off in the future, private capital for research and development is difficult if not impossible to obtain. More specific analysis and recommendations to overcome these difficulties are objectively presented.

  11. High Frequency Plasma Generators for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Fosnight, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a one year program to experimentally adapt two new types of high frequency plasma generators to Argon ion thrusters and to analytically study a third high frequency source concept are presented. Conventional 30 cm two grid ion extraction was utilized or proposed for all three sources. The two plasma generating methods selected for experimental study were a radio frequency induction (RFI) source, operating at about 1 MHz, and an electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasma source operating at about 5 GHz. Both sources utilize multi-linecusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement. The plasma characteristics, plasma loading of the rf antenna, and the rf frequency dependence of source efficiency and antenna circuit efficiency are described for the RFI Multi-cusp source. In a series of tests of this source at Lewis Research Center, minimum discharge losses of 220+/-10 eV/ion were obtained with propellant utilization of .45 at a beam current of 3 amperes. Possible improvement modifications are discussed.

  12. Low frequency nonlinear waves in electron depleted magnetized nonthermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarak Hossen, Md.; Sahadat Alam, Md.; Sultana, Sharmin; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical study on the ultra-low frequency small but finite amplitude solitary waves has been carried out in an electron depleted magnetized nonthermal dusty plasma consisting of both polarity (positively charged as well as negatively charged) inertial massive dust particles and nonextensive q distributed ions. The reductive perturbation technique is employed to derive the ZakharovKuznetsov (ZK) equation. The basic features of low frequency solitary wave are analyzed via the solution of ZK equation. It is observed that the intrinsic properties (e.g., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) are significantly influenced by the effects external magnetic field, obliqueness, nonextensivity of ions, and the ratio of ion number density to the product of electron and negative dust number density. The findings of our results may be useful to explain the low frequency nonlinear wave propagation in some plasma environments like cometary tails, the earth polar mesosphere, Jupiter's magnetosphere, etc.

  13. Nonlinear Generation of Vorticity by Surface Waves.

    PubMed

    Filatov, S V; Parfenyev, V M; Vergeles, S S; Brazhnikov, M Yu; Levchenko, A A; Lebedev, V V

    2016-02-05

    We demonstrate that waves excited on a fluid surface produce local surface rotation owing to hydrodynamic nonlinearity. We examine theoretically the effect and obtain an explicit formula for the vertical vorticity in terms of the surface elevation. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements of surface motion in a cell with water where surface waves are excited by vertical and harmonic shaking the cell. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We discuss physical consequences of the effect.

  14. Terahertz radiation generation by nonlinear mixing of two laser beams over a thin foil

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.

    2015-07-31

    Terahertz radiation generation via nonlinear mixing of two laser beams incident over a thin metal foil is explored. The lasers exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons of metal foil at beat frequency which lies in the terahertz range. The metal foil acts as antenna, producing terahertz radiations, highly directional in nature.

  15. Experimental demonstration of linear precompensation of a nonlinear transfer function due to second-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Sébastien; Luce, Jacques; Penninckx, Denis

    2011-01-01

    We report on what we believe is the first experimental demonstration of the linear precompensation of a nonlinear transfer function due to frequency conversion. As a proof of principle, we show the effective precompensation with an interferometric filter of FM-to-AM conversion due to second-harmonic generation in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal.

  16. Simultaneous mid-infrared pulse generation and shaping in engineered quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Ryosuke

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations demonstrate that mid-infrared pulses are arbitrarily shaped during the differential frequency mixing of two femtosecond near-infrared pulses propagating in an engineered quasi-periodic poled medium with optical nonlinearity and group velocity dispersion. Shaped pulses, including linearly chirped pulses and pulse trains, are generated with high conversion efficiencies.

  17. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation via microwave frequency multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D. C.; Beha, K. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Papp, S. B.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a system based on telecom components for the generation of a coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum from a continuous-wave laser. The system utilizes direct multiplication of a 10 GHz signal derived from a commercial synthesizer to carve pulses from the laser, which are then iteratively chirped and compressed in two stages. After reducing the repetition rate of the resulting pulse train to 2.5 GHz using selective transmission through an electro-optic gate, propagation through highly-nonlinear fiber generates an octave-spanning supercontinuum spectrum. We discuss the impact of the noise of the modulation frequency on the coherence of the supercontinuum and discuss its mitigation. Close agreement between experiment and theory is shown throughout, and we use our ability to precisely model the experiment to propose an extension of the system to 20 GHz repetition rate.

  18. Solving Large Scale Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problem in Next-Generation Accelerator Design

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ben-Shan; Bai, Zhaojun; Lee, Lie-Quan; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC

    2006-09-28

    A number of numerical methods, including inverse iteration, method of successive linear problem and nonlinear Arnoldi algorithm, are studied in this paper to solve a large scale nonlinear eigenvalue problem arising from finite element analysis of resonant frequencies and external Q{sub e} values of a waveguide loaded cavity in the next-generation accelerator design. They present a nonlinear Rayleigh-Ritz iterative projection algorithm, NRRIT in short and demonstrate that it is the most promising approach for a model scale cavity design. The NRRIT algorithm is an extension of the nonlinear Arnoldi algorithm due to Voss. Computational challenges of solving such a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for a full scale cavity design are outlined.

  19. Third-harmonic generation via nonlinear Raman--Nath diffraction in nonlinear photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yan; Wang, Wenjie; Shiloh, Roy; Roppo, Vito; Arie, Ady; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2011-08-01

    We report on the observation of multiple third-harmonic conical waves generated in an annular periodically poled nonlinear photonic crystal. We show that the conical beams are formed as a result of the cascading effect involving two parametric processes that satisfy either the transverse and/or longitudinal phase-patching conditions. This is the first experimental observation of third-harmonic generation based on nonlinear Raman--Nath diffraction.

  20. Generating vocal tract shapes from formant frequencies.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, P; Harshman, R; Goldstein, L; Rice, L

    1978-10-01

    An algorithm that uses only the first three formant frequencies has been devised for generating vocal tract shapes as seen on midsagittal x-ray diagrams of most English vowels. The shape of the tongue is characterized in terms of the sum of two factors derived from PARAFAC analysis: a front raising component and a back raising component. Stepwise multiple regression techniques were used to show that the proportions of these two components, and of a third parameter corresponding to the distance between the lips, are highly correlated with the formant frequencies in 50 vowels. The recovery algorithm developed from these correlations was tested on a number of published sets of tracings from x-ray diagrams, and appears to be generalizable to other speakers.

  1. Nonlinear frequency shift of electrostatic waves in general collisionless plasma: Unifying theory of fluid and kinetic nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Dodin, Ilya Y.

    2015-08-15

    The nonlinear frequency shift is derived in a transparent asymptotic form for intense Langmuir waves in general collisionless plasma. The formula describes both fluid and kinetic effects simultaneously. The fluid nonlinearity is expressed, for the first time, through the plasma dielectric function, and the kinetic nonlinearity accounts for both smooth distributions and trapped-particle beams. Various known limiting scalings are reproduced as special cases. The calculation avoids differential equations and can be extended straightforwardly to other nonlinear plasma waves.

  2. Cumulative Second Harmonic Generation in Lamb Waves for the Detection of Material Nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Bermes, Christian; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-03-21

    An understanding of the generation of higher harmonics in Lamb waves is of critical importance for applications such as remaining life prediction of plate-like structural components. The objective of this work is to use nonlinear Lamb waves to experimentally investigate inherent material nonlinearities in aluminum plates. These nonlinearities, e.g. lattice anharmonicities, precipitates or vacancies, cause higher harmonics to form in propagating Lamb waves. The amplitudes of the higher harmonics increase with increasing propagation distance due to the accumulation of nonlinearity while the Lamb wave travels along its path. Special focus is laid on the second harmonic, and a relative nonlinearity parameter is defined as a function of the fundamental and second harmonic amplitude. The experimental setup uses an ultrasonic transducer and a wedge for the Lamb wave generation, and laser interferometry for detection. The experimentally measured Lamb wave signals are processed with a short-time Fourier transformation (STFT), which yields the amplitudes at different frequencies as functions of time, allowing the observation of the nonlinear behavior of the material. The increase of the relative nonlinearity parameter with propagation distance as an indicator of cumulative second harmonic generation is shown in the results for the alloy aluminum 1100-H14.

  3. Quasi-phase-matched backward second-harmonic generation by complementary media in nonlinear metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gong, Xiufen

    2012-10-01

    High efficiency of the second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation can be obtained in optical superlattice by using the conventional quasi-phase-matched (QPM) method. Although this trick can be played on the acoustic wave, the media with negative nonlinear parameters are not common in acoustics. Furthermore, the QPM method used in acoustic metamaterials has been less studied. In this work, a protocol is provided to realize the QPM method by using nonlinear complementary media in acoustic metamaterials in order to obtain large backward second-harmonic generation. Compared with the conventional method, the method gains a broader bandwidth and can be used in both acoustic and electromagnetic waves.

  4. CHRONICLE: Conference on Nonlinear Resonant Conversion of Laser Radiation Frequency, Tashkent, October 3-5, 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhramov, S. A.; Tartakovskiĭ, G. Kh

    1981-03-01

    A brief review is given of the papers presented at a conference on nonlinear resonant frequency conversion. Attention is concentrated on the following four topics: optically pumped lasers, nonlinear resonant frequency conversion, Raman converters, and physical processes in nonlinear resonant interactions.

  5. Micro-Doppler frequency comb generation by rotating wire scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V.; Filonov, D.; Yankelevich, Y.; Ginzburg, P.

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic scattering in accelerating reference frames inspires a variety of phenomena, requiring employment of general relativity for their description. While the 'quasi-stationary field' analysis could be applied to slowly-accelerating bodies as a first-order approximation, the scattering problem remains fundamentally nonlinear in boundary conditions, giving rise to multiple frequency generation (micro-Doppler shifts). Here a frequency comb, generated by an axially rotating subwavelength (cm-range) wires is analyzed theoretically and observed experimentally by illuminating the system with a 2 GHz carrier wave. Highly accurate 'lock in' detection scheme enables factorization of the carrier and observation of multiple peaks in a comb. The Hallen integral equation is employed for deriving the currents induced on the scatterer and a set of coordinate transformations, connecting laboratory and rotating frames, is applied in order to make analytical predictions of the spectral positions and amplitudes of the frequency comb peaks. Numeric simulations of the theoretic framework reveal the dependence of the micro-Doppler peaks on the wire's length and its axis of rotation. Unique spectral signature of micro-Doppler shifts could enable resolving internal structures of scatterers and mapping their accelerations in space, which is valuable for a variety of applications spanning from targets identification to stellar radiometry.

  6. Quadrupole second harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation in ZnO quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Maikhuri, Deepti; Purohit, S. P. Mathur, K. C.

    2015-04-15

    The second harmonic generation (SHG) and the sum frequency generation (SFG) processes are investigated in the conduction band states of the singly charged ZnO quantum dot (QD) embedded in the HfO{sub 2}, and the AlN matrices. With two optical fields of frequency ω{sub p} and ω{sub q} incident on the dot, we study the variation with frequency of the second order nonlinear polarization resulting in SHG and SFG, through the electric dipole and the electric quadrupole interactions of the pump fields with the electron in the dot. We obtain enhanced value of the second order nonlinear susceptibility in the dot compared to the bulk. The effective mass approximation with the finite confining barrier is used for obtaining the energy and wavefunctions of the quantized confined states of the electron in the conduction band of the dot. Our results show that both the SHG and SFG processes depend on the dot size, the surrounding matrix and the polarization states of the pump beams.

  7. Experimental photonic generation of chirped pulses using nonlinear dispersion-based incoherent processing.

    PubMed

    Rius, Manuel; Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2015-05-18

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a chirped microwave pulses generator based on the processing of an incoherent optical signal by means of a nonlinear dispersive element. Different capabilities have been demonstrated such as the control of the time-bandwidth product and the frequency tuning increasing the flexibility of the generated waveform compared to coherent techniques. Moreover, the use of differential detection improves considerably the limitation over the signal-to-noise ratio related to incoherent processing.

  8. Photon-pair generation in arrays of cubic nonlinear waveguides.

    PubMed

    Solntsev, Alexander S; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-11-19

    We study photon-pair generation in arrays of cubic nonlinear waveguides through spontaneous four-wave mixing. We analyze numerically the quantum statistics of photon pairs at the array output as a function of waveguide dispersion and pump beam power. We show flexible spatial quantum state control such as pump-power-controlled transition between bunching and anti-bunching correlations due to nonlinear self-focusing.

  9. Singly resonant second-harmonic-generation frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, T.; Leo, F.; Erkintalo, M.; Coen, S.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Wabnitz, S.

    2017-01-01

    We consider frequency comb generation in dispersive singly resonant second-harmonic-generation cavity systems. Using a single temporal mean-field equation for the fundamental field that features a noninstantaneous nonlinear response function, we model the temporal and spectral dynamics and analyze comb generation, continuous wave bistability, and modulational instability. It is found that, owing to the significant temporal walk-off between the fundamental and second-harmonic fields, modulational instability can occur even in the complete absence of group-velocity dispersion. We further consider the relation of our model to a previously proposed modal expansion approach, and present a derivation of a general system of coupled mode equations. We show that the two models provide very similar predictions and become exactly equivalent in the limit that absorption losses and group-velocity dispersion at the fundamental frequency are neglected. Finally, we perform numerical simulations that show examples of the variety of comb states that are possible in phase-matched quadratic resonators, and discuss the dynamics of the comb formation process.

  10. Generation of blue light by sum-frequency generation of a spectrally combined broad-area diode laser array.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhanda; Jiang, Menghua; Yu, Haoyang; Hui, Yongling; Lei, Hong; Li, Qiang

    2016-10-15

    We present the first demonstration of a spectrally beam combined diode laser array with subsequent sum-frequency generation (SFG). The combined beam of the diode laser array with 19 emitters has the same beam quality as a single emitter, and the wavelength of each emitter is different. The blue light is generated by sum-frequency mixing of pairs of emitters in the diode laser array. About 93 mW of blue light power is produced using a PPLN crystal. Compared with the SFG of two emitters, this approach can increase the number of lasers participating in nonlinear frequency conversion. Thus, it can enhance the available power.

  11. Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-02-01

    A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

  12. Low- and high-frequency nonlinear acoustic phenomena in a magnesite.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, V E; Kolpakov, A B

    2014-02-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear acoustic phenomena (amplitude-dependent losses, resonant frequency shifts, damping of weak ultrasonic pulses and their carrier frequency phase delay under action of a powerful low-frequency pumping wave as well as amplitude-phase self-action of the finite-amplitude ultrasonic pulses) in a magnesite rod are presented. Analytical description of the observed phenomena was carried out within the frameworks of the phenomenological state equations that contain low-frequency hysteretic nonlinearity and both high-frequency dissipative and elastic nonlinearity. From comparison of experimental and analytical amplitude-frequency dependences of nonlinear phenomena, the values of magnesite acoustic nonlinearity parameters were determined. The frequency dependences have been discovered for hysteretic (in a range 3.6-17.2 kHz) as well as dissipative and elastic nonlinearity (in a range 50-370 kHz).

  13. Time frequency chirp-Wigner transform for signals with any nonlinear polynomial time varying instantaneous frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, L.; Gould, J. D.

    2007-11-01

    The new technique, the time-frequency chirp-Wigner transform has been proposed recently. This technique is further investigated for the general case of higher order chirps, i.e. non-stationary signals with any nonlinear polynomial variation of the instantaneous frequency in time. Analytical and numerical comparison of the chirp-Wigner transform and the classical Wigner distribution was performed for processing of single-component and multi-component higher order chirps. It is shown for the general case of single component higher order chirps that the chirp-Wigner transform has an essential advantage in comparison with the traditional Wigner distribution: the chirp-Wigner transform ideally follows the nonlinear polynomial frequency variation without amplitude errors. It is shown for multi-component signal where each component is a higher order chirp, that the chirp-Wigner transform adjusted to a single component will follow the instantaneous frequency of the component without amplitude errors. It is also shown that the classical Wigner distribution is unable to estimate component amplitudes of single component and multi-component higher order chirps.

  14. Nonlinear frequency compression: Influence of start frequency and input bandwidth on consonant and vowel recognitiona)

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    By varying parameters that control nonlinear frequency compression (NFC), this study examined how different ways of compressing inaudible mid- and/or high-frequency information at lower frequencies influences perception of consonants and vowels. Twenty-eight listeners with mild to moderately severe hearing loss identified consonants and vowels from nonsense syllables in noise following amplification via a hearing aid simulator. Low-pass filtering and the selection of NFC parameters fixed the output bandwidth at a frequency representing a moderately severe (3.3 kHz, group MS) or a mild-to-moderate (5.0 kHz, group MM) high-frequency loss. For each group (n = 14), effects of six combinations of NFC start frequency (SF) and input bandwidth [by varying the compression ratio (CR)] were examined. For both groups, the 1.6 kHz SF significantly reduced vowel and consonant recognition, especially as CR increased; whereas, recognition was generally unaffected if SF increased at the expense of a higher CR. Vowel recognition detriments for group MS were moderately correlated with the size of the second formant frequency shift following NFC. For both groups, significant improvement (33%–50%) with NFC was confined to final /s/ and /z/ and to some VCV tokens, perhaps because of listeners' limited exposure to each setting. No set of parameters simultaneously maximized recognition across all tokens. PMID:26936574

  15. Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called “chiral” SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore’s orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677

  16. Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides.

    PubMed

    Carr, Joshua K; Wang, Lu; Roy, Santanu; Skinner, James L

    2015-07-23

    Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called "chiral" SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore's orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra.

  17. Multipolar interference for non-reciprocal nonlinear generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-04-01

    We show that nonlinear multipolar interference allows achieving not only unidirectional, but also non-reciprocal nonlinear generation from a nanoelement, with the direction of the produced light decoupled from the direction of at least one of the excitation beams. Alternatively, it may allow inhibiting the specified nonlinear response in a nanoelement or in its periodic arrangement by reversing the direction of one of the pumps. These general phenomena exploit the fact that, contrary to the linear response case, nonlinear magneto-electric interference stems from a combination of additive and multiplicative processes and includes an interference between various terms within the electric and magnetic partial waves themselves. We demonstrate the introduced concept numerically using an example of a plasmonic dimer geometry with realistic material parameters.

  18. Multipolar interference for non-reciprocal nonlinear generation

    PubMed Central

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    We show that nonlinear multipolar interference allows achieving not only unidirectional, but also non-reciprocal nonlinear generation from a nanoelement, with the direction of the produced light decoupled from the direction of at least one of the excitation beams. Alternatively, it may allow inhibiting the specified nonlinear response in a nanoelement or in its periodic arrangement by reversing the direction of one of the pumps. These general phenomena exploit the fact that, contrary to the linear response case, nonlinear magneto-electric interference stems from a combination of additive and multiplicative processes and includes an interference between various terms within the electric and magnetic partial waves themselves. We demonstrate the introduced concept numerically using an example of a plasmonic dimer geometry with realistic material parameters. PMID:27126209

  19. Nonlinear frequency-dependent synchronization in the developing hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Prida, L M; Sanchez-Andres, J V

    1999-07-01

    Synchronous population activity is present both in normal and pathological conditions such as epilepsy. In the immature hippocampus, synchronous bursting is an electrophysiological conspicuous event. These bursts, known as giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs), are generated by the synchronized activation of interneurons and pyramidal cells via GABAA, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and AMPA receptors. Nevertheless the mechanism leading to this synchronization is still controversial. We have investigated the conditions under which synchronization arises in developing hippocampal networks. By means of simultaneous intracellular recordings, we show that GDPs result from local cooperation of active cells within an integration period prior to their onset. During this time interval, an increase in the number of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) takes place building up full synchronization between cells. These EPSPs are correlated with individual action potentials simultaneously occurring in neighboring cells. We have used EPSP frequency as an indicator of the neuronal activity underlying GDP generation. By comparing EPSP frequency with the occurrence of synchronized GDPs between CA3 and the fascia dentata (FD), we found that GDPs are fired in an all-or-none manner, which is characterized by a specific threshold of EPSP frequency from which synchronous GDPs emerge. In FD, the EPSP frequency-threshold for GDP onset is 17 Hz. GDPs are triggered similarly in CA3 by appropriate periodic stimulation of mossy fibers. The frequency threshold for CA3 GDP onset is 12 Hz. These findings clarify the local mechanism of synchronization underlying bursting in the developing hippocampus, indicating that GDPs are fired when background levels of EPSPs or action potentials have built up full synchronization by firing at specific frequencies (>12 Hz). Our results also demonstrate that spontaneous EPSPs and action potentials are important for the initiation of synchronous bursts in the

  20. Nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by natural and artificially generated subsurface bubble layers in sea.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Lev A; Sutin, Alexander M; Soustova, Irina A; Matveyev, Alexander L; Potapov, Andrey I; Kluzek, Zigmund

    2003-02-01

    The paper describes nonlinear effects due to a biharmonic acoustic signal scattering from air bubbles in the sea. The results of field experiments in a shallow sea are presented. Two waves radiated at frequencies 30 and 31-37 kHz generated backscattered signals at sum and difference frequencies in a bubble layer. A motorboat propeller was used to generate bubbles with different concentrations at different times, up to the return to the natural subsurface layer. Theoretical consideration is given for these effects. The experimental data are in a reasonably good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  1. Generation and propagation of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.

    2007-01-01

    During the summer, nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) are commonly observed propagating in Massachusetts Bay. The topography of the area is unique in the sense that the generation area (over Stellwagen Bank) is only 25 km away from the shoaling area, and thus it represents an excellent natural laboratory to study the life cycle of NLIWs. To assist in the interpretation of the data collected during the 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment (MBIWE98), a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model covering the generation/shoaling region was developed, to investigate the response of the system to the range of background and driving conditions observed. Simplified models were also used to elucidate the role of nonlinearity and dispersion in shaping the NLIW field. This paper concentrates on the generation process and the subsequent evolution in the basin. The model was found to reproduce well the range of propagation characteristics observed (arrival time, propagation speed, amplitude), and provided a coherent framework to interpret the observations. Comparison with a fully nonlinear hydrostatic model shows that during the generation and initial evolution of the waves as they move away from Stellwagen Bank, dispersive effects play a negligible role. Thus the problem can be well understood considering the geometry of the characteristics along which the Riemann invariants of the hydrostatic problem propagate. Dispersion plays a role only during the evolution of the undular bore in the middle of Stellwagen Basin. The consequences for modeling NLIWs within hydrostatic models are briefly discussed at the end.

  2. Time domain analysis of nonlinear frequency mixing in a slender beam for localizing a breathing crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, Mira

    2017-02-01

    The nonlinear interaction of a dual frequency flexural wave with a breathing crack generates a peculiar frequency mixing phenomena, which is manifested in form of the side bands or peaks at combinations frequencies in frequency spectrum of the response. Although these peaks have been proven useful in ascertaining the presence of crack, they barely carry any information about the crack location. In this regards, the present article analyzes the time domain representation of the response obtained by employing a wavelet spectral finite element method. The study reveals that the combination tones generated at the crack location travel with dissimilar speeds along the waveguide, owing to its dispersive nature. The separation between the lobes corresponding to these combination tones therefore, depends on the distance that they have travelled. This observation is then used to formulate a method to predict the crack location with respect to the sensor. A brief parametric study shows marginal errors in predicting the crack location, which ascertains the validity of the method. This article also studies the frequency spectrum of the response. The peaks at combination tones are quantified in terms of a modulate parameter which depends on the severity of the crack. The inferences drawn from the time and the frequency domain study can be instrumental in designing a robust strategy for detecting location and severity of the crack.

  3. Design of HIFU Transducers for Generating Specified Nonlinear Ultrasound Fields.

    PubMed

    Rosnitskiy, Pavel B; Yuldashev, Petr V; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Maxwell, Adam D; Kreider, Wayne; Bailey, Michael R; Khokhlova, Vera A

    2017-02-01

    Various clinical applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound have different requirements for the pressure levels and degree of nonlinear waveform distortion at the focus. The goal of this paper is to determine transducer design parameters that produce either a specified shock amplitude in the focal waveform or specified peak pressures while still maintaining quasi-linear conditions at the focus. Multiparametric nonlinear modeling based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation with an equivalent source boundary condition was employed. Peak pressures, shock amplitudes at the focus, and corresponding source outputs were determined for different transducer geometries and levels of nonlinear distortion. The results are presented in terms of the parameters of an equivalent single-element spherically shaped transducer. The accuracy of the method and its applicability to cases of strongly focused transducers were validated by comparing the KZK modeling data with measurements and nonlinear full diffraction simulations for a single-element source and arrays with 7 and 256 elements. The results provide look-up data for evaluating nonlinear distortions at the focus of existing therapeutic systems as well as for guiding the design of new transducers that generate specified nonlinear fields.

  4. High-frequency solitons in media with induced scattering from damped low-frequency waves with nonuniform dispersion and nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Aseeva, N. V. Gromov, E. M.; Tyutin, V. V.

    2015-12-15

    The dynamics of high-frequency field solitons is considered using the extended nonhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with induced scattering from damped low-frequency waves (pseudoinduced scattering). This scattering is a 3D analog of the stimulated Raman scattering from temporal spatially homogeneous damped low-frequency modes, which is well known in optics. Spatial inhomogeneities of secondorder linear dispersion and cubic nonlinearity are also taken into account. It is shown that the shift in the 3D spectrum of soliton wavenumbers toward the short-wavelength region is due to nonlinearity increasing in coordinate and to decreasing dispersion. Analytic results are confirmed by numerical calculations.

  5. Potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-10-28

    High-average-power frequency conversion using solid state nonlinear materials is discussed. Recent laboratory experience and new developments in design concepts show that current technology, a few tens of watts, may be extended by several orders of magnitude. For example, using KD*P, efficient doubling (>70%) of Nd:YAG at average powers approaching 100 KW is possible; and for doubling to the blue or ultraviolet regions, the average power may approach 1 MW. Configurations using segmented apertures permit essentially unlimited scaling of average power. High average power is achieved by configuring the nonlinear material as a set of thin plates with a large ratio of surface area to volume and by cooling the exposed surfaces with a flowing gas. The design and material fabrication of such a harmonic generator are well within current technology.

  6. Nonlinear generation mechanism for the vortical electric field in magnetized plasma media

    SciTech Connect

    Aburjania, G. D.

    2007-10-15

    A physical mechanism and nonlinear mathematical formalism for study of generation and further amplification of the vortical electric field in the magnetized plasma are proposed. A modulation instability process in a plasma medium is considered in a strong constant magnetic field. The plasmon condensate is modulated not by a low-frequency ionic sound as is usually done, but by the beating of two high-frequency transverse electromagnetic waves propagating along the external magnetic field. Conditions in which aperiodic instability occurs are found and its increment is defined. This instability leads to a decrease in the scale of Langmuir turbulence along the external magnetic field and to the generation of electromagnetic fields. Dissipative property of the medium increases an amplitude threshold of the pumping waves. It is shown that for sufficiently large amplitudes of pumping waves the effect described in the paper is the defining nonlinear process.

  7. Nonlinear absorption and harmonic generation of laser in a gas with anharmonic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, V. K.

    2013-02-15

    The nonlinear absorption and harmonic generation of intense short pulse laser in a gas embedded with anharmonic clusters are investigated theoretically. When the laser induced excursion of cluster electrons becomes comparable to cluster radius, the restoration force on electrons no longer remains linearly proportional to the excursion. As a consequence, the plasmon resonance is broadened, leading to broadband laser absorption. It also leads to second and third harmonic generations, at much higher level than the one due to ponderomotive nonlinearity. The harmonic yield is resonantly enhanced at the plasmon resonance {omega}={omega}{sub pe}/{radical}(3), where {omega} is the frequency of the laser and {omega}{sub pe} is the plasma frequency of cluster electrons.

  8. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  9. Measurement of elastic nonlinearity using remote laser ultrasonics and CHeap Optical Transducers and dual frequency surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Collison, I J; Stratoudaki, T; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2008-11-01

    A nonlinear ultrasonic technique for evaluating material elastic nonlinearity has been developed. It measures the phase modulation of a high frequency (82MHz) surface acoustic wave interacting with a low frequency (1MHz) high amplitude stress inducing surface acoustic wave. A new breed of optical transducers has been developed and used for the generation and detection of the high frequency wave. The CHeap Optical Transducer (CHOT) is an ultrasonic transducer system, optically activated and read by a laser. We show that CHOTs offer advantages over alternative transducers. CHOTs and nonlinear ultrasonics have great potential for aerospace applications. Results measuring changes in ultrasonic velocity corresponding to different stress states of the sample are presented on fused silica and aluminium.

  10. Digital slip frequency generator and method for determining the desired slip frequency

    DOEpatents

    Klein, Frederick F.

    1989-01-01

    The output frequency of an electric power generator is kept constant with variable rotor speed by automatic adjustment of the excitation slip frequency. The invention features a digital slip frequency generator which provides sine and cosine waveforms from a look-up table, which are combined with real and reactive power output of the power generator.

  11. Nonlinear model calibration of a shear wall building using time and frequency data features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgarieh, Eliyar; Moaveni, Babak; Barbosa, Andre R.; Chatzi, Eleni

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the effects of different factors on the performance of nonlinear model updating for a seven-story shear wall building model. The accuracy of calibrated models using different data features and modeling assumptions is studied by comparing the time and frequency responses of the models with the exact simulated ones. Simplified nonlinear finite element models of the shear wall building are calibrated so that the misfit between the considered response data features of the models and the structure is minimized. A refined FE model of the test structure, which was calibrated manually to match the shake table test data, is used instead of the real structure for this performance evaluation study. The simplified parsimonious FE models are composed of simple nonlinear beam-column fiber elements with nonlinearity infused in them by assigning generated hysteretic nonlinear material behaviors to uniaxial stress-strain relationship of the fibers. Four different types of data features and their combinations are used for model calibration: (1) time-varying instantaneous modal parameters, (2) displacement time histories, (3) acceleration time histories, and (4) dissipated hysteretic energy. It has been observed that the calibrated simplified FE models can accurately predict the nonlinear structural response in the absence of significant modeling errors. In the last part of this study, the physics-based models are further simplified for casting into state-space formulation and a real-time identification is performed using an Unscented Kalman filter. It has been shown that the performance of calibrated state-space models can be satisfactory when reasonable modeling assumptions are used.

  12. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Na

    2006-02-13

    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.

  13. Nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with a structured multi-component glass core for four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Tombelaine, Vincent; Labruyère, Alexis; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Reichel, Volker; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Jamier, Raphaël; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2009-08-31

    We report about a new type of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers allowing broadband four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. The microstructured optical fiber has a structured core consisting of a rod of highly nonlinear glass material inserted in a silica tube. This particular structure enables four wave mixing processes with very large frequency detuning (>135 THz), which permitted the generation of a wide supercontinuum spectrum extending over 1650 nm after 2.15 m of propagation length. The comparison with results obtained from germanium-doped holey fibers confirms the important role of the rod material properties regarding nonlinear process and dispersion.

  14. Terahertz radiation generation by nonlinear mixing of two lasers in a plasma with density hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Lee, Kitae; Hee Park, Seong; Uk Jeong, Young; Vinokurov, Nikolay

    2017-03-01

    An analytical formalism of the terahertz (THz) radiation generation by beating of two lasers in a plasma with the density hill is investigated. The lasers propagate obliquely to the density gradient, and the nonlinearity arises through the ponderomotive force. The density gradient renders the ponderomotive force driven beat frequency nonlinear current density J → N L to possess a nonzero curl ( ∇ × J → N L ≠ 0 ) when θ is finite, giving rise to the THz radiation generation. The plasma frequency peak ω p max is below the frequency difference of the lasers ( ω p max < ( ω 1 - ω 2 ) cos θ , where ω 1 and ω 2 are the frequencies of the laser, and θ is the angle that is arrived by their propagation vectors with the density gradient) to avoid THz reflection. The THz power conversion efficiency decreases with the THz frequency, increases with the plasma frequency and electron temperature, and maximizes at an optimum angle of incidence. For our set of parameters, the radiated THz power is about 0.15 GW.

  15. SCALAR AND VECTOR NONLINEAR DECAYS OF LOW-FREQUENCY ALFVÉN WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.

    2015-02-01

    We found several efficient nonlinear decays for Alfvén waves in the solar wind conditions. Depending on the wavelength, the dominant decay is controlled by the nonlinearities proportional to either scalar or vector products of wavevectors. The two-mode decays of the pump MHD Alfvén wave into co- and counter-propagating product Alfvén and slow waves are controlled by the scalar nonlinearities at long wavelengths ρ{sub i}{sup 2}k{sub 0⊥}{sup 2}<ω{sub 0}/ω{sub ci} (k {sub 0} is wavenumber perpendicular to the background magnetic field, ω{sub 0} is frequency of the pump Alfvén wave, ρ {sub i} is ion gyroradius, and ω {sub ci} is ion-cyclotron frequency). The scalar decays exhibit both local and nonlocal properties and can generate not only MHD-scale but also kinetic-scale Alfvén and slow waves, which can strongly accelerate spectral transport. All waves in the scalar decays propagate in the same plane, hence these decays are two-dimensional. At shorter wavelengths, ρ{sub i}{sup 2}k{sub 0⊥}{sup 2}>ω{sub 0}/ω{sub ci}, three-dimensional vector decays dominate generating out-of-plane product waves. The two-mode decays dominate from MHD up to ion scales ρ {sub i} k {sub 0} ≅ 0.3; at shorter scales the one-mode vector decays become stronger and generate only Alfvén product waves. In the solar wind the two-mode decays have high growth rates >0.1ω{sub 0} and can explain the origin of slow waves observed at kinetic scales.

  16. Finite element simulation of non-linear acoustic generation in a horn loudspeaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Kagawa, Y.; Doi, M.; Tsuji, T.

    2003-10-01

    The loudspeaker is an electro-acoustic device for sound reproduction which requires the distortion as small as possible. The distortion may arise from the magnetic non-linearity of the york, the uneven magnetic field distribution, the mechanical non-linearity at the diaphragm suspension and the acoustic non-linearity due to the high sound pressure and velocity in the duct-radiation system. A horn is sometimes provided in front of the vibrating diaphragm radiator, which plays an important role to increase the efficiency by matching the acoustic impedance between the radiator and the ambient medium. The horn is in many cases folded twice or three times to shorten the length, which further degrades the reproduction quality. The sound intensity and velocity are apt to attain very high in the small cross-sectional area in the throat and in the folded regions, which may cause the distortion due to the non-linear effect of the medium. The present paper is to investigate the frequency characteristics of the loudspeaker numerically evaluating the generation of the harmonics and sub-harmonics. An axisymmetric folded horn is considered for which the wave equation with the non-linear term retained is solved by the finite element method. The solution is made in time domain in which the sound pressure calculated at the opening end of the horn is Fourier-transformed to the frequency domain to evaluate the distortion, while the wave marching in the horn is visualized.

  17. Cascaded third-harmonic generation in a single short-range-ordered nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Saltiel, Solomon M; Koynov, Kaloian

    2009-03-01

    Collinear third-harmonic generation at 526.7 nm was realized by the simultaneous phase matching of two second-order processes in a single quadratic crystal: second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency mixing (SFM). The measured conversion efficiency was 12%. As a nonlinear medium a LiNbO(3) nonlinear photonic crystal with short-range order was used that allowed simultaneous phase matching by use of discrete reciprocal vector (for the SHG process) and continuous reciprocal vectors (for the SFM process). It was demonstrated that the third harmonic could be generated efficiently in such a crystal even if the intermediate process of SHG was not perfectly phase matched.

  18. Concept of annular vector beam generation at terahertz wavelengths via a nonlinear parametric process.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kyosuke; Tanabe, Tadao; Oyama, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we describe our theoretical investigation and calculations for a terahertz (THz)-wave profile generated by difference frequency mixing (DFM) of focused, cylindrically symmetric, and polarized optical vector beams. Using vector diffraction theory, the second-order nonlinear polarization was estimated from the electric field components of the optical pump beams penetrating uniaxial, birefringent nonlinear optics (NLO) crystals, GaSe and CdSe. The approximate beam patterns of the THz waves were simulated using DFM formulation. The intensity patterns of the THz waves for GaSe and CdSe showed sixfold symmetry and cylindrical symmetry, respectively, based on the nonlinear susceptibility tensor of the crystals. As the phase-matching angle θ(PM) was constant with respect to the c axis of the NLO crystals, an annular vector beam with a narrow width was expected.

  19. Generation of FCC-compliant and background-free millimeter-wave ultrawideband signal based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Sun, Wen Hui; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-05-05

    We propose a novel approach to generating millimeter-wave (MMW) ultrawideband (UWB) signal based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The MMW UWB signal is background-free by eliminating the baseband frequency components using an optical filter. The proposed scheme is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The generated MMW UWB signal centered at 25.5 GHz has a 10-dB bandwidth of 7 GHz from 22 to 29 GHz, which fully satisfies the spectral mask regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

  20. Broadband and three-dimensional vibration energy harvesting by a non-linear magnetoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiming; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoshi; Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Awais, Qasim; Yang, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Vibration, widely existing in an ambient environment with a variety of forms and wide-range of scales, recently becomes an attractive target for energy harvesting. However, its time-varying directions and frequencies render a lack of effective energy technology to scavenge it. Here, we report a rationally designed nonlinear magnetoelectric generator for broadband and multi-directional vibration energy harvesting. By using a stabilized three-dimensional (3D) magnetic interaction and spring force, the device working bandwidth was largely broadened, which was demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically. The multidirectional vibration energy harvesting was enabled by three identical suspended springs with equal intersection angles, which are all connected to a cylindrical magnet. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the nonlinear harvester can sustain large-amplitude oscillations over a wide frequency range, and it can generate power efficiently in an arbitrary direction. Moreover, the experimental data suggest that the proposed nonlinear energy harvester has the potential to scavenge vibrational energy over a broad range of ambient frequencies in 3D space.

