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Sample records for nonlinear metamaterial interface

  1. Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-12-08

    We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission.

  2. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-01-01

    Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control. PMID:22355655

  3. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora

    2016-01-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency—the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581

  4. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-08-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency--the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.

  5. Optical nonlinearities in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-04-01

    Metals exhibit strong and fast nonlinearities making metallic, plasmonic, structures very promising for ultrafast all-optical applications at low light intensities. Combining metallic nanostructures in metamaterials provides additional functionalities via prospect of precise engineering of spectral response and dispersion. From this point of view, hyperbolic metamaterials, in particular those based on plasmonic nanorod arrays, provide wealth of exciting possibilities in nonlinear optics offering designed linear and nonlinear properties, polarization control, spontaneous emission control and many others. Experiments and modeling have already demonstrated very strong Kerr-nonlinear response and its ultrafast recovery due to the nonlocal nature of the plasmonic mode of the metamaterial, so that small changes in the permittivity of the metallic component under the excitation modify the nonlocal response that in turn leads to strong changes of the metamaterial transmission. In this talk, we will discuss experimental studies and numerical modeling of second- and third-order nonlinear optical processes in hyperbolic metamaterials based on metallic nanorods and other plasmonic systems where coupling between the resonances plays important role in defining nonlinear response. Second-harmonic generation and ultrafast Kerr-type nonlinearity originating from metallic component of the metamaterial will be considered, including nonlinear magneto-optical effects. Nonlinear optical response of stand-alone as well as integrated metamaterial components will be presented. Some of the examples to be discussed include nonlinear polarization control, nonlinear metamaterial integrated in silicon photonic circuitry and second-harmonic generation, including magneto-optical effects.

  6. Electrifying photonic metamaterials for tunable nonlinear optics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Cui, Yonghao; Lan, Shoufeng; Rodrigues, Sean P; Brongersma, Mark L; Cai, Wenshan

    2014-08-11

    Metamaterials have not only enabled unprecedented flexibility in producing unconventional optical properties that are not found in nature, they have also provided exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with high-order properties correlated to linear behaviour. Two particularly compelling directions are active metamaterials, whose optical properties can be purposely tailored by external stimuli in a reversible manner, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light waves. Here, by exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically controlled nonlinear optical processes from a metamaterial. Both second harmonic generation and optical rectification, enhanced by the resonance behaviour in the metamaterial absorber, are modulated externally with applied voltage signals. Our results reveal an opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electro-optic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities.

  7. Nonlinear terahertz devices utilizing semiconducting plasmonic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Zhang, Jingdi; Keiser, George R.; Maddox, Scott J.; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Fan, Kebin; Bank, Seth R.; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    The development of responsive metamaterials has enabled the realization of compact tunable photonic devices capable of manipulating the amplitude, polarization, wave vector and frequency of light. Integration of semiconductors into the active regions of metallic resonators is a proven approach for creating nonlinear metamaterials through optoelectronic control of the semiconductor carrier density. Metal-free subwavelength resonant semiconductor structures offer an alternative approach to create dynamic metamaterials. We present InAs plasmonic disk arrays as a viable resonant metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. Importantly, InAs plasmonic disks exhibit a strong nonlinear response arising from electric field-induced intervalley scattering, resulting in a reduced carrier mobility thereby damping the plasmonic response. here, we demonstrate nonlinear perfect absorbers configured as either optical limiters or saturable absorbers, including flexible nonlinear absorbers achieved by transferring the disks to polyimide films. Nonlinear plasmonic metamaterials show potential for use in ultrafast terahertz (THz) optics and for passive protection of sensitive electromagnetic devices.

  8. Nonlinear Light-Matter Interactions in Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Kevin Patrick

    Metamaterials possess extraordinary linear optical properties never observed in natural materials such as a negative refractive index, enabling exciting applications such as super resolution imaging and cloaking. In this thesis, we explore the equally extraordinary nonlinear properties of metamaterials. Nonlinear optics, the study of light-matter interactions where the optical fields are strong enough to change material properties, has fundamental importance to physics, chemistry, and material science as a non-destructive probe of material properties and has important technological applications such as entangled photon generation and frequency conversion. Due to their ability to manipulate both linear and nonlinear light matter interactions through sub-wavelength structuring, metamaterials are a promising direction for both fundamental and applied nonlinear optics research. We perform the first experiments on nonlinear propagation in bulk zero and negative index optical metamaterials and demonstrate that a zero index material can phase match four wave mixing processes in ways not possible in finite index materials. In addition, we demonstrate the ability of nonlinear scattering theory to describe the geometry dependence of second and third harmonic generation in plasmonic nanostructures. As an application of nonlinear metamaterials, we propose a phase matching technique called "resonant phase matching" to increase the gain and bandwidth of Josephson junction traveling wave parametric amplifiers. With collaborators, we demonstrate a best in class amplifier for superconducting qubit readout--over 20 dB gain with near quantum limited noise performance with a bandwidth and dynamic range an order of magnitude larger than alternative devices. In conclusion, we have demonstrated several ways in which nonlinear metamaterials surpass their natural counterparts. We look forward to the future of the field where nonlinear and quantum metamaterials will enable further new

  9. Theory and design of nonlinear metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Alec Daniel

    If electronics are ever to be completely replaced by optics, a significant possibility in the wake of the fiber revolution, it is likely that nonlinear materials will play a central and enabling role. Indeed, nonlinear optics is the study of the mechanisms through which light can change the nature and properties of matter and, as a corollary, how one beam or color of light can manipulate another or even itself within such a material. However, of the many barriers preventing such a lofty goal, the narrow and limited range of properties supported by nonlinear materials, and natural materials in general, stands at the forefront. Many industries have turned instead to artificial and composite materials, with homogenizable metamaterials representing a recent extension of such composites into the electromagnetic domain. In particular, the inclusion of nonlinear elements has caused metamaterials research to spill over into the field of nonlinear optics. Through careful design of their constituent elements, nonlinear metamaterials are capable of supporting an unprecedented range of interactions, promising nonlinear devices of novel design and scale. In this context, I cast the basic properties of nonlinear metamaterials in the conventional formalism of nonlinear optics. Using alternately transfer matrices and coupled mode theory, I develop two complementary methods for characterizing and designing metamaterials with arbitrary nonlinear properties. Subsequently, I apply these methods in numerical studies of several canonical metamaterials, demonstrating enhanced electric and magnetic nonlinearities, as well as predicting the existence of nonlinear magnetoelectric and off-diagonal nonlinear tensors. I then introduce simultaneous design of the linear and nonlinear properties in the context of phase matching, outlining five different metamaterial phase matching methods, with special emphasis on the phase matching of counter propagating waves in mirrorless parametric amplifiers

  10. Nonlinear and active RF metamaterial applications using embedded devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katko, Alexander R.; Hawkes, Allen M.; Cummer, Steven A.

    Nonlinear metamaterials have received considerable attention in recent years. The inclusion of nonlinear and active effects in metamaterials expands the possibilities for engineering media with designer properties. We detail our recent efforts to create nonlinear and active metamaterials at RF with useful properties through the inclusion of embedded nonlinear or active elements. We demonstrate some of the possible applications of such nonlinear and active metamaterials experimentally, with properties including saturable absorption, phase conjugation, and power harvesting.

  11. Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials with active electrical control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, G. R.; Karl, N.; Liu, P. Q.; Tulloss, C.; Chen, H.-T.; Taylor, A. J.; Brener, I.; Reno, J. L.; Mittleman, D. M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a study of an electrically modulated nonlinear metamaterial consisting of an array of split-ring resonators fabricated on n-type gallium arsenide. The resonant metamaterial nonlinearity appears as an intensity-dependent transmission minimum at terahertz frequencies and arises from the interaction between local electric fields in the split-ring resonator (SRR) capacitive gaps and charge carriers in the n-type substrate. We investigate the active tuning range of the metamaterial device as the incident terahertz field intensity is increased and conversely the effect of an applied DC bias on the terahertz field-induced nonlinear modulation of the metamaterial response. Applying a DC bias to the metamaterial sample alters the nonlinear response and reduces the net nonlinear modulation. Similarly, increasing the incident terahertz field intensity decreases the net modulation induced by an applied DC bias. We interpret these results in terms of DC and terahertz-field-assisted carrier acceleration, scattering, and multiplication processes, highlighting the unique nature of this DC-field modulated terahertz nonlinearity.

  12. Nonlinear terahertz devices utilizing semiconducting plasmonic metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Zhang, Jingdi; Keiser, George R.; ...

    2016-01-26

    The development of responsive metamaterials has enabled the realization of compact tunable photonic devices capable of manipulating the amplitude, polarization, wave vector and frequency of light. Integration of semiconductors into the active regions of metallic resonators is a proven approach for creating nonlinear metamaterials through optoelectronic control of the semiconductor carrier density. Metal-free subwavelength resonant semiconductor structures offer an alternative approach to create dynamic metamaterials. We present InAs plasmonic disk arrays as a viable resonant metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. Importantly, InAs plasmonic disks exhibit a strong nonlinear response arising from electric field-induced intervalley scattering, resulting in a reduced carrier mobilitymore » thereby damping the plasmonic response. here, we demonstrate nonlinear perfect absorbers configured as either optical limiters or saturable absorbers, including flexible nonlinear absorbers achieved by transferring the disks to polyimide films. Nonlinear plasmonic metamaterials show potential for use in ultrafast terahertz (THz) optics and for passive protection of sensitive electromagnetic devices.« less

  13. Plasma metamaterials as cloaking and nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, O.; Yamaguchi, S.; Bambina, A.; Iwai, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Tamayama, Y.; Miyagi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma metamaterials, composites of low-temperature plasmas and periodic functional microstructures, work as cloaking and nonlinear media. Due to functions of the microstructures like negative permeability, electromagnetic waves in and around plasma metamaterials propagate in a quite different manner from the case with the conventional space in which relative permeability is positive and unity. Using plasmas and plasma metamaterials, we achieve various controls of microwave propagating paths such as unidirectionality and cloaking in the two- or 3D spaces. For instance, a concentric plasma layer makes wave propagation unidirectional, and waves propagate in different routes when they start inside or outside the concentric layer. Furthermore, due to spatial permittivity gradient and anisotropic refractive index, electromagnetic waves detour in plasma metamaterial layers. Another significant point that plasma metamaterials can realize is nonlinearity. When we study high-power electromagnetic waves propagating in them, we observe several properties describable in terms of nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear photonics. Microwaves beyond threshold energy trigger bifurcations in plasma permittivity, and the second harmonic wave detected simultaneously is generated with strong emission levels. Such electromagnetic wave propagation is achieved with advantages over other materials, since plasmas and metallic microstructures work in harmony and in synergy.

  14. Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response.

    PubMed

    Husu, Hannu; Siikanen, Roope; Mäkitalo, Jouni; Lehtolahti, Joonas; Laukkanen, Janne; Kuittinen, Markku; Kauranen, Martti

    2012-02-08

    We demonstrate that the second-order nonlinear optical response of noncentrosymmetric metal nanoparticles (metamolecules) can be efficiently controlled by their mutual ordering in an array. Two samples with minor change in ordering have nonlinear responses differing by a factor of up to 50. The results arise from polarization-dependent plasmonic resonances modified by long-range coupling associated with metamolecular ordering. The approach opens new ways for tailoring the nonlinear responses of metamaterials and their tensorial properties.

  15. Nonlinear Optical Pulsed Control of Composite Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-07

    Final report for project entitled "Nonlinear optical pulsed control of composite metamaterials", under Grant no. AOARD - 094042 The stated...pump (control) radiation. 2. Study temporal pulse dynamics in order to optimize pump probe delays, intensities, carrier frequencies and the pulse ...nanostructures using simple time and cost effective lithographic technique termed as ‘Laser Interference Lithography’. Figure-1 below shows a

  16. Nonlinear Optics in Negative Index Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-05

    analytical model and solutions for nonlinear wave propagation in waveguide couplers with opposite signs of the linear refractive index, non-zero phase... couplers based on either double-negative or strongly anisotropic metamaterials that are likely to enable ultra-compact optical strorage and memory...Venugopal, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev, Natalia Litchinitser. Asymmetric Positive-Negative IndexNonlinear Waveguide Couplers , IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in

  17. Holographic duality in nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2014-07-01

    According to the holographic principle, the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on its boundary. Holographic principle establishes equivalence, or duality, between theoretical description of volume physics, which involves gravity, and the gravity-free field theory, which describes physics on its surface. While generally accepted as a theoretical framework, so far there was no known experimental system which would exhibit explicit holographic duality and be amenable to direct experimental testing. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear optics of hyperbolic metamaterials admits such a dual holographic description. Wave equation which describes propagation of extraordinary light through the volume of metamaterial exhibits 2 + 1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned with the optical axis of the material. Nonlinear optical Kerr effect bends this spacetime resulting in effective gravitational interaction between extraordinary photons. On the other hand, a holographic dual theory may be formulated on the metamaterial surface, which describes its nonlinear optics via interaction of cylindrical surface plasmons possessing conserved charges proportional to their angular momenta. Potential implications of this duality for superconductivity of hyperbolic metamaterials are discussed.

  18. Strongly nonlinear stress waves in dissipative metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yichao; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of measurements and numerical simulations of stress wave propagation in a one-dimensional strongly nonlinear dissipative metamaterial composed of steel disks and Nitrile O-rings. The incoming bell shape stress wave is generated by the strikers with different masses. Numerical modeling including a viscous dissipative term to describe dynamic behavior of O-rings is developed to predict the wave amplitude, shape and propagation speed of stress waves. The viscous dissipation prevented the incoming pulse from splitting into trains of solitary waves typical for non-dissipative strongly nonlinear discrete systems. The linear momentum and energy from the striker were completely transferred into this strongly nonlinear "soft" metamaterial.

  19. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloatti, L.; Kieninger, C.; Froelich, A.; Lauermann, M.; Frenzel, T.; Köhnle, K.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Wegener, M.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al2O3, B = TiO2, and C = HfO2. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  20. Tunable nonlinear superconducting metamaterials: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepanier, Melissa

    I present experimental and numerical simulation results for two types of nonlinear tunable superconducting metamaterials: 2D arrays of rf SQUIDs (radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices) as magnetic metamaterials and arrays of Josephson junction-loaded wires as electric metamaterials. The effective inductance of a Josephson junction is sensitive to dc current, temperature, and rf current. I took advantage of this property to design arrays of Josephson junction-loaded wires that present a tunable cutoff frequency and thus a tunable effective permittivity for propagating electromagnetic waves in a one-conductor waveguide. I measured the response of the metamaterial to each tuning parameter and found agreement with numerical simulations that employ the RCSJ (resistively and capacitively shunted junction) model. An rf SQUID is an analogue of an SRR (split ring resonator) with the gap capacitance replaced with a Josephson junction. Like the SRR the SQUID is a resonant structure with a frequency-dependent effective permeability. The difference between the SQUID and the SRR is that the effective inductance and thus effective permeability of the SQUID can be tuned with dc and rf flux, and temperature. Individual rf SQUID meta-atoms and two-dimensional arrays were designed and measured as a function of each tuning parameter and I have found excellent agreement with numerical simulations. There is also an interesting transparency feature that occurs for intermediate rf flux values. The tuning of SQUID arrays has a similar character to the tuning of individual rf SQUID meta-atoms. However, I found that the coupling between the SQUIDs increases the resonant frequency, decreases dc flux tuning, and introduces additional resonant modes. Another feature of arrays is disorder which suppresses the coherence of the response and negatively impacts the emergent properties of the metamaterial. The disorder was experimentally found to be mainly due to a dc flux

  1. Surface plasmon polaritons at the interface of two nanowire metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gric, Tatjana; Hess, Ortwin

    2017-08-01

    The properties of surface-plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) at the interface of two nanowire metamaterials are investigated theoretically. Calculated dispersion relations and propagation lengths are presented. It is demonstrated that the SPPs can be tuned by controlling the metamaterial design. Tunability of these structures can be enhanced further by increasing the pore diameter, which leads the shift of the surface modes to higher frequencies. We specifically consider two different cases with the composite nanowire metamaterial stack composed of the same type of metamaterial in each layer as well as the case of a nanowire metamaterial stack with different materials in each metamaterial layer.

  2. Discrete breathers in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, N; Eleftheriou, M; Tsironis, G P

    2006-10-13

    Magnetic metamaterials composed of split-ring resonators or U-type elements may exhibit discreteness effects in THz and optical frequencies due to weak coupling. We consider a model one-dimensional metamaterial formed by a discrete array of nonlinear split-ring resonators where each ring interacts with its nearest neighbors. On-site nonlinearity and weak coupling among the individual array elements result in the appearance of discrete breather excitations or intrinsic localized modes, both in the energy-conserved and the dissipative system. We analyze discrete single and multibreather excitations, as well as a special breather configuration forming a magnetization domain wall and investigate their mobility and the magnetic properties their presence induces in the system.

  3. Knotted solitons in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Rosanov, Nikolay N; Vysotina, Nina V; Shatsev, Anatoly N; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrate that nonlinear magnetic metamaterials comprised of a lattice of weakly coupled split-ring resonators driven by an external electromagnetic field may support entirely new classes of spatially localized modes--knotted solitons, which are stable self-localized dissipative structures in the form of closed knotted chains. We demonstrate different topological types of stable knots for the subcritical coupling between resonators and instability-induced breaking of the chains for the supercritical coupling.

  4. Quantitative study of the enhancement of bulk nonlinearities in metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Alec; Larouche, Stephane; Smith, David R.

    2011-11-15

    Artificially structured metamaterials offer a means to enhance the weak optical nonlinearities of natural materials. The enhancement results from the inhomogeneous nature of the metamaterial unit cell, over which the local field distribution can likewise be strongly inhomogeneous, with highly localized and concentrated field regions. We investigate the nonlinear enhancement effect in metamaterials through a numerical study of four nonlinear metamaterial designs comprising arrays of metallic structures embedded in nonlinear dielectrics and operating around 10 THz. Through full-wave simulations and by employing an extended version of the transfer-matrix-based nonlinear parameter retrieval method, we confirm and quantify the enhanced nonlinearities, showing bulk quadratic nonlinear properties that are up to two orders of magnitude larger, and cubic nonlinear properties that are up to four orders of magnitude larger than the bulk nonlinear dielectric alone. Furthermore, the proposed nonlinear metamaterials support a variety of configurable nonlinear properties and regimes, including electric, magnetic, broadband, and low loss, depending on the particular geometry chosen. Finally, we use the retrieved parameters in a coupled-mode theory to predict the optimal crystal lengths and conversion efficiencies of these structures, displaying the possibility of efficient and subwavelength nonlinear devices based on metamaterials.

  5. Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kevin; Suchowski, Haim; Rho, Junsuk; Salandrino, Alessandro; Kante, Boubacar; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of optical second harmonic generation in 1961 started modern nonlinear optics. Soon after, R. C. Miller found empirically that the nonlinear susceptibility could be predicted from the linear susceptibilities. This important relation, known as Miller's Rule, allows a rapid determination of nonlinear susceptibilities from linear properties. In recent years, metamaterials, artificial materials that exhibit intriguing linear optical properties not found in natural materials, have shown novel nonlinear properties such as phase-mismatch-free nonlinear generation, new quasi-phase matching capabilities and large nonlinear susceptibilities. However, the understanding of nonlinear metamaterials is still in its infancy, with no general conclusion on the relationship between linear and nonlinear properties. The key question is then whether one can determine the nonlinear behaviour of these artificial materials from their exotic linear behaviour. Here, we show that the nonlinear oscillator model does not apply in general to nonlinear metamaterials. We show, instead, that it is possible to predict the relative nonlinear susceptibility of large classes of metamaterials using a more comprehensive nonlinear scattering theory, which allows efficient design of metamaterials with strong nonlinearity for important applications such as coherent Raman sensing, entangled photon generation and frequency conversion.

  6. Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Andres D.; Olivier, Nicolas; Nasir, Mazhar E.; Dickson, Wayne; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2015-07-01

    Nonlinear optical materials comprise the foundation of modern photonics, offering functionalities ranging from ultrafast lasers to optical switching, harmonic and soliton generation. Optical nonlinearities are typically strong near the electronic resonances of a material and thus provide limited tuneability for practical use. Here we show that in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials, the Kerr-type nonlinearity is not limited by the nonlinear properties of the constituents. Compared with gold's nonlinearity, the measured nonlinear absorption and refraction demonstrate more than two orders of magnitude enhancement over a broad spectral range that can be engineered via geometrical parameters. Depending on the metamaterial's effective plasma frequency, either a focusing or defocusing nonlinearity is observed. The ability to obtain strong and fast optical nonlinearities in a given spectral range makes these metamaterials a flexible platform for the development of low-intensity nonlinear applications.

  7. Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Neira, Andres D.; Olivier, Nicolas; Nasir, Mazhar E.; Dickson, Wayne; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical materials comprise the foundation of modern photonics, offering functionalities ranging from ultrafast lasers to optical switching, harmonic and soliton generation. Optical nonlinearities are typically strong near the electronic resonances of a material and thus provide limited tuneability for practical use. Here we show that in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials, the Kerr-type nonlinearity is not limited by the nonlinear properties of the constituents. Compared with gold's nonlinearity, the measured nonlinear absorption and refraction demonstrate more than two orders of magnitude enhancement over a broad spectral range that can be engineered via geometrical parameters. Depending on the metamaterial's effective plasma frequency, either a focusing or defocusing nonlinearity is observed. The ability to obtain strong and fast optical nonlinearities in a given spectral range makes these metamaterials a flexible platform for the development of low-intensity nonlinear applications. PMID:26195182

  8. Remotely Tunable Nonlinear Metamaterial at Microwave Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shelby; Silva, Sinhara; Zhou, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a remotely tunable metamaterial at microwave frequency. The metamaterial consists of a two-gap split ring resonator with varactor diodes integrated in to one of the gaps. By varying a microwave pump signal remotely, the capacitance of the varactor diodes can be controlled. Thus we can tune the working frequency of the metamaterial. Our metamaterials enable an easily-applicable approach to realize tunable frequency without an external bias circuit compared to other tunable metamaterials.

  9. Wave-based liquid-interface metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Fontana, P W; Shats, M

    2017-01-01

    The control of matter motion at liquid–gas interfaces opens an opportunity to create two-dimensional materials with remotely tunable properties. In analogy with optical lattices used in ultra-cold atom physics, such materials can be created by a wave field capable of dynamically guiding matter into periodic spatial structures. Here we show experimentally that such structures can be realized at the macroscopic scale on a liquid surface by using rotating waves. The wave angular momentum is transferred to floating micro-particles, guiding them along closed trajectories. These orbits form stable spatially periodic patterns, the unit cells of a two-dimensional wave-based material. Such dynamic patterns, a mirror image of the concept of metamaterials, are scalable and biocompatible. They can be used in assembly applications, conversion of wave energy into mean two-dimensional flows and for organising motion of active swimmers. PMID:28181490

  10. Wave-based liquid-interface metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, N.; Xia, H.; Punzmann, H.; Fontana, P. W.; Shats, M.

    2017-02-01

    The control of matter motion at liquid-gas interfaces opens an opportunity to create two-dimensional materials with remotely tunable properties. In analogy with optical lattices used in ultra-cold atom physics, such materials can be created by a wave field capable of dynamically guiding matter into periodic spatial structures. Here we show experimentally that such structures can be realized at the macroscopic scale on a liquid surface by using rotating waves. The wave angular momentum is transferred to floating micro-particles, guiding them along closed trajectories. These orbits form stable spatially periodic patterns, the unit cells of a two-dimensional wave-based material. Such dynamic patterns, a mirror image of the concept of metamaterials, are scalable and biocompatible. They can be used in assembly applications, conversion of wave energy into mean two-dimensional flows and for organising motion of active swimmers.

  11. Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yu; Chai, Zhen; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong Gong, Qihuang

    2015-03-02

    An all-optical tunabe chirality is realized in a photonic metamaterial, the metamolecule of which consists of a nonlinear nano-Au:polycrystalline indium-tin oxide layer sandwiched between two L-shaped gold nano-antennas twisted 90° with each other. The maximum circular dichroism reached 30%. Under excitation of a 40 kW/cm{sup 2} weak pump light, the peak in the circular dichroism shifts 45 nm in the short-wavelength direction. An ultrafast response time of 35 ps is maintained. This work not only opens up the possibility for the realization of ultralow-power and ultrafast all-optical tunable chirality but also offers a way to construct ultrahigh-speed on-chip biochemical sensors.

  12. Switching nonlinearity in a superconductor-enhanced metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Kurter, Cihan; Tassin, Philippe; Zhuravel, Alexander P.; Zhang, Lei; Koschny, Thomas; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2012-03-21

    We demonstrate a nonlinear metamaterial that can be switched between low and high transmission by controlling the power level of the incident beam. The origin of this nonlinear response is the superconducting Nb thin film employed in the metamaterial structure. We show that with moderate RF power of about 22 dBm it is possible to quench the superconducting state as a result of extremely strong current densities at the corners of the metamaterial's split-ring resonators. We measure a transmission contrast of 10 dB and a change in group delay of 70 ns between the low and high power states.

  13. Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2017-09-12

    A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks to their unique properties of surface sensitivity and field localization. These features have resulted in applications in nano-guiding, sensing, light-trapping and imaging based on the near-field techniques, contributing to the establishment of the nanophotonics as a field of research. Up to present, a wide variety of surface waves has been investigated in numerous material and structure settings. This paper reviews the recent progress and development in the physics of SWs localized at metamaterial interfaces, as well as bulk media in order to provide broader perspectives on optical surface waves in general. For each type of the surface waves, we discuss material and structural platforms. We mainly focus on experimental realizations in the visible and near-infrared wavelength ranges. We also address existing and potential application of SWs in chemical and biological sensing, and experimental excitation and characterization methods. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Alloatti, L. Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  15. Optical Metamaterials: Invisibility in Visible and Nonlinearities in Reverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.

    Recent experimental demonstrations of optical metamaterials opened up an entirely new branch of modern optics that can be described as "refractive index engineering" [1-20]. The refractive index of a material is the factor by which an electromagnetic wave is slowed down, compared with a vacuum, when it propagates inside the material. The material properties of conventional materials are largely controlled by the properties of their constituent components, viz., atoms and molecules. Their refractive indices can be modified to some degree by altering material chemical composition, using thermal or electrical tuning, or through nonlinear optical effects. Nevertheless, a majority of existing materials possesses positive, and typically greater than one, index of refraction. In contrast, meta-materials provide almost unlimited opportunities for designing the refractive index through a careful engineering of their constituent components, or meta-atoms. Several examples of engineered optical structures, including magnetic metamaterial and negative index metamaterials (NIMs), are shown in Fig. 13.1. Moreover, metamaterial properties can be tuned [21,22] and even controlled on a level of a single meta-atom [23]. Basic properties of optical metamaterials will be reviewed in Section 13.1. Additional design flexibility provided by metamaterials (discussed in Section 13.2) gives rise to new linear and nonlinear optical properties, functionalities, and applications unattainable with conventional materials. In this chapter, we discuss two examples of refractive index engineering in metamaterials that results in truly fascinating phenomena.

  16. Nonlinear reshaping of terahertz pulses with graphene metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Yu.; Grimalsky, V.; Iorsh, I.; Kalinich, N.; Koshevaya, S.; Castrejon-Martinez, Ch.; Kivshar, Yu. S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a slab of graphene metamaterial composed of the layers of graphene separated by dielectric slabs. Starting from the kinetic expression for two-dimensional electric current in graphene, we derive a novel equation describing the nonlinear propagation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses through the layered graphene-dielectric structure in the presence of losses and non-linearities. We demonstrate strong nonlinearity-induced reshaping of transmitted and reflected terahertz pulses through the interaction with the thin multilayer graphene metamaterial structure.

  17. Self-induced gap solitons in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weina; Zhu, Yongyuan; Li, Hongxia; Liu, Sumei

    2009-09-01

    The self-induced gap solitons in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials is investigated. It is shown that the self-induced gap solitons may exist due to the interaction of the discreteness and nonlinearity. The evolution of these localized structures is studied in the phase plane and analytical and numerical expressions are obtained.

  18. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Guddala, Sriram Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-16

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  20. Intermodulation in nonlinear SQUID metamaterials: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M.

    2016-11-01

    The response of nonlinear metamaterials and superconducting electronics to two-tone excitation is critical for understanding their use as low-noise amplifiers and tunable filters. A new setting for such studies is that of metamaterials made of radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices (rf-SQUIDs). The two-tone response of self-resonant rf-SQUID meta-atoms and metamaterials is studied here via intermodulation (IM) measurement over a broad range of tone frequencies and tone powers. A sharp onset followed by a surprising strongly suppressed IM region near the resonance is observed. Using a two time scale analysis technique, we present an analytical theory that successfully explains our experimental observations. The theory predicts that the IM can be manipulated with tone power, center frequency, frequency difference between the two tones, and temperature. This quantitative understanding potentially allows for the design of rf-SQUID metamaterials with either very low or very high IM response.

  1. Nonlinear Acoustic Metamaterials for Sound Attenuation Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    material using a 3D printer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 27...metamaterial [Fig. 10(c)]. We use a 3D printer (Objet Connex 500, www.objet.com) to rapid prototype the acoustic metamaterial. For the matrix material...architecture of helical granular chains embedded in a soft medium. (c) 3D prototype made by 3D printer . VII. IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

  2. Microwave memristive-like nonlinearity in a dielectric metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongya; Zhou, Ji; Lan, Chuwen; Guo, Yunsheng; Bi, Ke

    2014-06-30

    Memristor exhibit interesting and valuable circuit properties and have thus become the subject of increasing scientific interest. Scientists wonder if they can conceive a microwave memristor that behaves as a memristor operating with electromagnetic fields. Here, we report a microwave memristive-like nonlinear phenomenon at room temperature in dielectric metamaterials consisting of CaTiO3-ZrO2 ceramic dielectric cubes. Hysteretic transmission-incident field power loops (similar to the hysteretic I-V loop of memristor which is the fingerprint of memristor) with various characteristics were systematically observed in the metamaterials, which exhibited designable microwave memristive-like behavior. The effect is attributed to the decreasing permittivity of the dielectric cubes with the increasing temperature generated by the interaction between the electromagnetic waves and the dielectric cubes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabrication transient photonic memristor at microwave frequencies with metamaterials.

  3. Synthesis of second-order nonlinearities in dielectric-semiconductor-dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hung-Hsi; Yang, Mu-Han; Sharma, Rajat; Puckett, Matthew W.; Montoya, Sergio; Wurm, Christian D.; Vallini, Felipe; Fullerton, Eric E.; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a large effective second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in electronic optical metamaterials based on sputtered dielectric-semiconductor-dielectric multilayers of silicon dioxide/amorphous silicon (a-Si)/aluminum oxide. The interfacial fixed charges (Qf) with opposite signs on either side of dielectric-semiconductor interfaces result in a non-zero built-in electric field within the a-Si layer, which couples to the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor of a-Si and induces an effective second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor χeff(2). The value of the largest components of the effective χeff(2) tensor, i.e., χ(2)zzz, is determined experimentally to be 2 pm/V for the as-fabricated metamaterials and increases to 8.5 pm/V after the post-thermal annealing process. The constituents and fabrication methods make these metamaterials CMOS compatible, enabling efficient nonlinear devices for chip-scale silicon photonic integrated circuits.

  4. Coupled equations of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear metamaterial waveguides.

    PubMed

    Azari, Mina; Hatami, Mohsen; Meygoli, Vahid; Yousefi, Elham

    2016-11-01

    Over the past decades, scientists have presented ways to manipulate the macroscopic properties of a material at levels unachieved before, and called them metamaterials. This research can be considered an important step forward in electromagnetics and optics. In this study, higher-order nonlinear coupled equations in a special kind of metamaterial waveguides (a planar waveguide with metamaterial core) will be derived from both electric and magnetic components of the transverse electric mode of electromagnetic pulse propagation. On the other hand, achieving the refractive index in this research is worthwhile. It is also shown that the coupled equations are not symmetric with respect to the electric and magnetic fields, unlike these kinds of equations in fiber optics and dielectric waveguides. Simulations on the propagation of a fundamental soliton pulse in a nonlinear metamaterial waveguide near the resonance frequency (a little lower than the magnetic resonant frequency) are performed to study its behavior. These pulses are recommended to practice in optical communications in controlled switching by external voltage, even in low power.

  5. Wave propagation in one-dimensional nonlinear acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xin; Wen, Jihong; Bonello, Bernard; Yin, Jianfei; Yu, Dianlong

    2017-05-01

    The propagation of waves in nonlinear acoustic metamaterial (NAM) is fundamentally different from that in conventional linear ones. In this article we consider two one-dimensional (1D) NAM systems featuring respectively a diatomic and a tetratomic meta unit-cell. We investigate the attenuation of waves, band structures, and bifurcations to demonstrate novel nonlinear effects, which can significantly expand the bandwidth for elastic wave suppression and cause nonlinear wave phenomena. The harmonic averaging approach, continuation algorithm, and Lyapunov exponents (LEs) are combined to study the frequency responses, nonlinear modes, bifurcations of periodic solutions, and chaos. The nonlinear resonances are studied, and the influence of damping on hyperchaotic attractors is evaluated. Moreover, a ‘quantum’ behavior is found between the low-energy and high-energy orbits. This work provides a theoretical base for furthering understandings and applications of NAMs.

  6. Nonlinear Electromagnetics and Coherent Energy Transfer in Negative-Index metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-07

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0176 NONLINEAR ELECTROMAGNETICS AND COHERENT ENERGY TRANSFER IN NEGATIVE INDEX METAMATERIALS Alexander Popov UNIVERSITY OF...COHERENT ENERGY TRANSFER IN NEGATIVE-INDEX METAMATERIALS FA9550-12-1-0298 Popov, Alexander K. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-STEVENS POINT 2100 MAIN ST STEVENS...understanding was advanced of nonlinear propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in double-domain negative/positive index metamaterials (MMs

  7. Non-reciprocal and highly nonlinear active acoustic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-02-27

    Unidirectional devices that pass acoustic energy in only one direction have numerous applications and, consequently, have recently received significant attention. However, for most practical applications that require unidirectionality at audio and low frequencies, subwavelength implementations capable of the necessary time-reversal symmetry breaking remain elusive. Here we describe a design approach based on metamaterial techniques that provides highly subwavelength and strongly non-reciprocal devices. We demonstrate this approach by designing and experimentally characterizing a non-reciprocal active acoustic metamaterial unit cell composed of a single piezoelectric membrane augmented by a nonlinear electronic circuit, and sandwiched between Helmholtz cavities tuned to different frequencies. The design is thinner than a tenth of a wavelength, yet it has an isolation factor of >10 dB. The design method generates relatively broadband unidirectional devices and is a good candidate for numerous acoustic applications.

  8. Nonlinear metamaterials for electromagnetic energy harvesting (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin Thibaut; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Surrounded by electromagnetic radiation coming from wireless power transfer to consumer devices such as mobile phones, computers and television, our society is facing the scientific and technological challenge to recover energy that is otherwise lost to the environment. Energy harvesting is an emerging field of research focused on this largely unsolved problem, especially in the microwave regime. Metamaterials provide a very promising platform to meet this purpose. These artificial materials are made from subwavelength building blocks, and can be designed by resonate at particular frequencies, depending on their shape, geometry, size, and orientation. In this work, we show that an efficient electromagnetic energy harvester can be design by inserting a nonlinear element directly within the metamaterial unit cell, leading to the conversion of RF input power to DC charge accumulation. The electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is built from a cut-wire metasurface, which operates as a quasistatic electric dipole resonator. Using the equivalent electrical circuit, we design the parameters to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency, and we compare these results with numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss the efficiency of our metamaterial energy harvesters. This work potentially offers a variety of applications, for example in the telecommunications industry to charge phones, in robotics to power microrobots, and also in medicine to advance pacemakers or health monitoring sensors.

  9. Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Benz, Alexander; Ravikumar, Arvind P.; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Kadlec, Emil Andrew; Shaner, Eric A.; Klem, John Frederick; Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal

    2015-07-01

    Coherent superposition of light from subwavelength sources is an attractive prospect for the manipulation of the direction, shape and polarization of optical beams. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of phased arrays, commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies. Here we propose a new concept for phased-array sources at infrared frequencies based on metamaterial nanocavities coupled to a highly nonlinear semiconductor heterostructure. Optical pumping of the nanocavity induces a localized, phase-locked, nonlinear resonant polarization that acts as a source feed for a higher-order resonance of the nanocavity. Varying the nanocavity design enables the production of beams with arbitrary shape and polarization. As an example, we demonstrate two second harmonic phased-array sources that perform two optical functions at the second harmonic wavelength (~5 μm): a beam splitter and a polarizing beam splitter. As a result, proper design of the nanocavity and nonlinear heterostructure will enable such phased arrays to span most of the infrared spectrum.

  10. Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Benz, Alexander; Ravikumar, Arvind P; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S; Kadlec, Emil A; Shaner, Eric A; Klem, John F; Sinclair, Michael B; Brener, Igal

    2015-07-01

    Coherent superposition of light from subwavelength sources is an attractive prospect for the manipulation of the direction, shape and polarization of optical beams. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of phased arrays, commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies. Here we propose a new concept for phased-array sources at infrared frequencies based on metamaterial nanocavities coupled to a highly nonlinear semiconductor heterostructure. Optical pumping of the nanocavity induces a localized, phase-locked, nonlinear resonant polarization that acts as a source feed for a higher-order resonance of the nanocavity. Varying the nanocavity design enables the production of beams with arbitrary shape and polarization. As an example, we demonstrate two second harmonic phased-array sources that perform two optical functions at the second harmonic wavelength (∼5 μm): a beam splitter and a polarizing beam splitter. Proper design of the nanocavity and nonlinear heterostructure will enable such phased arrays to span most of the infrared spectrum.

  11. New avenues for phase matching in nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C; Perret, L; Palomba, S; Lapine, M; Kuhlmey, B T; de Sterke, C Martijn

    2015-03-11

    Nonlinear optical processes, which are of paramount importance in science and technology, involve the generation of new frequencies. This requires phase matching to avoid that light generated at different positions interferes destructively. Of the two original approaches to achieve this, one relies on birefringence in optical crystals, and is therefore limited by the dispersion of naturally occurring materials, whereas the other, quasi-phase-matching, requires direct modulation of material properties, which is not universally possible. To overcome these limitations, we propose to exploit the unique dispersion afforded by hyperbolic metamaterials, where the refractive index can be arbitrarily large. We systematically analyse the ensuing opportunities and demonstrate that hyperbolic phase matching can be achieved with a wide range of material parameters, offering access to the use of nonlinear media for which phase matching cannot be achieved by other means. With the rapid development in the fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials, our approach is destined to bring significant advantages over conventional techniques for the phase matching of a variety of nonlinear processes.

  12. Modeling highly-dispersive transparency in planar nonlinear metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potravkin, N. N.; Makarov, V. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.

    2017-02-01

    We consider propagation of light in planar optical metamaterial, which basic element is composed of two silver stripes, and it possesses strong dispersion in optical range. Our method of numerical modeling allows us to take into consideration the nonlinearity of the material and the effects of light self-action without considerable increase of the calculation time. It is shown that plasmonic resonances originating in such a structure result in multiple enhancement of local field and high sensitivity of the transmission coefficient to the intensity of incident monochromatic wave.

  13. Perfect Lensing by a Single Interface: Defying Loss and Bandwidth Limitations of Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Gilad; Orenstein, Meir

    2015-11-06

    Loss is known to be detrimental for achieving perfect focusing with the passive perfect lens designs suggested thus far, and it is believed to pose a fundamental barrier. We show that perfect lensing can be achieved with actual lossy left-handed metamaterials, without a need for gain or nonlinearity. The proposed loss-immune perfect lens is composed of a single interface between a conventional dielectric material on the source side and a lossy left-handed material on the image side. Its immunity to material loss was derived analytically using three complementary methodologies, confirming perfect lensing with point-to-point accuracy and shedding light on the underlying focusing mechanism. This result provides a new road map for practical realization of a near-field camera based on the single-interface lens design.

  14. Interface States and Interface-Bulk Correspondence of One-dimensional Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Un, Ieng-Wai; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the interface state on one-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial (1DHMM). Initially, we analyze the plasmonic band structure of binary 1DHMM and analytically determine its band crossing condition. Then, we scrutinize the existence of an interface state in the plasmonic band gap of 1DHMM on three types of interfaces: dielectric/1DHMM, metal/1DHMM, and 1DHMM/1DHMM. We find that the band crossing dramatically influences the existence of an interface state. We also show a rigorous relation between the existence of the interface state of 1DHMM in the plasmonic band gap and the wave admittance in the plasmonic band region. More importantly, this relation not only holds for binary 1DHMM but also can be generalized to any 1DHMM with inversion symmetry. We also characterize the interface state by the transverse spin angular momentum and reveal the transverse spin flipping of the interface state.

  15. Interface States and Interface-Bulk Correspondence of One-dimensional Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Un, Ieng-Wai; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the interface state on one-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial (1DHMM). Initially, we analyze the plasmonic band structure of binary 1DHMM and analytically determine its band crossing condition. Then, we scrutinize the existence of an interface state in the plasmonic band gap of 1DHMM on three types of interfaces: dielectric/1DHMM, metal/1DHMM, and 1DHMM/1DHMM. We find that the band crossing dramatically influences the existence of an interface state. We also show a rigorous relation between the existence of the interface state of 1DHMM in the plasmonic band gap and the wave admittance in the plasmonic band region. More importantly, this relation not only holds for binary 1DHMM but also can be generalized to any 1DHMM with inversion symmetry. We also characterize the interface state by the transverse spin angular momentum and reveal the transverse spin flipping of the interface state. PMID:28233822

  16. Interface States and Interface-Bulk Correspondence of One-dimensional Hyperbolic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Un, Ieng-Wai; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2017-02-24

    We investigate the interface state on one-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial (1DHMM). Initially, we analyze the plasmonic band structure of binary 1DHMM and analytically determine its band crossing condition. Then, we scrutinize the existence of an interface state in the plasmonic band gap of 1DHMM on three types of interfaces: dielectric/1DHMM, metal/1DHMM, and 1DHMM/1DHMM. We find that the band crossing dramatically influences the existence of an interface state. We also show a rigorous relation between the existence of the interface state of 1DHMM in the plasmonic band gap and the wave admittance in the plasmonic band region. More importantly, this relation not only holds for binary 1DHMM but also can be generalized to any 1DHMM with inversion symmetry. We also characterize the interface state by the transverse spin angular momentum and reveal the transverse spin flipping of the interface state.

  17. Optical modes at the interface between two dissimilar discrete meta-materials.

    PubMed

    Suntsov, S; Makris, K G; Christodoulides, D N; Stegeman, G I; Morandotti, R; Volatier, Maïte; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard; Rüter, Christian E; Kip, Detlef

    2007-04-16

    We have studied theoretically and experimentally the properties of optical surface modes at the hetero-interface between two meta-materials. These meta-materials consisted of two 1D AlGaAs waveguide arrays with different band structures.

  18. Nonlinear acoustic fields in acoustic metamaterial based on a cylindrical pipe with periodically arranged side holes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Ge, Huan; Zhang, Shu-yi; Gao, Hai-fei; Liu, Yong-hui; Zhang, Hui

    2013-06-01

    Nonlinear acoustic fields in transmission-line acoustic metamaterials based on a cylindrical pipe with periodically arranged side holes are studied, in which the dispersions and characteristic parameters of the nonlinear acoustic waves are obtained with the Bloch theory, and meanwhile the distributions of the fundamental wave (FW) and second harmonic wave (SHW) in the metamaterial are simulated. Three characteristic frequency bands are defined according to the relations between the frequencies of the FW, SHW, and the low-frequency forbidden band (LFB) in the metamaterial. Especially, when the FW is in the LFB while the SHW is outside the LFB, the SHW can transmit through the metamaterial although the FW is blocked, which exhibits the possibility to extract the information from the SHW instead of the FW. In addition, experiments are carried out to measure the distributions of the acoustic pressures for the FW and SHW along the metamaterial and the experimental results are in agreement with the theory.

  19. Metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David R.; Schurig, David; Starr, Anthony F.; Mock, Jack J.

    2014-09-09

    One exemplary metamaterial is formed from a plurality of individual unit cells, at least a portion of which have a different permeability than others. The plurality of individual unit cells are arranged to provide a metamaterial having a gradient index along at least one axis. Such metamaterials can be used to form lenses, for example.

  20. Electrically controlled nonlinear optical generation and signal processing in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenshan

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials have offered not only the unprecedented opportunity to generate unconventional electromagnetic properties that are not found in nature, but also the exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with tailored high-order effects. Two particularly compelling directions of current interests are active metamaterials, where the optical properties can be purposely manipulated by external stimuli, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light. By exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically-controlled nonlinear processes from photonic metamaterials. We show that a variety of nonlinear optical phenomena, including the wave mixing and the optical rectification, can be purposely modulated by applied voltage signals. In addition, electrically-induced and voltage-controlled nonlinear effects facilitate us to demonstrate the backward phase matching in a negative index material, a long standing prediction in nonlinear metamaterials. Other results to be covered in this talk include photon-drag effect in plasmonic metamaterials and ion-assisted nonlinear effects from metamaterials in electrolytes. Our results reveal a grand opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electrooptic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities. Reference: L. Kang, Y. Cui, S. Lan, S. P. Rodrigues, M. L. Brongersma, and W. Cai, Nature Communications, 5, 4680 (2014). S. P. Rodrigues and W.Cai, Nature Nanotechnology, 10, 387 (2015). S. Lan, L. Kang, D. T. Schoen, S. P. Rodrigues, Y. Cui, M. L. Brongersma, and W. Cai, Nature Materials, 14, 807 (2015).

  1. A nonlinear acoustic metamaterial: Realization of a backwards-traveling second-harmonic sound wave.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li; Qian, Feng; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gong, Xiufen

    2016-06-01

    An ordinary waveguide with periodic vibration plates and side holes can realize an acoustic metamaterial that simultaneously possesses a negative bulk modulus and a negative mass density. The study is further extended to a nonlinear case and it is predicted that a backwards-traveling second-harmonic sound wave can be obtained through the nonlinear propagation of a sound wave in such a metamaterial.

  2. Chiral-selective nonlinear optical generation and emission control with plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenshan

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials can be designed to exhibit extraordinarily strong chiral responses. Here we present a chiral metamaterial that produces both distinguishable linear and nonlinear features in the visible to near-infrared range. In additional to the gigantic chiral effects in the linear regime, the metamaterial demonstrates a pronounced contrast between second harmonic responses from the two circular polarizations. Linear and nonlinear images probed with circularly polarized lights show strongly defined contrast. Moreover, the chiral centers of the nanometallic structures with enhanced hotspots can be purposely opened for direct access, where emitters occupying the light-confining regions produce chiral-selective enhancement of two-photon luminescence.

  3. Solitary waves and nonlinear dynamic coherent structures in magnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankeyev, A. P.; Smagin, V. V.; Borich, M. A.; Zhuravlev, A. S.

