Olivier, Michel; Gagnon, Marc-Daniel; Habel, Joé
2016-01-01
When a laser is mode-locked, it emits a train of ultra-short pulses at a repetition rate determined by the laser cavity length. This article outlines a new and inexpensive procedure to force mode locking in a pre-adjusted nonlinear polarization rotation fiber laser. This procedure is based on the detection of a sudden change in the output polarization state when mode locking occurs. This change is used to command the alignment of the intra-cavity polarization controller in order to find mode-locking conditions. More specifically, the value of the first Stokes parameter varies when the angle of the polarization controller is swept and, moreover, it undergoes an abrupt variation when the laser enters the mode-locked state. Monitoring this abrupt variation provides a practical easy-to-detect signal that can be used to command the alignment of the polarization controller and drive the laser towards mode locking. This monitoring is achieved by feeding a small portion of the signal to a polarization analyzer measuring the first Stokes parameter. A sudden change in the read out of this parameter from the analyzer will occur when the laser enters the mode-locked state. At this moment, the required angle of the polarization controller is kept fixed. The alignment is completed. This procedure provides an alternate way to existing automating procedures that use equipment such as an optical spectrum analyzer, an RF spectrum analyzer, a photodiode connected to an electronic pulse-counter or a nonlinear detecting scheme based on two-photon absorption or second harmonic generation. It is suitable for lasers mode locked by nonlinear polarization rotation. It is relatively easy to implement, it requires inexpensive means, especially at a wavelength of 1550 nm, and it lowers the production and operation costs incurred in comparison to the above-mentioned techniques. PMID:26967924
Scalar-vector soliton fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation.
Wu, Zhichao; Liu, Deming; Fu, Songnian; Li, Lei; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Luming
2016-08-01
We report a passively mode-locked fiber laser by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), where both vector and scalar soliton can co-exist within the laser cavity. The mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is first demonstrated and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the operation regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the condition of very small birefringence. PMID:27505839
Scalar-vector soliton fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation.
Wu, Zhichao; Liu, Deming; Fu, Songnian; Li, Lei; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Luming
2016-08-01
We report a passively mode-locked fiber laser by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), where both vector and scalar soliton can co-exist within the laser cavity. The mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is first demonstrated and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the operation regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the condition of very small birefringence.
Quasiequilibrium nonlinearities in Faraday and Kerr rotation from spin-polarized carriers in GaAs
Joshua, Arjun; Venkataraman, V.
2010-01-04
Semiconductor Bloch equations (SBEs), which microscopically describe optical properties in terms of the dynamics of a Coulomb interacting, spin-unpolarized electron-hole plasma, can be solved in two limits: the coherent and the quasiequilibrium regimes. Recently, Nemec et al. reported circularly polarized pump-probe absorption spectra in the quasiequilibrium regime for carrier spin-polarized bulk GaAs at room temperature, which lacked a suitable microscopic theoretical understanding. We have very recently explained their results by solving the spin-SBEs in the quasiequilibrium regime (spin-Bethe-Salpeter equation), and accounted for spin-dependent mechanisms of optical nonlinearity. Here, we extend our theory to the microscopic calculation of Kerr and Faraday rotation in the quasiequilibrium regime, for which there are no experimental or theoretical results available.
Komarov, Andrey; Leblond, Herve; Sanchez, Francois
2005-12-15
The dynamics of a fiber laser passively mode-locked through nonlinear polarization rotation is theoretically investigated. The model is based on an iterative equation for the nonlinear polarization rotation and the phase plates and on a scalar differential equation for the gain, the Kerr nonlinearity, and the dispersion. It is demonstrated that depending on the orientation of the phase plates, the laser can be continuous, mode-locked, or Q-switched. In the latter case, an additional equation for the gain dynamics must be taken into account. Hysteresis dependence of the operating regime versus the orientation angles of the phase plates is shown. A large bistability domain between the Q-switch and the continuous regimes is demonstrated. This model allows us to obtain the main features observed in passively-mode-locked fiber lasers.
Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Sun, Wen Hui; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua
2014-05-01
We propose a novel approach to generating millimeter-wave (MMW) ultrawideband (UWB) signal based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The MMW UWB signal is background-free by eliminating the baseband frequency components using an optical filter. The proposed scheme is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The generated MMW UWB signal centered at 25.5 GHz has a 10-dB bandwidth of 7 GHz from 22 to 29 GHz, which fully satisfies the spectral mask regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
A Translational Polarization Rotator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah
2012-01-01
We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident liear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.
Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin
2014-03-10
We demonstrate the nanosecond-level pulses in Tm-doped fiber laser generated by passively harmonic mode-locking. Nonlinear polarization rotation performed by two polarization controllers (PCs) is employed to induce the self-starting harmonic mode-locking. The fundamental repetition rate of the laser is 448.8 kHz, decided by the length of the cavity. Bundles of pulses with up to 17 uniform subpulses are generated due to the split of pulse when the pump power increases and the PCs are adjusted. Continuous harmonic mode-locked pulse trains are obtained with 1st to 6th and even more than 15th order when the positions of the PCs are properly fixed and the pump power is scaled up. The widths of all the uniform individual pulses are mostly 3-5 ns, and pulse with width of 304 ns at fundamental repetition rate can also be generated by adjusting the PCs. Hysteresis phenomenon of the passively harmonic mode-locked pulses' repetition frequency versus pump power is observed. The rather wide 3dB spectral bandwidth of the pulse train (25 nm) indicates that they may resemble noise-like pulses. PMID:24663948
Yongjun, Wang; Qinghua, Tian; Zhi, Wang; Xiaoqing, Zhu; Chen, Wu; Chao, Shang; Xin, Xiangjun
2016-03-10
In this paper, we establish a simple model to analyze the semiconductor optical amplifier's (SOA) nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) and acquire the variable curves of phase difference between TE and TM modes with bias current, pump power, probe power, and linewidth enhancement factor (LEF). The results indicate that the optical switch based on the SOA's NPR can be realized by changing the pump's optical power and the main operating parameters, such as bias current and hold beam power, and then the pump power can be determined. On this basis, a time-space-time (T-S-T) optical packet switching node is proposed, in which the SOA's NPR switch is the basic element. Then, the T-S and S-T experimental systems are set up, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed switch scheme can implement the optical switching function in accordance with the routing requirement. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exceeds 20 dB, and the extinction ratio (ER) is more than 10 dB after being delayed and switched in the node.
Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang
2016-08-01
The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Xiaosheng; Hua, Yi
2016-10-01
All-normal-dispersion (ANDi) mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser is a promising seed source for supercontinuum (SC) generation, due to its compact structure and broadband output. The influences of output ports of the ANDi laser mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR), on the generated SC are investigated. Two output ports of ANDi laser are considered, one of which is the conventional nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) port and the other is extracted from a coupler after the NPR port. It is found that, the SC originated from the coupler port is much broader than that from the NPR port, which is validated by lots of experiments with different output parameters. Furthermore, the conclusion is verified and generalized to general ANDi lasers by numerical simulations, because the output pulse from coupler port could be cleaner than that from NPR port. Besides, there are no significant differences in the phase coherence and temporal stability between the SCs generated from both ports. Hence for the SC generation based on ANDi laser, it is preferred to use the pulse of coupler port (i.e. pulse after NPR port) serving as the seed source.
Developments in Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crescimanno, Michael; Andrews, James; Zhou, Chaunhong; Baker, Michael
2015-05-01
Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation (CPR) is a useful technique akin to Coherent Perfect Absorption (CPA, also known as the anti-laser) but that results in very high efficiency optical mode conversion. We describe the analysis of recent experimental data from our CPR testbed, the use of CPR in miniaturizing optical isolators and CPR phenomena in non-linear optics. Work supported by the N.S.F. under Grant No. ECCS-1360725.
Lin, Sheng-Fong; Lin, Gong-Ru
2014-09-01
With the combining effects of the fiber birefringence induced round-trip phase variation and the gain profile reshaping induced spectral filtering in the Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity, the mechanism corresponding to the central wavelength tunability of the EDFL passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation is explored. Bending the intracavity fiber induces the refractive index difference between orthogonal axes, which enables the dual-band central wavelength shift of 2.9 nm at 1570 nm region and up to 10.2 nm at 1600 nm region. The difference between the wavelength shifts at two bands is attributed to the gain dispersion decided by the gain spectral curvature of the EDFA, and the spacing between two switchable bands is provided by the birefringence induced variation on phase delay which causes transmittance variation. In addition, the central wavelength shift can also be controlled by varying the pumping geometry. At 1570 nm regime, an offset of up to 5.9 nm between the central wavelengths obtained under solely forward or backward pumping condition is observed, whereas the bidirectional pumping scheme effectively compensates the gain spectral reshaping effects to minimize the central wavelength shift. In contrast, the wavelength offset shrinks to only 1.1 nm when mode-locking at 1600 nm under single-sided pumping, as the gain profile strongly depends on the spatial distribution of the excited erbium ions under different pumping schemes. Except the birefringence variation and the gain spectral filtering phenomena, the gain-saturation mechanism induced refractive index change and its influence to the dual-band central wavelength tunability are also observed and analyzed.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and CMB polarization
Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera; Lambiase, G. E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it
2011-03-01
Recently WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments have set stringent constraints on the polarization angle of photons propagating in an expanding universe: Δα = (−2.4±1.9)°. The polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) is reviewed in the context of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED). We compute the polarization angle of photons propagating in a cosmological background with planar symmetry. For this purpose, we use the Pagels-Tomboulis (PT) Lagrangian density describing NLED, which has the form L ∼ (X/Λ{sup 4}){sup δ−1} X, where X = ¼F{sub αβ}F{sup αβ}, and δ the parameter featuring the non-Maxwellian character of the PT nonlinear description of the electromagnetic interaction. After looking at the polarization components in the plane orthogonal to the (x)-direction of propagation of the CMB photons, the polarization angle is defined in terms of the eccentricity of the universe, a geometrical property whose evolution on cosmic time (from the last scattering surface to the present) is constrained by the strength of magnetic fields over extragalactic distances.
Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Kukarin, Sergey; Ivanenko, Aleksey
2012-11-19
We show experimentally and numerically new transient lasing regime between stable single-pulse generation and noise-like generation. We characterize qualitatively all three regimes of single pulse generation per round-trip of all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers mode-locked due to effect of nonlinear polarization evolution. We study spectral and temporal features of pulses produced in all three regimes as well as compressibility of such pulses. Simple criteria are proposed to identify lasing regime in experiment. PMID:23187603
Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Kukarin, Sergey; Ivanenko, Aleksey
2012-11-19
We show experimentally and numerically new transient lasing regime between stable single-pulse generation and noise-like generation. We characterize qualitatively all three regimes of single pulse generation per round-trip of all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers mode-locked due to effect of nonlinear polarization evolution. We study spectral and temporal features of pulses produced in all three regimes as well as compressibility of such pulses. Simple criteria are proposed to identify lasing regime in experiment.
Rotating polarizer and rotating retarder plate polarimeters: comparison of performances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelizzari, Stefano; Rovati, Luigi; De Angelis, C.
2001-05-01
Rotating polarizer and rotating retarder plate polarimeters are widely used in high-resolution polarimetry, for example in remote sensing, fiber optic measurements and biomedics; as a consequence the analysis of the performances of these devices is very important from the instrumental point of view. To compare the two methods, we developed a synchronous polarimeter based on a mechanically rotating stage, where a rotating Glan-Thompson linear polarizer or a wave retarder can be easily mounted. A specific design allows to acquire synchronously the intensity signals digitally process the data to extract the polarization Stokes parameters. We investigate the two cases along with their impact on measurement techniques. Performance curves are shown for various polarization input parameters and light levels. Specifically, we address issues concerning the accuracy and the systematic and statistical measuring errors. Moreover, computer simulations and measurement results are presented and discussed.
Reducing parametric backscattering by polarization rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barth, Ido; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2016-10-01
When a laser passes through underdense plasmas, Raman and Brillouin Backscattering can reflect a substantial portion of the incident laser energy. This is a major loss mechanism, for example, in employing lasers in inertial confinement fusion. However, by slow rotation of the incident linear polarization, the overall reflectivity can be reduced significantly. Particle in cell simulations show that, for parameters similar to those of indirect drive fusion experiments, polarization rotation reduces the reflectivity by a factor of 5. A general, fluid-model based analytical estimation for the reflectivity reduction agrees with simulations. However, in identifying the source of the backscatter reduction, it is difficult to disentangle the rotating polarization from the frequency separation based approach used to engineer the beam's polarization. Although the backscatter reduction arises similarly to other approaches that employ frequency separation, in the case here, the intensity remains constant in time.
Polarization renormalization due to nonlinear optical generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wynne, J. J.
1984-02-01
A classical Maxwellian analysis of the reduction of multiphoton excitation associated with the coherent third-harmonic generation of electromagnetic waves propagating in nonlinear media is presented. The approach of Bloembergen and Pershan (1962) is followed, making no use of quantum-mechanical description and considering the total electric polarization (the sum of the medium's linear response and the nonlinear source polarization) at the generated frequency. It is demonstrated that this method successfully explains the experimental results of Aron and Johnson (1977), Miller et al. (1980), Glownia and Sander (1982), and Faisal et al. (1977) by analyzing the relationship of the total and nonlinear polarization components.
Electrically rotating suspended films of polar liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirsavar, R.; Amjadi, A.; Tonddast-Navaei, A.; Ejtehadi, M. R.
2011-02-01
Controlled rotation of a suspended soap water film, simply generated by applying an electric field, has been reported recently. The film rotates when the applied electric field exceeds a certain threshold. In this study, we investigate the phenomenon in films made of a number of other liquids with various physical and chemical properties. Our measurements show that the intrinsic electrical dipole moments of the liquid molecules seems to be vital for the corresponding film rotation. All the investigated rotating liquids have a molecular electric dipole moment of above 1 Debye, while weakly polar liquids do not rotate. However, the liquids investigated here cover a wide range of physical parameters (e.g. viscosity, density, conductivity, etc.). So far, no significant correlation has been observed between the electric field thresholds and macroscopic properties of the liquids.
Rotating black string with nonlinear source
Hendi, S. H.
2010-09-15
In this paper, we derive rotating black string solutions in the presence of two kinds of nonlinear electromagnetic fields, so-called Born-Infeld and power Maxwell invariant. Investigation of the solutions show that for the Born-Infeld black string the singularity is timelike and the asymptotic behavior of the solutions is anti-de Sitter, but for power Maxwell invariant solutions, depending on the values of nonlinearity parameter, the singularity may be timelike as well as spacelike and the solutions are not asymptotically anti-de Sitter for all values of the nonlinearity parameter. Next, we calculate the conserved quantities of the solutions by using the counterterm method, and find that these quantities do not depend on the nonlinearity parameter. We also compute the entropy, temperature, the angular velocity, the electric charge, and the electric potential of the solutions, in which the conserved and thermodynamics quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.
Polarization Properties of Rotation Powered Pulsars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harding Alice K.
2009-01-01
Polarization measurements of rotation-powered pulsars and their nebulae have unique diagnostic potential. The polarization position angle of the pulsar wind nebula, as is know for the Crab pulsar, can tell us the orientation of the spin axis. Phase-resolved polarimetry of pulsars has had enormous diagnostic capability at radio and optical wavelengths and could also be a powerful diagnostic in the X-ray range. Measurement of the polarization properties as a function of pulse phase can therefore provide a multidimensional mapping of the pulsar emission. In the 'rotating vector' model, radiation originating near a magnetic pole is expected to show a characteristic S-shaped swing of the position angle vs. pulse phase. In this case it is possible to determine the magnetic inclination and viewing angles. Radiation originating further from the poles or further above the neutron star surface will have a more complex polarization signature, as a result of relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and may also cause depolarization of the signal. I will discuss predicted polarization properties of pulsed emission in polar cap models, where radiation originates near the neutron star surface at the magnetic poles, and in slot gap and outer gap models, where radiation originates over a range of altitudes out to the speed-of-light cylinder.
Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift
Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu
2014-08-15
A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.
Nonlinear dynamics of a rotating double pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiti, Soumyabrata; Roy, Jyotirmoy; Mallik, Asok K.; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.
2016-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics of a double pendulum rotating at a constant speed about a vertical axis passing through the top hinge is investigated. Transitions of oscillations from chaotic to quasiperiodic and back to chaotic again are observed with increasing speed of rotation. With increasing speed, a pair of new stable equilibrium states, different from the normal vertical one, appear and the quasiperiodic oscillations occur. These oscillations are first centered around the origin, but with increasing rotation speed they cover the origin and the new fixed points. At a still higher speed, more than one pair of fixed points appear and the oscillation again turns chaotic. The onset of chaos is explained in terms of internal resonance. Analytical and numerical results confirm the critical values of the speed parameter at various transitions.
Reichert, Matthew; Zhao, Peng; Reed, Jennifer M; Ensley, Trenton R; Hagan, David J; Van Stryland, Eric W
2015-08-24
A polarization-resolved beam deflection technique is used to separate the bound-electronic and molecular rotational components of nonlinear refractive transients of molecular gases. Coherent rotational revivals from N(2), O(2), and two isotopologues of carbon disulfide (CS(2)), are identified in gaseous mixtures. Dephasing rates, rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of each species are measured. Polarization at the magic angle allows unambiguous measurement of the bound-electronic nonlinear refractive index of air and second hyperpolarizability of CS(2). Agreement between gas and liquid phase second hyperpolarizability measurements is found using the Lorentz-Lorenz local field correction.
Polarization dynamics in nonlinear anisotropic fibers
Komarov, Andrey; Komarov, Konstantin; Meshcheriakov, Dmitry; Amrani, Foued; Sanchez, Francois
2010-07-15
We give an extensive study of polarization dynamics in anisotropic fibers exhibiting a third-order index nonlinearity. The study is performed in the framework of the Stokes parameters with the help of the Poincare sphere. Stationary states are determined, and their stability is investigated. The number of fixed points and their stability depend on the respective magnitude of the linear and nonlinear birefringence. A conservation relation analogous to the energy conservation in mechanics allows evidencing a close analogy between the movement of the polarization in the Poincare sphere and the motion of a particle in a potential well. Two distinct potentials are found, leading to the existence of two families of solutions, according to the sign of the total energy of the equivalent mechanical system. The mechanical analogy allows us to fully characterize the solutions and also to determine analytically the associated beat lengths. General analytical solutions are given for the two families in terms of Jacobi's functions. The intensity-dependent transmission of a fiber placed between two crossed polarizers is calculated. Optimal conditions for efficient nonlinear switching compatible with mode-locking applications are determined. The general case of a nonlinear fiber ring with an intracavity polarizer placed between two polarization controllers is also considered.
A nonlinear model for rotating cool stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Sydney A.
2011-08-01
A simple nonlinear model is introduced here to describe the rotational evolution of main sequence cool (FGKM) stars. It is formulated only in terms of the ratio of a star's rotation period, P, to its convective turnover timescale, τ, and two dimensionless constants which are specified using solar- and open cluster data. The model explains the origin of the two sequences, C/fast and I/slow, of rotating stars observed in open cluster color-period diagrams, and describes their evolution from C-type to I-type through the rotational gap, g, separating them. It explains why intermediate-mass open cluster stars have the longest periods, while higher- and lower-mass cool stars have shorter periods. It provides an exact expression for the age of a rotating cool star in terms of P and τ, thereby generalizing gyrochronology. The possible range of initial periods is shown to contribute upto 128 Myr to the gyro age errors of solar mass field stars. A transformation to color-period space shows how this model explains some detailed features in the color-period diagrams of open clusters, including the shapes and widths of the sequences, and the observed number density of stars across these diagrams.