  1. Theoretical study on second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangnan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-01-20

    We theoretically study second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals and obtain a unified expression that combines nonlinear Raman-Nath diffraction, Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation, and nonlinear Bragg diffraction. The analytical solution is deduced, and the theoretical result coincides well with the nonlinear Raman-Nath, nonlinear Čerenkov, and nonlinear Bragg diffraction phase-matching conditions. This method has potential applications in second-harmonic generation of more complicated two-dimensional and even three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals.

  2. Nonlinear harmonic generation in finite amplitude black hole oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Philippos

    2002-04-01

    The nonlinear generation of harmonics in gravitational perturbations of black holes is explored using numerical relativity based on an ingoing light-cone framework. Localized, finite, perturbations of an isolated black hole are parametrized by amplitude and angular harmonic form. The response of the black hole spacetime is monitored and its harmonic content analyzed to identify the strength of the nonlinear generation of harmonics as a function of the initial data amplitude. It is found that overwhelmingly the black hole responds at the harmonic mode perturbed, even for spacetimes with 10% of the black hole mass radiated. The coefficients for down and up scattering in harmonic space are computed for a range of couplings. Down scattering, leading to smoothing out of angular structure, is found to be equally as or more efficient than the up scatterings that would lead to increased rippling. The details of this nonlinear balance may form the quantitative mechanism by which black holes avoid fission even for arbitrary strong distortions.

  3. Electrically controlled nonlinear optical generation and signal processing in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenshan

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials have offered not only the unprecedented opportunity to generate unconventional electromagnetic properties that are not found in nature, but also the exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with tailored high-order effects. Two particularly compelling directions of current interests are active metamaterials, where the optical properties can be purposely manipulated by external stimuli, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light. By exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically-controlled nonlinear processes from photonic metamaterials. We show that a variety of nonlinear optical phenomena, including the wave mixing and the optical rectification, can be purposely modulated by applied voltage signals. In addition, electrically-induced and voltage-controlled nonlinear effects facilitate us to demonstrate the backward phase matching in a negative index material, a long standing prediction in nonlinear metamaterials. Other results to be covered in this talk include photon-drag effect in plasmonic metamaterials and ion-assisted nonlinear effects from metamaterials in electrolytes. Our results reveal a grand opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electrooptic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities. Reference: L. Kang, Y. Cui, S. Lan, S. P. Rodrigues, M. L. Brongersma, and W. Cai, Nature Communications, 5, 4680 (2014). S. P. Rodrigues and W.Cai, Nature Nanotechnology, 10, 387 (2015). S. Lan, L. Kang, D. T. Schoen, S. P. Rodrigues, Y. Cui, M. L. Brongersma, and W. Cai, Nature Materials, 14, 807 (2015).

  4. Nonlinear low frequency water waves in a cylindrical shell subjected to high frequency excitations - Part I: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajun, Wang; Chunyan, Zhou; Li, Junbao; Shen, Song; Li, Min; Liu, Xijun

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on nonlinear low frequency gravity water waves in a partially filled cylindrical shell subjected to high frequency horizontal excitations. The characteristics of natural frequencies and mode shapes of the water-shell coupled system are discussed. The boundaries for onset of gravity waves are measured and plotted by curves of critical excitation force magnitude with respect to excitation frequency. For nonlinear water waves, the time history signals and their spectrums of motion on both water surface and shell are recorded. The shapes of water surface are also measured using scanning laser vibrometer. In particular, the phenomenon of transitions between different gravity wave patterns is observed and expressed by the waterfall graphs. These results exhibit pronounced nonlinear properties of shell-fluid coupled system.

  5. Second harmonic generation of Cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisional plasma with nonlinear absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Navpreet; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Arvinder

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates second harmonic generation (SHG) of an intense Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) laser beam propagating through a preformed underdense collisional plasma with nonlinear absorption. Nonuniform heating of plasma electrons takes place due to the nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of laser beam. This nonuniform heating of plasma leads to the self-focusing of the laser beam and thus produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The density gradients so generated excite an electron plasma wave (EPW) at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. To envision the propagation dynamics of the ChG laser beam, moment theory in Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (W.K.B) approximation has been invoked. The effects of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam as well as on the conversion efficiency of its second harmonics have been theoretically investigated.

  6. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-07

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal – a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.

  7. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2016-08-15

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  8. Nonlinear Generation of Zonal Fields by the Beta-Induced Alfvén Eigenmode in Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huasen; Lin, Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    The zonal fields effect on the beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode (BAE) destabilized by the energetic particles in toroidal plasmas is studied through the gyrokinetic particle simulations. It is found that the localized zonal fields with a negative value around the mode rational surface are generated by the nonlinear BAE. In the weakly driven case, the zonal fields with a strong geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) component have weak effects on the nonlinear BAE evolution. In the strongly driven case, the zonal fields are dominated by a more significant zero frequency component and have stronger effects on the nonlinear BAE evolution.

  9. Effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency based nonlinear frequency conversion in quantum ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumber, Sukirti; Gambhir, Monica; Jha, Pradip Kumar; Mohan, Man

    2016-10-01

    We study the combined effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum ring. The high flexibility in size and shape of ring makes it possible to fabricate a nearly perfect two-dimensional quantum structure. We also explore the dependence of frequency conversion, measured in terms of third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) , on coupling field, hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field. Although, a dip in χ(3) is observed with the introduction of strong coupling field, it renders the ring structure transparent to generated wave thus effectively enhancing the output of nonlinear frequency conversion process. At a fixed coupling strength, the output can be further enhanced by increasing the magnetic field while it shows an inverse relationship with pressure. These parameters, being externally controlled, provide an easy handle to control the output of quantum ring which can be used as frequency converter in communication networks.

  10. A nonlinear screen as an element for sound absorption and frequency conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses a model for a screen with dissipative and nonlinear elastic properties that can be used in acoustic sound absorption and frequency conversion systems. Calculation and estimation schemes are explained that are necessary for understanding the functional capabilities of the device. Examples of the nonlinear elements in the screen and promising applications are described.

  11. Nonlinear properties of medial entorhinal cortex neurons reveal frequency selectivity during multi-sinusoidal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Christophe; Economo, Michael N; White, John A; Moore, Lee E

    2014-01-01

    The neurons in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex are part of the grid cell network involved in the representation of space. Many of these neurons are likely to be stellate cells with specific oscillatory and firing properties important for their function. A fundamental understanding of the nonlinear basis of these oscillatory properties is critical for the development of theories of grid cell firing. In order to evaluate the behavior of stellate neurons, measurements of their quadratic responses were used to estimate a second order Volterra kernel. This paper uses an operator theory, termed quadratic sinusoidal analysis (QSA), which quantitatively determines that the quadratic response accounts for a major part of the nonlinearity observed at membrane potential levels characteristic of normal synaptic events. Practically, neurons were probed with multi-sinusoidal stimulations to determine a Hermitian operator that captures the quadratic function in the frequency domain. We have shown that the frequency content of the stimulation plays an important role in the characteristics of the nonlinear response, which can distort the linear response as well. Stimulations with enhanced low frequency amplitudes evoked a different nonlinear response than broadband profiles. The nonlinear analysis was also applied to spike frequencies and it was shown that the nonlinear response of subthreshold membrane potential at resonance frequencies near the threshold is similar to the nonlinear response of spike trains.

  12. Rogue wave train generation in a metamaterial induced by cubic-quintic nonlinearities and second-order dispersion.

    PubMed

    Essama, Bedel Giscard Onana; Atangana, Jacques; Frederick, Biya Motto; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of the electromagnetic wave that propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. Second-order dispersion and cubic-quintic nonlinearities are taken into account. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for absorption regime. The collective coordinates technique is used to characterize the light pulse intensity profile at some frequency ranges. Five frequency ranges have been pointed out. The perfect combination of second-order dispersion and cubic nonlinearity leads to a robust soliton at each frequency range for negative index regime. The soliton peak power progressively decreases for absorption regime. Further, this peak power also decreases with frequency. We show that absorption regime can induce rogue wave trains generation at a specific frequency range. However, this rogue wave trains generation is maintained when the quintic nonlinearity comes into play for negative index regime and amplified for absorption regime at a specific frequency range. It clearly appears that rogue wave behavior strongly depends on the frequency and the regime considered. Furthermore, the stability conditions of the electromagnetic wave have also been discussed at frequency ranges considered for both negative index and absorption regimes.

  13. Comparison of different mechanisms of low-frequency radio wave ionospheric generation by powerful RF facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, A.; Kotik, D.

    2011-12-01

    Generation of ELF/VLF waves in the ionosphere using powerful RF facilities were studied both theoretically and experimentally since the 70th. During this time, it was suggested a several different physical mechanisms for explaining the processes occurring in the plasma, which caused the low-frequency radiation from the ionosphere. The firstly discovered phenomena of generation the VLF signals in experiments with 100kW facility in Russia (Radiophysical Research Institute) was attribute to modulation of ionospheric currents based on thermal nonlinearity. This mechanism was confirmed by numerous experiments at powerful instruments like SURA, Arecibo, EISCAT/Tromso heater, HAARP. It was shown in experiments at SURA facility in the end of 80th the possibility of generation the VLF signals at frequency bands 10-20 kHz which was caused by cubic nonlinearity and possibility of formation of the ionospheric traveling VLF wave antenna. The last experiments at HAARP displayed the effectiveness of ponderomotive mechanisms for generation both VLF and ELF signals (Popadopoulos, Kuo). The results of numerical simulation of nonlinear currents caused by different mechanisms of ULF/VLF ionospheric generations are presented in this report. The comparison of different mechanisms in low and upper ionosphere under daytime and night conditions is presented. This work was supported by a RFBR grant 11-02-00419-a.

  14. Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; DeLong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.

    1996-09-01

    We demonstrate what is to our knowledge the first frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) technique to measure ultrashort pulses from an unamplified Ti:sapphire laser oscillator without direction-of-time ambiguity. This technique utilizes surface third-harmonic generation as the nonlinear-optical effect and, surprisingly, is the most sensitive third-order FROG geometry yet. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  15. Utilizing nonlinear ELF generation in modulated ionospheric heating experiments for communications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.

    2013-01-01

    Modulated high-frequency heating of the D region ionosphere near the auroral electrojet can generate extremely low frequency (ELF; 3 Hz-3 kHz) radio waves. The modulated heating process is nonlinear and generates harmonics at integer multiples of the ELF modulation frequency. Quaternary phase shift keying, a digital modulation technique is applied to ELF waves to demonstrate transmission of digital data. Data were successfully decoded at a nearby receiver and the bit error rate computed. Square wave modulation of the high-frequency heater results in stronger signals and hence a smaller bit error rate. Simulations of the communication system using ELF waveforms and noise signals derived from ELF observations are also conducted. These simulations show that using higher harmonics of the ELF signal to improve the signal-to-noise ratio can reduce the bit error rate, although only when these harmonics are below ~4.5 kHz because of radio atmospherics (sferics) generating strong impulsive noise at higher frequencies.

  16. Tip-induced deformation of a phospholipid bilayer: Theoretical perspective of sum frequency generation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-21

    The paper addresses theory of Sum Frequency Generation imaging of an atomic force microscopy tip-induced deformation of a bilayer phospholipid membrane deposited over a pore: known as a nano-drum system. Image modeling employed nonlinearities of the normal modes specific to hydrocarbon terminal methyls, which are distributed about the deformed surfaces of inner and outer leaflets. The deformed profiles are according to the solutions of shape equation for Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian accounting properties of four membranes, which differ in elasticity and adhesion. The results indicate that in continuous deformed surfaces, the difference in the curvature of the outer and inner leaflets dominates in the imaged nonlinearity. This is different comparing to the results for a perfect bilayer spherical cap system (the subject of previous study), where nonlinear image response is dominated by the mismatch of the inner and outer leaflets’ surface areas (as projected to the image plane) at the edge of perfectly spherical structure. The results of theoretical studies, here, demonstrate that Sum Frequency Generation imaging in continuous and deformed bilayer surfaces are helpful to address curvature locally and anticipate mechanical properties of membrane. The articles discuss applicability and practical limitations of the approach. Combination of Atomic Force Microscopy and Sum Frequency Generation imaging under controlled tip-induced deformation provides a good opportunity to probe and test membranes physical properties with rigor of adopted theory.

  17. Tip-induced deformation of a phospholipid bilayer: Theoretical perspective of sum frequency generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-01

    The paper addresses theory of Sum Frequency Generation imaging of an atomic force microscopy tip-induced deformation of a bilayer phospholipid membrane deposited over a pore: known as a nano-drum system. Image modeling employed nonlinearities of the normal modes specific to hydrocarbon terminal methyls, which are distributed about the deformed surfaces of inner and outer leaflets. The deformed profiles are according to the solutions of shape equation for Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian accounting properties of four membranes, which differ in elasticity and adhesion. The results indicate that in continuous deformed surfaces, the difference in the curvature of the outer and inner leaflets dominates in the imaged nonlinearity. This is different comparing to the results for a perfect bilayer spherical cap system (the subject of previous study), where nonlinear image response is dominated by the mismatch of the inner and outer leaflets' surface areas (as projected to the image plane) at the edge of perfectly spherical structure. The results of theoretical studies, here, demonstrate that Sum Frequency Generation imaging in continuous and deformed bilayer surfaces are helpful to address curvature locally and anticipate mechanical properties of membrane. The articles discuss applicability and practical limitations of the approach. Combination of Atomic Force Microscopy and Sum Frequency Generation imaging under controlled tip-induced deformation provides a good opportunity to probe and test membranes physical properties with rigor of adopted theory.

  18. An improved wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Cannata, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a recently developed wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling is improved and verified by numerical simulations and underwater experiments. Higher order numeric schemes are proposed that significantly increase the modeling accuracy, thereby allowing for a larger step size and shorter computation time. The improved algorithms replace the left-point Riemann sum in the original algorithm by the trapezoidal or Simpson's integration. Plane waves and a phased array were first studied to numerically validate the model. It is shown that the left-point Riemann sum, trapezoidal, and Simpson's integration have first-, second-, and third-order global accuracy, respectively. A highly focused therapeutic transducer was then used for experimental verifications. Short high-intensity pulses were generated. 2-D scans were conducted at a prefocal plane, which were later used as the input to the numerical model to predict the acoustic field at other planes. Good agreement is observed between simulations and experiments.

  19. Higher and sub-harmonic Lamb wave mode generation due to debond-induced contact nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Anurup; Bijudas, C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Non-cumulative higher and sub-harmonic Lamb wave mode generation as a result of partial-debond of piezoelectric wafer transducers (PWT) bonded onto an Aluminium plate, is numerically investigated and experimentally validated. The influence of excitation frequency on the extent of nonlinearity due to clapping mechanism of the partially-debonded PWTs is discussed. A set of specific frequency range is arrived at based on the Eigen-value and Harmonic analyses of PWTs used in the model. It is found that, at these frequencies, which are integral multiple of the first width-direction mode of a PWT, significantly higher amplitudes of higher-harmonics are observed. It is also seen that at specific debond-positions and lengths, sharp sub-harmonics in addition to higher-harmonics are present. Signal processing is carried out using Fast Fourier transform, which is normalized for comparisons.

  20. Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic wave dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2016-08-15

    The problem of two-dimensional arbitrary amplitude low-frequency electrostatic oscillation in a quasi-neutral quantum plasma is solved exactly by elementary means. In such quantum plasmas we have treated electrons quantum mechanically and ions classically. The exact analytical solution of the nonlinear system exhibits the formation of dark and black solitons. Numerical simulation also predicts the possible periodic solution of the nonlinear system. Nonlinear analysis reveals that the system does have a bifurcation at a critical Mach number that depends on the angle of propagation of the wave. The small-amplitude limit leads to the formation of weakly nonlinear Kadomstev–Petviashvili solitons.

  1. Capacitance-Based Frequency Adjustment of Micro Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method. PMID:25133237

  2. Capacitance-based frequency adjustment of micro piezoelectric vibration generator.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  3. Three-color entanglement generated by single-pass cascaded sum-frequency processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youbin; Ji, Fengmin; Shi, Zhongtao; Wang, HuaiJun; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Yajuan

    2017-03-01

    Three-color continuous-variable (CV) entangled beams can be produced by single-pass cascaded sum-frequency processes of third-harmonic generation by quasi-phase-matching technique in only one optical superlattice. Firstly, second-harmonic field is generated by the first double-frequency process of the fundamental field. Then, the third-harmonic field can be generated by the second cascaded sum-frequency process between the second-harmonic and the fundamental fields by quasi-phase-matching technique in the same optical superlattice. By using the quantum stochastic method, we investigated the conversion dynamics of the cascaded sum-frequency processes and the quantum correlation nature among the fundamental, second-harmonic, and third-harmonic fields. The results show that the higher conversion efficiency of third-harmonic generation can be achieved with the larger nonlinear coupling parameter of the second cascaded sum-frequency process. We also show that the fundamental, second-, and third-harmonic beams are CV entangled with each other according to the necessary and sufficient CV entanglement criterion. This scheme of three-color entanglement generation without involving optical cavity is easy to realize in experiment. Moreover, the three-color entangled beams are separated by an octave in frequency which has potential applications in quantum communication and computation networks.

  4. Non-linear generation of acoustic noise in the IAR spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, R.; Nguyen, K.; Westley, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to produce high level acoustic noise fields with increasing accuracy in environmental test facilities dictates that a more precise understanding is required of the factors controlling nonlinear noise generation. Details are given of various nonlinear effects found in acoustic performance data taken from the IAR Spacecraft Acoustic Chamber. This type of data has enabled the IAR to test large spacecraft to relatively tight acoustic tolerances over a wide frequency range using manually set controls. An analog random noise automatic control system was available and modified to provide automatic selection of the chamber's spectral sound pressure levels. The automatic control system when used to complete a typical qualification test appeared to equal the accuracy of the manual system and had the added advantage that parallel spectra could be easily achieved during preset tests.

  5. Frequency-resolved optical grating using third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.

    1995-12-01

    We demonstrate the first frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of an laser oscillator without the time ambiguity using third-harmonic generation. The experiment agrees well with the phase-retrieved spectrograms.

  6. 18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view of remaining control panels VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  7. 17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  8. 14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator Building, general view VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  9. Solid-State Radio Frequency Plasma Heating Using a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2015-11-01

    Radio Frequency heating systems are rarely used by the small-scale validation platform experiments due to the high cost and complexity of these systems, which typically require high power gyrotrons or klystrons, associated power supplies, waveguides and vacuum systems. The cost and complexity of these systems can potentially be reduced with a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) based system. In the past, NLTLs have lacked a high voltage driver that could produce long duration high voltage pulses with fast rise times at high pulse repetition frequency. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) has created new high voltage nanosecond pulser, which combined with NLTL technology will produce a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies (0.5 to 10 GHz) and peak power levels (~ 10 MW) necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems for the validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. The proposed system does not require the use of vacuum tube technology, is inherently lower cost, and is more robust than traditional high power RF heating schemes. Design details and initial bench testing results for the new RF system will be presented. This work is supported under DOE Grant # DE-SC0013747.

  10. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.

    1981-10-01

    A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency.

  11. Subspace-based identification of a nonlinear spacecraft in the time and frequency domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, J. P.; Marchesiello, S.; Kerschen, G.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to address the identification of a strongly nonlinear satellite structure. To this end, two nonlinear subspace identification methods formulated in the time and frequency domains are exploited, referred to as the TNSI and FNSI methods, respectively. The modal parameters of the underlying linear structure and the coefficients of the nonlinearities will be estimated by these two approaches based on periodic random measurements. Their respective merits will also be discussed in terms of both accuracy and computational efficiency and the use of stabilisation diagrams in nonlinear system identification will be introduced. The application of interest is the SmallSat spacecraft developed by EADS-Astrium, which possesses an impact-type nonlinear device consisting of eight mechanical stops limiting the motion of an inertia wheel mounted on an elastomeric interface. This application is challenging for several reasons including the non-smooth nature of the nonlinearities, high modal density and high non-proportional damping.

  12. Thrust generation by a heaving flexible foil: Resonance, nonlinearities, and optimality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraz, Florine; Schouveiler, Lionel; Eloy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility of marine animal fins has been thought to enhance swimming performance. However, despite numerous experimental and numerical studies on flapping flexible foils, there is still no clear understanding of the effect of flexibility and flapping amplitude on thrust generation and swimming efficiency. Here, to address this question, we combine experiments on a model system and a weakly nonlinear analysis. Experiments consist in immersing a flexible rectangular plate in a uniform flow and forcing this plate into a heaving motion at its leading edge. A complementary theoretical model is developed assuming a two-dimensional inviscid problem. In this model, nonlinear effects are taken into account by considering a transverse resistive drag. Under these hypotheses, a modal decomposition of the system motion allows us to predict the plate response amplitude and the generated thrust, as a function of the forcing amplitude and frequency. We show that this model can correctly predict the experimental data on plate kinematic response and thrust generation, as well as other data found in the literature. We also discuss the question of efficiency in the context of bio-inspired propulsion. Using the proposed model, we show that the optimal propeller for a given thrust and a given swimming speed is achieved when the actuating frequency is tuned to a resonance of the system, and when the optimal forcing amplitude scales as the square root of the required thrust.

  13. Frequency dependence of optical third-harmonic generation from doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, Vl. A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the controversial question about the frequency dependence of the optical third-harmonic generation (THG) from doped graphene, which has recently been discussed in the literature, we develop an analytical theory for the THG susceptibility of doped graphene by using the original Genkin-Mednis nonlinear-conductivity-theory formalism including mixed intra- and interband terms. The theory is free of any nonphysical divergences at zero frequency, and it predicts the main resonant peak in the THG spectrum to be located at the photon energy ħω equal to two thirds of the Fermi energy EF of charge carriers in doped graphene.

  14. Frequency analysis of the laser driven nonlinear dynamics of HCN.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Pina, A; Losada, J C; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-12-28

    We study the vibrational dynamics of a model for the HCN molecule in the presence of a monochromatic laser field. The variation of the structural behavior of the system as a function of the laser frequency is analyzed in detail using the smaller alignment index, frequency maps, and diffusion coefficients. It is observed that the ergodicity of the system depends on the frequency of the excitation field, especially in its transitions from and into chaos. This provides a roadmap for the possibility of bond excitation and dissociation in this molecule.

  15. The new chirp-Wigner higher order spectra for transient signals with any known nonlinear frequency variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, L.; Petrunin, I.; Komoda, J.

    2010-02-01

    The new chirp-Wigner higher order spectra (CWHOS) are proposed for transient signals with any known nonlinear polynomial variation of instantaneous frequency. The proposed technique is effective for nonlinearity detection for transient signals with nonlinear polynomial time variation of the instantaneous frequency.

  16. Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, Sergey V

    2014-01-13

    For the first time we report the results of both numerical simulation and experimental observation of second-harmonic generation as an example of non-linear frequency conversion of pulses generated by passively mode-locked fiber master oscillator in different regimes including conventional (stable) and double-scale (partially coherent and noise-like) ones. We show that non-linear frequency conversion efficiency of double-scale pulses is slightly higher than that of conventional picosecond laser pulses with the same energy and duration despite strong phase fluctuations of double-scale pulses.

  17. Generating Submillimeter-Wave Frequencies From Laser Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael G.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Semiconductor photoconductive switches generate electrical pulses containing submillimeter-wavelength carrier signals (frequency between 300 and 3,000 GHz) and harmonics thereof when illuminated with short-rise-time pulses from lasers. Device of this type used as local oscilator in heterodyne submillimeter-wave receiver. Electrical output of device coupled via transmission line, waveguide, or antenna to mixer circuitry of receiver. Phase delays between optically activated semiconductor switches determine output carrier frequencies. N electrical pulses generated by each laser pulse. Thus, fundamental output frequency is N times laser-pulse-repetition rate.

  18. Frequency, pressure and strain dependence of nonlinear elasticity in Berea Sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Riviere, Jacques; Johnson, Paul Allan; Marone, Chris; Pimienta, Lucas; Scuderi, Marco; Candela, Thibault; Shokouhi, Parisa; Schubnel, Alexandre; Fortin, Jerome

    2016-04-14

    Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static ( f → 0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear elastic response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on strain amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2–3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1f appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear elasticity of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear elasticity. Furthermore, these findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic elastic response to microstructural features.

  19. Nonlinear Propagation of Planet-Generated Tidal Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafikov, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    The propagation and evolution of planet-generated density waves in protoplanetary disks is considered. The evolution of waves, leading to shock formation and wake dissipation, is followed in the weakly nonlinear regime. The 2001 local approach of Goodman and Rafikov is extended to include the effects of surface density and temperature variations in the disk as well as the disk cylindrical geometry and nonuniform shear. Wave damping due to shocks is demonstrated to be a nonlocal process spanning a significant fraction of the disk. Torques induced by the planet could be significant drivers of disk evolution on timescales of approx. 10(exp 6)-10(exp 7) yr, even in the absence of strong background viscosity. A global prescription for angular momentum deposition is developed that could be incorporated into the study of gap formation in a gaseous disk around the planet.

  20. Control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying modelling of dielectric elastomer actuators with frequency response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, William R.; Wilson, Emma D.; Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan; Dodd, Tony J.; Porrill, John; Anderson, Sean R.

    2015-05-01

    Current models of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are mostly constrained to first principal descriptions that are not well suited to the application of control design due to their computational complexity. In this work we describe an integrated framework for the identification of control focused, data driven and time-varying DEA models that allow advanced analysis of nonlinear system dynamics in the frequency-domain. Experimentally generated input-output data (voltage-displacement) was used to identify control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying dynamic models of a set of film-type DEAs. The model description used was the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input structure. Frequency response analysis of the DEA dynamics was performed using generalized frequency response functions, providing insight and a comparison into the time-varying dynamics across a set of DEA actuators. The results demonstrated that models identified within the presented framework provide a compact and accurate description of the system dynamics. The frequency response analysis revealed variation in the time-varying dynamic behaviour of DEAs fabricated to the same specifications. These results suggest that the modelling and analysis framework presented here is a potentially useful tool for future work in guiding DEA actuator design and fabrication for application domains such as soft robotics.

  1. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm.

  2. Generation of optical frequency combs via four-wave mixing processes for low- and medium-resolution astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajnulina, M.; Boggio, J. M. Chavez; Böhm, M.; Rieznik, A. A.; Fremberg, T.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the generation of optical frequency combs through a cascade of four-wave mixing processes in nonlinear fibres with optimised parameters. The initial optical field consists of two continuous-wave lasers with frequency separation larger than 40 GHz (312.7 pm at 1531 nm). It propagates through three nonlinear fibres. The first fibre serves to pulse shape the initial sinusoidal-square pulse, while a strong pulse compression down to sub-100 fs takes place in the second fibre which is an amplifying erbium-doped fibre. The last stage is a low-dispersion highly nonlinear fibre where the frequency comb bandwidth is increased and the line intensity is equalised. We model this system using the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation and investigate it in terms of fibre lengths, fibre dispersion, laser frequency separation and input powers with the aim to minimise the frequency comb noise. With the support of the numerical results, a frequency comb is experimentally generated, first in the near infra-red and then it is frequency-doubled into the visible spectral range. Using a MUSE-type spectrograph, we evaluate the comb performance for astronomical wavelength calibration in terms of equidistancy of the comb lines and their stability.

  3. In-phased second harmonic wave array generation with intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-03-23

    The Talbot cavity is one promising method to synchronize the phase of a laser array. However, it does not achieve the lowest array mode with the same phase but the highest array mode with the anti-phase between every two adjacent lasers, which is called out-phase locking. Consequently, their far-field images exhibit 2-peak profiles. We propose intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling. By placing a nonlinear crystal in a Talbot cavity, the Talbot cavity generates an out-phased fundamental wave array, which is converted into an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array at the nonlinear crystal. We demonstrate numerical calculations and experiments on intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling and obtain an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array for a Nd:YVO₄ array laser.

  4. An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kuyken, Bart; Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Van Campenhout, Joris; Verheyen, Peter; Coen, Stéphane; Leo, Francois; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther; Picqué, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Laser frequency combs, sources with a spectrum consisting of hundred thousands evenly spaced narrow lines, have an exhilarating potential for new approaches to molecular spectroscopy and sensing in the mid-infrared region. The generation of such broadband coherent sources is presently under active exploration. Technical challenges have slowed down such developments. Identifying a versatile highly nonlinear medium for significantly broadening a mid-infrared comb spectrum remains challenging. Here we take a different approach to spectral broadening of mid-infrared frequency combs and investigate CMOS-compatible highly nonlinear dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic waveguides on a silicon-on-insulator chip. We record octave-spanning (1,500–3,300 nm) spectra with a coupled input pulse energy as low as 16 pJ. We demonstrate phase-coherent comb spectra broadened on a room-temperature-operating CMOS-compatible chip. PMID:25697764

  5. An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide.

    PubMed

    Kuyken, Bart; Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W; Van Campenhout, Joris; Verheyen, Peter; Coen, Stéphane; Leo, Francois; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther; Picqué, Nathalie

    2015-02-20

    Laser frequency combs, sources with a spectrum consisting of hundred thousands evenly spaced narrow lines, have an exhilarating potential for new approaches to molecular spectroscopy and sensing in the mid-infrared region. The generation of such broadband coherent sources is presently under active exploration. Technical challenges have slowed down such developments. Identifying a versatile highly nonlinear medium for significantly broadening a mid-infrared comb spectrum remains challenging. Here we take a different approach to spectral broadening of mid-infrared frequency combs and investigate CMOS-compatible highly nonlinear dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic waveguides on a silicon-on-insulator chip. We record octave-spanning (1,500-3,300 nm) spectra with a coupled input pulse energy as low as 16 pJ. We demonstrate phase-coherent comb spectra broadened on a room-temperature-operating CMOS-compatible chip.

  6. 589 nm sum-frequency generation laser for the LGS/AO of Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshihiko; Hayano, Yutaka; Saito, Norihito; Akagawa, Kazuyuki; Takazawa, Akira; Kato, Mayumi; Ito, Meguru; Colley, Stephen; Dinkins, Matthew; Eldred, Michael; Golota, Taras; Guyon, Olivier; Hattori, Masayuki; Oya, Shin; Watanabe, Makoto; Takami, Hideki; Iye, Masanori; Wada, Satoshi

    2006-06-01

    We developed a high power and high beam quality 589 nm coherent light source by sum-frequency generation in order to utilize it as a laser guide star at the Subaru telescope. The sum-frequency generation is a nonlinear frequency conversion in which two mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers oscillating at 1064 and 1319 nm mix in a nonlinear crystal to generate a wave at the sum frequency. We achieved the qualities required for the laser guide star. The power of laser is reached to 4.5 W mixing 15.65 W at 1064 nm and 4.99 W at 1319 nm when the wavelength is adjusted to 589.159 nm. The wavelength is controllable in accuracy of 0.1 pm from 589.060 and 589.170 nm. The stability of the power holds within 1.3% during seven hours operation. The transverse mode of the beam is the TEM 00 and M2 of the beam is smaller than 1.2. We achieved these qualities by the following technical sources; (1) simple construction of the oscillator for high beam quality, (2) synchronization of mode-locked pulses at 1064 and 1319 nm by the control of phase difference between two radio frequencies fed to acousto-optic mode lockers, (3) precise tunability of wavelength and spectral band width, and (4) proper selection of nonlinear optical crystal. We report in this paper how we built up each technical source and how we combined those.

  7. Generation of coherent waves by frequency up-conversion and down-conversion of incoherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Piskarskas, A.; Pyragaite, V.; Stabinis, A.

    2010-11-15

    It is revealed that the generation of a coherent wave by frequency conversion of incoherent waves is a characteristic feature of three-wave interaction in a nonlinear medium when angular dispersion of input waves is properly chosen. In this case the combining action of the pairs of spectral components of incoherent waves may result in the cumulative driving of a single plane monochromatic wave in up-conversion and down-conversion processes. As a fundamental result we point out an enhancement of the spectral radiance of the generated wave in comparison with incoherent waves.

  8. Nonlinear Cascades of Surface Oceanic Geostrophic Kinetic Energy in the Frequency Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    in frequency ai space, as diagnostics of the impact of nonlinearity on the frequency spectra of surface ocean geostrophic flows. Our analysis of...non- linearities in the frequency domain is somewhat similar to the diagnostics employed by Sheng and Hayashi (1990a,b) on realistic atmospheric...results in Fig. 8c, we also anticipate that the spectral transfers T(ai) could be useful diagnostics of the role of non- linearity in maintaining

  9. A frequency up-converting harvester based on internal resonance in 2-DOF nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yipeng; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the design and experimental testing of a novel frequency up- converting piezoelectric energy harvester. The harvester is firstly approximated as a 2-degree- of-freedom cubic nonlinear system instead of the general Duffing systems. A 1:3 internal resonance innovatively applied in the frequency up-conversion approach is thoroughly investigated. Finally, the theoretical dynamic model confirmed by the experimental results clearly shows the effect of the frequency up-conversion.

  10. Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Sabry; Simbula, Angelica; Carlin, Jean-François; Minkov, Momchil; Gerace, Dario; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas; Galli, Matteo; Houdré, Romuald

    2017-03-01

    We report on nonlinear frequency conversion from the telecom range via second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in suspended gallium nitride slab photonic crystal (PhC) cavities on silicon, under continuous-wave resonant excitation. Optimized two-dimensional PhC cavities with augmented far-field coupling have been characterized with quality factors as high as 4.4 × 104, approaching the computed theoretical values. The strong enhancement in light confinement has enabled efficient SHG, achieving a normalized conversion efficiency of 2.4 × 10-3 W-1, as well as simultaneous THG. SHG emission power of up to 0.74 nW has been detected without saturation. The results herein validate the suitability of gallium nitride for integrated nonlinear optical processing.

  11. Nonlinear Microstructured Material to Reduce Noise and Vibrations at Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavazec, Deborah; Cumunel, Gwendal; Duhamel, Denis; Soize, Christian; Batou, Anas

    2016-09-01

    At low frequencies, for which the wavelengths are wide, the acoustic waves and the mechanical vibrations cannot easily be reduced in the structures at macroscale by using dissipative materials, contrarily to the middle- and high-frequency ranges. The final objective of this work is to reduce the vibrations and the induced noise on a broad low-frequency band by using a microstructured material by inclusions that are randomly arranged in the material matrix. The dynamical regimes of the inclusions will be imposed in the nonlinear domain in order that the energy be effectively pumped over a broad frequency band around the resonance frequency, due to the nonlinearity. The first step of this work is to design and to analyze the efficiency of an inclusion, which is made up of a hollow frame including a point mass centered on a beam. This inclusion is designed in order to exhibit nonlinear geometric effects in the low-frequency band that is observed. For this first step, the objective is to develop the simplest mechanical model that has the capability to roughly predict the experimental results that are measured. The second step, which is not presented in the paper, will consist in developing a more sophisticated nonlinear dynamical model of the inclusion. In this paper, devoted to the first step, it is proved that the nonlinearity induces an attenuation on a broad frequency band around the resonance, contrarily to its linear behavior for which the attenuation is only active in a narrow frequency band around the resonance. We will present the design in terms of geometry, dimension and materials for the inclusion, the experimental manufacturing of this system realized with a 3D printing system, and the experimental measures that have been performed. We compare the prevision given by the stochastic computational model with the measurements. The results obtained exhibit the physical attenuation over a broad low-frequency band, which were expected.

  12. Red, blue, and green laser-light generation from the NYAB nonlinear crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaque Garcia, Daniel; Capmany, Juan; Sole, Jose G.

    1999-11-01

    Continuous wave red, green, and blue laser light are generated under IR-pumping crystals of Nd3+:YAl3(BO3)4 by a Ti:sapphire laser. The red (669-nm) and green (532-nm) radiations are obtained by self-frequency doubling of the fundamental laser lines at 1338 nm (4F3/2 yields 4I13/2 channel) and 1062 nm (4F3/2 yields 4I11/2 channel), respectively. Blue laser radiation (458 nm) is achieved by self-sum-frequency mixing of the main laser line at 1062 nm and the pumping radiation at 807 nm. The main spectroscopic and nonlinear properties of this crystal are included. In addition, a simple model devoted to optimizing the blue radiation is provided.

  13. Extending the Ion Capacity of a Linear Ion Trap Using Nonlinear Radio Frequency Fields.

    PubMed

    Guna, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    Mass selective axial ejection (MSAE) from a low pressure linear ion trap (LIT) is investigated in the presence of added auxiliary nonlinear radio frequency (rf) fields. Nonlinear rf fields allow ions to be ejected with high sensitivity at large excitation amplitudes and reduced deleterious effects of space charge. These permit the operation of the LIT at ion populations considerably larger than the space charge limit usually observed in the absence of the nonlinear fields while maintaining good spectral resolution and mass accuracy. Experimental data show that the greater the strength of the nonlinear field, the less the effects of space charge on mass assignment and peak width. The only deleterious effect is a slight broadening of the mass spectral peaks at the highest values of added nonlinear fields used. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Parameterizing the High Frequency Evolution of Nearshore Waves in a Nonlinear Wave Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-07

    shallow water. Ocean Engineering, 20, 359-388. Mase, H., & Kirby, J. T. (1992). Hybrid frequency-domain KdV equation for random wave transformation. In B...version of a nonlinear mild slope equation gives a very good representation of the propagation of waves through the shoaling and surf zones. However...such models are computationally expensive. In order to reduce the computational cost of the nonlinear mild slope equation model, it is combined with the

  15. Spatial Frequency Clustering in Nonlinear Dust-Density Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, K. O.; Arp, O.; Piel, A.

    2010-06-11

    Self-excited density waves were studied in a strongly coupled dusty plasma of a radio-frequency discharge under microgravity conditions. The spatiotemporal evolution of the complicated three-dimensional wave field was investigated and analyzed for two different situations. The reconstructed instantaneous phase information of the wave field revealed a partial synchronization within multiple distinct domains. The boundaries of these regions coincide with the locations of topological defects.