    2009-03-01

    Within the framework of the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation (ENSE), two types of nonlinear states of magnetization in a ferromagnet-dielectric-metal metamagnetic structure have been obtained and investigated. These states have an internal structure; e.g., a periodic sequence of compound solitons is formed by kink-antikink pairs (shock waves), and coherent periodic breather structures are formed by “bright” quasi-solitons. Conditions have been found under which the envelope of these states is described by a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. It is shown that the compound solitons are described by an mKdV equation with repulsion, and the breather structures, by an mKdV equation with attraction. It is shown also that the characteristic properties of the solutions are determined by the sign of the group-velocity dispersion rather than by the sign of the group velocity itself. The results obtained can be used for searching new nonlinear dynamic coherent structures, e.g., compound solitons and breathers in high-dispersion magnetic metamaterials.

  4. Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities

    DOE PAGES

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Benz, Alexander; ...

    2015-07-01

    Coherent superposition of light from subwavelength sources is an attractive prospect for the manipulation of the direction, shape and polarization of optical beams. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of phased arrays, commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies. Here we propose a new concept for phased-array sources at infrared frequencies based on metamaterial nanocavities coupled to a highly nonlinear semiconductor heterostructure. Optical pumping of the nanocavity induces a localized, phase-locked, nonlinear resonant polarization that acts as a source feed for a higher-order resonance of the nanocavity. Varying the nanocavity design enables the production of beams with arbitrary shape and polarization.more » As an example, we demonstrate two second harmonic phased-array sources that perform two optical functions at the second harmonic wavelength (~5 μm): a beam splitter and a polarizing beam splitter. As a result, proper design of the nanocavity and nonlinear heterostructure will enable such phased arrays to span most of the infrared spectrum.« less

  5. Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Benz, Alexander; Ravikumar, Arvind P.; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Kadlec, Emil A.; Shaner, Eric A.; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal

    2015-01-01

    Coherent superposition of light from subwavelength sources is an attractive prospect for the manipulation of the direction, shape and polarization of optical beams. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of phased arrays, commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies. Here we propose a new concept for phased-array sources at infrared frequencies based on metamaterial nanocavities coupled to a highly nonlinear semiconductor heterostructure. Optical pumping of the nanocavity induces a localized, phase-locked, nonlinear resonant polarization that acts as a source feed for a higher-order resonance of the nanocavity. Varying the nanocavity design enables the production of beams with arbitrary shape and polarization. As an example, we demonstrate two second harmonic phased-array sources that perform two optical functions at the second harmonic wavelength (∼5 μm): a beam splitter and a polarizing beam splitter. Proper design of the nanocavity and nonlinear heterostructure will enable such phased arrays to span most of the infrared spectrum. PMID:26126879

  6. Numerical investigation of amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials with nonlinear oscillators.

    PubMed

    Manimala, James M; Sun, C T

    2016-06-01

    The amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials having nonlinear local oscillator microstructures is studied using numerical simulations on representative discrete mass-spring models. Both cubically nonlinear hardening and softening local oscillator cases are considered. Single frequency, bi-frequency, and wave packet excitations at low and high amplitude levels were used to interrogate the models. The propagation and attenuation characteristics of harmonic waves in a tunable frequency range is found to correspond to the amplitude and nonlinearity-dependent shifts in the local resonance bandgap for such nonlinear acoustic metamaterials. A predominant shift in the propagated wave spectrum towards lower frequencies is observed. Moreover, the feasibility of amplitude and frequency-dependent selective filtering of composite signals consisting of individual frequency components which fall within propagating or attenuating regimes is demonstrated. Further enrichment of these wave manipulation mechanisms in acoustic metamaterials using different combinations of nonlinear microstructures presents device implications for acoustic filters and waveguides.

  7. Modelling nonlinearity in superconducting split ring resonator and its effects on metamaterial structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazdouri, Behnam; Mohammad Hassan Javadzadeh, S.

    2017-09-01

    Superconducting materials are intrinsically nonlinear, because of nonlinear Meissner effect (NLME). Considering nonlinear behaviors, such as harmonic generation and intermodulation distortion (IMD) in superconducting structures, are very important. In this paper, we proposed distributed nonlinear circuit model for superconducting split ring resonators (SSRRs). This model can be analyzed by using Harmonic Balance method (HB) as a nonlinear solver. Thereafter, we considered a superconducting metamaterial filter which was based on split ring resonators and we calculated fundamental and third-order IMD signals. There are good agreement between nonlinear results from proposed model and measured ones. Additionally, based on the proposed nonlinear model and by using a novel method, we considered nonlinear effects on main parameters in the superconducting metamaterial structures such as phase constant (β) and attenuation factor (α).

  8. Study of optical waveguide sensor using metamaterial as buffer layer with non-linear cladding and substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kumari, Anamika; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev K.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, dispersion equation of optical waveguide using metamaterial as buffer layer with non-linear cladding and substrate is pointed. The sensitivity of TE in metamaterial optical waveguide sensor is computed mathematically. The impacts of buffer layer with non-linear cladding and substrate on metamaterial optical waveguide sensor are also tried out. The effects of various parameters on sensitivity of sensor are obtained through MATLAB. It is expected that metamaterial as buffer layer with non-linear cladding and substrate profile has a huge application in leaky fibre sensor, gas sensor and chemical sensor for oil and under grounds mining industries.

  9. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Wolf, Omri; Allerman, Andrew A.; Ma, Xuedan; ...

    2015-10-15

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance, by more than two orders of magnitude, the optical second harmonic generation, in the near infrared, obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators’ cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a new class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena.

  10. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Omri E-mail: ibrener@sandia.gov; Ma, Xuedan; Brener, Igal E-mail: ibrener@sandia.gov; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Shaner, Eric A.; Song, Alex Y.

    2015-10-12

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance by more than two orders of magnitude the near infrared second harmonic generation obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators' cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a different class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena.

  11. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Omri; Allerman, Andrew A.; Ma, Xuedan; Wendt, Joel R.; Song, Alex Y.; Shaner, Eric A.; Brener, Igal

    2015-10-01

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance by more than two orders of magnitude the near infrared second harmonic generation obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators' cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a different class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena.

  12. Exact solutions of optical pulse propagation in nonlinear meta-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2017-01-01

    An analytical and simulation based method has been used to exactly solve the nonlinear wave propagation in bulk media exhibiting frequency dependent dielectric susceptibility and magnetic permeability. The method has been further extended to investigate the intensity distribution in a nonlinear meta-material with negative refractive index where both ɛ and μ are dispersive and negative in nature.

  13. Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingnan

    2009-01-01

    nonlinear SRRs are built and modeled to study the nonlinearity in magnetic metamaterials and the results will be presented in Chapter 3. Negative refractive index n is one of the major target in the research of metamaterials. Negative n can be obtained with a metamaterial with both ϵ and μ negative. As an alternative, negative index for one of the circularly polarized waves could be achieved with metamaterials having a strong chirality ?. In this case neither ϵ} nor μ negative is required. My work on chiral metamaterials will be presented in Chapter 4.

  14. Description and stability analysis of nonlinear transmission line type metamaterials using nonlinear dynamics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.; Milford, Gregory N.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear metamaterials offer a potential technology to realize applications at microwave, terahertz, and optical frequencies. However, due to the strong and controlled nonlinearity, the wave interactions can be quite complex. In the current article, a framework based on nonlinear dynamics theory is developed to describe such complex interactions. This is demonstrated for the case of a harmonically pumped nonlinear left handed transmission line through the use of bifurcation theory, stability analysis, and linearization about the limit cycle to calculate the autonomously generated frequencies and their spatial distributions. Higher order parametric interactions, which can be mediated by the strong nonlinearity, are automatically included in the model. It is demonstrated that autonomous components can be visualized in both the phase and the set of solution spaces. The framework is general in terms of the transmission line configuration, the nature and strength of the nonlinearity, and the number of stages. It also provides accurate results when the autonomous frequencies are in the vicinity of the Bragg frequency.

  15. Quasi-phase-matched backward second-harmonic generation by complementary media in nonlinear metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gong, Xiufen

    2012-10-01

    High efficiency of the second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation can be obtained in optical superlattice by using the conventional quasi-phase-matched (QPM) method. Although this trick can be played on the acoustic wave, the media with negative nonlinear parameters are not common in acoustics. Furthermore, the QPM method used in acoustic metamaterials has been less studied. In this work, a protocol is provided to realize the QPM method by using nonlinear complementary media in acoustic metamaterials in order to obtain large backward second-harmonic generation. Compared with the conventional method, the method gains a broader bandwidth and can be used in both acoustic and electromagnetic waves.

  16. Nonlinear optics in nonlocal nanowire metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolskiy, Viktor A.; Wells, Brian; Marino, Giuseppe; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-09-01

    Plasmonic nanowire metamaterials, arrays of aligned plasmonic nanowires grown inside an insulating substrate, have recently emerged as a flexible platform for engineering refraction, diffraction, and density of photonic states, as well as for applications in bio- and acoustic sensing. Majority of unique optical phenomena associated with nanowire metamaterials have been linked to the collective excitation of cylindrical surface plasmons propagating on individual nanowires. From the effective medium standpoint, this collective excitation can be described as an additional electromagnetic wave, emanating from nonlocal effective permittivity of metamaterial. The electromagnetic fields associated with such mode can are strongly inhomogeneous on the scale of the unit cell. In this work we analyze the effect of the strong field variation inside nanowire metamaterial on second harmonic generation (SHG). We show that second harmonic generation is strongly enhanced in the frequency region where metamaterial is nonlocal. Overall, the composite is predicted to outperform its homogeneous metal counterparts by several orders of magnitude. Quantitative description of SHG in nanowire medium is developed. The results suggest that bulk second harmonic polarizability emerges as result of collective surface-enhanced SHG by individual components of the composite.

  17. Study of plasmonic slot waveguides with a nonlinear metamaterial core: semi-analytical and numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsawy, Mahmoud M. R.; Renversez, Gilles

    2017-07-01

    Two distinct models are developed to investigate the transverse magnetic stationary solutions propagating in one-dimensional anisotropic nonlinear plasmonic structures made from a Kerr-type nonlinear metamaterial core embedded between two semi-infinite metal claddings. The first model is semi-analytical, in which we assume that the anisotropic nonlinearity depends only on the transverse component of the electric field and that the nonlinear refractive index modification is small compared to the linear one. This method allows us to derive analytically the field profiles and nonlinear dispersion relations in terms of the Jacobi elliptical functions. The second model is fully numerical and is based on the finite element method in which all the components of the electric field are considered in the Kerr-type nonlinearity, with no presumptions as to the nonlinear refractive index change. Our finite-element-based model is valid beyond the weak nonlinearity regime and generalizes the well-known single-component fixed power algorithm that is usually used. Examples of the main cases are investigated, including those with strong spatial nonlinear effects at low power. Loss issues are reduced through the use of a gain medium in the nonlinear metamaterial core. Using anisotropic nonlinear FDTD simulations, we provide some results for the properties of the main solution.

  18. Electron-phonon metamaterial featuring nonlinear tri-interleaved piezoelectric topologies and its application in low-frequency vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Bin; Guyomar, Daniel; Lallart, Mickaël

    2016-09-01

    This article proposes a nonlinear tri-interleaved piezoelectric topology based on the synchronized switch damping on inductor (SSDI) technique, which can be applied to phononic metamaterials for elastic wave control and effective low-frequency vibration reduction. A comparison of the attenuation performance is made between piezoelectric phononic metamaterial with distributed SSDI topology (each SSDI shunt being independently connected to a single piezoelectric element) and piezoelectric phononic metamaterial with the proposed electronic topology. Theoretical results show excellent band gap hybridization (near-coupling between Bragg scattering mechanism and wideband resonance mechanism induced by synchronized switch damping networks in piezoelectric phononic metamaterials) with the proposed electronic topology over the investigated frequency domain. Furthermore, piezoelectric phononic metamaterials with proposed electronic topology generated a better low-frequency broadband gap, which is experimentally validated by measuring the harmonic response of a piezoelectric phononic metamaterial beam under clamped-clamped boundary conditions.

  19. Propagation of short stress pulses in discrete strongly nonlinear tunable metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yichao; Nesterenko, Vitali F

    2014-08-28

    The propagation of short pulses with wavelength comparable to the size of a unit cell has been studied in a one-dimensional discrete metamaterial composed of steel discs alternating with toroidal nitrile O-rings under different levels of precompression using experiments, numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. This strongly nonlinear metamaterial is more tunable than granular chains composed of linear elastic spherical particles and has better potential for attenuation of dynamic loads. A double power-law relationship for compressed O-rings was found to describe adequately their quasi-static and dynamic behaviour with significantly different elastic moduli. It is demonstrated that the double power-law metamaterial investigated allows a dramatic increase in sound speed and acoustic impedance of three to four times using a moderate force.

  20. Effect of local field enhancement on the nonlinear terahertz response of a silicon-based metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Sharma, Gargi; Dignam, Marc M.; Hafez, Hassan; Ibrahim, Akram; Cooke, David G.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Morandotti, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the strong effect of the local field enhancement on the nonlinear terahertz response of a hybrid photoexcited silicon/double concentric ring metamaterial structure. The ring resonators enhance the local terahertz electric field by more than a factor of ten, pushing the terahertz-semiconductor interaction into the high-field regime even for moderate-strength incident terahertz pulses. In this regime, terahertz field-induced intervalley scattering in the photoexcited silicon substrate dynamically alters the substrate conductivity, which in turn strongly modifies the pulse transmission. The spatial distribution of the local field enhancement within the resonator structure results in a modified bandwidth, amplitude, and central frequency of the transmission resonance occurring on a subcycle time scale. These results demonstrate an enhancement of the nonlinear terahertz response of silicon-based metamaterials that must be accounted for in the design of terahertz nonlinear devices.

  1. Nonlinear effects in an acoustic metamaterial with simultaneous negative modulus and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifeng; Lan, Jun; Li, Baoshun; Liu, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Jiashu

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear effects in an acoustic metamaterial with simultaneous negative modulus and density based on Helmholtz resonators and membranes periodically distributed along a pipe are studied theoretically. Analyses of the transmission coefficient and dispersion relation of the composite system are realized using the acoustic transmission line method and Bloch theory, respectively. Due to the nonlinearities of the Helmholtz resonators and membranes, the acoustic wave propagation properties vary with the different incident acoustic intensities, and the frequency band gaps of the transmission coefficient are amplitude dependent. The nonlinearities shift the double negative pass band into the adjacent modulus negative forbidden band and transform the metamaterial from an acoustic insulator into an acoustic conductor, leading to some new potential acoustic applications.

  2. Weakly nonlinear analysis and localised structures in nonlinear cavities with metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, N.; Makhoute, A.; Tlidi, M.

    2016-04-01

    We consider an optical ring cavity filled with a metamaterial and with a Kerr medium. The cavity is driven by a coherent radiation beam. The modelling of this device leads to the well known Lugiato-Lefever equation with high order diffraction term. We assume that both left-handed and right-handed materials possess a Kerr focusing type of nonlinearity. We show that close to the zero-diffraction regime, high-order diffraction effect allows us to stabilise dark localised structures in this device. These structures consist of dips or holes in the transverse profile of the intracavity field and do not exist without high-order diffraction effects. We show that high order diffraction effects alter in depth the space-time dynamics of this device. A weakly nonlinear analysis in the vicinity of the first threshold associated with the Turing instability is performed. This analysis allows us to determine the parameter regime where the transition from super- to sub-critical bifurcation occurs. When the modulational instability appears subcritically, we show that bright localised structures of light may be generated in two-dimensional setting. Close to the second threshold associated with the Turing instability, dark localised structures are generated.

  3. Nonlinear absorption due to linear loss and magnetic permeability in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuanjiang; Dai, Xiaoyu; Wen, Shuangchun; Guo, Jun

    2012-06-01

    We predict theoretically that linear magnetic permeability induces nonlinear absorption (NA) of an electric field in lossy metamaterials (MMs) with Kerr-type nonlinear polarization even when the imaginary part of the nonlinear polarization is absent. The nonlinear magnetic susceptibility, if it exists and although it may be real, enhances or reduces the NA of the electric field, depending on the relative values of the electric and magnetic losses. In particular, it is shown that the NA effect can be tuned by the figure of merit (FOM) of the MM: generally, MMs with a better FOM have a weaker NA effect. Moreover, the nonlinear coefficient can also be enhanced greatly due to the combined effect of the linear losses and the nonlinear magnetization of MMs. The control of the tunable NA and nonlinear coefficients by the structural parameters of MMs is also discussed.

  4. Nonlinear effects in acoustic metamaterial based on a cylindrical pipe with ordered Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jun; Li, Yifeng; Yu, Huiyang; Li, Baoshun; Liu, Xiaozhou

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the nonlinear effects of acoustic wave propagation and dispersion in a cylindrical pipe with periodically arranged Helmholtz resonators. By using the classical perturbation method in nonlinear acoustics and considering a nonlinear response up to the third-order at the fundamental frequency, the expressions of the nonlinear impedance ZNHR of the Helmholtz resonator and effective nonlinear bulk modulus Bneff of the composite structure are derived. In order to confirm the nonlinear properties of the acoustic metamaterial, the transmission spectra have been studied by means of the acoustic transmission line method. Moreover, we calculate the effective acoustic impedance and dispersion relation of the system using the acoustic impedance theory and Bloch theory, respectively. It is found that with the increment of the incident acoustic pressure level, owing to the nonlinearity of the Helmholtz resonators, the resonant frequency ω0 shifts toward the lower frequency side and the forbidden bandgap of the transmission spectrum is shown to be broadened. The perturbation method employed in this paper extends the general analytical framework for a nonlinear acoustic metamaterial.

  5. Transformation optics approach for Goos-Hänchen shift enhancement at metamaterial interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Lieve; Ginis, Vincent; Danckaert, Jan; Tassin, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Since its first observation in 1947, the Goos-Hänchen effect—an electromagnetic wave phenomenon where a totally reflected beam with finite cross section undergoes a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics—has been extensively investigated for various types of optical media such as dielectrics, metals and photonic crystals. Given their huge potential for guiding and sensing applications, the search for giant and tunable Goos-Hänchen shifts is still an open question in the field of optics and photonics. Metamaterials allow for unprecedented control over electromagnetic properties and thus provide an interesting platform in this quest for Goos-Hänchen shift enhancement. Over the last few years, the Goos-Hänchen effect has been investigated for specific metamaterial interfaces including graphene-on-dielectric surfaces, negative index materials and epsilon- near-zero materials. In this contribution, we generalize the approach for the investigation of the Goos-Hänchen effect based on the geometric formalism of transformation optics. Although this metamaterial design methodology is generally applied to manipulate the propagation of light through continuous media, we show how it can also be used to describe the reflections arising at the interface between a vacuum region and a transformed region with a metamaterial implementation. Furthermore, we establish an analytical model that relates the magnitude of the Goos-Hänchen shift to the underlying geometry of the transformed medium. This model shows how the dependence of the Goos-Hänchen shift on geometric parameters can be used to dramatically enhance the size of the shift by an appropriate choice of permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulations of a beam with spatial Gaussian profile incident upon metamaterial interfaces verify the model and firmly establish a novel route towards Goos-Hänchen shift engineering using transformation optics.

  6. Magnetoelastic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2011-11-13

    The study of advanced artificial electromagnetic materials, known as metamaterials, provides a link from material science to theoretical and applied electrodynamics, as well as to electrical engineering. Being initially intended mainly to achieve negative refraction, the concept of metamaterials quickly covered a much broader range of applications, from microwaves to optics and even acoustics. In particular, nonlinear metamaterials established a new research direction giving rise to fruitful ideas for tunable and active artificial materials. Here we introduce the concept of magnetoelastic metamaterials, where a new type of nonlinear response emerges from mutual interaction. This is achieved by providing a mechanical degree of freedom so that the electromagnetic interaction in the metamaterial lattice is coupled to elastic interaction. This enables the electromagnetically induced forces to change the metamaterial structure, dynamically tuning its effective properties. This concept leads to a new generation of metamaterials, and can be compared to such fundamental concepts of modern physics as optomechanics of photonic structures or magnetoelasticity in magnetic materials.

  7. Magnetoelastic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2012-01-01

    The study of advanced artificial electromagnetic materials, known as metamaterials, provides a link from material science to theoretical and applied electrodynamics, as well as to electrical engineering. Being initially intended mainly to achieve negative refraction, the concept of metamaterials quickly covered a much broader range of applications, from microwaves to optics and even acoustics. In particular, nonlinear metamaterials established a new research direction giving rise to fruitful ideas for tunable and active artificial materials. Here we introduce the concept of magnetoelastic metamaterials, where a new type of nonlinear response emerges from mutual interaction. This is achieved by providing a mechanical degree of freedom so that the electromagnetic interaction in the metamaterial lattice is coupled to elastic interaction. This enables the electromagnetically induced forces to change the metamaterial structure, dynamically tuning its effective properties. This concept leads to a new generation of metamaterials, and can be compared to such fundamental concepts of modern physics as optomechanics of photonic structures or magnetoelasticity in magnetic materials.

  8. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorokhov, Alexander S.; Okhlopkov, Kirill I.; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R.; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial’s χ(3) was observed; the all-optical χ(3) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm2.

  9. Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco; Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations.

  10. Incident angle insensitive tunable multichannel perfect absorber consisting of nonlinear plasma and matching metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Xiang-kun; Liu, Shao-Bin Bian, Bo-rui; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Hai-feng

    2014-12-15

    A novel, compact, and multichannel nonreciprocal absorber through a wave tunneling mechanism in epsilon-negative and matching metamaterials is theoretically proposed. Nonreciprocal absorption properties are acquired via the coupling together of evanescent and propagating waves in an asymmetric configuration, constituted of nonlinear plasma alternated with matching metamaterial. The absorption channel number can be adjusted by changing the periodic number. Due to the positive feedback between nonlinear permittivity of plasma and the inner electric field, bistable absorption and reflection are achieved. Moreover, compared with some truncated photonic crystal or multilayered designs proposed before, our design is more compact and independent of incident angle or polarization. This kind of multilayer structure offers additional opportunities to design novel omnidirectional electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  11. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shorokhov, Alexander S.; Okhlopkov, Kirill I.; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R.; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial’s χ(3) was observed; the all-optical χ(3) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm2. PMID:27335268

  12. Wave propagation in nonlinear metamaterial multi-atomic chains based on homotopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xin; Wen, Jihong; Yin, Jianfei; Yu, Dianlong

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the dispersion properties and wave propagation in the tetratomic nonlinear acoustic metamaterial chain based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM). We perform a comparison between HAM and Perturbation approach, harmonic balance method (HBM) and equivalent method. Results indicate that HAM can filter the unstable multiple periodic solutions fined by HBM and be more accurate. The succinct equivalent formulas can estimate the bandgaps. There is a limit of the dispersion solution when the nonlinearity tends to infinity. Analyses demonstrate that the energy dispersion in spectrum replaces the linear energy localization because of the hyperchaos that is induced by period-doubling bifurcations. The hyper-chaotic phenomena are demonstrated with frequency spectra, bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov Exponents. This paper further proves the chaotic bands can significantly expand the bandwidth for wave suppression. Enhancing the nonlinearity will vary the behavior of nonlinear bandgaps from independent state to coupling state and then experience a transition. Approaches to manipulate bands are elucidated. The strong nonlinearity is beneficial to expand the total width about 6 times. Moreover, lightweight, low-frequency and broadband characteristics are compatible so can be achieved simultaneously for nonlinear acoustic metamaterial.

  13. Acoustic metamaterial bar with non-linear spring-mass cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guochang; He, Ge; Sun, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present experimental and theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial bar that exhibits negative effective mass and negative effective stiffness. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial bar with an group of non-linear spring-mass cells in was fabricated. The frequency characteristics of the acoustic metamaterial have the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the simulation results. And numerical simulations reveal that the actual working mechanism of the proposed metamaterial bar is based on the concept of conventional mechanical vibration absorbers. It uses the incoming elastic wave in the bar to resonate the integrated spring-mass-damper absorbers to vibrate in their optical mode at frequencies close to but above their local resonance frequencies to create shear forces and bending moments to straighten the bar and stop the wave propagation. Moreover, we design a finite periodic system composed of such basic units to confirm that the modeling and analysis techniques are available.

  14. Discrete dissipative localized modes in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Rosanov, Nikolay N; Vysotina, Nina V; Shatsev, Anatoly N; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2011-12-19

    We analyze the existence, stability, and propagation of dissipative discrete localized modes in one- and two-dimensional nonlinear lattices composed of weakly coupled split-ring resonators (SRRs) excited by an external electromagnetic field. We employ the near-field interaction approach for describing quasi-static electric and magnetic interaction between the resonators, and demonstrate the crucial importance of the electric coupling, which can completely reverse the sign of the overall interaction between the resonators. We derive the effective nonlinear model and analyze the properties of nonlinear localized modes excited in one-and two-dimensional lattices. In particular, we study nonlinear magnetic domain walls (the so-called switching waves) separating two different states of nonlinear magnetization, and reveal the bistable dependence of the domain wall velocity on the external field. Then, we study two-dimensional localized modes in nonlinear lattices of SRRs and demonstrate that larger domains may experience modulational instability and splitting.

  15. Low-power all-optical tunable plasmonic-mode coupling in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2014-03-31

    All-optical tunable plasmonic-mode coupling is realized in a nonlinear photonic metamaterial consisting of periodic arrays of gold asymmetrically split ring resonators, covered with a poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(disperse red 13 acrylate)] azobenzene polymer layer. The third-order optical nonlinearity of the azobenzene polymer is enormously enhanced by using resonant excitation. Under excitation with a 17-kW/cm{sup 2}, 532-nm pump light, plasmonic modes shift by 51 nm and the mode interval is enlarged by 30 nm. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by five orders of magnitude, while extremely large tunability is maintained.

  16. Low-power all-optical tunable plasmonic-mode coupling in nonlinear metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-03-01

    All-optical tunable plasmonic-mode coupling is realized in a nonlinear photonic metamaterial consisting of periodic arrays of gold asymmetrically split ring resonators, covered with a poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(disperse red 13 acrylate)] azobenzene polymer layer. The third-order optical nonlinearity of the azobenzene polymer is enormously enhanced by using resonant excitation. Under excitation with a 17-kW/cm2, 532-nm pump light, plasmonic modes shift by 51 nm and the mode interval is enlarged by 30 nm. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by five orders of magnitude, while extremely large tunability is maintained.

  17. Multiple omnidirectional defect modes and nonlinear magnetic-field effects in metamaterial photonic superlattices with a polaritonic defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Uriza, A. X.; Reyes Gómez, F.; Mejía-Salazar, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    We report the existence of multiple omnidirectional defect modes in the zero-nbar gap of photonic stacks, made of alternate layers of conventional dielectric and double-negative metamaterial, with a polaritonic defect layer. In the case of nonlinear magnetic metamaterials, the optical bistability phenomenon leads to switching from negligible to perfect transmission around these defect modes. We hope these findings have potential applications in the design and development of multichannel optical filters, power limiters, optical-diodes and optical-transistors.

  18. III-V semiconductor nanoresonators-a new strategy for passive, active, and nonlinear all-dielectric metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Sheng; Keeler, Gordon A.; Reno, John L.; ...

    2016-06-10

    We demonstrate 2D and multilayer dielectric metamaterials made from III–V semiconductors using a monolithic fabrication process. The resulting structures could be used to recompress chirped femtosecond optical pulses and in a variety of other optical applications requiring low loss. Moreover, these III–V all-dielectric metamaterials could enable novel active applications such as efficient nonlinear frequency converters, light emitters, detectors, and modulators.

  19. Tamm states at the interface between a conventional material and a one dimensional photonic crystal with metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra O, G.; Granada E, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Using the Green's function formalism, Tamm states of localized modes are investigated at the interface separating auniform conventional material and a one-dimensional semi-infinite photonic crystal consisting of a series of alternating conventional materials and metamaterials. We investigate how the presence of such metamaterials influences the band structure of collective modes that appear in the photonic crystal, with special attention to the power spectrum of collective excitations and the dispersion relations. It is shown that there is one localized backward TE mode with frequencies below the resonance frequency of the metamaterial magnetic permeability and above such frequency there are one forward TM, and two backward TM and TE localized modes.

  20. Broadband and tunable one-dimensional strongly nonlinear acoustic metamaterials: Theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xin; Wen, Jihong; Yin, Jianfei; Yu, Dianlong; Xiao, Yong

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on the dispersion properties and mechanism of the one-dimensional strongly nonlinear acoustic metamaterials (NAMMs) based on the homotopy method. The local bifurcation mechanism, which is different from conventional local resonance, is found. It is demonstrated that the local period-doubling bifurcation of multiple cells will induce chaotic bands in the NAMMs, which can significantly expand the bandwidth for wave suppression. The saddle-node bifurcation leads the system state jumping to the chaotic branch. Furthermore, the amplitude-dependent dispersion properties enable NAMMs to manipulate elastic waves externally. Study of broadband tunable abilities reveals that stronger nonlinearity (larger nonlinear coefficient or higher amplitude) presents a broader nonlinear band gap and larger transmission loss. Moreover, with less attached mass, a low frequency and broadband are achievable simultaneously. This research may provide useful approaches for elastic wave control.

  1. Ultralow-power all-optical tunable dual Fano resonances in nonlinear metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-11-01

    Dual Fano resonances are realized in a nonlinear photonic metamaterial consisting of periodic arrays of asymmetrical meta-molecules etched in a gold film coated with azobenzene polymer layer made of poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(disperse red 13 acrylate)]. Enormously enhanced photoisomerization associated with resonant excitation brings about a large refractive index variation in the azobenzene polymer. Under excitation of a weak pump light as low as 0.61 kW/cm2, a large shift of 50 nm in the Fano resonance wavelength is obtained. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by seven orders of magnitude while a large tunability is maintained simultaneously.

  2. Spatially-dispersive surface modes on interfaces of layered hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Vladislav; Novitsky, Andrey

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present the study of influence of spatial dispersion on the existence of surface modes on the interfaces with multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs). To that end we employ operator effective medium approximation correcting the Maxwell Garnett approximation. We find out the strong effect of the layer order on the dispersion of surface waves and reveal the dispersion curves missing in the Maxwell Garnett approximation. It is also shown that due to spatial dispersion layered HMMs can sustain TE-polarized surfaces modes.

  3. Nonlinear ultrasonic imaging of imperfectly bonded interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Murase, Morimasa; Yamada, Ryuzo; Matsushima, Masamichi; Uematsu, Mituyoshi; Fujita, Fumio

    2006-12-22

    A nonlinear ultrasonic imaging system is developed for detecting and imaging damages and defects with nm order gaps in industrial materials, which were undetectable by conventional ultrasonic imaging systems. A high power pulser generating large amplitude incident waves and high gain receiver with high-pass or band-pass filters extracting the second harmonic signals are combined with a conventional C-scan imaging system. The system is applied to visualize fiber/matrix debondings or matrix crackings in CFRP plates. It also visualizes anomalous substructures in amorphous diffusion-bonded interfaces, spot-welded nuggets, and projection-welded interfaces. This system would be also useful to detect semi-closed cracks whose opening is in nm order.

  4. Nano-structured magnetic metamaterial with enhanced nonlinear properties.

    PubMed

    Kobljanskyj, Yuri; Melkov, Gennady; Guslienko, Konstantin; Novosad, Valentyn; Bader, Samuel D; Kostylev, Michael; Slavin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Nano-structuring can significantly modify the properties of materials. We demonstrate that size-dependent modification of the spin-wave spectra in magnetic nano-particles can affect not only linear, but also nonlinear magnetic response. The discretization of the spectrum removes the frequency degeneracy between the main excitation mode of a nano-particle and the higher spin-wave modes, having the lowest magnetic damping, and reduces the strength of multi-magnon relaxation processes. This reduction of magnon-magnon relaxation for the main excitation mode leads to a dramatic increase of its lifetime and amplitude, resulting in the intensification of all the nonlinear processes involving this mode. We demonstrate this experimentally on a two-dimensional array of permalloy nano-dots for the example of parametric generation of a sub-harmonic of an external microwave signal. The characteristic lifetime of this sub-harmonic is increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the case of a continuous magnetic film, where magnon-magnon relaxation limits the lifetime.

  5. Nano-structured magnetic metamaterial with enhanced nonlinear properties

    PubMed Central

    Kobljanskyj, Yuri; Melkov, Gennady; Guslienko, Konstantin; Novosad, Valentyn; Bader, Samuel D.; Kostylev, Michael; Slavin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Nano-structuring can significantly modify the properties of materials. We demonstrate that size-dependent modification of the spin-wave spectra in magnetic nano-particles can affect not only linear, but also nonlinear magnetic response. The discretization of the spectrum removes the frequency degeneracy between the main excitation mode of a nano-particle and the higher spin-wave modes, having the lowest magnetic damping, and reduces the strength of multi-magnon relaxation processes. This reduction of magnon-magnon relaxation for the main excitation mode leads to a dramatic increase of its lifetime and amplitude, resulting in the intensification of all the nonlinear processes involving this mode. We demonstrate this experimentally on a two-dimensional array of permalloy nano-dots for the example of parametric generation of a sub-harmonic of an external microwave signal. The characteristic lifetime of this sub-harmonic is increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the case of a continuous magnetic film, where magnon-magnon relaxation limits the lifetime. PMID:22745899

  6. Negative effective mass in acoustic metamaterial with nonlinear mass-in-mass subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.; Zukovic, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper the dynamics of the nonlinear mass-in-mass system as the basic subsystem of the acoustic metamaterial is investigated. The excitation of the system is in the form of the Jacobi elliptic function. The corresponding model to this forcing is the mass-in-mass system with cubic nonlinearity of the Duffing type. Mathematical model of the motion is a system of two coupled strong nonlinear and nonhomogeneous second order differential equations. Particular solution to the system is obtained. The analytical solution of the problem is based on the simple and double integral of the cosine Jacobi function. In the paper the integrals are given in the form of series of trigonometric functions. These results are new one. After some modification the simplified solution in the first approximation is obtained. The result is convenient for discussion. Conditions for elimination of the motion of the mass 1 by connection of the nonlinear dynamic absorber (mass - spring system) are defined. In the consideration the effective mass ratio is introduced in the nonlinear mass-in-mass system. Negative effective mass ratio gives the absorption of vibrations with certain frequencies. The advantage of the nonlinear subunit in comparison to the linear one is that the frequency gap is significantly wider. Nevertheless, it has to be mentioned that the amplitude of vibration differs from zero for a small value. In the paper the analytical results are compared with numerical one and are in agreement.

  7. Quasi-phase-matching of the dual-band nonlinear left-handed metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yahong Song, Kun; Gu, Shuai; Liu, Zhaojun; Guo, Lei; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Xin

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate a type of nonlinear meta-atom creating a dual-band nonlinear left-handed metamaterial (DNLHM). The DNLHM operates at two distinct left-handed frequency bands where there is an interval of one octave between the two center frequencies. Under the illumination of a high-power signal at the first left-handed frequency band corresponding to fundamental frequency (FF), second-harmonic generation (SHG) is observed at the second left-handed band. This means that our DNLHM supports backward-propagating waves both at FF and second-harmonic (SH) frequency. We also experimentally demonstrate quasi-phase-matching configurations for the backward SHG. This fancy parametric process can significantly transmits the SH generated by an incident FF wave.

  8. A nonlinear negative stiffness metamaterial unit cell and small-on-large multiscale material model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, Timothy; Haberman, Michael R.

    2013-07-01

    A persistent challenge in the design of composite materials is the ability to fabricate materials that simultaneously display high stiffness and high loss factors for the creation of structural elements capable of passively suppressing vibro-acoustic energy. Relevant recent research has shown that it is possible to produce composite materials whose macroscopic mechanical stiffness and loss properties surpass those of conventional composites through the addition of trace amounts of materials displaying negative stiffness (NS) induced by phase transformation [R. S. Lakes et al., Nature 410, 565-567 (2001)]. The present work investigates the ability to elicit NS behavior without employing physical phenomena such as inherent nonlinear material behavior (e.g., phase change or plastic deformation) or dynamic effects, but rather the controlled buckling of small-scale structural elements, metamaterials, embedded in a continuous viscoelastic matrix. To illustrate the effect of these buckled elements, a nonlinear hierarchical multiscale material model is derived, which estimates the macroscopic stiffness and loss of a composite material containing pre-strained microscale structured inclusions. The multiscale model consists of two scale transition models, the first being an energy-based nonlinear finite element (FE) method to determine the tangent modulus of the metamaterial unit cell, and the other a classical analytical micromechanical model to determine the effective stiffness and loss tensors of a heterogeneous material for small perturbations from the local strain state of the unit cells. The FE method enables the estimation of an effective nonlinear anisotropic stiffness tensor of a buckled microstructure that produces NS and is sufficiently general to consider geometries different from those given in this work.

  9. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahi R.

    2014-03-31

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  10. Orbital angular momentum of helical necklace beams in colloid-based nonlinear optical metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walasik, Wiktor T.; Silahli, Salih Z.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2016-09-01

    Colloidal metamaterials are a robust and flexible platform for engineering of optical nonlinearities and studies of light filamentation. To date, nonlinear propagation and modulation instability of Gaussian beams and optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum were studied in such media. Here, we investigate the propagation of necklace beams and the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in colloidal media with saturable nonlinearity. We study various scenarios leading to generation of helical necklace beams or twisted beams, depending on the radius, power, and charge of the input vortex beam. Helical beams are build of two separate solitary beams with circular cross-sections that spiral around their center of mass as a result of the equilibrium between the attraction force of in-phase solitons and the centrifugal force associated with the rotational movement. A twisted beam is a single beam with an elliptical cross-section that rotates around it's own axis. We show that the orbital angular momentum is converted into the rotational motion at different rates for helical and twisted beams. While earlier studies reported that solitary beams are expelled form the initial vortex ring along straight trajectories tangent to the vortex ring, we show that depending on the charge and the power of the initial beam, these trajectories can diverge from the tangential direction and may be curvilinear. These results provide a detailed description of necklace beam dynamics in saturable nonlinear media and may be useful in studies of light filamentation in liquids and light propagation in highly scattering colloids and biological samples.

  11. Using the group of non-linear cells design metamaterial bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Song, Xin; Hu, Xiaolei; Gu, Jinliang

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the wave propagation in one-dimensional metamaterial bar with attached group of non-linear local oscillators by using analytical and numerical models. The focus is on the influence of group of non-linear cells on the filtering properties of the bar in the 1000Hz to 2000Hz range. Group of Periodic cells with alternating properties exhibit interesting dynamic characteristics that enable them to act as filters. Waves can propagate along bars within specific bands of frequencies called pass bands, and attenuate within bands of frequencies called gaps. Gaps in structures with group of periodic cells are located according on the frequency of cells. From the cell, we can yield the effect negative stiffness and effect negative mass. We can also design the gaps from attached oscillators or cells. In the uniform case the gap is located around the resonant frequency of the oscillators, and thus a stop band can be created in the lower frequency range. In the case with group of non-linear cells the results show that the position of the gap can be designed, and the design depends on the amplitude and the degree of non-linear cells.

  12. Strong nonlinear focusing of light in nonlinearly controlled electromagnetic active metamaterial field concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.

    2014-05-01

    The idea of nonlinear ‘transformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects

  13. Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation at the interface of two different nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; An, Ning; Deng, Xuewei; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-06-13

    We discuss the nonlinear response due to the spatial modulation of the second-order susceptibility at the interface between two nonlinear media, and experimentally demonstrate that the nonlinear Cherenkov radiation is enhanced by the interface of two nonlinear crystals with a large disparity in χ(2). In our experiment, the intensity of the nonlinear Cherenkov radiation generated at the nonlinear interface was approximately 4 to 10 times that at the crystal boundary. This result suggests potential applications to efficient frequency conversion.

  14. Ultralow-power all-optical tunable dual Fano resonances in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2013-11-04

    Dual Fano resonances are realized in a nonlinear photonic metamaterial consisting of periodic arrays of asymmetrical meta-molecules etched in a gold film coated with azobenzene polymer layer made of poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(disperse red 13 acrylate)]. Enormously enhanced photoisomerization associated with resonant excitation brings about a large refractive index variation in the azobenzene polymer. Under excitation of a weak pump light as low as 0.61 kW/cm{sup 2}, a large shift of 50 nm in the Fano resonance wavelength is obtained. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by seven orders of magnitude while a large tunability is maintained simultaneously.

  15. Enhanced energy transport owing to nonlinear interface interaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-20

    It is generally expected that the interface coupling leads to the suppression of thermal transport through coupled nanostructures due to the additional interface phonon-phonon scattering. However, recent experiments demonstrated that the interface van der Waals interactions can significantly enhance the thermal transfer of bonding boron nanoribbons compared to a single freestanding nanoribbon. To obtain a more in-depth understanding on the important role of the nonlinear interface coupling in the heat transports, in the present paper, we explore the effect of nonlinearity in the interface interaction on the phonon transport by studying the coupled one-dimensional (1D) Frenkel-Kontorova lattices. It is found that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing interface nonlinear intensity for weak inter-chain nonlinearity. By developing the effective phonon theory of coupled systems, we calculate the dependence of heat conductivity on interfacial nonlinearity in weak inter-chain couplings regime which is qualitatively in good agreement with the result obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we demonstrate that, with increasing interface nonlinear intensity, the system dimensionless nonlinearity strength is reduced, which in turn gives rise to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. Our results pave the way for manipulating the energy transport through coupled nanostructures for future emerging applications.

  16. Enhanced energy transport owing to nonlinear interface interaction

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    It is generally expected that the interface coupling leads to the suppression of thermal transport through coupled nanostructures due to the additional interface phonon-phonon scattering. However, recent experiments demonstrated that the interface van der Waals interactions can significantly enhance the thermal transfer of bonding boron nanoribbons compared to a single freestanding nanoribbon. To obtain a more in-depth understanding on the important role of the nonlinear interface coupling in the heat transports, in the present paper, we explore the effect of nonlinearity in the interface interaction on the phonon transport by studying the coupled one-dimensional (1D) Frenkel-Kontorova lattices. It is found that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing interface nonlinear intensity for weak inter-chain nonlinearity. By developing the effective phonon theory of coupled systems, we calculate the dependence of heat conductivity on interfacial nonlinearity in weak inter-chain couplings regime which is qualitatively in good agreement with the result obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we demonstrate that, with increasing interface nonlinear intensity, the system dimensionless nonlinearity strength is reduced, which in turn gives rise to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. Our results pave the way for manipulating the energy transport through coupled nanostructures for future emerging applications. PMID:26787363

  17. SQUID metamaterials on a Lieb lattice: From flat-band to nonlinear localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2017-08-01

    The dynamic equations for the fluxes through the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that form a two-dimensional metamaterial on a Lieb lattice are derived and then linearized around zero flux to obtain the linear frequency spectrum according to the standard procedure. That spectrum due to the Lieb lattice geometry possesses a frequency band structure exhibiting two characteristic features: two dispersive bands, which form a Dirac cone at the corners of the first Brillouin zone and a flat band crossing the Dirac points. It is demonstrated numerically that localized states can be excited in the system when it is initialized with single-site excitations; depending on the amplitude of those initial states, the localization is either due to the flat-band or to nonlinear effects. Flat-band localized states are formed in the nearly linear regime, whereas localized excitations of the discrete breather type are formed in the nonlinear regime. These two regimes are separated by an intermediate turbulent regime for which no localization is observed. Notably, initial single-site excitations of only edge SQUIDs of a unit cell may end up in flat-band localized states; no such states are formed for initial single-site excitations of a corner SQUID of a unit cell. The degree of localization of the resulting states is in any case quantified using well-established measures, such as the energetic participation ratio and the second moment.

  18. Atomic layer deposited second-order nonlinear optical metamaterial for back-end integration with CMOS-compatible nanophotonic circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmen, Stéphane; Hermans, Artur; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Koskinen, Kalle; Kauranen, Martti; Brainis, Edouard; Detavernier, Christophe; Baets, Roel

    2015-11-01

    We report the fabrication of artificial unidimensional crystals exhibiting an effective bulk second-order nonlinearity. The crystals are created by cycling atomic layer deposition of three dielectric materials such that the resulting metamaterial is non-centrosymmetric in the direction of the deposition. Characterization of the structures by second-harmonic generation Maker-fringe measurements shows that the main component of their nonlinear susceptibility tensor is about 5 pm/V which is comparable to well-established materials and more than an order of magnitude greater than reported for a similar crystal [1-Alloatti et al, arXiv:1504.00101[cond-mat.mtrl- sci

  19. Nonlinear Spectroscopu of Nanoparticle/Aqueous Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    water interface. 2009, Abstracts, 238th ACS National Meeting, Washington, D.C. Polarity of polystyrene colloid/aqueous interface with second harmonic...interface polarizes the bulk water molecules and generates a significant SHG signal by a third order process, often referred to as the χ(3) method where...contribution and B is the effective third order contribution due to the polarized water , and Φ is the electrostatic potential at the charged surface

  20. Collapse of optical wave arrested by cross-phase modulation in nonlinear metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinggui; Li, Ying; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Lei, Dajun; Zhang, Lifu

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we put forward a novel strategy to realize the management of wave collapse through designing probe-pump configuration where probe wave is assumed to propagate in the positive-index region of metamaterials (MMs), while pump wave is assumed to propagate in the negative-index region. We disclose that cross-phase modulation (XPM) in MMs as a new physical mechanism that can be used to arrest the collapse of probe wave in the positive-index region by copropagating it together with pump wave in the negative-index region. Further, we observe that pump wave will evolve into a ring while probe wave will develop a side lob in the wings during the course of coupled waves propagation, different from the corresponding counterpart in the ordinary positive-index materials (OMs) where they simultaneously exhibit the catastrophic self-focusing behavior. Meanwhile, we also discuss how to control the collapse of probe wave by adjusting intensity-detuned pump wave. Our analysis is performed by directly numerically solving the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, as well as using the variational approximation, both showing consistent results. The finding demonstrates XPM as a specific physical mechanism in MMs can provide us unique opportunities unattainable in OMs to manipulate self-focusing of high-power laser.

  1. Atomic layer deposited second-order nonlinear optical metamaterial for back-end integration with CMOS-compatible nanophotonic circuitry.

    PubMed

    Clemmen, Stéphane; Hermans, Artur; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Koskinen, Kalle; Kauranen, Martti; Brainis, Edouard; Detavernier, Christophe; Baets, Roel

    2015-11-15

    We report the fabrication of artificial unidimensional crystals exhibiting an effective bulk second-order nonlinearity. The crystals are created by cycling atomic layer deposition of three dielectric materials such that the resulting metamaterial is noncentrosymmetric in the direction of the deposition. Characterization of the structures by second-harmonic generation Maker-fringe measurements shows that the main component of their nonlinear susceptibility tensor is about 5 pm/V, which is comparable to well-established materials and more than an order of magnitude greater than reported for a similar crystal [Appl. Phys. Lett.107, 121903 (2015)APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.4931492]. Our demonstration opens new possibilities for second-order nonlinear effects on CMOS-compatible nanophotonic platforms.