Analytical periodic motions in a parametrically excited, nonlinear rotating blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, F.; Luo, A. C. J.
2013-09-01
The stability and bifurcation analyses of periodic motions in a rotating blade subject to a torsional excitation are investigated. For high speed rotations, cubic geometric nonlinearity and gyroscopic effects of the rotating blade are considered. From the Galerkin method, the partial differential equation of the nonlinear rotating blade is simplified to the ordinary differential equations, and periodic motions and stability of the rotating blade are studied by the generalized harmonic balance method. The analytical and numerical results of periodic solutions are compared. The rich dynamics and co-existing periodic solutions of the nonlinear rotating blades are investigated.
Ultra-thin, single-layer polarization rotator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, T. V.; Truong, V. V.; Do, P. A.; Haché, A.
2016-08-01
We demonstrate light polarization control over a broad spectral range by a uniform layer of vanadium dioxide as it undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal. Changes in refractive indices create unequal phase shifts on s- and p-polarization components of incident light, and rotation of linear polarization shows intensity modulation by a factor of 103 when transmitted through polarizers. This makes possible polarization rotation devices as thin as 50 nm that would be activated thermally, optically or electrically.
Polarization-Rotating Sensors Connected To Optical Fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frazer, Robert E.
1992-01-01
Proposed optoelectronic sensor system includes polarization-rotating sensing elements interrogated by polarized light transmitted to and from sensing elements along optical fibers. Polarization of light altered by combinations of inherent birefringence, stress-induced birefrigence, and Faraday rotation. Advantages include: light weight, fast response, immunity to electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, and no need to supply electrical power to sensing elements.
Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation on the narrow strontium intercombination line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, K.; Kwong, C. C.; Pramod, M. S.; Wilkowski, D.
2016-05-01
In the presence of an external static magnetic field, an atomic gas becomes optically active, showing magneto-optical rotation. In the saturated regime, the coherences among the excited substates give a nonlinear contribution to the rotation of the light polarization. In contrast with the linear magneto-optical rotation, the nonlinear counterpart is insensitive to Doppler broadening. By varying the temperature of a cold strontium gas, we observe both regimes by driving the J =0 →J =1 transition on the intercombination line. For this narrow transition, the sensitivity to the static magnetic field is typically three orders of magnitude larger than for a standard broad alkali-metal transition.
Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms.
Sacher, Wesley D; Barwicz, Tymon; Taylor, Benjamin J F; Poon, Joyce K S
2014-02-24
We demonstrate various silicon-on-insulator polarization management structures based on a polarization rotator-splitter that uses a bi-level taper TM0-TE1 mode converter. The designs are fully compatible with standard active silicon photonics platforms with no new levels required and were implemented in the IME baseline and IME-OpSIS silicon photonics processes. We demonstrate a polarization rotator-splitter with polarization crosstalk < -13 dB over a bandwidth of 50 nm. Then, we improve the crosstalk to < -22 dB over a bandwidth of 80 nm by integrating the polarization rotator-splitter with directional coupler polarization filters. Finally, we demonstrate a polarization controller by integrating the polarization rotator-splitters with directional couplers, thermal tuners, and PIN diode phase shifters. PMID:24663698
Edge localized mode rotation and the nonlinear dynamics of filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, J. A.; Bécoulet, M.; Garbet, X.; Orain, F.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Hoelzl, M.; Pamela, S.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Cahyna, P.; Fil, A.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.
2016-04-01
Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) rotating precursors were reported few milliseconds before an ELM crash in several tokamak experiments. Also, the reversal of the filaments rotation at the ELM crash is commonly observed. In this article, we present a mathematical model that reproduces the rotation of the ELM precursors as well as the reversal of the filaments rotation at the ELM crash. Linear ballooning theory is used to establish a formula estimating the rotation velocity of ELM precursors. The linear study together with nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations give an explanation to the rotations observed experimentally. Unstable ballooning modes, localized at the pedestal, grow and rotate in the electron diamagnetic direction in the laboratory reference frame. Approaching the ELM crash, this rotation decreases corresponding to the moment when the magnetic reconnection occurs. During the highly nonlinear ELM crash, the ELM filaments are cut from the main plasma due to the strong sheared mean flow that is nonlinearly generated via the Maxwell stress tensor.
Ultra-compact photonic crystal based polarization rotator.
Bayat, Khadijeh; Chaudhuri, Sujeet K; Safavi-Naeini, Safieddin
2009-04-27
An asymmetrically loaded photonic crystal based polarization rotator has been introduced, designed and simulated. The polarization rotator structure consists of a single defect line photonic crystal slab waveguide with asymmetrically etched upper layer. To continue the rotation from a given input polarization to the desired output polarization the upper layer is alternated on either side of the defect line, periodically. Coupled mode theory based on semi-vectorial modes and plane wave expansion methods are employed to design the polarization rotator structure around a particular frequency band of interest. The 3D-FDTD simulation results agree with the coupled mode analysis around the region of interest specified during the design. Complete polarization rotation is achieved over the propagation length of 12lambda. For this length, the coupling efficiency higher than 90% is achieved within the normalized frequency band of 0.258-0.262.
Freely-tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Ru-Wen; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu
It is known that commercially-available terahertz (THz) emitters usually generate linearly polarized waves only along certain directions, but in practice, a polarization rotator that is capable of rotating the polarization of THz waves to any direction is particularly desirable and it will have various important applications. In this work, we demonstrate a freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband THz waves using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized THz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. The device performance has been experimentally demonstrated by both THz transmission spectra and direct imaging. The polarization rotation originates from multi wave interference in the three-layer grating structure based on the scattering-matrix analysis. We can expect that this active broadband polarization rotator has wide applications in analytical chemistry, biology, communication technology, imaging, etc.. Reference: R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and Mu Wang, Advanced Materials 27,1201(2015). Freely-tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.
Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization
Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.
1975-09-01
An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation. (auth)
Laser scanning by rotating polarization gratings.
Zhou, Yuan; Fan, Dapeng; Fan, Shixun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Guangcan
2016-07-01
Laser beam scanning can be realized using two independently rotating, inline polarization gratings, termed Risley gratings, in a fashion similar to Risley prisms. The analytical formulas of pointing position as well as their inverse solutions are described. On this basis, the beam scanning is investigated and the performance of scanning imaging is evaluated. It is shown that the scanning function in 1D scanning evolves from a sinusoidal to triangular scan and the duty cycle increases rapidly as the ratio of grating period to wavelength is reduced toward 2. The scan pattern in 2D scanning is determined by the ratio k of the gratings' rotatory frequency. In imaging applications, when k tends toward 1 or -1, the scan pattern becomes dense and is inclined to be spiral or rose-like, respectively, which is desirable for the purpose of enhancing spatial resolution. There is a direct trade-off between spatial resolution and frame rate. The spiral and rose scanning enable multiresolution imaging, providing a preview of the scanned area in a fraction of the overall scan time, which is extremely useful for fast, real-time imaging applications. PMID:27409203
Measurement of Small Optical Polarization Rotations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2009-01-01
When data with and without an optically active sample are acquired simultaneously while one manually rotates the analyser, the graph of the first signal versus the second one is an ellipse whose shape shows the phase shift between the two signals; this shift is twice the optical rotation. There is no need to measure the rotation of the analyser or…
Nonlinear, dispersive, elliptically polarized Alfven wavaes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennel, C. F.; Buti, B.; Hada, T.; Pellat, R.
1988-01-01
The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation is derived by an efficient means that employs Lagrangian variables. An expression for the stationary wave solutions of the DNLS that contains vanishing and nonvanishing and modulated and nonmodulated boundary conditions as subcases is then obtained. The solitary wave solutions for elliptically polarized quasiparallel Alfven waves in the magnetohydrodynamic limit (nonvanishing, unmodulated boundary conditions) are obtained. These converge to the Korteweg-de Vries and the modified Korteweg-de Vries solitons obtained previously for oblique propagation, but are more general. It is shown that there are no envelope solitary waves if the point at infinity is unstable to the modulational instability. The periodic solutions of the DNLS are characterized.
Polarization rotation under two-photon Raman resonance for magnetometry
Pradhan, S.; Behera, R.; Das, A. K.
2012-04-23
The polarization rotation and coherent population trapping signal arising due to two photon process using linearly polarized light are found to be significantly enhanced for a Zeeman degenerate system. The zero crossing of the dispersive profile is found to be shifting proportional to the applied magnetic field, albeit the absorptive profile position remains invariant for a slightly imbalanced orthogonal circular polarization component. It provides an alternative method for precise measurement of vector magnetic field without requirement of a bias field. The use of polarization rotation signal for magnetic field measurement offers added advantage due to improved signal to noise ratio.
In-line rotation sensor based on VCSEL behavior under polarization-rotating optical feedback.
Ura, Shogo; Shoda, Shinichiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro
2011-11-21
Lasing behavior of a single-transverse-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was observed while the polarization direction of an optical feedback was rotated. Optical powers of two polarization modes of a VCSEL showed sinusoidal dependences on the polarization-rotation angle. The power variation was seen when an optical feedback ratio was larger than -20 dB, though the variation depth dropped suddenly as the feedback ratio became smaller than -25 dB. An in-line type rotation sensor utilizing this behavior is proposed. The sensor system was constructed and the detection principle was demonstrated.
Cosmic polarization rotation: An astrophysical test of fundamental physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Serego Alighieri, Sperello
2015-02-01
Possible violations of fundamental physical principles, e.g. the Einstein equivalence principle on which all metric theories of gravity are based, including general relativity (GR), would lead to a rotation of the plane of polarization for linearly polarized radiation traveling over cosmological distances, the so-called cosmic polarization rotation (CPR). We review here the astrophysical tests which have been carried out so far to check if CPR exists. These are using the radio and ultraviolet polarization of radio galaxies and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (both E-mode and B-mode). These tests so far have been negative, leading to upper limits of the order of one degree on any CPR angle, thereby increasing our confidence in those physical principles, including GR. We also discuss future prospects in detecting CPR or improving the constraints on it.
Nonlinear flap-lag axial equations of a rotating beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaza, K. R. V.; Kvaternik, R. G.
1977-01-01
It is possible to identify essentially four approaches by which analysts have established either the linear or nonlinear governing equations of motion for a particular problem related to the dynamics of rotating elastic bodies. The approaches include the effective applied load artifice in combination with a variational principle and the use of Newton's second law, written as D'Alembert's principle, applied to the deformed configuration. A third approach is a variational method in which nonlinear strain-displacement relations and a first-degree displacement field are used. The method introduced by Vigneron (1975) for deriving the linear flap-lag equations of a rotating beam constitutes the fourth approach. The reported investigation shows that all four approaches make use of the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity. An alternative method for deriving the nonlinear coupled flap-lag-axial equations of motion is also discussed.
Dynamics of elastic nonlinear rotating composite beams with embedded actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghorashi, Mehrdaad
2009-08-01
A comprehensive study of the nonlinear dynamics of composite beams is presented. The study consists of static and dynamic solutions with and without active elements. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Numerical solutions for the steady state and transient responses have been obtained. It is shown that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. The effect of perturbing the steady state solution has also been calculated and the results are shown to be compatible with those of the accelerating beam analysis. Next, the coupled flap-lag rigid body dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and subjected to aerodynamic forces is formulated. The solution to this rigid-body problem is then used, together with the finite difference method, in order to produce the nonlinear elasto-dynamic solution of an accelerating articulated beam. Next, the static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded Anisotropic Piezo-composite Actuators (APA) are presented. The effect of activating actuators at various directions on the steady state force and moments generated in a rotating composite beam has been presented. With similar results for the transient response, this analysis can be used in controlling the response of adaptive rotating beams.
Spinor Bose-Einstein condensates of rotating polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Yi, S.
2015-09-01
We propose a scheme to realize a pseudospin-1 /2 model of the 1Σ (v =0 ) bialkali polar molecules with the spin states corresponding to two sublevels of the first excited rotational level. We show that the effective dipole-dipole interaction between two spin-1 /2 molecules couples the rotational and orbital angular momenta and is highly tunable via a microwave field. We also investigate the ground-state properties of a spin-1 /2 molecular condensate. A variety of nontrivial quantum phases, including the doubly quantized vortex states, are discovered. Our scheme can also be used to create spin-1 model of polar molecules. Thus we show that the ultracold gases of bialkali polar molecules provide a unique platform for studying the spinor condensates of rotating molecules.
El-Labany, S. K.; Moslem, W. M.; El-Awady, E. I.
2010-06-15
Theoretical and numerical studies are performed for nonlinear Langmuir structures (soliton and shock) in a rotating weakly relativistic electron-positron magnetoplasma with background stationary positive ions. For this purpose, the reductive perturbation technique is employed to the weakly relativistic hydrodynamical electrons/positrons fluid equations and Poisson equation, obtaining extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. The latter has been solved analytically. The features of the nonlinear excitations and their propagation conditions are investigated numerically. Our finding could elucidate the nonlinear electrostatic structures that propagate in astrophysical plasma situations where rotating, magnetized plasma can exist; such as polar cups region of pulsars, around active galactic nuclei, neutron stars, and white dwarfs.
Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Theory With Polarization Drift
L. Wang and T.S. Hahm
2010-03-25
A set of the electrostatic toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and the Poisson equation, which explicitly includes the polarization drift, is derived systematically by using Lie-transform method. The polarization drift is introduced in the gyrocenter equations of motion, and the corresponding polarization density is derived. Contrary to the wide-spread expectation, the inclusion of the polarization drift in the gyrocenter equations of motion does not affect the expression for the polarization density significantly. This is due to modification of the gyrocenter phase-space volume caused by the electrostatic potential [T. S. Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)] .
New constraints on anisotropic rotation of CMB polarization
Li, Mingzhe; Yu, Bo E-mail: yubo@pmo.ac.cn
2013-06-01
The coupling of a scalar field to electromagnetic field via the Chern-Simons term will rotate the polarization directions of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The rotation angle which relies on the distribution of the scalar field on the CMB sky is direction dependent. Such anisotropies will give rise to new distortions to the power spectra of CMB polarization and it can be used to probe the detailed physics of the scalar field. In this paper we use the updated observational data to constrain the anisotropic rotation angle in a model independent way. We find that the dominant effect of the anisotropic rotation on CMB comes from its variance and it is constrained tightly by the current data.
Polarization shaping for unidirectional rotational motion of molecules.
Karras, G; Ndong, M; Hertz, E; Sugny, D; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Faucher, O
2015-03-13
Control of the orientation of the angular momentum of linear molecules is demonstrated by means of laser polarization shaping. For this purpose, we combine two orthogonally polarized and partially time-overlapped femtosecond laser pulses so as to produce a spinning linear polarization which in turn induces unidirectional rotation of N2 molecules. The evolution of the rotational response is probed by a third laser beam that can be either linearly or circularly polarized. The physical observable is the frequency shift imparted to the probe beam as a manifestation of the angular Doppler effect. Our experimental results are confirmed by theoretical computations, which allow one to gain a deep physical insight into the laser-molecule interaction. PMID:25815926
Nonlinearity in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rothmayer, Mark; Dultz, Wolfgang; Frins, Erna; Zhan, Qiwen; Tierney, Dennis; Schmitzer, Heidrun
2007-10-01
Haidinger's brushes are an entoptic effect of the human visual system that enables us to detect polarized light. However, individual perceptions of Haidinger's brushes can vary significantly. We find that the birefringence of the cornea influences the rotational motion and the contrast of Haidinger's brushes and may offer an explanation for individual differences. We have devised an experimental setup to simulate various phase shifts of the cornea and found a switching effect in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes. In addition, age related macular degeneration reduces the polarization effect of the macula and thus also leads to changes in the brush pattern.
Modelling of Polarization Rotator of the Broadband Scanning Antenna Array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenikhin, A. I.; Semenikhina, D. V.; Yukhanov, Y. V.
2016-03-01
In the paper on the basis of the finite-element method an operation of broadband polarizer in an aperture of a scanning antenna array is analyzed in the frequency range 8 to 18 GHz. The effect of broadband four-grid 45° rotator of polarization on the characteristics of the linear array of parallel-plate waveguides (VSWR, gain, radiation pattern) in scan sector ±45° in E-plane is evaluated.
Switchable thulium-doped fiber laser from polarization rotation vector to scalar soliton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Jiang, Kai; Song, Jue; Li, Huizi; Tang, Ming; Shum, Ping; Liu, Deming
2016-10-01
We experimentally demonstrate switchable temporal soliton generation from a thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL), using carbon nanotubes as the mode-locker. With the help of residual polarization dependent loss of a wavelength division multiplexer, a weak nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect can be achieved within the laser cavity, which may provide joint contribution for passive mode-locking operation. By finely adjusting the polarization to alter the strength of NPR-based saturable absorption, the TDFL either approaches the operation regime of scalar soliton with strong NPR effect, or generates polarization rotation locked vector soliton (PRLVS) with weak NPR effect. The scalar solitons and PRLVSs possess 3-dB optical spectrum bandwidth of 2.2 nm and 2 nm, pulse-width of 1.8 ps and 2 ps, respectively. Moreover, the PRLVSs demonstrate a typical energy exchange between two polarized components on optical spectra and a period-doubling feature in time domain. Such operation principle can also be used in 1550 nm band fiber lasers and other nonlinear systems.
Switchable thulium-doped fiber laser from polarization rotation vector to scalar soliton
Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Jiang, Kai; Song, Jue; Li, Huizi; Tang, Ming; Shum, Ping; Liu, Deming
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate switchable temporal soliton generation from a thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL), using carbon nanotubes as the mode-locker. With the help of residual polarization dependent loss of a wavelength division multiplexer, a weak nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect can be achieved within the laser cavity, which may provide joint contribution for passive mode-locking operation. By finely adjusting the polarization to alter the strength of NPR-based saturable absorption, the TDFL either approaches the operation regime of scalar soliton with strong NPR effect, or generates polarization rotation locked vector soliton (PRLVS) with weak NPR effect. The scalar solitons and PRLVSs possess 3-dB optical spectrum bandwidth of 2.2 nm and 2 nm, pulse-width of 1.8 ps and 2 ps, respectively. Moreover, the PRLVSs demonstrate a typical energy exchange between two polarized components on optical spectra and a period-doubling feature in time domain. Such operation principle can also be used in 1550 nm band fiber lasers and other nonlinear systems. PMID:27708427
Coriolis effects on nonlinear oscillations of rotating cylinders and rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.
1976-01-01
The effects which moderately large deflections have on the frequency spectrum of rotating rings and cylinders are considered. To develop the requisite solution, a variationally constrained version of the Lindstedt-Poincare procedure is employed. Based on the solution developed, in addition to considering the effects of displacement induced nonlinearity, the role of Coriolis forces is also given special consideration.
Wigner rotations and Iwasawa decompositions in polarization optics.
Han, D; Kim, Y S; Noz, M E
1999-07-01
Wigner rotations and Iwasawa decompositions are manifestations of the internal space-time symmetries of massive and massless particles, respectively. It is shown to be possible to produce combinations of optical filters which exhibit transformations corresponding to Wigner rotations and Iwasawa decompositions. This is possible because the combined effects of rotation, phase-shift, and attenuation filters lead to transformation matrices of the six-parameter Lorentz group applicable to Jones vectors and Stokes parameters for polarized light waves. The symmetry transformations in special relativity lead to a set of experiments which can be performed in optics laboratories. PMID:11969850
Searching for Faraday rotation in cosmic microwave background polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz-Granados, B.; Battaner, E.; Florido, E.