  16. Nonlinear modification of the laser noise power spectrum induced by frequency-shifted optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacot, Eric; Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Girardeau, Vadim; Hugon, Olivier; Jacquin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study the nonlinear coupling between the stationary (i.e., the beating modulation signal) and transient (i.e., the laser quantum noise) dynamics of a laser subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback. We show how the noise power spectrum and more specifically the relaxation oscillation frequency of the laser are modified under different optical feedback conditions. Specifically we study the influence of (i) the amount of light returning to the laser cavity and (ii) the initial detuning between the frequency shift and intrinsic relaxation frequency. The present work shows how the relaxation frequency is related to the strength of the beating signal, and the shape of the noise power spectrum gives an image of the transfer modulation function (i.e., of the amplification gain) of the nonlinear-laser dynamics. The theoretical predictions, confirmed by numerical resolutions, are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.

  18. High Frequency Resonant Electromagnetic Generation and Detection of Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Katsuhiro; Wright, Oliver; Hyoguchi, Takao

    1994-05-01

    High frequency resonant mode electromagnetic ultrasonic generation and detection in metals is demonstrated at frequencies up to ˜150 MHz with various metal sheet samples. Using a unified theory of the generation and detection process, it is shown how various physical quantities can be measured. The sound velocity or thickness of the sheets can be derived from the resonant frequencies. At resonance the detected amplitude is inversely proportional to the ultrasonic attenuation of the sample, whereas the resonance half-width is proportional to this attenuation. We derive the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient from the half-width, and show how the grain size of the material can be probed. In addition we present results for thin bonded sheets, and show how a measure of the bonding or delamination can be obtained. This high frequency resonant method shows great promise for the non-destructive evaluation of thin sheets and coatings in the sub- 10-µm to 1-mm thickness range.

  19. High-Efficiency Broadband High-Harmonic Generation from a Single Quasi-Phase-Matching Nonlinear Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chen-Yang; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to expand the laser wavelength range based on birefringence phase matching (BPM) or quasi-phase-matching (QPM) techniques in nonlinear crystals. So far, efficient high-harmonic generation is enabled only via multiple cascaded crystals because of the extreme difficulty to simultaneously satisfy BPM or QPM for multiple nonlinear up-conversion processes within a single crystal. Here we report the design and fabrication of a chirped periodic poled lithium niobate (CPPLN) nonlinear crystal that offers controllable multiple QPM bands to support 2nd-8th harmonic generation (HG) simultaneously. Upon illumination of a mid-IR femtosecond pulse laser, we observe the generation of an ultrabroadband visible white light beam corresponding to 5th-8th HG with a record high conversion efficiency of 18%, which is high compared to conventional supercontinuum generation, especially in the HG parts. Our CPPLN scheme opens up a new avenue to explore and engineer novel nonlinear optical interactions in solid state materials for application in ultrafast lasers and broadband laser sources.

  20. Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min

    2016-12-01

    We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.

  1. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Omar Daniel; Antonio, Dario

    2014-09-16

    An illustrative system includes an amplifier operably connected to a phase shifter. The amplifier is configured to amplify a voltage from an oscillator. The phase shifter is operably connected to a driving amplitude control, wherein the phase shifter is configured to phase shift the amplified voltage and is configured to set an amplitude of the phase shifted voltage. The oscillator is operably connected to the driving amplitude control. The phase shifted voltage drives the oscillator. The oscillator is at an internal resonance condition, based at least on the amplitude of the phase shifted voltage, that stabilizes frequency oscillations in the oscillator.

  2. High frequency SAW devices based on third harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Le Brizoual, L; Elmazria, O; Sarry, F; El Hakiki, M; Talbi, A; Alnot, P

    2006-12-01

    We demonstrate the third harmonic generation in a ZnO/Si layered structure to obtain high frequency SAW devices. This configuration eliminates the need of high lithography resolution and allows easy integration of such devices and electronics on the same wafer. A theoretical study was carried out for the determination of the phase velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K(2)) dispersion curves of the surface acoustic waves. These results are also in agreement with those measured on a SAW filter designed for the third harmonic generation and the operating frequency is up to 2468 MHz.

  3. High-frequency generation in two coupled semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Satpal; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.; Balanov, Alexander G.

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically show that two semiconductor superlattices arranged on the same substrate and coupled with the same resistive load can be used for a generation of high-frequency periodic and quasiperiodic signals. Each superlattice involved is capable to generate current oscillations associated with drift of domains of high charge concentration. However, the coupling with the common load can eventually lead to synchronization of the current oscillations in the interacting superlattices. We reveal how synchronization depends on detuning between devices and the resistance of the common load, and discuss the effects of coupling and detuning on the high-frequency power output from the system.

  4. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  5. Nonlinear generation of harmonics through the interaction of an internal wave beam with a model oceanic pycnocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamessis, P. J.; Wunsch, S.; Delwiche, I.; Richter, M. P.

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of an internal wave beam (IWB) with an idealized oceanic pycnocline is examined using two-dimensional fully nonlinear direct numerical simulations based on a spectral multidomain penalty method in the vertical direction. The phenomenon of focus is the nonlinear generation of harmonics. A total of 24 simulations have been performed, varying the normalized pycnocline thickness and the ratio of peak pycnocline Brunt-Väisälä frequency to that of the stratified lower layer. Harmonics at the point of IWB entry into the pycnocline increase in amplitude and number with a measure of the maximum gradient of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, suggesting refraction as an important factor in harmonic generation. Among the simulations performed, two distinct limits of pycnocline thickness are identified. For thin pynoclines, whose thickness is 10% of the incident IWB's horizontal wavelength, harmonics trapped within the pycnocline have maximum amplitude when their frequency and wavenumber match those of the natural pycnocline interfacial wave mode. Results in this case are compared with weakly nonlinear theory for harmonic generation by plane wave refraction. For thicker pycnoclines, whose thickness is equal the incident IWB's horizontal wavelength, IWB refraction results in harmonic generation at multiple locations in addition to pycnocline entry, giving rise to complex flow structure inside the pycnocline.

  6. Light generation at the anomalous dispersion high energy range of a nonlinear opal film.

    PubMed

    Botey, Muriel; Maymó, Marc; Molinos-Gómez, Alberto; Dorado, Luis; Depine, Ricardo A; Lozano, Gabriel; Mihi, Agustín; Míguez, Hernán; Martorell, Jordi

    2009-07-20

    We study experimentally and theoretically light propagation and generation at the high energy range of a close-packed fcc photonic crystal of polystyrene spheres coated with a nonlinear material. We observe an enhancement of the second harmonic generation of light that may be explained on the basis of amplification effects arising from propagation at anomalous group velocities. Theoretical calculations are performed to support this assumption. The vector KKR method we use allows us to determine, from the linear response of the crystal, the behavior of the group velocity in our finite photonic structures when losses introduced by absorption or scattering by defects are taken into account assuming a nonzero imaginary part for the dielectric constant. In such structures, we predict large variations of the group velocity for wavelengths on the order or smaller than the lattice constant of the structure, where an anomalous group velocity behavior is associated with the flat bands of the photonic band structure. We find that a direct relation may be established between the group velocity reduction and the enhancement of a light generation processes such as the second harmonic generation we consider. However, frequencies for which the enhancement is found, in the finite photonic crystals we use, do not necessarily coincide with the frequencies of flat high energy bands.

  7. On the generation of octave-spanning optical frequency combs using monolithic whispering-gallery-mode microresonators.

    PubMed

    Chembo, Yanne K; Yu, Nan

    2010-08-15

    Octave-spanning optical frequency combs are especially interesting in optical metrology owing to the ability of self-referencing. We report a theoretical study on the generation of octave-spanning combs in the whispering gallery modes of a microresonator. Through a modal expansion model simulation in a calcium fluoride microcavity, we show that a combination of suitable pump power, Kerr nonlinearity, and dispersion profile can lead to stable and robust octave-spanning optical frequency combs.

  8. Enhanced optical nonlinearity and fiber-optical frequency comb controlled by a single atom in a whispering-gallery-mode microtoroid resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiahua; Zhang, Suzhen; Yu, Rong; Zhang, Duo; Wu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Based on a single atom coupled to a fiber-coupled, chip-based microresonator [B. Dayan et al., Science 319, 1062 (2008), 10.1126/science.1152261], we put forward a scheme to generate optical frequency combs at driving laser powers as low as a few nanowatts. Using state-of-the-art experimental parameters, we investigate in detail the influences of different atomic positions and taper-resonator coupling regimes on optical-frequency-comb generation. In addition to numerical simulations demonstrating this effect, a physical explanation of the underlying mechanism is presented. We find that the combination of the atom and the resonator can induce a large third-order nonlinearity which is significantly stronger than Kerr nonlinearity in Kerr frequency combs. Such enhanced nonlinearity can be used to generate optical frequency combs if driven with two continuous-wave control and probe lasers and significantly reduce the threshold of nonlinear optical processes. The comb spacing can be well tuned by changing the frequency beating between the driving control and probe lasers. The proposed method is versatile and can be adopted to different types of resonators, such as microdisks, microspheres, microtoroids or microrings.

  9. Nonlinear Cascades of Surface Oceanic Geostrophic Kinetic Energy in the Frequency Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    spectral transfers T(v) 5 2 › ›v P(v) of kinetic energy in frequency v space, as diagnostics of the impact of nonlinearity on the frequency spectra of...surface ocean geostrophic flows. Our analysis of non- linearities in the frequency domain is somewhat similar to the diagnostics employed by Sheng and...transfers T(v) could be useful diagnostics of the role of non- linearity in maintaining low-frequency variability in the climate system. In ocean models, T

  10. Blue light generation using periodically poled nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David

    2013-05-01

    We have studied blue light generation using SHG of IR light. We have used single pass waveguides and bulk crystals with buildup cavities. The nonlinear crystals used were periodically poled Lithium Niobate (LN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP). Each of these approaches had limitations with regards to the maximum power handling and the stability of operation. Currently we are working on a different crystal in a new buildup cavity to circumvent some of the previous difficulties resulting from photorefractive damage and excessive heating due to blue absorption. Our initial measurements show that Lithium Tantalite (LT) has higher photorefractive threshold and much lower blue absorption (2% vs 15% for 20 mm crystal length). The new buildup cavity incorporates a more convenient commercial piezo mirror translator for feedback control. The buildup cavity can be operated with a minimum of 6 V as opposed to the 1000 V previously. We are exploring the use of a single DSP (digital signal processor) to perform all the locking and electronic control functions of the cavity. We are studying the coupling and propagation properties of the IR beams more carefully to minimize cavity and coupling losses, particularly due to front wave distortion caused by mirrors and lenses used in the setup. To optimize our cavity and to make the best and simplest choice of optical elements possible, different commercial (off the shelf) lenses and mirrors have been evaluated experimentally in our setup. This work is supported by NSF grant PHY-1068868.

  11. Parameter sampling and metamodel generation for nonlinear finite element simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cundy, A. L.; Schultze, J. F.; Hemez, F. M.; Doebling, S. W.; Hylok, J. E.; Bingham, D.

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses the problem of analyzing the nonlinear transient response of a structural dynamics simulation. A threaded joint assembly's response to impulse loading has been studied. Twelve parameters relating to the input level, preloads of the joint and friction between components are thought to influence the acceleration response of the structure. Due to the high cost of physical testing and large amount of computation time to run numerical models a fastrunning metamodel is being developed. In this case, a metamodel is a statistically developed surrogate to the physics-based finite element model and can be evaluated in minutes on a single processor desktop computer. An unreasonable number of runs is required (312>500,000) to generate a three level full factorial design with 12 parameters for metamodel creation. Some manner of down-selecting or variable screening is needed in order to determine which of the parameters most affect the response and should be retained in subsequent models. A comparision of screening methods to general sensitivity analysis was conducted. A significant effects methodology, which involves a design of experiments technique has been examined. In this method, all parameters were first included in the model and then eliminated on the basis of statistical contributions associated with each parameter. Bayesian variable screening techniques, in which probabilities of effects are generated and updated, have also been explored, Encouraging results have been obtained, as the two methods yield similar sets of statistically significant parameters. Both methods have been compared to general sensitivity analysis (GSA). The resulting compact metamodel can then be explored at more levels to appropriately capture the underlying physics of the threaded assembly with a much smaller set of simulations.

  12. Spurious cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling in nonstationary, nonlinear signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies of brain activities show that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) plays an important role in memory and learning. Many measures have been proposed to investigate the CFC phenomenon, including the correlation between the amplitude envelopes of two brain waves at different frequencies - cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC). In this short communication, we describe how nonstationary, nonlinear oscillatory signals may produce spurious cross-frequency AAC. Utilizing the empirical mode decomposition, we also propose a new method for assessment of AAC that can potentially reduce the effects of nonlinearity and nonstationarity and, thus, help to avoid the detection of artificial AACs. We compare the performances of this new method and the traditional Fourier-based AAC method. We also discuss the strategies to identify potential spurious AACs.

  13. Electron-phonon metamaterial featuring nonlinear tri-interleaved piezoelectric topologies and its application in low-frequency vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Bin; Guyomar, Daniel; Lallart, Mickaël

    2016-09-01

    This article proposes a nonlinear tri-interleaved piezoelectric topology based on the synchronized switch damping on inductor (SSDI) technique, which can be applied to phononic metamaterials for elastic wave control and effective low-frequency vibration reduction. A comparison of the attenuation performance is made between piezoelectric phononic metamaterial with distributed SSDI topology (each SSDI shunt being independently connected to a single piezoelectric element) and piezoelectric phononic metamaterial with the proposed electronic topology. Theoretical results show excellent band gap hybridization (near-coupling between Bragg scattering mechanism and wideband resonance mechanism induced by synchronized switch damping networks in piezoelectric phononic metamaterials) with the proposed electronic topology over the investigated frequency domain. Furthermore, piezoelectric phononic metamaterials with proposed electronic topology generated a better low-frequency broadband gap, which is experimentally validated by measuring the harmonic response of a piezoelectric phononic metamaterial beam under clamped-clamped boundary conditions.

  14. Simple method of generating and distributing frequency-entangled qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Fujiwara, Mikio; Takeoka, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Ryota; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Gerrits, Thomas; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-11-01

    High-dimensional, frequency-entangled photonic quantum bits (qudits for d-dimension) are promising resources for quantum information processing in an optical fiber network and can also be used to improve channel capacity and security for quantum communication. However, up to now, it is still challenging to prepare high-dimensional frequency-entangled qudits in experiments, due to technical limitations. Here we propose and experimentally implement a novel method for a simple generation of frequency-entangled qudts with d\\gt 10 without the use of any spectral filters or cavities. The generated state is distributed over 15 km in total length. This scheme combines the technique of spectral engineering of biphotons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and the technique of spectrally resolved Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. Our frequency-entangled qudits will enable quantum cryptographic experiments with enhanced performances. This distribution of distinct entangled frequency modes may also be useful for improved metrology, quantum remote synchronization, as well as for fundamental test of stronger violation of local realism.

  15. ARAMS/FRAMES JOINT FREQUENCY DATA (JFD) GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2006-10-04

    An ARAMS/FRAMES utility entitled ''Joint Frequency Data (JFD) Generator'' provides the capability of creating joint frequency tables. The resultant JFD tables contain summaries of the frequency of occurrence of meteorological dispersion, wind speed, and wind direction that are required as input in climatological air dispersion models. The JFD Generator computations are made by an updated version of the EPA STAR (STAbility ARray) program. Surface observations are combined with computed seasonally and diurnally varying solar flux rates to estimate the ambient atmospheric dispersion rates, represented as a stability category. The wind speeds and directions are obtained directly from the hourly surface observation data. The product is a file in a format that can be directly read by an air dispersion model. The JFD Generator can input hourly meteorological surface observation data in CD-144, Samson, and SCRAM data formats. An enhanced joint frequency table file that can be read directly by the ARAMS/FRAMES interface is produced. The output file has a format can be used by the MEPAS air dispersion program or can be modified for input to other models requiring joint frequency input.

  16. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of a Nonlinear, Uniform Cantilevered Beam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    performed to measure natural frequencies and create a nonlinear elastic deformation model to improve helicopter main beam designs. These experiments used...element model in Nastran . 3 2. Literature Review 2.1 The Princeton Beam Experiments In 1975, Dowell and Traybar completed a series of... modeling and analysis capabilities, including [...] vibration” [12]. Nastran can analyze a structure’s natural frequencies with the geometry and material

  17. Simultaneous experimental generation of vacuum squeezing and bright amplitude squeezing from a frequency doubler.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; Li, Ying; Xie, Changde; Pan, Qing; Peng, Kunchi

    2005-06-15

    Both vacuum-squeezed and bright amplitude-squeezed states of light are experimentally generated from a frequency doubler with a semimonolithic Fabry-Perot configuration consisting of a type II nonlinear crystal and a concave mirror. Vacuum squeezing of 3.2 +/- 0.1 dB and amplitude squeezing of 1.3 +/- 0.2 dB are obtained simultaneously at a pump power of 8 mW. The two quadrature-squeezed optical fields that are generated are of identical frequency at 1080-nm wavelength and orthogonal polarization. Optimizing the input pump power by 19 mW yields as much as 5.0 +/- 0.2 dB of maximum vacuum squeezing. The advantages of the system are its simplicity and multiple utility.

  18. The Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Sum Frequency Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin

    2013-01-01

    An up-conversion device that converts 2.05-micron light to 700 nm signal by sum frequency generation using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is demonstrated. The achieved 92% up-conversion efficiency paves the path to detect extremely weak 2.05-micron signal with well established silicon avalanche photodiode detector for sensitive lidar applications.

  19. Difference frequency generation spectrometer for simultaneous multispecies detection.

    PubMed

    Weibring, Petter; Richter, Dirk; Walega, J G; Rippe, Lars; Fried, Alan

    2010-12-20

    A difference-frequency generation based spectrometer system for simultaneous ultra-sensitive measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O) and Methane (CH4) is presented. A new multiplexing approach using collinear quasi-phase-matching in a single grating period of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) is discussed and demonstrated for two pairs of pump and signal lasers to generate mid-infrared frequencies at 2831.64 cm(-1) and 2916.32 cm(-1), respectively. The corresponding absorption signals are discriminated by modulating the DFB diode lasers at modulation frequencies of 40 kHz and 50 kHz, respectively, and using a computer based modulation and de-modulation scheme. In addition, simultaneous measurements of CH2O, CH4 and H2O are demonstrated utilizing both collinear and non-collinear quasi-phase-matching.

  20. Generation and tunable enhancement of a sum-frequency signal in lithium niobate nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, Anton; Reig Escalé, Marc; Grange, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures down to the nanoscale opens up novel applications of this versatile material in nonlinear optics. Current nonlinear optical studies in sub-micron waveguides are mainly restricted to the generation of second and third harmonics. In this work, we demonstrate the generation and waveguiding of the sum-frequency generation (SFG) signal in a single LiNbO3 nanowire with a cross-section of 517 nm  ×  654 nm. Furthermore, we enhance the guided SFG signal 17.9 times by means of modal phase matching. We also display tuning of the phase-matched wavelength by varying the nanowire cross-section and changing the polarization of the incident laser. The results prove that LiNbO3 nanowires can be successfully used for nonlinear wave-mixing applications and assisting the miniaturization of optical devices. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J Phys D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Rachel Grange was selected by the Editorial Board of J Phys D as an Emerging Leader.

  1. Absorption of the CO laser sum frequency radiation obtained in a nonlinear crystal AgGaSe2 by molecular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budilova, O. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu M.; Kotkov, A. A.; Kozlov, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    The broadband laser system based on multi-line Q-switched CO laser was experimentally studied in a nonlinear crystal AgGaSe2. The internal efficiency of sum frequency generation reached 1%. Test experiments on measurement of the absorption of the CO-laser sum frequency radiation by such gaseous substances as nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide were realized. A comparison of the experimental data with the theoretically calculated absorption spectrum of radiation was obtained.

  2. Cross-Propagation Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Li; Chen, Shun-li; Gan, Wei; Wang, Hong-fei

    2016-02-27

    Here we report the theory formulation and the experiment realization of sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the cross-propagation (XP) geometry or configuration. In the XP geometry, the visible and the infrared (IR) beams in the SFG experiment are delivered to the same location on the surface from visible and IR incident planes perpendicular to each other, avoiding the requirement to have windows or optics to be transparent to both the visible and IR frequencies. Therefore, the XP geometry is applicable to study surfaces in the enclosed vacuum or high pressure chambers with far infrared (FIR) frequencies that can directly access the metal oxide and other lower frequency surface modes, with much broader selection of visible and IR transparent window materials.

  3. Nonlinear and frequency-dependent transport phenomena in low-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüner, G.

    1983-07-01

    Nonlinear and frequency-dependent electrical conductivity is more a rule than an exception in materials with highly anisotropic electronic structure. Disorder leads to localization of the electronic wave functions, and the temperature-( T), electric field-( E), and frequency (ω)-dependent transport are due to random transfer rates between localized single particle states, a process fundamentally different from band transport. Interactions lead to collective modes, represented by a periodic modulation of the charge or spin density. The charge density wave (CDW) mode is pinned by impurities, but for small pinning forces, it can be depinned by moderate electric fields, leading to nonlinear conductivity due to a sliding CDW. Both classical and quantum models account for the field and frequency dependent response; they also describe current oscillation phenomena and effects which arise when both dc and ac excitations are applied. For strong pinning the collective mode cannot be depinned at small electric field strengths, but nonlinear (soliton) excitations of the collective modes may be responsible for the nonlinear conductivity observed. In all these cases field-and frequency-dependent transport is strongly related. This feature is reproduced by various models, and therefore a detailed study of σ( T, E,ω) is called for to distinguish between the various sources of novel transport phenomena in these new types of solids.

  4. Walk-Off-Induced Modulation Instability, Temporal Pattern Formation, and Frequency Comb Generation in Cavity-Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Leo, F; Hansson, T; Ricciardi, I; De Rosa, M; Coen, S; Wabnitz, S; Erkintalo, M

    2016-01-22

    We derive a time-domain mean-field equation to model the full temporal and spectral dynamics of light in singly resonant cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We show that the temporal walk-off between the fundamental and the second-harmonic fields plays a decisive role under realistic conditions, giving rise to rich, previously unidentified nonlinear behavior. Through linear stability analysis and numerical simulations, we discover a new kind of quadratic modulation instability which leads to the formation of optical frequency combs and associated time-domain dissipative structures. Our numerical simulations show excellent agreement with recent experimental observations of frequency combs in quadratic nonlinear media [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063839 (2015)]. Thus, in addition to unveiling a new, experimentally accessible regime of nonlinear dynamics, our work enables predictive modeling of frequency comb generation in cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We expect our findings to have wide impact on the study of temporal and spectral dynamics in a diverse range of dispersive, quadratically nonlinear resonators.

  5. Virtual Resonance and Frequency Difference Generation by van der Waals Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetard, L.; Passian, A.; Eslami, S.; Jalili, N.; Farahi, R. H.; Thundat, T.

    2011-05-01

    The ability to explore the interior of materials for the presence of inhomogeneities was recently demonstrated by mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy [L. Tetard, A. Passian, and T. Thundat, Nature Nanotech. 5, 105 (2009).NNAABX1748-338710.1038/nnano.2009.454]. Proposing a semiempirical nonlinear force, we show that difference frequency ω- generation, regarded as the simplest synthesized mode, occurs optimally when the force is tuned to van der Waals form. From a parametric study of the probe-sample excitation, we show that the predicted ω- oscillation agrees well with experiments. We then introduce the concept of virtual resonance to show that probe oscillations at ω- can efficiently be enhanced.

  6. Probing ligand-protein recognition with sum-frequency generation spectroscopy: the avidin-biocytin case.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Laurent; Sartenaer, Yannick; Humbert, Christophe; Mani, Alaa A; Méthivier, Christophe; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Thiry, Paul A; Peremans, André

    2004-11-12

    Infrared/visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to study the recognition of a protein (avidin) by a derived vitamin (biocytin) adsorbed on a calcium fluoride substrate. The specificity of the process is tested by replacing avidin with bovine serum albumin or presaturated avidin. The SFG spectroscopy shows drastic modifications in the CH and NH spectral ranges only upon exposure of the biocytin film to avidin. The comparison of the SFG data with Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectra (FT-IRRAS) in the same spectral ranges illustrates the advantages of nonlinear spectroscopy for studying and detecting recognition between biomolecules.

  7. Synthetic Aperture Sonar Low Frequency vs. High Frequency Automatic Contact Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    resurveyed the harbor with both sidescan sonar (on REMUS) and SAS (on the SSAM AUV) provided by NAVSEA Costal Systems Command. NOMWC, NAVOCEANO and...Synthetic Aperture Sonar Low Frequency vs. High Frequency Automatic Contact Generation J. R. Dubberley and M. L. Gendron Naval Research...Laboratory Code 7440.1 Building 1005 Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 USA Abstract- Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) bottom mapping sensors are on the

  8. Optical sum-frequency generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Kowligy, Abijith S.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate sum-frequency generation between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, the process saturates already at sub-mW pump peak power, at least two orders of magnitude lower than in existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory based on spherical geometry. Our experimental and theoretical results point toward a new platform for manipulating the color and quantum states of light waves for applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals.

  9. Evaluation of crack parameters by a nonlinear frequency-mixing laser ultrasonics method.

    PubMed

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2016-07-01

    The local evaluation of several parameters of a crack is realized with a nonlinear laser ultrasonic method. The method is based on the sample excitation by two laser beams, independently intensity modulated at two cyclic frequencies ωH and ωL (ωH≫ωL) and on the detection of nonlinear frequency-mixing ultrasonic components at frequencies ωH±nωL (n an integer). Frequency-mixing is a nonlinear process originating from the modulation of the crack state at low frequency ωL by laser-induced thermo-elastic stresses, which causes in turn the modulation of the acoustic waves at frequency ωH reflected/transmitted by the crack. We carry experiments with increasing laser power and observe a non-monotonous variation in the amplitude of up to 6 nonlinear sidelobes. We also improve a previously introduced theoretical model which leads to interpreting the experimental observations by the combined action on the crack of the thermo-elastic waves at low frequency ωL and of the stationary thermo-elastic stresses at ω=0. The latter are induced by the average laser power absorbed by the sample. While thermo-elastic wave can periodically modulate the parameters of the crack up to its periodic opening/closing, the stationary heating could cause complete local closure of the crack. By fitting the experimental amplitude evolutions for all monitored sidelobes with the theoretically predicted ones, various local parameters of the crack are extracted, including its local width and effective rigidity.

  10. Resonance frequencies of lipid-shelled microbubbles in the regime of nonlinear oscillations.

    PubMed

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Haac, Jillian F; Dayton, Paul A

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of resonant frequencies of contrast microbubbles is important for the optimization of ultrasound contrast imaging and therapeutic techniques. To date, however, there are estimates of resonance frequencies of contrast microbubbles only for the regime of linear oscillation. The present paper proposes an approach for evaluating resonance frequencies of contrast agent microbubbles in the regime of nonlinear oscillation. The approach is based on the calculation of the time-averaged oscillation power of the radial bubble oscillation. The proposed procedure was verified for free bubbles in the frequency range 1-4 MHz and then applied to lipid-shelled microbubbles insonified with a single 20-cycle acoustic pulse at two values of the acoustic pressure amplitude, 100 kPa and 200 kPa, and at four frequencies: 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MHz. It is shown that, as the acoustic pressure amplitude is increased, the resonance frequency of a lipid-shelled microbubble tends to decrease in comparison with its linear resonance frequency. Analysis of existing shell models reveals that models that treat the lipid shell as a linear viscoelastic solid appear may be challenged to provide the observed tendency in the behavior of the resonance frequency at increasing acoustic pressure. The conclusion is drawn that the further development of shell models could be improved by the consideration of nonlinear rheological laws.

  11. High-frequency vibration energy harvesting from impulsive excitation utilizing intentional dynamic instability caused by strong nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, Kevin; Dane Quinn, D.; Michael McFarland, D.; Bergman, Lawrence; Vakakis, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    The authors investigate a vibration-based energy harvesting system utilizing essential (nonlinearizable) nonlinearities and electromagnetic coupling elements. The system consists of a grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator (primary system) subjected to a single impulsive load. This primary system is coupled to a lightweight, damped oscillating attachment (denoted as nonlinear energy sink, NES) via a neodymium magnet and an inductance coil, and a piano wire, which generates an essential geometric cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Under impulsive input, the transient damped dynamics of this system exhibit transient resonance captures (TRCs) causing intentional large-amplitude and high-frequency instabilities in the response of the NES. These TRCs result in strong energy transfer from the directly excited primary system to the light-weight attachment. The energy is harvested by the electromagnetic elements in the coupling and, in the present case, dissipated in a resistive element in the electrical circuit. The primary goal of this work is to numerically, analytically, and experimentally demonstrate the efficacy of employing this type of intentional high-frequency dynamic instability to achieve enhanced vibration energy harvesting under impulsive excitation.

  12. Phase-locking and Pulse Generation in Multi-Frequency Brillouin Oscillator via Four Wave Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, Thomas F. S.; Kabakova, Irina V.; Hudson, Darren D.; Pant, Ravi; Poulton, Christopher G.; Judge, Alexander C.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for pulsed all-fibre lasers with gigahertz repetition rates for applications in telecommunications and metrology. The repetition rate of conventional passively mode-locked fibre lasers is fundamentally linked to the laser cavity length and is therefore typically ~10-100 MHz, which is orders of magnitude lower than required. Cascading stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nonlinear resonators, however, enables the formation of Brillouin frequency combs (BFCs) with GHz line spacing, which is determined by the acoustic properties of the medium and is independent of the resonator length. Phase-locking of such combs therefore holds a promise to achieve gigahertz repetition rate lasers. The interplay of SBS and Kerr-nonlinear four-wave mixing (FWM) in nonlinear resonators has been previously investigated, yet the phase relationship of the waves has not been considered. Here, we present for the first time experimental and numerical results that demonstrate phase-locking of BFCs generated in a nonlinear waveguide cavity. Using real-time measurements we demonstrate stable 40 ps pulse trains with 8 GHz repetition rate based on a chalcogenide fibre cavity, without the aid of any additional phase-locking element. Detailed numerical modelling, which is in agreement with the experimental results, highlight the essential role of FWM in phase-locking of the BFC.

  13. Optimizations of ozone generator at low resonance frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamoon, A. A.; Elakshar, F. F.; Elsawah, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effect of the frequency on the different parameters of ozone generation in the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated. It is found that at low frequency, (f0 = 325 Hz), an electric resonance can be obtained in the electric circuit. The onset voltage, at which the ozone starts to build up, was reduced from 3.25 kV at 50 Hz to 1.57 kV at 325 Hz. The efficiency has been increased from nearly zero at 50 Hz to 232.94 g/kW h at 200 Hz under applied voltage of 2.025 kV. in here

  14. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  15. Wind Generation Participation in Power System Frequency Response: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-01-01

    The electrical frequency of an interconnected power system must be maintained close its nominal level at all times. Excessive under- and overfrequency excursions can lead to load shedding, instability, machine damage, and even blackouts. There is a rising concern in the electric power industry in recent years about the declining amount of inertia and primary frequency response (PFR) in many interconnections. This decline may continue due to increasing penetrations of inverter-coupled generation and the planned retirements of conventional thermal plants. Inverter-coupled variable wind generation is capable of contributing to PFR and inertia with a response that is different from that of conventional generation. It is not yet entirely understood how such a response will affect the system at different wind power penetration levels. The modeling work presented in this paper evaluates the impact of wind generation's provision of these active power control strategies on a large, synchronous interconnection. All simulations were conducted on the U.S. Western Interconnection with different levels of instantaneous wind power penetrations (up to 80%). The ability of wind power plants to provide PFR - and a combination of synthetic inertial response and PFR - significantly improved the frequency response performance of the system.

  16. Frequency stabilization of spin-torque-driven oscillations by coupling with a magnetic nonlinear resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Kiwamu Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-10-28

    The fundamental function of any oscillator is to produce a waveform with a stable frequency. Here, we show a method of frequency stabilization for spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that relies on coupling with an adjacent nanomagnet through the magnetic dipole–dipole interaction. It is numerically demonstrated that highly stable oscillations occur as a result of mutual feedback between an STNO and a nanomagnet. The nanomagnet acts as a nonlinear resonator for the STNO. This method is based on the nonlinear behavior of the resonator and can be considered as a magnetic analogue of an optimization scheme in nanoelectromechanical systems. The oscillation frequency is most stabilized when the nanomagnet is driven at a special feedback point at which the feedback noise between the STNO and resonator is completely eliminated.

  17. Evaluation of a wave-vector-frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Clement, Greg T

    2011-01-01

    A wave-vector-frequency-domain method is presented to describe one-directional forward or backward acoustic wave propagation in a nonlinear homogeneous medium. Starting from a frequency-domain representation of the second-order nonlinear acoustic wave equation, an implicit solution for the nonlinear term is proposed by employing the Green's function. Its approximation, which is more suitable for numerical implementation, is used. An error study is carried out to test the efficiency of the model by comparing the results with the Fubini solution. It is shown that the error grows as the propagation distance and step-size increase. However, for the specific case tested, even at a step size as large as one wavelength, sufficient accuracy for plane-wave propagation is observed. A two-dimensional steered transducer problem is explored to verify the nonlinear acoustic field directional independence of the model. A three-dimensional single-element transducer problem is solved to verify the forward model by comparing it with an existing nonlinear wave propagation code. Finally, backward-projection behavior is examined. The sound field over a plane in an absorptive medium is backward projected to the source and compared with the initial field, where good agreement is observed.

  18. Acoustic Nonlinearity in Polycrystalline Nickel from Fatigue-Generated Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, John H.

    2005-04-09

    An analytical model of the nonlinear interaction of ultrasonic waves with dislocation substructures formed during the fatigue of wavy slip metals is presented. The model is applied to the calculation of the acoustic nonlinearity parameters {beta} of polycrystalline nickel for increasingly higher levels of fatigue from the virgin state. The values calculated for stress-controlled loading at 345 MPa predict a monotonic increase in {beta} of more than 390 percent as a function of percent life to fracture due to substructural evolution.

  19. Application of frequency domain ARX features for linear and nonlinear structural damage identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Douglas E.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2002-06-01

    Many different vibration-based dynamic input-output and output only data features have been used to identify structural damage and assess structural integrity. Since structural damage introduces linear or nonlinear variations into all of these features, all of them might give positive indications of damage but may not distinguish between linear or nonlinear types of damage. This information can sometimes be used to more reliably diagnose damage by first, helping to distinguish between damage, which is inherently nonlinear, and healthy nonlinearities in a baseline structure; and second, serving as an absolute damage prognosis indicator which, together with prior information about the structural mechanics, determined the degree to which a structure is damaged. A set of potential features that distinguish between linear and nonlinear damage are discussed here. These features are auto-regressive exogenous dynamic transmissiblity model coefficients in the frequency domain. The auto-regressive coefficients are used to characterize the nonlinear nature of damage states and the exogenous coefficients are used to characterize the linear nature of such states. After reviewing the theoretical development of this data model, experimental measurements from a three-story test structure are analyzed using these model coefficients and statistical features are extracted from the coefficients. By using two complementary features, a better indication of the severity of damage is obtained.

  20. Second harmonic generation of q-Gaussian laser beam in preformed collisional plasma channel with nonlinear absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Naveen Singh, Arvinder; Singh, Navpreet

    2015-11-15

    This paper presents a scheme for second harmonic generation of an intense q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed parabolic plasma channel, where collisional nonlinearity is operative with nonlinear absorption. Due to nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of the laser beam, nonuniform Ohmic heating of plasma electrons takes place. Due to this nonuniform heating of plasma, the laser beam gets self-focused and produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The generated density gradients excite an electron plasma wave at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. The formulation is based on a numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation in WKB approximation followed by moment theory approach. A second order nonlinear differential equation governing the propagation dynamics of the laser beam with distance of propagation has been obtained and is solved numerically by Runge Kutta fourth order technique. The effect of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam and conversion efficiency of its second harmonics has been investigated.

  1. Verification of nonlinear particle simulation of radio frequency waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, A. Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Sun, G. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-10-15

    Nonlinear simulation model for radio frequency waves in fusion plasmas has been developed and verified using fully kinetic ion and drift kinetic electron. Ion cyclotron motion in the toroidal geometry is implemented using Boris push in the Boozer coordinates. Linear dispersion relation and nonlinear particle trapping are verified for the lower hybrid wave and ion Bernstein wave (IBW). Parametric decay instability is observed where a large amplitude pump wave decays into an IBW sideband and an ion cyclotron quasimode (ICQM). The ICQM induces an ion perpendicular heating, with a heating rate proportional to the pump wave intensity.

  2. Dynamics of microresonator frequency comb generation: models and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Tobias; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Microresonator frequency combs hold promise for enabling a new class of light sources that are simultaneously both broadband and coherent, and that could allow for a profusion of potential applications. In this article, we review various theoretical models for describing the temporal dynamics and formation of optical frequency combs. These models form the basis for performing numerical simulations that can be used in order to better understand the comb generation process, for example helping to identify the universal combcharacteristics and their different associated physical phenomena. Moreover, models allow for the study, design and optimization of comb properties prior to the fabrication of actual devices. We consider and derive theoretical formalisms based on the Ikeda map, the modal expansion approach, and the Lugiato-Lefever equation. We further discuss the generation of frequency combs in silicon resonators featuring multiphoton absorption and free-carrier effects. Additionally, we review comb stability properties and consider the role of modulational instability as well as of parametric instabilities due to the boundary conditions of the cavity. These instability mechanisms are the basis for comprehending the process of frequency comb formation, for identifying the different dynamical regimes and the associated dependence on the comb parameters. Finally, we also discuss the phenomena of continuous wave bi- and multistability and its relation to the observation of mode-locked cavity solitons.