  2. Measurements of Nonlinear Harmonic Waves at Cracked Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Barnard, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Nonlinear harmonic waves generated at cracked interfaces are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A compact tension specimen is fabricated and the amplitude of transmitted wave is analyzed as a function of position along the fatigued crack surface. In order to measure as many nonlinear harmonic components as possible a broadband Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) transducers are employed together with a calibration technique for making absolute amplitude measurements with fluid-coupled receiving transducers. Cracked interfaces are shown to generate high acoustic nonlinearities which are manifested as harmonics in the power spectrum of the received signal. The first subharmonic (f/2) and the second harmonic (2f) waves are found to be dominant nonlinear components for an incident toneburst signal of frequency f. To explain the observed nonlinear behavior a partially closed crack is modeled by planar half interfaces that can account for crack parameters such as crack opening displacement and crack surface conditions. The simulation results show reasonable agreements with the experimental results.

  3. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy of surfactants at liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, Paulo B.

    1998-12-14

    Surfactants are widely used to modify physical and chemical properties of interfaces. They play an important role in many technological problems. Surfactant monolayer are also of great scientific interest because they are two-dimensional systems that may exhibit a very rich phase transition behavior and can also be considered as a model system for biological interfaces. In this Thesis, we use a second-order nonlinear optical technique (Sum-Frequency Generation - SFG) to obtain vibrational spectra of surfactant monolayer at Iiquidhapor and solid/liquid interfaces. The technique has several advantages: it is intrinsically surface-specific, can be applied to buried interfaces, has submonolayer sensitivity and is remarkably sensitive to the confirmational order of surfactant monolayers.

  4. Discrete solitons in graphene metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bludov, Yu. V.; Smirnova, D. A.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonlinear properties of multilayer metamaterials created by graphene sheets separated by dielectric layers. We demonstrate that such structures can support localized nonlinear modes described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation and that its solutions are associated with stable discrete plasmon solitons. We also analyze the nonlinear surface modes in truncated graphene metamaterials being a nonlinear analog of surface Tamm states.

  5. Rogue wave train generation in a metamaterial induced by cubic-quintic nonlinearities and second-order dispersion.

    PubMed

    Essama, Bedel Giscard Onana; Atangana, Jacques; Frederick, Biya Motto; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of the electromagnetic wave that propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. Second-order dispersion and cubic-quintic nonlinearities are taken into account. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for absorption regime. The collective coordinates technique is used to characterize the light pulse intensity profile at some frequency ranges. Five frequency ranges have been pointed out. The perfect combination of second-order dispersion and cubic nonlinearity leads to a robust soliton at each frequency range for negative index regime. The soliton peak power progressively decreases for absorption regime. Further, this peak power also decreases with frequency. We show that absorption regime can induce rogue wave trains generation at a specific frequency range. However, this rogue wave trains generation is maintained when the quintic nonlinearity comes into play for negative index regime and amplified for absorption regime at a specific frequency range. It clearly appears that rogue wave behavior strongly depends on the frequency and the regime considered. Furthermore, the stability conditions of the electromagnetic wave have also been discussed at frequency ranges considered for both negative index and absorption regimes.

  6. Reflection of a Gaussian beam from a nonlinear interface.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1980-09-15

    A numerical analysis of the reflection of a two dimensional Gaussian beam from the interface between a linear and a nonlinear medium is presented. The refractive index of the nonlinear medium is a function of the intensity of the radiation field, having a smaller value than the linear refractive index for zero field intensity. The Gaussian beam is incident from the linear medium and suffers total reflection at low intensity. At sufficiently high intensity nonlinear effects are observed. Above a threshold value the incident beam breaks up into a reflected wave and a surface wave. Once the beam is sufficiently strong for a surface wave to form, its interaction with the boundary becomes surprisingly independent of field intensity; but for very strong fields the reflectivity is increased at the expense of the surface wave. A very different behavior is observed when the refractive index is constrained to remain below a certain maximum value. Now the field detaches itself from the surface and penetrates into the nonlinear medium forming one or more distinct beams. The plane wave theory predicts the existence of hysteresis so that two different solutions should exist for the same physical parameters. A second solution was indeed found in one case with constrained refractive index, but its validity is somewhat uncertain at this time.

  7. Tunable surface waves at the interface separating different graphene-dielectric composite hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Gric, Tatjana; Hess, Ortwin

    2017-05-15

    Despite the fact that metal is the most common conducting constituent element in the fabrication of metamaterials, one of the advantages of graphene over metal is that its conductivity can be controlled by the Fermi energy. Here, we theoretically investigate multilayer structures comprising alternating graphene and dielectric layers as a class of hyperbolic metamaterials for THz frequencies based on a general simple model of the graphene and the dielectric layers. By employing a method of matching the tangential components of the electrical and magnetic fields, we derive the relevant dispersion relations and demonstrate that tuning can be achieved by modifying the Fermi energy. Moreover, tunability of the graphene-dielectric heterostructures can be enhanced further by changing either the thickness of the dielectric layers or the number of graphene sheets employed. Calculated dispersion relations, propagation lengths of plasmon modes in the system are presented. This allows us to characterize and categorize the modes into two groups: Ferrel-Berreman modes and surface plasmon polaritons.

  8. Nonlinear optical studies of aqueous interfaces, polymers, and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, Robert Michael

    -transfer-to-solvent band and a Langmuir adsorption model are used to determine the affinity of bromide for both the air/water and dodecanol/water interfaces in the molar concentration regime. The Gibbs free energy of adsorption for the former is determined to be -1.4 kJ/mol with a lower 90% confidence limit of -4.1 kJ/mol. For the dodecanol/water interface the data are best fit with a Gibbs free energy of +8 kJ/mol with an estimated a lower limit of -4 kJ/mol. Adsorption of ions to the air/water interface in the millimolar regime is a particularly interesting phenomenon. In Chapter 4, the affinity of sodium chloride and sodium bromide to the air/water interface is probed by UV-SHG. Both salts exhibit a strong adsorption, with free energies greater than -20 kJ/mol. Interestingly, sodium chloride exhibits a stronger affinity for the interface than does sodium iodide, which was previously studied by Poul Peterson. This is counter to both experimental and theoretical results for higher concentrations. It has been predicted that ion adsorption is dictated by strong and opposing electrostatic and entropic forces. The change in order of ion interfacial affinity can be explained by relatively small changes in these forces at different concentrations and ionic strengths. In Chapters 5 and 6, other work using nonlinear optical techniques is described. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is a promising tool for chemically selective imaging based on molecular vibrations. While CARS is currently used as a biological imaging tool, many variations are still being developed, perhaps the most important being multiplex CARS microscopy. Multiplex CARS has the advantage of comparing images based on different molecular vibrations without changing the excitation wavelengths. In Chapter 5, I demonstrate both high spectral and spatial resolution multiplex CARS imaging of polymer films using a simple scheme for chirped CARS with a spectral bandwidth of 300 cm-1. In Chapter 6, the nonlinear optical

  9. Metamaterials: Metamaterials go Gattaca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Andrea R.

    2014-01-01

    DNA tethers guide the self-assembly of colloidal metal nanoparticles into three-dimensional optical metamaterials. The observation of epsilon-near-zero behaviour in nanoparticle-based materials indicates that bottom-up assembly may be a viable solution to current challenges in the manufacture of metamaterials.

  10. From metamaterials to metadevices.

    PubMed

    Zheludev, Nikolay I; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-11-01

    Metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic media that are structured on the subwavelength scale, were initially suggested for the negative-index 'superlens'. Later metamaterials became a paradigm for engineering electromagnetic space and controlling propagation of waves: the field of transformation optics was born. The research agenda is now shifting towards achieving tunable, switchable, nonlinear and sensing functionalities. It is therefore timely to discuss the emerging field of metadevices where we define the devices as having unique and useful functionalities that are realized by structuring of functional matter on the subwavelength scale. In this Review we summarize research on photonic, terahertz and microwave electromagnetic metamaterials and metadevices with functionalities attained through the exploitation of phase-change media, semiconductors, graphene, carbon nanotubes and liquid crystals. The Review also encompasses microelectromechanical metadevices, metadevices engaging the nonlinear and quantum response of superconductors, electrostatic and optomechanical forces and nonlinear metadevices incorporating lumped nonlinear components.

  11. Optomechanical soft metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiangjun; He, Wei; Liu, Yifan; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2017-06-01

    We present a new type of optomechanical soft metamaterials, which is different from conventional mechanical metamaterials, in that they are simple isotropic and homogenous materials without resorting to any complex nano/microstructures. This metamaterial is unique in the sense that its responses to uniaxial forcing can be tailored by programmed laser inputs to manifest different nonlinear constitutive behaviors, such as monotonic, S-shape, plateau, and non-monotonic snapping performance. To demonstrate the novel metamaterial, a thin sheet of soft material impinged by two counterpropagating lasers along its thickness direction and stretched by an in-plane tensile mechanical force is considered. A theoretical model is formulated to characterize the resulting optomechanical behavior of the thin sheet by combining the nonlinear elasticity theory of soft materials and the optical radiation stress theory. The optical radiation stresses predicted by the proposed model are validated by simulations based on the method of finite elements. Programmed optomechanical behaviors are subsequently explored using the validated model under different initial sheet thicknesses and different optical inputs, and the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of the metamaterial are used to plot the phase diagram of its nonlinear constitutive behaviors. The proposed optomechanical soft metamaterial shows great potential in biological medicine, microfluidic manipulation, and other fields.

  12. Enhanced nonlinear inspection of diffusion bonded interfaces using reflected non-collinear ultrasonic wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyin; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic wave mixing has shown promising potential for assessing otherwise hidden subtle imperfections in imperfect diffusion bonds between Ti-6Al-4V components. When interrogating a diffusion bonded specimen using non-collinear shear wave mixing, both bulk and interface nonlinearity will contribute to the transmitted nonlinear signal. Although a recent study has shown that changing the transducer alignment can suppress the intrinsic nonlinearity of the surrounding material to some extent so that the interface nonlinearity could be detected more selectively, it is still difficult to distinguish different levels of bond quality based on the detected transmitted signal only. Analytical and numerical studies showed that an imperfect interface generates the same amount of nonlinear displacement in the reflected and transmitted fields. In this study, we used the reflected nonlinear interface signature to characterize diffusion bonded interfaces. Our results indicate that it is better to use the reflected nonlinear interface signature to assess the bond quality, which is in agreement with our previous analytical and numerical predictions. However, the observed random phase of the reflected signature indicates that existing nonlinear interface models are insufficient for accurately describing the nonlinear interaction of shear incident waves with high-quality diffusion bonded interfaces.

  13. Second-harmonic generation from atomic-scale ABC-type laminate optical metamaterials (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloatti, Luca; Kieninger, Clemens M.; Frölich, Andreas M.; Lauermann, Matthias; Frenzel, Tobias; Köhnle, Kira; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Koos, Christian; Wegener, Martin

    2015-09-01

    [invited] We introduce ABC laminate metamaterials composed of layers of three different dielectrics. Each layer has zero bulk second-order optical nonlinearity, yet centro-symmetry is broken locally at each inner interface. To achieve appreciable effective bulk metamaterial second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, we densely pack many inner surfaces to a stack of atomically thin layers grown by conformal atomic-layer deposition. For the ABC stack, centro-symmetry is also broken macroscopically. Our experimental results for excitation at around 800 nm wavelength indicate interesting application perspectives for frequency conversion or electro-optic modulation in silicon photonics.

  14. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction of electroencephalogram (EEG) for Brain Computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Teli, Mohammad Nayeem; Anderson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Patterns in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are analyzed for a Brain Computer Interface (BCI). An important aspect of this analysis is the work on transformations of high dimensional EEG data to low dimensional spaces in which we can classify the data according to mental tasks being performed. In this research we investigate how a Neural Network (NN) in an auto-encoder with bottleneck configuration can find such a transformation. We implemented two approximate second-order methods to optimize the weights of these networks, because the more common first-order methods are very slow to converge for networks like these with more than three layers of computational units. The resulting non-linear projections of time embedded EEG signals show interesting separations that are related to tasks. The bottleneck networks do indeed discover nonlinear transformations to low-dimensional spaces that capture much of the information present in EEG signals. However, the resulting low-dimensional representations do not improve classification rates beyond what is possible using Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) on the original time-lagged EEG.

  15. Snapping mechanical metamaterials under tension.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Abdolhamid; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-10-21

    A snapping mechanical metamaterial is designed, which exhibits a sequential snap-through behavior under tension. The tensile response of this mechanical metamaterial can be altered by tuning the architecture of the snapping segments to achieve a range of nonlinear mechanical responses, including monotonic, S-shaped, plateau, and non-monotonic snap-through behavior.

  16. Resonant nonlinear optics of backward waves in negative-index metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. K.; Myslivets, S. A.; Shalaev, V. M.

    2009-08-01

    The extraordinary properties of resonant four-wave mixing of backward and ordinary electromagnetic waves in doped negative-index materials are investigated. The feasibility of independent engineering of the negative refractive index and the nonlinear optical response as well as quantum control of the nonlinear propagation process in such composites is shown due to the coherent energy transfer from a control field to a signal field. Laser-induced transparency, quantum switching, frequency-tunable narrow-band filtering, amplification, and realizing a miniature mirrorless optical parametric generator of the entangled backward and ordinary waves are among the possible applications of the investigated processes.

  17. Goos-Hänchen shifts of Helmholtz solitons at nonlocal nonlinear interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiwei, Shi; Jing, Xue; Jilong, Chen; Yang, Li; Huagang, Li

    2015-02-01

    We address the nonlinear Goos-Hänchen shift of Helmholtz solitons at a nonlocal nonlinear interface between a Kerr medium and a nonlocal nonlinear medium. Based on the framework of the Helmholtz theory, we have demonstrated that the Goos-Hänchen shift depends on the angle of the incidence, the linear and nonlinear refractive index mismatch at the interface, the nonparaxial parameter and the degree of nonlocality. Interestingly, internal and external refraction can be introduced when the nonlinear refractive index mismatch is greater than a threshold value. The total reflection will occur when the degree of nonlocality exceeds a value.

  18. Nonlinear plasmonics in eutectic composites: Second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence in a volumetric Bi2O3-Ag metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deska, R.; Sadecka, K.; Olesiak-Bańska, J.; Matczyszyn, K.; Pawlak, D. A.; Samoć, M.

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic generation can be very strong when originating from nanoplasmonic structures, due to enhancement of the surrounding material's intrinsic non-linear optical properties or due to its occurrence as a result of the plasmonic structure. However, manufacturing of large-scale three dimensional nanoplasmonic structures is still a challenge. Here, we demonstrate the two-photon luminescence and second-harmonic generation in a Bi2O3-Ag eutectic-based metamaterial exhibiting a hierarchic structure of nano- and micro-sized silver precipitates. The investigations employed a microscope system combined with polarimetric analysis. It appears that the second-harmonic-generation arises from the silver plasmonic structure rather than from the nonlinear effects of the bismuth oxide matrix. Both quadrupolar and dipolar modes of polarization are observed.

  19. Designed Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearity in a Plasmonic Nanorod Metamaterial Enhanced by Nonlocality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    interactions in conventional materials, particularly at high switching rates3. Here, we show that the recently discovered nonlocal optical behaviour of... power all-optical information processing in subwavelength-scale devices. An increased photon–photon interaction and, consequently, the nonlinear optical...behaviour of the optical properties of metals is very fast, ranging from tens of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds in different regimes, depending on the

  20. Tamm plasmon-polariton with negative group velocity induced by a negative index meta-material capping layer at metal-Bragg reflector interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cunding; Kong, Mingdong; Li, Bincheng

    2014-05-05

    Influence of a negative refractive index meta-material (NIM) capping layer on properties of Tamm plasmon-polariton at the interface of metal-Bragg reflector structure is investigated. Conditions for excitation of the plasmon-polariton is determined from reflectivity mapping calculation and analyzed with cavity mode theory. For specific thicknesses of capping layers, Tamm plasmon-polariton with negative group velocity is revealed in a wide region of frequency. Different from backward optical propagation induced by negative effective-group-refractive-index in dispersive media, negative group velocity of Tamm plasmon-polariton results from opposite signs of cross-section-integrated field energy and Poynting vector.

  1. Interface node behavior due to nonlinearities in a 2D Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Rosenblatt, Charles; Carles, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    We report a quantitative study on the symmetry effect of nonlinearities in a typical Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability for a single-mode sinusoidal initial perturbation. We use the interface zero-crossings (nodes) to monitor the asymmetrical deformation of the interface due to the growth of nonlinear odd harmonics. A weakly nonlinear model is developed and compared to measurements of node positions in fourteen RT experiments performed using the magnetic levitation technique. Our results suggest that monitoring the nodes' spatial displacement over time is a powerful technique for detecting the first nonlinear harmonic, and more broadly, exploring the transitional regime between linearity and fully-developed nonlinearity. The nodes approach provides a metric complementary to the deformation amplitude, which is widely used to measure the amplitude effect of nonlinearities in most interface instabilities. Acknowledgments: International Relations UPMC, Partner University Fund, Fulbright Foundation.

  2. Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-05-01

    Metamaterials, artificial composite structures with exotic material properties, have emerged as a new frontier of science involving physics, material science, engineering and chemistry. This critical review focuses on the fundamentals, recent progresses and future directions in the research of electromagnetic metamaterials. An introduction to metamaterials followed by a detailed elaboration on how to design unprecedented electromagnetic properties of metamaterials is presented. A number of intriguing phenomena and applications associated with metamaterials are discussed, including negative refraction, sub-diffraction-limited imaging, strong optical activities in chiral metamaterials, interaction of meta-atoms and transformation optics. Finally, we offer an outlook on future directions of metamaterials research including but not limited to three-dimensional optical metamaterials, nonlinear metamaterials and "quantum" perspectives of metamaterials (142 references).

  3. Absolute measurement of ultrasonic non-linearity parameter at contact interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Maodan; Lee, Taekgyu; Kang, To; Zhang, Jianhai; Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Hak-Joon

    2015-10-01

    Non-linear interaction of waves with contact interfaces has been widely applied in non-destructive evaluation fields such as bonding quality evaluation, and the detection of closed microcracks and composite delamination. This paper proposes an absolute measurement of the ultrasonic non-linearity parameter using a piezoelectric detection method for two aluminum alloy blocks of different lengths. The results of a two-dimensional finite element method model verified by models for hard and soft contact interfaces, depending on the interface property, were compared with the measured non-linearity parameter. The measured values show good agreement with the modelled results, indicating good potential for measuring the non-linearity parameter at interfaces experimentally and numerically.

  4. Numerical and experimental study of the nonlinear interaction between a shear wave and a frictional interface.

    PubMed

    Blanloeuil, Philippe; Croxford, Anthony J; Meziane, Anissa

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of shear waves with a frictional interface are presented and modeled using simple Coulomb friction. Analytical and finite difference implementations are proposed with both in agreement and showing a unique trend in terms of the generated nonlinearity. A dimensionless parameter ξ is proposed to uniquely quantify the nonlinearity produced. The trends produced in the numerical study are then validated with good agreement experimentally. This is carried out loading an interface between two steel blocks and exciting this interface with different amplitude normal incidence shear waves. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, suggesting the simple friction model does a reasonable job of capturing the fundamental physics. The resulting approach offers a potential way to characterize a contacting interface; however, the difficulty in activating that interface may ultimately limit its applicability.

  5. Reconfigurable nanomechanical photonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Plum, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The changing balance of forces at the nanoscale offers the opportunity to develop a new generation of spatially reconfigurable nanomembrane metamaterials in which electromagnetic Coulomb, Lorentz and Ampère forces, as well as thermal stimulation and optical signals, can be engaged to dynamically change their optical properties. Individual building blocks of such metamaterials, the metamolecules, and their arrays fabricated on elastic dielectric membranes can be reconfigured to achieve optical modulation at high frequencies, potentially reaching the gigahertz range. Mechanical and optical resonances enhance the magnitude of actuation and optical response within these nanostructures, which can be driven by electric signals of only a few volts or optical signals with power of only a few milliwatts. We envisage switchable, electro-optical, magneto-optical and nonlinear metamaterials that are compact and silicon-nanofabrication-technology compatible with functionalities surpassing those of natural media by orders of magnitude in some key design parameters.

  6. Reconfigurable nanomechanical photonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zheludev, Nikolay I; Plum, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The changing balance of forces at the nanoscale offers the opportunity to develop a new generation of spatially reconfigurable nanomembrane metamaterials in which electromagnetic Coulomb, Lorentz and Ampère forces, as well as thermal stimulation and optical signals, can be engaged to dynamically change their optical properties. Individual building blocks of such metamaterials, the metamolecules, and their arrays fabricated on elastic dielectric membranes can be reconfigured to achieve optical modulation at high frequencies, potentially reaching the gigahertz range. Mechanical and optical resonances enhance the magnitude of actuation and optical response within these nanostructures, which can be driven by electric signals of only a few volts or optical signals with power of only a few milliwatts. We envisage switchable, electro-optical, magneto-optical and nonlinear metamaterials that are compact and silicon-nanofabrication-technology compatible with functionalities surpassing those of natural media by orders of magnitude in some key design parameters.

  7. Tensional acoustomechanical soft metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tianjian

    2016-06-01

    We create acoustomechanical soft metamaterials whose response to uniaxial tensile stressing can be easily tailored by programming acoustic wave inputs, resulting in force versus stretch curves that exhibit distinct monotonic, s-shape, plateau and non-monotonic snapping behaviors. We theoretically demonstrate this unique metamaterial by considering a thin soft material sheet impinged by two counter-propagating ultrasonic wave inputs across its thickness and stretched by an in-plane uniaxial tensile force. We establish a theoretical acoustomechanical model to describe the programmable mechanics of such soft metamaterial, and introduce the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of its force versus stretch curve to boundary different behaviors that appear during deformation. The proposed phase diagrams for the underlying nonlinear mechanics show promising prospects for designing tunable and switchable photonic/phononic crystals and microfluidic devices that harness snap-through instability.

  8. Tensional acoustomechanical soft metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tianjian

    2016-01-01

    We create acoustomechanical soft metamaterials whose response to uniaxial tensile stressing can be easily tailored by programming acoustic wave inputs, resulting in force versus stretch curves that exhibit distinct monotonic, s-shape, plateau and non-monotonic snapping behaviors. We theoretically demonstrate this unique metamaterial by considering a thin soft material sheet impinged by two counter-propagating ultrasonic wave inputs across its thickness and stretched by an in-plane uniaxial tensile force. We establish a theoretical acoustomechanical model to describe the programmable mechanics of such soft metamaterial, and introduce the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of its force versus stretch curve to boundary different behaviors that appear during deformation. The proposed phase diagrams for the underlying nonlinear mechanics show promising prospects for designing tunable and switchable photonic/phononic crystals and microfluidic devices that harness snap-through instability. PMID:27264106

  9. Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Hess, O; Pendry, J B; Maier, S A; Oulton, R F; Hamm, J M; Tsakmakidis, K L

    2012-06-21

    Optical metamaterials and nanoplasmonics bridge the gap between conventional optics and the nanoworld. Exciting and technologically important capabilities range from subwavelength focusing and stopped light to invisibility cloaking, with applications across science and engineering from biophotonics to nanocircuitry. A problem that has hampered practical implementations have been dissipative metal losses, but the efficient use of optical gain has been shown to compensate these and to allow for loss-free operation, amplification and nanoscopic lasing. Here, we review recent and ongoing progress in the realm of active, gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic metamaterials. On introducing and expounding the underlying theoretical concepts of the complex interaction between plasmons and gain media, we examine the experimental efforts in areas such as nanoplasmonic and metamaterial lasers. We underscore important current trends that may lead to improved active imaging, ultrafast nonlinearities on the nanoscale or cavity-free lasing in the stopped-light regime.

  10. Tensional acoustomechanical soft metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tianjian

    2016-06-06

    We create acoustomechanical soft metamaterials whose response to uniaxial tensile stressing can be easily tailored by programming acoustic wave inputs, resulting in force versus stretch curves that exhibit distinct monotonic, s-shape, plateau and non-monotonic snapping behaviors. We theoretically demonstrate this unique metamaterial by considering a thin soft material sheet impinged by two counter-propagating ultrasonic wave inputs across its thickness and stretched by an in-plane uniaxial tensile force. We establish a theoretical acoustomechanical model to describe the programmable mechanics of such soft metamaterial, and introduce the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of its force versus stretch curve to boundary different behaviors that appear during deformation. The proposed phase diagrams for the underlying nonlinear mechanics show promising prospects for designing tunable and switchable photonic/phononic crystals and microfluidic devices that harness snap-through instability.

  11. An Active Metamaterial Platform for Chiral Responsive Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Lan, Shoufeng; Cui, Yonghao; Rodrigues, Sean P; Liu, Yongmin; Werner, Douglas H; Cai, Wenshan

    2015-08-05

    Chiral-selective non-linear optics and optoelectronic signal generation are demonstrated in an electrically active photonic metamaterial. The metamaterial reveals significant chiroptical responses in both harmonic generation and the photon drag effect, correlated to the resonance behavior in the linear regime. The multifunctional chiral metamaterial with dual electrical and optical functionality enables transduction of chiroptical responses to electrical signals for integrated photonics.

  12. Terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; Taylor, Antoineete J; Azad, Abul K; O' Hara, John F

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent developments in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and devices. Planar THz metamaterials and their complementary structures fabricated on suitable substrates have shown electric resonant response, which causes the band-pass or band-stop property in THz transmission and reflection. The operational frequency can be further tuned up to 20% upon photoexcitation of an integrated semiconductor region in the splitring resonators as the metamaterial elements. On the other hand, the use of semiconductors as metamaterial substrates enables dynamical control of metamaterial resonances through photoexcitation, and reducing the substrate carrier lifetime further enables an ultrafast switching recovery. The metamaterial resonances can also be actively controlled by application of a voltage bias when they are fabricated on semiconductor substrates with appropriate doping concentration and thickness. Using this electrically driven approach, THz modulation depth up to 80% and modulation speed of 2 MHz at room temperature have been demonstrated, which suggests practical THz applications.

  13. Bianisotropic metamaterial

    DOEpatents

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Reinke, Charles M.

    2017-07-18

    The topology of the elements of a metamaterial can be engineered from its desired electromagnetic constitutive tensor using an inverse group theory method. Therefore, given a desired electromagnetic response and a generic metamaterial elemental design, group theory is applied to predict the various ways that the element can be arranged in three dimensions to produce the desired functionality. An optimizer can then be applied to an electromagnetic modeling tool to fine tune the values of the electromagnetic properties of the resulting metamaterial topology.

  14. Metamaterial membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena.

  15. Application of Interface Technology in Nonlinear Analysis of a Stitched/RFI Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Ransom, Jonathan B.

    1997-01-01

    A recently developed interface technology was successfully employed in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of a full-scale stitched/RFI composite wing box loaded in bending. The technology allows mismatched finite element models to be joined in a variationally consistent manner and reduces the modeling complexity by eliminating transition meshing. In the analysis, local finite element models of nonlinearly deformed wide bays of the wing box are refined without the need for transition meshing to the surrounding coarse mesh. The COMET-AR finite element code, which has the interface technology capability, was used to perform the analyses. The COMET-AR analysis is compared to both a NASTRAN analysis and to experimental data. The interface technology solution is shown to be in good agreement with both. The viability of interface technology for coupled global/local analysis of large scale aircraft structures is demonstrated.

  16. An Energy Approach to a Micromechanics Model Accounting for Nonlinear Interface Debonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.; Huang, Y.; Geubelle, P. H.; Liu, C.; Breitenfeld, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a micromechanics model to study the effect of nonlinear interface debonding on the constitutive behavior of composite materials. While implementing this micromechanics model into a large simulation code on solid rockets, we are challenged by problems such as tension/shear coupling and the nonuniform distribution of displacement jump at the particle/matrix interfaces. We therefore propose an energy approach to solve these problems. This energy approach calculates the potential energy of the representative volume element, including the contribution from the interface debonding. By minimizing the potential energy with respect to the variation of the interface displacement jump, the traction balanced interface debonding can be found and the macroscopic constitutive relations established. This energy approach has the ability to treat different load conditions in a unified way, and the interface cohesive law can be in any arbitrary forms. In this paper, the energy approach is verified to give the same constitutive behaviors as reported before.

  17. Widely varying giant Goos-Hänchen shifts from Airy beams at nonlinear interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Sánchez-Curto, Julio; Aceves, Alejandro B; McDonald, Graham S

    2014-03-15

    We present a numerical study of the giant Goos-Hänchen shifts (GHSs) obtained from an Airy beam impinging on a nonlinear interface. To avoid any angular restriction associated with the paraxial approximation, the analysis is based on the nonlinear Helmholtz equation. We report the existence of nonstandard nonlinear GHSs displaying an extreme sensitivity to the input intensity and the existence of multiple critical values. These intermittent and oscillatory regimes can be explained in terms of competition between critical coupling to a surface mode and soliton emission from the refracted beam component and how this interplay varies with localization of the initial Airy beam.

  18. Asymmetric matter-wave solitons at nonlinear interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Torner, Lluis

    2006-12-15

    We predict the existence and study the basic properties of strongly asymmetric matter wave solitons that form at the interface produced by regions with different interatomic interaction strengths in pancake Bose-Einstein condensates. We address several types of surface solitons featuring topologically complex structures, including vortex and dipole-mode solitons. We found that the soliton becomes significantly asymmetric for a high number of particles in the condensate. Yet we reveal that under suitable conditions, that we elucidate, even such strongly asymmetric dipole and vortex solitons can be dynamically stable over wide regions of their existence domains.

  19. Frequency Conversion of Short Optical Pulses in Negatively Spatially Dispersive Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-22

    Short Optical Pulses inNegatively Spatially Dispersive Metamaterials We show that particular spatial distributions of nanoscopic plasmonic building...distributions of nanoscopic plasmonic building blocks in metamaterials may enable extraordinary nonlinear-optical frequency-shifted reflectivity and...particular spatial distributions of nanoscopic plasmonic building blocks in metamaterials may enable extraordinary nonlinear-optical frequency-shifted

  20. Uranium(IV) Interaction with Aqueous/Solid Interfaces Studied by Nonlinear Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Franz

    2015-03-27

    This is the Final Technical Report for "Uranium(IV) Interaction with Aqueous/Solid Interfaces Studied by Nonlinear Optics", by Franz M. Geiger, PI, from Northwestern University, IL, USA, Grant Number SC0004101 and/or DE-PS02-ER09-07.

  1. Interface width effect on the classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the weakly nonlinear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Li, Y. J.

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, the interface width effects (i.e., the density gradient effects or the density transition layer effects) on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in the weakly nonlinear (WN) regime are investigated by numerical simulation (NS). It is found that the interface width effects dramatically influence the linear growth rate in the linear growth regime and the mode coupling process in the WN growth regime. First, the interface width effects decrease the linear growth rate of the RTI, particularly for the short perturbation wavelengths. Second, the interface width effects suppress (reduce) the third-order feedback to the fundamental mode, which induces the nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) to exceed the classical prediction, 0.1lambda. The wider the density transition layer is, the larger the NSA is. The NSA in our NS can reach a half of its perturbation wavelength. Finally, the interface width effects suppress the generation and the growth of the second and the third harmonics. The ability to suppress the harmonics' growth increases with the interface width but decreases with the perturbation wavelength. On the whole, in the WN regime, the interface width effects stabilize the RTI, except for an enhancement of the NSA, which is expected to improve the understanding of the formation mechanism for the astrophysical jets, and for the jetlike long spikes in the high energy density physics.

  2. Investigating molecule-semiconductor interfaces with nonlinear spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giokas, Paul George

    Knowledge of electronic structures and transport mechanisms at molecule-semiconductor interfaces is motivated by their ubiquity in photoelectrochemical cells. In this dissertation, optical spectroscopies are used uncover the influence of electronic coupling, coherent vibrational motion, and molecular geometry, and other factors on dynamics initiated by light absorption at such interfaces. These are explored for a family of ruthenium bipyridyl chromophores bound to titanium dioxide. Transient absorption measurements show molecular singlet state electron injection in 100 fs or less. Resonance Raman intensity analysis suggests the electronic excitations possess very little charge transfer character. The connections drawn in this work between molecular structure and photophysical behavior contribute to the general understanding of photoelectrochemical cells. Knowledge of binding geometry in nanocrystalline films is challenged by heterogeneity of semiconductor surfaces. Polarized resonance Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize the ruthenium chromophore family on single crystal titanium dioxide . Chromophores display a broad distribution of molecular geometries at the interface, with increased variation in binding angle due to the presence of a methylene bridge, as well as additional phosphonate anchors. This result implies multiple binding configurations for chromophores which incorporate multiple phosphonate ligands, and indicates the need for careful consideration when developing surface-assembled chromophore-catalyst cells. Electron transfer transitions occurring on the 100 fs time scale challenge conventional second-order approximations made when modeling these reactions. A fourth-order perturbative model which includes the relationship between coincident electron transfer and nuclear relaxation processes is presented. Insights provided by the model are illustrated for a two-level donor molecule. The presented fourth-order rate formula constitutes a rigorous

  3. Modal Substructuring of Geometrically Nonlinear Finite Element Models with Interface Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Kuether, Robert J.; Allen, Matthew S.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    2017-03-29

    Substructuring methods have been widely used in structural dynamics to divide large, complicated finite element models into smaller substructures. For linear systems, many methods have been developed to reduce the subcomponents down to a low order set of equations using a special set of component modes, and these are then assembled to approximate the dynamics of a large scale model. In this paper, a substructuring approach is developed for coupling geometrically nonlinear structures, where each subcomponent is drastically reduced to a low order set of nonlinear equations using a truncated set of fixedinterface and characteristic constraint modes. The method usedmore » to extract the coefficients of the nonlinear reduced order model (NLROM) is non-intrusive in that it does not require any modification to the commercial FEA code, but computes the NLROM from the results of several nonlinear static analyses. The NLROMs are then assembled to approximate the nonlinear differential equations of the global assembly. The method is demonstrated on the coupling of two geometrically nonlinear plates with simple supports at all edges. The plates are joined at a continuous interface through the rotational degrees-of-freedom (DOF), and the nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) of the assembled equations are computed to validate the models. The proposed substructuring approach reduces a 12,861 DOF nonlinear finite element model down to only 23 DOF, while still accurately reproducing the first three NNMs of the full order model.« less

  4. Terahertz metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Peralta, Xomalin Guaiuli; Brener, Igal; O'Hara, John; Azad, Abul; Smirnova, Evgenya; Williams, John D.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2014-08-12

    Terahertz metamaterials comprise a periodic array of resonator elements disposed on a dielectric substrate or thin membrane, wherein the resonator elements have a structure that provides a tunable magnetic permeability or a tunable electric permittivity for incident electromagnetic radiation at a frequency greater than about 100 GHz and the periodic array has a lattice constant that is smaller than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Microfabricated metamaterials exhibit lower losses and can be assembled into three-dimensional structures that enable full coupling of incident electromagnetic terahertz radiation in two or three orthogonal directions. Furthermore, polarization sensitive and insensitive metamaterials at terahertz frequencies can enable new devices and applications.

  5. THz bandwidth optical switching with carbon nanotube metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Chipouline, Arkadi; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2012-03-12

    We provide the first demonstration of exceptional light-with-light optical switching performance of a carbon nanotube metamaterial - a hybrid nanostructure of a plasmonic metamaterial with semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. A modulation depth of 10% in the near-IR with sub-500 fs response time is achieved with a pump fluence of just 10 μJ/cm², which is an order of magnitude lower than in previously reported artificial nanostructures. The improved switching characteristics of the carbon nanotube metamaterial are defined by an excitonic nonlinearity of carbon nanotubes resonantly enhanced by a concentration of local fields in the metamaterial. Since the spectral position of the excitonic response and metamaterial plasmonic resonance can be adjusted by using carbon nanotubes of different diameter and scaling of the metamaterial design, the giant nonlinear response of the hybrid metamaterial - in principle - can be engineered to cover the entire second and third telecom windows, from O- to U-band.

  6. Nonlinear stress deformation behavior of interfaces stabilized by food-based ingredients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagis, L. M. C.; Humblet-Hua, K. N. P.; van Kempen, S. E. H. J.

    2014-11-01

    Interfaces stabilized by food-based ingredients, such as proteins or glycolipids, often display nonlinear behavior when subjected to oscillatory dilatational deformations, even at the lowest deformation amplitudes which can currently be applied experimentally. Here we show that classical approaches to extract dilatational properties, based on the Young-Laplace equation, may not always be suitable to analyze data. We discuss a number of examples of food-ingredient stabilized interfaces (interfaces stabilized by protein fibrils, protein-polysaccharide complexes and oligosaccharide-fatty aid conjugates) and show how an analysis of the dynamic surface tension signal using Lissajous plots and a protocol which includes deformation amplitude and droplet size variations, can be used to obtain a more detailed and accurate description of their nonlinear dilatational behavior.

  7. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in engineered optical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchinitser, Natalia

    In this talk, we consider fundamental optical phenomena at the interface of nonlinear and singular optics in artificial media, including theoretical and experimental studies of linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions of vector and singular optical beams in metamaterials. We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to ``engineer'' light itself. Thanks to their ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, metamaterials open new degrees of freedom for tailoring complex polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. We will discuss several approaches to structured light manipulation on the nanoscale using metal-dielectric, all-dielectric and hyperbolic metamaterials. These new functionalities, including polarization and OAM conversion, beam magnification and de-magnification, and sub-wavelength imaging using novel non-resonant hyperlens are likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. The emergence of metamaterials also has a strong potential to enable a plethora of novel nonlinear light-matter interactions and even new nonlinear materials. In particular, nonlinear focusing and defocusing effects are of paramount importance for manipulation of the minimum focusing spot size of structured light beams necessary for nanoscale trapping, manipulation, and fundamental spectroscopic studies. Colloidal suspensions offer as a promising platform for engineering polarizibilities and realization of large and tunable nonlinearities. We will present our recent studies of the phenomenon of spatial modulational instability leading to laser beam filamentation in an engineered soft-matter nonlinear medium. Finally, we introduce so-called virtual hyperbolic metamaterials formed by an array of plasma channels in air as a result of self-focusing of an intense laser pulse, and show that such structure can be used to manipulate microwave beams in a free space. This

  8. Origin of optical bistability and hysteretic reflectivity on account of nonlinearity at optically induced gallium silica interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arvind; Nagar, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    The origin of optical bistability and hysterectic reflectivity on account of nonlinearity at optically induced Gallium silica interface has been investigated. Assuming the wave to be incident from the gallium nano particle layer side at gallium silica interface. The coupling between incident and reflected waves has shown nonlinear effects on Snell's law and Fresnel law. Effect of these nonlinear processes optical bistability and hysterectic reflectivity theoretically has been investigated. Theoretical results obtained are consistent with the available experimental results.

  9. Linear and nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor growth at strongly convergent spherical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Tabak, M

    2005-12-22

    Recent attention has focused on the effect of spherical convergence on the nonlinear phase of Rayleigh-Taylor growth. For instability growth on spherically converging interfaces, modifications to the predictions of the Layzer model for the secular growth of a single, nonlinear mode have been reported [D. S. Clark and M. Tabak, Phys. Rev. E 72, 0056308 (2005).]. However, this model is limited in assuming a self-similar background implosion history as well as only addressing growth from a perturbation of already nonlinearly large amplitude. Additionally, only the case of single-mode growth was considered and not the multimode growth of interest in applications. Here, these deficiencies are remedied. First, the connection of the recent nonlinear results including convergence to the well-known results for the linear regime of growth is demonstrated. Second, the applicability of the model to more general implosion histories (i.e., not self-similar) is shown. Finally, to address the case of multimode growth with convergence, the recent nonlinear single mode results are combined with the Haan model formulation for weakly nonlinear multimode growth. Remarkably, convergence in the nonlinear regime is found not to modify substantially the multimode predictions of Haan's original model.

  10. Digital metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.

  11. Nonlinear internal wave at the interface of two-layer liquid due to a moving hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Changhong; Zou, Li; Wang, Qianxi; Ding, Qi

    2017-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the internal wave at the interface of two layers of liquids due to a hydrofoil in the lower layer liquid. The two-layer fluid is assumed moving parallel to the interface at different velocities. The stratified flow is modeled based on the incompressible potential flow theory, with the nonlinear boundary conditions at the interface. Boundary integral equations are formulated for the fully nonlinear interfacial wave generated by the hydrofoil. The numerical model results in a set of nonlinear algebra equations, which are solved using the quasi-Newton method. We show that the quasi-Newton method is more efficient than Newton's method, which is often used for solving these types of equations in the literature. The wave profiles were analyzed in terms of the location and thickness of the hydrofoil, the Froude number, and the ratio of the densities of the two fluids. The computations show that the interfacial wave amplitude showed a trend first of increase and then of decrease with the distance between the hydrofoil and the still interface.

  12. Transmission and reflection of strongly nonlinear solitary waves at granular interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tichler, A M; Gómez, L R; Upadhyaya, N; Campman, X; Nesterenko, V F; Vitelli, V

    2013-07-26

    The interaction of a solitary wave with an interface formed by two strongly nonlinear noncohesive granular lattices displays rich behavior, characterized by the breakdown of continuum equations of motion in the vicinity of the interface. By treating the solitary wave as a quasiparticle with an effective mass, we construct an intuitive (energy- and linear-momentum-conserving) discrete model to predict the amplitudes of the transmitted solitary waves generated when an incident solitary-wave front, parallel to the interface, moves from a denser to a lighter granular hexagonal lattice. Our findings are corroborated with simulations. We then successfully extend this model to oblique interfaces, where we find that the angle of refraction and reflection of a solitary wave follows, below a critical value, an analogue of Snell's law in which the solitary-wave speed replaces the speed of sound, which is zero in the sonic vacuum.

  13. Non-linear conduction in LaCaMnO 3 thin films: interface tunneling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, V. S.; Araújo, J. P.; Lourenço, A. A. C. S.; Tavares, P. B.; Pogorelov, Yu. G.; Sousa, J. B.; Vieira, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    Non-linear resistivity in La 0.78Ca 0.25MnO 3 epitaxial thin films is studied using 2-contact dynamic measurements. Non-linear V- I is obtained below Tc (˜220 K). Evaporated gold or direct silver-paste contacts give similar results. d V/d I at high voltages (˜1 V) follows the usual four-point resistance results, but at lower voltages an additional contribution up to 2 orders of magnitude higher develops at low temperatures. These effects are associated with tunneling processes at the metal/manganite interface.

  14. Acceleration and deceleration phase nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor growth at spherical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Tabak, M

    2005-04-08

    The Layzer model for the nonlinear evolution of bubbles in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability has recently been generalized to the case of spherically imploding interfaces [D. S. Clark and M. Tabak, to appear, PRE (2005).]. The spherical case is more relevant to, e.g., inertial confinement fusion or various astrophysical phenomena when the convergence is strong or the perturbation wavelength is comparable to the interface curvature. Here, the model is further extended to the case of bubble growth during the deceleration (stagnation) phase of a spherical implosion and to the growth of spikes during both the acceleration and deceleration phases. Differences in the nonlinear growth rates for both bubbles and spikes are found when compared with planar results. The model predictions are verified by comparison with numerical hydrodynamics simulations.

  15. Acceleration- and deceleration-phase nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor growth at spherical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel S; Tabak, Max

    2005-11-01

    The Layzer model for the nonlinear evolution of bubbles in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability has recently been generalized to the case of spherically imploding interfaces [D. S. Clark and M. Tabak, Phys. Rev. E 71, 055302(R) (2005)]. The spherical case is more relevant to, e.g., inertial confinement fusion or various astrophysical phenomena when the convergence is strong or the perturbation wavelength is comparable to the interface curvature. Here, the model is further extended to the case of bubble growth during the deceleration (stagnation) phase of a spherical implosion and to the growth of spikes during both the acceleration and deceleration phases. Differences in the nonlinear growth rates for both bubbles and spikes are found when compared with planar results. The model predictions are verified by comparison with numerical hydrodynamics simulations.

  16. A Reflective Nonlinear Acoustic Microscope to Contour the Quantitative Adhesion at a Bonded Solid-Solid Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, De; Liu, Xiao-Zhou

    2014-09-01

    We set up a reflective nonlinear acoustic microscope to contour the quantitative adhesion at a bonded solid-solid interface by a contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) method. The principle of the reflective nonlinear acoustic microscope is described. After the vibration amplitude of the incident, focusing wave at the bonded interface is calculated, the standard adhesion with a complete bonding state is established by the tension test, the reflective CAN parameter is calibrated, and the quantitative contour of the adhesion at the interface can be obtained. The experimental contours of two samples are also presented. Compared with the transmitted microscope, the reflective one is more convenient and more suitable for practical applications.

  17. Weakly nonlinear incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth at cylindrically convergent interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. F.; Wu, J. F.; Ye, W. H.; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.

    2013-04-01

    A weakly nonlinear (WN) model has been developed for the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in cylindrical geometry. The transition from linear to nonlinear growth is analytically investigated via a third-order solutions for the cylindrical RTI initiated by a single-mode velocity perturbation. The third-order solutions can depict the early stage of the interface asymmetry due to the bubble-spike formation, as well as the saturation of the linear (exponential) growth of the fundamental mode. The WN results in planar RTI [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 112706 (2012)] are recovered in the limit of high-mode number perturbations. The difference between the WN growth of the RTI in cylindrical geometry and in planar geometry is discussed. It is found that the interface of the inward (outward) development spike/bubble is extruded (stretched) by the additional inertial force in cylindrical geometry compared with that in planar geometry. For interfaces with small density ratios, the inward growth bubble can grow fast than the outward growth spike in cylindrical RTI. Moreover, a reduced formula is proposed to describe the WN growth of the RTI in cylindrical geometry with an acceptable precision, especially for small-amplitude perturbations. Using the reduced formula, the nonlinear saturation amplitude of the fundamental mode and the phases of the Fourier harmonics are studied. Thus, it should be included in applications where converging geometry effects play an important role, such as the supernova explosions and inertial confinement fusion implosions.

  18. Weakly nonlinear incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth at cylindrically convergent interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F.; He, X. T.; Wu, J. F.; Zhang, W. Y.; Ye, W. H.

    2013-04-15

    A weakly nonlinear (WN) model has been developed for the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in cylindrical geometry. The transition from linear to nonlinear growth is analytically investigated via a third-order solutions for the cylindrical RTI initiated by a single-mode velocity perturbation. The third-order solutions can depict the early stage of the interface asymmetry due to the bubble-spike formation, as well as the saturation of the linear (exponential) growth of the fundamental mode. The WN results in planar RTI [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 112706 (2012)] are recovered in the limit of high-mode number perturbations. The difference between the WN growth of the RTI in cylindrical geometry and in planar geometry is discussed. It is found that the interface of the inward (outward) development spike/bubble is extruded (stretched) by the additional inertial force in cylindrical geometry compared with that in planar geometry. For interfaces with small density ratios, the inward growth bubble can grow fast than the outward growth spike in cylindrical RTI. Moreover, a reduced formula is proposed to describe the WN growth of the RTI in cylindrical geometry with an acceptable precision, especially for small-amplitude perturbations. Using the reduced formula, the nonlinear saturation amplitude of the fundamental mode and the phases of the Fourier harmonics are studied. Thus, it should be included in applications where converging geometry effects play an important role, such as the supernova explosions and inertial confinement fusion implosions.