2016-08-01
We use the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 9th-year foreground reduced data at 33, 41 and 61 GHz to derive a Faraday rotation at map and at angular power spectrum levels taking into account their observational errors. A processing mask provided by WMAP is used to avoid contamination from the disc of our Galaxy and local spurs. We have found a Faraday rotation component at both, map and power spectrum levels. The lack of correlation of the Faraday rotation with Galactic Faraday rotation, synchrotron and dust polarization from our Galaxy or with cosmic microwave background anisotropies or lensing suggests that it could be originated at reionization (ℓ ≲ 12). Even if the detected Faraday rotation signal is weak, the present study could contribute to establish magnetic fields strengths of B0 ˜ 10-8 G at reionization.
Zeno inhibition of polarization rotation in an optically active medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalo, Isabel; Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo
2015-07-01
We describe an experiment in which the rotation of the polarization of light propagating in an optically active water solution of D-fructose tends to be inhibited by frequent monitoring whether the polarization remains unchanged. This is an example of the Zeno effect that has remarkable pedagogical interest because of its conceptual simplicity, easy implementation, low cost, and because the same the Zeno effect holds at classical and quantum levels. An added value is the demonstration of the Zeno effect beyond typical idealized assumptions in a practical setting with real polarizers.
Nonlinear r-modes in rapidly rotating relativistic stars.
Stergioulas, N; Font, J A
2001-02-12
The r-mode instability in rotating relativistic stars has been shown recently to have important astrophysical implications, provided that r-modes are not saturated at low amplitudes by nonlinear effects or by dissipative mechanisms. Here, we present the first study of nonlinear r-modes in isentropic, rapidly rotating relativistic stars, via 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamical evolutions. We find that (1) on dynamical time scales, there is no strong nonlinear coupling of r-modes to other modes at amplitudes of order one-the maximum r-mode amplitude is of order unity. (2) r-modes and inertial modes in isentropic stars are predominantly discrete modes. (3) The kinematical drift associated with r-modes appears to be present in our simulations, but confirmation requires more precise initial data.
On the rotation of polarization by a gravitational lens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraoni, V.
1993-05-01
It is proved that the field of a gravitational lens induces no rotation in the polarization vector of electromagnetic radiation, in agreement with the previous literature, but with a different approach. The result is generalized to the case of less conventional gravitational lenses (static cosmic strings and gravitational waves).
Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1994-03-01
The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form.
Slowly rotating black holes with nonlinear electrodynamics in five dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Sepehri Rad, M.
2014-10-01
Employing linear order perturbation theory with the rotation parameter as the perturbative parameter, we obtain asymptotically AdS slowly rotating black hole solutions in the Einstein gravity with Born-Infeld (BI) type nonlinear electrodynamics (NED). We start from asymptotically AdS static black hole solutions coupled to BI type NED in five dimensions. Then, we consider the effect of adding a small amount of angular momenta to the seed solutions. Finally, we investigate the geometry and thermodynamic properties of the solutions.
Macroscopic rotation of photon polarization induced by a single spin.
Arnold, Christophe; Demory, Justin; Loo, Vivien; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Glazov, Mikhaïl; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loïc
2015-01-01
Entangling a single spin to the polarization of a single incoming photon, generated by an external source, would open new paradigms in quantum optics such as delayed-photon entanglement, deterministic logic gates or fault-tolerant quantum computing. These perspectives rely on the possibility that a single spin induces a macroscopic rotation of a photon polarization. Such polarization rotations induced by single spins were recently observed, yet limited to a few 10(-3) degrees due to poor spin-photon coupling. Here we report the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of the spin-photon interaction, using a cavity quantum electrodynamics device. A single hole spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is deterministically coupled to a micropillar cavity. The cavity-enhanced coupling between the incoming photons and the solid-state spin results in a polarization rotation by ± 6° when the spin is optically initialized in the up or down state. These results open the way towards a spin-based quantum network. PMID:25687134
Rotational polarities of sudden impulses in the magnetotail lobe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Lepping, R. P.
1992-01-01
A sudden impulse (SI) is a sudden change in the magnetic field strength which is caused by a change in the solar wind pressure and is observed throughout the magnetosphere. In this report we have examined the rotations of the magnetic field vectors at times of SIs in the magnetotail lobe, by using IMP 6, 7, and 8 magnetometer data. The following properties have been found: (1) at the time of SI the arrowhead of the magnetic vector tends to rotate in one plane; (2) the plane of rotation tends to include the unperturbed magnetic field vector; (3) the plane of rotation tends to be aligned with the radial direction from the magnetotail axis; and (4) the magnetic vectors have a particular rotational polarity: when the plane of rotation is viewed so that the Sun is to the right of the viewed plane and the magnetotail axis is to the bottom, the arrowhead of the vector tends to rotate counterclockwise in this plane. These magnetic vector properties are consistent with those expected when part of an increase in solar wind lateral pressure squeezes the magnetotail axisymmetrically while moving tailward.
Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quéré, F.; Vincenti, H.; Borot, A.; Monchocé, S.; Hammond, T. J.; Taec Kim, Kyung; Wheeler, J. A.; Zhang, Chunmei; Ruchon, T.; Auguste, T.; Hergott, J. F.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Lopez-Martens, R.
2014-06-01
This paper provides an overview of ultrafast wavefront rotation of femtosecond laser pulses and its various applications in highly nonlinear optics, focusing on processes that lead to the generation of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses. In this context, wavefront rotation can be exploited in different ways, to obtain new light sources for time-resolved studies, called ‘attosecond lighthouses’, to perform time-resolved measurements of nonlinear optical processes, using ‘photonic streaking’, or to track changes in the carrier-envelope relative phase of femtosecond laser pulses. The basic principles are explained qualitatively from different points of view, the experimental evidence obtained so far is summarized, and the perspectives opened by these effects are discussed.
Design of compact polarization rotator using simple silicon nanowires.
Soudi, S; Rahman, B M A
2014-12-01
In this paper, an ultracompact design of a polarization rotator (PR) based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is presented. The design contains two simple silicon nanowires but with unequal width, which will be easier to fabricate. It is shown here that a low-loss, wide-bandwidth, and 52.8-μm-long compact PR with polarization cross talk of -20 dB can be achieved. A full-vectorial finite element method and the least-squares boundary residual method are used to study the effects of the fabrication tolerances. This design shows reasonably stable performances.
Rotation-induced nonlinear wavepackets in internal waves
Whitfield, A. J. Johnson, E. R.
2014-05-15
The long time effect of weak rotation on an internal solitary wave is the decay into inertia-gravity waves and the eventual formation of a localised wavepacket. Here this initial value problem is considered within the context of the Ostrovsky, or the rotation-modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation and a numerical method for obtaining accurate wavepacket solutions is presented. The flow evolutions are described in the regimes of relatively-strong and relatively-weak rotational effects. When rotational effects are relatively strong a second-order soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation accurately predicts the shape, and phase and group velocities of the numerically determined wavepackets. It is suggested that these solitons may form from a local Benjamin-Feir instability in the inertia-gravity wave-train radiated when a KdV solitary wave rapidly adjusts to the presence of strong rotation. When rotational effects are relatively weak the initial KdV solitary wave remains coherent longer, decaying only slowly due to weak radiation and modulational instability is no longer relevant. Wavepacket solutions in this regime appear to consist of a modulated KdV soliton wavetrain propagating on a slowly varying background of finite extent.
Rotating Au nanorod and nanowire driven by circularly polarized light.
Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chen, Ying-Syuan; Kuo, Mao-Kuen
2014-10-20
The wavelength-dependent optical torques provided by a circularly polarized (CP) plane wave driving Au nanorod (NR) and nanowire (NW) to rotate constantly were studied theoretically. Using the multiple multipole method, the resultant torque in terms of Maxwell's stress tensor was analyzed. Numerical results show that the optical torque spectrum is in accordance with the absorption spectrum of Au NR/NW. Under the same fluence, the maximum optical torque occurs at the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au NR/NW, accompanied by a severe plasmonic heating. The rotation direction of the light-driven NR/NW depends on the handedness of CP light. In contrast, the optical torque exerted on Au NR/NW illuminated by a linearly polarized light is null at LSPR. Due to the plasmonic effect, the optical torque on Au NR/NW by CP light is two orders of magnitude larger than that on a dielectric NR/NW of the same size. The steady-state rotation of NR/NW in water, resulting from the balance of optical torque and viscous torque, was also discussed. Our finding shed some light on manipulating a CP light-driven Au NR/NW as a rotating nanomotor for a variety of applications in optofluidics and biophysics.
NON-ZEEMAN CIRCULAR POLARIZATION OF MOLECULAR ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL LINES
Houde, Martin; Jones, Scott; Rajabi, Fereshte; Hezareh, Talayeh
2013-02-10
We present measurements of circular polarization from rotational spectral lines of molecular species in Orion KL, most notably {sup 12}CO (J = 2 {yields} 1), obtained at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the Four-Stokes-Parameter Spectral Line Polarimeter. We find levels of polarization of up to 1%-2% in general; for {sup 12}CO (J = 2 {yields} 1) this level is comparable to that of linear polarization also measured for that line. We present a physical model based on resonant scattering in an attempt to explain our observations. We discuss how slight differences in scattering amplitudes for radiation polarized parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, responsible for the alignment of the scattering molecules, can lead to the observed circular polarization. We also show that the effect is proportional to the square of the magnitude of the plane of the sky component of the magnetic field and therefore opens up the possibility of measuring this parameter from circular polarization measurements of Zeeman insensitive molecules.
Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on metasurface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Yongtao; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Wenbo; Gong, Shuxi
2016-08-01
An ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on a metasurface is proposed in this paper. The unit cell of the proposed polarization rotator consists of two pairs of L-shaped metallic patches printed on a substrate, which is backed by a metallic ground and covered by a superstrate. The superstrate is composed of a dielectric layer and a pair of L-shaped metallic patches printed on the dielectric layer. The proposed polarization rotator can rotate the polarization of linearly polarized electromagnetic (EM) wave to its orthogonal counterpart after reflection when the incident EM wave is y-/x-polarized. Simulated results show that the polarization rotator can perform 90° polarization rotation with very high efficiency at seven different frequencies and achieve a polarization conversion ratio higher than 0.9 in the frequency range of 7.8-34.7 GHz at normal incidence. Good agreement between the experimental results and simulated ones has been obtained.
Adjustable Nonlinear Mechanism System for Wideband Energy Harvesting in Rotational Circumstances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Nakano, K.; Zheng, R.; Cartmell, M. P.
2016-09-01
Nonlinear energy harvesters have already been exhibited to draw energy from ambient vibration owing to their particular dynamic characteristics, and are feasible to desirable responses for broadband excitations of bistable and monostable systems. This study proposes an energy harvester for rotational applications, in which a cantilever beam pasted piezoelectric film and magnets with the same polarity are comprised as a nonlinear vibrating system. As the rotationally angular velocity gradually increases, the tensile stress to the cantilever beam is also self-adjusted with the increscent centrifugal force, causing the potential barriers of bistable type become shallow, so that the cantilever beam has the ability to maintain the high energy orbit motion from bistable hardening type to monostable hardening behavior. From the implemented results, the valid bandwidth of angular frequency can be improved from 26 rad/s - 132 rad/s to 15 rad/s - 215 rad/s, under the case of the effect of centrifugal force on nonlinear vibrating behavior. It demonstrates that the centrifugal force can significantly promote the performance of nonlinear energy harvesters.
Chaotic behavior in nonlinear polarization dynamics
David, D.; Holm, D.D.; Tratnik, M.V. )
1989-01-01
We analyze the problem of two counterpropagating optical laser beams in a slightly nonlinear medium from the point of view of Hamiltonian systems; the one-beam subproblem is also investigated as a special case. We are interested in these systems as integrable dynamical systems which undergo chaotic behavior under various types of perturbations. The phase space for the two-beam problem is C{sup 2} {times} C{sup 2} when we restricted the the regime of travelling-wave solutions. We use the method of reduction for Hamiltonian systems invariant under one-parameter symmetry groups to demonstrate that the phase space reduces to the two-sphere S{sup 2} and is therefore completely integrable. The phase portraits of the system are classified and we also determine the bifurcations that modify these portraits; some new degenerate bifurcations are presented in this context. Finally, we introduce various physically relevant perturbations and use the Melnikov method to prove that horseshoe chaos and Arnold diffusion occur as consequences of these perturbations. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Scattering line polarization in rotating, optically thick disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milić, I.; Faurobert, M.
2014-11-01
Context. To interpret observations of astrophysical disks, it is essential to understand the formation process of the emitted light. If the disk is optically thick, scattering dominated and permeated by a Keplerian velocity field, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer modeling must be done to compute the emergent spectrum from a given disk model. Aims: We investigate NLTE polarized line formation in different simple disk models and aim to demonstrate the importance of both radiative transfer effects and scattering, as well as the effects of velocity fields. Methods: We self-consistently solve the coupled equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium for a two-level atom model by means of Jacobi iteration. We use the short characteristics method of formal solution in two-dimensional axisymmetric media and compute scattering polarization, that is Q/I and U/I line profiles, using the reduced intensity formalism. We account for the presence of Keplerian velocity fields by casting the radiative transfer equation in the observer's frame. Results: Relatively simple (homogeneous and isothermal) disk models show complex intensity profiles that owe their shape to the interplay of multidimensional NLTE radiative transfer and the presence of rotation. The degree of scattering polarization is significantly influenced not only by the inclination of the disk with respect to observer, but also by the optical thickness of the disk and the presence of rotation. Stokes U/I shows double-lobed profiles with amplitude that increases with the disk rotation. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the line profiles, especially the polarized ones, emerging from gaseous disks differ significantly from the profiles predicted by simple approximations. Even in the case of the simple two-level atom model, we obtain line profiles that are diverse in shape, but typically symmetric in Stokes Q and antisymmetric in Stokes U. A clear indicator of disk rotation is
The role of rotation and polar-cap currents on pulsar radio emission and polarization
Kumar, D.; Gangadhara, R. T. E-mail: ganga@iiap.res.in
2013-06-01
Perturbations such as rotation and polar-cap current (PC-current) have been believed to greatly affect the pulsar radio emission and polarization. The two effects have not been considered simultaneously in the literature; each one of these has been considered separately, and a picture has been deduced by simply superposing them, but such an approach can lead to spurious results. Hence, by considering pulsar rotation and PC-current perturbations together instead of one at a time, we have developed a single particle curvature radiation model, which is expected to be much more realistic. By simulating a set of typical pulse profiles, we have made an attempt to explain most of the observational results of pulsar radio emission and polarization. The model predicts that due to the perturbations the leading side component can become either stronger or weaker than the corresponding trailing one in any given cone, depending on the passage of the sight line and modulation (nonuniform source distribution). Further, we find that the phase delay of the polarization angle inflection point with respect to the core component greatly depends on the viewing geometry. The correlation between the sign reversal of circular polarization and the polarization angle swing in the case of core-dominated pulsars becomes obscure once the perturbations and modulation become significant. However, the correlation between the negative circular polarization and the increasing polarization angle and vice versa is very clear in the case of conal-double pulsars. The 'kinky'-type distortions in polarization angle swing could be due to the incoherent superposition of modulated emission in the presence of strong perturbations.
Nonlinear dynamics near the stability margin in rotating pipe flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Z.; Leibovich, S.
1991-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of marginally unstable wave packets in rotating pipe flow is studied. These flows depend on two control parameters, which may be taken to be the axial Reynolds number R and a Rossby number, q. Marginal stability is realized on a curve in the (R, q)-plane, and the entire marginal stability boundary is explored. As the flow passes through any point on the marginal stability curve, it undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and the steady base flow is replaced by a traveling wave. The envelope of the wave system is governed by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The Ginzburg-Landau equation admits Stokes waves, which correspond to standing modulations of the linear traveling wavetrain, as well as traveling wave modulations of the linear wavetrain. Bands of wavenumbers are identified in which the nonlinear modulated waves are subject to a sideband instability.
Nonlinear stability of magnetic islands in a rotating helical plasma
Nishimura, S.; Toda, S.; Narushima, Y.; Yagi, M.
2012-12-15
Coexistence of the forced magnetic reconnection by a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) and the curvature-driven tearing mode is investigated in a helical (stellarator) plasma rotated by helical trapped particle-induced neoclassical flows. A set of Rutherford-type equations of rotating magnetic islands and a poloidal flow evolution equation is revisited. Using the model, analytical expressions of criteria of spontaneous shrinkage (self-healing) of magnetic islands and sudden growth of locked magnetic islands (penetration of RMP) are obtained, where nonlinear saturation states of islands show bifurcation structures and hysteresis characteristics. Considering radial profile of poloidal flows across magnetic islands, it is found that the self-healing is driven by neoclassical viscosity even in the absence of micro-turbulence-induced anomalous viscosity. Effects of unfavorable curvature in stellarators are found to modify the critical values. The scalings of criteria are consistent with low-{beta} experiments in the large helical device.
Polarization-selective optical nonlinearities in cold Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jin-Hui; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.
2015-12-01
We study the interaction between a probe and a trigger weak fields in a sample of cold rubidium atoms in the presence of a coupling and a dressing strong fields. Dipole Rydberg blockade may occur and can be set to depend on the probe and trigger polarizations giving rise to diverse regimes of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with a concomitant small probe and trigger absorption and dispersion. This is shown to be relevant to the implementation of polarization conditional probe and trigger cross nonlinearities in cold Rydberg atoms.
Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi
2015-11-15
We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light—incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes—and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method.
Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi
2015-11-01
We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light--incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes--and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method. PMID:26628116
Global bifurcations of a rotating pendulum with irrational nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Ning; Cao, Qingjie
2016-07-01
In this paper, the authors consider a rotating pendulum under nonlinear perturbation which allows us to study various kinds of bifurcations and limit cycles. This system exhibits smooth or discontinuous dynamics depending on the value of a mechanical parameter. It is shown that the perturbed smooth system undergoes a pitchfork bifurcation, a homo-heteroclinic orbits transition, a single Hopf bifurcation, a double Hopf bifurcation, a pair of homoclinic bifurcations, a Hopf-homoclinic bifurcation and two saddle-node bifurcation of periodic orbits. The number, position and stability of all the oscillating and rotational limit cycles are given as the parameters vary. We find five limit cycles in the smooth case due to two saddle-node bifurcation of periodic orbits existing. Unlike the smooth case, the perturbed discontinuous system has a homoclinic-like bifurcation and without any saddle-node bifurcation of periodic orbits. Additionally, some results obtained herein bear significant similarities to the codimension-two bifurcation of duffing oscillator and SD oscillator, which may be helpful to explore the codimension bifurcation of the cylindrical pendulum system with irrational nonlinearity.
Dispersion and polarization dependence of mobile carrier optical nonlinearities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rustagi, K. C.
1984-06-01
Based on the author's earlier work, it is shown that the proper inclusion of carrier scattering should strongly modify the frequency and polarization dependence of optical nonlinearities due to mobile carriers in semiconductors. When the momentum relaxation is much faster than the energy relaxation, the intensity dependent refractive index is enhanced, the induced birefringence becomes a sharp function of the difference frequency ωa-ωb, and a collision induced stimulated Raman effect becomes important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.