  3. Electrojet-independent ionospheric extremely low frequency/very low frequency wave generation by powerful high frequency waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Chang, Chia-Lie

    2010-08-15

    Results of extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) wave generation by intensity-modulated high frequency (HF) heaters of 3.2 MHz in Gakona, Alaska, near local solar noon during a geomagnetic quiet time, are presented to support an electrojet-independent ELF/VLF wave generation mechanism. The modulation was set by splitting the HF transmitter array into two subarrays; one was run at cw full power and the other run alternatively at 50% and 100% power modulation by rectangular waves of 2.02, 5, 8, and 13 kHz. The most effective generation was from the X-mode heater with 100% modulation. While the 8 kHz radiation has the largest wave amplitude, the spectral intensity of the radiation increases with the modulation frequency, i.e., 13 kHz line is the strongest. Ionograms recorded significant virtual height spread of the O-mode sounding echoes. The patterns of the spreads and the changes of the second and third hop virtual height traces caused by the O/X-mode heaters are distinctively different, evidencing that it is due to differently polarized density irregularities generated by the filamentation instability of the O/X-mode HF heaters.

  4. Characterization of non-linear Potassium crystals in the Terahertz frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounaix, P.; Sarger, L.; Caumes, J. P.; Freysz, E.

    2004-12-01

    Systematic measurements of the dielectric properties of KDP, KNbO3, KTP and KTA non-linear crystals in the Terahertz (THz) spectral range are presented. The index of refraction and the absorption coefficients are measured between 0.1 and 1.5 THz for different crystallographic orientations. The data are deduced from an experimental set-up based on standard Terahertz time domain spectroscopy system at room temperature. These data, key parameters for the optimization of non-linear THz generation by optical rectification as well as electro-optic detection, are analysed in term of non-linear capabilities. We finally review different methods making possible to generate THz wave in these crystals and compare their characteristics.

  5. Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state

    DOE PAGES

    Dietrich, Scott; Mayer, William; Byrnes, Sean; ...

    2015-02-20

    The effects of microwave radiation on transport properties of atomically thin La2-xSrxCuO₄ films were studied in the 0.1-20 GHz frequency range. Resistance changes induced by microwaves were investigated at different temperatures (8–15 K) near the superconducting transition. A strong decrease of the nonlinear response is observed within a few GHz of a cutoff frequency νcut ≈ 2GHz. The expected frequency dependence vastly underestimates the sharpness of this drop. Numerical simulations that assume ac response to follow dc V-I characteristics of the films reproduce well the low frequency behavior, but fail above νcut. Thus, high-frequency radiation is much less effective inmore » inducing vortex-antivortex dissociation in the oscillating superconducting condensate.« less

  6. Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Scott; Mayer, William; Byrnes, Sean; Vitkalov, Sergey; Sergeev, A.; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Božović, Ivan

    2015-02-20

    The effects of microwave radiation on transport properties of atomically thin La2-xSrxCuO₄ films were studied in the 0.1-20 GHz frequency range. Resistance changes induced by microwaves were investigated at different temperatures (8–15 K) near the superconducting transition. A strong decrease of the nonlinear response is observed within a few GHz of a cutoff frequency νcut ≈ 2GHz. The expected frequency dependence vastly underestimates the sharpness of this drop. Numerical simulations that assume ac response to follow dc V-I characteristics of the films reproduce well the low frequency behavior, but fail above νcut. Thus, high-frequency radiation is much less effective in inducing vortex-antivortex dissociation in the oscillating superconducting condensate.

  7. Frequency, pressure and strain dependence of nonlinear elasticity in Berea Sandstone

    DOE PAGES

    Riviere, Jacques; Johnson, Paul Allan; Marone, Chris; ...

    2016-04-14

    Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static ( f → 0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear elastic response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on strain amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2–3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1fmore » appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear elasticity of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear elasticity. Furthermore, these findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic elastic response to microstructural features.« less

  8. Optical frequency combs generated by four-wave mixing in optical fibers for astrophysical spectrometer calibration and metrology.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Flavio C

    2008-08-18

    Optical frequency combs generated by multiple four-wave mixing in short and highly nonlinear optical fibers are proposed for use as high precision frequency markers, calibration of astrophysical spectrometers, broadband spectroscopy and metrology. Implementations can involve two optical frequency standards as input lasers, or one standard and a second laser phase-locked to it using a stable microwave reference oscillator. Energy and momentum conservation required by the parametric generation assures phase coherence among comb frequencies, while fibers with short lengths can avoid linewidth broadening and stimulated Brillouin scattering. In contrast to combs from mode-locked lasers or microcavities, the absence of a resonator allows large tuning of the frequency spacing from tens of gigahertz to beyond teraHertz.

  9. Frequency-dependent fine structure in the frequency-following response: The byproduct of multiple generators.

    PubMed

    Tichko, Parker; Skoe, Erika

    2017-01-28

    The frequency-following response (FFR) is an auditory-evoked response recorded at the scalp that captures the spectrotemporal properties of tonal stimuli. Previous investigations report that the amplitude of the FFR fluctuates as a function of stimulus frequency, a phenomenon thought to reflect multiple neural generators phase-locking to the stimulus with different response latencies. When phase-locked responses are offset by different latencies, constructive and destructive phase interferences emerge in the volume-conducted signals, culminating in an attenuation or amplification of the scalp-recorded response in a frequency-specific manner. Borrowing from the literature on the audiogram and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), we refer to this frequency-specific waxing and waning of the FFR amplitude as fine structure. While prior work on the human FFR was limited by small sets of stimulus frequencies, here, we provide the first systematic investigation of FFR fine structure using a broad stimulus set (90 + frequencies) that spanned the limits of human pitch perception. Consistent with predictions, the magnitude of the FFR response varied systematically as a function of stimulus frequency between 16.35 and 880 Hz. In our dataset, FFR high points (local maxima) emerged at ∼44, 87, 208, and 415 Hz with FFR valleys (local minima) emerging ∼62, 110, 311, and 448 Hz. To investigate whether these amplitude fluctuations are the result of multiple neural generators with distinct latencies, we created a theoretical model of the FFR that included six putative generators. Based on the extant literature on the sources of the FFR, our model adopted latencies characteristic of the cochlear microphonic (0 ms), cochlear nucleus (∼1.25 ms), superior olive (∼3.7 ms), and inferior colliculus (∼5 ms). In addition, we included two longer latency putative generators (∼13 ms, and ∼25 ms) reflective of the characteristic latencies of primary and non-primary auditory

  10. Generation of linear dynamic models from a digital nonlinear simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, C. J.; Krosel, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    The results and methodology used to derive linear models from a nonlinear simulation are presented. It is shown that averaged positive and negative perturbations in the state variables can reduce numerical errors in finite difference, partial derivative approximations and, in the control inputs, can better approximate the system response in both directions about the operating point. Both explicit and implicit formulations are addressed. Linear models are derived for the F 100 engine, and comparisons of transients are made with the nonlinear simulation. The problem of startup transients in the nonlinear simulation in making these comparisons is addressed. Also, reduction of the linear models is investigated using the modal and normal techniques. Reduced-order models of the F 100 are derived and compared with the full-state models.

  11. Broadband terahertz generation through intracavity nonlinear optical rectification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shixiang; Liu, Jin; Zheng, Guoliang; Li, Jingzhen

    2010-10-25

    This paper presents a novel design for getting high signal-noise ratio broadband terahertz signal through intracavity optical rectification together with terahertz EO sampling. A nonlinear crystal as terahertz emitter is positioned inside a femtosecond laser oscillator under Brewster angle pumping configuration in order to scale up the pumping pulse power but to keep high pulse repetition rate. Our experiments show that the compact and cost-effective design improves the signal-noise ratio by about 29 times compared with the counterpart based on extracavity nonlinear optical rectification. This work opens a new way to improve the signal-noise ratio of the free-space terahertz time-domain spectroscopy through nonlinear optical rectification pumped by a femtosecond laser oscillator.

  12. Sensitivity of nonlinear harmonic generation to electron beam quality in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, Sandra G.; Huang, Zhirong; Kim, Kwange-Je; Milton, Stephen; Dattoli, Giuseppe; Ottavani, Pier Luigi; Renieri, Alberto; Fawley, William M.; Freund, Henry P.; Huhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2002-03-01

    The generation of harmonics through a nonlinear mechanism driven by bunching at the fundamental has sparked interest as a path toward enhancing and extending the usefulness of an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) facility. The sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic generation to undulator imperfections, electron beam energy spread, peak current, and emittance is important in an evaluation of the process. Typically, linear instabilities in FELs are characterized by increased sensitivity to both electron beam and undulator quality with increasing harmonic number. However, since the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is driven by the growth of the fundamental, the sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic mechanism is not expected to be significantly greater than that of the fundamental. In this paper, they study the effects of electron beam quality, more specifically, emittance, energy spread, and peak current, on the nonlinear harmonics in a 1.5-{angstrom} FEL, and show that the decline in the harmonic emission roughly follows that of the fundamental.

  13. Nonlinear frequency conversion effect in a one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicharn, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, the nonlinear frequency conversion effect based on four-wave mixing (FWM) principle in a onedimensional graphene-based photonics crystal (1D-GPC) has been investigated numerically. The 1D-GPC structure is composed of two periodically alternating material layers, which are graphene-silicon dioxide bilayer system and silicon membrane. Since, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of bilayer system is hundred time higher than pure silicon dioxide layer, so the enhancement of FWM response can be achieved inside the structure with optimizing photon energy being much higher than a chemical potential level (μ) of graphene sheet. In addition, the conversion efficiencies of 1DGPC structure are compared with chalcogenide based photonic structure for showing that 1D-GPC structure can enhance nonlinear effect by a factor of 100 above the chalcogenide based structure with the same structure length.

  14. Nonlinear frequency up-conversion of femtosecond pulses from an erbium fibre laser to the range of 0.8 - 1 {mu}m in silica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Anashkina, E A; Andrianov, A V; Kim, A V

    2013-03-31

    We consider different mechanisms of nonlinear frequency up-conversion of femtosecond pulses emitted by an erbium fibre system ({lambda} = 1.5 {mu}m) to the range of 0.8 - 1.2 {mu}m in nonlinear silica fibres. The generation efficiency and the centre frequencies of dispersive waves are found as functions of the parameters of the fibre and the input pulse. Simple analytical estimates are obtained for the spectral distribution of the intensity and the frequency shift of a wave packet in the region of normal dispersion during the emission of a high-order soliton under phase matching conditions. In the geometrical optics approximation the frequency shifts are estimated in the interaction of dispersive waves with solitons in various regimes. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  15. Effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli–Euler beam

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with analytically predicting the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli–Euler beam performing bending oscillations. Two cases are considered: (i) large transverse deflections, where nonlinear (true) curvature, nonlinear material and nonlinear inertia owing to longitudinal motions of the beam are taken into account, and (ii) mid-plane stretching nonlinearity. A novel approach is employed, the method of varying amplitudes. As a result, the isolated as well as combined effects of the considered sources of nonlinearities are revealed. It is shown that nonlinear inertia has the most substantial impact on the dispersion relation of a non-uniform beam by removing all frequency band-gaps. Explanations of the revealed effects are suggested, and validated by experiments and numerical simulation. PMID:27118899

  16. Nonlinear probability distributions of waves in bimodal following and crossing seas generated in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, P. G.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the nonlinear distributions of crests, troughs and heights of deep water waves from mixed following sea states generated mechanically in an offshore basin and compares with previous results for mixed crossing seas from the same experiment. The random signals at the wavemaker in both types of mixed seas are characterized by bimodal spectra following the model of Guedes Soares (1984). In agreement with the Benjamin-Feir mechanism, the high-frequency spectrum shows decrease of the peak magnitude and downshift of the peak with the distance, as well as reduction of the tail. The observed statistics and probabilistic distributions exhibit, in general, increasing effects of third-order nonlinearity with the distance from the wavemaker. However, this effect is less pronounced in the wave systems with two following wave trains than in the crossing seas with identical initial spectral characteristics. The relevance of third-order effects due to free modes only is demonstrated and assessed by excluding the vertically asymmetric distortions induced by bound-wave effects of second and third order. The fact that for records characterized by relatively large coefficient of kurtosis, the empirical distributions for the non-skewed profiles continue deviating from the linear predictions, corroborate the relevance of free-wave interactions and thus the need of using higher-order models for the description of wave data.

  17. Distributions of nonlinear wave amplitudes and heights from laboratory generated following and crossing bimodal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, P. G.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the distributions of nonlinear crests, troughs and heights of deep water waves from mixed following sea states generated mechanically in an offshore basin and compares with previous results for mixed crossing seas from the same experiment. The random signals at the wavemaker in both types of mixed seas are characterized by bimodal spectra following the model of Guedes Soares (1984). In agreement with the Benjamin-Feir mechanism, the high-frequency spectrum shows a decrease in the peak magnitude and downshift of the peak with the distance, as well as reduction of the tail. The observed statistics and probabilistic distributions exhibit, in general, increasing effects of third-order nonlinearity with the distance from the wavemaker. However, this effect is less pronounced in the wave systems with two following wave trains than in the crossing seas, given that they have identical initial characteristics of the bimodal spectra. The relevance of third-order effects due to free modes only is demonstrated and assessed by excluding the vertically asymmetric distortions induced by bound wave effects of second and third order. The fact that for records characterized by relatively large coefficient of kurtosis, the empirical distributions for the non-skewed profiles continue deviating from the linear predictions, corroborate the relevance of free wave interactions and thus the need of using higher-order models for the description of wave data.

  18. Nonlinear frequency compression: effects on sound quality ratings of speech and music.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality.

  19. Ultrabroadband mid-infrared spectroscopy with four-wave difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Takao; Shirai, Hideto; Nomura, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    Four-wave difference frequency generation (FWDFG) is a third-order optical parametric process, which is generally explained as {ω }1+{ω }2-{ω }3\\to {ω }4 or {ω }1-{ω }2-{ω }3\\to {ω }4, where three input frequencies are {ω }1, {ω }2, and {ω }3, and the output frequency is {ω }4. Here we report the use of FWDFG for chirped-pulse upconversion (CPU) of an ultrabroadband mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum and the application of the technique for MIR spectroscopy. When the CPU technique is used for MIR spectroscopy, ultrashort MIR pulses are converted into visible ones. This way, the spectra can be recorded with a visible spectrometer, which has much higher performance than MIR spectrometers. In the previous experiments, the CPU has been performed by using sum-frequency generation (SFG) with a solid crystal, and the bandwidth has been limited to less than 1000 cm-1 due to the phase matching condition of the SFG. This limitation can be removed by using FWDFG, which is a third-order nonlinear process that allows us to use centrosymmetric nonlinear media such as gases for the upconversion. Since gaseous media have much less dispersion than solid media, the bandwidth of the phase-matching condition for the upconversion process becomes very broad. In our experiments, the entire spectrum of the MIR supercontinuum spanning from 200 to 5500 cm-1 was upconverted by using a 4.9 ps chirped pulse to visible wavelength radiation, which was detected with a conventional visible dispersive spectrometer. The technique has been applied to attenuated total reflectance MIR spectroscopy. Absorption spectra of liquids in the range from 200 to 5500 cm-1 were measured with a visible spectrometer on a single-shot basis.

  20. Applying time, frequency and nonlinear features from nocturnal oximetry to OSA diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto; Victor Marcos, J; Del Campo, Felix; Zamarron, Carlos; Lopez, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    This study is aimed to improve the diagnostic ability of blood oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detection. We studied 74 patients suspected of suffering from OSA. Ten characteristics were derived from each SaO2 recording: arithmetic mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis from both time and frequency domains, central tendency measure and Lempel-Ziv complexity. The diagnostic ability of each feature was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Additionally, forward stepwise logistic regression (LR) was applied. The kurtosis in the time domain and the nonlinear measure of complexity were automatically selected. This methodology reached 93.2% sensitivity, 80.0% specificity and 87.8% accuracy, improving the results from each feature individually. Our study showed that common statistics in the time and frequency domains and nonlinear features could provide additional and complementary information to help in OSA diagnosis.

  1. Diversified pulse generation from frequency shifted feedback Tm-doped fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Pulsed fibre lasers operating in the eye-safe 2 μm spectral region have numerous potential applications in areas such as remote sensing, medicine, mid-infrared frequency conversion, and free-space communication. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate versatile 2 μm ps-ns pulses generation from Tm-based fibre lasers based on frequency shifted feedback and provide a comprehensive report of their special behaviors. The lasers are featured with elegant construction and the unparalleled capacity of generating versatile pulses. The self-starting mode-locking is initiated by an intra-cavity acousto-optical frequency shifter. Diversified mode-locked pulse dynamics were observed by altering the pump power, intra-cavity polarization state and cavity structure, including as short as 8 ps single pulse sequence, pulse bundle state and up to 12 nJ, 3 ns nanosecond rectangular pulse. A reflective nonlinear optical loop mirror was introduced to successfully shorten the pulses from 24 ps to 8 ps. Beside the mode-locking operation, flexible Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operation can also be readily achieved in the same cavity. Up to 78 μJ high energy nanosecond pulse can be generated in this regime. Several intriguing pulse dynamics are characterized and discussed.

  2. Diversified pulse generation from frequency shifted feedback Tm-doped fibre lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed fibre lasers operating in the eye-safe 2 μm spectral region have numerous potential applications in areas such as remote sensing, medicine, mid-infrared frequency conversion, and free-space communication. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate versatile 2 μm ps-ns pulses generation from Tm-based fibre lasers based on frequency shifted feedback and provide a comprehensive report of their special behaviors. The lasers are featured with elegant construction and the unparalleled capacity of generating versatile pulses. The self-starting mode-locking is initiated by an intra-cavity acousto-optical frequency shifter. Diversified mode-locked pulse dynamics were observed by altering the pump power, intra-cavity polarization state and cavity structure, including as short as 8 ps single pulse sequence, pulse bundle state and up to 12 nJ, 3 ns nanosecond rectangular pulse. A reflective nonlinear optical loop mirror was introduced to successfully shorten the pulses from 24 ps to 8 ps. Beside the mode-locking operation, flexible Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operation can also be readily achieved in the same cavity. Up to 78 μJ high energy nanosecond pulse can be generated in this regime. Several intriguing pulse dynamics are characterized and discussed. PMID:27193213

  3. Nonlinear frequency shift in Raman backscattering and its implications for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganovich, D.; Hafizi, B.; Palastro, J. P.; Ting, A.; Helle, M. H.; Chen, Y.-H.; Jones, T. G.; Gordon, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    Raman backscattered radiation of intense laser pulses in plasmas is investigated for a wide range of intensities relevant to laser wakefield acceleration. The weakly nonlinear dispersion relation for Raman backscattering predicts an intensity and density dependent frequency shift that is opposite to that suggested by a simple relativistic consideration. This observation has been benchmarked against experimental results, providing a novel diagnostic for laser-plasma interactions.

  4. Nonlinear frequency conversion in bismuth-doped tellurite suspended core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Lin, Aoxiang; Belwalkar, Amit; Guintrand, Cyril; Biaggio, Ivan; Toulouse, Jean

    2011-08-01

    We have developed a new kind of tellurite glass with composition 70.5TeO 2-12ZnO-10Na 2O-7.5Bi 2O 3 by conventional melting-quenching techniques. A suspended-core fiber (SCF) with a triangular-shaped core (~ 2.9 μm) has been drawn from an extruded perform. Several nonlinear frequency conversion processes are being demonstrated, which point to the potential of such a fiber.

  5. Broadband frequency-chirped terahertz-wave signal generation using periodically-poled lithium niobate for frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Junichi; Ogawa, Yoh; Sekine, Norihiko; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Kanno, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Hosako, Iwao

    2016-02-01

    We have proposed a method by using a nonlinear optical technique to generate frequency-modulated (FM) signals in the terahertz (THz) band with much broader bandwidth. Periodically-poled lithium niobates (PPLNs) are excited by ultrashort pulses, and linearly frequency-chirped THz pulses are obtained by changing the periodicity of the PPLN gradually. The bandwidth achieved is approximately 1 THz at a center frequency of 1.5 THz. Using this wave in a FM continuous (CW) radar system is expected to result in a range resolution of ~150 μm. This FM-THz signal generation technique will thus be useful in or future civil safety applications requiring high-resolution ranging or imaging.

  6. Quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equation with prescribed frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jing; Gao, Yixian Li, Yong

    2015-05-15

    Consider the one dimensional nonlinear beam equation u{sub tt} + u{sub xxxx} + mu + u{sup 3} = 0 under Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that for any m > 0 but a set of small Lebesgue measure, the above equation admits a family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with n-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. These Diophantine frequencies are the small dilation of a prescribed Diophantine vector. The proofs are based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser iteration procedure and a partial Birkhoff normal form. .

  7. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  8. Pulsed second-harmonic generation in nonlinear, one-dimensional, periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M. J.; Manka, A. S.; Dowling, J. P.; Bowden, C. M.; Viswanathan, R.; Haus, J. W.

    1997-10-01

    We present a numerical study of second-harmonic (SH) generation in a one-dimensional, generic, photonic band-gap material that is doped with a nonlinear χ(2) medium. We show that a 20-period, 12-μm structure can generate short SH pulses (similar in duration to pump pulses) whose energy and power levels may be 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the energy and power levels produced by an equivalent length of a phase-matched, bulk medium. This phenomenon comes about as a result of the combination of high electromagnetic mode density of states, low group velocity, and spatial phase locking of the fields near the photonic band edge. The structure is designed so that the pump pulse is tuned near the first-order photonic band edge, and the SH signal is generated near the band edge of the second-order gap. This maximizes the density of available field modes for both the pump and SH field. Our results show that the χ(2) response is effectively enhanced by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, mm- or cm-long, quasi-phase-matched devices could be replaced by these simple layered structures of only a few micrometers in length. This has important applications to high-energy lasers, Raman-type sources, and frequency up- and down-conversion schemes.

  9. Generation of infrasonic waves by low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations in the Earth's lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.

    2008-06-15

    It is shown that, during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers, the excitation of low-frequency dust acoustic perturbations by modulational instability in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the generation of infrasonic waves. The processes accompanying the propagation of these waves are considered, and the possibility of observing the waves from the Earth's surface is discussed, as well as the possible onset of acoustic gravitational vortex structures in the region of dust acoustic perturbations. The generation of such structures during Perseid, Geminid, Orionid, and Leonid meteor showers can show up as an increase in the intensity of green nightglow by an amount on the order of 10% and can be attributed to the formation of nonlinear (vortex) structures at altitudes of 110-120 km.

  10. Generation of optical frequency combs in a fiber-ring/microresonator laser system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changlei; Che, Kaijun; Xu, Huiying; Zhang, Pan; Tang, Deyu; Ren, Changyan; Luo, Zhengqian; Cai, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for generating optical frequency combs (OFCs) in a fiber-ring/microresonator laser system. The ultrahigh Q whispering gallery mode microresonator is employed both as a mode reflection mirror to generate erbium lasing and as a Kerr-nonlinearity initiator that introduces optical parametric oscillation signals to form OFCs. By controlling the coupling position between the fiber taper and microresonator, optimizing the fiber polarization, as well as the pump power from a 974 nm laser diode (LD), versatile OFCs can be tuned out from single-wavelength states. The OFCs have single, multiple, or combined free spectral ranges. In addition, a Raman-gain-assisted OFC is also observed with a bandwidth of ∼230  nm. This LD-pumped and multifunctional laser system could find applications in precision spectroscopy, biochemical sensing, and optical fiber communication systems.

  11. Experimental laboratory system to generate high frequency test environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Paez, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This is an extension of two previous analytical studies to investigate a technique for generating high frequency, high amplitude vibration environments. These environments are created using a device attached to a common vibration exciter that permits multiple metal on metal impacts driving a test surface. These analytical studies predicted that test environments with an energy content exceeding 10 kHz could be achieved using sinusoidal and random shaker excitations. The analysis predicted that chaotic vibrations yielding random like test environments could be generated from sinusoidal inputs. In this study, a much simplified version of the proposed system was fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Experimental measurements demonstrate that even this simplified system, utilizing a single impacting object, can generate environments on the test surface with significant frequency content in excess of 40 kHz. Results for sinusoidal shaker inputs tuned to create chaotic impact response are shown along with the responses due to random vibration shaker inputs. The experiments and results are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Linear and nonlinear Biot waves in a noncohesive granular medium slab: transfer function, self-action, second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Legland, J-B; Tournat, V; Dazel, O; Novak, A; Gusev, V

    2012-06-01

    Experimental results are reported on second harmonic generation and self-action in a noncohesive granular medium supporting wave energy propagation both in the solid frame and in the saturating fluid. The acoustic transfer function of the probed granular slab can be separated into two main frequency regions: a low frequency region where the wave propagation is controlled by the solid skeleton elastic properties, and a higher frequency region where the behavior is dominantly due to the air saturating the beads. Experimental results agree well with a recently developed nonlinear Biot wave model applied to granular media. The linear transfer function, second harmonic generation, and self-action effect are studied as a function of bead diameter, compaction step, excitation amplitude, and frequency. This parametric study allows one to isolate different propagation regimes involving a range of described and interpreted linear and nonlinear processes that are encountered in granular media experiments. In particular, a theoretical interpretation is proposed for the observed strong self-action effect.

  13. High average power coherent vuv generation at 10 MHz repetition frequency by intracavity high harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Akira; Zhao, Zhigang; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2015-06-15

    Intracavity high harmonic generation was utilized to generate high average-power coherent radiation at vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) wavelengths. A ytterbium-doped fiber-laser based master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system with a 10 MHz repetition frequency was developed and used as a driving laser for an external cavity. A series of odd-order harmonic radiations was generated extending down to ∼ 30 nm (41 eV in photon energy). The 7th harmonic radiation generated was centered at 149 nm and had an average output power of up to 0.5 mW. In this way, we developed a sub-mW coherent vuv-laser with a 10 MHz repetition frequency, which, if used as an excitation laser source for photo-electron spectroscopy, could improve the signal count-rate without deterioration of the spectral-resolution caused by space-charge effects.

  14. Nonlinear Enhancement of the Efficiency of the Second Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidin, Noriah; Khamsan, Nur Ezaan; Sabhan, Enass Maulud; Noor, Faizani Mohd

    2011-05-01

    Birefringent ND:YVO4 pumped by diode laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm was used to pump nonlinear KTP crystal. Quartz crystals having natural birefringent property namely quarter and half waveplates were conducted in conjunction with the bulk of KTP to enhance the nonlinear beam. The result showed that half waveplate have electrical to optical conversion efficiency of 15.6 mW/A as compared to quarter waveplate is only 8.74 mW/A. The threshold current for SHG is found 5.3 A with half waveplate and 5.9 A with quarter waveplate. The high performance shown by half waveplate is realized due to the good mode matching after converting the polarization state.

  15. Fock State Generation From the Nonlinear Kerr Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonski, W.; Tanas, R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss a system comprising a nonlinear Kerr medium in a cavity driven by an external coherent field directly or through the parametric process. We assume that the system is initially in the vacuum state, and we show that under appropriate conditions, i.e., properly chosen detuning and intensity of the driving field, the one or two-photon Fock states of the electromagnetic field can be achieved.

  16. Azimuthal and radial shaping of vortex beams generated in twisted nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Keren; Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Shapira, Asia; Libster, Ana; Juwiler, Irit; Arie, Ady

    2013-12-15

    We experimentally demonstrate that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a second harmonic (SH) beam, generated within twisted nonlinear photonic crystals, depends both on the OAM of the input pump beam and on the quasi-angular momentum of the crystal. In addition, when the pump's radial index is zero, the radial index of the SH beam is equal to that of the nonlinear crystal. Furthermore, by mixing two noncollinear pump beams in this crystal, we generate, in addition to the SH beams, a new "virtual beam" having multiple values of OAM that are determined by the nonlinear process.

  17. Nonlinear series resonance and standing waves in dual-frequency capacitive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, De-Qi; Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that the nonlinear series resonance in a high frequency capacitive discharge enhances the electron power deposition and also creates standing waves which produce radially center-high rf voltage profiles. In this work, the dynamics of series resonance and wave effects are examined in a dual-frequency driven discharge, using an asymmetric radial transmission line model incorporating a Child law sheath. We consider a cylindrical argon discharge with a conducting electrode radius of 15 cm, gap length of 3 cm, with a base case having a 60 MHz high frequency voltage of 250 V and a 10 MHz low frequency voltage of 1000 V, with a high frequency phase shift {φ\\text{H}}=π between the two frequencies. For this phase shift there is only one sheath collapse, and the time-averaged spectral peaks of the normalized current density at the center are mainly centered on harmonic numbers 30 and 50 of the low frequency, corresponding to the first standing wave resonance frequency and the series resonance frequency, respectively. The effects of the waves on the series resonance dynamics near the discharge center give rise to significant enhancements in the electron power deposition, compared to that near the discharge edge. Adjusting the phase shift from π to 0, or decreasing the low frequency from 10 to 2 MHz, results in two or more sheath collapses, respectively, making the dynamics more complex. The sudden excitation of the perturbed series resonance current after the sheath collapse results in a current oscillation amplitude that is estimated from analytical and numerical calculations. Self-consistently determining the dc bias and including the conduction current is found to be important. The subsequent slow time variation of the high frequency oscillation is analyzed using an adiabatic theory.

  18. Nonlinear evolution of high frequency R-mode waves excited by water group ions near comets - Computer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1989-01-01

    An ion beam resonates with R-mode waves at a high-frequency RH mode and a low-frequency RL mode. The nonlinear evolution of ion beam-generated RH waves is studied here by one-dimensional hybrid computer experiments. Both wave-particle and subsequent wave-wave interactions are examined. The competing process among coexisting RH and RL mode beam instabilities and repeated decay instabilities triggered by the beam-excited RH mode waves is clarified. It is found that the quenching of the RH instability is not caused by a thermal spreading of the ion beam, but by the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process. The growing RH waves become unstable against the decay instability. This instability involves a backward-traveling RH electromagnetic wave and a forward-traveling longitudinal sound wave. The inverse cascading process is found to occur faster than the growth of the RL mode. Wave spectra decaying from the RH waves weaken as time elapses and the RL mode waves become dominant at the end of the computer experiment.

  19. Nonlinear effects at the boundary of an electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.; Shukla, P. K.

    2003-05-01

    Two solutions for nonlinear electron plasma waves propagating along a cold plasma boundary are reported. Thus, the nonlinear frequency shift caused by the harmonic generation as well as new localized nonlinear perturbations are found.

  20. Method of implementing frequency encoded multiplexer and demultiplexer systems using nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sourangshu

    2009-11-01

    Multiplexing and demultiplexing are the essential parts of any communication network. In case of optical multiplexing and demultiplexing the coding of the data as well as the coding of control signals are most important issues. Many encoding/decoding mechanisms have already been developed in optical communication technology. Recently frequency encoding technique has drawn some special interest to the scientific communities. The advantage of frequency encoding technique over any other techniques is that as the frequency is fundamental character of any signal so it remains unaltered in reflection, refraction, absorption, etc. during transmission of the signal and therefore the system will execute the operation with reliability. On the other hand, the switching speed of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is sufficiently high with property of best on/off contrast ratio. In our present communication we propose a method of implementing a '4-to-1' multiplexer (MUX) and a '1-to-4' demultiplexer (DEMUX) exploiting the switching character of nonlinear SOA with the use of frequency encoded control signals. To implement the '4-to-1' MUX and '1-to-4' DEMUX system, the frequency selection by multiquantum well (MQW)-grating filter-based SOA has been used for frequency routing purpose. At the same time, the polarization rotation character of SOA has also been exploited to get the desired purpose. Here the fast switching action of SOA with reliable frequency encoded control input signals, it is possible to achieve a faithful MUX/DEMUX service at tera-Hz operational speed.

  1. Generation of difference-frequency radiation in the far- and mid-IR ranges in a two-chip laser based on gallium arsenide on a germanium substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V Ya; Dubinov, A A

    2008-09-30

    The possibility of efficient generation of difference-frequency radiation in the far- and mid-IR ranges in a two-chip laser based on gallium arsenide grown on a germanium substrate is considered. It is shown that a laser with a waveguide of width 100 {mu}m emitting 1 W in the near-IR range can generate {approx}40 {mu}W at the difference frequency in the region 5-50 THz at room temperature. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. Gigahertz frequency comb offset stabilization based on supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides.

    PubMed

    Klenner, Alexander; Mayer, Aline S; Johnson, Adrea R; Luke, Kevin; Lamont, Michael R E; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L; Keller, Ursula

    2016-05-16

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides represent a novel photonic platform that is ideally suited for energy efficient and ultrabroadband nonlinear interactions from the visible to the mid-infrared. Chip-based supercontinuum generation in Si3N4 offers a path towards a fully-integrated and highly compact comb source for sensing and time-and-frequency metrology applications. We demonstrate the first successful frequency comb offset stabilization that utilizes a Si3N4 waveguide for octave-spanning supercontinuum generation and achieve the lowest integrated residual phase noise of any diode-pumped gigahertz laser comb to date. In addition, we perform a direct comparison to a standard silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using the same ultrafast solid-state laser oscillator operating at 1 µm. We identify the minimal role of Raman scattering in Si3N4 as a key benefit that allows to overcome the fundamental limitations of silica fibers set by Raman-induced self-frequency shift.

  3. Visualization of evolving laser-generated structures by frequency domain tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yenyu; Li, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiaoming; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We introduce frequency domain tomography (FDT) for single-shot visualization of time-evolving refractive index structures (e.g. laser wakefields, nonlinear index structures) moving at light-speed. Previous researchers demonstrated single-shot frequency domain holography (FDH), in which a probe-reference pulse pair co- propagates with the laser-generated structure, to obtain snapshot-like images. However, in FDH, information about the structure's evolution is averaged. To visualize an evolving structure, we use several frequency domain streak cameras (FDSCs), in each of which a probe-reference pulse pair propagates at an angle to the propagation direction of the laser-generated structure. The combination of several FDSCs constitutes the FDT system. We will present experimental results for a 4-probe FDT system that has imaged the whole-beam self-focusing of a pump pulse propagating through glass in a single laser shot. Combining temporal and angle multiplexing methods, we successfully processed data from four probe pulses in one spectrometer in a single-shot. The output of data processing is a multi-frame movie of the self- focusing pulse. Our results promise the possibility of visualizing evolving laser wakefield structures that underlie laser-plasma accelerators used for multi-GeV electron acceleration.

  4. Second Generation Organometallic Materials for Non-Linear Optical Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-26

    University of Florida I . Project Objectives, Significance and Overview During the past several years in an AFOSR sponsored project our group has...Ar i PR3 rr\\3 PR 3 Pt—=— Ar- PRs n Pt-acetylide oligomer Pt-acetylide polymer Figure 1. Structure of platinum-acetylide materials. Work...Solvent - CH,C1 Energyu»» i /J Figure 9. Top: Structures of TPA-M complexes. Bottom: Nonlinear transmission for 10 and 20 mM, CH2C12 solutions of

  5. Horizontal variability of high-frequency nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay detected by an array of seafloor pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. A.; Lerczak, J. A.; Moum, J. N.

    2016-08-01

    A two-dimensional array of 14 seafloor pressure sensors was deployed to measure properties of tidally generated, nonlinear, high-frequency internal waves over a 14 km by 12 km area west of Stellwagen Bank in Massachusetts Bay during summer 2009. Thirteen high-frequency internal wave packets propagated through the region over 6.5 days (one packet every semidiurnal cycle). Propagation speed and direction of wave packets were determined by triangulation, using arrival times and distances between triads of sensor locations. Wavefront curvature ranged from straight to radially spreading, with wave speeds generally faster to the south. Waves propagated to the southwest, rotating to more westward with shoreward propagation. Linear theory predicts a relationship between kinetic energy and bottom pressure variance of internal waves that is sensitive to sheared background currents, water depth, and stratification. By comparison to seafloor acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements, observations nonetheless show a strong relationship between kinetic energy and bottom pressure variance. This is presumably due to phase-locking of the wave packets to the internal tide that dominates background currents and to horizontally uniform and relatively constant stratification throughout the study. This relationship was used to qualitatively describe variations in kinetic energy of the high-frequency wave packets. In general, high-frequency internal wave kinetic energy was greater near the southern extent of wavefronts and greatly decreased upon propagating shoreward of the 40 m isobath.

  6. Exchange-mediated, nonlinear, out-of-plane magnetic field dependence of the ferromagnetic vortex gyrotropic mode frequency driven by core deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Jasper P.; Fangohr, Hans; Kostylev, Mikhail; Metaxas, Peter J.

    2016-12-01

    We have performed micromagnetic simulations of low-amplitude gyrotropic dynamics of magnetic vortices in the presence of spatially uniform out-of-plane magnetic fields. For disks having small lateral dimensions, we observe a frequency drop-off when approaching the disk's out-of-plane saturation field. This nonlinear frequency response is shown to be associated with a vortex core deformation driven by nonuniform demagnetizing fields that act on the shifted core. The deformation results in an increase in the average out-of-plane magnetization of the displaced vortex state (contrasting the effect of gyrofield-driven deformation at low field), which causes the exchange contribution to the vortex stiffness to switch from positive to negative. This generates an enhanced reduction of the core stiffness at high field, leading to a nonlinear field dependence of the gyrotropic mode frequency.

  7. Full 3D modelling of pulse propagation enables efficient nonlinear frequency conversion with low energy laser pulses in a single-element tripler.

    PubMed

    Kardaś, Tomasz M; Nejbauer, Michał; Wnuk, Paweł; Resan, Bojan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-02-22

    Although new optical materials continue to open up access to more and more wavelength bands where femtosecond laser pulses can be generated, light frequency conversion techniques are still indispensable in filling the gaps on the ultrafast spectral scale. With high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser sources (oscillators) tight focusing is necessary for a robust wave mixing and the efficiency of broadband nonlinear conversion is limited by diffraction as well as spatial and temporal walk-off. Here we demonstrate a miniature third harmonic generator (tripler) with conversion efficiency exceeding 30%, producing 246 fs UV pulses via cascaded second order processes within a single laser beam focus. Designing this highly efficient and ultra compact frequency converter was made possible by full 3-dimentional modelling of propagation of tightly focused, broadband light fields in nonlinear and birefringent media.