  19. Non-Linear Stability of an Electrified Plane Interface in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dib, Yusry O.; Moatimid, Galal M.

    2004-03-01

    The non-linear electrohydrodynamic stability of capillary-gravity waves on the interface between two semi-infinite dielectric fluids is investigated. The system is stressed by a vertical electric field in the presence of surface charges. The work examines a few representative porous media configurations. The analysis includes Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The boundary - value problem leads to a non-linear equation governing the surface evolution. Taylor theory is adopted to expand this equation, in the light of multiple scales, in order to obtain a non-linear Schr¨odinger equation describing the behavior of the perturbed interface. The latter equation, representing the amplitude of the quasi-monochromatic traveling wave, is used to describe the stability criteria. These criteria are discussed both analytically and numerically. In order to identifiy regions of stability and instability, the electric field intensity is plotted versus the wave number. Through a linear stability approach it is found that Darcy's coefficients have a destabilizing influence, while in the non-linear scope these coefficients as well as the electric field intensity play a dual role on the stability.

  20. Nonlinear evolution of an isolated disturbance at two-phase flow interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Gennaro; Capuano, Francesco; de Luca, Luigi

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear evolution of an isolated, finite-amplitude disturbance at the interface between two immiscible fluids of different density is simulated by means of a discrete vortex method. In contrast to the more standard periodic disturbance, that evolves into the familiar train of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) linear waves, the single-wave scenario possess unique features that are not yet well known. The aim of the present contribution is to provide a physical modeling of the nonlinear wave evolution, and to highlight the features that distinguish the nonlinear case from the classical KH model. Numerical simulations are carried out as well. The two-phase interface is represented by a discrete vortex sheet, whose dynamics is simulated by a point vortex method that accounts for density stratification, surface tension and gravity. It is found that the nonlinear wave speed is different from the one predicted by the classical KH theory, as a consequence of the different topology of streamlines. The instability onset threshold, as well as other flowfield properties also change accordingly.

  1. Terahertz antireflection coatings using metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; Zhou, Jiangfeng; O' Hara, John F; Azad, Abul K; Chen, Frank; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate terahertz metamaterial antireflection coatings (ARCs) that significantly reduce the reflection and enhance the transmission at an interface of dielectric media. They are able to operate over a wide range of incidence angles for both TM and TE polarizations. Experiments and finite-element simulations will be presented and discussed.

  2. Nonlinear shear wave interaction at a frictional interface: energy dissipation and generation of harmonics.

    PubMed

    Meziane, A; Norris, A N; Shuvalov, A L

    2011-10-01

    Analytical and numerical modeling of the nonlinear interaction of shear wave with a frictional interface is presented. The system studied is composed of two homogeneous and isotropic elastic solids, brought into frictional contact by remote normal compression. A shear wave, either time harmonic or a narrow band pulse, is incident normal to the interface and propagates through the contact. Two friction laws are considered and the influence on interface behavior is investigated: Coulomb's law with a constant friction coefficient and a slip-weakening friction law which involves static and dynamic friction coefficients. The relationship between the nonlinear harmonics and the dissipated energy, and the dependence on the contact dynamics (friction law, sliding, and tangential stress) and on the normal contact stress are examined in detail. The analytical and numerical results indicate universal type laws for the amplitude of the higher harmonics and for the dissipated energy, properly non-dimensionalized in terms of the pre-stress, the friction coefficient and the incident amplitude. The results suggest that measurements of higher harmonics can be used to quantify friction and dissipation effects of a sliding interface.

  3. Buckling in a topological metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeussen, Anne; Paulose, Jayson; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the nonlinear response of mechanical metamaterials paves the way toward designing materials with adaptive and tunable mechanical properties. Buckling, a change in load-bearing state from axial compression to off-axis deformation, is a ubiquitous nonlinear instability that is often exploited to change the local or global mechanical response in metamaterials composed of slender elements. We create localized buckling regions in cellular metamaterials by engineering states of self-stress, regions where the response is dominated by stretching or compression of the constituent beams rather than bending at the stiff hinges connecting them. Unique to our approach is the use of topological states of self-stress, which originate in a topological invariant that characterizes the vibrational spectrum of the repeating unit cell. Unlike typical states of self-stress which result from additional geometric constraints induced by excess beams in a region, these topological states do not change the number of beams at each hinge. We demonstrate the phenomenon through numerical calculations of the linear response of the proposed metamaterial, and through experiments probing the nonlinear regime including localized buckling at specific regions.

  4. Broadband Tunable Transparency in rf SQUID Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ustinov, Alexey; Anlage, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a metamaterial with broadband tunable transparency in microwave electromagnetic fields. This metamaterial is made of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf SQUIDs). We show both experimentally and theoretically that the resonance of this metamaterial totally disappears when illuminated with electromagnetic waves of certain power ranges, so that waves can propagate through the metamaterial with little dissipation in a wide frequency spectrum. Unlike traditional electromagnetically induced transparency, high transmission through this metamaterial is due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the rf SQUID. Transparency occurs when the metamaterial enters its bistability regime. We can control the metamaterial to be transparent or opaque by switching between the two states depending on the initial conditions and signal scanning directions. We also show that the degree of transparency can be tuned by temperature, power of the incident wave, and dc magnetic field and discuss analytical and numerical models that reveal how to systematically control the transparency regime. The metamaterial has potential application in fast tunable digital filter, power limiter and auto-cloaking. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  5. Chains of Metamaterials for Guiding and Antenna Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Italy, April 11-15, 2011, (invited talk). C2. Y. Zhao, and A. Alù, “Broadband Circular Polarizer Formed by Stacked Plasmonic Metasurfaces ,” in...in the Homogenization of Metamaterials and Metasurfaces ,” in Proceedings of Metamaterials 2010, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 16-19, 2010, (invited...talk). C6. P. Y. Chen, and A. Alù, “Optical Metamaterials and Metasurfaces Formed by Nanoantennas Loaded by Nonlinear Materials,” in Proceedings of

  6. Bistability in mushroom-type metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, David E.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2017-07-01

    Here, we study the electromagnetic response of asymmetric mushroom-type metamaterials loaded with nonlinear elements. It is shown that near a Fano resonance, these structures may have a strong tunable, bistable, and switchable response and enable giant nonlinear effects. By using an effective medium theory and full wave simulations, it is proven that the nonlinear elements may allow the reflection and transmission coefficients to follow hysteresis loops, and to switch the metamaterial between "go" and "no-go" states similar to an ideal electromagnetic switch.

  7. Simple model for linear and nonlinear mixing at unstable fluid interfaces in spherical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ramshaw, J.D.

    1999-08-01

    A simple model was recently described for predicting linear and nonlinear mixing at an unstable planar fluid interface subjected to an arbitrary time-dependent variable acceleration history [J. D. Ramshaw, Phys. Rev. E {bold 58}, 5834 (1998)]. Here we present an analogous model for describing the mixing of two adjacent spherical fluid shells of different density resulting from an arbitrary time-dependent mean interface radius R(t). As in the planar case, the model is based on a heuristic expression for the kinetic energy of the system. This expression is based on that for the kinetic energy of a linearly perturbed interface, but with a dynamically renormalized effective wavelength which becomes proportional to the half-width a(t) of the mixing layer in the nonlinear regime. An equation of motion for s=R{sup 2}a is then derived from Lagrange{close_quote}s equations. This evolution equation properly reduces to Plesset{close_quote}s equation for small perturbations, and to the previous planar model in the limit of very large R. The conservation properties of the model are established, and a suitable numerical scheme which preserves these properties is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Coupling between interface and velocity perturbations in the weakly nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; He, X. T.; Wu, J. F.; Fan, Z. F.; Zhang, W. Y.; Dai, Z. S.; Gu, J. F.; Xue, C.

    2012-11-15

    Weakly nonlinear (WN) Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) initiated by single-mode cosinusoidal interface and velocity perturbations is investigated analytically up to the third order. Expressions of the temporal evolutions of the amplitudes of the first three harmonics are derived. It is shown that there are coupling between interface and velocity perturbations, which plays a prominent role in the WN growth. When the 'equivalent amplitude' of the initial velocity perturbation, which is normalized by its linear growth rate, is compared to the amplitude of the initial interface perturbation, the coupling between them dominates the WN growth of the RTI. Furthermore, the RTI would be mitigated by initiating a velocity perturbation with a relative phase shift against the interface perturbation. More specifically, when the phase shift between the interface perturbation and the velocity perturbation is {pi} and their equivalent amplitudes are equal, the RTI could be completely quenched. If the equivalent amplitude of the initial velocity perturbation is equal to the initial interface perturbation, the difference between the WN growth of the RTI initiated by only an interface perturbation and by only a velocity perturbation is found to be asymptotically negligible. The dependence of the WN growth on the Atwood numbers and the initial perturbation amplitudes is discussed. In particular, we investigate the dependence of the saturation amplitude (time) of the fundamental mode on the Atwood numbers and the initial perturbation amplitudes. It is found that the Atwood numbers and the initial perturbation amplitudes play a crucial role in the WN growth of the RTI. Thus, it should be included in applications where the seeds of the RTI have velocity perturbations, such as inertial confinement fusion implosions and supernova explosions.

  9. Hot carrier metamaterial detectors and energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krayer, Lisa; Munday, Jeremy N.

    Metamaterials can be used to manipulate the flow of light in ways not typically available with traditional materials. Beyond their optical properties, metamaterials can be used as the basis for optoelectronic devices through the incorporation of a metal-semiconductor interface. The absorbed radiation in the metal can excite surface plasmons, which nonradiatively decay into hot electrons or holes that can be injected into the base semiconductor and contribute to photocurrent generation. In this talk, we will present our latest work on metamaterial photo-detectors and solar energy converters.

  10. Harnessing second-order optical nonlinearities at interfaces in multilayer silicon-oxy-nitride waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Dylan F.; Alamin Dow, Ali B.; Stepanov, Dmitri; Abolghasem, Payam; Kherani, Nazir P.; Helmy, Amr S.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate multi-layer silicon-oxy-nitride (SiON) waveguides as a platform for broadband tunable phase-matching of second-order nonlinear interactions arising at material interfaces. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is measured with a 2 ps pulsed pump of 1515-1535 nm wavelength, where 6 nW power is generated by an average pump power of 30 mW in a 0.92 mm long device. The wavelength acceptance bandwidth of the SHG is as broad as 20 nm due to the low material dispersion of SiON waveguides. The waveguide structure provides a viable method for utilizing second order nonlinearity for light generation and manipulation in silicon photonic circuits.

  11. Nonlinear finite element analysis of crack growth at the interface of rubber-like bimaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoxiang; Fu, Mingwang; Wang, Xiurong; Liu, Xiaoying

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of the crack growth at the interface of rubber-rubber and rubber-steel bimaterials under tensile deformation using the non-linear finite element method. By using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS, the J integral calculations are carried out for the initial interface crack in the interfaces in-between two Neo-Hookean materials, two Mooney-Rivlin materials, Neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin rubbers, Neo-Hookean and Polynomial, Mooney-Rivlin and Polynomial, and the Mooney-Rivlin and steel bi-materials. The computational results of the maximum J integral direction around the crack tip illustrate the possible direction of crack growth initiation. Furthermore, it is found that the crack bends to the softer rubber material at a certain angle with the initial crack direction if the crack depth is relatively small. For the crack with a larger depth, the crack propagates to grow along the interface in-between the bimaterials.

  12. Use of the radiofrequency-intermodulation distortion technique to investigate intrinsic nonlinearity at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

    PubMed

    Pande, Rohit; Xie, Leiming; Zagozdzon-Wosik, Wanda; Nesteruk, Krzysztof; Wosik, Jarek

    2012-02-06

    We report on investigations of nonlinear radiofrequency responses of electrolytes with Na(+) and Cl(-) ions placed within gold electrodes of a capacitor. The sample was part of a frequency-adjustable inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR) parallel resonant circuit, and measurements were carried out using the two frequencies intermodulation distortion technique. We employed double layer model to analyze the observed nonlinearities and their dependence on ionic concentration. Electrode-electrolyte interface polarization was found to be a predominant cause of this intrinsic nonlinearity and to be dependent on electrolytic ion concentration. We also measured and calculated coefficients of resistive and capacitive components of the observed nonlinearity.

  13. Use of the radiofrequency-intermodulation distortion technique to investigate intrinsic nonlinearity at the electrode-electrolyte interface

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Rohit; Xie, Leiming; Zagozdzon-Wosik, Wanda; Nesteruk, Krzysztof; Wosik, Jarek

    2012-01-01

    We report on investigations of nonlinear radiofrequency responses of electrolytes with Na+ and Cl− ions placed within gold electrodes of a capacitor. The sample was part of a frequency-adjustable inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR) parallel resonant circuit, and measurements were carried out using the two frequencies intermodulation distortion technique. We employed double layer model to analyze the observed nonlinearities and their dependence on ionic concentration. Electrode-electrolyte interface polarization was found to be a predominant cause of this intrinsic nonlinearity and to be dependent on electrolytic ion concentration. We also measured and calculated coefficients of resistive and capacitive components of the observed nonlinearity. PMID:22396622

  14. Use of the radiofrequency-intermodulation distortion technique to investigate intrinsic nonlinearity at the electrode-electrolyte interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Rohit; Xie, Leiming; Zagozdzon-Wosik, Wanda; Nesteruk, Krzysztof; Wosik, Jarek

    2012-02-01

    We report on investigations of nonlinear radiofrequency responses of electrolytes with Na+ and Cl- ions placed within gold electrodes of a capacitor. The sample was part of a frequency-adjustable inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR) parallel resonant circuit, and measurements were carried out using the two frequencies intermodulation distortion technique. We employed double layer model to analyze the observed nonlinearities and their dependence on ionic concentration. Electrode-electrolyte interface polarization was found to be a predominant cause of this intrinsic nonlinearity and to be dependent on electrolytic ion concentration. We also measured and calculated coefficients of resistive and capacitive components of the observed nonlinearity.

  15. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  16. Giant optical forces in planar dielectric photonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfa; MacDonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2014-08-15

    We demonstrate that resonant optical forces generated within all-dielectric planar photonic metamaterials at near-infrared illumination wavelengths can be an order of magnitude larger than in corresponding plasmonic metamaterials, reaching levels many tens of times greater than the force resulting from radiation pressure. This is made possible by the dielectric structures' freedom from Joule losses and the consequent ability to sustain Fano-resonances with high quality factors that are unachievable in plasmonic nanostructures. Dielectric nano-optomechanical metamaterials can thus provide a functional platform for a range of novel dynamically controlled and self-adaptive nonlinear, tunable/switchable photonic metamaterials.

  17. Nonlinear electric field effect on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Fe/MgO interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Qingyi; Wen, Zhenchao; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Kasai, Shinya; Seki, Takeshi; Kubota, Takahide; Takanashi, Koki; Mitani, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    The electric field effect on magnetic anisotropy was studied in an ultrathin Fe(0 0 1) monocrystalline layer sandwiched between Cr buffer and MgO tunnel barrier layers, mainly through post-annealing temperature and measurement temperature dependences. A large coefficient of the electric field effect of more than 200 fJ (Vm)‑1 was observed in the negative range of electric field, as well as an areal energy density of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of around 600 µJ m‑2. More interestingly, nonlinear behavior, giving rise to a local minimum around  +100 mV nm‑1, was observed in the electric field dependence of magnetic anisotropy, being independent of the post-annealing and measurement temperatures. The insensitivity to both the interface conditions and the temperature of the system suggests that the nonlinear behavior is attributed to an intrinsic origin such as an inherent electronic structure in the Fe/MgO interface. The present study can contribute to the progress in theoretical studies, such as ab initio calculations, on the mechanism of the electric field effect on PMA.

  18. Multipole Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petschulat, Joerg; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Menzel, Christoph; Chipouline, Arkadi; Tünnermann, Andreas; Lederer, Falk; Pertsch, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials are often accessed by evaluating their interaction with light by means of rigorous numerical methods. Such analysis allows the reliable prediction of any measurable quantity, whereas insights into the physical mechanisms that govern the observable effects require an intense interpretation of these quantities. Therefore, analytical methods are required that simplify the description of plasmonic entities to a certain extent but yet allow the disclosure of their physical peculiarities. We outline in this chapter the basics of such an analytical model which we coined the multipole approach to metamaterials. In this parametric model the elementary constituents that form plasmonic nanostructures are conceptually replaced by coupled dipoles. By describing the evolution of these dipoles in terms of differential equations, we disclose the dynamics of complex nanostructures. Furthermore, by introducing averaged quantities derived from the dipole dynamics, such as an electric and magnetic dipole and an electric quadrupole density, the light propagation in a medium comprising a dense array of these nanostructures is fully accessible. This contribution is written with the intention to familiarize readers with this framework and to allow its application to many related problem that may emerge in the field of plasmonics and metamaterials.

  19. Phase Effects of Plasmon Polaritons in Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandrevala, Cyrus; Lyanda-Geller, Yuli; Kais, Sabre

    2014-03-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to have properties that are generally not found in nature. They get their qualities from their structure rather than their chemical composition. Hyperbolic metamaterials are a subclass of metamaterials that have a hyperboloid-shaped dispersion curve. Due to this unique dispersion relation, light travels only in specific directions within the material for certain values of the wave vector. Although the exact mechanism that allows light to propagate through a hyperbolic metamaterial is still not exactly known, it is thought that surface plasmon polaritons at the interfaces between each metal and dielectric layer support the transmission of light from interface to interface. Additionally, recent experiments have shown that surface plasmon polaritons can demonstrate quantum effects like self interference and entanglement. We model the coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in a hyperbolic metamaterial using the Kronig-Penny model. From this, we analyze the phase of the plasmons as they propagate through the material.

  20. Permeability tensor for a metamaterial adjacent to a metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porvatkina, Olga V.; Tishchenko, Alexey A.; Strikhanov, Mikhail N.

    2017-01-01

    In our work, we investigate magnetic properties of metamaterial-metal interface with the help of the local field theory combined with the method of images. Proceeding from microscopic description of the substance and calculating its macroscopic properties, for the first time the modified Clausius-Mossotti relation has been obtained for permeability of the metamaterial bordering a metal.

  1. Transforming guided waves with metamaterial waveguide cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaene, S.; Ginis, V.; Danckaert, J.; Tassin, P.

    2016-04-01

    Metamaterials make use of subwavelength building blocks to enhance our control on the propagation of light. To determine the required material properties for a given functionality, i.e., a set of desired light flows inside a metamaterial device, metamaterial designs often rely on a geometrical design tool known as transformation optics. In recent years, applications in integrated photonics motivated several research groups to develop two-dimensional versions of transformation optics capable of routing surface waves along graphene-dielectric and metal-dielectric interfaces. Although guided electromagnetic waves are highly relevant to applications in integrated optics, no consistent transformation-optical framework has so far been developed for slab waveguides. Indeed, the conventional application of transformation optics to dielectric slab waveguides leads to bulky three-dimensional devices with metamaterial implementations both inside and outside of the waveguide's core. In this contribution, we develop a transformationoptical framework that still results in thin metamaterial waveguide devices consisting of a nonmagnetic metamaterial core of varying thickness [Phys. Rev. B 93.8, 085429 (2016)]. We numerically demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of our equivalence relations with three crucial functionalities: a beam bender, a beam splitter and a conformal lens. Our devices perform well on a qualitative (comparison of fields) and quantitative (comparison of transmitted power) level compared to their bulky counterparts. As a result, the geometrical toolbox of transformation optics may lead to a plethora of integrated metamaterial devices to route guided waves along optical chips.

  2. Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liu; Kang, Lei; Mayer, Theresa S.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the exotic material properties that have been demonstrated to date, practical examples of versatile metamaterials remain exceedingly rare. The concept of metadevices has been proposed in the context of hybrid metamaterial composites: systems in which active materials are introduced to advance tunability, switchability and nonlinearity. In contrast to the successful hybridizations seen at lower frequencies, there has been limited exploration into plasmonic and photonic nanostructures due to the lack of available optical materials with non-trivial activity, together with difficulties in regulating responses to external forces in an integrated manner. Here, by presenting a series of proof-of-concept studies on electrically triggered functionalities, we demonstrate a vanadium dioxide integrated photonic metamaterial as a transformative platform for multifunctional control. The proposed hybrid metamaterial integrated with transition materials represents a major step forward by providing a universal approach to creating self-sufficient and highly versatile nanophotonic systems. PMID:27807342

  3. Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liu; Kang, Lei; Mayer, Theresa S.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-10-01

    Despite the exotic material properties that have been demonstrated to date, practical examples of versatile metamaterials remain exceedingly rare. The concept of metadevices has been proposed in the context of hybrid metamaterial composites: systems in which active materials are introduced to advance tunability, switchability and nonlinearity. In contrast to the successful hybridizations seen at lower frequencies, there has been limited exploration into plasmonic and photonic nanostructures due to the lack of available optical materials with non-trivial activity, together with difficulties in regulating responses to external forces in an integrated manner. Here, by presenting a series of proof-of-concept studies on electrically triggered functionalities, we demonstrate a vanadium dioxide integrated photonic metamaterial as a transformative platform for multifunctional control. The proposed hybrid metamaterial integrated with transition materials represents a major step forward by providing a universal approach to creating self-sufficient and highly versatile nanophotonic systems.

  4. Dielectric Metamaterials with Toroidal Dipolar Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharin, Alexey A.; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N.; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Savinov, Vassili; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Toroidal multipoles are the terms missing in the standard multipole expansion; they are usually overlooked due to their relatively weak coupling to the electromagnetic fields. Here, we propose and theoretically study all-dielectric metamaterials of a special class that represent a simple electromagnetic system supporting toroidal dipolar excitations in the THz part of the spectrum. We show that resonant transmission and reflection of such metamaterials is dominated by toroidal dipole scattering, the neglect of which would result in a misunderstanding interpretation of the metamaterials' macroscopic response. Because of the unique field configuration of the toroidal mode, the proposed metamaterials could serve as a platform for sensing or enhancement of light absorption and optical nonlinearities.

  5. Tailoring the multipoles in THz toroidal metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Longqing; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Singh, Ranjan

    2017-08-01

    The multipoles play a significant role in determining the resonant behavior of subwavelength resonators that form the basis of metamaterial and plasmonic systems. Here, we study the impact of multipoles including toroidal dipole on the resonance intensity and linewidth of the fundamental inductive-capacitance (LC) resonance of a metamaterial array. The dominant multipoles that strongly contribute to the resonances are tailored by spatial rearrangement of the neighboring resonators such that the mutual interactions between the magnetic, electric, and toroidal configurations lead to enormous change in the linewidth as well as the resonance intensity of the LC mode. Manipulation of the multipoles in a metamaterial array provides a general strategy for the optimization of the quality factor of metamaterial resonances, which is fundamental to its applications in broad areas of sensing, lasing and nonlinear optics where stronger field confinement plays a significant role.

  6. Sound attenuation characteristics of cellular metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Satya Surya Srinivas

    could be mitigated by the addition of appropriate treatments such as a lightweight grid that modified the incident sound field to be normally directed. Although the performance of the metamaterial-based barrier solutions was better compared to the conventional ones, the performance can be poor at the system eigenfrequencies. The possibility of shifting energy from the deficit bands to other regions where the barriers are more efficient was numerically explored for embodiments of segmented cellular materials having non-linear stiffness characteristics. The acoustical behavior of such materials was probed through representative two-dimensional models of a segmented plate with a contact interface. Super-harmonic response peaks were observed for pure harmonic excitations, the strength of which were found to strongly depend on the degree of non-linearity or bilinear stiffness ratio. The closer an excitation frequency was to the characteristic eigenfrequencies of the structure, the stronger was the super-harmonic response, which supported the idea of transferring energy from problematic frequency bands to higher frequencies. Finally, the possibility of a spatial-shift of energy from longitudinal to lateral direction was explored with the idea of eliminating the design constraints associated with conventional absorbing materials, and with the hope of realizing a compact sound absorber. The embodiment was a two-phase chiral composite made using a Topologically Interlocked Material (TIM) with its unit cell being a tetrahedron consisting of two helicoid dissections. A comparative study was conducted with standard microstructures inspired by the Voigt and Reuss models. The twist mode of the chiral composites was found to be excited by an incident sound field normal to the plane of the TIM assembly. Although this behavior is not unique to a chiral microstructure, many other microstructures do not exhibit this behavior. The excitation of the twist mode by the incident sound field

  7. Design of Metamaterials for control of electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Metamaterials are artificial effective media supporting propagating waves that derive their properties form the average response of deliberately designed and arranged, usually resonant scatterers with structural length-scales much smaller than the wavelength inside the material. Electromagnetic metamaterials are the most important implementation of metamaterials, which are made from deeply sub-wavelength electric, magnetic and chiral resonators and can be designed to work from radio frequencies all the way to visible light. Metamaterials have been major new development in physics and materials science over the last decade and are still attracting more interest as they enable us to create materials with unique properties like negative refraction, flat and super lenses, impedance matching eliminating reflection, perfect absorbers, deeply sub-wavelength sized wave guides and cavities, tunability, enhanced non-linearity and gain, chirality and huge optical activity, control of Casimir forces, and spontaneous emission, etc. In this talk, I will discuss the design, numerical simulation, and mathematical modeling of metamaterials. I will survey the current state of the art and discuss challenges, possible solutions and perspectives. In particular, the problem of dissipative loss and their possible compensation by incorporating spatially distributed gain in metamaterials. If the gain sub-system is strongly coupled to the sub-wavelength resonators of the metamaterial loss compensation and undamping of the resonant response of the metamaterials can occur. I will explore new, alternative dielectric low loss resonators for metamaterials as well as the potential of new conducting materials such as Graphene to replace metals as the conducting material in resonant metamaterials. Two dimensional metamaterials or metasurfaces, implementations of effective electromagnetic current sheets in which both electric and magnetic sheet conductivities are controlled by the average response

  8. An Eulerian method for multi-component problems in non-linear elasticity with sliding interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Philip T.; Drikakis, Dimitris

    2010-08-01

    This paper is devoted to developing a multi-material numerical scheme for non-linear elastic solids, with emphasis on the inclusion of interfacial boundary conditions. In particular for colliding solid objects it is desirable to allow large deformations and relative slide, whilst employing fixed grids and maintaining sharp interfaces. Existing schemes utilising interface tracking methods such as volume-of-fluid typically introduce erroneous transport of tangential momentum across material boundaries. Aside from combatting these difficulties one can also make improvements in a numerical scheme for multiple compressible solids by utilising governing models that facilitate application of high-order shock capturing methods developed for hydrodynamics. A numerical scheme that simultaneously allows for sliding boundaries and utilises such high-order shock capturing methods has not yet been demonstrated. A scheme is proposed here that directly addresses these challenges by extending a ghost cell method for gas-dynamics to solid mechanics, by using a first-order model for elastic materials in conservative form. Interface interactions are captured using the solution of a multi-material Riemann problem which is derived in detail. Several different boundary conditions are considered including solid/solid and solid/vacuum contact problems. Interfaces are tracked using level-set functions. The underlying single material numerical method includes a characteristic based Riemann solver and high-order WENO reconstruction. Numerical solutions of example multi-material problems are provided in comparison to exact solutions for the one-dimensional augmented system, and for a two-dimensional friction experiment.

  9. Novel functional composites of plasmas and metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Osamu

    2012-10-01

    Plasmas, which are fairly frequency-dispersive in their dielectric properties, have tunable and nonlinear features that cannot be achieved using other solids and liquids. Such features on variable complex permittivity can be activated in metamaterial structure; when we combine plasmas with metamaterials which have functional micro-structures leading to designable permeability, we can expect a quite broad range of negative refractive index on its complex plane for electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, if a given electromagnetic wave has sufficient wave amplitude to modulate electron density, such a composite work as a strong nonlinear medium with adjustability through the metamaterial features. Such kinds of arguments are reviewed in our recent reports [1,2]. One of the specific physical properties emerging in plasma metamaterials is an exchange phenomenon between attenuation and phase shift via regulated permeability. Conventional collisional plasmas work simply as attenuators for electromagnetic waves, but superposition of a negative permeability state induces significant phase shift of propagating waves with less attenuation. Another example is simultaneous generation of a high-density plasma with a negative-refractive-index state; we predicted quite strong nonlinear processes with double saddle-node bifurcations during this phenomenon, and verified them in our recent experiments. Such composites of plasmas and metamaterials will provide new scientific opportunities as well as industrial applications.[4pt] [1] O. Sakai et al., Physics of Plasmas, vol. 17 (2010), 123504.[0pt] [2] O. Sakai et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., vol. 21 (2012), 013001.

  10. Nonlinear interfaces for acceleration-commanded control of spacecraft and manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, T. A. W., III; Lee, G. K. F.; Chen, N.

    1986-01-01

    Nominal command generation in real time for the control of manipulators or of maneuvering spacecraft is hampered by the nonlinearity of the equations of motion. Likewise the real time tracking of a computed nominal trajectory in the presence of disturbances requires the computation of time-varying Jacobians of the motion. An alternative approach is the formulation of acceleration-commanded control laws in appropriately chosen generalized advantageous to design dedicated circuit interfaces to perform the required transformation. It is also possible to guarantee that actuator and sensor saturation limits are not exceeded, by means of feedback-biased circuits that implement automatic overload limitation of acceleration commands. Recent developments following this 'hardware computation' point of view will be discussed.

  11. Simple model for linear and nonlinear mixing at unstable fluid interfaces with variable acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Ramshaw, J D; Rathkopf, J

    1998-12-23

    A simple model is described for predicting the time evolution of the half-width h of a planar mixing layer between two immiscible incompressible fluids driven by an arbitrary time-dependent variable acceleration history a(l)a (t): The model is based on a heuristic expression for the kinetic energy per unit area of the mixing layer. This expression is based on that for the kinetic energy of a linearly perturbed interface, but with a dynamically renormalized wavelength which becomes proportional to h in the nonlinear regime. An equation of motion for h is then derived by means of Lagrange's equations. This model reproduces the known linear growth rates of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities, as well as the quadratic RT and power-law RM growth laws in the nonlinear regime. The time exponent in the RM power law depends on the rate of kinetic energy dissipation. In the case of zero dissipation, this exponent reduces to 2/3 in agreement with elementary scaling arguments. A conservative numerical scheme is proposed to solve the model equations, and is used to perform calculations that agree well with published mixing data from linear electric motor experiments. Considerations involved in implementing the model in hydrodynamics codes are briefly discussed.

  12. An Experimental Study of a Nonlinear Acoustic Lens Interfaced with Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Carly; Anzel, Paul; Keller, Thomas; Daraio, Chiara

    2012-11-01

    Acoustic waves are routinely used in imaging and excitation applications such as in ultrasonic imaging or hyperthermia surgery. However, current acoustic technology is limited by focal resolution and maximum amplitude. In this work, we have constructed a nonlinear acoustic lens, which is composed of an array of chains of steel spherical particles supported by a matrix. The nonlinearity of the system originates from the contact interaction between the particles, which enables the formation of solitary waves in the chains. The acoustic lens can be designed and interfaced with a target medium such that when the solitary waves exit the chains, the waves coalesce at a focal point. The highly compact acoustic waves at the focus are called ``sound bullets.'' Additionally, since the solitary wave speed increases as the pre-compression between the spheres increases, the focal point can be controlled mechanically. In this work, we use water as our target medium. Measurements are taken using a hydrophone that is scanned over an area to produce a two dimensional pressure map. The chains are separated from the water using cover plates, the choice of which strongly influences the transmission of the solitary wave into the host medium.

  13. Phase-referenced nonlinear spectroscopy of the α-quartz/water interface

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Paul E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Wang, Hong-fei; Geiger, Franz M.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2016-01-01

    Probing the polarization of water molecules at charged interfaces by second harmonic generation spectroscopy has been heretofore limited to isotropic materials. Here we report non-resonant nonlinear optical measurements at the interface of anisotropic z-cut α-quartz and water under conditions of dynamically changing ionic strength and bulk solution pH. We find that the product of the third-order susceptibility and the interfacial potential, χ(3) × Φ(0), is given by (χ1(3)−iχ2(3)) × Φ(0), and that the interference between this product and the second-order susceptibility of bulk quartz depends on the rotation angle of α-quartz around the z axis. Our experiments show that this newly identified term, iχ(3) × Φ(0), which is out of phase from the surface terms, is of bulk origin. The possibility of internally phase referencing the interfacial response for the interfacial orientation analysis of species or materials in contact with α-quartz is discussed along with the implications for conditions of resonance enhancement. PMID:27958263

  14. Phase-referenced nonlinear spectroscopy of the α-quartz/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Paul E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Wang, Hong-fei; Geiger, Franz M.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2016-12-13

    Probing the polarization of water molecules at charged interfaces by second harmonic generation spectroscopy has been heretofore limited to isotropic materials. Here we report non-resonant nonlinear optical measurements at the interface of anisotropic z-cut α-quartz and water under conditions of dynamically changing ionic strength and bulk solution pH. We find that the product of the third-order susceptibility and the interfacial potential, χ(3) × Φ(0), is given by (χ1(3)–iχ2(3)) × Φ(0), and that the interference between this product and the second-order susceptibility of bulk quartz depends on the rotation angle of α-quartz around the z axis. Our experiments show that this newly identified term, iχ(3) × Φ(0), which is out of phase from the surface terms, is of bulk origin. Lastly, the possibility of internally phase referencing the interfacial response for the interfacial orientation analysis of species or materials in contact with α-quartz is discussed along with the implications for conditions of resonance enhancement.

  15. A study of temperature-related non-linearity at the metal-silicon interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, P. M.; Donchev, E.; Pérez-Tomás, A.; Shah, V. A.; Pang, J. S.; Petrov, P. K.; Jennings, M. R.; Fisher, C. A.; Mawby, P. A.; Leadley, D. R.; McN. Alford, N.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the temperature dependencies of metal-semiconductor interfaces in an effort to better reproduce the current-voltage-temperature (IVT) characteristics of any Schottky diode, regardless of homogeneity. Four silicon Schottky diodes were fabricated for this work, each displaying different degrees of inhomogeneity; a relatively homogeneous NiV/Si diode, a Ti/Si and Cr/Si diode with double bumps at only the lowest temperatures, and a Nb/Si diode displaying extensive non-linearity. The 77-300 K IVT responses are modelled using a semi-automated implementation of Tung's electron transport model, and each of the diodes are well reproduced. However, in achieving this, it is revealed that each of the three key fitting parameters within the model display a significant temperature dependency. In analysing these dependencies, we reveal how a rise in thermal energy "activates" exponentially more interfacial patches, the activation rate being dependent on the carrier concentration at the patch saddle point (the patch's maximum barrier height), which in turn is linked to the relative homogeneity of each diode. Finally, in a review of Tung's model, problems in the divergence of the current paths at low temperature are explained to be inherent due to the simplification of an interface that will contain competing defects and inhomogeneities.

  16. Phase-referenced nonlinear spectroscopy of the α-quartz/water interface

    DOE PAGES

    Ohno, Paul E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Wang, Hong-fei; ...

    2016-12-13

    Probing the polarization of water molecules at charged interfaces by second harmonic generation spectroscopy has been heretofore limited to isotropic materials. Here we report non-resonant nonlinear optical measurements at the interface of anisotropic z-cut α-quartz and water under conditions of dynamically changing ionic strength and bulk solution pH. We find that the product of the third-order susceptibility and the interfacial potential, χ(3) × Φ(0), is given by (χ1(3)–iχ2(3)) × Φ(0), and that the interference between this product and the second-order susceptibility of bulk quartz depends on the rotation angle of α-quartz around the z axis. Our experiments show that thismore » newly identified term, iχ(3) × Φ(0), which is out of phase from the surface terms, is of bulk origin. Lastly, the possibility of internally phase referencing the interfacial response for the interfacial orientation analysis of species or materials in contact with α-quartz is discussed along with the implications for conditions of resonance enhancement.« less

  17. Phase-referenced nonlinear spectroscopy of the α-quartz/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Paul E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Wang, Hong-Fei; Geiger, Franz M.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2016-12-01

    Probing the polarization of water molecules at charged interfaces by second harmonic generation spectroscopy has been heretofore limited to isotropic materials. Here we report non-resonant nonlinear optical measurements at the interface of anisotropic z-cut α-quartz and water under conditions of dynamically changing ionic strength and bulk solution pH. We find that the product of the third-order susceptibility and the interfacial potential, χ(3) × Φ(0), is given by (χ1(3)-iχ2(3)) × Φ(0), and that the interference between this product and the second-order susceptibility of bulk quartz depends on the rotation angle of α-quartz around the z axis. Our experiments show that this newly identified term, iχ(3) × Φ(0), which is out of phase from the surface terms, is of bulk origin. The possibility of internally phase referencing the interfacial response for the interfacial orientation analysis of species or materials in contact with α-quartz is discussed along with the implications for conditions of resonance enhancement.

  18. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate planar terahertz metamaterial devices enabling actively controllable transmission amplitude, phase, or frequency at room temperature via carrier depletion or photoexcitation in the semiconductor substrate or in semiconductor materials incorporated into the metamaterial structure.

  19. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; O' Hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  20. Flux Exclusion Superconducting Quantum Metamaterial: Towards Quantum-level Switching

    PubMed Central

    Savinov, V.; Tsiatmas, A.; Buckingham, A. R.; Fedotov, V. A.; de Groot, P. A. J.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear and switchable metamaterials achieved by artificial structuring on the subwavelength scale have become a central topic in photonics research. Switching with only a few quanta of excitation per metamolecule, metamaterial's elementary building block, is the ultimate goal, achieving which will open new opportunities for energy efficient signal handling and quantum information processing. Recently, arrays of Josephson junction devices have been proposed as a possible solution. However, they require extremely high levels of nanofabrication. Here we introduce a new quantum superconducting metamaterial which exploits the magnetic flux quantization for switching. It does not contain Josephson junctions, making it simple to fabricate and scale into large arrays. The metamaterial was manufactured from a high-temperature superconductor and characterized in the low intensity regime, providing the first observation of the quantum phenomenon of flux exclusion affecting the far-field electromagnetic properties of the metamaterial. PMID:22690319

  1. Flux exclusion superconducting quantum metamaterial: towards quantum-level switching.

    PubMed

    Savinov, V; Tsiatmas, A; Buckingham, A R; Fedotov, V A; de Groot, P A J; Zheludev, N I

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear and switchable metamaterials achieved by artificial structuring on the subwavelength scale have become a central topic in photonics research. Switching with only a few quanta of excitation per metamolecule, metamaterial's elementary building block, is the ultimate goal, achieving which will open new opportunities for energy efficient signal handling and quantum information processing. Recently, arrays of Josephson junction devices have been proposed as a possible solution. However, they require extremely high levels of nanofabrication. Here we introduce a new quantum superconducting metamaterial which exploits the magnetic flux quantization for switching. It does not contain Josephson junctions, making it simple to fabricate and scale into large arrays. The metamaterial was manufactured from a high-temperature superconductor and characterized in the low intensity regime, providing the first observation of the quantum phenomenon of flux exclusion affecting the far-field electromagnetic properties of the metamaterial.

  2. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  3. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment-all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, 'space-coiling' metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials ('meta-liquids'), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  4. Modulation of nonlinear resistive switching behavior of a TaOx-based resistive device through interface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zongwei; Kang, Jian; Yu, Zhizhen; Fang, Yichen; Ling, Yaotian; Cai, Yimao; Huang, Ru; Wang, Yangyuan

    2017-02-01

    A resistive switching device with inherent nonlinear characteristics through a delicately engineered interfacial layer is an ideal component to be integrated into passive crossbar arrays for the suppression of sneaking current, especially in ultra-dense 3D integration. In this paper, we demonstrated a TaOx-based bipolar resistive switching device with a nearly symmetrical bi-directional nonlinear feature through interface engineering. This was accomplished by introducing an ultra-thin interfacial layer (SiO2-x) with unique features, including a large band gap and a certain level of negative heat of oxide formation between the top electrode (TiN) and resistive layer (TaOx). The devices exhibit excellent nonlinear property under both positive and negative bias. Modulation of the inherent nonlinearity as well as the resistive switching mechanism are comprehensively studied by scrutinizing the results of the experimental control groups and the extensive characterizations including detailed compositional analysis, which suggests that the underlying mechanism of the nonlinear behavior is associatively governed by the serially connected metallic conductive filament and Flower-Nordheim tunneling barrier formed by the SiO2-x interface layer. The proposed device in this work has great potential to be implemented in future massive storage memory applications of high-density selector-free crossbar structure.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of the interface between fluids at the suppression of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability by a tangential electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Kochurin, E. A.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the interface between ideal dielectric fluids in the presence of tangential discontinuity of the velocity at the interface and the stabilizing action of the horizontal electric field is examined. It is shown that the regime of motion of the interface where liquids move along the field lines occurs in the state of neutral equilibrium where electrostatic forces suppress Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The equations of motion of the interface describing this regime can be reduced to an arbitrary number of ordinary differential equations describing the propagation and interaction of structurally stable solitary waves, viz. rational solitons. It is shown that weakly interacting solitary waves recover their shape and velocity after collision, whereas strongly interacting solitary waves can form a wave packet (breather).

  6. Coherent oscillations of driven rf SQUID metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepanier, Melissa; Zhang, Daimeng; Mukhanov, Oleg; Koshelets, V. P.; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2017-05-01

    Through experiments and numerical simulations we explore the behavior of rf SQUID (radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device) metamaterials, which show extreme tunability and nonlinearity. The emergent electromagnetic properties of this metamaterial are sensitive to the degree of coherent response of the driven interacting SQUIDs. Coherence suffers in the presence of disorder, which is experimentally found to be mainly due to a dc flux gradient. We demonstrate methods to recover the coherence, specifically by varying the coupling between the SQUID meta-atoms and increasing the temperature or the amplitude of the applied rf flux.

  7. A one-dimensional tunable magnetic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Butz, S; Jung, P; Filippenko, L V; Koshelets, V P; Ustinov, A V

    2013-09-23

    We present experimental data on a one-dimensional super-conducting metamaterial that is tunable over a broad frequency band. The basic building block of this magnetic thin-film medium is a single-junction (rf-) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Due to the nonlinear inductance of such an element, its resonance frequency is tunable in situ by applying a dc magnetic field. We demonstrate that this results in tunable effective parameters of our metamaterial consisting of 54 rf-SQUIDs. In order to obtain the effective magnetic permeability μr,eff from the measured data, we employ a technique that uses only the complex transmission coefficient S₂₁.

  8. Coherent oscillations of driven rf SQUID metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Trepanier, Melissa; Zhang, Daimeng; Mukhanov, Oleg; Koshelets, V P; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M; Ustinov, Alexey V; Anlage, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Through experiments and numerical simulations we explore the behavior of rf SQUID (radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device) metamaterials, which show extreme tunability and nonlinearity. The emergent electromagnetic properties of this metamaterial are sensitive to the degree of coherent response of the driven interacting SQUIDs. Coherence suffers in the presence of disorder, which is experimentally found to be mainly due to a dc flux gradient. We demonstrate methods to recover the coherence, specifically by varying the coupling between the SQUID meta-atoms and increasing the temperature or the amplitude of the applied rf flux.

  9. A comparison of optimal MIMO linear and nonlinear models for brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-P; Sanchez, J C; Rao, Y N; Erdogmus, D; Carmena, J M; Lebedev, M A; Nicolelis, M A L; Principe, J C

    2006-06-01

    The field of brain-machine interfaces requires the estimation of a mapping from spike trains collected in motor cortex areas to the hand kinematics of the behaving animal. This paper presents a systematic investigation of several linear (Wiener filter, LMS adaptive filters, gamma filter, subspace Wiener filters) and nonlinear models (time-delay neural network and local linear switching models) applied to datasets from two experiments in monkeys performing motor tasks (reaching for food and target hitting). Ensembles of 100-200 cortical neurons were simultaneously recorded in these experiments, and even larger neuronal samples are anticipated in the future. Due to the large size of the models (thousands of parameters), the major issue studied was the generalization performance. Every parameter of the models (not only the weights) was selected optimally using signal processing and machine learning techniques. The models were also compared statistically with respect to the Wiener filter as the baseline. Each of the optimization procedures produced improvements over that baseline for either one of the two datasets or both.

  10. A comparison of optimal MIMO linear and nonlinear models for brain machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-P.; Sanchez, J. C.; Rao, Y. N.; Erdogmus, D.; Carmena, J. M.; Lebedev, M. A.; Nicolelis, M. A. L.; Principe, J. C.

    2006-06-01

    The field of brain-machine interfaces requires the estimation of a mapping from spike trains collected in motor cortex areas to the hand kinematics of the behaving animal. This paper presents a systematic investigation of several linear (Wiener filter, LMS adaptive filters, gamma filter, subspace Wiener filters) and nonlinear models (time-delay neural network and local linear switching models) applied to datasets from two experiments in monkeys performing motor tasks (reaching for food and target hitting). Ensembles of 100-200 cortical neurons were simultaneously recorded in these experiments, and even larger neuronal samples are anticipated in the future. Due to the large size of the models (thousands of parameters), the major issue studied was the generalization performance. Every parameter of the models (not only the weights) was selected optimally using signal processing and machine learning techniques. The models were also compared statistically with respect to the Wiener filter as the baseline. Each of the optimization procedures produced improvements over that baseline for either one of the two datasets or both.

  11. High efficiency second and third harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials by using a grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedian, Iman; Zakery, Abdolnasser; Rho, Junsuk

    2017-08-01

    Metamaterials can be used to generate harmonic signals in small thicknesses, but they suffer from low efficiency. Here, we introduce a new method for amplifying second and third harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials. We show numerically that by using a grating structure under the metamaterial, the grating and the metamaterial form a resonator which leads to a higher absorption in the metamaterial. By this method we could increase the absorption of the structure in the magnetic resonance up to 25% of the initial value. This leads to the generation of second and third harmonic signals with a higher efficiency from this metamaterial-based nonlinear media. We confirmed this idea in the nanostrip metamaterials and saw the amplitude of the second harmonic generation was doubled and the amplitude of the third harmonic generation increased by a factor of 4 in comparison to the same structure without grating.

  12. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  13. Formation of rarefaction waves in origami-based metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, H.; Chong, C.; Charalampidis, E. G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Yang, J.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the nonlinear wave dynamics of origami-based metamaterials composed of Tachi-Miura polyhedron (TMP) unit cells. These cells exhibit strain softening behavior under compression, which can be tuned by modifying their geometrical configurations or initial folded conditions. We assemble these TMP cells into a cluster of origami-based metamaterials, and we theoretically model and numerically analyze their wave transmission mechanism under external impact. Numerical simulations show that origami-based metamaterials can provide a prototypical platform for the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in the form of rarefaction waves, which feature a tensile wavefront upon the application of compression to the system. We also demonstrate the existence of numerically exact traveling rarefaction waves in an effective lumped-mass model. Origami-based metamaterials can be highly useful for mitigating shock waves, potentially enabling a wide variety of engineering applications.