2006-01-01
The third Stokes parameter of ocean surface brightness temperatures measured by the WindSat instrument is sensitive to the rotation angle between the polarization vectors at the ocean surface and the instrument. This rotation angle depends on the spacecraft attitude (roll, pitch, yaw) as well as the Faraday rotation of the electromagnetic radiation passing through the Earth's ionosphere. Analyzing the WindSat antenna temperatures, we find biases in the third Stokes parameter as function of the along-scan position of up to 1.5 K in all feedhorns. This points to a misspecification of the reported spacecraft attitude. A single attitude correction of -0.16deg roll and 0.18deg pitch for the whole instrument eliminates all the biases. We also study the effect of Faraday rotation at 10.7 GHz on the accuracy of the third Stokes parameter and the sea surface wind direction retrieval and demonstrate how this error can be corrected using values from the International Reference Ionosphere for the total electron content when computing Faraday rotation.
All-optical polarization control and noise cleaning based on a nonlinear lossless polarizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barozzi, Matteo; Vannucci, Armando; Picchi, Giorgio
2015-01-01
We propose an all-optical fiber-based device able to accomplish both polarization control and OSNR enhancement of an amplitude modulated optical signal, affected by unpolarized additive white Gaussian noise, at the same time. The proposed noise cleaning device is made of a nonlinear lossless polarizer (NLP), that performs polarization control, followed by an ideal polarizing filter that removes the orthogonally polarized half of additive noise. The NLP transforms every input signal polarization into a unique, well defined output polarization (without any loss of signal energy) and its task is to impose a signal polarization aligned with the transparent eigenstate of the polarizing filter. In order to effectively control the polarization of the modulated signal, we show that two different NLP configurations (with counter- or co-propagating pump laser) are needed, as a function of the signal polarization coherence time. The NLP is designed so that polarization attraction is effective only on the "noiseless" (i.e., information-bearing) component of the signal and not on noise, that remains unpolarized at the NLP output. Hence, the proposed device is able to discriminate signal power (that is preserved) from in-band noise power (that is partly suppressed). Since signal repolarization is detrimental if applied to polarization-multiplexed formats, the noise cleaner application is limited here to "legacy" links, with 10 Gb/s OOK modulation, still representing the most common format in deployed networks. By employing the appropriate NLP configurations, we obtain an OSNR gain close to 3dB. Furthermore, we show how the achievable OSNR gain can be estimated theoretically.
Strong Rotation of an Erupting Quiescent Polar Crown Prominence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
On 5-6 June 2007, a large quiescent polar crown prominence was observed to erupt by the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This eruption was particularly visible in the 304 A channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) telescopes. A detailed analysis of the fine structures in the images allows the three-dimensional structure of the erupting prominence to be derived. The prominence is seen to undergo substantial rotation of at least 90 along the radial axis as it rises, with indications that additional rotation occurred before the prominence rose into the STEREO fields of view. Two temporary structures ("spurs") are seen to form at an angle to the main spine of the prominence, and are interpreted as signs of reconnection. These reconnection events contribute to the overall rotation of the prominence. A significant fraction of the prominence material is drained through new field lines caused by one of the reconnection events, resulting in only a weak coronal mass ejection event observed by the STEREO and SOHO coronagraphs. The eruption is interpreted as being initiated by the helical kink instability, with subsequent modification by the reconnection events.
Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation via Alignment-to-Orientation Conversion
Budker, D.; Kimball, D.F.; Rochester, S.M.; Yashchuk, V.V.
2000-03-10
Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) is investigated at highlight powers where the rotation is significantly modified by AC Stark shifts. These shifts are shown to change the overall sign of rotation for closed F-->F+1 transitions as light power is increased. The effect is demonstrated by measurements in rubidium and density matrix calculations. The results are important for applications of nonlinear optical rotation such as sensitive magnetometry.
RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Papadakis, I. E.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Liodakis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Das, H.; Khodade, P.; Kiehlmann, S.; King, O. G.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Modi, D.; Myserlis, I.; Paleologou, E.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Rajarshi, C.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.
2016-04-01
We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane in the jet rest frame; (4) it is likely that distributions of amplitudes and durations of the rotations have physical upper bounds, so arbitrarily long rotations are not realized in nature.
Laser Oscillator Incorporating a Wedged Polarization Rotator and a Porro Prism as Cavity Mirror
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Steven
2011-01-01
A laser cavity was designed and implemented by using a wedged polarization rotator and a Porro prism in order to reduce the parts count, and to improve the laser reliability. In this invention, a z-cut quartz polarization rotator is used to compensate the wavelength retardance introduced by the Porro prism. The polarization rotator rotates the polarization of the linear polarized beam with a designed angle that is independent of the orientation of the rotator. This unique property was used to combine the retardance compensation and a Risley prism to a single optical component: a wedged polarization rotator. This greatly simplifies the laser alignment procedure and reduces the number of the laser optical components.
Cavity-based high-efficiency and wideband 90° polarization rotator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jiang; Shen, Zhongxiang; Wu, Wen
2016-10-01
We present a high-efficiency wideband 90° polarization rotator based on 2D array of substrate integrated waveguide cavities etched with three twisted slots, which can rotate a horizontally polarized incident wave into an outgoing vertically polarized wave. The twisted slots etched on the surface of the cavity are utilized to couple the wave into and out of the cavity with the polarization direction rotated. As a proof-of-concept, a prototype of the proposed rotator is fabricated and measured in the microwave regime. The proposed 90° polarization rotator features a low insertion loss of about 0.5 dB in the pass band with a factional bandwidth of 28.6%, as well as high polarization rotation efficiency of over 90%.
Nonlinear Oscillations of Two-Dimensional, Rotating Inviscid Drops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patzek, T. W.; Basaran, O. A.; Benner, R. E.; Scriven, L. E.
1995-01-01
We examine the nonlinear response of a drop, rotating as a rigid body at fixed angular velocity, to two-dimensional finite-amplitude disturbances. With these restrictions, the liquid velocity becomes a superposition of the solid-body rotation and the gradient of a velocity potential. To find the drop motion, we solve an integro-differential Bernoulli's equation for the drop shape and Laplace's equation for the velocity potential field within the drop. The integral part of Bernoulli's equation couples all parts of the drop's surface and sets this problem apart from that of the oscillations of nonrotating drops. We use Galerkin's weighted residual method with finite element basis functions which are deployed on a mesh that deforms in proportion to the deformation of the free surface. To alleviate the roundoff error in the initial conditions of the drop motion, we use a Fourier filter which turns off as soon as the highest resolved oscillation mode grows above the machine noise level. The results include sequences of drop shapes, Fourier analysis of oscillation frequencies, and evolution in time of the components of total mechanical energy of the drop. The Fourier power spectral analysis of large-amplitude oscillations of the drop reveals frequency shifts similar to those of the nonrotating free drops. Constant drop volume, total energy, and angular momentum as well as vanishing mass flow across the drop surface are the standards of accuracy against which we test the nonlinear motion of the drop over tens or hundreds of oscillation periods. Finally, we demonstrate that our finite element method has superior stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency over several boundary element algorithms that have previously appeared in the literature.
Ma, Yangjin; Liu, Yang; Guan, Hang; Gazman, Alexander; Li, Qi; Ding, Ran; Li, Yunchu; Bergman, Keren; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael
2015-06-15
In integrated photonics, the design goal of a polarization splitter/rotator (PSR) has been separating the TE0 and TM0 modes in a waveguide. This is a natural choice. But in theory, a PSR only needs to project the incoming State Of Polarization (SOP) orthogonally to its output ports, using any orthogonal mode basis set in the fiber. In this article, we introduce a novel PSR design that alternatively takes the linear combination of TE0 and TM0 (TE0 +/- TM0) as orthogonal bases. By contrast, existing approaches exclusively use TE0 and TM0 as their basis set. The design is based on two symmetric and robust structures: a bi-layer taper and a Y-junction, and involves no bends. To prove the concept, we incorporated it into a four-channel polarization insensitive wavelength division multiplexing (PI-WDM) receiver fabricated in a standard CMOS Si photonics process. 40 Gb/s data rate and 0.7 +/- 0.2 dB polarization dependent loss (PDL) is demonstrated on each channel. Lastly, we propose an improved PSR design with 12 μm device length, < 0.1 dB PDL, < 0.4 dB insertion loss and < 0.05 dB wavelength dependence across C-band for both polarizations. Overall, our PSR design concept is simple, easy to realize and presents a new perspective for future PSR designs. PMID:26193579
Ma, Yangjin; Liu, Yang; Guan, Hang; Gazman, Alexander; Li, Qi; Ding, Ran; Li, Yunchu; Bergman, Keren; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael
2015-06-15
In integrated photonics, the design goal of a polarization splitter/rotator (PSR) has been separating the TE0 and TM0 modes in a waveguide. This is a natural choice. But in theory, a PSR only needs to project the incoming State Of Polarization (SOP) orthogonally to its output ports, using any orthogonal mode basis set in the fiber. In this article, we introduce a novel PSR design that alternatively takes the linear combination of TE0 and TM0 (TE0 +/- TM0) as orthogonal bases. By contrast, existing approaches exclusively use TE0 and TM0 as their basis set. The design is based on two symmetric and robust structures: a bi-layer taper and a Y-junction, and involves no bends. To prove the concept, we incorporated it into a four-channel polarization insensitive wavelength division multiplexing (PI-WDM) receiver fabricated in a standard CMOS Si photonics process. 40 Gb/s data rate and 0.7 +/- 0.2 dB polarization dependent loss (PDL) is demonstrated on each channel. Lastly, we propose an improved PSR design with 12 μm device length, < 0.1 dB PDL, < 0.4 dB insertion loss and < 0.05 dB wavelength dependence across C-band for both polarizations. Overall, our PSR design concept is simple, easy to realize and presents a new perspective for future PSR designs.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of rotating dilaton black branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Naeimipour, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.
2016-07-01
We construct a new class of rotating dilaton solutions in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics. These solutions represent black branes with flat horizon and contain k=[(n-1)/2] rotation parameters in n-dimensional spacetime where [ x] is the integer part of x. We study the causal structure of the spacetime and calculate thermodynamic and conserved quantities and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon, { dM}={ TdS}+{{{sum _{i=1}k}}}Ω id{J}i+{ Ud}{Q}. Then, we study geometrical approach towards thermodynamics by choosing an appropriate geometrical metric. We show that the singularity of the Ricci scalar coincides exactly with the phase transition points. We observe that our system encounters two types of phase transitions depending on the metric parameters. For the first one the heat capacity is zero and for the second one the heat capacity diverges. In the first kind of phase transition, the brane has a transition from an unstable non-physical to a stable physical state. In the second type of phase transition the brane moves from a stable to an unstable state. Finally, we comment on the dynamical stability of the obtained solutions under perturbations in four dimensions.
A Polarization Propagator for Nonlinear X-ray Spectroscopies.
Fahleson, Tobias; Ågren, Hans; Norman, Patrick
2016-06-01
A complex polarization propagator approach has been developed to third order and implemented in density functional theory (DFT), allowing for the direct calculation of nonlinear molecular properties in the X-ray wavelength regime without explicitly addressing the excited-state manifold. We demonstrate the utility of this propagator method for the modeling of coherent near-edge X-ray two-photon absorption using, as an example, DFT as the underlying electronic structure model. Results are compared with the corresponding near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra, illuminating the differences in the role of symmetry, localization, and correlation between the two spectroscopies. The ramifications of this new technique for nonlinear X-ray research are briefly discussed. PMID:27159130
Nonlinear Accelerator with Transverse Motion Integrable in Normalized Polar Coordinates
Nagaitsev, S.; Kharkov, Y.; Morozov, I.A.; Zolkin, T.V.; /Chicago U.
2012-05-01
Several families of nonlinear accelerator lattices with integrable transverse motion were suggested recently. One of the requirements for the existence of two analytic invariants is a special longitudinal coordinate dependence of fields. This paper presents the particle motion analysis when a problem becomes integrable in the normalized polar coordinates. This case is distinguished from the others: it yields an exact analytical solution and has a uniform longitudinal coordinate dependence of the fields (since the corresponding nonlinear potential is invariant under the transformation from the Cartesian to the normalized coordinates). A number of interesting features are revealed: while the frequency of radial oscillations is independent of the amplitude, the spread of angular frequencies in a beam is absolute. A corresponding spread of frequencies of oscillations in the Cartesian coordinates is evaluated via the simulation of transverse Schottky noise.
Use of four mirrors to rotate linear polarization but preserve input-output collinearity. II.
Galvez, E J; Koch, P M
1997-12-01
We report on the design, construction, and testing of a four-mirror reflective polarization rotator, proposed by Smith and Koch [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2102 (1996)], that rotates by an angle phi the input linear polarization while preserving the input-output beam collinearity. We correct errors in the previous work that led to an incorrect design for a phi = pi/2 rotator. This type of pure rotator is simple and inexpensive, and it is a direct application of the concept of the nonadiabatic geometric phase to polarization rotation. We also present measurements of the polarization rotation for the case of three metallic mirrors with antiparallel input and output beams, a test of geometric phase in polarization optics not done before.
Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping E-mail: weitou@gmail.com
2014-09-01
SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2 have recently measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization in various sky regions of several tens of square degrees and obtained BB power spectra in the multipole range 20-3000, detecting the components due to gravitational lensing and to inflationary gravitational waves. We analyze jointly the results of these three experiments and propose modifications to their analyses of the spectra to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and the inflationary gravitational wave components, and also the effects induced by the cosmic polarization rotation (CPR), if it exists within current upper limits. Although in principle our analysis would also lead to new constraints on CPR, in practice these can only be given on its fluctuations (δα{sup 2}), since constraints on its mean angle are inhibited by the derotation which is applied by current CMB polarization experiments, in order to cope with the insufficient calibration of the polarization angle. The combined data fits from all three experiments (with 29% CPR-SPTpol correlation, depending on the theoretical model) gives the constraint (δα{sup 2}){sup 1/2} < 27.3 mrad (1.°56), with r = 0.194 ± 0.033. These results show that the present data are consistent with no CPR detection and the constraint on CPR fluctuation is about 1.°5. This method of constraining the CPR is new, is complementary to previous tests, which use the radio and optical/UV polarization of radio galaxies and the CMB E-mode polarization, and adds a new constraint for the sky areas observed by SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafiei, Navvab; Kazemi, Mohammad; Ghadiri, Majid
2016-08-01
This study is concerned with the small-scale effect on the nonlinear flapwise bending vibration of rotating cantilever and propped cantilever nanobeams. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used to model the nanobeam with nonlinearity. Nonlinear strain-displacement relations are employed to account for geometric nonlinearity of the system. The axial forces are modeled as the true spatial and thermal variations due to the rotation. Hamilton's principle is used to derive the nonlinear governing equation and nonlocal nonlinear boundary conditions based on Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. Finally, the differential quadrature method is used in conjunction with the direct iterative method to derive the nonlinear vibration frequencies of the nanobeam. The effects of the angular velocity, nonlocal small-scale parameter, temperature change and nonlinear amplitude on nonlinear vibration of the rotary nanobeam are discussed. The results of this work can be used in nanosensors, nanomotors, nanoturbines and NEMS applications.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Rotating Multi-Component Pair Plasmas and e-p-i Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kourakis, Ioannis; Moslem, Waleed M.; Abdelsalam, Usama M.; Sabry, Refaat; Shukla, Padma Kant
The propagation of small amplitude stationary profile nonlinear electrostatic excitations in a pair plasma is investigated, mainly drawing inspiration from experiments on fullerene pair-ion plasmas. Two distinct pair ion species are considered of opposite polarity and same mass, in addition to a massive charged background species, which is assumed to be stationary, given the frequency scale of interest. In the pair-ion context, the third species is thought of as a background defect (e.g. charged dust) component. On the other hand, the model also applies formally to electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasmas, if one neglects electron-positron annihilation. A two-fluid plasma model is employed, incorporating both Lorentz and Coriolis forces, thus taking into account the interplay between the gyroscopic (Larmor) frequency ωc and the (intrinsic) plasma rotation frequency Ω0. By employing a multi-dimensional reductive perturbation technique, a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived for the evolution of the electric potential perturbation. Assuming an arbitrary direction of propagation, with respect to the magnetic field, we derive the exact form of nonlinear solutions, and study their characteristics. A parametric analysis is carried out, as regards the effect of the dusty plasma composition (background number density), species temperature(s) and the relative strength of rotation to Larmor frequencies. It is shown that the Larmor and mechanical rotation affect the pulse dynamics via a parallel-to-transverse mode coupling diffusion term, which in fact diverges at ωc → ±2Ω0. Pulses collapse at this limit, as nonlinearity fails to balance dispersion. The analysis is complemented by investigating critical plasma compositions, in fact near-symmetric (T- ≈ T+) “pure” (n- ≈ n+) pair plasmas, i.e. when the concentration of the 3rd background species is negligible, case in which the (quadratic) nonlinearity vanishes, so one needs to resort to higher order
Effect of Transverse Magnetic Fields on Cold-Atom Nonlinear Magneto-Optical Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, David; Kunz, Paul; Fatemi, Fredrik; Quraishi, Qudsia
2016-05-01
We investigate nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) in cold atoms in the presence of a transverse magnetic field where alignment-to-orientation conversion (AOC) dominates. The AOC mechanism, which relies on AC-Stark shifts generated by a strong, off-resonant probe beam, significantly alters the NMOR resonance. When an additional magnetic field is present, parallel to the electric field of the light, a nested feature within this NMOR resonance manifests. Unlike similar features observed with lower optical power in warm vapors, attributed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels, this feature is due solely to the AOC mechanism. Using numerical simulations, a perturbative solution, and experimental observations we characterize the feature with respect to optical power, optical polarization, magnetic field strength, and magnetic field direction. These results shed further light on the AOC mechanism common to NMOR-based experiments and we demonstrate a potential application to measure transverse DC magnetic fields and spatial gradients.
Rotational Inerfia of Continents: A Proposed Link between Polar Wandering and Plate Tectonics.
Kane, M F
1972-03-24
A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between continents and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate. PMID:17813830
Rotational inertia of continents: A proposed link between polar wandering and plate tectonics
Kane, M.F.
1972-01-01
A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between continents and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate.
Rotational Inerfia of Continents: A Proposed Link between Polar Wandering and Plate Tectonics.
Kane, M F
1972-03-24
A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between continents and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gasiewski, Albin J.
1992-01-01
This technique for electronically rotating the polarization basis of an orthogonal-linear polarization radiometer is based on the measurement of the first three feedhorn Stokes parameters, along with the subsequent transformation of this measured Stokes vector into a rotated coordinate frame. The technique requires an accurate measurement of the cross-correlation between the two orthogonal feedhorn modes, for which an innovative polarized calibration load was developed. The experimental portion of this investigation consisted of a proof of concept demonstration of the technique of electronic polarization basis rotation (EPBR) using a ground based 90-GHz dual orthogonal-linear polarization radiometer. Practical calibration algorithms for ground-, aircraft-, and space-based instruments were identified and tested. The theoretical effort consisted of radiative transfer modeling using the planar-stratified numerical model described in Gasiewski and Staelin (1990).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jingcheng; Cheng, Yongzhi
2016-10-01
In this paper, a high-efficiency and broadband reflective linear polarization rotator based on anisotropic metamaterial is proposed, which is verified by simulation and experiment. Simulated results indicate that our design can achieve 90° polarization rotation from 5.7 to 10.3 GHz with the relative bandwidth of 57.5 %, which is agreement well with experiment. The further simulated results indicate that our design can achieve linear polarization conversion or rotation by 90° under oblique incident angles with large range for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves. Finally, the amplitude and phase of reflective coefficients with different polarization, and surface current distribution of the unit cell structure are simulated to explain the physics mechanism of the high-efficiency and broadband polarization rotation. Our design will provide an important reference for the practical applications of the metamaterial in polarization manipulation.