  8. Full 3D modelling of pulse propagation enables efficient nonlinear frequency conversion with low energy laser pulses in a single-element tripler

    PubMed Central

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Nejbauer, Michał; Wnuk, Paweł; Resan, Bojan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Although new optical materials continue to open up access to more and more wavelength bands where femtosecond laser pulses can be generated, light frequency conversion techniques are still indispensable in filling the gaps on the ultrafast spectral scale. With high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser sources (oscillators) tight focusing is necessary for a robust wave mixing and the efficiency of broadband nonlinear conversion is limited by diffraction as well as spatial and temporal walk-off. Here we demonstrate a miniature third harmonic generator (tripler) with conversion efficiency exceeding 30%, producing 246 fs UV pulses via cascaded second order processes within a single laser beam focus. Designing this highly efficient and ultra compact frequency converter was made possible by full 3-dimentional modelling of propagation of tightly focused, broadband light fields in nonlinear and birefringent media. PMID:28225007

  9. Full 3D modelling of pulse propagation enables efficient nonlinear frequency conversion with low energy laser pulses in a single-element tripler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Nejbauer, Michał; Wnuk, Paweł; Resan, Bojan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Although new optical materials continue to open up access to more and more wavelength bands where femtosecond laser pulses can be generated, light frequency conversion techniques are still indispensable in filling the gaps on the ultrafast spectral scale. With high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser sources (oscillators) tight focusing is necessary for a robust wave mixing and the efficiency of broadband nonlinear conversion is limited by diffraction as well as spatial and temporal walk-off. Here we demonstrate a miniature third harmonic generator (tripler) with conversion efficiency exceeding 30%, producing 246 fs UV pulses via cascaded second order processes within a single laser beam focus. Designing this highly efficient and ultra compact frequency converter was made possible by full 3-dimentional modelling of propagation of tightly focused, broadband light fields in nonlinear and birefringent media.

  10. Volterra series truncation and kernel estimation of nonlinear systems in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Billings, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    The Volterra series model is a direct generalisation of the linear convolution integral and is capable of displaying the intrinsic features of a nonlinear system in a simple and easy to apply way. Nonlinear system analysis using Volterra series is normally based on the analysis of its frequency-domain kernels and a truncated description. But the estimation of Volterra kernels and the truncation of Volterra series are coupled with each other. In this paper, a novel complex-valued orthogonal least squares algorithm is developed. The new algorithm provides a powerful tool to determine which terms should be included in the Volterra series expansion and to estimate the kernels and thus solves the two problems all together. The estimated results are compared with those determined using the analytical expressions of the kernels to validate the method. To further evaluate the effectiveness of the method, the physical parameters of the system are also extracted from the measured kernels. Simulation studies demonstrates that the new approach not only can truncate the Volterra series expansion and estimate the kernels of a weakly nonlinear system, but also can indicate the applicability of the Volterra series analysis in a severely nonlinear system case.

  11. Energy transport in weakly nonlinear wave systems with narrow frequency band excitation.

    PubMed

    Kartashova, Elena

    2012-10-01

    A novel discrete model (D model) is presented describing nonlinear wave interactions in systems with small and moderate nonlinearity under narrow frequency band excitation. It integrates in a single theoretical frame two mechanisms of energy transport between modes, namely, intermittency and energy cascade, and gives the conditions under which each regime will take place. Conditions for the formation of a cascade, cascade direction, conditions for cascade termination, etc., are given and depend strongly on the choice of excitation parameters. The energy spectra of a cascade may be computed, yielding discrete and continuous energy spectra. The model does not require statistical assumptions, as all effects are derived from the interaction of distinct modes. In the example given-surface water waves with dispersion function ω(2)=gk and small nonlinearity-the D model predicts asymmetrical growth of side-bands for Benjamin-Feir instability, while the transition from discrete to continuous energy spectrum, excitation parameters properly chosen, yields the saturated Phillips' power spectrum ~g(2)ω(-5). The D model can be applied to the experimental and theoretical study of numerous wave systems appearing in hydrodynamics, nonlinear optics, electrodynamics, plasma, convection theory, etc.

  12. Nonlinear EEG activation evoked by low-strength low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Simona; Frilot, Clifton; Chesson, Andrew L; Marino, Andrew A

    2007-05-01

    Recent electrophysiological evidence suggested the existence of a human magnetic sense, but the kind of dynamical law that governed the stimulus-response relationship was not established. We tested the hypothesis that brain potentials evoked by the onset of a weak, low-frequency magnetic field were nonlinearly related to the stimulus. A field of 1G, 60 Hz was applied for 2s, with a 5s inter-stimulus period, and brain potentials were recorded from occipital electrodes in eight subjects, each of whom were measured twice, with at least 1 week between measurements. The recorded signals were subjected to nonlinear (recurrence analysis) and linear (time averaging) analyses. Using recurrence analysis, magnetosensory evoked potentials (MEPs) were detected in each subject in both the initial and replicate studies, with one exception. All MEPs exhibited the expected latency but differed in dynamical characteristics, indicating that they were nonlinearly related to the stimulus. MEPs were not detected using time averaging, thereby further confirming their nonlinearity. Evolutionarily conditioned structures that help mediate linear field-transduction in lower life forms may be expressed and functionally utilized in humans, but in a role where they facilitate vulnerability to man-made environmental fields.

  13. High power pumped MID-IR wavelength devices using nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  14. High power pumped mid-IR wavelength systems using nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength systems include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  15. Ecological prediction with nonlinear multivariate time-frequency functional data models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Wen-Hsi; Wikle, Christopher K.; Holan, Scott H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Time-frequency analysis has become a fundamental component of many scientific inquiries. Due to improvements in technology, the amount of high-frequency signals that are collected for ecological and other scientific processes is increasing at a dramatic rate. In order to facilitate the use of these data in ecological prediction, we introduce a class of nonlinear multivariate time-frequency functional models that can identify important features of each signal as well as the interaction of signals corresponding to the response variable of interest. Our methodology is of independent interest and utilizes stochastic search variable selection to improve model selection and performs model averaging to enhance prediction. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through simulation and by application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River.

  16. Large enhancement of fully resonant sum-frequency generation through quantum control via continuum states

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, A.K.; Kimberg, V.V.; George, Thomas F.

    2004-04-01

    A theory of quantum control of short-wavelength sum-frequency generation, which employs the continuum states, is developed. The proposed scheme employs all-resonant coupling and trade-off optimization of the accompanying constructive and destructive quantum interference effects in the lower-order and higher-order polarizations controlled by the overlap of two autoionizinglike laser-induced continuum structures. The scheme does not rely on adiabatic passage, coherent population trapping or maximum atomic coherence as a means to facilitate maximum output. The opportunities for manipulating transparency of the medium and refractive index for the fundamental and generated radiations, as well as nonlinear polarization in the multiple-resonant medium, are shown. This opens the feasibility of creating frequency-tunable narrowband filters, polarization rotators, and dispersive elements for vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The features specific for quantum interference in Doppler-broadened media are investigated. The feasibility of almost complete conversion of long-wavelength fundamental radiation into generated short-wavelength radiation, and of a dramatic decrease in the intensity of required fundamental radiations, is shown.

  17. Pulse evolution in nonlinear optical fibers with sliding-frequency filters.

    PubMed

    Beech-Brandt, J J; Smyth, N F

    2001-05-01

    The effect of fiber loss, amplification, and sliding-frequency filters on the evolution of optical pulses in nonlinear optical fibers is considered, this evolution being governed by a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. Approximate ordinary differential equations (ODE's) governing the pulse evolution are obtained using conservation and moment equations for the perturbed NLS equation together with a trial function incorporating a solitonlike pulse with independently varying amplitude and width. In addition, the trial function incorporates the interaction between the pulse and the dispersive radiation shed as the pulse evolves. This interaction must be included in order to obtain approximate ODE's whose solutions are in good agreement with full numerical solutions of the governing perturbed NLS equation. The solutions of the approximate ODE's are compared with full numerical solutions of the perturbed NLS equation and very good agreement is found.

  18. Frequency conversion, nonlinear absorption and carrier dynamics of GaSe:B/Er crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksek, Mustafa; Karatay, Ahmet; Ertap, Hüseyin; Elmali, Ayhan; Karabulut, Mevlut

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the influence of Er3+ rare earth element on the frequency conversion wavelength in boron doped GaSe crystals. It was found that by substitution of Er3+ with B3+, SHG signal shifted to higher wavelength. In addition, the nonlinear absorption properties and ultrafast dynamics of pure, 0.5 at% B3+ and 0.25 at% B3+ + 0.25 at% Er3+ doped GaSe crystals have been studied by open aperture Z-scan and ultrafast pump probe spectroscopy techniques. All of the studied crystals showed nonlinear absorption (NA). It was observed that 0.5 at% B3+ doped GaSe crystal showed bleach signal. This signal switched to NA signal with long life after substitution of 0.25 at% Er3+ with 0.25 at% B3+.

  19. On the passage of high-level pulsed radio frequency interference through a nonlinear satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, A.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the uncoded bit error rate (BER) performance of a satellite communications system whose modulation scheme is binary PSK and whose transponder contains an arbitrary amplitude nonlinearity, all in the presence of high level pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI). A general approach is presented for direct BER evaluations, in contrast to other approaches which may employ SNR suppression factors. The computed results are based on arbitrarily specified RFI scenarios, in the presence of hard limiter, clipper, or blanker amplitude nonlinearities. Performance curves demonstrate the superiority of an appropriately chosen blanker when the RFI environment is most severe. The results obtained also pertain to the sensitivity of performance to the information bit rate, signal power variations, and the ratio of CW to noise content. The CW effects are found to be the most severe.

  20. Frequency map analysis of nonlinear dynamics in the NLC main damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Venturini, Marco; Wan, Weishi; Marks, Steve

    2004-10-11

    To avoid radiation damage, the acceptance of linear collider damping rings must be large enough that injection efficiency close to 100 percent can be achieved. Survival plots based on tracking particles in the NLC Main Damping Ring lattice suggest a dynamic aperture with some margin over the specified injected beam size and energy spread. Here, we apply Frequency Map Analysis to give a more detailed picture of the dynamical stability of particle trajectories in the presence of lattice nonlinearities arising from the sextupoles and the damping wiggler. The techniques that we use are of general applicability to nonlinear elements in beamlines, and in particular will be used for analysis of wiggler effects in future damping ring designs.

  1. Nonlinear oscillation and interfacial stability of an encapsulated microbubble under dual-frequency ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvisi, Michael; Liu, Yunqiao; Wang, Qianxi

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles (EMBs) are widely used in medical ultrasound imaging as contrast-enhanced agents. However, the potential damaging effects of violent, collapsing EMBs to cells and tissues in clinical practice have remained a concern. Dual-frequency ultrasound is a promising technique for improving the efficacy and safety of sonography. The EMB system modeled consists of the external liquid, membrane, and internal gases. The microbubble dynamics are simulated using a simple nonlinear interactive theory, considering the compressibility of the internal gas, viscosity of the liquid flow, and elasticity of the membrane. The radial oscillation and interfacial stability of an EMB under single and dual-frequency excitations are compared. The simulation results show that the dual-frequency technique produces larger backscatter pressure at higher harmonics of the primary driving frequency. This enriched acoustic spectrum can enhance blood-tissue contrast and improve sonographic image quality. The results further show that the acoustic pressure threshold associated with the onset of shape instability is greater for dual-frequency driving. This suggests that the dual-frequency technique stabilizes the EMB, thereby improving the efficacy and safety of contrast-enhanced agents.

  2. Nonlinear Analysis of the Frequency-magnitude Relationship in the Western Circum-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Changyuan

    2005-01-01

    It has long been realized that the linear Gutenberg-Richter model arduously describes the frequency-magnitude relationship for the magnitude span ranging from small to large earthquakes because of the breakdown of the self-similarity rule due to the changing scaling of the magnitude. Three different segments should be observed from small (usually M < 3.0), through moderate (M < Mc, where Mc is the frequency-magnitude turning point caused by the seismogenic thickness), to large earthquakes (M ≥ Mc). We will only concentrate on the moderate and large earthquakes due to their importance. The breakdown of the self-similarity rule from moderate to large earthquakes occurs where the earthquake is big enough to cut through the entire seismogenic layer. A nonlinear ‘hyperbolic’ model, which fits two linear relations smoothly, is studied in the present paper, where N is the cumulative number of earthquakes with magnitudes larger than or equal to M; a1 to a5 are constants to be calculated. The G-R linear relation is actually a special case of the present nonlinear model, i.e., a3 or a5 equal to zero. The nonlinear form, with the support of a reasonable physical mechanism, can generally give a better fitting with comparatively minor errors for complete data sets, especially for the areas where large earthquakes are numerous. In order to demonstrate its superiority to the linear G-R relation, thirteen seismogenic zones are examined around the western part of the Circum-Pacific region and western part of China and it is found that the fitting errors from this nonlinear model are, as expected, generally much smaller than those for G-R. Furthermore, the parameter a4 is believed to relate with the saturated magnitude Mc,which to some extent reflects the mean thickness of the seismogenic layer.

  3. Generation of a frequency comb spanning more than 3.6 octaves from ultraviolet to mid infrared.

    PubMed

    Iwakuni, Kana; Okubo, Sho; Tadanaga, Osamu; Inaba, Hajime; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    We have observed an ultra-broadband frequency comb with a wavelength range of at least 0.35 to 4.4 μm in a ridge-waveguide-type periodically poled lithium niobate device. The PPLN waveguide is pumped by a 1.0-2.4 μm wide frequency comb with an average power of 120 mW generated using an erbium-based mode-locked fiber laser and a following highly nonlinear fiber. The coherence of the extended comb is confirmed in both the visible (around 633 nm) and the mid-infrared regions.

  4. Determination of competitive adsorption isotherms applying the nonlinear frequency response method. Part II. Experimental demonstration.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Milica; Petkovska, Menka; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2009-08-14

    This paper demonstrates an experimental application of the nonlinear frequency response (FR) method extension to determine adsorption isotherms of binary mixtures. This method, based on the analysis of the response of a chromatographic column subjected to the sinusoidal inlet concentration changes, is shown to be an alternative for isotherm determination. The critical issue related to the successful application of the method is to reach experimentally the low frequency asymptotic behaviour of the corresponding frequency response functions (FRFs). Although, there are different possibilities to perform periodical inlet concentration changes, in this paper only simultaneous changes for both components were considered. The adsorption of phenol and 2-phenylethanol on octadecyl silica was analyzed experimentally using a mixture of methanol and water as a solvent. Parameters of competitive isotherms were also estimated for comparison using the classical perturbation method. Despite certain differences between competitive isotherms estimated with the two methods that were found, the obtained results show the potential of the nonlinear FR method for measuring competitive isotherms.

  5. Quantum versus classical phase-locking transition in a frequency-chirped nonlinear oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, I.; Friedland, L.; Gat, O.; Shagalov, A. G.

    2011-07-15

    Classical and quantum-mechanical phase-locking transition in a nonlinear oscillator driven by a chirped-frequency perturbation is discussed. Different limits are analyzed in terms of the dimensionless parameters P{sub 1}={epsilon}/{radical}(2m({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{sub 0}{alpha}) and P{sub 2}=(3({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){beta})/(4m{radical}({alpha})) ({epsilon}, {alpha}, {beta}, and {omega}{sub 0} being the driving amplitude, the frequency chirp rate, the nonlinearity parameter, and the linear frequency of the oscillator). It is shown that, for P{sub 2}<>P{sub 1}+1, the transition involves quantum-mechanical energy ladder climbing (LC). The threshold for the phase-locking transition and its width in P{sub 1} in both AR and LC limits are calculated. The theoretical results are tested by solving the Schroedinger equation in the energy basis and illustrated via the Wigner function in phase space.

  6. Prediction of an extremely large nonlinear refractive index for crystals at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Materikina, Daria V.; Boyd, Robert W.; Kozlov, Sergei A.

    2015-08-01

    We develop a simple analytical model for calculating the vibrational contribution to the nonlinear refractive index n2 (Kerr coefficient) of a crystal in terms of known crystalline parameters such as the linear refractive index, the coefficient of thermal expansion, the atomic density, and the reduced mass and the natural oscillation frequency of the vibrational modes of the crystal lattice. We show that the value of this contribution in the terahertz spectral region can exceed the value of the nonlinear refractive index n2 in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges (which is largely electronic in origin) by several orders of magnitude. For example, for crystal quartz the value of the Kerr coefficient in the low-frequency limit is n2=2.2 ×10-9 esu or, equivalently, 4.4 ×10-16m2 /W, which is very much larger than its value of 3 ×10-20m2 /W in the visible range. Furthermore, we present an analysis of the dispersion of n2 in the terahertz spectral range and show that even larger values of n2 occur at frequencies close to the vibrational resonances.

  7. Frequency-domain L 2-stability conditions for switched linear and nonlinear SISO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. H.; Venkatesh, Y. V.; Xiang, C.; Lee, T. H.

    2014-03-01

    We consider the L 2-stability analysis of single-input-single-output (SISO) systems with periodic and nonperiodic switching gains and described by integral equations that can be specialised to the form of standard differential equations. For the latter, stability literature is mostly based on the application of quadratic forms as Lyapunov-function candidates which lead, in general, to conservative results. Exceptions are some recent results, especially for second-order linear differential equations, obtained by trajectory control or optimisation to arrive at the worst-case switching sequence of the gain. In contrast, we employ a non-Lyapunov framework to derive L 2-stability conditions for a class of (linear and) nonlinear SISO systems in integral form, with monotone, odd-monotone and relaxed monotone nonlinearities, and, in each case, with periodic or nonperiodic switching gains. The derived frequency-domain results are reminiscent of (i) the Nyquist criterion for linear time-invariant feedback systems and (ii) the Popov-criterion for time-invariant nonlinear feedback systems with the Lur'e-type nonlinearity. Although overlapping with some recent results of the literature for periodic gains, they have been derived independently in essentially the Popov framework, are different for certain classes of nonlinearities and address some of the questions left open, with respect to, for instance, the synthesis of the multipliers and numerical interpretation of the results. Apart from the novelty of the results as applied to the dwell-time problem, they reveal an interesting phenomenon of the switched systems: fast switching can lead to stability, thereby providing an alternative framework for vibrational stability analysis.

  8. A note on the generation of phase plane plots on a digital computer. [for solution of nonlinear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented for generating phase plane plots on a digital computer which circumvents the difficulties associated with more traditional methods of numerical solving nonlinear differential equations. In particular, the nonlinear differential equation of operation is formulated.

  9. Effect of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on plasma wake field generation

    SciTech Connect

    Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2014-08-15

    An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wake field which can accelerate charged particles up to GeV energies within a compact space compared to the conventional accelerator devices. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on wake field generation is investigated. The numerical analysis of our results depicts that the excitation of plasma wave with large and highly amplitude can be accomplished by nonlinear chirped pulses. The maximum amplitude of excited wake in nonlinear chirped pulse is approximately three times more than that of linear chirped pulse. In order to achieve high wake field generation, chirp parameters and functions should be set to optimal values.

  10. Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R. ); Hunter, J.; White, W.E. )

    1994-11-01

    We discuss the use of second-harmonic generation (SHG) as the nonlinearity in the technique of frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) for measuring the full intensity and phase evolution of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse. FROG that uses a third-order nonlinearity in the polarization-gate geometry has proved extremely successful, and the algorithm required for extraction of the intensity and the phase from the experimental data is quite robust. However, for pulse intensities less than [similar to] 1 MW, third-order nonlinearities generate insufficient signal strength, and therefore SHG FROG appears necessary. We discuss the theoretical, algorithmic, and experimental considerations of SHG FROG in detail. SHG FROG has an ambiguity in the direction of time, and its traces are somewhat unintuitive. Also, previously published algorithms are generally ineffective at extracting the intensity and the phase of an arbitrary laser pulse from the SHG FROG trace. We present an improved pulse-retrieval algorithm, based on the method of generalized projections, that is far superior to the previously published algorithms, although it is still not so robust as the polarization-gate algorithm. We discuss experimental sources of error such as pump depletion and group-velocity mismatch. We also present several experimental examples of pulses measured with SHG FROG and show that the derived intensities and phases are in agreement with more conventional diagnostic techniques, and we demonstrate the high-dynamic-range capability of SHG FROG. We conclude that, despite the above drawbacks, SHG FROG should be useful in measuring low-energy pulses.

  11. Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, James M.

    2013-08-31

    Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to characterize intermediate species of hydrogenation reactions on the surface of platinum nanoparticle catalysts. In contrast to other spectroscopy techniques which operate in ultra-high vacuum or probe surface species after reaction, SFG collects information under normal conditions as the reaction is taking place. Several systems have been studied previously using SFG on single crystals, notably alkene hydrogenation on Pt(111). In this thesis, many aspects of SFG experiments on colloidal nanoparticles are explored for the first time. To address spectral interference by the capping agent (PVP), three procedures are proposed: UV cleaning, H2 induced disordering and calcination (core-shell nanoparticles). UV cleaning and calcination physically destroy organic capping while disordering reduces SFG signal through a reversible structural change by PVP.

  12. Hydraulic impulse generator and frequency sweep mechanism for borehole applications

    DOEpatents

    Kolle, Jack J.; Marvin, Mark H.; Theimer, Kenneth J.

    2006-11-21

    This invention discloses a valve that generates a hydraulic negative pressure pulse and a frequency modulator for the creation of a powerful, broadband swept impulse seismic signal at the drill bit during drilling operations. The signal can be received at monitoring points on the surface or underground locations using geophones. The time required for the seismic signal to travel from the source to the receiver directly and via reflections is used to calculate seismic velocity and other formation properties near the source and between the source and receiver. This information can be used for vertical seismic profiling of formations drilled, to check the location of the bit, or to detect the presence of abnormal pore pressure ahead of the bit. The hydraulic negative pressure pulse can also be used to enhance drilling and production of wells.

  13. Agile high resolution arbitrary waveform generator with jitterless frequency stepping

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A.; Koizumi, Hideya

    2010-05-11

    Jitterless transition of the programmable clock waveform is generated employing a set of two coupled direct digital synthesis (DDS) circuits. The first phase accumulator in the first DDS circuit runs at least one cycle of a common reference clock for the DDS circuits ahead of the second phase accumulator in the second DDS circuit. As a phase transition through the beginning of a phase cycle is detected from the first phase accumulator, a first phase offset word and a second phase offset word for the first and second phase accumulators are calculated and loaded into the first and second DDS circuits. The programmable clock waveform is employed as a clock input for the RAM address controller. A well defined jitterless transition in frequency of the arbitrary waveform is provided which coincides with the beginning of the phase cycle of the DDS output signal from the second DDS circuit.

  14. Generation of frequency-chirped optical pulses with felix

    SciTech Connect

    Knippels, G.M.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Frequency-chirped optical pulses have been produced in the picosecond regime by varying the energy of the electron beam on a microsecond time scale. These pulses were then compressed close to their bandwidth limit by an external pulse compressor. The amount of chirp can be controlled by varying the sweep rate on the electron beam energy and by cavity desynchronisation. To examine the generated chirp we used the following diagnostics: a pulse compressor, a crossed beam autocorrelator, a multichannel electron spectrometer and multichannel optical spectrometer. The compressor is build entirely using reflective optics to permit broad band operation. The autocorrelator is currently operating from 6 {mu}m to 30 {mu}m with one single crystal. It has been used to measure pulses as short as 500 fs. All diagnostics are evacuated to prevent pulse shape distortion or pulse lengthening caused by absorption in ambient water vapour. Pulse length measurements and optical spectra will be presented for different electron beam sweep rates, showing the presence of a frequency chirp. Results on the compression of the optical pulses to their bandwidth limit are given for different electron sweep rates. More experimental results showing the dependence of the amount of chirp on cavity desynchronisation will be presented.

  15. Perturbation theory for graphene-integrated waveguides: Cubic nonlinearity and third-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbach, Andrey V.; Ivanov, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    We present perturbation theory for analysis of generic third-order nonlinear processes in graphene-integrated photonic structures. The optical response of graphene is treated as the nonlinear boundary condition in Maxwell's equations. The derived models are applied for analysis of third-harmonic generation in a graphene-coated dielectric microfiber. An efficiency of up to a few percent is predicted when using subpicosecond pump pulses with energies of the order of 0.1 nJ in a submillimeter-long fiber when operating near the resonance of the graphene nonlinear conductivity ℏ ω =(2 /3 ) EF .

  16. Carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization in a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator without nonlinear interferometry.

    PubMed

    Balskus, Karolis; Fleming, Melissa; McCracken, Richard A; Zhang, Zhaowei; Reid, Derryck T

    2016-03-01

    By exploiting the correlation between changes in the wavelength and the carrier-envelope offset frequency (f(CEO)) of the signal pulses in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator, we show that f(CEO) can be stabilized indefinitely to a few megahertz in a 333 MHz repetition-rate system. Based on a position-sensitive photodiode, the technique is easily implemented, requires no nonlinear interferometry, has a wide capture range, and is compatible with feed-forward techniques that can enable f(CEO) stabilization at loop bandwidths far exceeding those currently available to OPO combs.

  17. Frequency Width in Predictions of Windsea Spectra and the Role of the Nonlinear Solver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    parameter c, which many readers will be familiar with.2 JON - SWAP c = 1 corresponds to fully developed seas, which tend to be relatively broad in frequency...nonlinear transfer integral. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 15, 1369–1377. Hasselmann, S., Hasselmann, K., Allender, J.H., Barnett , T.P., 1985. Computations and...wave models. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 15, 1378–1391. Hasselmann, K., Barnett , T.P., Bouws, E., Carlson, H., Cartwright, D.E., Enke, K., Ewing, J.A., Gienapp

  18. Nonlinear interactions in the thalamocortical loop in essential tremor: A model-based frequency domain analysis.

    PubMed

    He, F; Sarrigiannis, P G; Billings, S A; Wei, H; Rowe, J; Romanowski, C; Hoggard, N; Hadjivassilliou, M; Rao, D G; Grünewald, R; Khan, A; Yianni, J

    2016-06-02

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that essential tremor has a central origin. Different structures appear to be part of the central tremorogenic network, including the motor cortex, the thalamus and the cerebellum. Some studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) show linear association in the tremor frequency between the motor cortex and the contralateral tremor electromyography (EMG). Additionally, high thalamomuscular coherence is found with the use of thalamic local field potential (LFP) recordings and tremulous EMG in patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Despite a well-established reciprocal anatomical connection between the thalamus and cortex, the functional association between the two structures during "tremor-on" periods remains elusive. Thalamic (Vim) LFPs, ipsilateral scalp EEG from the sensorimotor cortex and contralateral tremor arm EMG recordings were obtained from two patients with essential tremor who had undergone successful surgery for DBS. Coherence analysis shows a strong linear association between thalamic LFPs and contralateral tremor EMG, but the relationship between the EEG and the thalamus is much less clear. These measurements were then analyzed by constructing a novel parametric nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) model. This new approach uncovered two distinct and not overlapping frequency "channels" of communication between Vim thalamus and the ipsilateral motor cortex, defining robustly "tremor-on" versus "tremor-off" states. The associated estimated nonlinear time lags also showed non-overlapping values between the two states, with longer corticothalamic lags (exceeding 50ms) in the tremor active state, suggesting involvement of an indirect multisynaptic loop. The results reveal the importance of the nonlinear interactions between cortical and subcortical areas in the central motor network of essential tremor. This work is important because it demonstrates

  19. Two-Dimensional Frequency Resolved Optomolecular Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Ferré, A; Soifer, H; Pedatzur, O; Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Bruner, B D; Canonge, R; Catoire, F; Descamps, D; Fabre, B; Mével, E; Petit, S; Dudovich, N; Mairesse, Y

    2016-02-05

    Probing electronic wave functions of polyatomic molecules is one of the major challenges in high-harmonic spectroscopy. The extremely nonlinear nature of the laser-molecule interaction couples the multiple degrees of freedom of the probed system. We combine two-dimensional control of the electron trajectories and vibrational control of the molecules to disentangle the two main steps in high-harmonic generation-ionization and recombination. We introduce a new measurement scheme, frequency-resolved optomolecular gating, which resolves the temporal amplitude and phase of the harmonic emission from excited molecules. Focusing on the study of vibrational motion in N_{2}O_{4}, we show that such advanced schemes provide a unique insight into the structural and dynamical properties of the underlying mechanism.

  20. Effects of non-linearities on magnetic field generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nalson, Ellie; Malik, Karim A.; Christopherson, Adam J. E-mail: achristopherson@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields are present on all scales in the Universe. While we understand the processes which amplify the fields fairly well, we do not have a ''natural'' mechanism to generate the small initial seed fields. By using fully relativistic cosmological perturbation theory and going beyond the usual confines of linear theory we show analytically how magnetic fields are generated. This is the first analytical calculation of the magnetic field at second order, using gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory, and including all the source terms. To this end, we have rederived the full set of governing equations independently. Our results suggest that magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup -30}- 10{sup -27} G can be generated (although this depends on the small scale cut-off of the integral), which is largely in agreement with previous results that relied upon numerical calculations. These fields are likely too small to act as the primordial seed fields for dynamo mechanisms.

  1. Nonlinear oscillation and interfacial stability of an encapsulated microbubble under dual-frequency ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunqiao; Calvisi, Michael L.; Wang, Qianxi

    2017-04-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles (EMBs) are widely used in medical ultrasound imaging as contrast-enhanced agents. However, the potential damaging effects of violent collapsing EMBs to cells and tissues in clinical settings have remained a concern. Dual-frequency ultrasound is a promising technique for improving the efficacy and safety of sonography. The system modeled consists of the external liquid, membrane and internal gases of an EMB. The microbubble dynamics are simulated using a simple nonlinear interactive theory, considering the compressibility of the internal gas, viscosity of the liquid flow and viscoelasticity of the membrane. The radial oscillation and interfacial stability of an EMB under single- and dual-frequency excitations are compared. The simulation results show that the dual-frequency technique produces larger backscatter pressure at higher harmonics of the primary driving frequency—this enriched acoustic spectrum can enhance blood-tissue contrast and improve the quality of sonographic images. The results further show that the acoustic pressure threshold associated with the onset of shape instability is greater for dual-frequency driving. This suggests that the dual-frequency technique stabilizes the encapsulated bubble, thereby improving the efficacy and safety of contrast-enhanced agents.

  2. Nonlinear effects generation in suspended core chalcogenide fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Amraoui, M.; Duhant, M.; Desevedavy, F.; Renard, W.; Canat, G.; Gadret, G.; Jules, J.-C.; Fatome, J.; Kibler, B.; Renversez, G.; Troles, J.; Brilland, L.; Messaddeq, Y.; Smektala, F.

    2011-05-01

    In this work we report our achievements in the elaboration and optical characterizations of low-losses suspended core optical fibers elaborated from As2S3 glass. For preforms elaboration, alternatively to other processes like the stack and draw or extrusion, we use a process based on mechanical drilling. The drawing of these drilled performs into fibers allows reaching a suspended core geometry, in which a 2 μm diameter core is linked to the fiber clad region by three supporting struts. The different fibers that have been drawn show losses close to 0.9 dB/m at 1.55 μm. The suspended core waveguide geometry has also an efficient influence on the chromatic dispersion and allows its management. Indeed, the zero dispersion wavelength, which is around 5 μm in the bulk glass, is calculated to be shifted towards around 2μm in our suspended core fibers. In order to qualify their nonlinearity we have pumped them at 1.995 μm with the help of a fibered ns source. We have observed a strong non linear response with evidence of spontaneous Raman scattering and strong spectral broadening.

  3. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (βxxx and βyyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  4. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  5. Rogue wave triggered at a critical frequency of a nonlinear resonant medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K.; Cheng, Yi; Dinda, P. Tchofo

    2016-06-01

    We consider a two-level atomic system interacting with an electromagnetic field controlled in amplitude and frequency by a high intensity laser. We show that the amplitude of the induced electric field admits an envelope profile corresponding to a breather soliton. We demonstrate that this soliton can propagate with any frequency shift with respect to that of the control laser, except a critical frequency, at which the system undergoes a structural discontinuity that transforms the breather in a rogue wave. A mechanism of generation of rogue waves by means of an intense laser field is thus revealed.

  6. Rogue wave triggered at a critical frequency of a nonlinear resonant medium.

    PubMed

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K; Cheng, Yi; Dinda, P Tchofo

    2016-06-01

    We consider a two-level atomic system interacting with an electromagnetic field controlled in amplitude and frequency by a high intensity laser. We show that the amplitude of the induced electric field admits an envelope profile corresponding to a breather soliton. We demonstrate that this soliton can propagate with any frequency shift with respect to that of the control laser, except a critical frequency, at which the system undergoes a structural discontinuity that transforms the breather in a rogue wave. A mechanism of generation of rogue waves by means of an intense laser field is thus revealed.

  7. An implicit and adaptive nonlinear frequency domain approach for periodic viscous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosahebi, A.; Nadarajah, S.

    2014-12-01

    An implicit nonlinear Lower-Upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) solver has been extended to the adaptive Nonlinear Frequency Domain method (adaptive NLFD) for periodic viscous flows. The discretized equations are linearized in both spatial and temporal directions, yielding an innovative segregate approach, where the effects of the neighboring cells are transferred to the right-hand-side and are updated iteratively. This property of the solver is aligned with the adaptive NLFD concept, in which different cells have different number of modes; hence, should be treated individually. The segregate analysis of the modal equations prevents assembling and inversion of a large left-hand-side matrix, when high number of modes are involved. This is an important characteristic for a selected flow solver of the adaptive NLFD method, where a high modal content may be required in highly unsteady parts of the flow field. The implicit nonlinear LU-SGS solver has demonstrated to be both robust and computationally efficient as the number of modes is increased. The developed solver is thoroughly validated for the laminar vortex shedding behind a stationary cylinder, high angle of attack NACA0012 airfoil, and a plunging NACA0012 airfoil. An order of magnitude improvement in the computational time is observed through the developed implicit approach over the classical modified 5-stage Runge-Kutta method.

  8. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-09-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs.

  9. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625

  10. The Natural Frequency of Nonlinear Oscillation of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in Microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound Contrast Agent (UCAs) are under intensive investigation for their applications in physiological and molecular imaging and drug delivery. Prediction of the natural frequency of the oscillation of UCAs in microvessels has drawn increasing attention. To our knowledge, the existing models to predict the natural frequency of oscillation of UCAs in microvessels all apply the linear approximation and treat the blood vessel wall as a rigid boundary. In the potential applications of ultrasound imaging drug and gene delivery, the compliance of small vessels may play an important role in the bubble’s oscillation. The goal of this work is to provide a lumped-parameter model to study the natural frequency of nonlinear oscillation of UCAs in microvessels. Three types of the blood vessel conditions have been considered. i.e. rigid vessels, normal compliable vessels and vessels with increasing stiffness that could correspond to tumor vasculature. The corresponding bubble oscillation frequencies in the vessels with radius less than 100 μm are examined in detail. When a bubble with a radius of 4 μm is confined in a compliable vessel (inner radius 5 μm and length 100μm), the natural frequency of bubble oscillation increases by a factor of 1.7 as compared with a bubble in an unbounded field. The natural frequency of oscillation of a bubble in a compliable vessel increases with decreasing vessel size while decreasing with increasing values of vessel rigidity. This model suggests that contrast agent size, blood vessel size distribution and the type of vasculature should be comprehensively considered for choosing the transmitted frequency in ultrasound contrast imaging and drug delivery. PMID:17478030

  11. Nonlinear channelizer.

    PubMed

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  12. Generation of Flat Optical Frequency Comb based on Mach-Zehnder Modulator and Recirculating Frequency Shifter Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shibao; Li, Yulong; Fei, Yue; Hu, Faze

    2014-06-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate optical frequency comb by using Mach-Zehnder modulator and recirculating frequency shifter loop based on IQ modulator driven by radio frequency clock signals. A system of 4 flat and stable comb lines generation based on Mach-Zehnder modulator is set as the seed light source of the recirculating loop. Through theorical analysis and simulation it is shown that the proposed theoretical model is proved in good agreement with simulation results.

  13. Supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear fibers using amplified noise-like optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Shian; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2014-02-24

    Supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is investigated. To generate ultrabroad spectra, a fiber amplifier is used to boost the power launched into the highly nonlinear fiber. After amplification, not only the average power of the noise-like pulses is enhanced but the spectrum of the pulses is also broadened due to nonlinear effects in the fiber amplifier. This leads to a reduction of the peak duration in their autocorrelation trace, suggesting a similar extent of pulse compression; by contrast, the pedestal duration increases only slightly, suggesting that the noise-like characteristic is maintained. By controlling the pump power of the fiber amplifier, the compression ratio of the noise-like pulse duration can be adjusted. Due to the pulse compression, supercontinuum generation with a broader spectrum is therefore feasible at a given average power level of the noise-like pulses launched into the highly nonlinear fiber. As a result, supercontinuum generation with an optical spectrum spanning from 1208 to 2111 nm is achieved using a 1-m nonlinear fiber pumped by amplified noise-like pulses of 15.5 MHz repetition rate at an average power of 202 mW.

  14. Low-frequency vibration modulation of guided waves to image nonlinear scatterers for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, J. P.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Neild, S. A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-06-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring offers the prospect of continuous interrogation of large plate-like structures with a sparse network of permanently attached sensors. Currently, the most common approach is to monitor changes in the received signals by subtraction from a reference signal obtained when the structure was known to be defect-free. In this paper a comparison is made between this defect-free subtraction approach and a technique in which low-frequency vibration modulation of guided wave signals is used to detect nonlinear scatterers. The modulation technique potentially overcomes the need for the defect-free reference measurement as the subtraction is now made between different parts of an externally applied low-frequency vibration. Linear defects were simulated by masses bonded onto a plate and nonlinear scatterers were simulated by loading a similar mass against the plate. The experimental results show that the defect-free subtraction technique performs well in detecting the bonded mass whereas the modulation technique is able to discriminate between the bonded and loaded masses. Furthermore, because the modulation technique does not require a defect-free reference, it is shown to be relatively independent of temperature effects, a significant problem for reference based subtraction techniques.