  14. Formation of rarefaction waves in origami-based metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, H; Chong, C; Charalampidis, E G; Kevrekidis, P G; Yang, J

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the nonlinear wave dynamics of origami-based metamaterials composed of Tachi-Miura polyhedron (TMP) unit cells. These cells exhibit strain softening behavior under compression, which can be tuned by modifying their geometrical configurations or initial folded conditions. We assemble these TMP cells into a cluster of origami-based metamaterials, and we theoretically model and numerically analyze their wave transmission mechanism under external impact. Numerical simulations show that origami-based metamaterials can provide a prototypical platform for the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in the form of rarefaction waves, which feature a tensile wavefront upon the application of compression to the system. We also demonstrate the existence of numerically exact traveling rarefaction waves in an effective lumped-mass model. Origami-based metamaterials can be highly useful for mitigating shock waves, potentially enabling a wide variety of engineering applications.

  15. Formation of rarefaction waves in origami-based metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Yasuda, H.; Chong, C.; Charalampidis, E. G.; ...

    2016-04-15

    Here, we investigate the nonlinear wave dynamics of origami-based metamaterials composed of Tachi-Miura polyhedron (TMP) unit cells. These cells exhibit strain softening behavior under compression, which can be tuned by modifying their geometrical configurations or initial folded conditions. We assemble these TMP cells into a cluster of origami-based metamaterials, and we theoretically model and numerically analyze their wave transmission mechanism under external impact. Numerical simulations show that origami-based metamaterials can provide a prototypical platform for the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in the form of rarefaction waves, which feature a tensile wavefront upon the application of compression to the system.more » We also demonstrate the existence of numerically exact traveling rarefaction waves in an effective lumped-mass model. Origami-based metamaterials can be highly useful for mitigating shock waves, potentially enabling a wide variety of engineering applications.« less

  16. Formation of rarefaction waves in origami-based metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, H.; Chong, C.; Charalampidis, E. G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Yang, J.

    2016-04-15

    Here, we investigate the nonlinear wave dynamics of origami-based metamaterials composed of Tachi-Miura polyhedron (TMP) unit cells. These cells exhibit strain softening behavior under compression, which can be tuned by modifying their geometrical configurations or initial folded conditions. We assemble these TMP cells into a cluster of origami-based metamaterials, and we theoretically model and numerically analyze their wave transmission mechanism under external impact. Numerical simulations show that origami-based metamaterials can provide a prototypical platform for the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in the form of rarefaction waves, which feature a tensile wavefront upon the application of compression to the system. We also demonstrate the existence of numerically exact traveling rarefaction waves in an effective lumped-mass model. Origami-based metamaterials can be highly useful for mitigating shock waves, potentially enabling a wide variety of engineering applications.

  17. Experimental Demonstration of Anomalous Field Enhancement in All-Dielectric Transition Magnetic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ji; Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-11-04

    Anomalous field enhancement accompanied by resonant absorption phenomenon was originally discussed in the context of plasma physics and in applications related to radio-communications between the ground and spacecraft returning to Earth. Indeed, there is a critical period of time when all communications are lost due to the reflection/absorption of electromagnetic waves by the sheath of plasma created by a high speed vehicle re-entering the atmosphere. While detailed experimental studies of these phenomena in space are challenging, the emergence of electromagnetic metamaterials enables researchers exceptional flexibility to study them in the laboratory environment. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the strong localized field enhancement of magnetic field for an electromagnetic wave propagating in Mie-resonance-based inhomogeneous metamaterials with magnetic permeability gradually changing from positive to negative values. Although these experiments were performed in the microwave frequency range, the proposed all-dielectric approach to transition metamaterials can be extended to terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies. We anticipate that these results, besides most basic science aspects, hold the potential for numerous applications, including low-intensity nonlinear transformation optics, topological photonics, and the broader area of surface and interface science.

  18. Experimental Demonstration of Anomalous Field Enhancement in All-Dielectric Transition Magnetic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ji; Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous field enhancement accompanied by resonant absorption phenomenon was originally discussed in the context of plasma physics and in applications related to radio-communications between the ground and spacecraft returning to Earth. Indeed, there is a critical period of time when all communications are lost due to the reflection/absorption of electromagnetic waves by the sheath of plasma created by a high speed vehicle re-entering the atmosphere. While detailed experimental studies of these phenomena in space are challenging, the emergence of electromagnetic metamaterials enables researchers exceptional flexibility to study them in the laboratory environment. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the strong localized field enhancement of magnetic field for an electromagnetic wave propagating in Mie-resonance-based inhomogeneous metamaterials with magnetic permeability gradually changing from positive to negative values. Although these experiments were performed in the microwave frequency range, the proposed all-dielectric approach to transition metamaterials can be extended to terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies. We anticipate that these results, besides most basic science aspects, hold the potential for numerous applications, including low-intensity nonlinear transformation optics, topological photonics, and the broader area of surface and interface science. PMID:26531855

  19. Terahertz ultrathin film thickness sensor below λ/90 based on metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Fan, Fei; Shen, Si; Wang, Xianghui; Chang, Shengjiang

    2016-08-10

    The film thickness sensing based on metamaterial is investigated in the terahertz (THz) region. We fabricated the metamaterial sensor, and demonstrated its resonance by using the THz time-domain spectroscopy system. The results show that the resonant dip redshifts as the film thickness increases, which achieves reliable film sensing in the THz band. Its sensitivity is larger than 9.4 GHz/μm with a film thinner than λ/90. Meanwhile, the sensing mechanism is revealed by the simulation of near-field resonance distribution, which shows that the resonant intensity is stronger when the field is closer to the interface between the metamaterial surface and polyvinyl alcohol film. Therefore, the nonlinear type of the sensing sensitivity in our experiment can be well explained, and a higher sensitive sensing can be obtained when the film thickness is smaller. This simple and flexible method can realize the ultrathin film sensing in the THz region, and has application potential in the real-time monitoring of sample quality.

  20. Experimental Demonstration of Anomalous Field Enhancement in All-Dielectric Transition Magnetic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ji; Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2015-11-01

    Anomalous field enhancement accompanied by resonant absorption phenomenon was originally discussed in the context of plasma physics and in applications related to radio-communications between the ground and spacecraft returning to Earth. Indeed, there is a critical period of time when all communications are lost due to the reflection/absorption of electromagnetic waves by the sheath of plasma created by a high speed vehicle re-entering the atmosphere. While detailed experimental studies of these phenomena in space are challenging, the emergence of electromagnetic metamaterials enables researchers exceptional flexibility to study them in the laboratory environment. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the strong localized field enhancement of magnetic field for an electromagnetic wave propagating in Mie-resonance-based inhomogeneous metamaterials with magnetic permeability gradually changing from positive to negative values. Although these experiments were performed in the microwave frequency range, the proposed all-dielectric approach to transition metamaterials can be extended to terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies. We anticipate that these results, besides most basic science aspects, hold the potential for numerous applications, including low-intensity nonlinear transformation optics, topological photonics, and the broader area of surface and interface science.

  1. Nonlinear evolution equations for surface plasmons for nano-focusing at a Kerr/metallic interface and tapered waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, Sihon H.; Osei, Albert; Biswas, Anjan

    2012-06-01

    Maxwell's equations for a metallic and nonlinear Kerr interface waveguide at the nanoscale can be approximated to a (1+1) D Nonlinear Schrodinger type model equation (NLSE) with appropriate assumptions and approximations. Theoretically, without losses or perturbations spatial plasmon solitons profiles are easily produced. However, with losses, the amplitude or beam profile is no longer stationary and adiabatic parameters have to be considered to understand propagation. For this model, adiabatic parameters are calculated considering losses resulting in linear differential coupled integral equations with constant definite integral coefficients not dependent on the transverse and longitudinal coordinates. Furthermore, by considering another configuration, a waveguide that is an M-NL-M (metal-nonlinear Kerr-metal) that tapers, the tapering can balance the loss experienced at a non-tapered metal/nonlinear Kerr interface causing attenuation of the beam profile, so these spatial plasmon solitons can be produced. In this paper taking into consideration the (1+1)D NLSE model for a tapered waveguide, we derive a one soliton solution based on He's Semi-Inverse Variational Principle (HPV).

  2. Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Tong

    2012-03-26

    The impedance matching to free space in metamaterial perfect absorbers has been believed to involve and rely on magnetic resonant response, with direct evidence provided by the anti-parallel surface currents in the metal structures. Here I present a different theoretical interpretation based on interference, which shows that the two layers of metal structures in metamaterial absorbers are linked only by multiple reflections with negligible near-field interactions or magnetic resonances. This is further supported by the out-of-phase surface currents derived at the interfaces of resonator array and ground plane through multiple reflections and superpositions. The theory developed here explains all features observed in narrowband metamaterial absorbers and therefore provides a profound understanding of the underlying physics.

  3. Planar gradient metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Fu, Yangyang; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-12-01

    Metamaterials possess exotic properties that do not exist in nature. Gradient metamaterials, which are characterized by a continuous spatial variation of their properties, provide a promising approach to the development of both bulk and planar optics. In particular, planar gradient metamaterials can be classified into three categories: gradient metasurfaces, gradient index metamaterials and gradient metallic gratings. In this Review, we summarize the progress made in the theoretical modelling of these materials, in their experimental implementation and in the design of functional devices. We discuss the use of planar gradient metamaterials for wave bending and focusing in free space, for supporting surface plasmon polaritons and for the realization of trapped rainbows. We also focus on the implementation of these materials in waveguide systems, which can enable electromagnetic cloaking, Fano resonances, asymmetric transmission and guided mode conversion. Finally, we discuss promising trends, such as the use of dielectric rather than metallic unit elements and the use of planar gradient metamaterials in 3D systems.

  4. A diffuse-interface modeling for liquid solution-solid gel phase transition of physical hydrogel with nonlinear deformation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Wu, Tao

    2016-10-01

    A diffuse-interface model is presented in this paper for simulation of the evolution of phase transition between the liquid solution and solid gel states for physical hydrogel with nonlinear deformation. The present domain covers the gel and solution states as well as a diffuse interface between them. They are indicated by the crosslink density in such a way that the solution phase is identified as the state when the crosslink density is small, while the gel as the state if the crosslink density becomes large. In this work, a novel order parameter is thus defined as the crosslink density, which is homogeneous in each distinct phase and smoothly varies over the interface from one phase to another. In this model, the constitutive equations, imposed on the two distinct phases and the interface, are formulated by the second law of thermodynamics, which are in the same form as those derived by a different approach. The present constitutive equations include a novel Ginzburg-Landau type of free energy with a double-well profile, which accounts for the effect of crosslink density. The present governing equations include the equilibrium of forces, the conservations of mass and energy, and an additional kinetic equation imposed for phase transition, in which nonlinear deformation is considered. The equilibrium state is investigated numerically, where two stable phases are observed in the free energy profile. As case studies, a spherically symmetrical solution-gel phase transition is simulated numerically for analysis of the phase transition of physical hydrogel.

  5. Tunable Mechanical Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    Mechanical Metamaterials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0709 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Siavouche Nemat...creating mechanical metamaterials over a broad range of frequencies. We have shown that it is possible to have stress waves with negative dynamic...scattering can be controlled, and energy can be focused or dissipated. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mechanical Metamaterials , Tunability 16. SECURITY

  6. Optical-image transfer through a diffraction-compensating metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Kivijärvi, Ville; Nyman, Markus; Shevchenko, Andriy; Kaivola, Matti

    2016-05-02

    Cancellation of optical diffraction is an intriguing phenomenon enabling optical fields to preserve their transverse intensity profiles upon propagation. In this work, we introduce a metamaterial design that exhibits this phenomenon for three-dimensional optical beams. As an advantage over other diffraction-compensating materials, our metamaterial is impedance-matched to glass, which suppresses optical reflection at the glass-metamaterial interface. The material is designed for beams formed by TM-polarized plane-wave components. We show, however, that unpolarized optical images with arbitrary shapes can be transferred over remarkable distances in the material without distortion. We foresee multiple applications of our results in integrated optics and optical imaging.

  7. Nonlinear surface waves in photonic hypercrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar

    2017-08-01

    Photonic crystals and hyperbolic metamaterials are merged to give the concept of photonic hypercrystals. It combines the properties of its two constituents to give rise to novel phenomena. Here the propagation of Transverse Magnetic waves at the interface between a nonlinear dielectric material and a photonic hypercrystal is studied and the corresponding dispersion relation is derived using the uniaxial parallel approximation. Both dielectric and metallic photonic hypercrystals are studied and it is found that nonlinearity limits the infinite divergence of wave vectors of the surface waves. These states exist in the frequency region where the linear surface waves do not exist. It is also shown that the nonlinearity can be used to engineer the group velocity of the resulting surface wave.

  8. NONLINEAR FORCE PROFILE USED TO INCREASE THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAPTIC USER INTERFACE FOR TELEOPERATING A ROBOTIC HAND

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-07-01

    MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a user’s teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the

  9. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-02-19

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system.

  10. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system. PMID:26891795

  11. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system.

  12. Superconducting terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; Singh, Ranjan; O' Hara, John F; Azad, Abul K; Trugman, Stuart A; Jia, Quanxi; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2010-01-01

    During the past ten years subwavelength metallic structures have enabled metamaterials exhibiting exotic physical properties that are not possible or difficult to realize using naturally occurring materials, This bottom-up metamaterial approach is particularly attractive in the terahertz (THz) frequency range, where the THz gap is inherently associated with the lack of materials with appropriate reponse. In fact THz metamaterial devices have accomplished unprecedented performance towards practical applications. In these devices, the key is to incorporate natural materials, e,g, semiconductors, as the metamaterial substrates or integration parts of metamaterial structures. The active or dynamic tunability of metamaterials is through the application of external stimuli such as temperature, photoexcitation, or electric field. to modify the capacitive gaps in split-ring resonators (SRRs), It becomes clear that we would not be able to do much on the metallic SRRs, i.e. the metal conductivity and therefore the inductance largely remain constant not affected by external stimuli. Recently, there has been increasing interest in superconducting metamaterials towards loss reduction. Significant Joule losses have often prevented resonant metal metamaterials from achieving proposed applications. particularly in the optical frequency range. At low temperatures, superconducting materials possess superior conductivity than metals at frequencies up to THz. and therefore it is expected that superconducting melamaterials will have a lower loss than metal metamatetials, More interestingly, superconductors exhibit tunable complex conductivity over a wide range of values through change of temperature and application of photoexcitation, electrical currents and magnetic fields. Therefore, we would expect correspondingly tunable metamaterials. which originate from the superconducting materials composing the metamaterial, in contrast to tuning the metamaterial embedded environment.

  13. Metamaterials with Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Ortwin

    2012-02-01

    Nanoplasmonic metamaterials are the key to an extreme control of light and allow us to conceive materials with negative or vanishing refractive index. Indeed, metamaterials enable a multitude of exciting and useful applications, such as subwavelength focusing, invisibility cloaking, and ``trapped rainbow'' stopping of light. The realization of these materials has recently advanced from the microwave to the optical regime. However, at optical wavelengths, metamaterials may suffer from high dissipative losses owing to the metallic nature of their constituent nanoplasmonic meta-molecules. It is therefore not surprising that overcoming loss restrictions by gain is currently one of the most important topics in metamaterials' research. At the same time, providing gain on the nanoplasmonic (metamolecular) level opens up exciting new possibilities such as a whole new type of metamaterial nano-laser with a cavity length of about a tenth of the wavelength. The talk gives an overview of the state of the art of gain-enhanced metamaterials. Particular focus will be placed on nano-plasmonic metamaterials (such as double-fishnet metamaterials) with integrated laser dyes as gain medium. The successful compensation of loss by gain is demonstrated on the meta-molecular level. On the basis of a comprehensive, microscopic Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach of spatio-temporal light amplification and lasing in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic (negative-index) metamaterials a methodology based on the discrete Poynting's theorem is introduced that allows dynamic tracing of the flow of electromagnetic energy into and out of ``microscopic'' channels (light field, plasmons, gain medium). It is shown that steady-state amplification can be achieved in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. Finally, a complex spatio-temporal interplay of light-field and coherent absorption dynamics is revealed in the lasing dynamics of a nanoplasmonic gain-enhanced double-fishnet metamaterial.

  14. Nonlinear response of the surface electrostatic potential formed at metal oxide/electrolyte interfaces. A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of surface potential nonlinearity at metal oxide/electrolyte interfaces is presented. By using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice model of an interface, we show a correlation exists between ionic strength as well as surface site densities and the non-Nernstian response of a metal oxide electrode. We propose two approaches to deal with the 0-nonlinearity: one based on perturbative expansion of the Gibbs free energy and another based on assumption of the pH-dependence of surface potential slope. The theoretical anal ysis based on our new potential form gives excellent performance at extreme pH regions, where classical formulae based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation fail. The new formula is general and independent of any underlying assumptions. For this reason, it can be directly applied to experimental surface potential measurements, including those for individual surfaces of single crystals, as we present for data reported by Kallay and Preocanin [Kallay, Preocanin J. Colloid and Interface20 Sci. 318 (2008) 290].

  15. Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuojia; Cheng, Feng; Winsor, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin

    2016-10-14

    Optical chiral metamaterials have recently attracted considerable attention because they offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and practical applications. Through pragmatic designs, the chiroptical response of chiral metamaterials can be several orders of magnitude higher than that of natural chiral materials. Meanwhile, the local chiral fields can be enhanced by plasmonic resonances to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes in both linear and nonlinear regimes. In this review, we will discuss the fundamental principles of chiral metamaterials, various optical chiral metamaterials realized by different nanofabrication approaches, and the applications and future prospects of this emerging field.

  16. Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuojia; Cheng, Feng; Winsor, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin

    2016-10-01

    Optical chiral metamaterials have recently attracted considerable attention because they offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and practical applications. Through pragmatic designs, the chiroptical response of chiral metamaterials can be several orders of magnitude higher than that of natural chiral materials. Meanwhile, the local chiral fields can be enhanced by plasmonic resonances to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes in both linear and nonlinear regimes. In this review, we will discuss the fundamental principles of chiral metamaterials, various optical chiral metamaterials realized by different nanofabrication approaches, and the applications and future prospects of this emerging field.

  17. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2014-07-18

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.

  18. Random forests in non-invasive sensorimotor rhythm brain-computer interfaces: a practical and convenient non-linear classifier.

    PubMed

    Steyrl, David; Scherer, Reinhold; Faller, Josef; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2016-02-01

    There is general agreement in the brain-computer interface (BCI) community that although non-linear classifiers can provide better results in some cases, linear classifiers are preferable. Particularly, as non-linear classifiers often involve a number of parameters that must be carefully chosen. However, new non-linear classifiers were developed over the last decade. One of them is the random forest (RF) classifier. Although popular in other fields of science, RFs are not common in BCI research. In this work, we address three open questions regarding RFs in sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) BCIs: parametrization, online applicability, and performance compared to regularized linear discriminant analysis (LDA). We found that the performance of RF is constant over a large range of parameter values. We demonstrate - for the first time - that RFs are applicable online in SMR-BCIs. Further, we show in an offline BCI simulation that RFs statistically significantly outperform regularized LDA by about 3%. These results confirm that RFs are practical and convenient non-linear classifiers for SMR-BCIs. Taking into account further properties of RFs, such as independence from feature distributions, maximum margin behavior, multiclass and advanced data mining capabilities, we argue that RFs should be taken into consideration for future BCIs.

  19. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  20. Thermal hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin

    2013-06-17

    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conversion applications requiring energy transfer in the near-infrared range we introduce high temperature hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasmonic materials with a high melting point. Our work paves the way for practical high temperature radiative thermal energy transfer applications of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  1. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices. PMID:26912419

  2. Vibrational spectroscopy of buried interfaces using nonlinear optics. Final technical report, July 7, 1986--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Furtak, T.E.

    1996-05-30

    This DOE sponsored program has been dedicated to the understanding, development, and application of nontraditional methods for studying buried interfaces, particularly the electrolyte-solid system. Most of the work has dealt with optical techniques. The early research was directed toward revealing the mechanisms of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). More recently the author has concentrated on surface nonlinear optical effects--second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SHG). Both of these techniques have the potential for selective interface sensitivity, and are produced through a higher order susceptibility than that which governs linear optical response. Optical SHG has the potential of providing more information about a buried interface than can be obtained by conventional optical spectroscopy. The author`s experiments have been designed to: (a) extract the second order optical susceptibility tensor associated with the surface of a metal electrode, and (b) discover how the electrochemical environment influences the nonlinear optical measurements. Recent contributions include quantitative comparison of the nonlinear response of single crystal silver to theoretical models for the effect. The author has provided the first detailed test of the time-dependent, local density functional prediction. Optical SHG bears a fundamental connection with the symmetry of the surface atoms. While investigating Ag(111) an anomalous effect was discovered that could not be explained by the known surface structure of Ag. The phenomenon was tentatively assigned to an adsorption induced surface reconstruction, since it behaved like a second order phase transition. In addition to the optical phenomena the author has designed, built, and operated an in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrochemical cell.

  3. Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides.

    PubMed

    Vasilantonakis, Nikolaos; Nasir, Mazhar E; Dickson, Wayne; Wurtz, Gregory A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2015-05-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials comprised of an array of plasmonic nanorods provide a unique platform for designing optical sensors and integrating nonlinear and active nanophotonic functionalities. In this work, the waveguiding properties and mode structure of planar anisotropic metamaterial waveguides are characterized experimentally and theoretically. While ordinary modes are the typical guided modes of the highly anisotropic waveguides, extraordinary modes, below the effective plasma frequency, exist in a hyperbolic metamaterial slab in the form of bulk plasmon-polaritons, in analogy to planar-cavity exciton-polaritons in semiconductors. They may have very low or negative group velocity with high effective refractive indices (up to 10) and have an unusual cut-off from the high-frequency side, providing deep-subwavelength (λ0/6-λ0/8 waveguide thickness) single-mode guiding. These properties, dictated by the hyperbolic anisotropy of the metamaterial, may be tuned by altering the geometrical parameters of the nanorod composite.

  4. Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Vasilantonakis, Nikolaos; Nasir, Mazhar E; Dickson, Wayne; Wurtz, Gregory A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials comprised of an array of plasmonic nanorods provide a unique platform for designing optical sensors and integrating nonlinear and active nanophotonic functionalities. In this work, the waveguiding properties and mode structure of planar anisotropic metamaterial waveguides are characterized experimentally and theoretically. While ordinary modes are the typical guided modes of the highly anisotropic waveguides, extraordinary modes, below the effective plasma frequency, exist in a hyperbolic metamaterial slab in the form of bulk plasmon-polaritons, in analogy to planar-cavity exciton-polaritons in semiconductors. They may have very low or negative group velocity with high effective refractive indices (up to 10) and have an unusual cut-off from the high-frequency side, providing deep-subwavelength (λ0/6–λ0/8 waveguide thickness) single-mode guiding. These properties, dictated by the hyperbolic anisotropy of the metamaterial, may be tuned by altering the geometrical parameters of the nanorod composite. PMID:26693254

  5. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Anan

    2010-01-01

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, ε. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  6. Nonlinear Snell law for grazing incidence along interfaces with discontinuous second-order susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; An, Ning; Deng, Xuewei; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that the angles at which second-harmonic (SH) waves are generated at ferroelectric domain walls satisfy the Snell law for nonlinear media. Nonlinear reflection and refraction are observed experimentally and the relation is found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ratio of the intensities of refracted and reflected waves has been measured. Under an anomalous-dispersion-like condition, the forbidden nonlinear reflection and refraction is analyzed and found to have a behavior similar to that of the total internal reflection in linear optics. In the periodic domain structure, the coherent superposition of SH waves has been observed, on the basis of which we have proposed a comprehensive theory to explain nonlinear effects in multilayered structures.

  7. A parametric study on the optimization of a metamaterial-based energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaiyuan; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Bagheri, Abdollah

    2015-11-01

    Highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) are compact nondispersive waves that propagate in nonlinear medium such as straight chains of spherical particles. In the last two decades, these waves have found many applications in physics and engineering including lensing and nondestructive testing. In the study presented in this paper, we exploit the propagation of HNSWs along a metamaterial formed by granular chains to harvest energy from an oscillating structure. Specifically, an oscillator taps the metamaterial and creates a train of solitary waves along each chain. At the interface between the chains and a solid material, part of the acoustic energy refracts into the solid where it coalesces at a point. Here, a wafer-type transducer converts the focalized stress wave into electric potential. In the research presented in this study, we optimize some of the harvester’s parameters to maximize the electrical power output. The results demonstrate that the proper selection of parameters such as beads’ material and size, speed of the oscillator at the instant of the impact, and modulus of the solid increases, by several orders of magnitude, the amount of power that can be harvested.

  8. Boundary conditions for quadrupolar metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2014-08-01

    One of the long-standing problems in effective medium theories is using the knowledge of the bulk material response to predict the behavior of the electromagnetic fields at the material boundaries. Here, using a first principles approach, we derive the boundary conditions satisfied by the macroscopic fields at interfaces between reciprocal metamaterials with a quadrupolar-type response. Our analysis reveals that in addition to the usual Maxwellian-type boundary conditions for the tangential fields, in general—to ensure the conservation of the power flow and Lorentz reciprocity—it is necessary to enforce an additional boundary condition (ABC) at an interface between a quadrupolar material and a standard dielectric. It is shown that the ABC is related to the emergence of an additional wave in the bulk quadrupolar medium.

  9. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Theoretical Development of Nonlinear Spring Models for the Second Harmonics on an Interface between Two Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhi-Wu; Wang, Xiao-Min; Li, Ming-Xuan; Deng, Ming-Xi; Mao, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Based on the exact solutions for the second-harmonic generations of the fundamental longitudinal and transverse waves propagating normally through a thin elastic layer between two solids, the approximate representations termed as 'nonlinear spring models' relating the stresses and displacements on both sides of the interface are rigorously developed by asymptotic expansions of the wave fields for an elastic layer in the limit of small thickness to wavelength ratio. The applicability for the so-called nonlinear spring models is numerically analyzed by comparison with exact solutions for the second harmonic wave reflections. The present nonlinear spring models lay a theoretical foundation to evaluate the interfacial properties by nonlinear acoustic waves.

  10. Intensity-dependent modulation of optically active signals in a chiral metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sean P; Lan, Shoufeng; Kang, Lei; Cui, Yonghao; Panuski, Patrick W; Wang, Shengxiang; Urbas, Augustine M; Cai, Wenshan

    2017-02-27

    Chiral media exhibit optical phenomena that provide distinctive responses from opposite circular polarizations. The disparity between these responses can be optimized by structurally engineering absorptive materials into chiral nanopatterns to form metamaterials that provide gigantic chiroptical resonances. To fully leverage the innate duality of chiral metamaterials for future optical technologies, it is essential to make such chiroptical responses tunable via external means. Here we report an optical metamaterial with tailored chiroptical effects in the nonlinear regime, which exhibits a pronounced shift in its circular dichroism spectrum under a modest level of excitation power. Strong nonlinear optical rotation is observed at key spectral locations, with an intensity-induced change of 14° in the polarization rotation from a metamaterial thickness of less than λ/7. The modulation of chiroptical responses by manipulation of input powers incident on chiral metamaterials offers potential for active optics such as all-optical switching and light modulation.

  11. Intensity-dependent modulation of optically active signals in a chiral metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Sean P.; Lan, Shoufeng; Kang, Lei; Cui, Yonghao; Panuski, Patrick W.; Wang, Shengxiang; Urbas, Augustine M.; Cai, Wenshan

    2017-01-01

    Chiral media exhibit optical phenomena that provide distinctive responses from opposite circular polarizations. The disparity between these responses can be optimized by structurally engineering absorptive materials into chiral nanopatterns to form metamaterials that provide gigantic chiroptical resonances. To fully leverage the innate duality of chiral metamaterials for future optical technologies, it is essential to make such chiroptical responses tunable via external means. Here we report an optical metamaterial with tailored chiroptical effects in the nonlinear regime, which exhibits a pronounced shift in its circular dichroism spectrum under a modest level of excitation power. Strong nonlinear optical rotation is observed at key spectral locations, with an intensity-induced change of 14° in the polarization rotation from a metamaterial thickness of less than λ/7. The modulation of chiroptical responses by manipulation of input powers incident on chiral metamaterials offers potential for active optics such as all-optical switching and light modulation. PMID:28240288

  12. Semiconductor activated terahertz metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-08-01

    Metamaterials have been developed as a new class of artificial effective media realizing many exotic phenomena and unique properties not normally found in nature. Metamaterials enable functionality through structure design, facilitating applications by addressing the severe material issues in the terahertz frequency range. Consequently, prototype functional terahertz devices have been demonstrated, including filters, antireflection coatings, perfect absorbers, polarization converters, and arbitrary wavefront shaping devices. Further integration of functional materials into metamaterial structures have enabled actively and dynamically switchable and frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials through the application of external stimuli. The enhanced light-matter interactions in active terahertz metamaterials may result inmore » unprecedented control and manipulation of terahertz radiation, forming the foundation of many terahertz applications. In this paper, we review the progress during the past few years in this rapidly growing research field. We particularly focus on the design principles and realization of functionalities using single-layer and few-layer terahertz planar metamaterials, and active terahertz metamaterials through the integration of semiconductors to achieve switchable and frequency-tunable response.« less

  13. Semiconductor activated terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-08-01

    Metamaterials have been developed as a new class of artificial effective media realizing many exotic phenomena and unique properties not normally found in nature. Metamaterials enable functionality through structure design, facilitating applications by addressing the severe material issues in the terahertz frequency range. Consequently, prototype functional terahertz devices have been demonstrated, including filters, antireflection coatings, perfect absorbers, polarization converters, and arbitrary wavefront shaping devices. Further integration of functional materials into metamaterial structures have enabled actively and dynamically switchable and frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials through the application of external stimuli. The enhanced light-matter interactions in active terahertz metamaterials may result in unprecedented control and manipulation of terahertz radiation, forming the foundation of many terahertz applications. In this paper, we review the progress during the past few years in this rapidly growing research field. We particularly focus on the design principles and realization of functionalities using single-layer and few-layer terahertz planar metamaterials, and active terahertz metamaterials through the integration of semiconductors to achieve switchable and frequency-tunable response.

  14. Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-08-01

    Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

  15. Multiscale studies on the nonlinear vibration of delaminated composite laminates-global vibration mode with micro buckles on the interfaces.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianghong; Xia, Fei; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Jianwen; Chen, Shuhua; Xiong, Ying; Tan, Zuyuan; Liu, Renhuai; Yuan, Hong

    2017-06-30

    This paper presents a multiscale approach to study the nonlinear vibration of fiber reinforced composite laminates containing an embedded, through-width delamination dividing the laminate into four sub-laminates. The equations of motion are established from macroscopic nonlinear mechanics for plates and shells and micro-mechanics of composite material to allow for the influences of large amplitude, membrane stretching in the neutral plane, and the interactions of the sublaminates. Analytical solutions obtained in this paper reveal that the interaction penalty at the interfaces plays a coupling effect between sublaminates, which eventually alters the vibration characters of the four-sublaminate lamina in macroscopic and microscopic mechanism. From a macro perspective, sub-laminates above and below the delamination vibrate in exactly the same mode in spite of their different stiffness and the four-sublaminate lamina has a consistent global vibration mode. In accompanying with the macro vibration, micro buckles occur on the interfaces of the delamination with amplitude about 10(-3) times of that of the global mode. It is found that the vibration frequency is an eigenvalue of the delaminated lamina determined only by the geometry of the delamination. Authentication of the multiscale study is fulfilled by comparing the analytical solutions with the FEA results.

  16. Experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias W; Wegener, Martin; Feth, Nils; Linden, Stefan

    2007-04-16

    Photonic metamaterials could provide optical nonlinearities far exceeding those of natural substances due to the combined action of (magnetic) resonances and local-field enhancements. Here, we present our experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials composed of nanoscale gold split-ring resonators and from control samples for excitation with 170-fs pulses centered at 1.5-microm wavelength. The strongest nonlinear signals are found for resonances with magnetic-dipole character.

  17. Metamaterials Application in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificial media structured on a size scale smaller than wavelength of external stimuli, and they can exhibit a strong localization and enhancement of fields, which may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors, and open new degrees of freedom in sensing design aspect. This paper mainly presents the recent progress concerning metamaterials-based sensing, and detailedly reviews the principle, detecting process and sensitivity of three distinct types of sensors based on metamaterials, as well as their challenges and prospects. Moreover, the design guidelines for each sensor and its performance are compared and summarized. PMID:22736975

  18. Tunable and Memory Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0402 TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS Dimitri Basov UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/02/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-08-2010 to 14-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550...the area of the metamaterial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS MEMORY , MATAMATERIALS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  19. Broadband Acoustic Hyperbolic Metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Xie, Yangbo; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-12-18

    In this Letter, we report on the design and experimental characterization of a broadband acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial. The proposed metamaterial consists of multiple arrays of clamped thin plates facing the y direction and is shown to yield opposite signs of effective density in the x and y directions below a certain cutoff frequency, therefore, yielding a hyperbolic dispersion. Partial focusing and subwavelength imaging are experimentally demonstrated at frequencies between 1.0 and 2.5 kHz. The proposed metamaterial could open up new possibilities for acoustic wave manipulation and may find usage in medical imaging and nondestructive testing.

  20. Combinatorial Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin

    The structure of most mechanical metamaterials is periodic so that their design space is that of the unit cell. Here we introduce a combinatorial strategy to create a vast number of distinct mechanical metamaterials, each with a unique spatial texture and response. These are aperiodic stackings of anisotropic building blocks, and their functionality rests on both the block design and their stacking configuration which is governed by a tiling problem. We realize such metamaterials by 3D printing, and show that they act as soft machines, capable of pattern recognition and pattern analysis.

  1. Local Environment and Interactions of Liquid and Solid Interfaces Revealed by Spectral Line Shape of Surface Selective Nonlinear Vibrational Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shun-Li; Fu, Li; Chase, Zizwe A.; Gan, Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei

    2016-11-10

    Vibrational spectral lineshape contains important detailed information of molecular vibration and reports its specific interactions and couplings to its local environment. In this work, recently developed sub-1 cm-1 high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS) was used to measure the -C≡N stretch vibration in the 4-n-octyl-4’-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) Langmuir or Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer as a unique vibrational probe, and the spectral lineshape analysis revealed the local environment and interactions at the air/water, air/glass, air/calcium fluoride and air/-quartz interfaces for the first time. The 8CB Langmuir or LB film is uniform and the vibrational spectral lineshape of its -C≡N group has been well characterized, making it a good choice as the surface vibrational probe. Lineshape analysis of the 8CB -C≡N stretch SFG vibrational spectra suggests the coherent vibrational dynamics and the structural and dynamic inhomogeneity of the -C≡N group at each interface are uniquely different. In addition, it is also found that there are significantly different roles for water molecules in the LB films on different substrate surfaces. These results demonstrated the novel capabilities of the surface nonlinear spectroscopy in characterization and in understanding the specific structures and chemical interactions at the liquid and solid interfaces in general.

  2. Hyperbolic metamaterial antenna for second-harmonic generation tomography.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Paulina; Marino, Giuseppe; Krasavin, Alexey V; Olivier, Nicolas; Wurtz, Gregory A; Belov, Pavel A; Ginzburg, Pavel; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2015-11-30

    The detection and processing of information carried by evanescent field components are key elements for subwavelength optical microscopy as well as single molecule sensing applications. Here, we numerically demonstrate the potential of a hyperbolic medium in the design of an efficient metamaterial antenna enabling detection and tracking of a nonlinear object, with an otherwise hidden second-harmonic signature. The presence of the antenna provides 103-fold intensity enhancement of the second harmonic generation (SHG) from a nanoparticle through a metamaterial-assisted access to evanescent second-harmonic fields. Alternatively, the observation of SHG from the metamaterial itself can be used to detect and track a nanoparticle without a nonlinear response. The antenna allows an optical resolution of several nanometers in tracking the nanoparticle's location via observations of the far-field second-harmonic radiation pattern.

  3. Advanced solitonic metamaterial structures under external magnetophotonic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, A. D.; Egan, P.

    2013-09-01

    Metamaterial research is an extremely important global activity that promises to change our lives in many different ways, including making objects invisible and having a very dramatic impact upon the energy and medical sectors of society. Behind all of the applications, however, lies the design of metamaterials and this can be led by elegant routes that include nonlinearity, waveguide complexity and structured light. The associated optical device formats often involve coupling to soliton behavior. Vortex formation is going to be a critical feature for future applications focusing attention upon the role of angular momentum in special metamaterial-driven light beams. In this context nonlinear diffraction must be assessed and some discussion of a magnetooptical environment will be included. Solitonic behavior of light beams will be mentioned, including what have now become known as Peregrine solitons.

  4. Electrically driven optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-22

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  5. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging.

  6. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  7. Metamaterial enhances natural cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-03-01

    A new metamaterial film that uses passive radiative cooling to dissipate heat from an object and provides cooling without a power input has been developed by a team at the University of Colorado Boulder in the US.

  8. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-01-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors. PMID:27328976

  9. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  10. Thermochromic Infrared Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-02-03

    An infrared artificial thermochromic material composed of a metamaterial emitter and a bimaterial micro-electro-mechanical system is investigated. A differential emissivity of over 30% is achieved between 623 K and room temperature. The passive metamaterial device demonstrates the ability to independently control the peak wavelength and temperature dependence of the emissivity, and achieves thermal emission following a super Stefan-Boltzmann power curve.

  11. Nonlinear mixing behavior of the three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability at a decelerating interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, H; Remington, B; Edwards, M; Perry, T; Wallace, R J; Louis, H; Drake, R; Leibrandt, D L; Harding, E C; Kuranz, C C; Blackburn, M; Knauer, J P

    2004-03-19

    We report results from the first experiments to explore the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from intentionally three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions at an embedded, decelerating interface in a high-Reynolds-number flow. The experiments used {approx}5 kJ of laser energy to produce a blast wave in polyimide and/or brominated plastic having an initial pressure of {approx}50 Mbars. This blast wave shocked and then decelerated the perturbed interface between first material and a lower-density, C foam. This caused the formation of a decelerating interface with an Atwood number {approx}2/3, producing a long-term positive growth rate for the RT instability. The initial perturbations were a 3D perturbation in an ''egg-crate'' pattern with feature spacings of 71 {micro}m in two orthogonal directions and peak-to-valley amplitudes of 5 {micro}m. The resulting RT spikes were observed to overtake the shock waves at the undisturbed, ''free-fall'' rate, and to subsequently deliver material from behind the interface to the forward shock. This result is unanticipated by prior simulations and models.

  12. Phase-referenced nonlinear spectroscopy of the α-quartz/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Paul E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Wang, Hong-fei; Geiger, Franz M.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2016-12-13

    Probing the polarization of water molecules at charged interfaces by second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy1 has been heretofore limited to isotropic solids. The signal intensity follows the interfacial potential, φo, according to I2ω ∝|χ(2)+ χ(3).φo|2, where I2ω is the SHG signal intensity oscillating at frequency 2ω, and χ(2) and χ(3) are the second- and third-order susceptibilities (χ(2) and χ(3)) of the interface probed. Here, we report the first phase-referenced SHG measurements under non-resonant conditions at the interface of z-cut α-quartz and water under conditions of dynamically changing ionic strength and bulk solution pH. Comparison to non-referenced SHG measurements obtained from the fused silica/water interface reveals that the χ(3).φo term takes the form of ( χ(3)±iχ(3)).φo, and that the interference between the χ(3).φo term and the bulk quartz χ(2) term depends on the rotation angle of α-quartz around the z-axis. This newly identified term, iχ(3).φo, which is out of phase from the surface terms, is of bulk origin. The experiment expands the scope of SHG spectroscopy to probe solid/liquid interfaces beyond amorphous and centrosymmetric materials towards crystal classes that lack centrosymmetry. The possibility of internally phase referencing the interfacial SHG response for the interfacial orientation analysis of species or materials in contact with α-quartz are discussed along with the implications for conditions of resonance enhancement.

  13. Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Bragg Polaritons.

    PubMed

    Sedov, Evgeny S; Iorsh, I V; Arakelian, S M; Alodjants, A P; Kavokin, Alexey

    2015-06-12

    We propose a novel mechanism for designing quantum hyperbolic metamaterials with the use of semiconductor Bragg mirrors containing periodically arranged quantum wells. The hyperbolic dispersion of exciton-polariton modes is realized near the top of the first allowed photonic miniband in such a structure which leads to the formation of exciton-polariton X waves. Exciton-light coupling provides a resonant nonlinearity which leads to nontrivial topologic solutions. We predict the formation of low amplitude spatially localized oscillatory structures: oscillons described by kink shaped solutions of the effective Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs equation. The oscillons have direct analogies in gravitational theory. We discuss implementation of exciton-polariton Higgs fields for the Schrödinger cat state generation.

  14. Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Bragg Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedov, Evgeny S.; Iorsh, I. V.; Arakelian, S. M.; Alodjants, A. P.; Kavokin, Alexey

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel mechanism for designing quantum hyperbolic metamaterials with the use of semiconductor Bragg mirrors containing periodically arranged quantum wells. The hyperbolic dispersion of exciton-polariton modes is realized near the top of the first allowed photonic miniband in such a structure which leads to the formation of exciton-polariton X waves. Exciton-light coupling provides a resonant nonlinearity which leads to nontrivial topologic solutions. We predict the formation of low amplitude spatially localized oscillatory structures: oscillons described by kink shaped solutions of the effective Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs equation. The oscillons have direct analogies in gravitational theory. We discuss implementation of exciton-polariton Higgs fields for the Schrödinger cat state generation.

  15. Dielectric metamaterials with toroidal dipolar response

    DOE PAGES

    Basharin, Alexey A.; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N.; ...

    2015-03-27

    Toroidal multipoles are the terms missing in the standard multipole expansion; they are usually overlooked due to their relatively weak coupling to the electromagnetic fields. Here, we propose and theoretically study all-dielectric metamaterials of a special class that represent a simple electromagnetic system supporting toroidal dipolar excitations in the THz part of the spectrum. In addition, we show that resonant transmission and reflection of such metamaterials is dominated by toroidal dipole scattering, the neglect of which would result in a misunderstanding interpretation of the metamaterials’ macroscopic response. Due to the unique field configuration of the toroidal mode, the proposed metamaterialsmore » could serve as a platform for sensing or enhancement of light absorption and optical nonlinearities.« less

  16. Fano resonances from gradient-index metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yadong; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-27

    Fano resonances - resonant scattering features with a characteristic asymmetric profile - have generated much interest, due to their extensive and valuable applications in chemical or biological sensors, new types of optical switches, lasers and nonlinear optics. They have been observed in a wide variety of resonant optical systems, including photonic crystals, metamaterials, metallic gratings and nanostructures. In this work, a waveguide structure is designed by employing gradient-index metamaterials, supporting strong Fano resonances with extremely sharp spectra. As the changes in the transmission spectrum originate from the interaction of guided modes from different channels, instead of resonance structures or metamolecules, the Fano resonances can be observed for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. These findings are verified by fine agreement with analytical calculations and experimental results at microwave, as well as simulated results at near infrared frequencies.

  17. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhengwei

    Metamaterials are periodic structures created by many identical scattering objects which are stationary and small compared to the wavelength of electromagnetic wave applied to it so that when combined with different elements, these materials have the potential to be coupled to the applied electromagnetic wave without modifying the structure. Due to their unusual properties that are not readily available in nature, metamaterials have been drawing significant attentions in many research areas, including theoretical, experimental as well as numerical investigations. As one of the major computational electromagnetic modeling methods, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique tackles problems by providing a full wave solution. FDTD, which is able to show transient evolution of interactions between electromagnetic wave and physical objects, not only has the advantage in dispersive and nonlinear material simulations, but also has the ability to model circuit elements including semiconductor devices. All these features make FDTD a competitive candidate in numerical methods of metamaterial simulations. This dissertation presents the implementation of FDTD technique to deal with three dimensional (3D) problems characterized with metamaterial structures. We endeavor to make the FDTD engine multi-functional and fast, as depicted in the following three efforts: (1) We incorporated FDTD engine with the stable and highly efficient model for materials with dispersion, nonlinearity and gain properties. (2) We coupled FDTD engine with SPICE, the general-purpose and powerful analog electronic circuit simulator. This makes FDTD ready to simulate complex semiconductor devices and provides a variety of possibilities for novel metamaterials. (3) We investigated the cutting-edge area of Graphics Processing Units (GPU) computing module to speed up the FDTD engine, and implemented subgridding system to target more efficient modeling for metamaterial applications with embedded fine

  18. Broadband metamaterial for nonresonant matching of acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    D'Aguanno, G; Le, K Q; Trimm, R; Alù, A; Mattiucci, N; Mathias, A D; Aközbek, N; Bloemer, M J

    2012-01-01

    Unity transmittance at an interface between bulk media is quite common for polarized electromagnetic waves incident at the Brewster angle, but it is rarely observed for sound waves at any angle of incidence. In the following, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic metamaterial possessing a Brewster-like angle that is completely transparent to sound waves over an ultra-broadband frequency range with >100% bandwidth. The metamaterial, consisting of a hard metal with subwavelength apertures, provides a surface impedance matching mechanism that can be arbitrarily tailored to specific media. The nonresonant nature of the impedance matching effectively decouples the front and back surfaces of the metamaterial allowing one to independently tailor the acoustic impedance at each interface. On the contrary, traditional methods for acoustic impedance matching, for example in medical imaging, rely on resonant tunneling through a thin antireflection layer, which is inherently narrowband and angle specific.

  19. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured, Tunable Metamaterials via Spinodal Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuhuang; Wang, Xi; Qi, Yajun; Yang, Sui; Soares, Julio A N T; Apgar, Brent A; Gao, Ran; Xu, Ruijuan; Lee, Yeonbae; Zhang, Xiang; Yao, Jie; Martin, Lane W

    2016-11-22

    Self-assembly via nanoscale phase separation offers an elegant route to fabricate nanocomposites with physical properties unattainable in single-component systems. One important class of nanocomposites are optical metamaterials which exhibit exotic properties and lead to opportunities for agile control of light propagation. Such metamaterials are typically fabricated via expensive and hard-to-scale top-down processes requiring precise integration of dissimilar materials. In turn, there is a need for alternative, more efficient routes to fabricate large-scale metamaterials for practical applications with deep-subwavelength resolution. Here, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach to fabricate scalable nanostructured metamaterials via spinodal decomposition. To demonstrate the potential of such an approach, we leverage the innate spinodal decomposition of the VO2-TiO2 system, the metal-to-insulator transition in VO2, and thin-film epitaxy, to produce self-organized nanostructures with coherent interfaces and a structural unit cell down to 15 nm (tunable between horizontally and vertically aligned lamellae) wherein the iso-frequency surface is temperature-tunable from elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion producing metamaterial behavior. These results provide an efficient route for the fabrication of nanostructured metamaterials and other nanocomposites for desired functionalities.