Axial drive to nonlinear flow between rotating cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashrafi, Nariman; Hazbavi, Abbas
2014-02-01
Stability of pseudoplastic rotational flow between cylinders in presence of an independent axial component is investigated. The fluid is assumed to follow the Carreau model and mixed boundary conditions are imposed. The conservation of mass and momentum equations give rise to a four-dimensional low-order dynamical system, including additional nonlinear terms in the velocity components originated from the shear-dependent viscosity. In absence of the axial flow, as the pseudoplasticity effects increases, the purely-azimuthal base flow loses its stability to the vortex structure at a lower critical Taylor number. Emergence of the vortices corresponds to the onset of a supercritical bifurcation also present in the flow of a linear fluid. However, unlike the Newtonian case, pseudoplastic Taylor vortices lose their stability as the Taylor number reaches a second critical number corresponding to the onset of a Hopf bifurcation. Existence of an axial flow induced by a pressure gradient appears to further advance each critical point on the bifurcation diagram. In continuation, complete flow field together with viscosity maps is analyzed for different flow scenarios. Through evaluation of the Lyapunov exponent, flow stability and temporal behavior of the system for cases with and without axial flow are brought to attention.
Optical polarization plane rotation for the blazar PG 1553+113
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blinov, D.; Casadi, C.
2016-09-01
We report about RoboPol observations of the ongoing rotation of the optical polarization angle for the blazar PG 1553+113 (RA=15h55m43s; Dec=+11d11m24s). The rotation began around August, 19. So far the total amplitude of the rotation is ~130 degrees with an average rate of ~8 deg/day.
A near-transparent 90∘ polarization rotator with an array of L-shaped holes inside a glass cube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Yan; Lu, He-Ping
2016-07-01
We report a near-transparent 90∘ polarization rotator by using a single-layer microstructure. The co-polarization light has been suppressed by using destructive interference. At the same time, the transmission of cross-polarization light has been improved with inference effect between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and localized surface plasmons (LSPs). This efficient polarization rotation mechanism may be very useful in designing polarization rotators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pustelny, Szymon; Wojciechowski, Adam; Kotyrba, Mateusz; Sycz, Krystian; Zachorowski, Jerzy; Gawlik, Wojciech; Cingoz, Arman; Leefer, Nathan; Higbie, James M.; Corsini, Eric; Ledbetter, Micah P.; Rochester, Simon M.; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Budker, Dmitry
2007-03-01
We demonstrate a magnetometric technique based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation using amplitude modulated light. The magnetometers can be operated in either open-loop (typical nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with amplitude-modulated light) or closed-loop (self-oscillating) modes. The latter mode is particularly well suited for conditions where the magnetic field is changing by large amounts over a relatively short timescale.
Differential rotation of the unstable nonlinear r -modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, John L.; Lindblom, Lee; Lockitch, Keith H.
2016-01-01
At second order in perturbation theory, the r -modes of uniformly rotating stars include an axisymmetric part that can be identified with differential rotation of the background star. If one does not include radiation reaction, the differential rotation is constant in time and has been computed by Sá. It has a gauge dependence associated with the family of time-independent perturbations that add differential rotation to the unperturbed equilibrium star: For stars with a barotropic equation of state, one can add to the time-independent second-order solution arbitrary differential rotation that is stratified on cylinders (that is a function of distance ϖ to the axis of rotation). We show here that the gravitational radiation-reaction force that drives the r -mode instability removes this gauge freedom; the exponentially growing differential rotation of the unstable second-order r -mode is unique. We derive a general expression for this rotation law for Newtonian models and evaluate it explicitly for slowly rotating models with polytropic equations of state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsieh, Shang-Hsien
1993-01-01
The principal objective of this research is to develop, test, and implement coarse-grained, parallel-processing strategies for nonlinear dynamic simulations of practical structural problems. There are contributions to four main areas: finite element modeling and analysis of rotational dynamics, numerical algorithms for parallel nonlinear solutions, automatic partitioning techniques to effect load-balancing among processors, and an integrated parallel analysis system.
Nonlinear evolution of resistive wall mode in a cylindrical tokamak with poloidal rotation
Sato, M.; Nakajima, N.
2006-10-15
Nonlinear simulations of resistive wall modes (RWMs) with a Doppler shift dominant equilibrium poloidal rotation have been carried out by using reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations in a low beta cylindrical tokamak, where the core plasma is surrounded by a cold plasma with a high resistivity. When the equilibrium poloidal rotation frequency is small and the Doppler shift is predominant, the wall mode becomes unstable, which is one of the RWMs nearly locked to the resistive wall. Since the slowing down torque increases with equilibrium poloidal rotation frequency and the poloidal rotation decreases to almost zero near the plasma surface before the saturation, the nonlinear saturation level does not depend on either the equilibrium poloidal rotation frequency or the density of the cold plasma. When the equilibrium poloidal rotation frequency becomes larger than a critical value, the plasma mode rotating to the resistive wall becomes unstable. When the cold plasma has the same density as that in the core plasma, neither the centrifugal force nor the Coriolis force has any effect. In such a case, as the equilibrium poloidal rotation frequency increases, the magnetic flux is so hard to diffuse into the resistive wall that the slowing down torque decreases and the rotation tends to survive in the nonlinear phase, which makes the saturation level decrease.
Capillary compressor of femtosecond laser pulses with nonlinear rotation of polarisation ellipse
Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Kostryukov, P V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu
2012-03-31
The process of nonlinear rotation of the polarisation ellipse of laser radiation, occurring simultaneously with the broadening of the pulse spectrum due to nonlinear self-phase modulation in a gas-filled capillary, is studied. It is shown that the maximal rotation of the polarisation ellipse is experienced by the spectral components, shifted towards the short-wavelength side with respect to the central wavelength of the initial laser pulse. Using the effect of polarisation ellipse rotation, an eightfold increase in the energy contrast ratio of a 28-fs light pulse, obtained by compression of the radiation pulse from an ytterbium laser with the duration 290 fs, is implemented.
Progress Towards the Detection of Faraday Rotation on Spin Polarized 3He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abney, Joshua; Broering, Mark; Korsch, Wolfgang
2016-05-01
Off-resonance Faraday rotation can offer a method to measure the nuclear spin optical rotation of the 3 He nucleus and gain access to new information about the atomic polarizability of the Helium atom. The interaction of the polarization state of light with the nuclear spin of the helium atom is very weak and has never been detected. A sensitive triple modulation technique has been developed which can detect the expected rotation angle on the order of 100 nrad. Once a Faraday rotation signal is observed, the next step is to separate the magnetic and electric contributions to the rotation by utilizing their different frequency dependencies. Recent studies involved optimizing several parameters which impact 3 He target polarization. Progress towards detecting nuclear spin optical rotation on 3 He will be reported. This research is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER41101.
Multi-polarization quantum control of rotational motion through dipole coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turinici, Gabriel; Rabitz, Herschel
2010-03-01
In this work we analyze the quantum controllability of rotational motion under the influence of an external laser field coupled through a permanent dipole moment. The analysis takes into consideration up to three polarization fields, but we also discuss the consequences for working with fewer polarized fields.
Polar flagella rotation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus confers resistance to bacteriophage infection.
Zhang, Hui; Li, Lu; Zhao, Zhe; Peng, Daxin; Zhou, Xiaohui
2016-01-01
Bacteriophage has been recognized as a novel approach to treat bacterial infectious diseases. However, phage resistance may reduce the efficacy of phage therapy. Here, we described a mechanism of bacterial resistance to phage infections. In Gram-negative enteric pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, we found that polar flagella can reduce the phage infectivity. Deletion of polar flagella, but not the lateral flagella, can dramatically promote the adsorption of phage to the bacteria and enhances the phage infectivity to V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that polar flagella play an inhibitory role in the phage infection. Notably, it is the rotation, not the physical presence, of polar flagella that inhibits the phage infection of V. parahaemolyticus. Strikingly, phage dramatically reduces the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus only when polar flagella were absent both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that polar flagella rotation is a previously unidentified mechanism that confers bacteriophage resistance.
Polar flagella rotation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus confers resistance to bacteriophage infection
Zhang, Hui; Li, Lu; Zhao, Zhe; Peng, Daxin; Zhou, Xiaohui
2016-01-01
Bacteriophage has been recognized as a novel approach to treat bacterial infectious diseases. However, phage resistance may reduce the efficacy of phage therapy. Here, we described a mechanism of bacterial resistance to phage infections. In Gram-negative enteric pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, we found that polar flagella can reduce the phage infectivity. Deletion of polar flagella, but not the lateral flagella, can dramatically promote the adsorption of phage to the bacteria and enhances the phage infectivity to V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that polar flagella play an inhibitory role in the phage infection. Notably, it is the rotation, not the physical presence, of polar flagella that inhibits the phage infection of V. parahaemolyticus. Strikingly, phage dramatically reduces the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus only when polar flagella were absent both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that polar flagella rotation is a previously unidentified mechanism that confers bacteriophage resistance. PMID:27189325
Long-Lived Hole Spin/Valley Polarization Probed by Kerr Rotation in Monolayer WSe2.
Song, Xinlin; Xie, Saien; Kang, Kibum; Park, Jiwoong; Sih, Vanessa
2016-08-10
Time-resolved Kerr rotation and photoluminescence measurements are performed on MOCVD-grown monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). We observe a surprisingly long-lived Kerr rotation signal (∼80 ns) at 10 K, which is attributed to spin/valley polarization of the resident holes. This polarization is robust to transverse magnetic field (up to 0.3 T). Wavelength-dependent measurements reveal that only excitation near the free exciton energy generates this long-lived spin/valley polarization. PMID:27466727
RoboPol: do optical polarization rotations occur in all blazars?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Papadakis, I.; Kiehlmann, S.; Liodakis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Pearson, T. J.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Hovatta, T.; Joshi, V.; King, O. G.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Myserlis, I.; Paleologou, E.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderski, E.; Prabhudesai, S.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.
2016-10-01
We present a new set of optical polarization plane rotations in blazars, observed during the third year of operation of RoboPol. The entire set of rotation events discovered during three years of observations is analysed with the aim of determining whether these events are inherent in all blazars. It is found that the frequency of the polarization plane rotations varies widely among blazars. This variation cannot be explained either by a difference in the relativistic boosting or by selection effects caused by a difference in the average fractional polarization. We conclude that the rotations are characteristic of a subset of blazars and that they occur as a consequence of their intrinsic properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.
1986-01-01
The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.
1987-01-01
The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by conparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian
2016-01-01
In this work, on the basis of finite difference time domain simulations and group theory, by employing regular nanosphere trimers as the main examples, we analyse and discuss the polarization-independent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon arising from the rotation symmetry of coined metallic nanomultimers. The results demonstrate why the rotationally symmetrical nanomultimers can show polarization-independent SERS performance. Because of the dramatically hybridized polarization-independent SERS performance over the whole 360° range, rotationally symmetrical coined metal nanomultimers, such as regular trimers, regular triangular tetramers and regular pentamers, are reliable and reproducible SERS substrates, which have the potential for convenient and flexible practical SERS detection without the need for optimally incident polarization outside the laboratory setting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J.; Zhao, C. J.; Gao, Y. X.; Fan, D. Y.
2016-03-01
We experimentally demonstrate the operation of a stable harmonically mode-locked Raman fiber laser based on the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. A maximum average output power of up to 235 mW is achieved at the repetition rate of 466.2 MHz, corresponding to the 1665th order harmonic mode-locking. The temporal width of the mode-locked pulse train is 450 ps. The experimental results should shed some light on the design of wavelength versatile ultrashort lasers with high repetition rate and average output power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellout, Hamid; Vajravelu, Kuppalapalle; Van Gorder, Robert A.
2013-02-01
We study a coupled nonlinear system of differential equation approximating the rotating MHD flow over a rotating sphere near the equator. In particular, using the Schauder fixed point theorem, we are able to establish existence of solutions. Other results on similar systems show that the question of existence in not obvious and, hence, that the present results are useful. Indeed, the work of McLeod in the 1970s shows some nonexistence results for similar problems. From here, we are also able to discuss some of the features of the obtained solutions. The observed behaviors of the solutions agree well with the numerical simulations present in the literature.
Atomic Sensors using Nonlinear Magneto-Optical Rotation in the Strongly Saturated Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia; Fatemi, Fredrik
2016-05-01
We report on two separate atomic sensor experiments that rely on narrow spectral features associated with nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR). The first experiment uses a cold cloud of rubidium to investigate a ``twist'' feature nested within the standard dispersive-shaped NMOR curve. Though similar features have been observed previously in warm vapor, in this case the mechanism responsible is different. Here it is due to the combination of Zeeman and AC Stark shifts leading to complex evolutions of the atomic angular momentum, namely alignment-to-orientation conversion (AOC). This twist can be used as a rapid measure of transverse magnetic fields since its width scales linearly with the magnitude of the magnetic field directed along the optical polarization. We demonstrate applications of this feature both as a measure of background DC magnetic fields and also magnetic field gradients imaged with a CCD camera. Separately, in the second experiment we have begun investigations of NMOR in Rydberg levels for the purpose of measuring microwave electric field amplitudes. This has the potential to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio over previous absorption-based techniques.
Self-Calibration of BICEP1 Three-Year Data and Constraints on Astrophysical Polarization Rotation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, J. P.; Miller, N. J.; Shimon, M.; Barkats, D.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Keating, B. G.; Kovac, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R.; Battle, J. O.; Bierman, E. M.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kernasovskiy, S. S.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Mason, P. V.
2014-01-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters aspire to measure the faint B-mode signature predicted to arise from inflationary gravitational waves. They also have the potential to constrain cosmic birefringence, rotation of the polarization of the CMB arising from parity-violating physics, which would produce nonzero expectation values for the CMB's temperature to B-mode correlation (TB) and E-mode to B-mode correlation (EB) spectra. However, instrumental systematic effects can also cause these TB and EB correlations to be nonzero. In particular, an overall miscalibration of the polarization orientation of the detectors produces TB and EB spectra which are degenerate with isotropic cosmological birefringence, while also introducing a small but predictable bias on the BB spectrum. We find that BICEP1 three-year spectra, which use our standard calibration of detector polarization angles from a dielectric sheet, are consistent with a polarization rotation of alpha = -2.77deg +/- 0.86deg (statistical) +/- 1.3deg (systematic). We have revised the estimate of systematic error on the polarization rotation angle from the two-year analysis by comparing multiple calibration methods. We also account for the (negligible) impact of measured beam systematic effects. We investigate the polarization rotation for the BICEP1 100 GHz and 150 GHz bands separately to investigate theoretical models that produce frequency-dependent cosmic birefringence. We find no evidence in the data supporting either of these models or Faraday rotation of the CMB polarization by the Milky Way galaxy's magnetic field. If we assume that there is no cosmic birefringence, we can use the TB and EB spectra to calibrate detector polarization orientations, thus reducing bias of the cosmological B-mode spectrum from leaked E-modes due to possible polarization orientation miscalibration. After applying this "self-calibration" process, we find that the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio decreases
Tong, Lianming; Miljković, Vladimir D; Käll, Mikael
2010-01-01
We demonstrate optical alignment and rotation of individual plasmonic nanostructures with lengths from tens of nanometers to several micrometers using a single beam of linearly polarized near-infrared laser light. Silver nanorods and dimers of gold nanoparticles align parallel to the laser polarization because of the high long-axis dipole polarizability. Silver nanowires, in contrast, spontaneously turn perpendicular to the incident polarization and predominantly attach at the wire ends, in agreement with electrodynamics simulations. Wires, rods, and dimers all rotate if the incident polarization is turned. In the case of nanowires, we demonstrate spinning at an angular frequency of approximately 1 Hz due to transfer of spin angular momentum from circularly polarized light. PMID:20030391
Dissipative effects on nonlinear waves in rotating fluids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leibovich, S.; Randall, J. D.
1971-01-01
Modifications to the existing inviscid theory of long-wave propagation in rotating fluids are studied. A modification to the Korteweg-deVries equation is found to describe weak dissipation in long waves in a swirling fluid. General features of solutions are discussed, and a solution for the damping of solitary waves is presented.
Nonlinear equations for dynamics of pretwisted beams undergoing small strains and large rotations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, D. H.
1985-01-01
Nonlinear beam kinematics are developed and applied to the dynamic analysis of a pretwisted, rotating beam element. The common practice of assuming moderate rotations caused by structural deformation in geometric nonlinear analyses of rotating beams was abandoned in the present analysis. The kinematic relations that described the orientation of the cross section during deformation are simplified by systematically ignoring the extensional strain compared to unity in those relations. Open cross section effects such as warping rigidity and dynamics are ignored, but other influences of warp are retained. The beam cross section is not allowed to deform in its own plane. Various means of implementation are discussed, including a finite element formulation. Numerical results obtained for nonlinear static problems show remarkable agreement with experiment.
Rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization from weak gravitational lensing.
Dai, Liang
2014-01-31
When a cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon travels from the surface of last scatter through spacetime metric perturbations, the polarization vector may rotate about its direction of propagation. This gravitational rotation is distinct from, and occurs in addition to, the lensing deflection of the photon trajectory. This rotation can be sourced by linear vector or tensor metric perturbations and is fully coherent with the curl deflection field. Therefore, lensing corrections to the CMB polarization power spectra as well as the temperature-polarization cross correlations due to nonscalar perturbations are modified. The rotation does not affect lensing by linear scalar perturbations, but needs to be included when calculations go to higher orders. We present complete results for weak lensing of the full-sky CMB power spectra by general linear metric perturbations, taking into account both deflection of the photon trajectory and rotation of the polarization. For the case of lensing by gravitational waves, we show that the B modes induced by the rotation largely cancel those induced by the curl component of deflection. PMID:24580435
Polarization of Directly Imaged Young Giant Planets as a Probe of Mass, Rotation, and Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marley, Mark Scott; Sengupta, Sujan
2012-01-01
Young, hot gas giant planets at large separations from their primaries have been directly imaged around several nearby stars. More such planets will likely be detected by ongoing and new imaging surveys with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Efforts continue to model the spectra of these planets in order to constrain their masses, effective temperatures, composition, and cloud structure. One potential tool for analyzing these objects, which has received relatively less attention, is polarization. Linear polarization of gas giant exoplanets can arise from the combined influences of light scattering by atmospheric dust and a rotationally distorted shape. The oblateness of gas giant planet increases of course with rotation rate and for fixed rotation also rises with decreasing gravity. Thus young, lower mass gas giant planets with youthful inflated radii could easily have oblateness greater than that of Saturn s 10%. We find that polarizations of over 1% may easily be produced in the near-infrared in such cases. This magnitude of polarization may be measurable by GPI and other instruments. Thus if detected, polarization of a young Jupiter places constraints on the combination of its gravity, rotation rate, and degree of cloudiness. We will present results of our multiple scattering analysis coupled with a self-consistent dusty atmospheric models to demonstrate the range of polarizations that might be expected from resolved exoplanets and the range of parameter space that such observations may inform.
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beam fixed to a Rotating Hub
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panigrahi, B.; Pohit, G.