  15. Generation of ultrahigh and tunable repetition rates in CW injection-seeded frequency-shifted feedback lasers.

    PubMed

    Guillet de Chatellus, H; Jacquin, O; Hugon, O; Glastre, W; Lacot, E; Marklof, J

    2013-07-01

    We show both theoretically and experimentally that frequency-shifted feedback (FSF) lasers seeded with a single frequency laser can generate Fourier transform-limited pulses with a repetition rate tunable and limited by the spectral bandwidth of the laser. We demonstrate experimentally in a FSF laser with a 150 GHz spectral bandwidth, the generation of 6 ps-duration pulses at repetition rates tunable over more than two orders of magnitude between 0.24 and 37 GHz, by steps of 80 MHz. A simple linear analytical model i.e. ignoring both dynamic and non-linear effects, is sufficient to account for the experimental results. This possibility opens new perspectives for various applications where lasers with ultra-high repetition rates are required, from THz generation to ultrafast data processing systems.

  16. Two-Dimensional Analyses of Subharmonic Generation at Closed Cracks in Nonlinear Ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Kazushi; Ohara, Yoshikazu; Oguma, Miyuki; Shintaku, Yohei

    2011-07-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonics plays an important role in the detection of closed cracks in critical structures and machines, such as atomic power plants and airplanes. Although the design and operation of nonlinear measurement require realistic modeling and simulation in two dimensions (2D), only one-dimensional modeling has succeeded in reproducing subharmonic generation. In this study, we propose 2D analysis using a damped double nodes (DDNs) with compression residual stress in the finite-difference time-domain method. We then succeeded in reproducing the essential feature of observed subharmonic generation at closed stress corrosion cracks.

  17. Promoting inertial cavitation by nonlinear frequency mixing in a bifrequency focused ultrasound beam.

    PubMed

    Saletes, Izella; Gilles, Bruno; Bera, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing cavitation activity with minimal acoustic intensities could be interesting in a variety of therapeutic applications where mechanical effects of cavitation are needed with minimal heating of surrounding tissues. The present work focuses on the relative efficiency of a signal combining two neighbouring frequencies and a one-frequency signal for initiating ultrasound inertial cavitation. Experiments were carried out in a water tank, using a 550kHz piezoelectric composite spherical transducer focused on targets with 46μm roughness. The acoustic signal scattered, either by the target or by the cavitation bubbles, is filtered using a spectral and cepstral-like method to obtain an inertial cavitation activity measurement. The ultrasound excitations consist of 1.8ms single bursts of single frequency f(0)=550kHz excitation, in the monofrequency case, and of dual frequency f(1)=535kHz and f(2)=565kHz excitation, in the bifrequency case. It is shown that depending on the value of the monofrequency cavitation threshold intensity the bifrequency excitation can increase or reduce the cavitation threshold. The analysis of the thresholds indicates that the mechanisms involved are nonlinear. The progress of the cavitation activity beyond the cavitation threshold is also studied. The slope of the cavitation activity considered as a function of the acoustic intensity is always steeper in the case of the bifrequency excitation. This means that the delimitation of the region where cavitation occurs should be cleaner than with a classical monofrequency excitation.

  18. Estimate error of frequency-dependent Q introduced by linear regression and its nonlinear implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofa; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Hao; Zhang, Baoqing

    2016-02-01

    The spectral ratio method (SRM) is widely used to estimate quality factor Q via the linear regression of seismic attenuation under the assumption of a constant Q. However, the estimate error will be introduced when this assumption is violated. For the frequency-dependent Q described by a power-law function, we derived the analytical expression of estimate error as a function of the power-law exponent γ and the ratio of the bandwidth to the central frequency σ . Based on the theoretical analysis, we found that the estimate errors are mainly dominated by the exponent γ , and less affected by the ratio σ . This phenomenon implies that the accuracy of the Q estimate can hardly be improved by adjusting the width and range of the frequency band. Hence, we proposed a two-parameter regression method to estimate the frequency-dependent Q from the nonlinear seismic attenuation. The proposed method was tested using the direct waves acquired by a near-surface cross-hole survey, and its reliability was evaluated in comparison with the result of SRM.

  19. Stabilized soliton self-frequency shift and 0.1- PHz sideband generation in a photonic-crystal fiber with an air-hole-modified core.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Wen; Hu, Ming-Lie; Fang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Yan-Feng; Chai, Lu; Wang, Ching-Yue; Tong, Weijun; Luo, Jie; Voronin, Aleksandr A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2008-09-15

    Fiber dispersion and nonlinearity management strategy based on a modification of a photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) core with an air hole is shown to facilitate optimization of PCF components for a stable soliton frequency shift and subpetahertz sideband generation through four-wave mixing. Spectral recoil of an optical soliton by a red-shifted dispersive wave, generated through a soliton instability induced by high-order fiber dispersion, is shown to stabilize the soliton self-frequency shift in a highly nonlinear PCF with an air-hole-modified core relative to pump power variations. A fiber with a 2.3-microm-diameter core modified with a 0.9-microm-diameter air hole is used to demonstrate a robust soliton self-frequency shift of unamplified 50-fs Ti: sapphire laser pulses to a central wavelength of about 960 nm, which remains insensitive to variations in the pump pulse energy within the range from 60 to at least 100 pJ. In this regime of frequency shifting, intense high- and low-frequency branches of dispersive wave radiation are simultaneously observed in the spectrum of PCF output. An air-hole-modified-core PCF with appropriate dispersion and nonlinearity parameters is shown to provide efficient four-wave mixing, giving rise to Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands whose frequency shift relative to the pump wavelength falls within the subpetahertz range, thus offering an attractive source for nonlinear Raman microspectroscopy.

  20. Nonlinear Stress/Strain Behavior of a Synthetic Porous Medium at Seismic Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. M.; Ibrahim, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments on porous core samples have shown that seismic-band (100 Hz or less) mechanical, axial stress/strain cycling of the porous matrix can influence the transport behavior of fluids and suspended particles during steady-state fluid flow through the cores. In conjunction with these stimulated transport experiments, measurements of the applied dynamic axial stress/strain were made to investigate the nonlinear mechanical response of porous media for a poorly explored range of frequencies from 1 to 40 Hz. A unique core-holder apparatus that applies low-frequency mechanical stress/strain to 2.54-cm-diameter porous samples during constant-rate fluid flow was used for these experiments. Applied stress was measured with a load cell in series with the source and porous sample, and the resulting strain was measured with an LVDT attached to the core face. A synthetic porous system consisting of packed 1-mm-diameter glass beads was used to investigate both stress/strain and stimulated mass-transport behavior under idealized conditions. The bead pack was placed in a rubber sleeve and static confining stresses of 2.4 MPa radial and 1.7 MPa axial were applied to the sample. Sinusoidal stress oscillations were applied to the sample at 1 to 40 Hz over a range of RMS stress amplitude from 37 to 275 kPa. Dynamic stress/strain was measured before and after the core was saturated with deionized water. The slope of the linear portion of each stress/strain hysteresis loop was used to estimate Young's modulus as a function of frequency and amplitude for both the dry and wet sample. The modulus was observed to increase after the dry sample was saturated. For both dry and wet cases, the modulus decreased with increasing dynamic RMS stress amplitude at a constant frequency of 23 Hz. At constant RMS stress amplitude, the modulus increased with increasing frequency for the wet sample but remained constant for the dry sample. The observed nonlinear behavior of Young's modulus

  1. Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334

  2. Sound generation by a centrifugal pump at blade passing frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenroth, M.; Weaver, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study of the pressure pulsations produced by a centrifugal volute pump at its blade passing frequency and their amplification by acoustic resonance in a connected piping system. Detailed measurements were made of the pressure fluctuations in the piping as a function of pump speed and flow rate. A semi-empirical model was used to separate acoustic standing waves from hydraulic pressure fluctuations. The effects of modifying the cut-water geometry were also studied, including the use of flow visualization to observe the flow behavior at the cut-water. The results suggest that the pump may act as an acoustic pressure or velocity source, depending on the flow rate. At conditions of acoustic resonance, the pump acted as an open termination of the piping, i.e., as a node in the acoustic pressure standing waves. Rounding the cut-water had the effect of reducing the amplitude of acoustic resonance, apparently because of the ability of the stagnation point to move and thereby reduce the vorticity generated. A notable example of this acoustic resonance in the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system at Ontario Hydro`s Darlington nuclear power station.

  3. Time-Frequency Analysis of Boundary-Layer Instabilites Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    A controlled disturbance is generated in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) by focusing a high-powered Nd:YAG laser to create a laser-induced breakdown plasma. The plasma then cools, creating a freestream thermal disturbance that can be used to study receptivity. The freestream disturbance convects down-stream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The adverse pressure gradient created by the flare of the model is capable of generating second-mode instability waves that grow large and become nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. The freestream laser perturbation generates a wave packet in the boundary layer at the same frequency as the natural second mode, complicating time-independent analyses of the effect of the laser perturbation. The data show that the laser perturbation creates an instability wave packet that is larger than the natural waves on the sharp flared cone. The wave packet is still difficult to distinguish from the natural instabilities on the blunt flared cone.

  4. Difference-frequency generation in the field of a few-cycle laser pulse propagating in a GaAs crystal with a domain structure

    SciTech Connect

    Oganesyan, David L; Vardanyan, Aleksandr O; Oganesyan, G D

    2013-06-30

    Difference-frequency generation in a GaAs crystal with a periodic domain structure in the field of a few-cycle laser pulse is considered for the case of weakly pronounced material dispersion. The straight-line method is used to solve numerically the system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations describing the evolution of the electric field of this laser pulse in GaAs crystals with periodic and chirped domain structures. It is shown that application of a GaAs crystal with a chirped domain structure makes it possible to control the frequency-modulation law for a broadband differencefrequency pulse. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. Higher harmonic generation in nonlinear waveguides of arbitrary cross-section.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankit; Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    This article concerns the generation and properties of double harmonics in nonlinear isotropic waveguides of complex cross-section. Analytical solutions of nonlinear Rayleigh-Lamb waves and rod waves have been known for some time. These solutions explain the phenomenon of cumulative double harmonic generation of guided waves. These solutions, however, are only applicable to simple geometries. This paper combines the general approach of the analytical solutions with semi-analytical finite element models to generalize the method to more complex geometries, specifically waveguides with arbitrary cross-sections. Supporting comparisons with analytical solutions are presented for simple cases. This is followed by the study of the case of a rail track. One reason for studying nonlinear guided waves in rails is the potential measurement of thermal stresses in welded rail.

  6. Development and implementation of near-infrared ultrafast laser sources generated by nonlinear fiber propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Scott R.

    This dissertation is broken up into three parts: (I) generating high-quality ultrafast pulses around 1060 nm, (II) using the pulses from part (I) to generate pulses around 1300 nm, and (III) analyzing newly developed experimental theories and methods utilizing these pulses for linear and nonlinear microscopy. The majority of the work in this dissertation is choreographing the dance between nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fiber and the associated complexity in accumulated spectral phase. We have developed and employed several systems which manage to accomplish this task quite elegantly due to our technological contributions, producing high-quality pulses with high oscillator-type pulse energies both at 1060 and 1250 nm. In addition to developing some theory and techniques extending current types of nonlinear microscopy, we have as a capstone an experimental microscope cascading several of our primary source and application technologies to conduct an entirely new form of spectroscopic absorption imaging.

  7. X-ray Generation in Strongly Nonlinear Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, S.; Pukhov, A.; Kostyukov, I.

    2004-09-01

    We show that a laser wake field in the “bubble” regime [

    A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn Appl. Phys. BAPBOEM0946-2171 74, 355 (2002)10.1007/s003400200795
    ], works as a compact high-brightness source of x-rays. The self-trapped relativistic electrons make betatron oscillations in the transverse fields of the bubble and emit a bright broadband x-ray radiation with a maximum about 50 keV. The emission is confined to a small angle of about 0.1 rad. In addition, we make simulations of x-ray generation by an external 28.5 GeV electron bunch injected into the bubble. γ quanta with up to GeV energies are observed in the simulation in good agreement with analytical results. The energy conversion is efficient, leading to a significant stopping of the electron bunch over 5 mm interaction distance.

  8. Multi-Index Nonlinear Coordinated Control for Battery Energy Storage System and Generator Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingyi, Kong; Liying, Liao

    A multi-index nonlinear coordinated control scheme for BESS and generator excitation is proposed. The proposed multi-index nonlinear coordinated controller can effectively coordinate the dynamic and steady-state performance of the controlled system. It can enhance the stability of the system, improve the dynamic characteristics of state variables, and can improve the control accuracy of output variables such as terminal voltage, active power output of the generator. Simulation results show that to control BESS and generator coordinately has the advantage of enhancing the stability of the system. With the ability of BESS to control the active power and reactive power, and the regulate of generator excitation, the dynamic characteristics of state variables can changes more smoothness, responds more speediness.

  9. NLA-QAM - A method for generating high-power QAM signals through nonlinear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, D. H.; Feher, K.

    1982-03-01

    A generalized technique for generating quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signals that permits nonlinear amplification is presented. With this technique a high-power (2 to the 2n power)-state QAM signal is generated by combining n unfiltered, nonlinear amplified, QPSK signals, n being a positive integer. The specific methods of generating 16- and 64-state signals using this technique are presented. An attractive feature of the technique is that despite significant difference with the conventional method of generating QAM signals, the same straightforward demodulation techniques apply to both, and the Pe versus S/N performances are essentially identical. In the 16-state version employing traveling wave tubes (TWT's) or GaAs FET amplifiers, the technique is shown to result in a transmitter output power advantage that is on the order of 5 dB compared to the conventional method. This advantage is achieved, however, at the expense of an additional output power amplifier.

  10. Identifying and quantifying structural nonlinearities in engineering applications from measured frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrella, A.; Ewins, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Engineering structures seldom behave linearly and, as a result, linearity checks are common practice in the testing of critical structures exposed to dynamic loading to define the boundary of validity of the linear regime. However, in large scale industrial applications, there is no general methodology for dynamicists to extract nonlinear parameters from measured vibration data so that these can be then included in the associated numerical models. In this paper, a simple method based on the information contained in the frequency response function (FRF) properties of a structure is studied. This technique falls within the category of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) modal analysis methods. The principle upon which it is based is effectively a linearisation whereby it is assumed that at given amplitude of displacement response the system responds at the same frequency as the excitation and that stiffness and damping are constants. In so doing, by extracting this information at different amplitudes of vibration response, it is possible to estimate the amplitude-dependent 'natural' frequency and modal loss factor. Because of its mathematical simplicity and practical implementation during standard vibration testing, this method is particularly suitable for practical applications. In this paper, the method is illustrated and new analyses are carried out to validate its performance on numerical simulations before applying it to data measured on a complex aerospace test structure as well as a full-scale helicopter.

  11. A nonlinear dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    A dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator is presented. The model simulates the advanced liquid metal reactor superheated cycle steam generator with a four-region, moving-boundary, drift-flux model. The model is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from the fundamental equations of conversation of mass, energy, and momentum. Sample results of steady-state and transient calculations are presented.

  12. Effect of driving voltages in dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma: A study by nonlinear global model

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.

    2015-10-15

    On the basis of nonlinear global model, a dual frequency capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma driven by 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz has been studied to investigate the influences of driving voltages on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. Fluid equations for the ions inside the plasma sheath have been considered to determine the voltage-charge relations of the plasma sheath. Geometrically symmetric as well as asymmetric cases with finite geometrical asymmetry of 1.2 (ratio of electrodes area) have been considered to make the study more reasonable to experiment. The electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) and finite geometrical asymmetry is found to work differently in controlling the dc self-bias. The amount of EAE has been primarily controlled by the phase angle between the two consecutive harmonics waveforms. The incorporation of the finite geometrical asymmetry in the calculations shift the dc self-bias towards negative polarity direction while increasing the amount of EAE is found to increase the dc self-bias in either direction. For phase angle between the two waveforms ϕ = 0 and ϕ = π/2, the amount of EAE increases significantly with increasing the low frequency voltage, whereas no such increase in the amount of EAE is found with increasing high frequency voltage. In contrast to the geometrically symmetric case, where the variation of the dc self-bias with driving voltages for phase angle ϕ = 0 and π/2 are just opposite in polarity, the variation for the geometrically asymmetric case is different for ϕ = 0 and π/2. In asymmetric case, for ϕ = 0, the dc self-bias increases towards the negative direction with increasing both the low and high frequency voltages, but for the ϕ = π/2, the dc-self bias is increased towards positive direction with increasing low frequency voltage while dc self-bias increases towards negative direction with increasing high frequency voltage.

  13. Nonlinear ultrasound propagation through layered liquid and tissue-equivalent media: computational and experimental results at high frequency.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ross; Cherin, Emmanuel; Lam, Toby Y J; Tavakkoli, Jahangir; Zemp, Roger J; Foster, F Stuart

    2006-11-21

    Nonlinear propagation has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on ultrasound imaging. An efficient computational algorithm is presented to simulate nonlinear ultrasound propagation through layered liquid and tissue-equivalent media. Results are compared with hydrophone measurements. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of nonlinear propagation in high frequency ultrasound micro-imaging. The acoustic field of a focused transducer (20 MHz centre frequency, f-number 2.5) was simulated for layered media consisting of water and tissue-mimicking phantom, for several wide-bandwidth source pulses. The simulation model accounted for the effects of diffraction, attenuation and nonlinearity, with transmission and refraction at layer boundaries. The parameter of nonlinearity, B/A, of the water and tissue-mimicking phantom were assumed to be 5.2 and 7.4, respectively. The experimentally measured phantom B/A value found using a finite-amplitude insert-substitution method was shown to be 7.4 +/- 0.6. Relative amounts of measured second and third harmonic pressures as a function of the fundamental pressures at the focus were in good agreement with simulations. Agreement within 3% was found between measurements and simulations of the beam widths of the fundamental and second harmonic signals following propagation through the tissue phantom. The results demonstrate significant nonlinear propagation effects for high frequency imaging beams.

  14. A comparative numerical analysis of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Jan-Niklas Oberlack, Martin; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Tevzadze, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Aerodynamic sound generation in shear flows is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear flow systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole linear mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear flows was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, “Linear mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear flows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, “Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, “Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, “Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette flow,” Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced linear mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear flow and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of linear wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved linear and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber

  15. Application of nonlinear time series analysis techniques to high-frequency currency exchange data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, Fernanda; Zaldívar, José-Manuel; Zbilut, Joseph P.

    2002-09-01

    In this work we have applied nonlinear time series analysis to high-frequency currency exchange data. The time series studied are the exchange rates between the US Dollar and 18 other foreign currencies from within and without the Euro zone. Our goal was to determine if their dynamical behaviours were in some way correlated. The nonexistence of stationarity called for the application of recurrence quantification analysis as a tool for this analysis, and is based on the definition of several parameters that allow for the quantification of recurrence plots. The method was checked using the European Monetary System currency exchanges. The results show, as expected, the high correlation between the currencies that are part of the Euro, but also a strong correlation between the Japanese Yen, the Canadian Dollar and the British Pound. Singularities of the series are also demonstrated taking into account historical events, in 1996, in the Euro zone.

  16. Simulated vibrational sum frequency generation from a multilayer thin film system with two active interfaces.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel B; Massari, Aaron M

    2013-04-21

    In the field of surface-specific vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) on organic thin films, optical interferences combined with the two-interface problem presents a challenge in terms of qualitative assessment of the data and quantitative modeling. The difficulty is amplified when considering systems comprised of more than a single material thin film layer. Recently, in our lab we have developed a generalized model that describes thin film interference in interface-specific nonlinear optical spectroscopies from arbitrary multilayer systems. Here, we apply the model to simulate VSFG spectra from the simplest multilayer: a system of two thin films, one of which is an organic small molecule and the other is a dielectric layer on a semiconductor substrate system where we idealize that the organic interfaces are equally VSFG active. Specifically, we consider the molecule N,N'-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) deposited on a silicon wafer with a thermally grown oxide dielectric. We present results for the four polarization experiments that sample the nonzero nonlinear susceptibility elements of macroscopically centrosymmetric materials (ssp, sps, pss, and ppp) and in two mIR frequency windows (the imide carbonyl stretches around 1680 cm(-1) and the alkyl stretches around 2900 cm(-1)) as a function of both thin film thicknesses with fixed input beam angles. We use frequency dependent refractive indices for all materials. The goal is to illustrate some of the intricacies contained in the intensity data of such systems. Of particular interest is the effect of the relative polar orientation of modes at the interfaces and the possibility of designing a system where the collected signal is exclusively attributable to a single interface. Our calculations indicate that in order to unambiguously identify the relative polar orientation one must experimentally vary an additional system parameter such as thin film thickness or input beam angle

  17. The generation of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Frequency Comb

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Youbin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Wang, Huaijun; Shi, Zhongtao; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Yin, Zhi; Wang, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) entanglement frequency comb can be produced by enhanced Raman scattering in an above-threshold optical oscillator cavity in which a hexagonally-poled LiTaO3 crystal resides as a Raman gain medium. The Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman signals are enhanced by a coupled quasi-phase-matching optical parametric process and the entanglement natures among these Raman signals and pump are demonstrated by applying a sufficient inseparability criterion for CV entanglement. Such entanglement frequency comb source with different frequencies and continuously tunable frequency interval may be very significant for the applications in quantum communication and networks. PMID:25600617

  18. Fiber-laser frequency combs for the generation of tunable single-frequency laser lines, mm- and THz-waves and sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    High-quality frequency comb sources like femtosecond-lasers have revolutionized the metrology of fundamental physical constants. The generated comb consists of frequency lines with an equidistant separation over a bandwidth of several THz. This bandwidth can be broadened further to a super-continuum of more than an octave through propagation in nonlinear media. The frequency separation between the lines is defined by the repetition rate and the width of each comb line can be below 1 Hz, even without external stabilization. By extracting just one of these lines, an ultra-narrow linewidth, tunable laser line for applications in communications and spectroscopy can be generated. If two lines are extracted, the superposition of these lines in an appropriate photo-mixer produces high-quality millimeter- and THz-waves. The extraction of several lines can be used for the creation of almost-ideally sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses, which enable optical communications with the maximum-possible baud rate. Especially combs generated by low-cost, small-footprint fs-fiber lasers are very promising. However due to the resonator length, the comb frequencies have a typical separation of 80 - 100 MHz, far too narrow for the selection of single tones with standard optical filters. Here the extraction of single lines of an fs-fiber laser by polarization pulling assisted stimulated Brillouin scattering is presented. The application of these extracted lines as ultra-narrow, stable and tunable laser lines, for the generation of very high-quality mm and THz-waves with an ultra-narrow linewidth and phase noise and for the generation of sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses with arbitrary bandwidth and repetition rate is discussed.

  19. Frequency-resolved nonlinear interferometry with incoherent light and applications to coherent Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimson, Michael Jay

    1997-12-01

    Demonstrations of several frequency resolved incoherent field non-linear interferometric spectroscopies are presented with emphasis on applications to coherent Raman scattering (two incoherent field actions- I(2)CRS). The properties of the incoherent (noisy) laser sources used for time resolution of ultrafast dynamics are explored in detail theoretically and experimentally. A new technique for the measurement of noisy light correlation functions (I(2)FROG-two incoherent field actions in frequency resolved optical gating) is developed theoretically and used for experimental explorations of the nature of noisy optical fields and their relation to coherent short pulsed optical fields. I(2)FROG and I(2)CRS signals are frequency dispersed and multichannel detected, which when combined with interferometric time resolution allows the creation of two-dimensional representations of these signals (spectrally resolved interferograms, or spectrograms). Spectrograms offer a large redundancy in the sampling of signals, thus allowing great precision in the measurement of observable parameters. In I(2)FROG, the observable parameters characterize the noisy light in the form of the intensity and phase of cross correlation functions between beams of broadband light. In I(2)CRS, the observable parameters quantify material properties such as lineshape parameters, transition frequencies and ratios of resonant to non-resonant contributions to molecular hyperpolarizability tensor elements. Algorithms for the recovery of the observable parameters are developed and applied to the spectrograms derived from many condensed phase materials. Systems explored via spectrogram representation include pure substances and non-reactive mixtures. A novel modification of the original I(2)CRS experiment is presented in which spectrally tailored fields are used to control the properties of the I(2)CRS signals. Newly predicted fifth order signals (I(3)FOOCRS-three incoherent field actions in fifth order

  20. Generation of solitary waves from continuous radiation in a nonlinear oppositely directed coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantseva, E V; Maimistov, A I

    2015-12-31

    We consider a nonlinear coupler formed by two tunnelcoupled waveguides, one waveguide being made of a conventional dielectric and the other – of a negative-index material. The possibility of the formation of solitary waves from continuous radiation having a constant intensity is shown provided that the radiation is coupled into the input of a negative-index coupler channel (on the back side of the waveguide system). With increasing intensity of the input light, the speed and amplitude of the generated solitary waves increase and the period of their formation is reduced. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. Excitation threshold of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs generated at pump frequency near the third electron gyroharmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Scales, W.

    2012-12-01

    The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska provides effective radiated powers in the megawatt range that have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. In recent HAARP heating experiments, it has been shown that during the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scattering MSBS instability, the pumped electromagnetic wave may decay into an electromagnetic wave and a low frequency electrostatic wave (either ion acoustic IA wave or electrostatic ion cyclotron EIC wave). Using Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) spectral features, side bands which extend above and below the pump frequency can yield significant diagnostics for the modified ionosphere. It has been shown that the IA wave frequency offsets can be used to measure electron temperature in the heated ionosphere and EIC wave offsets can be used as a sensitive method to determine the ion species by measuring ion mass using the ion gyro-frequency offset. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the amplitude of pump wave. The experimental results aimed to show the threshold for transmitter power to excite IA wave propagating along the magnetic field lines as well as for EIC wave excited at an oblique angle relative to the background magnetic field. Another parametric decay instability studied is the ion Bernstein decay instability that has been attributed to the simultaneous parametric decay of electron Bernstein waves into multiple electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein waves. The SIB process is thought to involve mode conversion from EM to EB waves followed by parametric decay of the EB wave to multiple EB and IB waves. The parametric decay instability of ion Bernstein modes has been observed simultaneously for the first time at the third electron gyroharmonics during 2011 Summer Student Research

  2. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    SciTech Connect

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Roke, Sylvie; Jena, Kailash C.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2014-11-14

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  3. Efficient second harmonic generation using nonlinear substrates patterned by nano-antenna arrays.

    PubMed

    Bar-Lev, Doron; Scheuer, Jacob

    2013-12-02

    We study theoretically various design considerations for efficient generation of second harmonic using a nonlinear substrate patterned with nano-antennas. The analysis is focused on a gap Bowtie nano-antenna array recessed in LiNbO₃ which is shown to be preferable over on surface structures due to field enhancement, field profile and linear and non-linear polarization considerations. In addition, we develop the nano-antenna counterpart of the Boyd-Klienmann model in order to analyze the impact of a Gaussian shaped fundamental beam on the generated second harmonic. Finally, we show that the dielectric properties of the substrate lead to preferable directions for the incident fundamental harmonic and the emission of the second harmonic. Our analyses lead to several design rules which can enhance second and high harmonic generation from nano-antennas arrays by several orders of magnitude.

  4. On the generation of large amplitude spiky solitons by ultralow frequency earthquake emission in the Van Allen radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Mofiz, U. A.

    2006-08-15

    The parametric coupling between earthquake emitted circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation and ponderomotively driven ion-acoustic perturbations in the Van Allen radiation belt is considered. A cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the modulated radiation envelope is derived, and then solved analytically. For ultralow frequency earthquake emissions large amplitude spiky supersonic bright solitons or subsonic dark solitons are found to be generated in the Van Allen radiation belt, detection of which can be a tool for the prediction of a massive earthquake may be followed later.

  5. Quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy and comparison with other analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Barnette, Anna L; Lee, Christopher; Bradley, Laura C; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Shin, Heenae; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2012-07-01

    The non-centrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy allows the detection and quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. This paper shows a correlation between the amount of crystalline cellulose in biomass and the SFG signal intensity. Model biomass samples were prepared by mixing commercially available cellulose, xylan, and lignin to defined concentrations. The SFG signal intensity was found sensitive to a wide range of crystallinity, but varied non-linearly with the mass fraction of cellulose in the samples. This might be due to the matrix effects such as light scattering and absorption by xylan and lignin, as well as the non-linear density dependence of the SFG process itself. Comparison with other techniques such as XRD, FT-Raman, FT-IR and NMR demonstrate that SFG can be a complementary and sensitive tool to assess crystalline cellulose in biomass.

  6. Frequency response of nonlinear oscillations of air column in a tube with an array of Helmholtz resonators.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, N; Masuda, M; Hashiguchi, T

    2003-10-01

    Nonlinear cubic theory is developed to obtain a frequency response of shock-free, forced oscillations of an air column in a closed tube with an array of Helmholtz resonators connected axially. The column is assumed to be driven by a plane piston sinusoidally at a frequency close or equal to the lowest resonance frequency with its maximum displacement fixed. By applying the method of multiple scales, the equation for temporal modulation of a complex pressure amplitude of the lowest mode is derived in a case that a typical acoustic Mach number is comparable with the one-third power of the piston Mach number, while the relative detuning of a frequency is comparable with the quadratic order of the acoustic Mach number. The steady-state solution gives the asymmetric frequency response curve with bending (skew) due to nonlinear frequency upshift in addition to the linear downshift. Validity of the theory is checked against the frequency response obtained experimentally. For high amplitude of oscillations, an effect of jet loss at the throat of the resonator is taken into account, which introduces the quadratic loss to suppress the peak amplitude. It is revealed that as far as the present check is concerned, the weakly nonlinear theory can give quantitatively adequate description up to the pressure amplitude of about 3% to the equilibrium pressure.

  7. All-optical random number generation using highly nonlinear fibers by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanfen; Liang, Junqiang; Li, Pu; Yang, Lingzhen; Wang, Yuncai

    2014-06-01

    A new scheme of all-optical random number generation based on the nonlinear effects in highly nonlinear fibers (HNLF) is proposed. The scheme is comprised of ultra-wide band chaotic entropy source, all-optical sampler, all-optical comparator and all-optical exclusive-or (XOR), which are mainly realized by four-wave mixing (FWM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) in highly nonlinear fibers. And we achieve 10 Gbit/s random numbers through numerically simulating all the processes. The entire operations are completed in the all-optical domain, which may overcome the bottleneck problem of electronic devices, and apply directly in high-speed all-optical communication network.

  8. Measuring nonlinear stresses generated by defects in 3D colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Neil Y. C.; Bierbaum, Matthew; Schall, Peter; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical, structural and functional properties of crystals are determined by their defects, and the distribution of stresses surrounding these defects has broad implications for the understanding of transport phenomena. When the defect density rises to levels routinely found in real-world materials, transport is governed by local stresses that are predominantly nonlinear. Such stress fields however, cannot be measured using conventional bulk and local measurement techniques. Here, we report direct and spatially resolved experimental measurements of the nonlinear stresses surrounding colloidal crystalline defect cores, and show that the stresses at vacancy cores generate attractive interactions between them. We also directly visualize the softening of crystalline regions surrounding dislocation cores, and find that stress fluctuations in quiescent polycrystals are uniformly distributed rather than localized at grain boundaries, as is the case in strained atomic polycrystals. Nonlinear stress measurements have important implications for strain hardening, yield and fatigue.

  9. Frequency dispersion of the first hyperpolarizabilities of reference molecules for nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wergifosse, Marc de; Champagne, Benoît; Castet, Frédéric

    2015-05-21

    The frequency dispersion of the hyper-Rayleigh scattering first hyperpolarizabilities (β{sub HRS}) of five reference molecules for nonlinear optics, namely, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and trichloroacetonitrile, is described using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles quadratic response function (CCSD-QRF) as well as approximate schemes. Comparisons to approximate schemes in which the frequency dispersion is evaluated as either a multiplicative or an additive correction to the static hyperpolarizability yield the following observations: (i) errors of the order of 10% or less are usually encountered when using the multiplicative scheme for photon energies far from the lowest dipole-allowed excitation energies, (ii) spurious cases cannot be excluded as evidenced by carbon tetrachloride where the multiplicative scheme predicts a decrease of β{sub HRS} in contradiction to the increase obtained using the CCSD-QRF method, and (iii) the additive scheme is at best as reliable as the multiplicative approximation. The two-state approximation presents the advantage of correcting the wrong behavior of the additive and multiplicative schemes for carbon tetrachloride, but it is not an improved solution for the other compounds, while the question of selecting the appropriate dominant excited state remains unanswered. Finally, a new β{sub xyz} value of 18.9 a.u. is proposed for carbon tetrachloride in gas phase at λ = 1064 nm, to be compared with the measured 16.9 ± 1.4 a.u. value due to Shelton.

  10. Neural-scaled entropy predicts the effects of nonlinear frequency compression on speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Rallapalli, Varsha H.; Alexander, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    The Neural-Scaled Entropy (NSE) model quantifies information in the speech signal that has been altered beyond simple gain adjustments by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and various signal processing. An extension of Cochlear-Scaled Entropy (CSE) [Stilp, Kiefte, Alexander, and Kluender (2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128(4), 2112–2126], NSE quantifies information as the change in 1-ms neural firing patterns across frequency. To evaluate the model, data from a study that examined nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) in listeners with SNHL were used because NFC can recode the same input information in multiple ways in the output, resulting in different outcomes for different speech classes. Overall, predictions were more accurate for NSE than CSE. The NSE model accurately described the observed degradation in recognition, and lack thereof, for consonants in a vowel-consonant-vowel context that had been processed in different ways by NFC. While NSE accurately predicted recognition of vowel stimuli processed with NFC, it underestimated them relative to a low-pass control condition without NFC. In addition, without modifications, it could not predict the observed improvement in recognition for word final /s/ and /z/. Findings suggest that model modifications that include information from slower modulations might improve predictions across a wider variety of conditions. PMID:26627780

  11. Time-ordering effects in the generation of entangled photons using nonlinear optical processes.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Nicolás; Sipe, J E

    2015-03-06

    We study the effects of time ordering in photon generation processes such as spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and four wave mixing (SFWM). The results presented here are used to construct an intuitive picture that allows us to predict when time-ordering effects significantly modify the joint spectral amplitude (JSA) of the photons generated in SPDC and SFWM. These effects become important only when the photons being generated lie with the pump beam that travels through the nonlinear material for a significant amount of time. Thus sources of spectrally separable photons are ideal candidates for the observation of modifications of the JSA due to time ordering.

  12. A stepped-plate bi-frequency source for generating a difference frequency sound with a parametric array.

    PubMed

    Je, Yub; Lee, Haksue; Park, Jongkyu; Moon, Wonkyu

    2010-06-01

    An ultrasonic radiator is developed to generate a difference frequency sound from two frequencies of ultrasound in air with a parametric array. A design method is proposed for an ultrasonic radiator capable of generating highly directive, high-amplitude ultrasonic sound beams at two different frequencies in air based on a modification of the stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator. The stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator was introduced by Gallego-Juarez et al. [Ultrasonics 16, 267-271 (1978)] in their previous study and can effectively generate highly directive, large-amplitude ultrasonic sounds in air, but only at a single frequency. Because parametric array sources must be able to generate sounds at more than one frequency, a design modification is crucial to the application of a stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator as a parametric array source in air. The aforementioned method was employed to design a parametric radiator for use in air. A prototype of this design was constructed and tested to determine whether it could successfully generate a difference frequency sound with a parametric array. The results confirmed that the proposed single small-area transducer was suitable as a parametric radiator in air.

  13. Homo and heteroepitaxial growth and study of orientation-patterned GaP for nonlinear frequency conversion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassev, V. L.; Vangala, S.; Peterson, R.; Kimani, M.; Snure, M.; Markov, I.

    2016-03-01

    Frequency conversion in orientation-patterned quasi-phase matched materials is a leading approach for generating tunable mid- and long-wave coherent IR radiation for a wide variety of applications. A number of nonlinear optical materials are currently under intensive investigation. Due to their unique properties, chiefly wide IR transparency and high nonlinear susceptibility, GaAs and GaP are among the most promising. Compared to GaAs, GaP has the advantage of having higher thermal conductivity and significantly lower 2PA in the convenient pumping range of 1- 1.7 μm. HVPE growth of OPGaP, however, has encountered certain challenges: low quality and high price of commercially available GaP wafers; and strong parasitic nucleation during HVPE growth that reduces growth rate and aggravates layer quality, often leading to pattern overgrowth. Lessons learned from growing OPGaAs were not entirely helpful, leaving us to alternative solutions for both homoepitaxial growth and template preparation. We report repeatable one-step HVPE growth of up to 400 μm thick OPGaP with excellent domain fidelity deposited for first time on OPGaAs templates. The templates were prepared by wafer fusion bonding or MBE assisted polarity inversion technique. A close to equilibrium growth at such a large lattice mismatch (-3.6%) is itself noteworthy, especially when previously reported attempts (growth of OPZnSe on OPGaAs templates) at much smaller mismatch (+0.3%) have produced limited results. Combining the advantages of the two most promising materials, GaAs and GaP, is a solution that will accelerate the development of high power, tunable laser sources for the mid- and long-wave IR, and THz region.

  14. Pulsed infrared difference frequency generation in CdGeAs/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.; Rink, J.P.; Tallman, C.R.

    1975-11-26

    A laser apparatus for generating a line-tunable pulsed infrared difference frequency output is described. The apparatus comprises a CO/sub 2/ laser which produces a first frequency, a CO laser which produces a second frequency, and a mixer for combining the output of the CO/sub 2/ and CO lasers so as to produce a final output comprising a difference frequency from the first and second frequency outputs.