  20. Reduction of nonlinear embedded boundary models for problems with evolving interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balajewicz, Maciej; Farhat, Charbel

    2014-10-01

    Embedded boundary methods alleviate many computational challenges, including those associated with meshing complex geometries and solving problems with evolving domains and interfaces. Developing model reduction methods for computational frameworks based on such methods seems however to be challenging. Indeed, most popular model reduction techniques are projection-based, and rely on basis functions obtained from the compression of simulation snapshots. In a traditional interface-fitted computational framework, the computation of such basis functions is straightforward, primarily because the computational domain does not contain in this case a fictitious region. This is not the case however for an embedded computational framework because the computational domain typically contains in this case both real and ghost regions whose definitions complicate the collection and compression of simulation snapshots. The problem is exacerbated when the interface separating both regions evolves in time. This paper addresses this issue by formulating the snapshot compression problem as a weighted low-rank approximation problem where the binary weighting identifies the evolving component of the individual simulation snapshots. The proposed approach is application independent and therefore comprehensive. It is successfully demonstrated for the model reduction of several two-dimensional, vortex-dominated, fluid-structure interaction problems.

  1. Surface polaritons in a negative-index metamaterial with active Raman gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2015-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize stable propagation of linear and nonlinear surface polaritons (SPs) by placing a N -type four-level quantum emitters at the interface between a dielectric and a negative-index metamaterial (NIMM). We show that in linear propagation regime SPs can acquire an active Raman gain (ARG) from a pump field and a gain doublet appears in the gain spectrum of a signal field induced by the quantum interference effect from a control field. The ARG can be used not only to completely compensate the Ohmic loss in the NIMM but also to acquire a superluminal group velocity for the SPs. We also show that in the nonlinear propagation regime a huge enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity of the SPs can be obtained. As a result, ARG-assisted (1 + 1 )- and (2 + 1 )- dimensional superluminal surface polaritonic solitons with extremely low generation power may be produced based on the strong confinement of the electric field at the dielectric-NIMM interface.

  2. All-optical metamaterial modulators: Fabrication, simulation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Zahyun

    Artificially structured composite metamaterials consist of sub-wavelength sized structures that exhibit unusual electromagnetic properties not found in nature. Since the first experimental verification in 2000, metamaterials have drawn considerable attention because of their broad range of potential applications. One of the most attractive features of metamaterials is to obtain negative refraction, termed left-handed materials or negative-index metamaterials, over a limited frequency band. Negative-index metamaterials at near infrared wavelength are fabricated with circular, elliptical and rectangular holes penetrating through metal/dielectric/metal films. All three negative-index metamaterial structures exhibit similar figure of merit; however, the transmission is higher for the negative-index metamaterial with rectangular holes as a result of an improved impedance match with the substrate-superstrate (air-glass) combination. In general, the processing procedure to fabricate the fishnet structured negative-index metamaterials is to define the hole-size using a polymetric material, usually by lithographically defining polymer posts, followed by deposition of the constitutive materials and dissolution of the polymer (liftoff processing). This processing (fabrication of posts: multi-layer deposition: liftoff) often gives rise to significant sidewall-angle because materials accumulate on the tops of the posts that define the structure, each successive film deposition has a somewhat larger aperture on the bottom metamaterial film, giving rise to a nonzero sidewall-angle and to optical bianisotropy. Finally, we demonstrate a nanometer-scale, sub-picosecond metamaterial device capable of over terabit/second all-optical communication in the near infrared spectrum. We achieve a 600 fs device response by utilizing a regime of sub-picosecond carrier dynamics in amorphous silicon and ˜70% modulation in a path length of only 124 nm by exploiting the strong nonlinearities in

  3. Combination of the sensitivity in EM field and the optimum nonlinear interpolation approximation as a favorable means of CAD of composite meta-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Yuichi; Kida, Takuro

    2010-08-01

    In the iterative CAD design of new materials by digital computers, it is necessary to obtain the differential coefficients, that is, component-sensitivities caused by the small deviation of inner-components in a given electromagnetic field expressed by the Maxwell relations. Further, to determine the step-size of the numerical iterative CAD design that uses the discrete sample values of the wave form at the sample points with the same interval of the step-size, it is required to estimate the error favorably between the original wave form and its numerical approximation. In this paper, firstly, we present conservation operators in micro-electromagnetic field and its macro-expression in the electromagnetic field. Secondly, we present some concrete conservation operators and make clear that the certain quantities, such as the stored energy of a small inner-component in the closed electromagnetic field, are closely correlated to the differential coefficients of the electric field and the magnetic field observed at the outer ports. Secondly, in a single-mode electromagnetic field, we obtain the relation between the stored energy, and the component-sensitivities caused by the small deviation of the inner-component. Thirdly, we present a brief survey of the progress in the development of meta material and show the usefulness of combining the above results with the optimum nonlinear approximation in the iterative design of linear or nonlinear meta material.

  4. Analysis of vadose zone inhomogeneity toward distinguishing recharge rates: Solving the nonlinear interface problem with Newton method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, David R.

    2016-11-01

    Recharge from surface to groundwater is an important component of the hydrological cycle, yet its rate is difficult to quantify. Percolation through two-dimensional circular inhomogeneities in the vadose zone is studied where one soil type is embedded within a uniform background, and nonlinear interface conditions in the quasilinear formulation are solved using Newton's method with the Analytic Element Method. This numerical laboratory identifies detectable variations in pathline and pressure head distributions that manifest due to a shift in recharge rate through in a heterogeneous media. Pathlines either diverge about or converge through coarser and finer grained materials with inverse patterns forming across lower and upper elevations; however, pathline geometry is not significantly altered by recharge. Analysis of pressure head in lower regions near groundwater identifies a new phenomenon: its distribution is not significantly impacted by an inhomogeneity soil type, nor by its placement nor by recharge rate. Another revelation is that pressure head for coarser grained inhomogeneities in upper regions is completely controlled by geometry and conductivity contrasts; a shift in recharge generates a difference Δp that becomes an additive constant with the same value throughout this region. In contrast, shifts in recharge for finer grained inhomogeneities reveal patterns with abrupt variations across their interfaces. Consequently, measurements aimed at detecting shifts in recharge in a heterogeneous vadose zone by deciphering the corresponding patterns of change in pressure head should focus on finer grained inclusions well above a groundwater table.

  5. Modeling Kleinian cosmology with electronic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, David; Gomes, Felipe A.; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Moraes, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the propagation of Klein-Gordon particles in flat background spacetime exhibiting discontinuous metric changes from a Lorentzian signature (-,+,+,+) to a Kleinian signature (-,+,+,-) . A formal analogy with the propagation of electrons at a junction between an anisotropic semiconductor and an electronic metamaterial is presented. From that analogy, we study the dynamics of these particles falling onto planar boundary interfaces between these two families of media and show a mirror-like behavior for the particle flux. Finally, the case of a double junction of finite thickness is examined and the possibility of tunneling through it is discussed. A physical link between the metamaterial and the Kleinian slabs is found by calculating the time of flight of the respective traversing particles.

  6. Integrated digital metamaterials enables ultra-compact optical diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    We applied nonlinear optimization to design integrated digital metamaterials in silicon for unidirectional energy flow. Two devices, one for each polarization state, were designed, fabricated, and characterized. Both devices offer comparable or higher transmission efficiencies and extinction ratios, are easier to fabricate, exhibit larger bandwidths and are more tolerant to fabrication errors, when compared to alternatives. Furthermore, each device footprint is only 3μm × 3μm, which is the smallest optical diode ever reported. To illustrate the versatility of digital metamaterials, we also designed a polarization-independent optical diode.

  7. Active terahertz metamaterial devices

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Houtong; Padilla, Willie John; Averitt, Richard Douglas; O'Hara, John F.; Lee, Mark

    2010-11-02

    Metamaterial structures are taught which provide for the modulation of terahertz frequency signals. Each element within an array of metamaterial (MM) elements comprises multiple loops and at least one gap. The MM elements may comprise resonators with conductive loops and insulated gaps, or the inverse in which insulated loops are present with conductive gaps; each providing useful transmissive control properties. The metamaterial elements are fabricated on a semiconducting substrate configured with a means of enhancing or depleting electrons from near the gaps of the MM elements. An on to off transmissivity ratio of about 0.5 is achieved with this approach. Embodiments are described in which the MM elements incorporated within a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) to provide surface emitting (SE) properties.

  8. Sensing with toroidal metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manoj; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Manjappa, Manukumara; Singh, Ranjan

    2017-03-01

    Localized electromagnetic excitation in the form of toroidal dipoles has recently been observed in metamaterial systems. The origin of the toroidal dipole lies in the currents flowing on the surface of a torus. Thus, the exotic toroidal excitations play an important role in determining the optical properties of a system. Toroidal dipoles also contribute towards enabling high quality factor subwavelength resonances in metamaterial systems which could be an excellent platform for probing the light matter interaction. Here, we demonstrate sensing with toroidal resonance in a two-dimensional terahertz metamaterial in which a pair of mirrored asymmetric Fano resonators possesses anti-aligned magnetic moments at an electromagnetic resonance that gives rise to a toroidal dipole. Our proof of concept demonstration opens up an avenue to explore the interaction of matter with toroidal multipoles that could have strong applications in the sensing of dielectrics and biomolecules.

  9. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed.

  10. THz-metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuong Pham, Van; Park, J. W.; Vu, Dinh Lam; Zheng, H. Y.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Lee, Y. P.

    2013-03-01

    An ultrabroad-band metamaterial absorber was investigated in mid-IR regime based on a similar model in previous work. The high absorption of metamaterial was obtained in a band of 8-11.7 THz with energy loss distributed in SiO2, which is appropriate potentially for solar-cell applications. A perfect absorption peak was provided by using a sandwich structure with periodical anti-dot pattern in the IR region, getting closed to visible-band metamaterials. The dimensional parameters were examined for the corresponding fabrication. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  11. Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midtvedt, Daniel; Isacsson, Andreas; Croy, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials are used to tailor phonon and sound propagation properties by utilizing artificial, periodic structures. Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic band gaps can be created, which influence wave propagation and, more generally, allow engineering of the acoustic properties of a system. Beyond that, nonlinear phenomena in periodic structures have been extensively studied in photonic crystals and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. However, creating nonlinear phononic crystals or nonlinear acoustic metamaterials remains challenging and only few examples have been demonstrated. Here, we show that atomically thin and periodically pinned membranes support coupled localized modes with nonlinear dynamics. The proposed system provides a platform for investigating nonlinear phononics.

  12. The effect of initial conditions on the nonlinear evolution of perturbed interfaces driven by strong blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Aaron R.

    2004-08-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self- similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self- similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and emphasize the

  13. The Effect of Initial Conditions on the Nonlinear Evolution of Perturbed Interfaces Driven by Strong Blast Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Aaron R.

    2004-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and emphasize the

  14. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-16

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson's ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson's ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  15. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, David Bruce

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  16. Transforming Light with Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Vladimir

    2009-03-01

    Metamaterials are expected to open a gateway to unprecedented electromagnetic properties and functionality unattainable from naturally occurring materials, thus enabling a family of new ``meta-devices.'' We review this new emerging field and significant progress in developing metamaterials for the optical part of the spectrum. Specifically, we describe recently demonstrated artificial magnetism across the whole visible, negative-index in the optical range, and promising approaches along with challenges in realizing optical cloaking. A new paradigm of engineering space for light with transformation optics will be also discussed.

  17. Tunable Interface Non-linear Electron Transport in Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructure and Its Application in Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guannan

    Understanding the effects of finite size and dimensionality on the interaction of light with nanoscale semiconductor heterostructure is central to identifying and exploiting novel modes in optoelectronic devices. In type-I heterostructured core-shell GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs nanowires, the real space transfer (RST) of photogenerated hot electrons across the interface from the GaAs core to the AlxGa1-xAs shell forms the basis of a new family of optoelectronic devices by a carefully designed and optimized nanofabrication process. Due to the large mobility difference, we observed negative differential resistance (NDR) on single nanowire devices. External modulation of the transfer rates, manifested as a large tunability of the voltage onset of NDR, is achieved using three different modes: electrostatic gating, incident photon flux, and photon energy. In this dissertation, the physics of coupling of external control to transfer rate was investigated. The combined influences of geometric confinement, heterojunction shape and carrier scattering on hot-electron transfer is discussed. Temperature-dependent transport study under monochromatic tunable laser illumination reveals an ultrafast carrier dynamics related to RST of excess carriers, which provides an insight into hot carrier cooling. Device element showing adjustable phase shift and frequency doubling of ac modulation is demonstrated. For a full understanding, Carrier transport properties are probed through electron beam induced current, which is capable of imaging sub-surface feature in excess carrier transport. Along with simulation of injected electron trajectories, selective probing of core and shell by tuning electron beam energies reveals axial and bias dependent transport along parallel channels. The drift and diffusion component of the excess carrier current is deconvoluted from a coupled decay length, from which lower than bulk shell electron mobility is extracted. A precise knowledge of band edge discontinuities at

  18. Tuning the Performance of Metallic Auxetic Metamaterials by Using Buckling and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ghaedizadeh, Arash; Shen, Jianhu; Ren, Xin; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-01-01

    Metallic auxetic metamaterials are of great potential to be used in many applications because of their superior mechanical performance to elastomer-based auxetic materials. Due to the limited knowledge on this new type of materials under large plastic deformation, the implementation of such materials in practical applications remains elusive. In contrast to the elastomer-based metamaterials, metallic ones possess new features as a result of the nonlinear deformation of their metallic microstructures under large deformation. The loss of auxetic behavior in metallic metamaterials led us to carry out a numerical and experimental study to investigate the mechanism of the observed phenomenon. A general approach was proposed to tune the performance of auxetic metallic metamaterials undergoing large plastic deformation using buckling behavior and the plasticity of base material. Both experiments and finite element simulations were used to verify the effectiveness of the developed approach. By employing this approach, a 2D auxetic metamaterial was derived from a regular square lattice. Then, by altering the initial geometry of microstructure with the desired buckling pattern, the metallic metamaterials exhibit auxetic behavior with tuneable mechanical properties. A systematic parametric study using the validated finite element models was conducted to reveal the novel features of metallic auxetic metamaterials undergoing large plastic deformation. The results of this study provide a useful guideline for the design of 2D metallic auxetic metamaterials for various applications. PMID:28787854

  19. Tuning the Performance of Metallic Auxetic Metamaterials by Using Buckling and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ghaedizadeh, Arash; Shen, Jianhu; Ren, Xin; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-01-18

    Metallic auxetic metamaterials are of great potential to be used in many applications because of their superior mechanical performance to elastomer-based auxetic materials. Due to the limited knowledge on this new type of materials under large plastic deformation, the implementation of such materials in practical applications remains elusive. In contrast to the elastomer-based metamaterials, metallic ones possess new features as a result of the nonlinear deformation of their metallic microstructures under large deformation. The loss of auxetic behavior in metallic metamaterials led us to carry out a numerical and experimental study to investigate the mechanism of the observed phenomenon. A general approach was proposed to tune the performance of auxetic metallic metamaterials undergoing large plastic deformation using buckling behavior and the plasticity of base material. Both experiments and finite element simulations were used to verify the effectiveness of the developed approach. By employing this approach, a 2D auxetic metamaterial was derived from a regular square lattice. Then, by altering the initial geometry of microstructure with the desired buckling pattern, the metallic metamaterials exhibit auxetic behavior with tuneable mechanical properties. A systematic parametric study using the validated finite element models was conducted to reveal the novel features of metallic auxetic metamaterials undergoing large plastic deformation. The results of this study provide a useful guideline for the design of 2D metallic auxetic metamaterials for various applications.

  20. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  1. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  2. Infrared Metamaterials for Diffractive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Ju

    Intense developments in optical metamaterials have led to a renaissance in several optics fields. Metamaterials, artificially structured media, provide several additional degrees of freedom that cannot be accessed with conventional materials. For example, metamaterials offer a convenient and precise way to explore a wide range of refractive indices, including negative values. In this dissertation, I introduce the idea of metamaterial based diffractive optics. Merging diffractive optics with metamaterials has several benefits, including access to almost continuous phase profiles and a wide range of available controlled anisotropy. I demonstrate this concept with several examples. I begin with an example of metamaterial based blazed diffraction grating using gradient index metamaterials for lambda = 10.6 microm. A series of non-resonant metamaterial elements were designed and fabricated to mimic a saw-tooth refractive index profile with a linear index variation of Deltan = 3.0. The linear gradient profile is repeated periodically to form the equivalent of a blazed grating, with the gradient occurring across a spatial distance of 61 microm. The index gradient is confirmed by comparing the measured magnitudes of the -1, 0 and +1 diffracted orders to those obtained from full wave simulations. In addition to a metamaterial grating, a metamaterial based computer-generated phase hologram was designed by implementing the Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) iterative algorithm to form a 2D phase panel. A three layer metamaterial hologram was fabricated, with the size of 750 microm x 750 microm. Each pixel is comprised of 5 x 5 metamaterial elements. This simple demonstration shows the potential for practical applications of metamaterial based diffractive optics. The demand for compact and integrated optoelectronic systems increases the urgency for optical components that can simultaneously perform various functions. This dissertation also presents an optical element capable of

  3. Nonlinear laser-induced deformations of liquid-liquid interfaces: An optical fiber model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkeland, Ole Jakob; Brevik, Iver

    2008-12-01

    Experimentally, it turns out that radiation forces from a cw laser on a liquid-liquid interface are able to produce giant deformations (up to about 100μm ), if the system is close to the critical point where the surface tension becomes small. We present a model for such a fingerlike deformation, implying that the system is described as an optical fiber. One reason for introducing such a model is that the refractive index difference in modern experiments, such as those of the Bordeaux group, is small, of the same order as in practical fibers in optics. It is natural therefore to adopt the hybrid HE11 mode, known from fiber theory as the fundamental mode for the liquid system. We show how the balance between hydrodynamical and radiation forces leads to a stable equilibrium point for the liquid column. Also, we calculate the narrowing of the column radius as the depth increases. Comparison with experimental results of the Bordeaux group yields quite satisfactory agreement as regards the column width.

  4. Tunable Broadband Transparency of Macroscopic Quantum Superconducting Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-10-01

    Narrow-band invisibility in an otherwise opaque medium has been achieved by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems. The quantum EIT behavior can be classically mimicked by specially engineered metamaterials via carefully controlled interference with a "dark mode." However, the narrow transparency window limits the potential applications that require a tunable wideband transparent performance. Here, we present a macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial with manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional EIT or its classical analogs. A near-complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bistability of the meta-atoms and can be tuned on and off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature, and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for autocloaking metamaterials, intensity-dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters.

  5. Effects of initial radius of the interface and Atwood number on nonlinear saturation amplitudes in cylindrical Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanhai; Yu, Changping; Li, Xinliang

    2014-11-01

    Nonlinear saturation amplitudes (NSAs) of the first two harmonics in classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in cylindrical geometry for arbitrary Atwood numbers have been analytically investigated considering nonlinear corrections up to the fourth-order. The NSA of the fundamental mode is defined as the linear (purely exponential) growth amplitude of the fundamental mode at the saturation time when the growth of the fundamental mode (first harmonic) is reduced by 10% in comparison to its corresponding linear growth, and the NSA of the second harmonic can be obtained in the same way. The analytic results indicate that the effects of the initial radius of the interface (r0) and the Atwood number (A) play an important role in the NSAs of the first two harmonics in cylindrical RTI. On the one hand, the NSA of the fundamental mode first increases slightly and then decreases quickly with increasing A. For given A, the smaller the r0/λ (with λ perturbation wavelength) is, the larger the NSA of the fundamental mode is. When r0/λ is large enough ( r0≫λ ), the NSA of the fundamental mode is reduced to the prediction of previous literatures within the framework of third-order perturbation theory [J. W. Jacobs and I. Catton, J. Fluid Mech. 187, 329 (1988); S. W. Haan, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2349 (1991)]. On the other hand, the NSA of the second harmonic first decreases quickly with increasing A, reaching a minimum, and then increases slowly. Furthermore, the r0 can reduce the NSA of the second harmonic for arbitrary A at r0≲ 2 λ while increase it for A ≲ 0.6 at r0≳ 2 λ . Thus, it should be included in applications where the NSA has a role, such as inertial confinement fusion ignition target design.

  6. Effects of initial radius of the interface and Atwood number on nonlinear saturation amplitudes in cylindrical Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wanhai; Yu, Changping; Li, Xinliang

    2014-11-15

    Nonlinear saturation amplitudes (NSAs) of the first two harmonics in classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in cylindrical geometry for arbitrary Atwood numbers have been analytically investigated considering nonlinear corrections up to the fourth-order. The NSA of the fundamental mode is defined as the linear (purely exponential) growth amplitude of the fundamental mode at the saturation time when the growth of the fundamental mode (first harmonic) is reduced by 10% in comparison to its corresponding linear growth, and the NSA of the second harmonic can be obtained in the same way. The analytic results indicate that the effects of the initial radius of the interface (r{sub 0}) and the Atwood number (A) play an important role in the NSAs of the first two harmonics in cylindrical RTI. On the one hand, the NSA of the fundamental mode first increases slightly and then decreases quickly with increasing A. For given A, the smaller the r{sub 0}/λ (with λ perturbation wavelength) is, the larger the NSA of the fundamental mode is. When r{sub 0}/λ is large enough (r{sub 0}≫λ), the NSA of the fundamental mode is reduced to the prediction of previous literatures within the framework of third-order perturbation theory [J. W. Jacobs and I. Catton, J. Fluid Mech. 187, 329 (1988); S. W. Haan, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2349 (1991)]. On the other hand, the NSA of the second harmonic first decreases quickly with increasing A, reaching a minimum, and then increases slowly. Furthermore, the r{sub 0} can reduce the NSA of the second harmonic for arbitrary A at r{sub 0}≲2λ while increase it for A ≲ 0.6 at r{sub 0}≳2λ. Thus, it should be included in applications where the NSA has a role, such as inertial confinement fusion ignition target design.

  7. Estimating interfacial thermal conductivity in metamaterials through heat flux mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Canbazoglu, Fatih M.; Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2015-04-06

    The variability of the thickness as well as the thermal conductivity of interfaces in composites may significantly influence thermal transport characteristics and the notion of a metamaterial as an effective medium. The consequent modulations of the heat flux passage are analytically and experimentally examined through a non-contact methodology using radiative imaging, on a model anisotropic thermal metamaterial. It was indicated that a lower Al layer/silver interfacial epoxy ratio of ∼25 compared to that of a Al layer/alumina interfacial epoxy (of ∼39) contributes to a smaller deviation of the heat flux bending angle.

  8. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing

    2016-02-01

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  9. The role of current loop in harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials in two polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedian, Iman; Kim, Inki; Zakery, Abdolnasser; Rho, Junsuk

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of current loop in the generation of second and third harmonic signals from magnetic metamaterials and we are clarifying why two polarized harmonics are generated from magnetic metamaterials. We show that the current loop formed in the magnetic resonant frequency acts as a source for nonlinear effects. The current loop that has a circular shape can be divided into two orthogonal parts, where each of these parts acts as a source for generating a harmonic signal parallel to itself. The type of harmonic signal is determined by the metamaterial's inversion symmetry in that direction. This claim is also supported by the experimental results of another group.

  10. Hyperbolic metamaterials based on Bragg polariton structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedov, E. S.; Charukhchyan, M. V.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Alodzhants, A. P.; Lee, R.-K.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A new hyperbolic metamaterial based on a modified semiconductor Bragg mirror structure with embedded periodically arranged quantum wells is proposed. It is shown that exciton polaritons in this material feature hyperbolic dispersion in the vicinity of the second photonic band gap. Exciton-photon interaction brings about resonant nonlinearity leading to the emergence of nontrivial topological polaritonic states. The formation of spatially localized breather-type structures (oscillons) representing kink-shaped solutions of the effective Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs equation slightly oscillating along one spatial direction is predicted.

  11. All dielectric metamaterial loaded tunable plasmonic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifat, Abid Anjum; Sayem, Ayed Al; Sajeeb, M. Mahmudul Hasan

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a 2D plasmonic waveguide loaded with all dielectric anisotropic metamaterial, consisting of alternative layers of Si-SiO2, has been theoretically proposed and numerically analyzed. Main characteristics of waveguide i.e. propagation constant, propagation length and normalized mode area have been calculated for different values of ridge width and height at telecommunication wavelength. The respective 1D structure of the waveguide has been analytically solved for the anisotropic ridge as a single uniaxial medium with dielectric tensor defined by EMT. The 2D structure has been analyzed numerically through FEM simulation using Mode analysis module in Comsol Multiphysics. Both the EMT and real multilayer structure have been considered in numerical simulations. Such structure with all dielectric metamaterial provides an extra degree of freedom namely fill factor, fraction of Si layer in a Si-SiO2 unit cell, to tune the propagation characteristics compared to the conventional DLSSP waveguide. A wide range of variations in all the characteristics have been observed for different fill factor values. Besides, the effect of the first interface layer has also been considered. Though all dielectric metamaterial has already been utilized in photonic waveguide as cladding, the implementation in plasmonic waveguide hasn't been investigated yet to our best knowledge. The proposed device might be a potential in deep subwavelength optics, PIC and optoelectronics.

  12. Design of Hierarchically Cut Hinges for Highly Stretchable and Reconfigurable Metamaterials with Enhanced Strength.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Han, Lin; Qiu, Songgang; Yang, Shu; Yin, Jie

    2015-11-25

    Applying hierarchical cuts to thin sheets of elastomer generates super-stretchable and reconfigurable metamaterials, exhibiting highly nonlinear stress-strain behaviors and tunable phononic bandgaps. The cut concept fails on brittle thin sheets due to severe stress concentration in the rotating hinges. By engineering the local hinge shapes and global hierarchical structure, cut-based reconfigurable metamaterials with largely enhanced strength are realized. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Negative-Index Metamaterials in the Visible Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Vladimir

    2007-03-01

    In conventional materials, out of the two field components of light, electric and magnetic, only the electric one (``electric hand'') efficiently couples to and probes the atoms of a material while its ``magnetic hand'' remains almost unused because the interaction of atoms with the magnetic filed component of light is normally very week. Metamaterials, i.e. artificial materials with rationally designed properties, can enable the coupling of both field components of light to meta-atoms, enabling entirely new optical properties and exciting applications with such ``two-handed'' light. Metamaterials are expected to open a gateway to unprecedented electromagnetic properties and functionality unattainable from naturally occurring materials. Negative-refractive index metamaterials create entirely new prospects for guiding light on the nanoscale, some of which may have revolutionary impact on present-day optical technologies. The extraordinary nonlinear optical properties of negative-index metamaterials are also discussed. We review this new emerging field of metamaterials and recent progress in demonstrating a negative refractive index in the optical and visible range, where applications can be particularly important, including sub-wavelength imaging and cloaking objects, i.e. making them invisible.

  14. Active Terahertz Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Antoinette

    2011-03-01

    In recent years terahertz technology has become an optimistic candidate for numerous sensing, imaging, and diagnostic applications. Nevertheless, THz technology still suffers from a deficiency in high-power sources, efficient detectors, and other functional devices ubiquitous in neighboring microwave and infrared frequency bands, such as amplifiers, modulators, and switches. One of the greatest obstacles in this progress is the lack of materials that naturally respond well to THz radiation. The potential of metamaterials for THz applications originates from their resonant electromagnetic response, which significantly enhances their interaction with THz radiation. Thus, metamaterials offer a route towards helping to fill the so-called ``THz gap''. Here, we present a series of novel THz metamaterials. Importantly, the critical dependence of the resonant response on the supporting substrate and/or the fabricated structure enables the creation of active THz metamaterial devices. We show that the resonant response can be controlled using optical or electrical excitation and thermal tuning, enabling efficient THz devices which will be of importance for advancing numerous real world THz applications. We acknowledge contribution to this work from H. Chen, J. O'Hara, A. Azad, J. Zhou, R. Singh, M. Reiten, and D. Chowdhury of the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies.

  15. Metamaterials: Prime time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alù, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, artificial materials with unusual wave interactions have significantly evolved and matured. In honour of the tenth anniversary of the premiere metamaterials conference, we look at the directions in which this field is evolving, and its impact on technology.

  16. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak.

  17. Unravelling Origami Metamaterial Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidini, Maryam; Paulino, Glaucio

    2015-03-01

    Origami has shown to be a substantial source of inspiration for innovative design of mechanical metamaterials for which the material properties arise from their geometry and structural layout. Most research on origami-inspired materials relies on known patterns, especially on classic Miura-ori pattern. In the present research, we have created origami-inspired metamaterials and we have shown that the folded materials possess properties as remarkable as those of Miura-ori on which there is a lot of recent research. We have also introduced and placed emphasis on several important concepts that are confused or overlooked in the literature, e.g. concept of planar Poisson's ratio for folded materials from different conceptual viewpoints, and we have clarified the importance of such concepts by applying them to the folded sheet metamaterials introduced in our research. The new patterns are appropriate for a broad range of applications, from mechanical metamaterials to deployable and kinetic structures, at both small and large scales.

  18. Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, Şahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-13

    We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by π/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task.

  19. Perspective on resonances of metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-07-27

    Electromagnetic resonance as the most important characteristic of metamaterials enables lots of exotic phenomena, such as invisible, negative refraction, man-made magnetism, etc. Conventional LC-resonance circuit model as the most authoritative and classic model is good at explaining and predicting the fundamental resonance wavelength of a metamaterial, while feels hard for high-order resonances, especially for resonance intensity (strength of resonance, determining on the performance and efficiency of metamaterial-based devices). In present work, via an easy-to-understand mass-spring model, we present a different and comprehensive insight for the resonance mechanism of metamaterials, through which both the resonance wavelengths (including the fundamental and high-order resonance wavelengths) and resonance intensities of metamaterials can be better understood. This developed theory has been well verified by different-material and different-structure resonators. This perspective will provide a broader space for exploring novel optical devices based on metamaterials (or metasurfaces).

  20. Nonmagnetic metamaterial landscapes for guided electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaene, S.; Ginis, V.; Danckaert, J.; Tassin, P.

    2016-09-01

    Transformation optics provides a geometry-based tool to create new components taking advantage of artificial metamaterials with optical properties that are not available in nature. Unfortunately, although guided electromagnetic waves are crucial for optical circuitry, transformation optics is not yet compatible with two-dimensional slab waveguides. Indeed, after determining the propagation of confined waves along the waveguide with a two-dimensional coordinate transformation, the conventional application of transformation optics results in metamaterials whose properties are insensitive to the coordinate perpendicular to the waveguide, leading to bulky, and therefore impractical, designs. In this contribution, we formulate an alternative framework that leads to feasible coordinate-based designs of two-dimensional waveguides. To this end, we characterize a guided transverse-magnetic light mode by relevant electromagnetic equations: a Helmholtz equation to account for wave propagation and a dispersion relation to impose a continuous light profile at the interface. By considering how two-dimensional conformal transformations transform these equations, we are able to materialize the coordinate-designed flows with a nonmagnetic metamaterial core of varying thickness, obtaining a two-dimensional device. We numerically demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of our equivalence relations with three crucial functionalities, a beam bender, a beam splitter and a conformal lens, on a qualitative and quantitative level, by respectively comparing the electromagnetic fields inside and the transmission of our two-dimensional metamaterial devices to that of their three-dimensional counterparts at telecom wavelengths. As a result, we envision that one coordinate-based multifunctional waveguide component may seamlessly split and bend light beams on the landscape of an optical chip.

  1. [?]Nonlinear Issues in the Aerothermochemistry of Gases and Materials and the Associated Physics and Dynamics of Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1996-01-01

    Our research and technology are focused on nonlinear issues in the aerothermochemistry of gases and materials and the associated physics and dynamics of interfaces. Our program is now organized to aggressively support the NASA Aeronautics Enterprise so as to: (a) develop a new generation of environmentally compatible, economic subsonic aircraft; (b) develop the technology base for an economically viable and environmentally compatible high-speed civil transport; (c) develop the technology options for new capabilities in high-performance aircraft; (d) develop hypersonic technologies for air-breathing flight; and (e) develop advanced concepts, understanding of physical phenomena, and theoretical, experimental, and computational tools for advanced aerospace systems. The implications from our research for aeronautical and aerospace technology have been both broad and deep. For example, using advanced computational techniques, we have determined exact solutions for the Schrodinger equation in electron-molecule scattering allowing us to evaluate atmospheric models important to reentry physics. We have also found a new class of exact solutions for the Navier Stokes equations. In experimental fluid dynamics, we have found explicit evidence of turbulence modification of droplet sizes in shock tube flow with condensation. We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the direct estimation of flow velocities at MHz sampling rates in quasi-one dimensional turbulent flow. This procedure suggests an unexpected confirmation of the possibility of 'natural' closure in Reynolds stresses with deep implications for the development of turbulent models. A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of the expected relaminarization. A unique diamond-shaped nozzle has been

  2. All-dielectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  3. All-dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  4. Colloidal Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-18

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0184 Colloidal Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies Jennifer Dionne LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV CA Final Report 07/18/2014...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Colloidal Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies Annual Report, June 30, 2014 A. Investigators PI: Jennifer Dionne...team has combined theoretical and experimental methods to produce a colloidally -synthesized metamaterial fluid, or “metafluid,” exhibiting strong

  5. Advances In Microwave Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigle, James A.

    2011-12-01

    Metamaterials are a new area of research showing significant promise for an entirely new set of materials, and material properties. Only recently has three-fourths of the entire electromagnetic material space been made available for discoveries, research, and applications. This thesis is a culmination of microwave metamaterial research that has transpired over numerous years at the University of Colorado. New work is presented; some is complete while other work has yet to be finished. Given the significant work efforts, and potential for new and interesting results, I have included some of my partial work to be completed in the future. This thesis begins with background theory to assist readers in fully understanding the mechanisms that drove my research and results obtained. I illustrate the design and manufacture of a metamaterial that can operate within quadrants I and II of the electromagnetic material space (epsilon r > 0 and mur > 0 or epsilonr < 0 and mu r > 0, respectively). Another metamaterial design is presented for operation within quadrant III of the electromagnetic material space (epsilonr < 0 and mur < 0). Lorentz reciprocity is empirically demonstrated for a quadrant I and II metamaterial, as well as a metamaterial enhanced antenna, or meta-antenna. Using this meta-antenna I demonstrate improved gain and directivity, and illuminate how the two are not necessarily coincident in frequency. I demonstrate a meta-lens which provides a double beam pattern for a normally hemispherical antenna, which also provides a null where the antenna alone would provide a peak on boresight. The thesis also presents two related, but different, novel tests intended to be used to definitively illustrate the negative angle of refraction for indices of refraction less than zero. It will be shown how these tests can be used to determine most bulk electromagnetic material properties of the material under test, for both right handed and left handed materials, such as epsilonr

  6. Fabrication of Metamaterials by Drawing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    Final report for AOARD project FA23860914084: Fabrication of metamaterials by drawing techniques Boris Kuhlmey, Simon Fleming, Alessandro...Tuniz Title: Fabrication of metamaterials by drawing techniques Background: While metamaterials enable unprecedented control over propagation of...light with applications such as lenses beating the diffraction limit for hyperfine imaging and lithography, fabrication of metamaterials for the optical

  7. Multistability and switching in a superconducting metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Jung, P; Butz, S; Marthaler, M; Fistul, M V; Leppäkangas, J; Koshelets, V P; Ustinov, A V

    2014-04-28

    The field of metamaterial research revolves around the idea of creating artificial media that interact with light in a way unknown from naturally occurring materials. This is commonly achieved using sub-wavelength lattices of electronic or plasmonic structures, so-called meta-atoms. One of the ultimate goals for these tailored media is the ability to control their properties in situ. Here we show that superconducting quantum interference devices can be used as fast, switchable meta-atoms. We find that their intrinsic nonlinearity leads to simultaneously stable dynamic states, each of which is associated with a different value and sign of the magnetic susceptibility in the microwave domain. Moreover, we demonstrate that it is possible to switch between these states by applying nanosecond-long pulses in addition to the microwave-probe signal. Apart from potential applications for this all-optical metamaterial switch, the results suggest that multistability can also be utilized in other types of nonlinear meta-atoms.

  8. Evanescent field enhancement due to plasmonic resonances of a metamaterial slab.

    PubMed

    Chiu, K P; Kao, T S; Tsai, D P

    2008-02-01

    The characteristics of plasmonic resonance in a dielectric-sandwiched metamaterial film at visible wavelengths of 650 and 568 nm have been investigated (for both p- and s-polarized light). Our calculated results demonstrate that each mode of plasmonic resonance has maximum resonance strength at a particular film thickness of the metamaterial. We also demonstrated that the effect of evanescent field enhancement is due to plasmonic resonances of the sandwiched metamaterial system. And the stronger the plasmonic resonance strength the larger the evanescent field is enhanced at the interfaces of the metamaterial film. Also we see that the plasmonic resonances in a sandwiched metamaterial are influenced not only by the materials that constitute the interfaces but also by the thickness of surrounding dielectrics or distance between evanescent light source and metamaterial film. Finally, our results show that there might be an effective light propagation length that will let the coupling efficiency between evanescent light source and SPs resonance become a maximum. These properties of plasmonic resonances to structure parameters of metamaterial film and its surrounding dielectrics provide a useful way to control the optical responses of an optoelectronic device when the wavelength of light source is fixed. That is, by suitably choosing light polarizations, thickness of the metamaterial thin film or the surrounding dielectrics and the position of evanescent light source, it is possible to modulate the plasmonic resonance wavenumber or resonance strength of the system. Therefore, the optical responses of the system can be modulated. Our results will be helpful for the structure design to control the behaviours of coupled plasmonic resonances and consequently the optical properties of the dielectric-sandwiched metamaterial film.

  9. Nonlinear interface between the piezoelectric harvesting structure and the modulating circuit of an energy harvester with a real storage battery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuantai; Xue, Huan; Hu, Ting; Hu, Hongping

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of an energy harvester with a piezoelectric bimorph (PB) and a real electrochemical battery (ECB), both are connected as an integrated system through a rectified dc-dc converter (DDC). A vibrating PB can scavenge energy from the operating environment by the electromechanical coupling. A DDC can effectively match the optimal output voltage of the harvesting structure to the battery voltage. To raise the output power density of PB, a synchronized switch harvesting inductor (SSHI) is used in parallel with the harvesting structure to reverse the voltage through charge transfer between the output electrodes at the transition moments from closed-to open-circuit. Voltage reversal results in earlier arrival of rectifier conduction because the output voltage phases of any two adjacent closed-circuit states are just opposite each other. In principle, a PB is with a smaller, flexural stiffness under closed-circuit condition than under open-circuit condition. Thus, the PB subjected to longer closed-circuit condition will be easier to be accelerated. A larger flexural velocity makes the PB to deflect with larger amplitude, which implies that more mechanical energy will be converted into an electric one. Nonlinear interface between the vibrating PB and the modulating circuit is analyzed in detail, and the effects of SSHI and DDC on the charging efficiency of the storage battery are researched numerically. It was found that the introduction of a DDC in the modulating circuit and an SSHI in the harvesting structure can raise the charging efficiency by several times.

  10. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  11. Transformable topological mechanical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, D. Zeb; Zhou, Shangnan; Sun, Kai; Mao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical metamaterials are engineered materials whose structures give them novel mechanical properties, including negative Poisson's ratios, negative compressibilities and phononic bandgaps. Of particular interest are systems near the point of mechanical instability, which recently have been shown to distribute force and motion in robust ways determined by a nontrivial topological state. Here we discuss the classification of and propose a design principle for mechanical metamaterials that can be easily and reversibly transformed between states with dramatically different mechanical and acoustic properties via a soft strain. Remarkably, despite the low energetic cost of this transition, quantities such as the edge stiffness and speed of sound can change by orders of magnitude. We show that the existence and form of a soft deformation directly determines floppy edge modes and phonon dispersion. Finally, we generalize the soft strain to generate domain structures that allow further tuning of the material. PMID:28112155

  12. Multiscale metallic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Smith, William; Jackson, Julie; Moran, Bryan; Cui, Huachen; Chen, Da; Ye, Jianchao; Fang, Nicholas; Rodriguez, Nicholas; Weisgraber, Todd; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-10-01

    Materials with three-dimensional micro- and nanoarchitectures exhibit many beneficial mechanical, energy conversion and optical properties. However, these three-dimensional microarchitectures are significantly limited by their scalability. Efforts have only been successful only in demonstrating overall structure sizes of hundreds of micrometres, or contain size-scale gaps of several orders of magnitude. This results in degraded mechanical properties at the macroscale. Here we demonstrate hierarchical metamaterials with disparate three-dimensional features spanning seven orders of magnitude, from nanometres to centimetres. At the macroscale they achieve high tensile elasticity (>20%) not found in their brittle-like metallic constituents, and a near-constant specific strength. Creation of these materials is enabled by a high-resolution, large-area additive manufacturing technique with scalability not achievable by two-photon polymerization or traditional stereolithography. With overall part sizes approaching tens of centimetres, these unique nanostructured metamaterials might find use in a broad array of applications.

  13. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Sergey S; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-13

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light.

  14. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light. PMID:27072604

  15. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  16. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light.

  17. Metamaterials and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minkyung; Rho, Junsuk

    2015-11-01

    Resolution of the conventional lens is limited to half the wavelength of the light source by diffraction. In the conventional optical system, evanescent waves, which carry sub-diffraction spatial information, has exponentially decaying amplitude and therefore cannot reach to the image plane. New optical materials called metamaterials have provided new ways to overcome diffraction limit in imaging by controlling the evanescent waves. Such extraordinary electromagnetic properties can be achieved and controlled through arranging nanoscale building blocks appropriately. Here, we review metamaterial-based lenses which offer the new types of imaging components and functions. Perfect lens, superlenses, hyperlenses, metalenses, flat lenses based on metasurfaces, and non-optical lenses including acoustic hyperlens are described. Not all of them offer sub-diffraction imaging, but they provide new imaging mechanisms by controlling and manipulating the path of light. The underlying physics, design principles, recent advances, major limitations and challenges for the practical applications are discussed in this review.

  18. Metamaterials and imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minkyung; Rho, Junsuk

    2015-01-01

    Resolution of the conventional lens is limited to half the wavelength of the light source by diffraction. In the conventional optical system, evanescent waves, which carry sub-diffraction spatial information, has exponentially decaying amplitude and therefore cannot reach to the image plane. New optical materials called metamaterials have provided new ways to overcome diffraction limit in imaging by controlling the evanescent waves. Such extraordinary electromagnetic properties can be achieved and controlled through arranging nanoscale building blocks appropriately. Here, we review metamaterial-based lenses which offer the new types of imaging components and functions. Perfect lens, superlenses, hyperlenses, metalenses, flat lenses based on metasurfaces, and non-optical lenses including acoustic hyperlens are described. Not all of them offer sub-diffraction imaging, but they provide new imaging mechanisms by controlling and manipulating the path of light. The underlying physics, design principles, recent advances, major limitations and challenges for the practical applications are discussed in this review.

  19. Transformable topological mechanical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocklin, D. Zeb; Zhou, Shangnan; Sun, Kai; Mao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical metamaterials are engineered materials whose structures give them novel mechanical properties, including negative Poisson's ratios, negative compressibilities and phononic bandgaps. Of particular interest are systems near the point of mechanical instability, which recently have been shown to distribute force and motion in robust ways determined by a nontrivial topological state. Here we discuss the classification of and propose a design principle for mechanical metamaterials that can be easily and reversibly transformed between states with dramatically different mechanical and acoustic properties via a soft strain. Remarkably, despite the low energetic cost of this transition, quantities such as the edge stiffness and speed of sound can change by orders of magnitude. We show that the existence and form of a soft deformation directly determines floppy edge modes and phonon dispersion. Finally, we generalize the soft strain to generate domain structures that allow further tuning of the material.

  20. Origami based Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cheng; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Konjevod, Goran; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-08-01

    We describe mechanical metamaterials created by folding flat sheets in the tradition of origami, the art of paper folding, and study them in terms of their basic geometric and stiffness properties, as well as load bearing capability. A periodic Miura-ori pattern and a non-periodic Ron Resch pattern were studied. Unexceptional coexistence of positive and negative Poisson's ratio was reported for Miura-ori pattern, which are consistent with the interesting shear behavior and infinity bulk modulus of the same pattern. Unusually strong load bearing capability of the Ron Resch pattern was found and attributed to the unique way of folding. This work paves the way to the study of intriguing properties of origami structures as mechanical metamaterials.

  1. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners. PMID:26670417

  2. Origami based Mechanical Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cheng; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Konjevod, Goran; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    We describe mechanical metamaterials created by folding flat sheets in the tradition of origami, the art of paper folding, and study them in terms of their basic geometric and stiffness properties, as well as load bearing capability. A periodic Miura-ori pattern and a non-periodic Ron Resch pattern were studied. Unexceptional coexistence of positive and negative Poisson's ratio was reported for Miura-ori pattern, which are consistent with the interesting shear behavior and infinity bulk modulus of the same pattern. Unusually strong load bearing capability of the Ron Resch pattern was found and attributed to the unique way of folding. This work paves the way to the study of intriguing properties of origami structures as mechanical metamaterials. PMID:25099402

  3. Dispersion management with metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2017-03-07

    An apparatus, system, and method to counteract group velocity dispersion in fibers, or any other propagation of electromagnetic signals at any wavelength (microwave, terahertz, optical, etc.) in any other medium. A dispersion compensation step or device based on dispersion-engineered metamaterials is included and avoids the need of a long section of specialty fiber or the need for Bragg gratings (which have insertion loss).

  4. Metamaterials for remote generation of spatially controllable two dimensional array of microplasma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod K; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-08-07

    Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials.

  5. Metamaterials for Remote Generation of Spatially Controllable Two Dimensional Array of Microplasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramod K.; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials. PMID:25098976

  6. Modeling of causality with metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2013-02-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials may be used to model a 2 + 1-dimensional Minkowski space-time in which the role of time is played by one of the spatial coordinates. When a metamaterial is built and illuminated with a coherent extraordinary laser beam, the stationary pattern of light propagation inside the metamaterial may be treated as a collection of particle world lines, which represents a complete ‘history’ of this 2 + 1-dimensional space-time. While this model may be used to build interesting space-time analogs, such as metamaterial ‘black holes’ and a metamaterial ‘big bang’, it lacks causality: since light inside the metamaterial may propagate back and forth along the ‘timelike’ spatial coordinate, events in the ‘future’ may affect events in the ‘past’. Here we demonstrate that a more sophisticated metamaterial model may fix this deficiency via breaking the mirror and temporal (PT) symmetries of the original model and producing one-way propagation along the ‘timelike’ spatial coordinate. The resulting 2 + 1-dimensional Minkowski space-time appears to be causal. This scenario may be considered as a metamaterial model of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of causality.