2016-08-01
The present work accounts centrifugal stiffening effect on the nonlinear vibration response of an FGM Timoshenko beam. Analysis is carried out for a cantilever beam fixed with a rotating hub. Material is assumed to have a gradation relation along the depth of the beam. Centrifugal force and axial displacement raised due to the rotating hub is incorporated in the strain energy equations. Subsequent to this, an iterative technique is employed to obtain amplitude dependent vibration response of a rotating Timoshenko beam while material follows a gradation relation along the beam depth. Main objective of the work is to obtain the effects of rotational speeds, hub radius, and different gradation relations on the linear as well as nonlinear frequencies and mode shapes.
Transient response of nonlinear magneto-optic rotation in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momeen, M. Ummal; Rangarajan, G.; Natarajan, Vasant
2010-01-01
We study resonant nonlinear magneto-optic rotation (NMOR) in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell as the magnetic field is swept. At low sweep rates, the nonlinear rotation appears as a narrow resonance signal with a linewidth of about “300 μG” (2π×420 Hz). At high sweep rates, the signal shows transient response with an oscillatory decay. The decay time constant is of order 100 ms. The behavior is different for transitions starting from the lower or the upper hyperfine level of the ground state because of optical pumping effects.
Khandelwal, Arpit; Syed, Azeemuddin; Nayak, Jagannath
2016-07-01
The sensitivity of a monolithically integrated semiconductor ring laser gyro is severely limited by the high value of the lock-in threshold. In this work, we calculate the lock-in threshold using perturbation theory and coupled mode theory analysis. It is shown that gyro sensitivity is limited to an input rotation rate of 10^{8} deg / h due to nonlinear coupling between the countertraveling modes. This coupling arises due to the backreflection of modes from moving index gratings, induced by rotation. Lock-in threshold is directly proportional to the strength of nonlinear coupling and spatial overlap of the modes' energy densities with periodic index perturbations.
Analysis of the polarization rotation effect in the inversely tapered spot size converter.
Jia, Lianxi; Zhou, Haifeng; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Song, Junfeng; Huang, Ying; Tu, Xiaoguang; Luo, Xianshu; Li, Chao; Fang, Qing; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang
2015-10-19
Inversely tapered spot size converter (SSC) is widely used to connect silicon waveguide with fiber in silicon photonics. However, the tapered structure may cause polarization rotation and further generate interference fluctuation in the transmission spectrum even of a straight waveguide. We analyzed the light propagation in a straight waveguide with SSC at the both ends with coupling matrix and transmission matrix methods. The analysis results matched with the phenomena we observed in the transmission spectrum. Combining the analysis with the measurement results, we calculated the polarization rotation efficiency of the SSC in different samples and analyzed the origin of the polarization rotation effect. Finally, we discussed the influence of the effect to the DP-QPSK signal and proposed several methods to release the impact.
Krummrich, Peter M; Ronnenberg, David; Schairer, Wolfgang; Wienold, Daniel; Jenau, Frank; Herrmann, Maximilian
2016-05-30
Lightning events can cause fast polarization rotations and phase changes in optical transmission fibers due to strong electrical currents and magnetic fields. Whereas these are unlikely to affect legacy transmission systems with direct detection, different mechanisms have to be considered in systems with local oscillator based coherent receivers and digital signal processing. A theoretical analysis reveals that lightning events can result in polarization rotations with speeds as fast as a few hundred kRad/s. We discuss possible mechanisms how such lightning events can affect coherent receivers with digital signal processing. In experimental investigations with a high current pulse generator and transponder prototypes, we observed post FEC errors after polarization rotation events which can be expected from lightning strikes. PMID:27410158
Krummrich, Peter M; Ronnenberg, David; Schairer, Wolfgang; Wienold, Daniel; Jenau, Frank; Herrmann, Maximilian
2016-05-30
Lightning events can cause fast polarization rotations and phase changes in optical transmission fibers due to strong electrical currents and magnetic fields. Whereas these are unlikely to affect legacy transmission systems with direct detection, different mechanisms have to be considered in systems with local oscillator based coherent receivers and digital signal processing. A theoretical analysis reveals that lightning events can result in polarization rotations with speeds as fast as a few hundred kRad/s. We discuss possible mechanisms how such lightning events can affect coherent receivers with digital signal processing. In experimental investigations with a high current pulse generator and transponder prototypes, we observed post FEC errors after polarization rotation events which can be expected from lightning strikes.
Band gap engineering strategy via polarization rotation in perovskite ferroelectrics
Wang, Fenggong Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.
2014-04-14
We propose a strategy to engineer the band gaps of perovskite oxide ferroelectrics, supported by first principles calculations. We find that the band gaps of perovskites can be substantially reduced by as much as 1.2 eV through local rhombohedral-to-tetragonal structural transition. Furthermore, the strong polarization of the rhombohedral perovskite is largely preserved by its tetragonal counterpart. The B-cation off-center displacements and the resulting enhancement of the antibonding character in the conduction band give rise to the wider band gaps of the rhombohedral perovskites. The correlation between the structure, polarization orientation, and electronic structure lays a good foundation for understanding the physics of more complex perovskite solid solutions and provides a route for the design of photovoltaic perovskite ferroelectrics.
Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.
Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M
2001-03-15
A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing.
Polarization rotation and coupling between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide.
Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao
2015-04-20
We present a polarization rotation and coupling scheme that rotates a TE(0) mode in a silicon waveguide and simultaneously couples the rotated mode to a hybrid plasmonic (HP(0)) waveguide mode. Such a polarization rotation can be realized with a partially etched asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of a silicon strip waveguide, a thin oxide spacer, and a metal cap made from copper, gold, silver or aluminum. Two implementations, one with and one without the tapering of the metal cap are presented, and different taper shapes (linear and exponential) are also analyzed. The devices have large 3 dB conversion bandwidths (over 200 nm at near infrared) and short length (< 5 μm), and achieve a maximum coupling factor of ∼ 78% with a linearly tapered silver metal cap.
Second-harmonic generation polarization microscopy by rotation of excitation light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Wei-Liang; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2007-02-01
When imaging anisotropic samples with a laser scanning optical microscope, the results are often affected by the polarization of the excitation light source. Quantifying the polarization dependence of biological fibrous material such as muscle and collagen allows us to gain molecular information at length scale below the resolution of optical microscopes. One problem associated with rotating the direction of linearly polarized excitation light for an epi-illuminated laser scanning microscope is due to the reflective properties of the main dichroic mirror. Depending on the direction of the incident polarization, the dichroic mirror can induce different amount of phase retardation, thus altering the desired output polarization. In this work, we theoretically determined the needed combination of wave plates and their angular positions to compensate for the effect of the dichroic mirror, thus achieving any arbitrary linear polarization angle for the excitation incident on sample.
Square-wave self-modulation in diode lasers with polarization-rotated optical feedback.
Gavrielides, Athanasios; Erneux, Thomas; Sukow, David W; Burner, Guinevere; McLachlan, Taylor; Miller, John; Amonette, Jake
2006-07-01
The square-wave response of edge-emitting diode lasers subject to a delayed polarization-rotated optical feedback is studied in detail. Specifically, the polarization state of the feedback is rotated such that the natural laser mode is coupled into the orthogonal, unsupported mode. Square-wave self-modulated polarization intensities oscillating in antiphase are observed experimentally. We find numerically that these oscillations naturally appear for a broad range of values of parameters, provided that the feedback is sufficiently strong and the differential losses in the normally unsupported polarization mode are small. We then investigate the laser equations analytically and find that the square-wave oscillations are the result of a bifurcation phenomenon. PMID:16770414
Real-time image difference detection using a polarization rotation spacial light modulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)
1990-01-01
An image difference detection system is described, of the type wherein two created image representations such as transparencies representing the images to be compared lie coplanar, while light passes through the two transparencies and is formed into coincident images at the image plane for comparison. The two transparencies are formed by portions of a polarization rotation spacial light modulator display such as a multi-pixel liquid crystal display or a magneto optical rotation type. In a system where light passing through the two transparencies is polarized in transverse directions to enable the use of a Wollaston prism to bring the images into coincidence, a liquid crystal display can be used which is devoid of polarizing sheets that would interfere with transverse polarizing of the light passing through the two transparencies.
Real-time image difference detection using a polarization rotation spacial light modulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)
1988-01-01
An image difference detection system is described, of the type wherein two created image representations such as transparencies representing the images to be compared lie coplanar, while light passes through the two transparencies and is formed into coincident images at the image plane for comparison. The two transparencies are formed by portions of a polarization-rotation spatial light modulator display such as a multi-pixel liquid crystal display or a magnetooptical rotation type display. In a system where light passing through the two transparencies is polarized in transverse directions to enable the use of a Wollaston prism to bring the images into coincidence, a liquid crystal display can be used which is devoid of polarizing sheets that would interfere with transverse polarizing of the light passing through the two transparencies.
Fast passage dynamic nuclear polarization on rotating solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Hovav, Yonatan; Vega, Shimon; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Feintuch, Akiva
2012-11-01
Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has proven to be a very powerful way to improve the signal to noise ratio of NMR experiments on solids. The experiments have in general been interpreted considering the Solid-Effect (SE) and Cross-Effect (CE) DNP mechanisms while ignoring the influence of sample spinning. In this paper, we show experimental data of MAS-DNP enhancements of 1H and 13C in proline and SH3 protein in glass forming water/glycerol solvent containing TOTAPOL. We also introduce a theoretical model that aims at explaining how the nuclear polarization is built in MAS-DNP experiments. By using Liouville space based simulations to include relaxation on two simple spin models, {electron-nucleus} and {electron-electron-nucleus}, we explain how the basic MAS-SE-DNP and MAS-CE-DNP processes work. The importance of fast energy passages and short level anti-crossing is emphasized and the differences between static DNP and MAS-DNP is explained. During a single rotor cycle the enhancement in the {electron-electron-nucleus} system arises from MAS-CE-DNP involving at least three kinds of two-level fast passages: an electron-electron dipolar anti-crossing, a single quantum electron MW encounter and an anti-crossing at the CE condition inducing nuclear polarization in- or decrements. Numerical, powder-averaged, simulations were performed in order to check the influence of the experimental parameters on the enhancement efficiencies. In particular we show that the spinning frequency dependence of the theoretical MAS-CE-DNP enhancement compares favorably with the experimental 1H and 13C MAS-DNP enhancements of proline and SH3.
Fast passage dynamic nuclear polarization on rotating solids.
Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Umit; Hovav, Yonatan; Vega, Shimon; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Feintuch, Akiva
2012-11-01
Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has proven to be a very powerful way to improve the signal to noise ratio of NMR experiments on solids. The experiments have in general been interpreted considering the Solid-Effect (SE) and Cross-Effect (CE) DNP mechanisms while ignoring the influence of sample spinning. In this paper, we show experimental data of MAS-DNP enhancements of (1)H and (13)C in proline and SH3 protein in glass forming water/glycerol solvent containing TOTAPOL. We also introduce a theoretical model that aims at explaining how the nuclear polarization is built in MAS-DNP experiments. By using Liouville space based simulations to include relaxation on two simple spin models, {electron-nucleus} and {electron-electron-nucleus}, we explain how the basic MAS-SE-DNP and MAS-CE-DNP processes work. The importance of fast energy passages and short level anti-crossing is emphasized and the differences between static DNP and MAS-DNP is explained. During a single rotor cycle the enhancement in the {electron-electron-nucleus} system arises from MAS-CE-DNP involving at least three kinds of two-level fast passages: an electron-electron dipolar anti-crossing, a single quantum electron MW encounter and an anti-crossing at the CE condition inducing nuclear polarization in- or decrements. Numerical, powder-averaged, simulations were performed in order to check the influence of the experimental parameters on the enhancement efficiencies. In particular we show that the spinning frequency dependence of the theoretical MAS-CE-DNP enhancement compares favorably with the experimental (1)H and (13)C MAS-DNP enhancements of proline and SH3.
Optical polarization multistability in reflection in a semi-infinite isotropic nonlinear Kerr medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, D. K.; Prakash, H.
2012-03-01
We study nonlinear interaction of counter-propagating plane light waves in a semi-infinite isotropic lossless nonlinear Kerr medium and report existence of several regions of optical-polarization-multistability. The counter-propagating waves may be produced by normal reflection of an incident beam by a mirror in the nonlinear Kerr medium. We obtain nonlinear coupled differential equations for Stokes parameters of the two beams and solve them following the method of Prakash et al. [Mod. Phys. Lett. B 14, 47 (2000)] and the boundary conditions at the mirror. We find that, for the same incident intensity and for the same polarization state of the incident beam, output beam may exist in several stable polarization states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freistühler, Heinrich; Liu, Tai-Ping
1993-04-01
This paper proves that certain non-classical shock waves in a rotationally invariant system of viscous conservation laws posses nonlinear large-time stability against sufficiently small perturbations. The result applies to small intermediate magnetohydrodynamic shocks in the presence of dissipation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohashi, Teruo; Matsuyama, Hideo; Koike, Kazuyuki
1995-12-01
A spin rotator for observing magnetic domains with all three magnetization components of a sample surface by spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) has been developed. The spin rotator is placed between the sample and the spin detector in a spin SEM, and can rotate the polarization vector of secondary electrons by π/2. Although the spin detector itself can detect only two independent polarization components, the rotation of polarization makes third-component detection possible. The conventional spin rotator, which is a well-known energy filter named a Wien filter, has been much improved to have a large focusing area by using hyperbolic cylindrical pole pieces as a magnet and several auxiliary electrodes. As a result, all the secondary electrons emitted from the area of a surface as large as 1 mm in diameter can pass the spin rotator with uniform spin rotation, and the distribution of all three magnetization components can be imaged successfully by spin SEM.
Magnetic-Field-Induced Rotation of Polarized Light Emission from Monolayer WS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Robert; Arora, Ashish; Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Granados del Águila, Andrés; Ballottin, Mariana V.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; Bratschitsch, Rudolf
2016-08-01
We control the linear polarization of emission from the coherently emitting K+ and K- valleys (valley coherence) in monolayer WS2 with an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 25 T. The magnetic-field-induced valley Zeeman splitting causes a rotation of the emission polarization with respect to the excitation by up to 35° and reduces the polarization degree by up to 16%. We explain both of these phenomena with a model based on two noninteracting coherent two-level systems. We deduce that the coherent light emission from the valleys decays with a time constant of τc=260 fs .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yudeuk; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Moon-Hyeok; Lee, Min Hee; Yoo, Dong Eun; Kim, Ki Nam; Jeon, Sang Chul; Kim, Kyong Hon
2016-09-01
An integrated polarization rotator is demonstrated experimentally by forming a strip waveguide with an asymmetric trench on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The trench is located asymmetrically in the strip waveguide. It induces the evolution of an orthogonal polarization mode upon a linearly polarized beam input, and thus causes polarization rotation. The device is fabricated using a conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor process with a single dry etching step. The fabricated device shows a maximum transverse electric (TE)-to-transverse magnetic (TM) polarization conversion efficiency of 21.3 dB and an insertion loss of ‑0.95 dB at a 1550 nm wavelength with a device length of 67 μm. The device exhibits a polarization conversion efficiency and insertion loss of 21.1 dB and ‑2.12 dB, respectively, for the TM-to-TE polarization conversion. The optimum parameters for the waveguide size and trench size are investigated by performing numerical simulations, and by demonstrating experimental fabrication and measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yudeuk; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Moon-Hyeok; Lee, Min Hee; Yoo, Dong Eun; Kim, Ki Nam; Jeon, Sang Chul; Kim, Kyong Hon
2016-09-01
An integrated polarization rotator is demonstrated experimentally by forming a strip waveguide with an asymmetric trench on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The trench is located asymmetrically in the strip waveguide. It induces the evolution of an orthogonal polarization mode upon a linearly polarized beam input, and thus causes polarization rotation. The device is fabricated using a conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor process with a single dry etching step. The fabricated device shows a maximum transverse electric (TE)-to-transverse magnetic (TM) polarization conversion efficiency of 21.3 dB and an insertion loss of -0.95 dB at a 1550 nm wavelength with a device length of 67 μm. The device exhibits a polarization conversion efficiency and insertion loss of 21.1 dB and -2.12 dB, respectively, for the TM-to-TE polarization conversion. The optimum parameters for the waveguide size and trench size are investigated by performing numerical simulations, and by demonstrating experimental fabrication and measurement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.
1985-01-01
The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the natural frequencies, steady state deflections and mode shapes of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The governing coupled equations of flap lag extensional motion are derived including the effects of large precone and retaining geometric nonlinearities up to second degree. The Galerkin method, with nonrotating normal modes, is used for the solution of both steady state nonlinear equations and linear perturbation equations. Parametric indicating the individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the steady state deflection, natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating blades are presented. It is indicated that the second degree geometric nonlinear terms, which vanish for zero precone, can produce frequency changes of engineering significance. Further confirmation of the validity of including those generated by MSC NASTRAN. It is indicated that the linear and nonlinear Coriolis effects must be included in analyzing thick blades. The Coriolis effects are significant on the first flatwise and the first edgewise modes.
Rotation of the optical polarization plane for the blazar 4C +38.41
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panopoulou, G. V.; Maragkakis, G. M.; Xexakis, K.
2016-08-01
We report on the ongoing rotation of the optical polarization angle (R-band) seen in the monitored blazar 4C +38.41 (RA=16:35:15.5, DEC=38:08:05, J2000) as recorded within the framework of the RoboPol program.
Samim, Masood; Sandkuijl, Daaf; Tretyakov, Ian; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus
2013-01-01
Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red), which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures.
Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi
2016-04-15
We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse. PMID:27127951
Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang
2014-05-02
The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.
Duncan, Paul G.
2002-01-01
Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.
Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang
2014-01-01
The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved. PMID:24784778
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang
2014-05-01
The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.
Crack identification for rotating machines based on a nonlinear approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavalini, A. A., Jr.; Sanches, L.; Bachschmid, N.; Steffen, V., Jr.
2016-10-01
In a previous contribution, a crack identification methodology based on a nonlinear approach was proposed. The technique uses external applied diagnostic forces at certain frequencies attaining combinational resonances, together with a pseudo-random optimization code, known as Differential Evolution, in order to characterize the signatures of the crack in the spectral responses of the flexible rotor. The conditions under which combinational resonances appear were determined by using the method of multiple scales. In real conditions, the breathing phenomenon arises from the stress and strain distribution on the cross-sectional area of the crack. This mechanism behavior follows the static and dynamic loads acting on the rotor. Therefore, the breathing crack can be simulated according to the Mayes' model, in which the crack transition from fully opened to fully closed is described by a cosine function. However, many contributions try to represent the crack behavior by machining a small notch on the shaft instead of the fatigue process. In this paper, the open and breathing crack models are compared regarding their dynamic behavior and the efficiency of the proposed identification technique. The additional flexibility introduced by the crack is calculated by using the linear fracture mechanics theory (LFM). The open crack model is based on LFM and the breathing crack model corresponds to the Mayes' model, which combines LFM with a given breathing mechanism. For illustration purposes, a rotor composed by a horizontal flexible shaft, two rigid discs, and two self-aligning ball bearings is used to compose a finite element model of the system. Then, numerical simulation is performed to determine the dynamic behavior of the rotor. Finally, the results of the inverse problem conveyed show that the methodology is a reliable tool that is able to estimate satisfactorily the location and depth of the crack.
Self-calibration of BICEP1 three-year data and constraints on astrophysical polarization rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufman, J. P.; Miller, N. J.; Shimon, M.; Barkats, D.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Keating, B. G.; Kovac, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R.; Battle, J. O.; Bierman, E. M.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kernasovskiy, S. S.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Mason, P. V.; Matsumura, T.; Nguyen, H. T.; Ponthieu, N.; Pryke, C.; Richter, S.; Rocha, G.; Sheehy, C.; Su, M.; Takahashi, Y. D.; Tolan, J. E.; Yoon, K. W.