  15. Pulsed infrared difference frequency generation in CdGeAs.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Rink, John P.; Tallman, Charles R.

    1977-03-08

    The disclosure relates to a laser apparatus for generating a line-tunable pulsed infrared difference frequency output. The apparatus comprises a CO.sub.2 laser which produces a first frequency, a CO laser which produces a second frequency and a mixer for combining the output of the CO.sub.2 and CO lasers so as to produce a final output comprising a difference frequency from the first and second frequency outputs.

  16. Efficient frequency generation in phoXonic cavities based on hollow whispering gallery mode resonators

    PubMed Central

    Farnesi, Daniele; Righini, Giancarlo; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    We report on nonlinear optical effects on phoxonic cavities based on hollow whispering gallery mode resonators pumped with a continuous wave laser. We observed stimulated scattering effects such as Brillouin and Raman, Kerr effects such as degenerated and non-degenerated four wave mixing, and dispersive wave generation. These effects happened concomitantly. Hollow resonators give rise to a very rich nonlinear scenario due to the coexistence of several family modes. PMID:28266641

  17. Neuronal morphology generates high-frequency firing resonance.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Szapiro, Germán; Schwartz, Eric; Barbour, Boris; Brunel, Nicolas; Hakim, Vincent

    2015-05-06

    The attenuation of neuronal voltage responses to high-frequency current inputs by the membrane capacitance is believed to limit single-cell bandwidth. However, neuronal populations subject to stochastic fluctuations can follow inputs beyond this limit. We investigated this apparent paradox theoretically and experimentally using Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, a motor structure that benefits from rapid information transfer. We analyzed the modulation of firing in response to the somatic injection of sinusoidal currents. Computational modeling suggested that, instead of decreasing with frequency, modulation amplitude can increase up to high frequencies because of cellular morphology. Electrophysiological measurements in adult rat slices confirmed this prediction and displayed a marked resonance at 200 Hz. We elucidated the underlying mechanism, showing that the two-compartment morphology of the Purkinje cell, interacting with a simple spiking mechanism and dendritic fluctuations, is sufficient to create high-frequency signal amplification. This mechanism, which we term morphology-induced resonance, is selective for somatic inputs, which in the Purkinje cell are exclusively inhibitory. The resonance sensitizes Purkinje cells in the frequency range of population oscillations observed in vivo.

  18. Active control of highly efficient third-harmonic generation in ultrathin nonlinear metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zibo; Li, Chong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-10-01

    Active electric control of highly efficient third harmonic generation was realized in an ultrathin nonlinear metasurface by using a nanocomposite consisting of gold nanoparticles dispersed in polycrystalline strontium titanate as the electro-optic material. Owing to the nonlinearity enhancement associated with the slow light effect, quantum confinement effect, and field-reinforcement, a high conversion efficiency of 3 × 10-5 was obtained, which is two orders of magnitude larger than previously reported efficiencies at comparable pump intensities. A modulation of 12% in the intensity of the third harmonic generation and a 30-nm shift in the transparency window center were achieved by varying the applied voltage from -30 V to zero. Our results pave the way toward the realization of multi-functional integrated photonic devices and chips based on metasurfaces.

  19. Distributed source model for the full-wave electromagnetic simulation of nonlinear terahertz generation.

    PubMed

    Fumeaux, Christophe; Lin, Hungyen; Serita, Kazunori; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Kaufmann, Thomas; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Abbott, Derek

    2012-07-30

    The process of terahertz generation through optical rectification in a nonlinear crystal is modeled using discretized equivalent current sources. The equivalent terahertz sources are distributed in the active volume and computed based on a separately modeled near-infrared pump beam. This approach can be used to define an appropriate excitation for full-wave electromagnetic numerical simulations of the generated terahertz radiation. This enables predictive modeling of the near-field interactions of the terahertz beam with micro-structured samples, e.g. in a near-field time-resolved microscopy system. The distributed source model is described in detail, and an implementation in a particular full-wave simulation tool is presented. The numerical results are then validated through a series of measurements on square apertures. The general principle can be applied to other nonlinear processes with possible implementation in any full-wave numerical electromagnetic solver.

  20. Exact nonlinear command generation and tracking for robot manipulators and spacecraft slewing maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dywer, T. A. W., III; Lee, G. K. F.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with the current interest in agile spacecraft maneuvers, it has become necessary to consider the nonlinear coupling effects of multiaxial rotation in the treatment of command generation and tracking problems. Multiaxial maneuvers will be required in military missions involving a fast acquisition of moving targets in space. In addition, such maneuvers are also needed for the efficient operation of robot manipulators. Attention is given to details regarding the direct nonlinear command generation and tracking, an approach which has been successfully applied to the design of control systems for V/STOL aircraft, linearizing transformations for spacecraft controlled with external thrusters, the case of flexible spacecraft dynamics, examples from robot dynamics, and problems of implementation and testing.

  1. Recovery of image distorted by turbulent atmosphere using phase-conjugate image generated by difference frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Xingquan; Hong, Pengda; Ding, Yujie J.

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate dynamic recovery of blurred images caused by atmospheric turbulence. In particular, using a phase-conjugate wave generated by a second-order nonlinear crystal or composite, we restore the original quality of the image after the optical radiation forming the image propagates through the turbulent atmosphere. One of the key elements for our experiment is a rotating phase plate being placed in the beam path for simulating turbulent atmosphere. Using the nonlinear composite, we demonstrate that the image recovery is insensitive to the polarization of the optical radiation forming the image.

  2. High frequency plasma generators for ion thruster applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Komatsu, G. K.; Christensen, T.

    1981-01-01

    Two concepts for high frequency discharge ion thrusters are described. Both sources are designed for use with 30 cm grid sets and argon propellant and utilize multi-cusp permanent magnet geometries for plasma confinement. The RF induction source is a conventional design representing a synthesis of the RIT and multi-cusp concepts. The preliminary data (without system optimization) indicate a discharge efficiency comparable to that obtained in 30 cm hollow cathode multi-cusp argon thrusters. The electron cyclotron heating source is electrodeless and exhibits plasma characteristics which should lead to greatly reduced discharge chamber and screen sputter rates with the optimization of the magnetic fields, microwave frequency, and feed configuration.

  3. Generation of photon pairs through parametric processes in nonlinear waveguides with the account of losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavulin, D. N.; Sukhorukov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analytical description of the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a cubic nonlinear fiber with linear losses. We consider the generation of photon pairs in the fiber when in the input of fiber is fed the pumping wave and single signal photon. The focus of attention is on three cases: when the signal photon propagates in the fiber without generating of biphotons; when the photon pair is generated; and when the photon is lost in the fiber. We also consider the cascade processes, but do not give them an analytical description because of their smallness. Description of the biphotons generation process we provide using the Schrodinger-type equation, and take into account the losses in the fiber through the introduction of the virtual beam splitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the generation of photon pairs through parametric processes.

  4. Frequency comb generation by CW laser injection into a quantum-dot mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, T J; Salumbides, E J; Tahvili, M S; Ubachs, W; Bente, E A J M; Eikema, K S E

    2012-09-10

    We report on frequency comb generation at 1.5 μm by injection of a CW laser in a hybridly mode-locked InAs/InP two-section quantum-dot laser (HMLQDL). The generated comb has > 60 modes spaced by ∼ 4.5 GHz and a -20 dBc width of > 100 GHz (23 modes) at > 30 dB signal to background ratio. Comb generation was observed with the CW laser (red) detuned more than 20 nm outside the HMLQDL spectrum, spanning a large part of the gain spectrum of the quantum dot material. It is shown that the generated comb is fully coherent with the injected CW laser and RF frequency used to drive the hybrid mode-locking. This method of comb generation is of interest for the creation of small and robust frequency combs for use in optical frequency metrology, high-frequency (> 100 GHz) RF generation and telecommunication applications.

  5. Applications of wind generation for power system frequency control, inter-area oscillations damping and parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilches-Bernal, Felipe

    Power systems around the world are experiencing a continued increase in wind generation as part of their energy mix. Because of its power electronics interface, wind energy conversion systems interact differently with the grid than conventional generation. These facts are changing the traditional dynamics that regulate power system behavior and call for a re-examination of traditional problems encountered in power systems like frequency response, inter-area oscillations and parameter identification. To address this need, realistic models for wind generation are necessary. The dissertation implements such models in a MATLAB-based flexible environment suited for power system research. The dissertation continues with an analysis of the frequency response of a test power system dependent mainly on a mode referred to as the frequency regulation mode. Using this test system it is shown that its frequency regulation capability is reduced with wind penetration levels of 25% and above. A controller for wind generation to restore the frequency response of the system is then presented. The proposed controller requires the WTG to operate in a deloaded mode, a condition that is obtained through pitching the wind turbine blades. Time simulations at wind penetration levels of 25% and 50% are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Next, the dissertation evaluates how the inter-area oscillation of a two-machine power system is affected by wind integration. The assessment is performed based on the positioning of the WTG, the level of wind penetration, and the loading condition of the system. It is determined that integrating wind reduces the damping of the inter-area mode of the system when performed in an area that imports power. For this worst-case scenario, the dissertation proposes two controllers for wind generation to improve the damping of the inter-area mode. The first controller uses frequency as feedback signal for the active power control

  6. Nonlinear harmonic generation in high-gain free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P.L.; Pagnutti, S.

    2005-06-01

    We reconsider the derivation of semianalytical expressions providing the most significant aspects of the high-gain free-electron laser dynamics. We obtain new expressions for the growth of the laser power, of the e-beam-induced energy spread, and of the higher-order nonlinearly generated harmonics. The procedure we employ, based on theoretical ansatz and fitting methods, allows the determination of crucial quantities like the expected harmonic output power and its dependences on the e-beam parameters.

  7. The Krigifier: A Procedure for Generating Pseudorandom Nonlinear Objective Functions for Computational Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosset, Michael W.

    1999-01-01

    Comprehensive computational experiments to assess the performance of algorithms for numerical optimization require (among other things) a practical procedure for generating pseudorandom nonlinear objective functions. We propose a procedure that is based on the convenient fiction that objective functions are realizations of stochastic processes. This report details the calculations necessary to implement our procedure for the case of certain stationary Gaussian processes and presents a specific implementation in the statistical programming language S-PLUS.

  8. Nonlinear-optical generation of short-wavelength radiation controlled by laser-induced interference structures

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, A K; Kimberg, V V

    1998-03-31

    A study is reported of the combined influence of laser-induced resonances in the energy continuum, of splitting of discrete resonances in the field of several strong radiations, and of absorption of the initial and generated radiations on totally resonant parametric conversion to the short-wavelength range. It is shown that the radiation power can be increased considerably by interference processes involving quantum transitions. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  9. Radio-frequency energy in fusion power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.Q.; Becraft, W.R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The history of radio-frequency (rf) energy in fusion experiments is reviewed, and the status of current efforts is described. Potential applications to tasks other than plasma heating are described, as are the research and development needs of rf energy technology.

  10. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  11. Masking of short stimuli by noises with spiked spectra: I. Compressive nonlinearity of cochlea and evaluation of frequency resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimskaya-Korsakova, L. K.; Lalayants, M. R.; Supin, A. Ya.; Tavartkiladze, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    A psychoacoustic method for measuring masking thresholds based on the application of single-type stimuli and maskers intended for revealing compressive nonlinearity of displacements of the cochlea basila membrane and evaluation of the frequency resolution of hearing in a narrow frequency range near the central frequency of the stimulus is considered. High-frequency pulses with an envelope in the form of a Gaussian function with a sinusoidal filling with the frequency band corresponding to the width of the critical hearing band have been used as stimuli (referred to as compact). Noises with a spike structure of the amplitude spectrum with a limited frequency band width served as maskers. With the central frequencies of stimuli and maskers being equal, a band noise with the central frequency corresponding with a spike of an indented spectrum was called an on(rip)-frequency masker, while that with the central frequency corresponding to a dip in an indented spectrum was called an off(rip)-frequency masker. The central frequencies and frequency bands of the stimuli and maskers were 4 kHz and 1000 Hz, respectively. The spike (dip) frequencies of an indented amplitude spectrum of a masker were 1000 Hz. In the case of successive and simultaneous masking, the dependences of the thresholds of off(rip)-frequency masking of compact stimuli on the masker level revealed compressive nonlinearity of basila membrane displacements. However, threshold on(rip)/off(rip)-frequency masking differences visualized it much better. The estimates of the frequency resolution obtained under conditions of simultaneous masking of compact stimuli during variations in the frequency of spikes of indented masker spectra of low and medium levels corresponded to the width of the critical hearing band measured using a classical method of tone masking by a pair of narrow-band noise maskers. Within the spike frequency range of 500-2000 Hz, the steepness of the dependence of off(rip)-masking of compact

  12. Rogue Wave and Breather Structures with "High Frequency" and "Low Frequency" in 𝒫𝒯-Symmetric Nonlinear Couplers with Gain and Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dang-Jun; Zhang, Jie-Fang

    2016-10-01

    Based on the modified Darboux transformation method, starting from zero solution and the plane wave solution, the hierarchies of rational solutions and breather solutions with "high frequency" and "low frequency" of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation in parity-time symmetric nonlinear couplers with gain and loss are constructed, respectively. From these results, some basic characteristics of multi-rogue waves and multi-breathers are studied. Based on the property of rogue wave as the "quantum" of pattern structure in rogue wave hierarchy, we further study the novel structures of the superposed Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma solitons and their combined structures. It is expected that these results may give new insight into the context of the optical communications and Bose-Einstein condensations.

  13. Impulse-induced generation of stationary and moving discrete breathers in nonlinear oscillator networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas-Maraver, J.; Chacón, R.; Palmero, F.

    2016-12-01

    We study discrete breathers in prototypical nonlinear oscillator networks subjected to nonharmonic zero-mean periodic excitations. We show how the generation of stationary and moving discrete breathers are optimally controlled by solely varying the impulse transmitted by the periodic excitations, while keeping constant the excitation's amplitude and period. Our theoretical and numerical results show that the enhancer effect of increasing values of the excitation's impulse, in the sense of facilitating the generation of stationary and moving breathers, is due to a correlative increase of the breather's action and energy.

  14. Impulse-induced generation of stationary and moving discrete breathers in nonlinear oscillator networks.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Maraver, J; Chacón, R; Palmero, F

    2016-12-01

    We study discrete breathers in prototypical nonlinear oscillator networks subjected to nonharmonic zero-mean periodic excitations. We show how the generation of stationary and moving discrete breathers are optimally controlled by solely varying the impulse transmitted by the periodic excitations, while keeping constant the excitation's amplitude and period. Our theoretical and numerical results show that the enhancer effect of increasing values of the excitation's impulse, in the sense of facilitating the generation of stationary and moving breathers, is due to a correlative increase of the breather's action and energy.

  15. Highly efficient single frequency blue laser generation by second harmonic generation of infrared lasers using quasi phase matching in periodically poled ferroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali

    Performance and reliability of solid state laser diodes in the IR region exceeds those in the visible and UV part of the light spectrum. Single frequency visible and UV laser diodes with higher than 500 mW power are not available commercially. However we successfully stabilized a multi-longitudinal mode IR laser to 860 mW single frequency. This means high efficiency harmonic generation using this laser can produce visible and UV laser light not available otherwise. In this study we examined three major leading nonlinear crystals: PPMgO:SLN, PPKTP and PPMgO:SLT to generate blue light by second harmonic generation. We achieved record high net conversion efficiencies 81.3% using PPMgO:SLT (˜500 mW out), and 81.1% using PPKTP (˜700 mW out). In both these cases an external resonance buildup cavity was used. We also studied a less complicated single pass waveguide configuration (guided waist size of ˜ 5 um compared to ˜60 um) to generate blue. With PPMgO:SLN we obtained net 40.4% and using PPKT net 6.8% (110mW and 10.1 mW respectively).

  16. Interferometric 2D Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Reveals Structural Heterogeneity of Catalytic Monolayers on Transparent Materials.

    PubMed

    Vanselous, Heather; Stingel, Ashley M; Petersen, Poul B

    2017-02-16

    Molecular monolayers exhibit structural and dynamical properties that are different from their bulk counterparts due to their interaction with the substrate. Extracting these distinct properties is crucial for a better understanding of processes such as heterogeneous catalysis and interfacial charge transfer. Ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopic techniques such as 2D infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy are powerful tools for understanding molecular dynamics in complex bulk systems. Here, we build on technical advancements in 2D IR and heterodyne-detected sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to study a CO2 reduction catalyst on nanostructured TiO2 with interferometric 2D SFG spectroscopy. Our method combines phase-stable heterodyne detection employing an external local oscillator with a broad-band pump pulse pair to provide the first high spectral and temporal resolution 2D SFG spectra of a transparent material. We determine the overall molecular orientation of the catalyst and find that there is a static structural heterogeneity reflective of different local environments at the surface.

  17. Generation and characterization of electron bunches with ramped current profiles in a dual-frequency superconducting linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Piot, P; Behrens, C; Gerth, C; Dohlus, M; Lemery, F; Mihalcea, D; Stoltz, P; Vogt, M

    2012-01-20

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radio frequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced ~700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampère. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and, in particular, its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasilinear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.

  18. Nonlinear optical frequency conversion with KTP and BiBO crystals for lasers in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potreck, Arne; Schröder, Helmut; Lammers, Melanie; Tzeremes, Georgios; Riede, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Within ESA's ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE missions Doppler-wind Lidar systems will be operated in the Earth's orbit to measure global wind profiles. The active instrument will be based on a Nd:YAG laser, frequency tripled by nonlinear optical crystals. Different crystals are therefore to compare and qualify in regard of their space acceptability. A dedicated set-up to measure the maximum conversion efficiencies and its stability during longterm operation for KTP crystals (SHG) and BiBO crystals (SHG and THG) is presented in this work. In order to detect gray-tracking and its influence on thermal lensing in situ, measurements with a Shack-Hartmann sensor and a co-aligned HeNe laser were performed. Conversion efficiencies were 76+/-3 % at SHG for KTP and BiBO crystals and 48+/-2 % at THG with a combination of two BiBO crystals. During longterm experiments of 60 million laser pulses, conversion efficiencies were demonstrated to be stable over time (+/-1 % at SHG with KTP and +/-2 % at THG with BiBO). The occurrence of gray-tracking was detected in the KTP crystal and the resulting thermal lensing with an exponential saturation over time was observed in situ.

  19. Nonlinear Tidal Distortion and Low Frequency Residual Effects in a Coastal Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachec, S. M.; Hansell, H. C.

    2012-12-01

    A 62 day observational campaign in the spring 2011, recorded free surface and meteorological observations used to determine hydrodynamic conditions of an area in the northern region of Mosquito Lagoon, FL. Mean water level ranges at instrument locations decrease from 0.35 to 0.22 m moving further from the primary inlet. A harmonic analysis revealed mean extracted tidal ranges at the former stations decreasing from 0.34 to 0.21 m. Nonlinear distortion increases with distance into the system, with a maximum tidal range decrease of 0.13 m and high tide time lag of 0.89 hrs between extreme stations. Ebb durations averaged 1 hr longer than flood, indicating a flood-dominant system. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses showed significant coherence between wind and non-tidal fluctuations in the low frequency regime. Using a modified conservation of mass equation, flow calculations reveal a partitioning of the flow between tides and winds.; Study site: Mosquito Lagoon, FL. ; Tidal amplitude attenuation of M2 and M4 tides through creek.

  20. KAM Torus Frequency Generation from Two Line Element Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    perturbations to the satellite’s orbit such as air drag. Four cases are attempted using the Hubble Space Telescope and three rocket bodies as test subjects...Four cases are attempted using the Hubble Space Telescope and three rocket bodies as test subjects. A KAM torus with the desired basis frequencies is...Catalog # Launch Date Period [min] Inclination [deg] Apogee [km] Perigee [km] Eccentricity Hubble Space Telescope 20580 4/24/1990 95.93 28.47

  1. Self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian; Xu, Xingyuan; Wu, Zhongle; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun

    2015-11-16

    An ultraflat self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By incorporating the optoelectronic oscillation loop with cascaded modulators into the optical frequency comb generator, 11 ultraflat comb lines would be generated, and the frequency spacing is equal to the oscillation frequency of the OEO. 10 and 12GHz optical frequency combs are demonstrated with the spectral power variation below 0.82dB and 0.93dB respectively. The corresponding spectral pure microwave source are also generated and evaluated. The corresponding single-sideband phase noise are as low as -122dBc/Hz and -115 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency.

  2. A novel electromechanical approach to constant frequency power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishner, Bryan; Morris, Angela

    An alternate design approach to the hydrochemical constant speed drive (CSD) used on aircraft to drive synchronous generators at constant speed has been evaluated. The alternative design replaces hydraulic devices with advanced technology permanent magnet (PM) motor/generators which rely on power semiconductors in the speed compensation link to produce a constant speed output to the synchronous generator. The feasibility study for the product, electrically compensated CSD (ECCSD), has been demonstrated. The ECCSD program demonstrates the basic axial gear differential CSD concept of passing the power and speed trimming functions through gearing, while at the same time efficiently accomplishing the closed-loop speed control function electromechanically with small, high-speed motors. The ECCSD configuration chosen for development uses a 50,000 rev/min PM generator and a 50,000 rev/min motor. A thyristor-based AC-to-DC converter conditions the PM generator output. A transistor-based brushless DC-type motor drive is used with the PM motor. The hardware is described, and test results are presented.

  3. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes

    PubMed Central

    Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission. PMID:27250647

  4. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission.

  5. Development of Frequency Stabilizing Scheme for Integrating Wind Power Generation into an Isolated Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Koji; Sakamoto, Orie; Kitauchi, Yoshihiro; Nanahara, Toshiya; Inoue, Toshio; Shiohama, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hitoshi

    Integrating of wind power generation into small islands has been one of the demonstration projects in Okinawa prefecture. Since such integration could deteriorate power quality including frequency in an island grid, a frequency stabilizing system using flywheels has been installed into a small island. In order to establish a proper frequency stabilizing scheme for the small island, an accurate model of a diesel generator including governor is vital. Therefore, the model was developed based on the measured values of generator dump tests. A new frequency stabilizing scheme was also developed through time-domain simulation of the island grid model which consists of the above-mentioned diesel generator model and an equivalent load change representing wind power variation. The proper parameters of the scheme were derived considering role sharing between the diesel generators and the flywheels. The developed stabilizing scheme was applied to the flywheels in the island grid and revealed great performance for mitigating frequency variation.

  6. ARTICLES: Some features of parametric conversion of infrared radiation in a system generating a difference frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaĭchuk, Yu A.; Strizhevskiĭ, V. L.; Yashkir, Yu N.

    1984-11-01

    A fluctuation theory is developed for the parametric conversion of infrared radiation utilizing four-photon difference frequency generation processes. An analysis is made of some features of optical parametric oscillation in this system allowing for sum frequency generation. Parametric "conversion" of quantum fluctuations to the frequency range of the infrared signal is discussed and it is shown that this effect increases the noise level.

  7. Sum-frequency generation from molecular monolayers using 14 {mu}m radiation from the FELIX free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Ham, E.W.M.; Vrehen, Q.H.F.; Eliel, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) has developed into a widely applied tool for study of surfaces and interfaces where molecules are present. It combines the surface specificity of a second-order nonlinear optical technique with the power of a spectroscopic method, and it can be used under widely varying experimental conditions ranging from UHV to electrochemical cells. The important characteristic of SFG is that it allows one to study the average spatial orientation of a molecular bond in a monolayer of molecules at an interface. Until recently SFG measurements were confined to the frequency interval Y {mu} > 1700 cm{sup -1} because of a lack of suitable laser sources at wave-lengths {lambda} > 6 {mu}m. So for most molecules only a few vibrational modes and thus intramolecular bonds can be studied. We have developed a universal sum-frequency spectrometer around the FELIX free-electron law that covers the complete molecular fingerprint since we can generate any IR wavelength between 2.75 and 110 f{mu} at the FELIX facility. We have used this setup for a series of exploratory SFG experiments in a frequency range that was hitherto unexplored in the study of molecular monolayers. We have studied thiol monolayers chemisorbed on a variety of noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt) where we focussed on the C-S stretch vibration at {nu} = 702 cm{sup -1} ({lambda} = 14.3 {mu}m). We have found spectroscopic features revealing the presence of both the trane and gauche conformers of the adsorbed molecules. The present measurements open a whole new wavelength range for nonlinear optical studies of interfaces.

  8. Analysis of nonlinear frequency mixing in 1D waveguides with a breathing crack using the spectral finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.

    2015-11-01

    A breathing crack, due to its bilinear stiffness characteristics, modifies the frequency spectrum of a propagating dual-frequency elastic wave, and gives rise to sidebands around the probing frequency. This paper presents an analytical-numerical method to investigate such nonlinear frequency mixing resulting from the modulation effects induced by a breathing crack in 1D waveguides, such as axial rods and the Euler-Bernoulli beams. A transverse edge-crack is assumed to be present in both the waveguides, and the local flexibility caused by the crack is modeled using an equivalent spring approach. A simultaneous treatment of both the waveguides, in the framework of the Fourier transform based spectral finite element method, is presented for analyzing their response to a dual frequency excitation applied in the form of a tone-burst signal. The intermittent contact between the crack surfaces is accounted for by introducing bilinear contact forces acting at the nodes of the damage spectral element. Subsequently, an iterative approach is outlined for solving the resulting system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. Applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by considering several test cases. The existence of sidebands and the higher order harmonics is confirmed in the frequency domain response of both the waveguides under investigation. A qualitative comparison with the previous experimental observations accentuates the utility of the proposed solution method. Additionally, the influence of the two constituent frequencies in the dual frequency excitation is assessed by varying the relative strengths of their amplitudes. A brief parametric study is performed for bringing out the effects of the relative crack depth and crack location on the degree of modulation, which is quantified in terms of the modulation parameter. Results of the present investigation can find their potential use in providing an analytical-numerical support to the studies geared towards the

  9. System and method for generating micro-seismic events and characterizing properties of a medium with non-linear acoustic interactions

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-12-29

    A method and system includes generating a first coded acoustic signal including pulses each having a modulated signal at a central frequency; and a second coded acoustic signal each pulse of which includes a modulated signal a central frequency of which is a fraction d of the central frequency of the modulated signal for the corresponding pulse in the first plurality of pulses. A receiver detects a third signal generated by a non-linear mixing process in the mixing zone and the signal is processed to extract the third signal to obtain an emulated micro-seismic event signal occurring at the mixing zone; and to characterize properties of the medium or creating a 3D image of the properties of the medium, or both, based on the emulated micro-seismic event signal.

  10. Theoretical study of collinear optical frequency comb generation under multi-wave, transient stimulated Raman scattering in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanin, S N

    2014-11-30

    Using mathematical modelling we have studied the conditions of low-threshold collinear optical frequency comb generation under transient (picosecond) stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and parametric four-wave coupling of SRS components in crystals. It is shown that Raman-parametric generation of an octave-spanning optical frequency comb occurs most effectively under intermediate, transient SRS at a pump pulse duration exceeding the dephasing time by five-to-twenty times. We have found the optimal values of not only the laser pump pulse duration, but also of the Raman crystal lengths corresponding to highly efficient generation of an optical frequency comb from the second anti-Stokes to the fourth Stokes Raman components. For the KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} (high dispersion) and Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (low dispersion) crystals pumped at a wavelength of 1.064 μm and a pulse duration five or more times greater than the dephasing time, the optimum length of the crystal was 0.3 and 0.6 cm, respectively, which is consistent with the condition of the most effective Stokes – anti-Stokes coupling ΔkL ≈ 15, where Δk is the wave detuning from phase matching of Stokes – anti-Stokes coupling, determined by the refractive index dispersion of the SRS medium. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  11. Entangled Photons Generation and Regeneration Using a Nonlinear Fiber Ring Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchat, S.; Khunnam, W.; Yupapin, P. P.

    2008-11-01

    A new technique of an entangled photon pair generation and regeneration characterization using an all fiber optic scheme is investigated. The proposed system is consisted of a fiber optic ring resonator. The Kerr nonlinearity effect in the fiber ring resonator is exploited for the generation of two independent beams. The advantage of such a system is that it requires a simple arrangement without any optical pumping part and bulky optical components. Polarized light pulse trains are launched randomly into a nonlinear fiber optic ring resonator. Where the superpositions of light pulses in a nonlinear fiber optics ring resonator are randomly occurred which is formed the entangled photon pairs. A polarization controller controls polarization states of light pulses while circulating in the ring resonator. The entangled photons are seen on the avalanche photo-detector. Then the output of the entangled photon states recovery by using a fiber ring resonator incorporating an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) has been investigated. We have shown that the weak entangled photon states can be recovered after circulating in the amplified fiber optic medium. The results obtained have shown that this system can be used to achieve the recovered polarization entangled states with the obtained high gain. The amplifying noise has also been detected and seen on the spectrum output. This is affected to the entangled photon visibility, which is discussed.

  12. Fractional Laplacian time-space models for linear and nonlinear lossy media exhibiting arbitrary frequency power-law dependency.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Holm, S

    2004-04-01

    Frequency-dependent attenuation typically obeys an empirical power law with an exponent ranging from 0 to 2. The standard time-domain partial differential equation models can describe merely two extreme cases of frequency-independent and frequency-squared dependent attenuations. The otherwise nonzero and nonsquare frequency dependency occurring in many cases of practical interest is thus often called the anomalous attenuation. In this study, a linear integro-differential equation wave model was developed for the anomalous attenuation by using the space-fractional Laplacian operation, and the strategy is then extended to the nonlinear Burgers equation. A new definition of the fractional Laplacian is also introduced which naturally includes the boundary conditions and has inherent regularization to ease the hypersingularity in the conventional fractional Laplacian. Under the Szabo's smallness approximation, where attenuation is assumed to be much smaller than the wave number, the linear model is found consistent with arbitrary frequency power-law dependency.

  13. Entanglement and nonclassicality in four-mode Gaussian states generated via parametric down-conversion and frequency up-conversion

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina Jr., Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Multipartite entanglement and nonclassicality of four-mode Gaussian states generated in two simultaneous nonlinear processes involving parametric down-conversion and frequency up-conversion are analyzed assuming the vacuum as the initial state. Suitable conditions for the generation of highly entangled states are found. Transfer of the entanglement from the down-converted modes into the up-converted ones is also suggested. The analysis of the whole set of states reveals that sub-shot-noise intensity correlations between the equally-populated down-converted modes, as well as the equally-populated up-converted modes, uniquely identify entangled states. They represent a powerful entanglement identifier also in other cases with arbitrarily populated modes. PMID:27658508

  14. Generation of optical frequency combs in fibres: an optical pulse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajnulina, Marina; Böhm, Michael; Blow, Keith; Chavez Boggio, José M.; Rieznik, Andres A.; Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M.

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of optical frequency combs (OFCs) generated in passive mode-locked lasers has provided astronomy with unprecedented accuracy for wavelength calibration in high-resolution spectroscopy in research areas such as the discovery of exoplanets or the measurement of fundamental constants. The unique properties of OCFs, namely a highly dense spectrum of uniformly spaced emission lines of nearly equal intensity over the nominal wavelength range, is not only beneficial for high-resolution spectroscopy. Also in the low- to medium-resolution domain, the OFCs hold the promise to revolutionise the calibration techniques. Here, we present a novel method for generation of OFCs. As opposed to the mode-locked laser-based approach that can be complex, costly, and difficult to stabilise, we propose an all optical fibre-based system that is simple, compact, stable, and low-cost. Our system consists of three optical fibres where the first one is a conventional single-mode fibre, the second one is an erbium-doped fibre and the third one is a highly nonlinear low-dispersion fibre. The system is pumped by two equally intense continuous-wave (CW) lasers. To be able to control the quality and the bandwidth of the OFCs, it is crucial to understand how optical solitons arise out of the initial modulated CW field in the first fibre. Here, we numerically investigate the pulse evolution in the first fibre using the technique of the solitons radiation beat analysis. Having applied this technique, we realised that formation of higherorder solitons is supported in the low-energy region, whereas, in the high-energy region, Kuznetsov-Ma solitons appear.

  15. Terahertz generation by nonlinear mixing of laser pulses in a clustered gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, V. K.

    2011-05-15

    A scheme of terahertz (THz) generation by two collinear laser pulses of finite spot size in a clustered gas is investigated theoretically. The lasers quickly ionize the atoms of the clusters, converting them into plasma balls, and exert a ponderomotive force on the cluster electrons, producing a beat frequency longitudinal current of limited transverse extent. The current acts as an antenna to produce beat frequency terahertz radiation. As the cluster expands under the hydrodynamic pressure, plasma frequency of cluster electrons {omega}{sub pe} decreases and approaches {radical}(3) times the frequency of laser, resonant heating and expansion of clusters occurs. On further expansion of clusters as {omega}{sub pe} approaches {radical}(3) times the terahertz frequency, resonant enhancement in THz radiated power occurs.

  16. Permanent Magnet Variable Speed Constant Frequency Power Generation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    byTactcalAirConandand, thus, the aircraft was demdifed ndplaced into regular operation. Unclassified SECUMITV CLASSIFICATION OF THiS PAak(’tOat Dale £ni.W.d) 4 . 0 ...49 ;J. 47 60-KVA Starter-Generator Transient Thermal Analysis ......................... 50• 0 -’.’ •..1 A I-.’ LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS...Cockpit Bulkhead Connectors .......................... 100 .1 0 CmpatmntF42BeoreMoifcaton.................., ,, .6,.,.l.........103•99 Compartment F40

  17. Nonlinear chirped-pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Cheng; Wang, Hushan

    2010-09-10

    Based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and waveguiding properties typical of the photonic crystal fiber structure, nonlinear chirped-pulse propagation and supercontinua generation in the femtosecond and picosecond regimes are investigated numerically. The simulation results indicate that an input chirp parameter mainly affects the initial stage of spectral broadening caused by the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect. In the femtosecond regime where the SPM effect plays an important role in the process of spectral broadening, an input positive chirp can enhance the supercontinuum bandwidth through a modified pulse compression phase and a decreased propagation distance required by soliton fission. In the picosecond regime, where the SPM effect contributes less to the continuum bandwidth and four-wave mixing process or modulational instability dominates the initial stage of spectral and temporal evolution, the output spectral shape and bandwidths are less sensitive to the input chirp parameters.

  18. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10-6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment.

  19. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10−6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment. PMID:26647962

  20. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  1. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  2. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-29

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  3. Multi-channel multi-carrier generation using multi-wavelength frequency shifting recirculating loop.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Dong, Ze; Zhang, Junwen; Shao, Yufeng; Chi, Nan

    2012-09-24

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme to generate optical frequency-locked multi-channel multi-carriers (MCMC), using a recirculating frequency shifter (RFS) loop based on multi-wavelength frequency shifting single side band (MWFS-SSB) modulation. In this scheme, optical subcarriers with multiple wavelengths can be generated each round. Furthermore, the generated MCMC are frequency- and phase-locked within each channel, and therefore can be effectively used for WDM superchannel. Dual-wavelength frequency shifting SSB modulation is carried out with dual-wavelength optical seed source in our experimental demonstration. Using this scheme, we successfully generate dual-channel multi-carriers, and one channel has 28 subcarriers while the other has 29 ones with 25-GHz subcarrier spacing. We also experimentally demonstrate that this kind of source can be used to carry 50-Gb/s optical polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signal.

  4. Nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation of hybrid structured fundamental wave.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaqing; Liu, Haigang; Sang, Minghuang; Li, Jun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-02-20

    We numerically and experimentally investigated the nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation of hybrid structured fundamental wave whose phase modulation combined periodic and random structure. The second harmonic generation of both one- and two-dimensional hybrid structured fundamental wave were investigated in this paper. The results show that more diffraction spots can be obtained in these hybrid structures than the pure periodic modulation cases. Besides, the total intensity of the second harmonic not only can be dramatically enhanced without altering the diffraction angles, but also is increasing with the degree of randomness of the structure. This study enriches the family of second harmonic generation of structured fundamental wave and has potential application in dynamically controlling second harmonic wave in arbitrary directions.

  5. Evaluation of DAST and zinc telluride nonlinear crystals for efficient terahertz generation

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, M.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Rao, K. S.

    2015-07-31

    Terahertz (THz) signal is generated from 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (i.e. DAST Crystal) and Zinc telluride (ZnTe) nonlinear crystals by employing 140 fs laser pulses at 800 nm with 80 MHz repetition rate. The semi insulating gallium arsenide photoconductive stripline antennas (gap =5 µm, length = 20 µm) is used as a Terahertz detector. The detected temporal profile of Terahertz radiation generated from DAST crystal is high as compared to ZnTe crystal in terms of amplitude. THz effective bandwidths of these crystals are extended up to 1.1 THz range. The potential of THz generation of DAST and ZnTe crystals are evaluated with respect to incident laser power.

  6. System and Method for Generating a Frequency Modulated Linear Laser Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor); Petway, Larry B. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor); Hines, Glenn D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for generating a frequency modulated linear laser waveform includes a single frequency laser generator to produce a laser output signal. An electro-optical modulator modulates the frequency of the laser output signal to define a linear triangular waveform. An optical circulator passes the linear triangular waveform to a band-pass optical filter to filter out harmonic frequencies created in the waveform during modulation of the laser output signal, to define a pure filtered modulated waveform having a very narrow bandwidth. The optical circulator receives the pure filtered modulated laser waveform and transmits the modulated laser waveform to a target.

  7. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  8. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    A prototype RF H{sup -} surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H{sup -} beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  9. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  10. Theoretical prediction of nonlinear propagation effects on noise signatures generated by subsonic or supersonic propeller or rotor-blade tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation equations for sound generated by a constant speed blade tip are presented. Propagation from a subsonic tip is treated as well as the various cases that can occur at supersonic speeds. Some computed examples indicate that the nonlinear theory correlates with experimental results better than linear theory for large amplitude waves. For swept tips that generate a wave with large amplitude leading expansion, the nonlinear theory predicts a cancellation effect that results in a significant reduction of both amplitude and impulse.