  7. Roadmap on optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbas, Augustine M.; Jacob, Zubin; Dal Negro, Luca; Engheta, Nader; Boardman, A. D.; Egan, P.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Menon, Vinod; Ferrera, Marcello; Kinsey, Nathaniel; DeVault, Clayton; Kim, Jongbum; Shalaev, Vladimir; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Valentine, Jason; Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony; Narimanov, Evgenii; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Alù, Andrea; Poutrina, Ekaterina; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Noginov, Mikhail A.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Liu, Xiaoying; Nealey, Paul F.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Chanda, Debashis

    2016-09-01

    Optical metamaterials have redefined how we understand light in notable ways: from strong response to optical magnetic fields, negative refraction, fast and slow light propagation in zero index and trapping structures, to flat, thin and perfect lenses. Many rules of thumb regarding optics, such as μ = 1, now have an exception, and basic formulas, such as the Fresnel equations, have been expanded. The field of metamaterials has developed strongly over the past two decades. Leveraging structured materials systems to generate tailored response to a stimulus, it has grown to encompass research in optics, electromagnetics, acoustics and, increasingly, novel hybrid material responses. This roadmap is an effort to present emerging fronts in areas of optical metamaterials that could contribute and apply to other research communities. By anchoring each contribution in current work and prospectively discussing future potential and directions, the authors are translating the work of the field in selected areas to a wider community and offering an incentive for outside researchers to engage our community where solid links do not already exist.

  8. Radar illusion via metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

  9. The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Luk'yanchuk, Boris; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Maier, Stefan A.; Halas, Naomi J.; Nordlander, Peter; Giessen, Harald; Chong, Chong Tow

    2010-08-23

    Since its discovery, the asymmetric Fano resonance has been a characteristic feature of interacting quantum systems. The shape of this resonance is distinctively different from that of conventional symmetric resonance curves. Recently, the Fano resonance has been found in plasmonic nanoparticles, photonic crystals, and electromagnetic metamaterials. The steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications in sensors, lasing, switching, and nonlinear and slow-light devices.

  10. All-angle collimation of incident light in μ-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Nakajima, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    We use the theory of inhomogeneous waves to study the transmission of light in $\\mu$-near-zero metamaterials. We find the effect of all-angle collimation of incident light, which means that the vector of energy flow in a wave transmitted to a $\\mu$-near-zero metamaterial is perpendicular to the interface for any incident angles if an incident wave is s-polarized. This effect is similar to the all-angle collimation of incident light recently found through a different theoretical framework in $\\varepsilon$-near-zero metamaterials for a p-polarized incident wave [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012)]. To provide a specific example, we consider the transmission of light in a negative-index metamaterial in the spectral region with a permeability resonance, and show that all-angle collimation indeed takes place at the wavelength for which the real part of permeability is vanishingly small.

  11. All-angle collimation of incident light in μ-near-zero metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Vladimir Yu; Nakajima, Takashi

    2013-11-18

    We use the theory of inhomogeneous waves to study the transmission of light in μ-near-zero metamaterials. We find the effect of all-angle collimation of incident light, which means that the vector of energy flow in a wave transmitted to a μ-near-zero metamaterial is perpendicular to the interface for any incident angles if an incident wave is s-polarized. This effect is similar to the all-angle collimation of incident light recently found through a different theoretical framework in ε-near-zero metamaterials for a p-polarized incident wave [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012)]. To provide a specific example, we consider the transmission of light in a negative-index metamaterial in the spectral region with a permeability resonance, and show that all-angle collimation indeed takes place at the wavelength for which the real part of permeability is vanishingly small.

  12. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A.; Passmore, Brandon Scott

    2017-07-11

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  13. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  14. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sam Hyeon; Park, Choon Mahn; Seo, Yong Mun; Wang, Zhi Guo; Kim, Chul Koo

    2009-04-29

    We present experimental and theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits a negative effective modulus in a frequency range from 0 to 450 Hz. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with an array of side holes on a tube was fabricated. We observed that acoustic waves above 450 Hz propagated well in this structure, but no sound below 450 Hz passed through. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial has the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the experimental results.

  15. Nanoporous plasmonic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Nyce, G W; Hodge, A M; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Maier, S A

    2007-05-24

    We review different routes for the generation of nanoporous metallic foams and films exhibiting well-defined pore size and short-range order. Dealloying and templating allows the generation of both two- and three-dimensional structures which promise a well defined plasmonic response determined by material constituents and porosity. Viewed in the context of metamaterials, the ease of fabrication of samples covering macroscopic dimensions is highly promising, and suggests more in-depth investigations of the plasmonic and photonic properties of this material system for photonic applications.

  16. Seismic Waveguide of Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

    We developed a new method of an earthquake-resistant design to support conventional aseismic system using acoustic metamaterials. The device is an attenuator of a seismic wave that reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially. Constructing a cylindrical shell-type waveguide composed of many Helmholtz resonators that creates a stop-band for the seismic frequency range, we convert the seismic wave into an attenuated one without touching the building that we want to protect. It is a mechanical way to convert the seismic energy into sound and heat.

  17. Topological mechanics: from metamaterials to active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures with unusual properties, such as negative Poisson ratio, bistability or tunable acoustic response, which originate in the geometry of their unit cell. At the heart of such unusual behavior is often a mechanism: a motion that does not significantly stretch or compress the links between constituent elements. When activated by motors or external fields, these soft motions become the building blocks of robots and smart materials. In this talk, we discuss topological mechanisms that possess two key properties: (i) their existence cannot be traced to a local imbalance between degrees of freedom and constraints (ii) they are robust against a wide range of structural deformations or changes in material parameters. The continuum elasticity of these mechanical structures is captured by non-linear field theories with a topological boundary term similar to topological insulators and quantum Hall systems. We present several applications of these concepts to the design and experimental realization of 2D and 3D topological structures based on linkages, origami, buckling meta-materials and lastly active media that break time-reversal symmetry.

  18. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Lin

    2016-12-01

    A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS) for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  19. Terahertz sensing of chlorpyrifos-methyl using metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wendao; Xie, Lijuan; Zhu, Jianfei; Wang, Wei; Ye, Zunzhong; Ma, Yungui; Tsai, Chao-Yin; Chen, Suming; Ying, Yibin

    2017-03-01

    By squeezing electromagnetic energy into small volumes near a metal-dielectric interface, plasmonics provide many routes to enhance and manipulate light-matter interactions, which presents new strategies for signal enhancing technologies. As an extension of the ideas of plasmonics to the terahertz (THz) range, metamaterials have shown great potential in sensing applications. In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) combined with metamaterials was used to detect chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM), which is one type of the broad-spectrum organophosphorus pesticides. The results demonstrate that sensitivity is greatly improved using THz metamaterials, with the limit of detection (LOD) of CM reaching 0.204mgL(-1), which is lower than the World Health Organization's provisional guideline limit for CM in vegetables (1mgL(-1)). The results indicated that THz spectroscopy combined with metamaterials could be a valuable method for highly sensitive THz applications, presenting a new strategy for food quality and safety control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of an electric field on the morphological stability of the crystal-melt interface of a binary alloy. III - Weakly nonlinear theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, A. A.; Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Hurle, D. T. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a constant electric current on the crystal-melt interface morphology during directional solidification at constant velocity of a binary alloy is considered. A linear temperature field is assumed, and thermoelectric effects and Joule heating are neglected; electromigration and differing electrical conductivities of crystal and melt are taken into account. A two-dimensional weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to third order in the interface amplitude, resulting in a cubic amplitude equation that describes whether the bifurcation from the planar state is supercritical or subcritical. For wavelengths corresponding to the most dangerous mode of linear theory, the demarcation between supercritical and subcritical behavior is calculated as a function of processing conditions and material parameters. The bifurcation behavior is a sensitive function of the magnitude and direction of the electric current and of the electrical conductivity ratio.

  1. Evaluation of silicon- and carbon-face SiO2/SiC MOS interface quality based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, Norimichi; Nayak, Alpana; Kosugi, Ryoji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Harada, Shinsuke; Okumura, Hajime; Cho, Yasuo

    2017-08-01

    A strong positive correlation was found between the trap density (Dit) at the SiO2/SiC interface and signal variation in a scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) image. Si-face and C-face SiC wafers with a 45-nm-thick oxide layer were examined by the conventional high-low method and SNDM, which is a type of scanning probe microscopy. The Dit value measured by the high-low method and the standard deviation of normalized SNDM images exhibited a strong positive correlation, which means that the standard deviation of the normalized SNDM image can be used as a universal measure of the SiO2/SiC interface quality. Using this measure, a quick evaluation of Dit using SNDM is possible.

  2. Non-Bragg-gap solitons in one-dimensional Kerr-metamaterial Fibonacci heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Gómez, E.; Cavalcanti, S. B.; Oliveira, L. E.

    2015-06-01

    A detailed study of non-Bragg-gap solitons in one-dimensional Kerr-metamaterial quasiperiodic Fibonacci heterostructures is performed. The transmission coefficient is numerically obtained by combining the transfer-matrix formalism in the metamaterial layers with a numerical solution of the nonlinear differential equation in the Kerr slabs, and by considering the loss effects in the metamaterial slabs. A switching from states of no transparency in the linear regime to high-transparency states in the nonlinear regime is observed for both zero-order and plasmon-polariton gaps. The spatial localization of the non-Bragg-gap solitons is also examined, and the symmetry properties of the soliton waves are briefly discussed.

  3. Non-Bragg-gap solitons in one-dimensional Kerr-metamaterial Fibonacci heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gómez, E; Cavalcanti, S B; Oliveira, L E

    2015-06-01

    A detailed study of non-Bragg-gap solitons in one-dimensional Kerr-metamaterial quasiperiodic Fibonacci heterostructures is performed. The transmission coefficient is numerically obtained by combining the transfer-matrix formalism in the metamaterial layers with a numerical solution of the nonlinear differential equation in the Kerr slabs, and by considering the loss effects in the metamaterial slabs. A switching from states of no transparency in the linear regime to high-transparency states in the nonlinear regime is observed for both zero-order and plasmon-polariton gaps. The spatial localization of the non-Bragg-gap solitons is also examined, and the symmetry properties of the soliton waves are briefly discussed.

  4. Shape morphing Kirigami mechanical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Robin M.; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Pirrera, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical metamaterials exhibit unusual properties through the shape and movement of their engineered subunits. This work presents a new investigation of the Poisson’s ratios of a family of cellular metamaterials based on Kirigami design principles. Kirigami is the art of cutting and folding paper to obtain 3D shapes. This technique allows us to create cellular structures with engineered cuts and folds that produce large shape and volume changes, and with extremely directional, tuneable mechanical properties. We demonstrate how to produce these structures from flat sheets of composite materials. By a combination of analytical models and numerical simulations we show how these Kirigami cellular metamaterials can change their deformation characteristics. We also demonstrate the potential of using these classes of mechanical metamaterials for shape change applications like morphing structures.

  5. Shape morphing Kirigami mechanical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Neville, Robin M; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Pirrera, Alberto

    2016-08-05

    Mechanical metamaterials exhibit unusual properties through the shape and movement of their engineered subunits. This work presents a new investigation of the Poisson's ratios of a family of cellular metamaterials based on Kirigami design principles. Kirigami is the art of cutting and folding paper to obtain 3D shapes. This technique allows us to create cellular structures with engineered cuts and folds that produce large shape and volume changes, and with extremely directional, tuneable mechanical properties. We demonstrate how to produce these structures from flat sheets of composite materials. By a combination of analytical models and numerical simulations we show how these Kirigami cellular metamaterials can change their deformation characteristics. We also demonstrate the potential of using these classes of mechanical metamaterials for shape change applications like morphing structures.

  6. Advanced fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Sukham, Johneph; Panah, Mohammad E. Aryaee; Takayama, Osamu; Malureanu, Radu; Jensen, Flemming; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2017-09-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials can provide unprecedented properties in accommodation of high-k (high wave vector) waves and enhancement of the optical density of states. To reach such performance the metamaterials have to be fabricated with as small imperfections as possible. Here we report on our advances in two approaches in fabrication of optical metamaterials. We deposit ultrathin ultrasmooth gold layers with the assistance of organic material (APTMS) adhesion layer. The technology supports the stacking of such layers in a multiperiod construction with alumina spacers between gold films, which is expected to exhibit hyperbolic properties in the visible range. As the second approach we apply the atomic layer deposition technique to arrange vertical alignment of layers or pillars of heavily doped ZnO or TiN, which enables us to produce hyperbolic metamaterials for the near- and mid-infrared ranges.

  7. Shape morphing Kirigami mechanical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Robin M.; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Pirrera, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical metamaterials exhibit unusual properties through the shape and movement of their engineered subunits. This work presents a new investigation of the Poisson’s ratios of a family of cellular metamaterials based on Kirigami design principles. Kirigami is the art of cutting and folding paper to obtain 3D shapes. This technique allows us to create cellular structures with engineered cuts and folds that produce large shape and volume changes, and with extremely directional, tuneable mechanical properties. We demonstrate how to produce these structures from flat sheets of composite materials. By a combination of analytical models and numerical simulations we show how these Kirigami cellular metamaterials can change their deformation characteristics. We also demonstrate the potential of using these classes of mechanical metamaterials for shape change applications like morphing structures. PMID:27491945

  8. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    PubMed

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Properties of dynamical electromagnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Willie J.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2017-08-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials consist of two or three dimensional arrays of tailored metallic and/or dielectric inclusions and provide unprecedented sub-wavelength control over light-matter interactions. Metamaterials are fashioned to yield a specific response to the electric and magnetic components of light and may be treated as effective media, described by effective optical constants {μ }{{eff}} and {{ɛ }}{{eff}}, and have realized a multitude of exotic properties difficult to achieve with natural materials. An inductive-capacitive unit cell geometry provides enhanced values of optical constants, as well as the ability to dynamically control the novel responses exhibited by electromagnetic metamaterials. The ability of metamaterials to achieve real-time dynamic properties has realized novel applications and has made them relevant for the next revolution in advanced materials and related devices.

  10. Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staude, Isabelle; Schilling, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The prospect of creating metamaterials with optical properties greatly exceeding the parameter space accessible with natural materials has been inspiring intense research efforts in nanophotonics for more than a decade. Following an era of plasmonic metamaterials, low-loss dielectric nanostructures have recently moved into the focus of metamaterial-related research. This development was mainly triggered by the experimental observation of electric and magnetic multipolar Mie-type resonances in high-refractive-index dielectric nanoparticles. Silicon in particular has emerged as a popular material choice, due to not only its high refractive index and very low absorption losses in the telecom spectral range, but also its paramount technological relevance. This Review overviews recent progress on metamaterial-inspired silicon nanostructures, including Mie-resonant and off-resonant regimes.

  11. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. A.; Wolff, C.; Martijn de Sterke, C.; Lapine, M.; Kuhlmey, B. T.; Poulton, C. G.

    2016-10-01

    We compute the SBS gain for a metamaterial comprising a cubic lattice of dielectric spheres suspended in a background dielectric material. Theoretical methods are presented to calculate the optical, acoustic, and opto-acoustic parameters that describe the SBS properties of the material at long wavelengths. Using the electromagnetic and strain energy densities we accurately characterise the optical and acoustic properties of the metamaterial. From a combination of energy density methods and perturbation theory, we recover the appropriate terms of the photoelastic tensor for the metamaterial. We demonstrate that electrostriction is not necessarily the dominant mechanism in the enhancement and suppression of the SBS gain coefficient in a metamaterial, and that other parameters, such as the Brillouin linewidth, can dominate instead. Examples are presented that exhibit an order of magnitude enhancement in the SBS gain as well as perfect suppression.

  12. Infrared cubic dielectric resonator metamaterial.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Peters, David William; Ginn, James Cleveland, III; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2010-06-01

    Dielectric resonators are an effective means to realize isotropic, low-loss optical metamaterials. As proof of this concept, a cubic resonator is analytically designed and then tested in the long-wave infrared.

  13. Acoustic metamaterials for sound mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouar, Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    We provide theoretical and numerical analyses of the behavior of a plate-type acoustic metamaterial considered in an air-borne sound environment in view of sound mitigation application. Two configurations of plate are studied, a spring-mass one and a pillar system-based one. The acoustic performances of the considered systems are investigated with different approaches and show that a high sound transmission loss (STL) up to 82 dB is reached with a metamaterial plate with a thickness of 0.5 mm. The physical understanding of the acoustic behavior of the metamaterial partition is discussed based on both air-borne and structure-borne approaches. Confrontation between the STL, the band structure, the displacement fields and the effective mass density of the plate metamaterial is made to have a complete physical understanding of the different mechanisms involved.

  14. MEMS switchable infrared metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Lin, Yu Sheng; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber for infrared spectral region using MEMS technology. In order to achieve active tunability; air gap is introduced as the part of dielectric spacer layer and is electrostatically actuated. As the air gap is decreased, the peak absorption wavelength will blue shift accordingly. The tuning range is approximately 700 nm for 300 nm air gap change. Complementary cross is used as the metamaterial unit cell pattern. Owing to the π/2 rotational symmetry of the metamaterial unit cell geometry and out of plane actuation direction of the metamaterial layer, the resultant absorption retains the polarization insensitive characteristics at different actuation states. Additionally high temperature stable materials such as, molybdenum and silicon-di-oxide are used as structural materials for potential use in rugged applications.

  15. Acoustic metamaterial with negative parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Yan, Fei; Gu, Hao; Li, Ying

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial beam and a bar that exhibit negative effective mass and negative effective stiffness. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with an array of spring-mass subsystems was fabricated. The frequency of the acoustic one dimensional metamaterial structure has the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the simulation results. And we use the concept of conventional mechanical vibration absorbers to reveal the actual working mechanism of the acoustic metamaterials. We explain the two vibrate modes which are optical mode and acoustic mode in detail. When the incoming elastic wave in the acoustic metamaterials to resonate the integrated spring-mass-damper absorbers to vibrate in their optical mode at frequencies close to but above their local resonance frequencies to create shear forces and bending moments to straighten the beam and stop the wave propagation. Moreover, we explain the negative parameter in acoustic metamaterials.

  16. Metamaterials program at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Frederick Bossert

    2010-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Metamaterial Science and Technology Program has developed novel HPC-based design tools, wafer scale 3D fabrication processes, and characterization tools to enable thermal IR optical metamaterial application studies.

  17. Hybrid mode tunability in metamaterial nanowaveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beig-Mohammadi, Maryam; Sang-Nourpour, Nafiseh; Sanders, Barry C.; Lavoie, Benjamin R.; Kheradmand, Reza

    2017-02-01

    We employ the properties of metamaterials to tailor the modes of metamaterial-dielectric waveguides operating at optical frequencies. We survey the effects of three-dimensional isotropic metamaterial structural parameters on the refractive index of metamaterials and on the hybrid modes in slab metamaterial-dielectric waveguides. Hybrid modes refer to hybrid ordinary-surface plasmon polariton modes in the waveguide structures. We investigate how robust metamaterials are to fluctuations in their structural parameters; specifically, we examine the effects of Gaussian errors on the metamaterials electromagnetic behavior. Our survey enables us to determine the allowable fluctuation limits and from this to identify appropriate unit-cell structure for further applications of metamaterials in waveguide technologies.

  18. Microwave birefringent metamaterials for polarization conversion based on spoof surface plasmon polariton modes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Feng, Dayi; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-10-04

    We propose the design of wideband birefringent metamaterials based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs). Spatial k-dispersion design of SSPP modes in metamaterials is adopted to achieve high-efficiency transmission of electromagnetic waves through the metamaterial layer. By anisotropic design, the transmission phase accumulation in metamaterials can be independently modulated for x- and y-polarized components of incident waves. Since the dispersion curve of SSPPs is nonlinear, frequency-dependent phase differences can be obtained between the two orthogonal components of transmitted waves. As an example, we demonstrate a microwave birefringent metamaterials composed of fishbone structures. The full-polarization-state conversions on the zero-longitude line of Poincaré sphere can be fulfilled twice in 6-20 GHz for both linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) waves incidence. Besides, at a given frequency, the full-polarization-state conversion can be achieved by changing the polarization angle of the incident LP waves. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the high-efficiency polarization conversion functions of the birefringent metamaterial, including circular-to-circular, circular-to-linear(linear-to-circular), linear-to-linear polarization conversions.

  19. Plasmon Injection to Compensate and Control Losses in Negative Index Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, Şahin K; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-17

    Metamaterials have introduced a whole new world of unusual materials with functionalities that cannot be attained in naturally occurring material systems by mimicking and controlling the natural phenomena at subwavelength scales. However, the inherent absorption losses pose a fundamental challenge to the most fascinating applications of metamaterials. Based on a novel plasmon injection (PI or Π) scheme, we propose a coherent optical amplification technique to compensate losses in metamaterials. Although the proof of concept device here operates under normal incidence only, our proposed scheme can be generalized to an arbitrary form of incident waves. The Π scheme is fundamentally different from major optical amplification schemes. It does not require a gain medium, interaction with phonons, or any nonlinear medium. The Π scheme allows for loss-free metamaterials. It is ideally suited for mitigating losses in metamaterials operating in the visible spectrum and is scalable to other optical frequencies. These findings open the possibility of reviving the early dreams of making "magical" metamaterials from scratch.

  20. Microwave birefringent metamaterials for polarization conversion based on spoof surface plasmon polariton modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Feng, Dayi; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    We propose the design of wideband birefringent metamaterials based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs). Spatial k-dispersion design of SSPP modes in metamaterials is adopted to achieve high-efficiency transmission of electromagnetic waves through the metamaterial layer. By anisotropic design, the transmission phase accumulation in metamaterials can be independently modulated for x- and y-polarized components of incident waves. Since the dispersion curve of SSPPs is nonlinear, frequency-dependent phase differences can be obtained between the two orthogonal components of transmitted waves. As an example, we demonstrate a microwave birefringent metamaterials composed of fishbone structures. The full-polarization-state conversions on the zero-longitude line of Poincaré sphere can be fulfilled twice in 6–20 GHz for both linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) waves incidence. Besides, at a given frequency, the full-polarization-state conversion can be achieved by changing the polarization angle of the incident LP waves. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the high-efficiency polarization conversion functions of the birefringent metamaterial, including circular-to-circular, circular-to-linear(linear-to-circular), linear-to-linear polarization conversions. PMID:27698443

  1. Microwave birefringent metamaterials for polarization conversion based on spoof surface plasmon polariton modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Feng, Dayi; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-10-01

    We propose the design of wideband birefringent metamaterials based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs). Spatial k-dispersion design of SSPP modes in metamaterials is adopted to achieve high-efficiency transmission of electromagnetic waves through the metamaterial layer. By anisotropic design, the transmission phase accumulation in metamaterials can be independently modulated for x- and y-polarized components of incident waves. Since the dispersion curve of SSPPs is nonlinear, frequency-dependent phase differences can be obtained between the two orthogonal components of transmitted waves. As an example, we demonstrate a microwave birefringent metamaterials composed of fishbone structures. The full-polarization-state conversions on the zero-longitude line of Poincaré sphere can be fulfilled twice in 6-20 GHz for both linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) waves incidence. Besides, at a given frequency, the full-polarization-state conversion can be achieved by changing the polarization angle of the incident LP waves. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the high-efficiency polarization conversion functions of the birefringent metamaterial, including circular-to-circular, circular-to-linear(linear-to-circular), linear-to-linear polarization conversions.

  2. Switchable Metal-Insulator Phase Transition Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Hajisalem, Ghazal; Nezami, Mohammadreza S; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-05-10

    We investigate the switching of a gap plasmon tunnel junction between conducting and insulating states. Hysteresis is observed in the second and the third harmonic generation power dependence, which arises by thermally induced disorder ("melting") of a two-carbon self-assembled monolayer between an ultraflat gold surface and metal nanoparticles. The hysteresis is observed for a variety of nanoparticle sizes, but not for larger tunnel junctions where there is no appreciable tunneling. By combining quantum corrected finite-difference time-domain simulations with nonlinear scattering theory, we calculate the changes in the harmonic generation between the tunneling and the insulating states, and good agreement is found with the experiments. This paves the way to a new class of metal-insulator phase transition switchable metamaterials, which may provide next-generation information processing technologies.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern selection at the crystal-melt interface. Progress report, March 1, 1993--February 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, H.Z.

    1993-11-01

    Progress is reported on the following: dendritic sidebranching (pivalic acid), subcritical-supercritical bifurcation crossover in directional solidification (succinonitrile-coumarin 152), and evolution of planar-cellular-dendritic interface (succinonitrile-rhodamine 6G).

  4. Tunable VO2/Au Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    United States Government.   Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial S. Prayakarao1, B. Mendoza2,3, A. Devine2,3, C. Kyaw2, R. B. Van Dover2, V...can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial . The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au...Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in the electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection

  5. Enhanced Light Emitters Based on Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    Enhanced Light Emitters based on Metamaterials We report the development of light emitters based on hyperbolic metamaterials . During the 18 month...layer, use of a high refractive index contrast grating to out-couple light from active hyperbolic metamaterials . We also successfully demonstrated for...the first time simultaneous enhancement in spontaneous emission ad light extraction from active metamaterial structures. The views, opinions and/or

  6. Metamaterial properties of periodic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we show that a 1-D phononic crystal (laminate) can exhibit metamaterial wave phenomena which are traditionally associated with 2- and 3-D crystals. Moreover, due to the absence of a length scale in 2 of its dimensions, it can outperform higher dimensional crystals on some measures. This includes allowing only negative refraction over large frequency ranges and serving as a near-omnidirectional high-pass filter up to a large frequency value. First we provide a theoretical discussion on the salient characteristics of the dispersion relation of a laminate and formulate the solution of an interface problem by the application of the normal mode decomposition technique. We present a methodology with which to induce a pure negative refraction in the laminate. As a corollary to our approach of negative refraction, we show how the laminate can be used to steer beams over large angles for small changes in the incident angles (beam steering). Furthermore, we clarify how the transmitted modes in the laminate can be switched on and off by varying the angle of the incident wave by a small amount. Finally, we show that the laminate can be used as a remarkably efficient high-pass frequency filter. An appropriately designed laminate will reflect all plane waves from quasi-static to a large frequency, incident at it from all angles except for a small set of near-normal incidences. This will be true even if the homogeneous medium is impedance matched with the laminate. Due to the similarities between SH waves and electromagnetic (EM) waves it is expected that some or all of these results may also apply to EM waves in a layered periodic dielectric.

  7. Quantum levitation using metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappakrishnan, Venkatesh K.

    The emergence of an attractive vacuum force (Casimir force) between two purely dielectric materials can lead to an increase in the friction and the stiction effects in nanoscale devices, resulting in degradation or decreased performance. Thus, it is of high practical importance that the conditions for the reversal of the Casimir force from attractive to repulsive are identified. Although the repulsive Casimir force has been considered for high dielectric materials as an intermediate (between the plates) medium, so far no realistic system has been proposed that can demonstrate quantum levitation with air/vacuum as a host medium. Since air is the natural environment for almost all nano- and microscopic devices, it is therefore imperative to seek a better understanding of the nature of the Casimir force under such ambient conditions. In this thesis, the conditions for achieving quantum levitation at an arbitrary temperature are investigated by considering a simple configuration consisting of two parallel plates separated by air. The proposed parallel-plate designs are based on artificial nano-engineered electromagnetic materials commonly referred to as the electromagnetic metamaterials. In the case of an ideal system consisting of non-dispersive plates, we have uncovered the existence of six universal Casimir force types. We have also derived an explicit necessary condition for Casimir force reversal as a function of the non-retarded specular functions of the plates. By introducing a modification of the Lifshitz theory, we have performed an extensive investigation of the Casimir force for general dispersive magneto-dielectric plates. Simple necessary and sufficient conditions for force reversal have been derived that can serve as a useful tool in designing quantum levitation systems. Based on the sufficient condition, the complete parametric domain for the Casimir force repulsion has been identified. A strongly magnetic response for at least one of the plates is

  8. Improvement in ultraviolet based decontamination rate using meta-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enaki, Nicolae A.; Bazgan, Sergiu; Ciobanu, Nellu; Turcan, Marina; Paslari, Tatiana; Ristoscu, Carmen; Vaseashta, Ashok; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method of decontamination using photon-crystals consisting of microspheres and fiber optics structures with various geometries. The efficient decontamination using the surface of the evanescent zone of meta-materials opens a new perspective in the decontamination procedures. We propose different topological structures of meta-materials to increase the contact surface of UV radiation with contaminated liquid. Recent observation of the trapping of dielectric particles along the fibers help us propose a new perspective on the new possibilities to trap the viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms from liquids, in this special zone, where the effective UV coherent Raman decontamination becomes possible. The nonlinear theory of the excitation of vibration modes of bio-molecule of viruses and bacteria is revised, taking into consideration the bimodal coherent states in coherent Raman excitation of biomolecules.

  9. Controlling third harmonic generation with gammadion-shaped chiral metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Li, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigated third harmonic generation (THG) from planar chiral metamaterials consisting of a square array of gammadion-shaped metal-insulator-metal multilayered nanostructures. We show that there exists strong circular dichroism (CD) for THG on the proposed chiral metamaterials. We also demonstrate that geometrically mirroring the gammadion -shaped meta-atoms can result in reversal of the THG-CD effect. Based on these CD effects in the optical nonlinear regime, we propose a design of a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) for intense focusing of the THG signals, in which adjacent zones of the FZP consist of gammadions with mirror symmetry and generate circularly polarized THG with opposite handedness. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the relative phase of the THG can be continuously changed by rotating the gammadion around its rotational axis, which could be used in the FZP to control the polarization of the output THG signals.

  10. Bright and gap solitons in membrane-type acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiangyi; Romero-García, Vicente; Theocharis, Georgios; Richoux, Olivier; Achilleos, Vassos; Frantzeskakis, Dimitrios J.

    2017-08-01

    We study analytically and numerically envelope solitons (bright and gap solitons) in a one-dimensional, nonlinear acoustic metamaterial, composed of an air-filled waveguide periodically loaded by clamped elastic plates. Based on the transmission line approach, we derive a nonlinear dynamical lattice model which, in the continuum approximation, leads to a nonlinear, dispersive, and dissipative wave equation. Applying the multiple scales perturbation method, we derive an effective lossy nonlinear Schrödinger equation and obtain analytical expressions for bright and gap solitons. We also perform direct numerical simulations to study the dissipation-induced dynamics of the bright and gap solitons. Numerical and analytical results, relying on the analytical approximations and perturbation theory for solions, are found to be in good agreement.

  11. Real-time estimation and detection of non-linearity in bio-signals using wireless brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, S; Victoire, T Aruldoss Albert; Vijayalakshmy, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the work is mainly concentrated on removing non-linear parameters to make the physiological signals more linear and reducing the complexity of the signals. This paper discusses three different types of techniques that can be successfully utilised to remove non-linear parameters in EEG and ECG. (i) Transformation technique using Discrete Walsh-Hadamard Transform (DWHT); (ii) application of fuzzy logic control and (iii) building the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model for fuzzy. This work has been inspired by the need to arrive at an efficient, simple, accurate and quicker method for analysis of bio-signal.

  12. Hierarchical auxetic mechanical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I; Azzopardi, Keith M; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-02-11

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  13. Hierarchical Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I.; Azzopardi, Keith M.; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N.

    2015-02-01

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  14. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.

  15. Hierarchical Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I.; Azzopardi, Keith M.; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N.

    2015-01-01

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts. PMID:25670400

  16. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  17. Metamaterial, plasmonic and nanophotonic devices.

    PubMed

    Monticone, Francesco; Alù, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The field of metamaterials has opened landscapes of possibilities in basic science, and a paradigm shift in the way we think about and design emergent material properties. In many scenarios, metamaterial concepts have helped overcome long-held scientific challenges, such as the absence of optical magnetism and the limits imposed by diffraction in optical imaging. As the potential of metamaterials, as well as their limitations, become clearer, these advances in basic science have started to make an impact on several applications in different areas, with far-reaching implications for many scientific and engineering fields. At optical frequencies, the alliance of metamaterials with the fields of plasmonics and nanophotonics can further advance the possibility of controlling light propagation, radiation, localization and scattering in unprecedented ways. In this review article, we discuss the recent progress in the field of metamaterials, with particular focus on how fundamental advances in this field are enabling a new generation of metamaterial, plasmonic and nanophotonic devices. Relevant examples include optical nanocircuits and nanoantennas, invisibility cloaks, superscatterers and superabsorbers, metasurfaces for wavefront shaping and wave-based analog computing, as well as active, nonreciprocal and topological devices. Throughout the paper, we highlight the fundamental limitations and practical challenges associated with the realization of advanced functionalities, and we suggest potential directions to go beyond these limits. Over the next few years, as new scientific breakthroughs are translated into technological advances, the fields of metamaterials, plasmonics and nanophotonics are expected to have a broad impact on a variety of applications in areas of scientific, industrial and societal significance.

  18. Metamaterial, plasmonic and nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticone, Francesco; Alù, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The field of metamaterials has opened landscapes of possibilities in basic science, and a paradigm shift in the way we think about and design emergent material properties. In many scenarios, metamaterial concepts have helped overcome long-held scientific challenges, such as the absence of optical magnetism and the limits imposed by diffraction in optical imaging. As the potential of metamaterials, as well as their limitations, become clearer, these advances in basic science have started to make an impact on several applications in different areas, with far-reaching implications for many scientific and engineering fields. At optical frequencies, the alliance of metamaterials with the fields of plasmonics and nanophotonics can further advance the possibility of controlling light propagation, radiation, localization and scattering in unprecedented ways. In this review article, we discuss the recent progress in the field of metamaterials, with particular focus on how fundamental advances in this field are enabling a new generation of metamaterial, plasmonic and nanophotonic devices. Relevant examples include optical nanocircuits and nanoantennas, invisibility cloaks, superscatterers and superabsorbers, metasurfaces for wavefront shaping and wave-based analog computing, as well as active, nonreciprocal and topological devices. Throughout the paper, we highlight the fundamental limitations and practical challenges associated with the realization of advanced functionalities, and we suggest potential directions to go beyond these limits. Over the next few years, as new scientific breakthroughs are translated into technological advances, the fields of metamaterials, plasmonics and nanophotonics are expected to have a broad impact on a variety of applications in areas of scientific, industrial and societal significance.

  19. Coherent Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear Spectroscopy: A Comparison with the Air/DMSO Liquid Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Lu, Zhou; Wang, Hongfei

    2013-12-27

    In this report we present a comparative study on the C-H stretching vibrations at air/DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) interface with both the free-induction decay (FID) coherent vibrational dynamics and sub-wavenumber high resolution sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy measurements. In principle the frequency-domain and time-domain spectroscopic measurements should generate identical information for a given molecular system. However, when the molecular systems are with several coupled or overlapping vibrational modes, to obtain detailed spectroscopic and coherent dynamics information is not as straightforward and rather difficult from either the time-domain or the frequency domain measurements. For the case of air/DMSO interface that is with moderately complex vibrational spectra, we show that the frequency-domain measurement with sub-wavenumber high-resolution SFGVS is probably more advantageous than the time-domain measurement in obtaining quantitative understanding of the structure and coherent dynamics of the molecular interface.

  20. Generalized method for retrieving effective parameters of anisotropic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Castanié, A; Mercier, J-F; Félix, S; Maurel, A

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic or acoustic metamaterials can be described in terms of equivalent effective, in general anisotropic, media and several techniques exist to determine the effective permeability and permittivity (or effective mass density and bulk modulus in the context of acoustics). Among these techniques, retrieval methods use the measured reflection and transmission coefficients (or scattering coefficients) for waves incident on a metamaterial slab containing few unit cells. Until now, anisotropic effective slabs have been considered in the literature but they are limited to the case where one of the axes of anisotropy is aligned with the slab interface. We propose an extension to arbitrary orientations of the principal axes of anisotropy and oblique incidence. The retrieval method is illustrated in the electromagnetic case for layered media, and in the acoustic case for array of tilted elliptical particles.

  1. Generalization of the FDTD algorithm for simulations of hydrodynamic nonlinear Drude model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jinjie; Brio, Moysey; Zeng Yong; Zakharian, Armis R.; Hoyer, Walter; Koch, Stephan W.; Moloney, Jerome V.

    2010-08-20

    In this paper we present a numerical method for solving a three-dimensional cold-plasma system that describes electron gas dynamics driven by an external electromagnetic wave excitation. The nonlinear Drude dispersion model is derived from the cold-plasma fluid equations and is coupled to the Maxwell's field equations. The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method is applied for solving the Maxwell's equations in conjunction with the time-split semi-implicit numerical method for the nonlinear dispersion and a physics based treatment of the discontinuity of the electric field component normal to the dielectric-metal interface. The application of the proposed algorithm is illustrated by modeling light pulse propagation and second-harmonic generation (SHG) in metallic metamaterials (MMs), showing good agreement between computed and published experimental results.

  2. Low-damping epsilon-near-zero slabs: Nonlinear and nonlocal optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ceglia, Domenico; Campione, Salvatore; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Capolino, Filippo; Scalora, Michael

    2013-04-01

    We investigate second-harmonic generation, low-threshold multistability, all-optical switching, and inherently nonlocal effects due to the free-electron gas pressure in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slab made of cylindrical, plasmonic nanoshells illuminated by TM-polarized light. Damping compensation in the ENZ frequency region, achieved by using gain medium inside the nanoshells’ dielectric cores, enhances the nonlinear properties. Reflection is inhibited, and the electric field component normal to the slab interface is enhanced near the effective pseudo-Brewster angle, where the effective ɛ≈0 condition triggers a nonresonant, impedance-matching phenomenon. We show that the slab displays a strong effective, spatial nonlocality associated with leaky modes that are mediated by the compensation of damping. The presence of these leaky modes then induces further spectral and angular conditions, where the local fields are enhanced, thus opening new windows of opportunity for the enhancement of nonlinear optical processes.

  3. The futures of transformations and metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsler, Paul; McCall, Martin W.

    2015-06-01

    Those researchers who are part of the metamaterials community stand at a fork in the road - does the maturation of metamaterial fabrication lead to a focus on applications and technology, or does it suggest an opportunity to pursue more blue-sky scientific concepts? At Metamaterials 2013 in Bordeuax, one speaker focussed explicitly on the opportunities for applications and funding on the road leading to metamaterial technology. Here, in deliberate contrast, we look instead at the interesting opportunities in curiosity-led research based around the ideas of transformation and metamaterials. The genesis of this article was the Transforming Transformation Optics meeting held at Imperial College London in December 2013.

  4. Perfect selective metamaterial solar absorbers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Liping

    2013-11-04

    In this work, we numerically investigate the radiative properties of metamaterial nanostructures made of two-dimensional tungsten gratings on a thin dielectric spacer and an opaque tungsten film from UV to mid-infrared region as potential selective solar absorbers. The metamaterial absorber with single-sized tungsten patches exhibits high absorptance in the visible and near-infrared region due to several mechanisms such as surface plasmon polaritons, magnetic polaritons, and intrinsic bandgap absorption of tungsten. Geometric effects on the resonance wavelengths and the absorptance spectra are studied, and the physical mechanisms are elucidated in detail. The absorptance could be further enhanced in a broader spectral range with double-sized metamaterial absorbers. The total solar absorptance of the optimized metamaterial absorbers at normal incidence could be more than 88%, while the total emittance is less than 3% at 100°C, resulting in total photon-to-heat conversion efficiency of 86% without any optical concentration. Moreover, the metamaterial solar absorbers exhibit quasi-diffuse behaviors as well as polarization independence. The results here will facilitate the design of novel highly efficient solar absorbers to enhance the performance of various solar energy conversion systems.

  5. Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anthony J; Alekseyev, Leonid; Howard, Scott S; Franz, Kale J; Wasserman, Dan; Podolskiy, Viktor A; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Sivco, Deborah L; Gmachl, Claire

    2007-12-01

    An optical metamaterial is a composite in which subwavelength features, rather than the constituent materials, control the macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the material. Recently, properly designed metamaterials have garnered much interest because of their unusual interaction with electromagnetic waves. Whereas nature seems to have limits on the type of materials that exist, newly invented metamaterials are not bound by such constraints. These newly accessible electromagnetic properties make these materials an excellent platform for demonstrating unusual optical phenomena and unique applications such as subwavelength imaging and planar lens design. 'Negative-index materials', as first proposed, required the permittivity, epsilon, and permeability, mu, to be simultaneously less than zero, but such materials face limitations. Here, we demonstrate a comparatively low-loss, three-dimensional, all-semiconductor metamaterial that exhibits negative refraction for all incidence angles in the long-wave infrared region and requires only an anisotropic dielectric function with a single resonance. Using reflection and transmission measurements and a comprehensive model of the material, we demonstrate that our material exhibits negative refraction. This is furthermore confirmed through a straightforward beam optics experiment. This work will influence future metamaterial designs and their incorporation into optical semiconductor devices.

  6. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  7. Harmonic wave radiation induced by a flat piston with allowance for the mobility of the interface and nonlinearity of medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdeev, V. A.; Olefirenko, O. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    The problem of harmonic pressure wave generation by a moving piston is solved for the first time. An initial boundary value problem for the Riemann equation is formulated, and a boundary condition for the current position of a contact boundary is set. Physical effects caused by the allowance for mobility of the contact boundary and nonlinearity of the medium are considered in the framework of the obtained analytical solution.

  8. Multi-band slow light metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Meng, Fan-Yi; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wu, Qun; Hua, Jun

    2012-02-13

    In this paper, a multi-band slow light metamaterial is presented and investigated. The metamaterial unit cell is composed of three cut wires of different sizes and parallel to each other. Two transparency windows induced by two-two overlaps of absorption bands of three cut wires are observed. The multi-band transmission characteristics and the slow light properties of metamaterial are verified by numerical simulation, which is in a good agreement with theoretical predictions. The impacts of structure parameters on transparency windows are also investigated. Simulation results show the spectral properties can be tuned by adjusting structure parameters of metamaterial. The equivalent circuit model and the synthesis method of the multi-band slow light metamaterial are presented. It is seen from simulation results that the synthesis method accurately predicts the center frequency of the multi-band metamaterial, which opens a door to a quick and accurate construction for multi-band slow light metamaterial.

  9. Coupling effects in optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Giessen, Harald

    2010-12-17

    Metamaterials have become one of the hottest fields of photonics since the pioneering work of John Pendry on negative refractive index, invisibility cloaking, and perfect lensing. Three-dimensional metamaterials are required for practical applications. In these materials, coupling effects between individual constituents play a dominant role for the optical and electronic properties. Metamaterials can show both electric and magnetic responses at optical frequencies. Thus, electric as well as magnetic dipolar and higher-order multipolar coupling is the essential mechanism. Depending on the structural composition, both longitudinal and transverse coupling occur. The intricate interplay between different coupling effects in a plasmon hybridization picture provides a useful tool to intuitively understand the evolution from molecule-like states to solid-state-like bands.

  10. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  11. Three-component gyrotropic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tralle, Igor; ZiÈ©ba, Paweł; Paśko, Wioletta

    2014-06-01

    All of the proposed ever since designs of metamaterials are characterized by ever-increasing sophistication of fabrication methods. Here, a comparatively simple recipe for the fabrication of a metamaterial, which is both gyrotropic and of the simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability, is proposed. The idea is to make a mixture of three ingredients, where one of them would be responsible for the negativity of μ, while the other two would be responsible for the negativity of ɛ. The first component of the mixture is the "swarm" of single-domain ferromagnetic nano-particles, immersed in a mixture of other two, silver and mercury cadmium telluride. By carrying out the computer simulations, the domains of gyromagnetic metamaterial exist, relative to all parameters characterizing the model, that is, the temperature, external magnetic field, parameters of nano-particles, and the fraction of cadmium in Hg1-xCdxTe-compound as well as relative concentrations of the mixture components are established.

  12. Numerical treatment of nonlinear latent heat boundary conditions at moving interfaces in genuine two dimensional solidification problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckett, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed method for the treatment of two dimensional solidification problems is based on quasilinearization of the transformed heat conduction equation and latent heat condition at the interface and an iterative sequence in which these are solved simultaneously. Modern algorithms for solving such sparse systems mean that most of the storage advantage of other methods are reduced and the speed of solution can be improved.

  13. Numerical treatment of nonlinear latent heat boundary conditions at moving interfaces in genuine two dimensional solidification problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckett, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed method for the treatment of two dimensional solidification problems is based on quasilinearization of the transformed heat conduction equation and latent heat condition at the interface and an iterative sequence in which these are solved simultaneously. Modern algorithms for solving such sparse systems mean that most of the storage advantage of other methods are reduced and the speed of solution can be improved.

  14. Two-dimensional finite element analysis of flexible pavements considering non-linear materials and interface conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, C.R.; Salami, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Two-dimensional finite element analysis of a flexible pavement section was performed using a special purpose finite element method (FEM) code and a commercial general purpose FEM. Viscoelastic, plastic, and hyperbolic-elastic materials models were used in the analyses. One-dimensional interface elements were used in both analyses. The results of the analyses were compared with predictions using current evaluation/design models.

  15. Giant Goos-Hänchen shifts and radiation-induced trapping of Helmholtz solitons at nonlinear interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; McDonald, Graham S

    2011-09-15

    Giant Goos-Hänchen shifts and radiation-induced trapping are studied at the planar boundary separating two focusing Kerr media within the framework of the Helmholtz theory. The analysis, valid for all angles of incidence, reveals that interfaces exhibiting linear external refraction can also accommodate both phenomena. Numerical evidence of these effects is provided, based on analytical predictions derived from a generalized Snell's law.

  16. Computational nanooptics in hyperbolic metamaterials and plasmonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongrattanassiri, Sukosin

    This dissertation concerns several problems in the fields of light interaction with nanostructured media, metamaterials, and plasmonics. We present a technique capable of extending operational bandwidth of hyperbolic metamaterials based on interleaved highly-doped InGaAs and undoped AlInAs multilayer stacks. The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions, exhibiting broadband negative refraction response in mid-infrared frequency. We propose a new class of nanofocusing structures, named hypergrating, combining hyperbolic metamaterials with Fresnel optics, able to achieve extremely subwavelength focal spots (up to 50 times smaller than free-space wavelength) in the far field of the input interface. Several experimental realizations of hypergratings for visible and infrared frequencies are presented. We further develop a new technique capable of imaging subwavelength objects with far-field measurements. The approach utilizes a diffraction grating, placed at the object plane, to convert subwavelength information of objects into propagating waves and project this information into far-field. The set of far-field measurements is used to deconvolute the images. The resolution of the proposed method can surpass 1/20-th of the free-space limit, strongly overperforming other subwavelength imaging technology. We develop a new mode matching approach for analysis of scattering and propagation of surface and volume modes in multiple multilayered-stack structures. Our theory relies on the complete spectrum of free-space and guided electromagnetic modes to solve Maxwell's equations in the extended systems that have relatively few interfaces. We demonstrate the convergence of this technique on a number of plasmonic and metamaterial structures. Finally, we consider the problem of plasmonic beam-steering structures consisting of a single slit flanked by a periodic set of metallic corrugations. We show that the light emitted by the structures forms a prolonged focal range

  17. Universality and scaling in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felbacq, Didier

    2016-09-01

    It has been demonstrated by many theoretical and experimentals works that Mie resonances are at the heart of the effective properties of dielectric metamaterials. These resonances indeed allow for the onset of tailorable macroscopic magnetic properties. They were shown to provide a convenient way to study the transition between photonic crystals and metamaterials. In the present work, we show that the band structure linked to theses resonances is largely scale invariant and also, to some extend, robust with regard to disorder. These results do not rely heavily on a specific type of wave, suggesting that the same kind of results can be obtained for acoustic or gravity waves.