2014-03-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters aspire to measure the faint B-mode signature predicted to arise from inflationary gravitational waves. They also have the potential to constrain cosmic birefringence, rotation of the polarization of the CMB arising from parity-violating physics, which would produce nonzero expectation values for the CMB's temperature to B-mode correlation (TB) and E-mode to B-mode correlation (EB) spectra. However, instrumental systematic effects can also cause these TB and EB correlations to be nonzero. In particular, an overall miscalibration of the polarization orientation of the detectors produces TB and EB spectra which are degenerate with isotropic cosmological birefringence, while also introducing a small but predictable bias on the BB spectrum. We find that Bicep1 three-year spectra, which use our standard calibration of detector polarization angles from a dielectric sheet, are consistent with a polarization rotation of α =-2.77°±0.86°(statistical)±1.3°(systematic). We have revised the estimate of systematic error on the polarization rotation angle from the two-year analysis by comparing multiple calibration methods. We also account for the (negligible) impact of measured beam systematic effects. We investigate the polarization rotation for the Bicep1 100 GHz and 150 GHz bands separately to investigate theoretical models that produce frequency-dependent cosmic birefringence. We find no evidence in the data supporting either of these models or Faraday rotation of the CMB polarization by the Milky Way galaxy's magnetic field. If we assume that there is no cosmic birefringence, we can use the TB and EB spectra to calibrate detector polarization orientations, thus reducing bias of the cosmological B-mode spectrum from leaked E-modes due to possible polarization orientation miscalibration. After applying this "self-calibration" process, we find that the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio decreases slightly, from r<0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solookinejad, G.
2016-09-01
In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsova, Elena; Rittenhouse, Seth T.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Yelin, Susanne F.
2016-09-01
We analyze the possibility to exploit charge-dipole interaction between a single polar molecule or a one-dimensional (1D) molecular array and a single Rydberg atom to read out molecular rotational populations. We calculate the energy shift of a single Rb (60 s ) atom interacting with a single KRb or RbYb molecule in their lowest two rotational states. At atom-molecule distances, relevant to trapping of molecules in optical lattices, the Rydberg electron energy shifts conditioned on the rotational states, are of the order of several MHz. Atom excitation to a Rydberg state and detection of atomic fluorescence conditioned on a rotational state preserves the molecule, making our scheme a nondestructive measurement of the rotational state. Similarly, a 1D array of polar molecules can shift the electron energy of a blockaded Rydberg superatom. We consider a scheme to read out the molecular array collective rotational states using the conditioned Rydberg energy shifts, and numerically analyze a system with three and five KRb or RbYb molecules interacting with Rb (60 s ) superatom.
Harter, J W; Niu, L; Woss, A J; Hsieh, D
2015-10-15
We present a method of performing high-speed rotational anisotropy nonlinear optical harmonic generation experiments at rotational frequencies of several hertz by projecting the harmonic light reflected at different angles from a sample onto a stationary position-sensitive detector. The high rotational speed of the technique, 10(3) to 10(4) times larger than existing methods, permits precise measurements of the crystallographic and electronic symmetries of samples by averaging over low frequency laser-power, beam-pointing, and pulse-width fluctuations. We demonstrate the sensitivity of our technique by resolving the bulk fourfold rotational symmetry of GaAs about its [001] axis using second-harmonic generation. PMID:26469591
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kervella, P.; Domiciano de Souza, A.
2006-07-01
Context: .Be stars show evidence of mass loss and circumstellar envelopes (CSE) from UV resonance lines, near-IR excesses, and the presence of episodic hydrogen emission lines. The geometry of these envelopes is still uncertain, although it is often assumed that they are formed by a disk around the stellar equator and a hot polar wind. Aims: .We probe the close environment of the fast rotating Be star Achernar at angular scales of a few milliarcseconds (mas) in the infrared, in order to constrain the geometry of a possible polar CSE. Methods: .We obtained long-baseline interferometric observations of Achernar with the VINCI/VLTI beam combiner in the H and K bands, using various telescope configurations and baseline lengths with a wide azimuthal coverage. Results: .The observed visibility measurements along the polar direction are significantly lower than the visibility function of the photosphere of the star alone, in particular at low spatial frequencies. This points to the presence of an asymmetric diffuse CSE elongated along the polar direction of the star. To our data, we fit a simple model consisting of two components: a 2D elliptical Gaussian superimposed on a uniform ellipse representing the distorted photosphere of the fast rotating star. Conclusions: .We clearly detected a CSE elongated along the polar axis of the star, as well as rotational flattening of the stellar photosphere. For the uniform-ellipse photosphere we derive a major axis of θ_eq = 2.13 ± 0.05 mas and a minor axis of θ_pol = 1.51 ± 0.02 mas. The relative near-IR flux measured for the CSE compared to the stellar photosphere is f = 4.7 ± 0.3%. Its angular dimensions are loosely constrained by the available data at ρ_eq = 2.7 ± 1.3 mas and ρ_pol = 17.6 ± 4.9 mas. This CSE could be linked to free-free emission from the radiative pressure driven wind originating from the hot polar caps of the star.
Poloidal rotation driven by nonlinear momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lu; Wen, Tiliang; Diamond, P. H.
2016-10-01
Virtually, all existing theoretical works on turbulent poloidal momentum transport are based on quasilinear theory. Nonlinear poloidal momentum flux—< {{\\tilde{v}}r}\\tilde{n}{{\\tilde{v}}θ}> is universally neglected. However, in the strong turbulence regime where relative fluctuation amplitude is no longer small, quasilinear theory is invalid. This is true at the all-important plasma edge. In this work, nonlinear poloidal momentum flux < {{\\tilde{v}}r}\\tilde{n}{{\\tilde{v}}θ}> in strong electrostatic turbulence is calculated using the Hasegawa-Mima equation, and is compared with quasilinear poloidal Reynolds stress. A novel property is that symmetry breaking in fluctuation spectrum is not necessary for a nonlinear poloidal momentum flux. This is fundamentally different from the quasilinear Reynold stress. Furthermore, the comparison implies that the poloidal rotation drive from the radial gradient of nonlinear momentum flux is comparable to that from the quasilinear Reynolds force. Nonlinear poloidal momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence is thus not negligible for poloidal rotation drive, and so may be significant to transport barrier formation.
Non-linear vacuum polarization in strong fields
Gyulassy, M.
1981-07-01
The Wichmann-Kroll formalism for calculating the vacuum polarization density to first order in ..cap alpha.. but to all orders in Z..cap alpha.. is derived. The most essential quantity is shown to be the electrons Green's function in these calculations. The method of constructing that Green's function in the field of finite radius nuclei is then presented.
Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing; Milchak, Marissa; Monahan, Brian; Hahm, Jong-in
2016-01-01
We investigate the interaction of visible light with the solid matters of semiconducting oxide nanorods (NRs) of zinc oxide (ZnO), indium tin oxide (ITO), and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) at the single nanomaterial level. We subsequently identify an intriguing, material-dependent phenomenon of optical rotation in the electric field oscillation direction of the scattered light by systematically controlling the wavelength and polarization direction of the incident light, the NR tilt angle, and the analyzer angle. This polarization rotation effect in the scattered light is repeatedly observed from the chemically pure and highly crystalline ZnO NRs, but absent on the chemically doped NR variants of ITO and ZTO under all measurement circumstances. We further elucidate that the phenomenon of polarization rotation detected from single ZnO NRs is affected by the NR tilt angle, while the phenomenon itself occurs irrespective of the wavelength and incident polarization direction of the visible light. Combined with the widespread optical and optoelectronic use of the semiconducting oxide nanomaterials, these efforts may provide much warranted fundamental bases to tailor material-specific, single nanomaterial-driven, optically modulating functionalities which, in turn, can be beneficial for the realization of high-performance integrated photonic circuits and miniaturized bio-optical sensing devices. PMID:27158560
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing; Milchak, Marissa; Monahan, Brian; Hahm, Jong-in
2016-04-01
We investigate the interaction of visible light with the solid matters of semiconducting oxide nanorods (NRs) of zinc oxide (ZnO), indium tin oxide (ITO), and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) at the single nanomaterial level. We subsequently identify an intriguing, material-dependent phenomenon of optical rotation in the electric field oscillation direction of the scattered light by systematically controlling the wavelength and polarization direction of the incident light, the NR tilt angle, and the analyzer angle. This polarization rotation effect in the scattered light is repeatedly observed from the chemically pure and highly crystalline ZnO NRs, but absent on the chemically doped NR variants of ITO and ZTO under all measurement circumstances. We further elucidate that the phenomenon of polarization rotation detected from single ZnO NRs is affected by the NR tilt angle, while the phenomenon itself occurs irrespective of the wavelength and incident polarization direction of the visible light. Combined with the widespread optical and optoelectronic use of the semiconducting oxide nanomaterials, these efforts may provide much warranted fundamental bases to tailor material-specific, single nanomaterial-driven, optically modulating functionalities which, in turn, can be beneficial for the realization of high-performance integrated photonic circuits and miniaturized bio-optical sensing devices.
Ferroelectricity and polarity control in solid-state flip-flop supramolecular rotators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Koshinaka, Hiroyuki; Sato, Daisuke; Takeda, Sadamu; Noro, Shin-Ichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kumai, Reiji; Tokura, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Takayoshi
2009-04-01
Molecular rotation has attracted much attention with respect to the development of artificial molecular motors, in an attempt to mimic the intelligent and useful functions of biological molecular motors. Random motion of molecular rotators-for example the 180∘ flip-flop motion of a rotatory unit-causes a rotation of the local structure. Here, we show that such motion is controllable using an external electric field and demonstrate how such molecular rotators can be used as polarization rotation units in ferroelectric molecules. In particular, m-fluoroanilinium forms a hydrogen-bonding assembly with dibenzo[18]crown-6, which was introduced as the counter cation of [Ni(dmit)2]- anions (dmit2-=2-thioxo-1,3-dithiole-4,5-dithiolate). The supramolecular rotator of m-fluoroanilinium exhibited dipole rotation by the application of an electric field, and the crystal showed a ferroelectric transition at 348K. These findings will open up new strategies for ferroelectric molecules where a chemically designed dipole unit enables control of the nature of the ferroelectric transition temperature.
Khandelwal, Arpit; Syed, Azeemuddin; Nayak, Jagannath
2016-07-01
The sensitivity of a monolithically integrated semiconductor ring laser gyro is severely limited by the high value of the lock-in threshold. In this work, we calculate the lock-in threshold using perturbation theory and coupled mode theory analysis. It is shown that gyro sensitivity is limited to an input rotation rate of 10^{8} deg / h due to nonlinear coupling between the countertraveling modes. This coupling arises due to the backreflection of modes from moving index gratings, induced by rotation. Lock-in threshold is directly proportional to the strength of nonlinear coupling and spatial overlap of the modes' energy densities with periodic index perturbations. PMID:27409208
Earth rotation and polar motion from laser ranging to the moon and artificial satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aardoom, L.
1978-01-01
Earth-based laser ranging to artificial satellites and to the moon is considered as a technique for monitoring the Earth's polar motion and diurnal rotation. The kinematics of Earth rotation as related to laser ranging is outlined. The current status of laser ranging as regards its measuring capabilities is reviewed. The relative merits of artificial satellite and lunar laser ranging are pointed out. It appears that multistation combined artificial satellite and lunar laser ranging is likely to ultimately meet a 0.002 arcseconds in pole position and 0.1 msec in UT1 daily precision requirement.
Evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary wave propagation in rotating plasma
Das, G. C.; Nag, Apratim
2006-08-15
A simple unmagnetized plasma rotating around an axis at an angle {theta} with the propagation direction of the acoustic mode has been taken. The nonlinear wave mode has been derived as an equivalent Sagdeev potential equation. A special procedure, known as the tanh method, has been developed to study the nonlinear wave propagation in plasma dynamics. Further, under small amplitude approximation, the nonlinear plasma acoustic mode has been exploited to study the evolution of soliton propagation in the plasma. The main emphasis has been given to the interaction of Coriolis force on the changes of coherent structure of the soliton. The solitary wave solution finds the different nature of solitons called compressive and rarefactive solitons as well as its explosions or collapses along with soliton dynamics and these have been showing exciting observations in exhibiting a narrow wave packet with the generation of high electric pressure and the growth of high energy which, in turn, yields the phenomena of radiating soliton in dynamics.
Circularly polarized few-cycle optical rogue waves: rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations.
Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi
2013-12-01
The rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch (RMB) equations, which describe the propagation of few-cycle optical pulses in a transparent media with two isotropic polarized electronic field components, are derived from a system of complete Maxwell-Bloch equations without using the slowly varying envelope approximations. Two hierarchies of the obtained rational solutions, including rogue waves, which are also called few-cycle optical rogue waves, of the rotating RMB equations are constructed explicitly through degenerate Darboux transformation. In addition to the above, the dynamical evolution of the first-, second-, and third-order few-cycle optical rogue waves are constructed with different patterns. For an electric field E in the three lower-order rogue waves, we find that rogue waves correspond to localized large amplitude oscillations of the polarized electric fields. Further a complementary relationship of two electric field components of rogue waves is discussed in terms of analytical formulas as well as numerical figures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shapiro, I. I.
1978-01-01
The basic principles of very-long-baseline interferometry as related to its use in the determination of vector baselines, polar motion, and earth rotation are presented. Aspects relevant to geodetic applications that involve observations of extragalactic radio sources are covered. The instrumentation used in these observations and the basic observables and their simplest interpretation are described. Complications of the interpretation due to the various geophysical 'signals' and nongeophysical 'noise' that affect the observables are considered.
Large amplitude nonlinear structures in the nighttime polar mesosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maharaj, Shimul K.; Bharuthram, Ramashwar; Singh Lakhina, Gurbax; Muralikrishna, Polinaya; Singh, Satyavir
2016-07-01
The existence of large amplitude potential structures will be investigated for a plasma composed of negative ions, positive ions, electrons and an additional fourth component of charged (usually positive) nano-sized ions in an attempt to model the plasma composition in the nighttime polar mesosphere (˜80 - 90 km altitude) [1]. The fourth ionic component becomes positively charged if there is a high enough concentration of negative ions which are sufficiently heavy. The positive charge on the fourth component can be explained by the capture of currents, and is not a result of photo-emission and secondary electron emission processes. Consequently, if the negative ions are much lighter, then the fourth ion component will become negatively charged. The charged ion species will be treated as inertial species which are cold or adiabatic, whilst the electrons will be considered to be Boltzmann-distributed (isothermal). Taking into consideration not only the dynamics of the heaviest species (dust-acoustic) but also the lighter ions (ion-acoustic), the theoretical study will use the Sagdeev pseudo-potential formalism to explore the existence of arbitrary amplitude solitons and double layer potential structures. [1] Observations of positively charged nanoparticles in the nighttime polar mesosphere, M. Rapp, J. Hedin, I. Strelnikova, M. Friederich, J. Gumbel, and F.˜J. Lübken, Geophys. Res. Letters. 32, L23821, doi:10.1029/2005GL024676 (2005).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Bong-Sik
Three dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes-alpha equations are considered for uniformly rotating geophysical fluid flows (large Coriolis parameter f = 2O). The Navier-Stokes-alpha equations are a nonlinear dispersive regularization of usual Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Lagrangian averaging. The focus is on the existence and global regularity of solutions of the 3D rotating Navier-Stokes-alpha equations and the uniform convergence of these solutions to those of the original 3D rotating Navier-Stokes equations for large Coriolis parameters f as alpha → 0. Methods are based on fast singular oscillating limits and results are obtained for periodic boundary conditions for all domain aspect ratios, including the case of three wave resonances which yields nonlinear "2½-dimensional" limit resonant equations for f → 0. The existence and global regularity of solutions of limit resonant equations is established, uniformly in alpha. Bootstrapping from global regularity of the limit equations, the existence of a regular solution of the full 3D rotating Navier-Stokes-alpha equations for large f for an infinite time is established. Then, the uniform convergence of a regular solution of the 3D rotating Navier-Stokes-alpha equations (alpha ≠ 0) to the one of the original 3D rotating NavierStokes equations (alpha = 0) for f large but fixed as alpha → 0 follows; this implies "shadowing" of trajectories of the limit dynamical systems by those of the perturbed alpha-dynamical systems. All the estimates are uniform in alpha, in contrast with previous estimates in the literature which blow up as alpha → 0. Finally, the existence of global attractors as well as exponential attractors is established for large f and the estimates are uniform in alpha.
The dynamics of plus end polarization and microtubule assembly during Xenopus cortical rotation.
Olson, David J; Oh, Denise; Houston, Douglas W
2015-05-15
The self-organization of dorsally-directed microtubules during cortical rotation in the Xenopus egg is essential for dorsal axis formation. The mechanisms controlling this process have been problematic to analyze, owing to difficulties in visualizing microtubules in living egg. Also, the order of events occurring at the onset of cortical rotation have not been satisfactorily visualized in vivo and have been inferred from staged fixed samples. To address these issues, we have characterized the dynamics of total microtubule and plus end behavior continuously throughout cortical rotation, as well as in oocytes and unfertilized eggs. Here, we show that the nascent microtubule network forms in the cortex but associates with the deep cytoplasm at the start of rotation. Importantly, plus ends remain cortical and become increasingly more numerous and active prior to rotation, with dorsal polarization occurring rapidly after the onset of rotation. Additionally, we show that vegetally localized Trim36 is required to attenuate dynamic plus end growth, suggesting that vegetal factors are needed to locally coordinate growth in the cortex.
Rotation measure synthesis study and polarized properties of PSR J1745-2900 at 7 mm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravchenko, E. V.; Cotton, W. D.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Kovalev, Y. Y.
2016-06-01
We present results of interferometric polarization observations of the recently discovered magnetar J1745-2900 in the vicinity of the Galactic Centre. The observations were made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) on 2014 February 21 in the range 40-48 GHz. The full polarization mode and A configuration of the array were used. The average total and linearly polarized flux density of the pulsar amounts to 2.3 ± 0.31 and 1.5 ± 0.2 mJy beam-1, respectively. Analysis shows a rotation measure (RM) of (-67 ± 3) × 103 rad m-2, which is in good agreement with previous measurements at longer wavelengths. These high-frequency observations are sensitive to RM values of up to ˜2 × 107 rad m-2. However, application of the Faraday RM synthesis technique did not reveal other significant RM components in the pulsar emission. This supports an external nature of a single thin Faraday-rotating screen which should be located close to the Galactic Centre. The Faraday-corrected intrinsic electric vector position angle is 16 ± 9 deg east of north, and coincides with the position angle of the pulsar's transverse velocity. All measurements of the pulsar's RM value to date, including the one presented here, well agree within errors, which points towards a steady nature of the Faraday-rotating medium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pishnyak, Oleg; Kreminska, Lyubov; Laventovich, Oleg D.; Pouch, John J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Winker, Bruce K.
2004-01-01
We describe digital beam deflectors (DBDs) based on liquid crystals. Each stage of the device comprises a polarization rotator and a birefringent prism deflector. The birefringent prism deflects the beam by an angle that depends on polarization of the incident beam. The prism can be made of the uniaxial smectic A (SmA) liquid crystal (LC) or a solid crystal such as yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4). SmA prisms have high birefringence and can be constructed in a variety of shapes, including single prisms and prismatic blazed gratings of different angles and profiles. We address the challenges of uniform alignment of SmA, such as elimination of focal conic domains. Rotation of linear polarization is achieved by an electrically switched twisted nematic (TN) cell. A DBD composed of N rotator-deflector pairs steers the beam into 2(sup N) directions. As an example, we describe a four-stage DBD deflecting normally incident laser beam within the range of +/- 56 mrad with 8 mrad steps. Redirection of the beam is achieved by switching the TN cells.