  11. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  12. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  13. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  14. Materials and characterization using acoustic nonlinearity parameters and harmonic generation - Effects of crystalline and amorphous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of material structure on the nonlinearity parameters are reviewed. Problems discussed include definition of nonlinearity parameters, square-law nonlinearity and collinear beam-mixing, structure dependence of the nonlinearity parameters, negative nonlinearity parameters, and implications for materials characterization.

  15. Materials characterization using acoustic nonlinearity parameters and harmonic generation - Engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews nonlinear bulk compressional wave acoustic measurement systems and the applications of measurements from such systems to engineering materials. Preliminary measurements indicate that it is possible to determine percent second phase precipitates in aluminum alloys, while other measurements show promise in the determination of properties related to the fatigue states of metals. It is also shown that harmonic generation can be used for the study of crack opening loads in compact tension specimens, which in turn gives useful information about the fatigue properties of various engineering materials.

  16. Giant enhancement of second harmonic generation in nonlinear photonic crystals with distributed Bragg reflector mirrors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ming-Liang; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2009-08-17

    We theoretically investigate second harmonic generation (SHG) in one-dimensional multilayer nonlinear photonic crystal (NPC) structures with distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) as mirrors. The NPC structures have periodic modulation on both the linear and second-order susceptibility. Three major physical mechanisms, quasi-phase matching (QPM) effect, slow light effect at photonic band gap edges, and cavity effect induced by DBR mirrors can be harnessed to enhance SHG. Selection of appropriate structural parameters can facilitate coexistence of these mechanisms to act collectively and constructively to create very high SHG conversion efficiency with an enhancement by up to seven orders of magnitude compared with the ordinary NPC where only QPM works.

  17. A nonlinear trajectory command generator for a digital flight-control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-01-01

    Operational application of the command generator (CG) was examined in detail in a simulation of a flight control system with the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. The basic repertoire of single axis maneuvers and operational constraints are discussed, and the system behavior is tested on a rigorous STOL approach path and as affected by various approximations in the CG synthesis and types of disturbances found in the operational environment. The simulation results indicate that a satisfactory nonlinear system with general maneuvering capabilities throughout the flight envelope was developed which satisfies the basic design objectives while maintaining a practicable degree of simplicity.

  18. Nonlinear mixing of optical vortices with fractional topological charge in Raman sideband generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohaber, J.; Boran, Y.; Sayrac, M.; Johnson, L.; Zhu, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the nonlinear parametric interaction of femtosecond fractionally-charged optical vortices in a Raman-active medium. Propagation of such beams was described using the Kirchhoff-Fresnel integrals by embedding a non-integer 2π phase step in a Gaussian beam profile. When using fractionally-charged pump or Stokes beams, we observed the production of new topological charge and phase discontinuities in the Raman field. These newly generated fractionally-charged Raman vortex beams were found to follow the same orbital angular momentum algebra derived by Strohaber et al (2012 Opt. Lett. 37 3411) for integer vortex beams.

  19. Generation of four-photon polarization entangled states with cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli

    2015-05-01

    We show how to prepare three different types of four-photon polarization entangled states among four modes. The scheme only use cross-Kerr medium, polarization beam splitters and X homodyne measurements on coherent light fields, which can be efficiently implemented in quantum optical laboratories. GHZ states and symmetric Dick states can be generated in deterministic way based on the scheme. With the possible availability of suitable strong Kerr nonlinearity, another type of entangled state called genuine four-photon entangled state can be realized as well.

  20. Collision frequencies in density-matrix kinetic equations describing nonlinear effects in the wings of spectral lines

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A I; Shalagin, Anatolii M

    2011-11-30

    Using the eikonal approximation, we have calculated effective collision frequencies in density-matrix kinetic equations describing nonlinear effects in the wings of spectral lines. We have established the relation between the probabilities of absorption and stimulated emission and the characteristics of the radiation and elementary scattering event. The example of the power interaction potential shows that quantum mechanical calculation of the collision frequencies in the eikonal approximation and previously known spectral line wing theory give similar results for the probability of radiation absorption.

  1. Generation and Modulation of a Millimeter-Wave Subcarrier on an Optical Frequency Generated via Optical Injection (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    the measured output power of the laser, is the damping rate, and osc is the oscillation frequency defined in (7) dPout ðtÞ ¼ dPout ð1Þ 1 et=2cosð...osctÞ 2 osc et=2sinðosctÞ (6) osc ¼fr ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 1...A, Atom.,Mol., Opt. Phys., vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 4181–4185,May 1995. [25] T. B. Simpson, BMapping the nonlinear dynamics of a distributed feedback

  2. Nonlinear techniques in optical synthetic aperture radar image generation and target recognition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, S; Wagner, K

    1995-07-10

    One of the most successful optical signal-processing applications to date has been the use of optical processors to convert synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data into images of the radar reflectivity of the ground. We have demonstrated real-time input to a high-space-bandwidth optical SAR imagegeneration system by using a dynamic organic holographic recording medium and SAR phase-history data. Real-time speckle reduction in optically processed SAR imagery has been accomplished by the use of multilook averaging to achieve nonlinear modulus-squared accumulation of subaperture images. We designed and assembled an all-optical system that accomplished real-time target recognition in SAR imagery. This system employed a simple square-law nonlinearity in the form of an optically addressed spatial light modulator at the SAR image plane to remove the effects of speckle phase profiles returned from complex SAR targets. The detection stage enabled the creation of an optical SAR automatic target recognition system as a nonlinear cascade of an optical SAR image generator and an optical correlator.

  3. Residual generation for fault detection and isolation in a class of uncertain nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hong-Jun; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2013-02-01

    This article studies the problem of fault detection and isolation (FDI) for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems via a residual signal generated by a novel nonlinear adaptive observer. The considered faults are modelled by a set of time-varying vectors, in which a prescribed subset of faults are specially monitored and thus separable from the other faults. In the presence of Lipschitz-like nonlinearities and modelling uncertainties, the sensitivity of the residual signal to the monitored faults and its insensitivity to the other faults are rigorously analysed. Under a persistent excitation condition, the performances of the proposed fault diagnosis scheme, including the robustness to uncertainties, the quickness of estimation, the accuracy of estimation, the sensitivity to the monitored faults and the insensitivity to the complement faults, are quantified by a series of explicit design functions relevant to the observer parameters. It turns out that the number of faults which can be completely diagnosed is independent of the number of output sensors. A simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed FDI method.

  4. Nonlinear (time domain) and linearized (time and frequency domain) solutions to the compressible Euler equations in conservation law form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreenivas, Kidambi; Whitfield, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Two linearized solvers (time and frequency domain) based on a high resolution numerical scheme are presented. The basic approach is to linearize the flux vector by expressing it as a sum of a mean and a perturbation. This allows the governing equations to be maintained in conservation law form. A key difference between the time and frequency domain computations is that the frequency domain computations require only one grid block irrespective of the interblade phase angle for which the flow is being computed. As a result of this and due to the fact that the governing equations for this case are steady, frequency domain computations are substantially faster than the corresponding time domain computations. The linearized equations are used to compute flows in turbomachinery blade rows (cascades) arising due to blade vibrations. Numerical solutions are compared to linear theory (where available) and to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Euler equations.

  5. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    PubMed

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  6. Digital EPR with an arbitrary waveform generator and direct detection at the carrier frequency.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-12-01

    A digital EPR spectrometer was constructed by replacing the traditional bridge with an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to produce excitation patterns and a high-speed digitizer for direct detection of the spin system response at the carrier frequency. Digital down-conversion produced baseband signals in quadrature with very precise orthogonality. Real-time resonator tuning was performed by monitoring the Fourier transforms of signals reflected from the resonator during frequency sweeps generated by the AWG. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated by rapid magnetic field scans at 256 MHz carrier frequency, and FID and spin echo experiments at 1 and 10 GHz carrier frequencies. For the rapid scan experiments the leakage through a cross-loop resonator was compensated by adjusting the amplitude and phase of a sinusoid at the carrier frequency that was generated with another AWG channel.

  7. Frequency-resolved optical grating using surface third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.

    1995-11-01

    We demonstrate the frequency-resolved optical grating technique using third-harmonic generation on the surface of a cover glass with ultra-short optical pulses and compare that with the phase-retrieved spectrogram.

  8. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-04

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%.

  9. Very High Frequency Monitoring System for Engine Gearbox and Generator Health Management (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-18

    Application of Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) Technologies to Wind Turbine Drive Trains,” WindPower 2005, Denver, CO, May 15-18, 2005...AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2008-2043 VERY HIGH FREQUENCY MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ENGINE GEARBOX AND GENERATOR HEALTH MANAGEMENT (POSTPRINT) Matthew J...2649 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VERY HIGH FREQUENCY MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ENGINE GEARBOX AND GENERATOR HEALTH MANAGEMENT (POSTPRINT

  10. Nonlinear ionospheric responses to large-amplitude infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by undersea earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical models of ionospheric coupling with the neutral atmosphere are used to investigate perturbations of plasma density, vertically integrated total electron content (TEC), neutral velocity, and neutral temperature associated with large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by the initial ocean surface displacements from strong undersea earthquakes. A simplified source model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is constructed from estimates of initial ocean surface responses to approximate the vertical motions over realistic spatial and temporal scales. Resulting TEC perturbations from modeling case studies appear consistent with observational data, reproducing pronounced TEC depletions which are shown to be a consequence of the impacts of nonlinear, dissipating acoustic waves. Thermospheric acoustic compressional velocities are ˜±250-300 m/s, superposed with downward flows of similar amplitudes, and temperature perturbations are ˜300 K, while the dominant wave periodicity in the thermosphere is ˜3-4 min. Results capture acoustic wave processes including reflection, onset of resonance, and nonlinear steepening and dissipation—ultimately leading to the formation of ionospheric TEC depletions "holes"—that are consistent with reported observations. Three additional simulations illustrate the dependence of atmospheric acoustic wave and subsequent ionospheric responses on the surface displacement amplitude, which is varied from the Tohoku case study by factors of 1/100, 1/10, and 2. Collectively, results suggest that TEC depletions may only accompany very-large amplitude thermospheric acoustic waves necessary to induce a nonlinear response, here with saturated compressional velocities ˜200-250 m/s generated by sea surface displacements exceeding ˜1 m occurring over a 3 min time period.

  11. Generation and characterization of discrete spatial entanglement in multimode nonlinear waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachura, Michał; Karpiński, Michał; Banaszek, Konrad; Bharadwaj, Divya; Lugani, Jasleen; Thyagarajan, K.

    2017-03-01

    We analyze theoretically spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a multimode nonlinear waveguide as a source of entangled pairs of spatial qubits, realized as superpositions of a photon in two orthogonal transverse modes of the waveguide. It is shown that, by exploiting intermodal dispersion, down-conversion into the relevant pairs of spatial modes can be selected by spectral filtering, which also provides means to fine tune the properties of the generated entangled state. We also discuss an inverting interferometer detecting the spatial parity of the input beam as a versatile tool to characterize properties of the generated state. A single-photon Wigner function obtained by a scan of the displaced parity can be used to identify the basis modes of a spatial qubit, whereas correlations between displaced parity measurements on two photons can directly verify quantum entanglement through a violation of Bell's inequalities.

  12. Nonlinear waves generated on liquid silicon layer by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugomer, S.; Maksimović, A.; Geretovszky, Z.; Szörényi, T.

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional nonlinear waves are generated by multipulse femtosecond ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon above the ablation threshold. The train of 120-190 pulses generates the unidirectional cnoidal-like waves as well as the Y- and X-type configurations. In the region of high laser intensity, the interaction of line solitary-like waves give rise to the complex network structure. For 200 ≤ N < 220, the transition from stable into unstable waves takes place. At the critical number of pulses (≥230), the catastrophic destruction of cnoidal-like and solitary-like waves, takes place. Thus, the number of pulses plays the role of the control parameter. The stable cnoidal-like and solitary-like waves in a thin layer of molten silicon are reproduced by using the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with negative dispersion (KP-II), and the unstable ones by using the KP-I equation with positive dispersion.

  13. Generating Correlated, Non-normally Distributed Data Using a Non-linear Structural Model.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Max; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-12-01

    An approach to generate non-normality in multivariate data based on a structural model with normally distributed latent variables is presented. The key idea is to create non-normality in the manifest variables by applying non-linear linking functions to the latent part, the error part, or both. The algorithm corrects the covariance matrix for the applied function by approximating the deviance using an approximated normal variable. We show that the root mean square error (RMSE) for the covariance matrix converges to zero as sample size increases and closely approximates the RMSE as obtained when generating normally distributed variables. Our algorithm creates non-normality affecting every moment, is computationally undemanding, easy to apply, and particularly useful for simulation studies in structural equation modeling.

  14. Characteristics of second harmonic generation of Lamb waves in nonlinear elastic plates.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martin F; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of the second harmonic generation of Lamb waves in a plate with quadratic nonlinearity. Analytical asymptotic solutions to Lamb waves are first obtained through the use of a perturbation method. Then, based on a careful analysis of these asymptotic solutions, it is shown that the cross-modal generation of a symmetric second harmonic mode by an antisymmetric primary mode is possible. These solutions also demonstrate that modes showing internal resonance-nonzero power flux to the second harmonic mode, plus phase velocity matching-are most useful for measurements. In addition, when using finite wave packets, which is the case in most experimental measurements, group velocity matching is required for a cumulative increase in the second harmonic amplitude with propagation distance. Finally, five mode types (which are independent of material properties) that satisfy all three requirements for this cumulative increase in second harmonic amplitude-nonzero power flux, plus phase and group velocity matching-are identified. These results are important for the development of an experimental procedure to measure material nonlinearity with Lamb waves.

  15. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; ...

    2011-09-07

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak acceleratingmore » electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.« less

  16. Hysteresis behavior of Kerr frequency comb generation in a high-quality-factor whispering-gallery-mode microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takumi; Chen-Jinnai, Akitoshi; Nagano, Takuma; Kobatake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Ryo; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2016-07-01

    A numerical and experimental study of Kerr frequency comb generation in a silica toroid microcavity is presented. We use a generalized mean-field Lugiato-Lefever equation and solve it with the split-step Fourier method. We observe that a stable mode-locked regime can be accessed when we reduce the input power after strong pumping due to the bistable nature of the nonlinear cavity system used. The experimental results agree well with the results of the numerical analysis, where we obtain a low-noise Kerr comb spectrum by gradually reducing the pumping input after strong pumping. This finding complements the results obtained by a previous wavelength scanning method and clarifies the procedure for achieving mode-locked states in such high-Q microcavity systems.

  17. Low-emittance electron-beam generation with laser pulse shaping in photocathode radio-frequency gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Sakai, F.; Yanagida, T.; Yorozu, M.; Okada, Y.; Takasago, K.; Endo, A.; Yada, A.; Washio, M.

    2002-08-01

    A technique of laser-pulse shaping was developed for low-emittance electron-beam generation in a photocathode radio-frequency (rf) gun. The emittance growth due to space charge and rf effects in the rf gun was experimentally investigated with square and gaussian temporal pulse shapes. It was found that the square pulse shaping was a useful tool for both the reduction of nonlinear space-charge force and the correction of linear space charge. The normalized transverse rms emittance at 1 nC was obtained to be 1.20 pimm-mrad for the square pulse shape with pulse length of 9 ps full width at half maximum. The emittance was measured as a function of the electron bunch charge and the laser-pulse length.

  18. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Dohlus, M.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Stoltz, P.; Vogt, M.

    2011-09-07

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.

  19. Efficient nonlinear equalizer for intra-channel nonlinearity compensation for next generation agile and dynamically reconfigurable optical networks.

    PubMed

    Malekiha, Mahdi; Tselniker, Igor; Plant, David V

    2016-02-22

    In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel low-complexity technique for fiber nonlinearity compensation. We achieved a transmission distance of 2818 km for a 32-GBaud dual-polarization 16QAM signal. For efficient implantation, and to facilitate integration with conventional digital signal processing (DSP) approaches, we independently compensate fiber nonlinearities after linear impairment equalization. Therefore this algorithm can be easily implemented in currently deployed transmission systems after using linear DSP. The proposed equalizer operates at one sample per symbol and requires only one computation step. The structure of the algorithm is based on a first-order perturbation model with quantized perturbation coefficients. Also, it does not require any prior calculation or detailed knowledge of the transmission system. We identified common symmetries between perturbation coefficients to avoid duplicate and unnecessary operations. In addition, we use only a few adaptive filter coefficients by grouping multiple nonlinear terms and dedicating only one adaptive nonlinear filter coefficient to each group. Finally, the complexity of the proposed algorithm is lower than previously studied nonlinear equalizers by more than one order of magnitude.

  20. The response of phospholipid-encapsulated microbubbles to chirp-coded excitation: implications for high-frequency nonlinear imaging.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Himanshu; Doyley, Marvin M

    2013-05-01

    The current excitation strategy for harmonic and subharmonic imaging (HI and SHI) uses short sine-bursts. However, alternate pulsing strategies may be useful for enhancing nonlinear emissions from ultrasound contrast agents. The goal of this study was to corroborate the hypothesis that chirp-coded excitation can improve the performance of high-frequency HI and SHI. A secondary goal was to understand the mechanisms that govern the response of ultrasound contrast agents to chirp-coded and sine-burst excitation schemes. Numerical simulations and acoustic measurements were conducted to evaluate the response of a commercial contrast agent (Targestar-P(®)) to chirp-coded and sine-burst excitation (10 MHz frequency, peak pressures 290 kPa). The results of the acoustic measurements revealed an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by 4 to 14 dB, and a two- to threefold reduction in the subharmonic threshold with chirp-coded excitation. Simulations conducted with the Marmottant model suggest that an increase in expansion-dominated radial excursion of microbubbles was the mechanism responsible for the stronger nonlinear response. Additionally, chirp-coded excitation detected the nonlinear response for a wider range of agent concentrations than sine-bursts. Therefore, chirp-coded excitation could be a viable approach for enhancing the performance of HI and SHI.

  1. The response of phospholipid-encapsulated microbubbles to chirp-coded excitation: Implications for high-frequency nonlinear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Himanshu; Doyley, Marvin M.

    2013-01-01

    The current excitation strategy for harmonic and subharmonic imaging (HI and SHI) uses short sine-bursts. However, alternate pulsing strategies may be useful for enhancing nonlinear emissions from ultrasound contrast agents. The goal of this study was to corroborate the hypothesis that chirp-coded excitation can improve the performance of high-frequency HI and SHI. A secondary goal was to understand the mechanisms that govern the response of ultrasound contrast agents to chirp-coded and sine-burst excitation schemes. Numerical simulations and acoustic measurements were conducted to evaluate the response of a commercial contrast agent (Targestar-P®) to chirp-coded and sine-burst excitation (10 MHz frequency, peak pressures 290 kPa). The results of the acoustic measurements revealed an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by 4 to 14 dB, and a two- to threefold reduction in the subharmonic threshold with chirp-coded excitation. Simulations conducted with the Marmottant model suggest that an increase in expansion-dominated radial excursion of microbubbles was the mechanism responsible for the stronger nonlinear response. Additionally, chirp-coded excitation detected the nonlinear response for a wider range of agent concentrations than sine-bursts. Therefore, chirp-coded excitation could be a viable approach for enhancing the performance of HI and SHI. PMID:23654417

  2. The Features of the Frequency-Modulation Method When Studying the Shapes of the Spectral Lines of Nonlinear Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Belov, S. P.; Lapinov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We briefly consider the method of the frequency (phase) modulation and signal detection at the second harmonic of the modulation frequency for recording and analyzing the spectral-line shapes. The precision sub-Doppler spectrometer in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave ranges, which operated in the regime of nonlinear saturation of the spectral transitions in a standing wave (the Lamb-dip method), was used during the measurements. The influence of the saturation degree on the value and shape of the recorded frequency-modulated signals in the quadrature channels during the synchronous detection is demonstrated. Variation in the relationships among the signals determined by dispersion and absorption was observed. The necessity of allowance for the influence of the group-velocity dispersion and coherent effects on the shape of the recorded spectral lines is experimentally shown.

  3. Interference effects in the sum frequency generation spectra of thin organic films. I. Theoretical modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yujin; Zhao, Yanbao; Li, Na; Osawa, Masatoshi; Davies, Paul B; Ye, Shen

    2010-07-21

    A general theoretical calculation is described for predicting the interference effect in the sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra from a model thin-film system as a function of film thickness. The calculations were carried out for a three-layer thin film consisting of an organic monolayer, a dielectric thin film of variable thickness, and a gold substrate. This system comprises two sources of SFG, namely, a resonant contribution from the monolayer/dielectric film interface and a nonresonant contribution from the dielectric film/gold interface. The calculation shows that both the spectral intensity and the shape of the SFG spectra vary significantly with the thickness of the dielectric layer due to interference effects in the thin film. The intensity changes at a particular frequency were explained in terms of the changes in the local field factors (L factors) as a function of the dielectric film thickness. The L factor for each beam changes periodically with the thickness of the dielectric film. However, the combined L factor for the three beams shows complicated thickness dependent features and no clear periodicity was found. On the other hand, if the susceptibilities of both the resonant and nonresonant terms are fixed, changes in the spectral shape will be mainly due to changes in the phase differences between the two terms with the film thickness. The interference behavior also depends strongly on the polarization combinations of the sum frequency, visible, and infrared beams. A general method is provided for predicting changes in the spectral shapes at different film thicknesses by taking into account the relative intensities and phases of the SFG signals from the two interfaces. The model calculation provides important insights for understanding the nonlinear optical responses from any thin-film system and is an essential tool for quantitatively revealing the nonlinear susceptibilities, which are directly related to the actual structure of the interfacial

  4. Characterization of chaos generated by bistable optical systems with a nonlinearity of the form sin2(x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A. K.; Verma, P.

    2011-03-01

    Generation of chaos from nonlinear optical systems with an optical or electronic feedback has been studied for several years. Such chaotic signals have an important application in providing secure encryption in free-space optical communication systems. Lyapunov exponent is an important parameter for analysis of chaos generated by a nonlinear system. The Lyapunov exponent of a class of a nonlinear optical system showing a nonlinear transfer characteristics of the form sin2(x) is determined and calculated in this paper to understand the dependence of the chaotic response on the system parameters such as bias, feedback gain, input intensity and initial condition exciting the optical system. Analysis of chaos using Lyapunov exponent is consistent with bifurcation analysis and is useful in encrypting data signal.

  5. Evolution of supersaturation of amorphous pharmaceuticals: nonlinear rate of supersaturation generation regulated by matrix diffusion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dajun D; Lee, Ping I

    2015-04-06

    The importance of rate of supersaturation generation on the kinetic solubility profiles of amorphous systems has recently been shown by us; however, the previous focus was limited to constant rates of supersaturation generation. The objective of the current study is to further examine the effect of nonlinear rate profiles of supersaturation generation in amorphous systems, including (1) instantaneous or infinite rate (i.e., initial degree of supersaturation), (2) first-order rate (e.g., from dissolution of amorphous drug particles), and (3) matrix diffusion regulated rate (e.g., drug release from amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) based on cross-linked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels), on the kinetic solubility profiles of a model poorly soluble drug indomethacin (IND) under nonsink dissolution conditions. The previously established mechanistic model taking into consideration both the crystal growth and ripening processes was extended to predict the evolution of supersaturation resulting from nonlinear rates of supersaturation generation. Our results confirm that excessively high initial supersaturation or a rapid supersaturation generation leads to a surge in maximum supersaturation followed by a rapid decrease in drug concentration owing to supersaturation-induced precipitation; however, an exceedingly low degree of supersaturation or a slow rate of supersaturation generation does not sufficiently raise the supersaturation level, which results in a lower but broader maximum kinetic solubility profile. Our experimental data suggest that an optimal area-under-the-curve of the kinetic solubility profiles exists at an intermediate initial supersaturation level for the amorphous systems studied here, which agrees well with the predicted trend. Our model predictions also support our experimental findings that IND ASD in cross-linked PHEMA exhibits a unique kinetic solubility profile because the resulting supersaturation level is governed by a matrix

  6. Detectability of the nonlinear gravitational wave memory with second and third-generation ground-based detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, Marc; Berti, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational wave memory refers to a non-oscillating component of a gravitational wave signal. In principle, all gravitational-wave sources have a memory component. The largest sources of memory waves are the merger of two black holes. These produce the so-called nonlinear or Blanchet-Damour-Christodoulou memory. We will discuss the prospects for detecting the nonlinear memory with current and third-generation ground-based interferometers. NSF Grant PHY-1308527.

  7. Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p < 1, while fast (fight heIicity) wave packets hardly steepen for any beta. Substantial regions of opposite helicity form on the leading side of steepened Alfven wave packets. This behavior differs qualitatively from that exhibited by the solutions to the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.

  8. Use of chaotic and random vibrations to generate high frequency test inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D. L.; Paez, T. L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper and a companion paper show the traditional limits on amplitude and frequency that can be generated in a laboratory test on a vibration exciter can be substantially extended. This is accomplished by attaching a device to the shaker that permits controlled metal to metal impacts that generate high frequency, high acceleration environment on a test surface. A companion paper (Reference 1) shows that a sinusoidal or random shaker input can be used to generate a random vibration environment on the test surface. This paper derives the three response components that occur on the test surface due to an impact on the bottom surface and the base driven response from the shaker input. These response components are used to generate impulse response functions and frequency response functions which are used in the companion paper to derive power spectral density functions for the overall response. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Electronic and molecular properties of an adsorbed protein monolayer probed by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, L; Humbert, C; Sartenaer, Y; Caudano, Y; Volcke, C; Mani, A A; Peremans, A; Thiry, P A; Hanique, S; Frère, J-M

    2004-08-17

    Two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (2C-SFG) is used to probe the molecular and electronic properties of an adsorbed layer of the green fluorescent protein mutant 2 (GFPmut2) on a platinum (111) substrate. First, the spectroscopic measurements, performed under different polarization combinations, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the GFPmut2 proteins form a fairly ordered monolayer on the platinum surface. Next, the nonlinear spectroscopic data provide evidence of particular coupling phenomena between the GFPmut2 vibrational and electronic properties. This is revealed by the occurrence of two doubly resonant sum-frequency generation processes for molecules having both their Raman and infrared transition moments in a direction perpendicular to the sample plane. Finally, our 2C-SFG analysis reveals two electronic transitions corresponding to the absorption and fluorescence energy levels which are related to two different GFPmut2 conformations: the B (anionic) and I forms, respectively. Their observation and wavelength positions attest the keeping of the GFPmut2 electronic properties upon adsorption on the metallic surface.

  10. Subthreshold amplitude and phase resonance in models of quadratic type: nonlinear effects generated by the interplay of resonant and amplifying currents.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Horacio G

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the biophysical and dynamic mechanisms of generation of subthreshold amplitude and phase resonance in response to sinusoidal input currents in two-dimensional models of quadratic type. These models feature a parabolic voltage nullcline and a linear nullcline for the recovery gating variable, capturing the interplay of the so-called resonant currents (e.g., hyperpolarization-activated mixed-cation inward and slow potassium) and amplifying currents (e.g., persistent sodium) in biophysically realistic parameter regimes. These currents underlie the generation of resonance in medial entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells and CA1 pyramidal cells. We show that quadratic models exhibit nonlinear amplifications of the voltage response to sinusoidal inputs in the resonant frequency band. These are expressed as an increase in the impedance profile as the input amplitude increases. They are stronger for values positive than negative to resting potential and are accompanied by a shift in the phase profile, a decrease in the resonant and phase-resonant frequencies, and an increase in the sharpness of the voltage response. These effects are more prominent for smaller values of ∊ (larger levels of the time scale separation between the voltage and the resonant gating variable) and for values of the resting potential closer to threshold for spike generation. All other parameter fixed, as ∊ increases the voltage response becomes "more linear"; i.e., the nonlinearities are present, but "ignored". In addition, the nonlinear effects are strongly modulated by the curvature of the parabolic voltage nullcline (partially reflecting the effects of the amplifying current) and the slope of the resonant current activation curve. Following the effects of changes in the biophysical conductances of realistic conductance-based models through the parameters of the quadratic model, we characterize the qualitatively different effects that resonant and amplifying currents have on

  11. Observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled waves associated with parametric decay during radio frequency wave heating of a spherical tokamak plasma.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Oosako, Takuya; Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yuuki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurashina, Hiroki; Yamada, Kotaro; An, Byung Il; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Shimpo, Fujio; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Haduki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanashima, Kentaro; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Wakatsuki, Takuma

    2010-06-18

    We present an observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled modes associated with parametric decay instability (PDI) during radio frequency (rf) wave heating experiments on the Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2. Nearly identical PDI spectra, which are characterized by the coexistence of the rf pump wave, the lower-sideband wave, and the low-frequency oscillation in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency, are observed at various locations in the edge plasma. A bispectral power analysis was used to experimentally discriminate beat oscillation from the resonant mode for the first time. The pump and lower-sideband waves have resonant mode components, while the low-frequency oscillation is exclusively excited by nonlinear coupling of the pump and lower-sideband waves. Newly discovered nonlocal transport channels in spectral space and in real space via PDI are described.

  12. Ultrabroad supercontinuum generated from a highly nonlinear Ge-Sb-Se fiber.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hongya; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Peiqing; Liu, Zijun; Wang, Xunsi; Chen, Feifei; Xu, Hang; Luo, Baohua; Huang, Yicong; Wang, Rongping

    2016-07-15

    We report the fabrication of a novel high nonlinear fiber made of Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide glasses with high numerical aperture (∼1.0), where the core and the cladding glasses consist of Ge15Sb25Se60 and Ge15Sb20Se65 (mol. %), respectively. The nonlinear refractive index (n2) of the core glass is 19×10-18  m2/W at 1.55 μm, and its laser-induced damage threshold under irradiation of 3.0 μm fs laser is approximately 3674  GW/cm2. By pumping a 20-cm-long fiber with a core diameter of 23 μm using 150 fs pulses at 6.0 μm, supercontinuum spanning from ∼1.8 to ∼14  μm was generated.

  13. Nonlinear stability of field-reversed configurations with self-generated toroidal field

    SciTech Connect

    Omelchenko, Y. A.; Schaffer, M. J.; Parks, P. B.

    2001-10-01

    The field-reversed configuration (FRC) is a high-beta compact toroidal plasma confinement scheme in which the external poloidal field is reversed on the geometric axis by azimuthal (toroidal) plasma current. A quasineutral, hybrid, particle-in-cell (PIC) approach [Y. A. Omelchenko and R. N. Sudan, Phys. Plasmas 2, 2773 (1995)] is applied to study long-term nonlinear stability of computational FRC equilibria to a number of toroidal modes, including the most disruptive tilt mode. In particular, a self-generated toroidal magnetic field is found to be an important factor in mitigating the instability and preventing the confinement disruption. This is shown to be a unique FRC property resulting from the Hall effect in the regions of vanishing poloidal magnetic field. The instability-driven toroidal field stabilizes kink formation by increasing the magnetic field energy without destabilizing curvature-driven plasma motion. Finally, the tilt instability saturates due to nonlinear, finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and plasma relaxation to a quasisteady kinetic state. During this transition the FRC is shown to dissipate a substantial amount of initially trapped flux and plasma energy. These effects are demonstrated for kinetic and fluid-like, spherical and prolate FRCs.

  14. Role of nonlinear refraction in the generation of terahertz field pulses by light fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zabolotskii, A. A.

    2013-07-15

    The generation of microwave (terahertz) pulses without any envelope in a four-level quasi-resonant medium is considered. Two intense quasi-monochromatic laser fields lead to a partial upper-level population. Microwave field pulses cause the transition between these levels. For appropriately chosen scales, the evolution of the fields is shown to be described by the pseudo-spin evolution equations in a microwave field with the inclusion of nonlinear refraction caused by an adiabatic upper-level population. The evolution of terahertz field pulses is described outside the scope of the slow-envelope approximation. When a number of standard approximations are taken into account, this system of equations is shown to be equivalent to an integrable version of the generalized reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations or to the generalized three-wave mixing equations. The soliton solution found by the inverse scattering transform method is used as an example to show that nonlinear refraction leads to a strong compression of the microwave (terahertz) field soliton.

  15. On nonlinear evolution of low-frequency Alfvén waves in weakly-expanding solar wind plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.

    2015-02-15

    A multi-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation for Alfvén waves in weakly-expanding solar wind plasmas is derived by using the reductive perturbation method. The expansion of solar wind plasma parcels is modeled by an expanding box model, which includes the accelerating expansion. It is shown that the resultant equation agrees with the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin prediction of the low-frequency Alfvén waves in the linear limit. In the cold and one-dimensional limit, a modified derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation is obtained. Direct numerical simulations are carried out to discuss the effect of the expansion on the modulational instability of monochromatic Alfvén waves and the propagation of Alfvén solitons. By using the instantaneous frequency, it is quantitatively shown that as far as the expansion rate is much smaller than wave frequencies, effects of the expansion are almost adiabatic. It is also confirmed that while shapes of Alfvén solitons temporally change due to the expansion, some of them can stably propagate after their collision in weakly-expanding plasmas.

  16. Single-transducer dual-frequency ultrasound generation to enhance acoustic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsieh, Chao-Ming

    2009-03-01

    Dual- or multiple-frequency ultrasound stimulation is capable of effectively enhancing the acoustic cavitation effect over single-frequency ultrasound. Potential application of this sonoreactor design has been widely proposed such as on sonoluminescence, sonochemistry enhancement, and transdermal drug release enhancement. All currently available sonoreactor designs employed multiple piezoelectric transducers for generating single-frequency ultrasonic waves separately and then these waves were mixed and interfered in solutions. The purpose of this research is to propose a novel design of generating dual-frequency ultrasonic waves with single piezoelectric elements, thereby enhancing acoustic cavitation. Macroscopic bubbles were detected optically, and they were quantified at either a single-frequency or for different frequency combinations for determining their efficiency for enhancing acoustic cavitation. Visible bubbles were optically detected and hydrogen peroxide was measured to quantify acoustic cavitation. Test water samples with different gas concentrations and different power levels were used to determine the efficacy of enhancing acoustic cavitation of this design. The spectrum obtained from the backscattered signals was also recorded and examined to confirm the occurrence of stable cavitation. The results confirmed that single-element dual-frequency ultrasound stimulation can enhance acoustic cavitation. Under certain testing conditions, the generation of bubbles can be enhanced up to a level of five times higher than the generation of bubbles in single-frequency stimulation, and can increase the hydrogen peroxide production up to an increase of one fold. This design may serve as a useful alternative for future sonoreactor design owing to its simplicity to produce dual- or multiple-frequency ultrasound.

  17. Generation of four-photon polarization entangled decoherence-free states with cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical protocol for preparing four-photon polarization entangled decoherence-free states, which are immune to the collective noise. With the assistance of the cross-Kerr nonlinearities, a two-photon spatial entanglement gate, two controlled-NOT gates, a four-photon polarization entanglement gate are inserted into the circuit, where X homodyne measurements are aptly applied. Combined with some swap gates and simple linear optical elements, four-photon polarization entangled decoherence-free states which can be utilized to represent two logical qubits, |0〉L and |1〉L are achieved at the output ports of the circuit. This generation scheme may be implemented with current experimental techniques. PMID:27901116

  18. Optical stealth transmission based on super-continuum generation in highly nonlinear fiber over WDM network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Chen, Dalei

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, the optical stealth transmission carried by super-continuum spectrum optical pulses generated in highly nonlinear fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed transmission scheme, super-continuum signals are reshaped in the spectral domain through a wavelength-selective switch and are temporally spread by a chromatic dispersion device to achieve the same noise-like characteristic as the noise in optical networks, so that in both the time domain and the spectral domain, the stealth signals are hidden in public channel. Our experimental results show that compared with existing schemes where stealth channels are carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise, super-continuum signal can increase the transmission performance and robustness.

  19. Analysis and classification of collective behavior using generative modeling and nonlinear manifold learning.

    PubMed

    Butail, Sachit; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-11-07

    In this paper, we build a framework for the analysis and classification of collective behavior using methods from generative modeling and nonlinear manifold learning. We represent an animal group with a set of finite-sized particles and vary known features of the group structure and motion via a class of generative models to position each particle on a two-dimensional plane. Particle positions are then mapped onto training images that are processed to emphasize the features of interest and match attainable far-field videos of real animal groups. The training images serve as templates of recognizable patterns of collective behavior and are compactly represented in a low-dimensional space called embedding manifold. Two mappings from the manifold are derived: the manifold-to-image mapping serves to reconstruct new and unseen images of the group and the manifold-to-feature mapping allows frame-by-frame classification of raw video. We validate the combined framework on datasets of growing level of complexity. Specifically, we classify artificial images from the generative model, interacting self-propelled particle model, and raw overhead videos of schooling fish obtained from the literature.

  20. Optimal Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Generation using Non-linear Programming Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.

    2012-05-01

    Hydropower generation is one of the vital components of reservoir operation, especially for a large multi-purpose reservoir. Deriving optimal operational rules for such a large multi-purpose reservoir serving various purposes like irrigation, hydropower and flood control are complex, because of the large dimension of the problem and the complexity is more if the hydropower production is not an incidental. Thus optimizing the operations of a reservoir serving various purposes requires a systematic study. In the present study such a large multi-purpose reservoir, namely, Koyna reservoir operations are optimized for maximizing the hydropower production subject to the condition of satisfying the irrigation demands using a non-linear programming model. The hydropower production from the reservoir is analysed for three different dependable inflow conditions, representing wet, normal and dry years. For each dependable inflow conditions, various scenarios have been analyzed based on the constraints on the releases and the results are compared. The annual power production, combined monthly power production from all the powerhouses, end of month storage levels, evaporation losses and surplus are discussed. From different scenarios, it is observed that more hydropower can be generated for various dependable inflow conditions, if the restrictions on releases are slightly relaxed. The study shows that Koyna dam is having potential to generate more hydropower.