  18. Magnetically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Feng, Ningyue; Wang, Qingmin; Hao, Yanan; Huang, Shanguo; Bi, Ke

    2016-06-01

    A magnetically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) based on ferromagnetic resonance is experimentally and numerically demonstrated. The ferrite-based MPA is composed of an array of ferrite rods and a metallic ground plane. Frequency dependent absorption of the ferrite-based MPA under a series of applied magnetic fields is discussed. An absorption peak induced by ferromagnetic resonance appears in the range of 8-12 GHz under a certain magnetic field. Both the simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the absorption frequency of the ferrite-based MPA can be tuned by the applied magnetic field. This work provides an effective way to fabricate the magnetically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber.

  19. Metamaterials for terahertz polarimetric devices

    SciTech Connect

    O'hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J; Smirnova, Evgenya; Azad, Abul; Chen, Hou-tong; Peralta, Xomalin G; Brener, Igal

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical investigations of planar terahertz metamaterial structures designed to interact with the state of polarization. The dependence of metamaterial resonances on polarization results in unique amplitude and phase characteristics of the terahertz transmission, providing the basis for polarimetric terahertz devices. We highlight some potential applications for polarimetric devices and present simulations of a terahertz quarter-wave plate and a polarizing terahertz beam splitter. Although this work was performed at tcrahertz frequencies, it may find applications in other frequency ranges as well.

  20. Metamaterials for terahertz polarimetric devices

    SciTech Connect

    O'hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J; Smirnova, Evgenya; Azad, Abul

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical investigations of planar terahertz metamaterial structures designed to interact with the state of polarization. The dependence of metamaterial resonances on polarization results in unique amplitude and phase characteristics of the terahertz transmission, providing the basis for polarimetric terahertz devices. We highlight some potential applications for polarimetric devices and present simulations of a terahertz quarter-wave plate and a polarizing terahertz beam splitter. Although this work was performed at terahertz frequencies, it may find applications in other frequency ranges as well.

  1. Tunable acoustic double negativity metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Liang, Z; Willatzen, M; Li, J; Christensen, J

    2012-01-01

    Man-made composite materials called "metamaterials" allow for the creation of unusual wave propagation behavior. Acoustic and elastic metamaterials in particular, can pave the way for the full control of sound in realizing cloaks of invisibility, perfect lenses and much more. In this work we design acousto-elastic surface modes that are similar to surface plasmons in metals and on highly conducting surfaces perforated by holes. We combine a structure hosting these modes together with a gap material supporting negative modulus and collectively producing negative dispersion. By analytical techniques and full-wave simulations we attribute the observed behavior to the mass density and bulk modulus being simultaneously negative.

  2. Implementation of a quantum metamaterial using superconducting qubits.

    PubMed

    Macha, Pascal; Oelsner, Gregor; Reiner, Jan-Michael; Marthaler, Michael; André, Stephan; Schön, Gerd; Hübner, Uwe; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Il'ichev, Evgeni; Ustinov, Alexey V

    2014-10-14

    The key issue for the implementation of a metamaterial is to demonstrate the existence of collective modes corresponding to coherent oscillations of the meta-atoms. Atoms of natural materials interact with electromagnetic fields as quantum two-level systems. Artificial quantum two-level systems can be made, for example, using superconducting nonlinear resonators cooled down to their ground state. Here we perform an experiment in which 20 of these quantum meta-atoms, so-called flux qubits, are embedded into a microwave resonator. We observe the dispersive shift of the resonator frequency imposed by the qubit metamaterial and the collective resonant coupling of eight qubits. The realized prototype represents a mesoscopic limit of naturally occurring spin ensembles and as such we demonstrate the AC-Zeeman shift of a resonant qubit ensemble. The studied system constitutes the implementation of a basic quantum metamaterial in the sense that many artificial atoms are coupled collectively to the quantized mode of a photon field.

  3. Negative-permittivity plasma generation in negative-permeability space with high-energy metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Osamu; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Iwai, Akinori; Iio, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Plasma generation by electromagnetic waves in negative-permeability space is analyzed using experimental results and theoretical models. Installation of negative-permeability metamaterials triggers drastic changes to the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Unlike usual cases in which permeability is  +1, negative permeability induces evanescent modes in a space without plasma. However, if permittivity becomes negative due to high-electron-density or overdense plasma, electromagnetic waves can propagate because negative-refractive-index states emerge. In this study, reviewing our previous experimental data, we study the underlying physical processes in plasma generation in terms of wave propagation and parameters of wave media. We confirm nonlinear (transition) processes in the phase of density evolution up to the negative permittivity state and negative-refractive-index states in the quasi-steady phase. We also note that such energetic metamaterials are built up when we use plasma, unlike conventional metamaterials composed of solid-state materials.

  4. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Brener, Igal

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a new class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.

  5. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; ...

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a newmore » class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.« less

  6. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  7. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function—the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity—between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  8. Switchable zero-index metamaterials by loading positive-intrinsic-negative diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Nan; Cheng, Qiang Zhao, Jie; Jun Cui, Tie Feng Ma, Hui; Xiang Jiang, Wei

    2014-02-03

    We propose switchable zero-index metamaterials (ZIMs) implemented by split ring resonators (SRRs) loaded with positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) diode switching elements. We demonstrate that ZIMs can be achieved at around 10 GHz when the PIN diode is switched off. When the PIN diode is switched on, however, the designed metamaterials have impedance matching to the free space, which is useful to reduce the reflections at the interface of two media. The switchable ZIMs are suitable for a wide variety of applications like the beam forming and directive radiation. Experimental results validate the switching ability of the proposed ZIMs.

  9. Ultrafast all-optical modulation with hyperbolic metamaterial integrated in Si photonic circuitry.

    PubMed

    Neira, Andres D; Wurtz, Gregory A; Ginzburg, Pavel; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2014-05-05

    The integration of optical metamaterials within silicon integrated photonic circuitry bears significantly potential in the design of low-power, nanoscale footprint, all-optical functionalities. We propose a novel concept and provide detailed analysis of an on-chip ultrafast all-optical modulator based on an hyperbolic metamaterial integrated in a silicon waveguide. The anisotropic metamaterial based on gold nanorods is placed on top of the silicon waveguide to form a modulator with a 300x440x600 nm(3) footprint. For the operating wavelength of 1.5 μm, the optimized geometry of the device has insertion loss of about 5 dB and a modulation depth of 35% with a sub-ps switching rate. The switching energy estimated from nonlinear transient dynamic numerical simulations is 3.7 pJ/bit when the transmission is controlled optically at a wavelength of 532 nm, resonant with the transverse plasmonic mode of the metamaterial. The switching mechanism is based on the control of the hybridization of eigenmodes in the metamaterial slab and the Si waveguide.

  10. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Yang, Shu; Yi, Yun Kyu; Kamien, Randall D; Yin, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Programmable kirigami metamaterials with controllable local tilting orientations on demand through prescribed notches are constructed through a new approach of kiri-kirgami, and their actuation of pore opening via both mechanical stretching and temperature, along with their potential application as skins for energy-saving buildings, is discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The early days of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, William J.

    2017-08-01

    This is a personal recollection of the early development of modern metamaterials as seen from the perspective of my GEC-Marconi team and collaborators, listed in the references Pendry et al 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 4773, Pendry et al 1998 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 10 4785.

  12. Engineering resonances in infrared metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kanté, Boubacar; de Lustrac, André; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Gadot, Frédérique

    2008-05-12

    Engineering resonances in metamaterials has been so far the main way of reaching simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability leading to negative index materials. In this paper, we present an experimental and numerical analysis of the infrared response of metamaterials made of continuous nanowires and split ring resonators (SRR) deposited on low-doped silicon when the geometry of the SRRs is gradually altered. The impact of the geometric transformation of the SRRs on the spectra of the composite metamaterial is measured in the 20-200 THz frequency range (i.e., in the 1.5-15 microm wavelength range) for the two field polarizations under normal to plane propagation. We show experimentally and numerically that tuning the SRRs towards elementary cut wires translates in a predictable manner the frequency response of the artificial material. We also analyze coupling effects between the SRRs and the continuous nanowires for different spacings between them. The results of our study are expected to provide useful guidelines for the design of negative index metamaterials on silicon.

  13. Optical forces in nanorod metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Andrey A; Shalin, Alexander S; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2015-10-30

    Optomechanical manipulation of micro and nano-scale objects with laser beams finds use in a large span of multidisciplinary applications. Auxiliary nanostructuring could substantially improve performances of classical optical tweezers by means of spatial localization of objects and intensity required for trapping. Here we investigate a three-dimensional nanorod metamaterial platform, serving as an auxiliary tool for the optical manipulation, able to support and control near-field interactions and generate both steep and flat optical potential profiles. It was shown that the 'topological transition' from the elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion regime of the metamaterial, usually having a significant impact on various light-matter interaction processes, does not strongly affect the distribution of optical forces in the metamaterial. This effect is explained by the predominant near-fields contributions of the nanostructure to optomechanical interactions. Semi-analytical model, approximating the finite size nanoparticle by a point dipole and neglecting the mutual re-scattering between the particle and nanorod array, was found to be in a good agreement with full-wave numerical simulation. In-plane (perpendicular to the rods) trapping regime, saddle equilibrium points and optical puling forces (directed along the rods towards the light source), acting on a particle situated inside or at the nearby the metamaterial, were found.

  14. Controlling metamaterial resonances with light

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Sangeeta; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha; Wanare, Harshawardhan

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the use of coherent optical fields as a means of dynamically controlling the resonant behavior of a variety of composite metamaterials, wherein the metamaterial structures are embedded in a dispersive dielectric medium. Control and switching are implemented by coherently driving the resonant permittivity of the embedding medium with applied optical radiation. The effect of embedding split ring resonators in a frequency-dispersive medium with Lorentz-like dispersion or with dispersion engineered by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is manifested in the splitting of the negative-permeability band, the modified (frequency-dependent) filling fractions, and the dissipation factors. The modified material parameters are strongly linked to the resonant frequencies of the medium, and for an embedding medium exhibiting EIT also to the strength and detuning of the control field. The robustness of control against the deleterious influence of dissipation associated with the metallic structures as well as the inhomogeneous broadening due to structural imperfections is demonstrated. Studies on plasmonic metamaterials that consist of metallic nanorods arranged in loops and exhibit a collective magnetic response at optical frequencies are presented. Control and switching in this class of plasmonic nanorod metamaterials is shown to be possible, for example, by embedding these arrays in a Raman-active liquid like CS{sub 2} and utilizing the inverse Raman effect.

  15. Embedded Meta-Material Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-31

    of electronic warfare signal and information processing systems. To realize such systems, the key is to miniaturize antennas that transmit and...single aperture, which can provide significant miniaturization and flexibility to the entire system. To design such miniaturized antennas , new materials...and technologies have to be incorporated. For this purpose, the PI has designed and demonstrated miniaturized antennas by introducing metamaterials

  16. Optical forces in nanorod metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Andrey A.; Shalin, Alexander S.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Optomechanical manipulation of micro and nano-scale objects with laser beams finds use in a large span of multidisciplinary applications. Auxiliary nanostructuring could substantially improve performances of classical optical tweezers by means of spatial localization of objects and intensity required for trapping. Here we investigate a three-dimensional nanorod metamaterial platform, serving as an auxiliary tool for the optical manipulation, able to support and control near-field interactions and generate both steep and flat optical potential profiles. It was shown that the ‘topological transition’ from the elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion regime of the metamaterial, usually having a significant impact on various light-matter interaction processes, does not strongly affect the distribution of optical forces in the metamaterial. This effect is explained by the predominant near-fields contributions of the nanostructure to optomechanical interactions. Semi-analytical model, approximating the finite size nanoparticle by a point dipole and neglecting the mutual re-scattering between the particle and nanorod array, was found to be in a good agreement with full-wave numerical simulation. In-plane (perpendicular to the rods) trapping regime, saddle equilibrium points and optical puling forces (directed along the rods towards the light source), acting on a particle situated inside or at the nearby the metamaterial, were found. PMID:26514667

  17. Hyperbolic metamaterials: fundamentals and applications.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Prashant; Atkinson, Jonathan; Jacob, Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials are nano-engineered media with designed properties beyond those available in nature with applications in all aspects of materials science. In particular, metamaterials have shown promise for next generation optical materials with electromagnetic responses that cannot be obtained from conventional media. We review the fundamental properties of metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion and present the various applications where such media offer potential for transformative impact. These artificial materials support unique bulk electromagnetic states which can tailor light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. We present a unified view of practical approaches to achieve hyperbolic dispersion using thin film and nanowire structures. We also review current research in the field of hyperbolic metamaterials such as sub-wavelength imaging and broadband photonic density of states engineering. The review introduces the concepts central to the theory of hyperbolic media as well as nanofabrication and characterization details essential to experimentalists. Finally, we outline the challenges in the area and offer a set of directions for future work.

  18. The two-photon interference mediated by the magnetic resonance in two-dimensional metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. M.; Mu, S. Y.; Zhu, C.; Gong, Y. X.; Xu, P.; Liu, H.; Zhu, S. N.; Zhang, X.

    2013-02-01

    Nowadays, the quantum information processing has been carrying out in variety of solid state systems, such as superconductors, dielectrics, and metallic nano-structures. Here, we investigated the quantum properties of magnetic resonance in a two-dimensional metamaterial with the split-hole resonator structure. The sample was placed in path of entangled photons produced from spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, and a two-photon interference was performed. Such a two-dimensional metamaterial was able to convert photons into magnetic resonances, and reradiate as photons at the other side. A Hong-Ou-Mandel dip with a visibility of 89.4 ± 6.0 % was explicitly observed, which indicated that the magnetic resonance do own a quantum nature. This will be useful for future researches at the interface between metamaterials and quantum information processing.

  19. Goos-Hänchen effect in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Chan, C. T.; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-03-01

    Light reflection and refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media is analytically described by Snell's law. For a beam with a finite waist, it turns out that the reflected wave experiences a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics. Such Goos-Hänchen (G-H) effect has been extensively investigated among all kinds of optical media, such as dielectrics, metals, photonic crystals and metamaterials. As a fundamental physics phenomenon, the G-H effect has been extended to acoustics and quantum mechanics. Here we report the unusual G-H effect in zero index metamaterials. We show that when linearly polarized light is obliquely incident from air to epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, no G-H effect could be observed for p polarized light. While for s polarization, the G-H shift is a constant value for any incident angle.

  20. Goos-Hänchen effect in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yadong; Chan, C. T.; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    Light reflection and refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media is analytically described by Snell's law. For a beam with a finite waist, it turns out that the reflected wave experiences a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics. Such Goos-Hänchen (G-H) effect has been extensively investigated among all kinds of optical media, such as dielectrics, metals, photonic crystals and metamaterials. As a fundamental physics phenomenon, the G-H effect has been extended to acoustics and quantum mechanics. Here we report the unusual G-H effect in zero index metamaterials. We show that when linearly polarized light is obliquely incident from air to epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, no G-H effect could be observed for p polarized light. While for s polarization, the G-H shift is a constant value for any incident angle. PMID:25731726

  1. Goos-Hänchen effect in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yadong; Chan, C T; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-03-03

    Light reflection and refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media is analytically described by Snell's law. For a beam with a finite waist, it turns out that the reflected wave experiences a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics. Such Goos-Hänchen (G-H) effect has been extensively investigated among all kinds of optical media, such as dielectrics, metals, photonic crystals and metamaterials. As a fundamental physics phenomenon, the G-H effect has been extended to acoustics and quantum mechanics. Here we report the unusual G-H effect in zero index metamaterials. We show that when linearly polarized light is obliquely incident from air to epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, no G-H effect could be observed for p polarized light. While for s polarization, the G-H shift is a constant value for any incident angle.

  2. Casimir interactions between graphene sheets and metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2011-12-15

    The Casimir force between graphene sheets and metamaterials is studied. Theoretical results based on the Lifshitz theory for layered, planar, two-dimensional systems in media are presented. We consider graphene-graphene, graphene-metamaterial, and metal-graphene-metamaterial configurations. We find that quantum effects of the temperature-dependent force are not apparent until the submicron range. In contrast to results with bulk dielectric and bulk metallic materials, no Casimir repulsion is found when graphene is placed on top of a magnetically active metamaterial substrate, regardless of the strength of the low-frequency magnetic response. In the case of the metal-graphene-metamaterial setting, repulsion between the metamaterial and the metal-graphene system is possible only when the dielectric response from the metal contributes significantly.

  3. Mass diffusion cloaking and focusing with metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in the design of metamaterials that control diffusive transport processes have enabled efficient devices to manipulate heat conduction. In contrast, control of mass diffusion with metamaterial devices has been largely unexplored. Mass diffusion is critically important in multiple research areas ranging from electronic and energy materials to chemical and biological systems. In this work, we introduce a physical approach to design mass diffusion metamaterial devices that take into account the fundamental physical mechanisms behind mass transport. We demonstrate that mass concentration discontinuities arising from different material solubilities are critical physical factors that need to be incorporated for the accurate design and characterization of mass diffusion metamaterial devices. We employ our approach to devise and analyze cloaking and focusing of molecules and show how the difference in solubilities is critically important for the efficiency of the metamaterials. This work provides physical insights and guidelines to understand and design mass diffusion in metamaterial devices.

  4. Electrically switchable metamaterials and devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-09-01

    The promise of metamaterials lies in the realization of desirable electromagnetic functionalities simply through tailoring the geometric structure and deliberate arrangement of metal/dielectric building blocks (meta-atoms) to yield envisaged material properties that may be difficult or impossible to accomplish using natural materials. Integration of functional materials into metamaterial structures further extends switchable and frequency tunable functionalities through applying an external stimulus such as temperature change, photoexcitation, and voltage bias. Among them electrically switchable metamaterials are of particular interest for a host of applications. In this work we present our recent progress in this direction. More specifically, hybrid terahertz metamaterials can be formed through integrating semiconducting Schottky junctions into the metallic resonators, enabling highly efficient, electrically switchable resonant response. Such hybrid terahertz metamaterials can be applied in creating terahertz spatial light modulators and active diffraction gratings. Furthermore, graphene can be used to extend the active metamaterials to the mid-infrared frequency range.

  5. Implementation of optical dielectric metamaterials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbitt, Shandra J.; Francoeur, Mathieu; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2015-06-01

    Metamaterials are a class of man-made materials with exotic electromagnetic properties. The ability to fabricate three-dimensional macroscale metamaterials would enable embedding these structures in engineering applications and devices, to take advantage of their unique properties. This paper reviews the implementation of optical Mie resonance-based dielectric (MRD) metamaterials, as opposed to the more commonly used metallic-based metamaterials. Design constraints are derived based on Mie theory and related to fabrication specifications. Techniques to fabricate optical dielectric metamaterials are reviewed, including electron-beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, nanoimprint lithography, and directed self-assembly. The limitations of each fabrication method are critically evaluated in light of the design constraints. The challenges that must be overcome to achieve fabrication and implementation of macroscale three-dimensional MRD metamaterials are discussed.

  6. Implementation of a simple model for linear and nonlinear mixing at unstable fluid interfaces in hydrodynamics codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramshaw, J D

    2000-10-01

    A simple model was recently described for predicting the time evolution of the width of the mixing layer at an unstable fluid interface [J. D. Ramshaw, Phys. Rev. E 58, 5834 (1998); ibid. 61, 5339 (2000)]. The ordinary differential equations of this model have been heuristically generalized into partial differential equations suitable for implementation in multicomponent hydrodynamics codes. The central ingredient in this generalization is a nun-diffusional expression for the species mass fluxes. These fluxes describe the relative motion of the species, and thereby determine the local mixing rate and spatial distribution of mixed fluid as a function of time. The generalized model has been implemented in a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code. The model equations and implementation procedure are summarized, and comparisons with experimental mixing data are presented.

  7. Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens.

    PubMed

    Kundtz, Nathan; Smith, David R

    2010-02-01

    For centuries, the conventional approach to lens design has been to grind the surfaces of a uniform material in such a manner as to sculpt the paths that rays of light follow as they transit through the interfaces. Refractive lenses formed by this procedure of bending the surfaces can be of extremely high quality, but are nevertheless limited by geometrical and wave aberrations that are inherent to the manner in which light refracts at the interface between two materials. Conceptually, a more natural--but usually less convenient--approach to lens design would be to vary the refractive index throughout an entire volume of space. In this manner, far greater control can be achieved over the ray trajectories. Here, we demonstrate how powerful emerging techniques in the field of transformation optics can be used to harness the flexibility of gradient index materials for imaging applications. In particular we design and experimentally demonstrate a lens that is broadband (more than a full decade bandwidth), has a field-of-view approaching 180 degrees and zero f-number. Measurements on a metamaterial implementation of the lens illustrate the practicality of transformation optics to achieve a new class of optical devices.

  8. Hyperbolic Weyl Point in Reciprocal Chiral Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng; Lin, Qian; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-07-29

    We report the existence of Weyl points in a class of noncentral symmetric metamaterials, which has time reversal symmetry, but does not have inversion symmetry due to chiral coupling between electric and magnetic fields. This class of metamaterial exhibits either type-I or type-II Weyl points depending on its nonlocal response. We also provide a physical realization of such metamaterial consisting of an array of metal wires in the shape of elliptical helices which exhibits type-II Weyl points.

  9. Metamaterials for Miniaturization of Optical Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-24

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0226 METAMATERIALS FOR MINIATURIZATION OF OPTICAL COMPONENTS Aleksandr Figotin UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IRVINE Final Report 09/24...8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 10/09/2014 Final 30/06/2011-30/06/2014 METAMATERIALS FOR MINIATURIZATION OF OPTICAL COMPONENTS FA9550-11-1...relativistic and spinorial aspects of our neoclassical electromagnetic theory. Metamaterials , fundamentals of electromagnetic theory, dissipation, magnetic

  10. Hyperbolic Weyl Point in Reciprocal Chiral Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Meng; Lin, Qian; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-07-01

    We report the existence of Weyl points in a class of noncentral symmetric metamaterials, which has time reversal symmetry, but does not have inversion symmetry due to chiral coupling between electric and magnetic fields. This class of metamaterial exhibits either type-I or type-II Weyl points depending on its nonlocal response. We also provide a physical realization of such metamaterial consisting of an array of metal wires in the shape of elliptical helices which exhibits type-II Weyl points.

  11. High-Power Considerations in Metamaterial Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-08

    NIM design with SRRs. • At ZIM band (n=0), MFEF reduces from 11.5 to 7.0. Maximum Field Enhancement Factor Zero- or Low-Index Metamaterial for High...power RF Applications Quadbeam Lens with ZIM /LIM Metamaterial The impedance and pattern bandwidths of the feed dipole were increased by...High-Power Considerations in Metamaterial Antennas July 8, 2014 Jeremy A. Bossard, Clinton P. Scarborough*, Qi Wu, Douglas H. Werner, and Ping

  12. Theory, experiment and applications of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, WenXuan; Mei, ZhongLei; Cui, TieJun

    2015-12-01

    In this review article, a brief introduction on the theory, experiments and applications of metamaterials is presented. The main focuses are concentrated on the composing meta-atoms, the method of transformation optics, the experimental demonstration of negative refraction, and the realizations of invisibility cloaks and electromagnetic black hole. At the end of this review, some typical applications of metamaterials, including high-performance antennas made of zero-refractive-index materials, inhomogeneous metamaterial lenses, and planar metasurfaces, are introduced in details.

  13. Experimental demonstration of topological effects in bianisotropic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Smirnova, Daria A.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-01-01

    Existence of robust edge states at interfaces of topologically dissimilar systems is one of the most fascinating manifestations of a novel nontrivial state of matter, a topological insulator. Such nontrivial states were originally predicted and discovered in condensed matter physics, but they find their counterparts in other fields of physics, including the physics of classical waves and electromagnetism. Here, we present the first experimental realization of a topological insulator for electromagnetic waves based on engineered bianisotropic metamaterials. By employing the near-field scanning technique, we demonstrate experimentally the topologically robust propagation of electromagnetic waves around sharp corners without backscattering effects. PMID:26936219

  14. Metamaterial absorber with random dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiren; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2010-05-01

    The metamaterial absorber composed of random dendritic cells has been investigated at microwave frequencies. It is found that the absorptivities come to be weaker and the resonant frequency get red shift as the disordered states increasing, however, the random metamaterial absorber still presents high absorptivity more than 95%. The disordered structures can help understanding of the metamaterial absorber and may be employed for practical design of infrared metamaterial absorber, which may play important roles in collection of radiative heat energy and directional transfer enhancement.

  15. Flexible frequency selective metamaterials for microwave applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Yuen, Matthew M F; Ye, Terry Tao

    2017-03-21

    Metamaterials have attracted more and more research attentions recently. Metamaterials for electromagnetic applications consist of sub-wavelength structures designed to exhibit particular responses to an incident EM (electromagnetic) wave. Traditional EM (electromagnetic) metamaterial is constructed from thick and rigid structures, with the form-factor suitable for applications only in higher frequencies (above GHz) in microwave band. In this paper, we developed a thin and flexible metamaterial structure with small-scale unit cell that gives EM metamaterials far greater flexibility in numerous applications. By incorporating ferrite materials, the thickness and size of the unit cell of metamaterials have been effectively scaled down. The design, mechanism and development of flexible ferrite loaded metamaterials for microwave applications is described, with simulation as well as measurements. Experiments show that the ferrite film with permeability of 10 could reduce the resonant frequency. The thickness of the final metamaterials is only 0.3mm. This type of ferrite loaded metamaterials offers opportunities for various sub-GHz microwave applications, such as cloaks, absorbers, and frequency selective surfaces.

  16. Tunable reflector with active magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tianwei; Huang, Ruifeng; Tang, Ming-Chun; Tan, Peng Khiang

    2014-03-24

    We placed active magnetic metamaterials on metallic surface to implement a tunable reflector with excellent agile performance. By incorporating active elements into the unit cells of the magnetic metamaterial, this active magnetic metamaterial can be tuned to switch function of the reflector among a perfect absorber, a perfect reflector and a gain reflector. This brings about DC control lines to electrically tune the active magnetic metamaterial with positive loss, zero loss and even negative loss. The design, analytical and numerical simulation methods, and experimental results of the tunable reflector are presented.

  17. Electron beam coupling to a metamaterial structure

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don; Cartwright, Keith

    2013-08-15

    Microwave metamaterials have shown promise in numerous applications, ranging from strip lines and antennas to metamaterial-based electron beam driven devices. In general, metamaterials allow microwave designers to obtain electromagnetic characteristics not typically available in nature. High Power Microwave (HPM) sources have in the past drawn inspiration from work done in the conventional microwave source community. In this article, the use of metamaterials in an HPM application is considered by using an effective medium model to determine the coupling of an electron beam to a metamaterial structure in a geometry similar to that of a dielectric Cerenkov maser. Use of the effective medium model allows for the analysis of a wide range of parameter space, including the “mu-negative,”“epsilon-negative,” and “double negative” regimes of the metamaterial. The physics of such a system are modeled analytically and by utilizing the particle-in-cell code ICEPIC. For this geometry and effective medium representation, optimum coupling of the electron beam to the metamaterial, and thus the optimum microwave or RF production, occurs in the epsilon negative regime of the metamaterial. Given that HPM tubes have been proposed that utilize a metamaterial, this model provides a rapid method of characterizing a source geometry that can be used to quickly understand the basic physics of such an HPM device.

  18. Characterization of anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    In an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial, the off-diagonal components of its effective mass density tensor should be considered in order to describe the anisotropic behavior produced by arbitrarily shaped inclusions. However, few studies have been carried out to characterize anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. In this paper, we propose a method that uses the non-diagonal effective mass density tensor to determine the behavior of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. Our method accurately evaluates the effective properties of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials by separately dealing with slabs made of single and multiple unit cells along the thickness direction. To determine the effective properties, the reflection and transmission coefficients of an acoustic metamaterial slab are calculated, and then the wave vectors inside of the slab are determined using these coefficients. The effective material properties are finally determined by utilizing the spatial dispersion relation of the anisotropic acoustic metamaterial. Since the dispersion relation of an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial is explicitly used, its effective properties can be easily determined by only using a limited number of normal and oblique plane wave incidences into a metamaterial slab, unlike existing approaches requiring a large number of wave incidences. The validity of the proposed method is verified by conducting wave simulations for anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs with Z-shaped elastic inclusions of tilted principal material axes.

  19. Flexible frequency selective metamaterials for microwave applications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Yuen, Matthew M. F; Ye, Terry Tao

    2017-01-01

    Metamaterials have attracted more and more research attentions recently. Metamaterials for electromagnetic applications consist of sub-wavelength structures designed to exhibit particular responses to an incident EM (electromagnetic) wave. Traditional EM (electromagnetic) metamaterial is constructed from thick and rigid structures, with the form-factor suitable for applications only in higher frequencies (above GHz) in microwave band. In this paper, we developed a thin and flexible metamaterial structure with small-scale unit cell that gives EM metamaterials far greater flexibility in numerous applications. By incorporating ferrite materials, the thickness and size of the unit cell of metamaterials have been effectively scaled down. The design, mechanism and development of flexible ferrite loaded metamaterials for microwave applications is described, with simulation as well as measurements. Experiments show that the ferrite film with permeability of 10 could reduce the resonant frequency. The thickness of the final metamaterials is only 0.3mm. This type of ferrite loaded metamaterials offers opportunities for various sub-GHz microwave applications, such as cloaks, absorbers, and frequency selective surfaces. PMID:28322338

  20. Flexible frequency selective metamaterials for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Ye, Terry Tao

    2017-03-01

    Metamaterials have attracted more and more research attentions recently. Metamaterials for electromagnetic applications consist of sub-wavelength structures designed to exhibit particular responses to an incident EM (electromagnetic) wave. Traditional EM (electromagnetic) metamaterial is constructed from thick and rigid structures, with the form-factor suitable for applications only in higher frequencies (above GHz) in microwave band. In this paper, we developed a thin and flexible metamaterial structure with small-scale unit cell that gives EM metamaterials far greater flexibility in numerous applications. By incorporating ferrite materials, the thickness and size of the unit cell of metamaterials have been effectively scaled down. The design, mechanism and development of flexible ferrite loaded metamaterials for microwave applications is described, with simulation as well as measurements. Experiments show that the ferrite film with permeability of 10 could reduce the resonant frequency. The thickness of the final metamaterials is only 0.3mm. This type of ferrite loaded metamaterials offers opportunities for various sub-GHz microwave applications, such as cloaks, absorbers, and frequency selective surfaces.

  1. Review on Polarization Selective Terahertz Metamaterials: from Chiral Metamaterials to Stereometamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Elizabath; Zeki Güngördü, M.; Pal, Sharmistha; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin Margaret

    2017-09-01

    In this article, recent progress and development of terahertz chiral metamaterials including stereometamaterials are thoroughly reviewed. This review mainly focuses on the fundamental principles of design and arrangement of meta-atoms in metamaterials exhibiting chirality with various asymmetry and symmetry and 2D and 3D configuration. Related optical and propagation properties in chiral metamaterials, such as optical activity, circular dichroism, and negative refraction for each different chiral metamaterials, are compared and investigated. Finally, comparison between chiral metamaterials with stereometamaterials in terms of the polarization selective operation along with the similarity and the distinction is addressed as well.

  2. Parametric interaction of optical waves in metamaterials under low-frequency pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasumova, R. J.; Amirov, Sh Sh; Shamilova, Sh A.

    2017-07-01

    The influence of phase effects under three-wave parametric interaction and low-frequency pumping in metamaterials is studied in the case of a negative refractive index at a signal-wave frequency. It is found that the efficiency of the backward signalwave amplification is the higher, the greater the ratio of the intensities of the idler and signal waves at the input to the metamaterial. An increase in the idler wave intensity at the input by five times, as compared to the signal-wave intensity, leads to a nonlinear increase in the signal-wave amplification by almost 20 times. According to the analytic expressions obtained in the constant-intensity approximation, the choice of the optimal parameters for the pump intensity, total length of the metamaterial and phase detuning will facilitate the implementation of regimes of effective amplification and generation of the signal wave. A comparison is made with the results obtained in the constant-field approximation, and a numerical estimate of the expected efficiency of the frequency conversion is presented. Control of frequency and pump power is shown to make possible the smooth tuning of the parametric converter frequency. The developed method can be used to design frequency converters based on nonlinear metamaterials.

  3. Metamaterial-enabled transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, Nathan

    Transformation Optics is a design methodology that uses the form invariance of Maxwell's equations to distort electromagnetic fields. This distortion is imposed on a region of space by mimicking a curvilinear coordinate system with prescribed magnetoelectric material parameters. By simply specifying the correct coordinate transformation, researchers have created such exotic devices as invisibility cloaks, ``perfect'' lenses, and illusion devices. Unfortunately, these devices typically require correspondingly exotic material parameters that do not occur in Nature. Researchers have therefore turned to complex artificial media known as metamaterials to approximate the desired responses. However, the metamaterial design process is complex, and there are limitations on the responses that they achieve. In this dissertation, we explore both the applicability and limitations of metamaterials in Transformation Optics design. We begin in Chapter 2 by investigating the freedoms available to use in the transformation optics design process itself. We show that quasi-conformal mappings may be used to alleviate some of the complexity of material design in both two- and three-dimensional design. We then go on in Chapter 3 to apply this method to the design of a transformation-optics modified optic. We show that even a highly-approximate implementation of such a lens would retain many of the key performance feautures that we would expect from a full material prescription. However, the approximations made in the design of our lens may not be valid in other areas of transformation optical design. For instance, the high-frequency approximations of our lens design ignore the effects of impedance mismatch, and the approximation is not valid when the material parameters vary on the order of a wavelength. Therefore, in Chapter 4 we use other freedoms available to us to design a full-parameter cloak of invisibility. By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of our cloak, we are able to

  4. Effect of compressibility on the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability induced nonlinear structure at two fluid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M. R.; Roy, Sourav; Khan, Manoranjan; Pant, H. C.; Sarkar, Susmita; Srivastava, M. K.

    2009-03-15

    The effect of compressibility and of density variation on Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of the temporal development of two fluid interfacial structures such as bubbles and spikes have been investigated. It is seen that the velocity of the tip of the bubble or spike increases (destabilization) if the local Atwood number increases due to density variation of either of the fluids. The opposite is the result, i.e., the bubble or spike tip velocity decreases (stabilization) if the density variation leads to lowering of the value of the local Atwood number. The magnitude of stabilization or destabilization is an increasing function of the product of the wave number k and interfacial pressure p{sub 0}. The effect of compressibility is quite varied. If the heavier (upper) fluid alone is incompressible ({gamma}{sub h}{yields}{infinity}), but the lighter fluid is compressible the growth rate is higher (destabilization) than when both the fluids are incompressible. Moreover the heavier fluid remaining incompressible the growth rate decreases (stabilization) as {gamma}{sub l} (finite) increases and ultimately tends to the incompressible limit value as {gamma}{sub l}{yields}{infinity}. With {gamma}{sub l}{yields}{infinity} but {gamma}{sub h} finite the growth increases (destabilization) as {gamma}{sub h} increases. When both {gamma}{sub h} and {gamma}{sub l} are finite (density {rho}{sub h}>density {rho}{sub l}) the growth is reduced when {gamma}{sub h}<{gamma}{sub l} compared to that when both fluids are incompressible and enhanced when {gamma}{sub h}>{gamma}{sub l}. The set of nonlinear equations describing the dynamics of bubbles and spikes in the presence of fluid density variations are not analytically integrable in closed form. The results derived by numerical solution methods are represented and interpreted in corresponding figures.

  5. Analytical model for active metamaterials with quantum ingredients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipouline, A.; Sugavanam, S.; Fedotov, V. A.; Nikolaenko, A. E.

    2012-11-01

    We present an analytical model for describing complex dynamics of a hybrid system consisting of resonantly coupled classical resonator and quantum structures. Classical resonators in our model correspond to plasmonic metamaterials of various geometries, as well as other types of nano- and microstructure, the optical responses of which can be described classically. Quantum resonators are represented by atoms or molecules, or their aggregates (for example, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, dye molecules, polymer or bio-molecules etc), which can be accurately modelled only with the use of the quantum mechanical approach. Our model is based on the set of equations that combines well established density matrix formalism appropriate for quantum systems, coupled with harmonic-oscillator equations ideal for modelling sub-wavelength plasmonic and optical resonators. As a particular example of application of our model, we show that the saturation nonlinearity of carbon nanotubes increases multifold in the resonantly enhanced near field of a metamaterial. In the framework of our model, we discuss the effect of inhomogeneity of the carbon-nanotube layer (bandgap value distribution) on the nonlinearity enhancement.

  6. In-vivo nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) of epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) reveals quantitative measures of neoplasia in hamster oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Ortiz, Daniel; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) plays an integral role in epithelial neoplasia, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This interface undergoes significant alterations due to hyperproliferating epithelium that supports the transformation of normal epithelium to precancers and cancer. We present a method based on nonlinear optical microscopy to directly assess the ECTI and quantify dysplastic alterations using a hamster model for oral carcinogenesis. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic normal mucosa were imaged in-vivo by both multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) to obtain cross-sectional reconstructions of the oral epithelium and lamina propria. Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histopathological grading and measurement of ECTI parameters. An ECTI shape parameter was calculated based on deviation from the linear geometry (ΔLinearity) seen in normal mucosa was measured using MPAM-SHGM and histology. The ECTI was readily visible in MPAM-SHGM and quantitative shape analysis showed ECTI deformation in dysplasia but not in normal mucosa. ΔLinearity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dysplasia (0.41±0.24) than normal (0.11±0.04) as measured in MPAM-SHGM and results were confirmed in histology which showed similar trends in ΔLinearity. Increase in ΔLinearity was also statistically significant for different grades of dysplasia. In-vivo ΔLinearity measurement alone from microscopy discriminated dysplasia from normal tissue with 87.9% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, while calculations from histology provided 96.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Among other quantifiable architectural changes, a progressive statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness was seen with increasing grade of dysplasia. MPAM-SHGM provides new noninvasive ways for direct characterization of ECTI which may be used in preclinical studies to investigate the role of this interface in

  7. In-Vivo Nonlinear Optical Microscopy (NLOM) of Epithelial-Connective Tissue Interface (ECTI) Reveals Quantitative Measures of Neoplasia in Hamster Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Ortiz, Daniel; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) plays an integral role in epithelial neoplasia, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This interface undergoes significant alterations due to hyperproliferating epithelium that supports the transformation of normal epithelium to precancers and cancer. We present a method based on nonlinear optical microscopy to directly assess the ECTI and quantify dysplastic alterations using a hamster model for oral carcinogenesis. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic normal mucosa were imaged in-vivo by both multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) to obtain cross-sectional reconstructions of the oral epithelium and lamina propria. Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histopathological grading and measurement of ECTI parameters. An ECTI shape parameter was calculated based on deviation from the linear geometry (ΔLinearity) seen in normal mucosa was measured using MPAM-SHGM and histology. The ECTI was readily visible in MPAM-SHGM and quantitative shape analysis showed ECTI deformation in dysplasia but not in normal mucosa. ΔLinearity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dysplasia (0.41±0.24) than normal (0.11±0.04) as measured in MPAM-SHGM and results were confirmed in histology which showed similar trends in ΔLinearity. Increase in ΔLinearity was also statistically significant for different grades of dysplasia. In-vivo ΔLinearity measurement alone from microscopy discriminated dysplasia from normal tissue with 87.9% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, while calculations from histology provided 96.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Among other quantifiable architectural changes, a progressive statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness was seen with increasing grade of dysplasia. MPAM-SHGM provides new noninvasive ways for direct characterization of ECTI which may be used in preclinical studies to investigate the role of this interface in

  8. Modern Acoustics, Based on Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Woon S.

    We discover parity invariance in acoustic field equation. Acoustic metamaterials are a special type of metamaterials with negative mass density and negative bulk modulus and the Poynting vector in opposite direction to wave propagation. This is also known as lefthanded material because the Poynting vector with mass density and bulk modulus form a lefthanded set. For lefthanded material the parity is -1. Double negativity and Poynting vector in opposite direction to wave propagation give rise to new phenomena in refraction diffraction and scattering of acoustic waves. These three are the basic mechanisms of sound propagation in medium. For each new mechanism, there are several new acoustic devices to be developed. Hence we call this the new acoustics. The PHONONICS 2011 to be held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA on May 29 - June 2, 2011 supports our idea of New Acoustics.

  9. Manipulating complex light with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2013-10-02

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for "engineering" space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to "engineer" light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing.

  10. Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Shrekenhamer, David; Chen, Wen-Chen; Padilla, Willie J

    2013-04-26

    We present an experimental demonstration of electronically tunable metamaterial absorbers in the terahertz regime. By incorporation of active liquid crystal into strategic locations within the metamaterial unit cell, we are able to modify the absorption by 30% at 2.62 THz, as well as tune the resonant absorption over 4% in bandwidth. Numerical full-wave simulations match well to experiments and clarify the underlying mechanism, i.e., a simultaneous tuning of both the electric and magnetic response that allows for the preservation of the resonant absorption. These results show that fundamental light interactions of surfaces can be dynamically controlled by all-electronic means and provide a path forward for realization of novel applications.

  11. Fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin

    2014-06-21

    We give a detailed account of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials. We show the unifying aspects of two different approaches; one utilizes the second kind of fluctuation dissipation theorem and the other makes use of the scattering method. We analyze the near-field of hyperbolic media at finite temperatures and show that the lack of spatial coherence can be attributed to the multi-modal nature of super-Planckian thermal emission. We also adopt the analysis to phonon-polaritonic super-lattice metamaterials and describe the regimes suitable for experimental verification of our predicted effects. The results reveal that far-field thermal emission spectra are dominated by epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole responses as expected from Kirchoff's laws. Our work should aid both theorists and experimentalists to study complex media and engineer equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuations for applications in thermal photonics.

  12. Topological mechanics of gyroscopic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Nash, Lisa M; Kleckner, Dustin; Read, Alismari; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Turner, Ari M; Irvine, William T M

    2015-11-24

    Topological mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures whose unusual properties are protected very much like their electronic and optical counterparts. Here, we present an experimental and theoretical study of an active metamaterial--composed of coupled gyroscopes on a lattice--that breaks time-reversal symmetry. The vibrational spectrum displays a sonic gap populated by topologically protected edge modes that propagate in only one direction and are unaffected by disorder. We present a mathematical model that explains how the edge mode chirality can be switched via controlled distortions of the underlying lattice. This effect allows the direction of the edge current to be determined on demand. We demonstrate this functionality in experiment and envision applications of these edge modes to the design of one-way acoustic waveguides.

  13. Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for “engineering” space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to “engineer” light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing. PMID:24084836

  14. Radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device meta-atoms and metamaterials: Experiment, theory and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng

    Metamaterials are 1D, 2D or 3D arrays of artificial atoms. The artificial atoms, called "meta-atoms", can be any component with tailorable electromagnetic properties, such as resonators, LC circuits, nano particles, and so on. By designing the properties of individual meta-atoms and the interaction created by putting them in a lattice, one can create a metamaterial with intriguing properties not found in nature. My Ph. D. work examines the meta-atoms based on radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices (rf-SQUIDs); their tunability with dc magnetic field, rf magnetic field, and temperature are studied. The rf-SQUIDs are superconducting split ring resonators in which the usual capacitance is supplemented with a Josephson junction, which introduces strong nonlinearity in the rf properties. At relatively low rf magnetic field, a magnetic field tunability of the resonant frequency of up to 80 THz/Gauss by dc magnetic field is observed, and a total frequency tunability of 100% is achieved. The macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial also shows manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) or its classical analogs. A near complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bi-stability and can be tuned on/ off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for auto-cloaking metamaterials, intensity dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters. An rf-SQUID metamaterial is shown to have qualitatively the same behavior as a single rf-SQUID with regards to dc flux, rf flux and temperature tuning. The two-tone response of self-resonant rf-SQUID meta-atoms and metamaterials is then studied here via

  15. Metamaterials and Conformal Antenna Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    AFRL-RY-HS-TR-2010-0030 METAMATERIALS AND CONFORMAL ANTENNA TECHNOLOGIES Srinivas Sridhar, Mehmet Dokmeci, Hossein Mosallaei, Latika... Mehmet Dokmeci, Hossein Mosallaei, Latika Menon, Jeffrey Sokoloff, and Don Heiman 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4916 5e. TASK NUMBER HA 5f. WORK UNIT...Platform, Nishant Khanduja, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Chia-Ling Chen, Mehmet R. Dokmeci, Xugang Xiong, Prashanth Makaram, and Ahmed Busnaina, Appl

  16. Ultrafast Modulation of Optical Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-28

    interferometer arrangement for absolute phase measurement. A 20-MHz super-continuum fiber laser providing 5ps pulses with wavelength covering from 450 to...t̂ ) and reflection ( r̂ ) coefficients. A Michelson -type interferometer is implemented for absolute phase measurement. The near-infrared tunable...behavior of optical modulation in a metamaterial with the “fishnet” structure [7]. Using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with an interferometer

  17. Design of a programmable active acoustics metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoker, Jason J.

    Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to provide properties which may not be readily available in nature. The development of such class of materials constitutes a new area of research that has grown significantly over the past decade. Acoustic metamaterials, specifically, are even more novel than their electromagnetic counterparts arising only in the latter half of the decade. Acoustic metamaterials provide a new tool in controlling the propagation of pressure waves. However, physical design and frequency tuning, is still a large obstacle when creating a new acoustic metamaterial. This dissertation describes active and programmable design for acoustic metamaterials which allows the same basic physical design principles to be used for a variety of application. With cloaking technology being of a great interest to the US Navy, the proposed design approach would enable the development of a metamaterial with spatially changing effective parameters while retaining a uniform physical design features. The effective parameters would be controlled by tuning smart actuators embedded inside the metamaterial structure. Since this design is based on dynamic effective parameters that can be electrically controlled, material property ranges of several orders of magnitude could potentially be achieved without changing any physical parameters. With such unique capabilities, physically realizable acoustic cloaks can be achieved and objects treated with these active metamaterials can become acoustically invisible.

  18. Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for Metamaterial Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    transformation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Block Copolymers, Chiral Metamaterials, Gyroids, Nanotechnology, Nanoporous Materials , Networks...Chiral Metamaterials, Gyroids, Nanotechnology, Nanoporous Materials , Networks 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as... nanoporous materials for templating, in particular with network morphologies, as templates could be developed. BCPs comprising chiral entities were

  19. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-08-12

    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  20. Investigation of Thermal Management and Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    create a metasurface (a 2-D metamaterial). This metasurface could have variable electrical and thermal conductivity via switching (opening/closing) of...selected for AFIT’s first thermal metamaterial design. The first potential application of this metasurface includes use as a thin film (less