Nonlinear polarization of ionic liquids: theory, simulations, experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornyshev, Alexei
2010-03-01
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) composed of large, often asymmetric, organic cations and simple or complex inorganic or organic anions do not freeze at ambient temperatures. Their rediscovery some 15 years ago is widely accepted as a ``green revolution'' in chemistry, offering an unlimited number of ``designer'' solvents for chemical and photochemical reactions, homogeneous catalysis, lubrication, and solvent-free electrolytes for energy generation and storage. As electrolytes they are non-volatile, some can sustain without decomposition up to 6 times higher voltages than aqueous electrolytes, and many are environmentally friendly. The studies of RTILs and their applications have reached a critical stage. So many of them can be synthesized - about a thousand are known already - their mixtures can further provide ``unlimited'' number of combinations! Thus, establishing some general laws that could direct the best choice of a RTIL for a given application became crucial; guidance is expected from theory and modelling. But for a physical theory, RTILs comprise a peculiar and complex class of media, the description of which lies at the frontier line of condensed matter theoretical physics: dense room temperature ionic plasmas with ``super-strong'' Coulomb correlations, which behave like glasses at short time-scale, but like viscous liquids at long-time scale. This talk will introduce RTILs to physicists and overview the current understanding of the nonlinear response of RTILs to electric field. It will focus on the theory, simulations, and experimental characterisation of the structure and nonlinear capacitance of the electrical double layer at a charged electrode. It will also discuss pros and contras of supercapacitor applications of RTILs.
Rotating-frame perspective on high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reich, Daniel M.; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2016-04-01
We employ a rotating frame of reference to elucidate high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light by bicircular driving fields. In particular, we show how the experimentally observed circular components of the high-order-harmonic spectrum can be directly related to the corresponding quantities in the rotating frame. Supported by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we deduce an optimal strategy for maximizing the cutoff in the high-order-harmonic plateau while keeping the two circular components of the emitted light spectrally distinct. Moreover, we show how the rotating-frame picture can be more generally employed for elliptical drivers. Finally, we point out how circular and elliptical driving fields show a near-duality to static electric and magnetic fields in a rotating-frame description. This demonstrates how high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light under static electromagnetic fields can be emulated in practice even at static field strengths beyond current experimental capabilities.
Rotatable spin-polarized electron source for inverse-photoemission experiments
Stolwijk, S. D. Wortelen, H.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.
2014-01-15
We present a ROtatable Spin-polarized Electron source (ROSE) for the use in spin- and angle-resolved inverse-photoemission (SR-IPE) experiments. A key feature of the ROSE is a variable direction of the transversal electron beam polarization. As a result, the inverse-photoemission experiment becomes sensitive to two orthogonal in-plane polarization directions, and, for nonnormal electron incidence, to the out-of-plane polarization component. We characterize the ROSE and test its performance on the basis of SR-IPE experiments. Measurements on magnetized Ni films on W(110) serve as a reference to demonstrate the variable spin sensitivity. Moreover, investigations of the unoccupied spin-dependent surface electronic structure of Tl/Si(111) highlight the capability to analyze complex phenomena like spin rotations in momentum space. Essentially, the ROSE opens the way to further studies on complex spin-dependent effects in the field of surface magnetism and spin-orbit interaction at surfaces.
Magnetic-Field-Induced Rotation of Polarized Light Emission from Monolayer WS_{2}.
Schmidt, Robert; Arora, Ashish; Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Granados Del Águila, Andrés; Ballottin, Mariana V; Christianen, Peter C M; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; Bratschitsch, Rudolf
2016-08-12
We control the linear polarization of emission from the coherently emitting K^{+} and K^{-} valleys (valley coherence) in monolayer WS_{2} with an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 25 T. The magnetic-field-induced valley Zeeman splitting causes a rotation of the emission polarization with respect to the excitation by up to 35° and reduces the polarization degree by up to 16%. We explain both of these phenomena with a model based on two noninteracting coherent two-level systems. We deduce that the coherent light emission from the valleys decays with a time constant of τ_{c}=260 fs. PMID:27563997
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misawa, Tetsuro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi
2012-02-01
Recent photoelectron spectroscopy experiments have revealed the presence of the Dirac cone on the surface of the topological insulator and its spin-splitting due to the spin-orbit interaction. In general, on spin-orbit coupled systems, electric fields induce spin polarizations as linear and nonlinear responses. Here we investigate the inverse Faraday effect on the surface of the topological insulator. The inverse Faraday effect is a non-linear optical effect where a circularly polarized light induces a dc spin polarization. We employ the Keldysh Green's function method to calculate the induced spin polarization and discuss its frequency dependence. In particular, in the low frequency limit, our analytical result gives the spin polarization proportional to the frequency and the square of the lifetime. As for the finite frequency regime, we employ numerical methods to discuss the resonance due to interband transitions. We also discuss the photogalvanic effect, where an illumination of a circular polarized light generates the dc charge current. Lastly, we evaluate those quantities with realistic parameters.[4pt] [1] T. Misawa, T. Yokoyama, S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. B84, 165407 (2011).
ROTATIONAL VARIABILITY OF EARTH'S POLAR REGIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DETECTING SNOWBALL PLANETS
Cowan, Nicolas B.; Robinson, Tyler; Agol, Eric; Meadows, Victoria S.; Shields, Aomawa L.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Charbonneau, David; Lisse, Carey M.
2011-04-10
We have obtained the first time-resolved, disk-integrated observations of Earth's poles with the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission of opportunity. These data mimic what we will see when we point next-generation space telescopes at nearby exoplanets. We use principal component analysis (PCA) and rotational light curve inversion to characterize color inhomogeneities and map their spatial distribution from these unusual vantage points, as a complement to the equatorial views presented by Cowan et al. in 2009. We also perform the same PCA on a suite of simulated rotational multi-band light curves from NASA's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. This numerical experiment allows us to understand what sorts of surface features PCA can robustly identify. We find that the EPOXI polar observations have similar broadband colors as the equatorial Earth, but with 20%-30% greater apparent albedo. This is because the polar observations are most sensitive to mid-latitudes, which tend to be more cloudy than the equatorial latitudes emphasized by the original EPOXI Earth observations. The cloudiness of the mid-latitudes also manifests itself in the form of increased variability at short wavelengths in the polar observations and as a dominant gray eigencolor in the south polar observation. We construct a simple reflectance model for a snowball Earth. By construction, our model has a higher Bond albedo than the modern Earth; its surface albedo is so high that Rayleigh scattering does not noticeably affect its spectrum. The rotational color variations occur at short wavelengths due to the large contrast between glacier ice and bare land in those wavebands. Thus, we find that both the broadband colors and diurnal color variations of such a planet would be easily distinguishable from the modern-day Earth, regardless of viewing angle.
Rotational Variability of Earth's Polar Regions: Implications for Detecting Snowball Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cowan, Nicolas B.; Robinson, Tyler; Livengood, Timothy A.; Deming, Drake; Agol, Eric; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Lisse, Carey M.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Seager, Sara; Shields, Aomawa L.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.
2011-04-01
We have obtained the first time-resolved, disk-integrated observations of Earth's poles with the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission of opportunity. These data mimic what we will see when we point next-generation space telescopes at nearby exoplanets. We use principal component analysis (PCA) and rotational light curve inversion to characterize color inhomogeneities and map their spatial distribution from these unusual vantage points, as a complement to the equatorial views presented by Cowan et al. in 2009. We also perform the same PCA on a suite of simulated rotational multi-band light curves from NASA's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. This numerical experiment allows us to understand what sorts of surface features PCA can robustly identify. We find that the EPOXI polar observations have similar broadband colors as the equatorial Earth, but with 20%-30% greater apparent albedo. This is because the polar observations are most sensitive to mid-latitudes, which tend to be more cloudy than the equatorial latitudes emphasized by the original EPOXI Earth observations. The cloudiness of the mid-latitudes also manifests itself in the form of increased variability at short wavelengths in the polar observations and as a dominant gray eigencolor in the south polar observation. We construct a simple reflectance model for a snowball Earth. By construction, our model has a higher Bond albedo than the modern Earth; its surface albedo is so high that Rayleigh scattering does not noticeably affect its spectrum. The rotational color variations occur at short wavelengths due to the large contrast between glacier ice and bare land in those wavebands. Thus, we find that both the broadband colors and diurnal color variations of such a planet would be easily distinguishable from the modern-day Earth, regardless of viewing angle.
On the nonlinear interfacial instability of rotating core-annular flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coward, Aidrian V.; Hall, Philip
1993-01-01
The interfacial stability of rotating core-annular flows is investigated. The linear and nonlinear effects are considered for the case when the annular region is very thin. Both asymptotic and numerical methods are used to solve the flow in the core and film regions which are coupled by a difference in viscosity and density. The long-term behavior of the fluid-fluid interface is determined by deriving its nonlinear evolution in the form of a modified Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. We obtain a generalization of this equation to three dimensions. The flows considered are applicable to a wide array of physical problems where liquid films are used to lubricate higher or lower viscosity core fluids, for which a concentric arrangement is desired. Linearized solutions show that the effects of density and viscosity stratification are crucial to the stability of the interface. Rotation generally destabilizes non-axisymmetric disturbances to the interface, whereas the centripetal forces tend to stabilize flows in which the film contains the heavier fluid. Nonlinear affects allow finite amplitude helically travelling waves to exist when the fluids have different viscosities.
Nonlinear modeling of a rotational MR damper via an enhanced Bouc-Wen model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miah, Mohammad S.; Chatzi, Eleni N.; Dertimanis, Vasilis K.; Weber, Felix
2015-10-01
The coupling of magnetorheological (MR) dampers with semi-active control schemes has proven to be an effective and failsafe approach for vibration mitigation of low-damped structures. However, due to the nonlinearities inherently relating to such damping devices, the characterization of the associated nonlinear phenomena is still a challenging task. Herein, an enhanced phenomenological modeling approach is proposed for the description of a rotational-type MR damper, which comprises a modified Bouc-Wen model coupled with an appropriately selected sigmoid function. In a first step, parameter optimization is performed on the basis of individual models in an effort to approximate the experimentally observed response for varying current levels and actuator force characteristics. In a second step, based on the previously identified parameters, a generalized best-fit model is proposed by performing a regression analysis. Finally, model validation is carried out via implementation on different sets of experimental data. The proposed model indeed renders an improved representation of the actually observed nonlinear behavior of the tested rotational MR damper.
General relativistic x ray (UV) polarization rotations as a quantitative test for black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stark, Richard F.
1989-01-01
It is now 11 years since a potentially easily observable and quantitative test for black holes using general relativistic polarization rotations was proposed (Stark and Connors 1977, and Connors and Stark 1977). General relativistic rotations of the x ray polarization plane of 10 to 100 degrees with x ray energy (between 1 and 100 keV) are predicted for black hole x ray binaries. (Classically, by symmetry, there is no rotation.) Unfortunately, x ray polarimetry has not been taken sufficiently seriously during this period, and this test has not yet been performed. A similar (though probably less clean) effect is expected in the UV for supermassive black holes in some quasars active galactic nuclei. Summarizing: (1) a quantitative test (proposed in 1977) for black holes exists; (2) x ray polarimetry of galactic x ray binaries sensitive to at least 1/2 percent between 1 keV and 100 keV is needed (polarimetry in the UV of quasars and AGN will also be of interest); and (3) proportional counters using timerise discrimination were shown in laboratory experiments able to perform x ray polarimetry and this and other methods need to be developed.
In-line polarization rotator based on the quantum-optical analogy.
Chen, Lei; Qu, Ke-Nan; Shen, Heng; Zhang, Wei-Gang; Chou, Keng C; Liu, Qian; Yan, Tie-Yi; Wang, Biao; Wang, Song
2016-05-01
An in-line polarization rotator (PR) is proposed based on the quantum-optical analogy (QOA). The proposed PR possesses an auxiliary E7 liquid crystal (LC) waveguide in the vicinity of the single-mode fiber (SMF) core. Because of the matched core size, the PR demonstrates good compatibility with the established backbone networks which are composed of conventional SMFs. With optimized parameters for the auxiliary waveguide, the PR offers a near 100% polarization conversion efficiency at the 1550 nm band with a bandwidth of ∼30 nm, a length of ∼4625.9 μm with a large tolerance of ∼550 μm, and a tolerance of the input light polarization angle and rotation angle of the E7 LC of ∼π/30 and ∼π/36 rad, respectively. The performance was verified by the full-vector finite-element method. The proposed PR can be easily fabricated based on the existing photonics crystal fiber manufacturing process, making it a potentially inexpensive device for applications in modern communication systems. Moreover, the QOA, compared with the previous supermode-theory design method, allows a designer to consider several waveguides separately. Therefore, various unique characteristics can be met simultaneously which is consistent with the trend of modern fiber design.
Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light in the geophysical field range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acosta, V.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Rochester, S. M.; Budker, D.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Hovde, D. C.; Gawlik, W.; Pustelny, S.; Zachorowski, J.; Yashchuk, V. V.
2006-05-01
Recent work investigating resonant nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) related to long-lived (τrel˜1s) ground-state atomic coherences has demonstrated potential magnetometric sensitivities exceeding 10-11G/Hz for small (≲1μG ) magnetic fields. In the present work, NMOR using frequency-modulated light (FM NMOR) is studied in the regime where the longitudinal magnetic field is in the geophysical range (˜500mG) , of particular interest for many applications. In this regime a splitting of the FM NMOR resonance due to the nonlinear Zeeman effect is observed. At sufficiently high light intensities, there is also a splitting of the FM NMOR resonances due to ac Stark shifts induced by the optical field, as well as evidence of alignment-to-orientation conversion type processes. The consequences of these effects for FM-NMOR-based atomic magnetometry in the geophysical field range are considered.
Ultrafast Rotation of Light Fields Applied to Highly Non-Linear Optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quéré, Fabien
2014-05-01
Femtosecond laser beams can exhibit spatio-temporal couplings (STC), i.e. a temporal dependence of their spatial properties, or vice versa. Although these couplings have long been considered as detrimental for high-intensity and ultrafast experiments, moderate and controlled STC provide a powerful means of controlling high-intensity laser-matter interactions. This talk will first explain the basics of a particular STC, where the propagation direction of laser light rotates in time on the femtosecond time scale. Laser pulses with such ultrafast wavefront rotation can be used to generate attosecond pulses of light through non-linear optical processes. We show that these pulses, periodically generated in each laser cycle, can then be emitted in spatially separated beamlets. This effects provides a new type of light sources called attosecond lighthouses, and can be exploited for ultrafast measurements with femtosecond resolution, in a scheme called photonic streaking.
Damping and non-linearity of a levitating magnet in rotation above a superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Druge, J.; Jean, C.; Laurent, O.; Méasson, M.-A.; Favero, I.
2014-07-01
We study the dissipation of moving magnets in levitation above a superconductor. The rotation motion is analyzed using optical tracking techniques. It displays a remarkable regularity together with long damping time up to several hours. The magnetic contribution to the damping is investigated in detail by comparing 14 distinct magnetic configurations and points towards amplitude-dependent dissipation mechanisms. The non-linear dynamics of the mechanical rotation motion is also revealed and described with an effective Duffing model. The magnetic mechanical damping is consistent with measured hysteretic cycles M(H) that are discussed within a modified critical state model. The obtained picture of the coupling of levitating magnets to their environment sheds light on their potential as ultra-low dissipation mechanical oscillators for high precision physics.
Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roundy, Shad; Tola, Jeffry
2014-10-01
We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph.
Nonlinear theory of intense laser-plasma interactions modified by vacuum polarization effects
Chen, Wenbo; Bu, Zhigang; Li, Hehe; Luo, Yuee; Ji, Peiyong
2013-07-15
The classical nonlinear theory of laser-plasma interactions is corrected by taking account of the vacuum polarization effects. A set of wave equations are obtained by using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian density and the derivative correction with the first-order quantum electrodynamic effects. A model more suitable to formulate the interactions of ultra-strong lasers and high-energy-density plasmas is developed. In the result, some environments in which the effects of vacuum polarization will be enhanced are discussed.
Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells
Budker, Dmitry; Hollberg. Leo; Kimball, Derek F.; Kitching J.; Pustelny Szymon; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.
2004-08-12
Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between ground-state hyperfine components of {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, an important property for atomic clocks and magnetometers.
Budker, D.; Hollberg, L.; Kimball, D.F.; Kitching, J.; Pustclny, S.; Robinson, H.G.; Yashchuk, V.V.
2004-06-04
Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between the components of the ground-state hyperfine structure for {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, which may be useful for atomic clocks and magnetometers.
Microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells
Budker, D.; Hollberg, L.; Kitching, J.; Kimball, D.F.; Pustelny, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.
2005-01-01
Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between ground-state hyperfine components of {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane antirelaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a 40-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, an important property for atomic clocks and magnetometers.
Nonlinear stability theorem for rotating coherent structures in a non-neutral plasma column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Ronald C.; Lund, Steven M.
1991-09-01
A nonlinear stability theorem is developed for arbitrary-amplitude, two-dimensional coherent structures, nR(θ - ωr t) and φR(θ - ωr t), in a strongly magnetized, low-density (ω2pe/ω2ce ≪ 1) non-neutral plasma column confined radially by a uniform axial magnetic field B0êz. Here, a grounded, perfectly conducting, cylindrical wall is located at radius r = rw, and ωr = const is the angular rotation velocity of the coherent structures about the cylinder axis (r=0). A cold-fluid guiding-center model based on the continuity-Poisson equations is used to describe the nonlinear evolution of the electron density ne(r,θ,t) = nR + δne and electrostatic potential φ(r,θ,t) = φR + δφ. Making use of global (spatially averaged) nonlinear conservation constraints, it is shown that ∂nR(ψR)/∂ψR ≤ 0 is a sufficient condition for nonlinear stability of the rotating equilibrium state (φR,nR) to arbitrary-amplitude perturbations δne and δφ. Here, ψR(r,θ - ωr t) = -eφR(r,θ - ωr t) + ωr(eB0/2c)r 2 is an effective streamfunction, and the stability theorem is valid no matter how complex the radial and azimuthal structure of φR(r,θ - ωr t) and nR(r,θ - ωr t).
Magnetic Dilaton Rotating Strings in the Presence of Exponential Nonlinear Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Mahmoudi, Z.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of four-dimensional spinning magnetic dilaton string solutions which produces a longitudinal nonlinear electromagnetic field. The Lagrangian of the matter field has the exponential form. We study the physical properties of the solution in ample details. Geometrical, causal and geodisical structures of the solutions are investigated, separately. We confirm that the spacetime is both null and geodesically complete. We find that these solutions have no curvature singularity and no horizon, but have a conic geometry. We investigate the effects of variation of charge and the intensity of the dilaton field, on the deficit angle. Due to the presence of the dilaton field, the asymptotic behavior of the solutions are neither flat nor (anti-) de Sitter [(A)dS]. Furthermore, we extend our study to the higher dimensions and obtain the ( n+1)-dimensional magnetic rotating dilaton strings with k≤[ n/2] rotation parameters and calculate conserved quantities of the solutions. Although these solutions are not asymptotically (A)dS, we use counterterm method to calculate conserved quantities. We also calculate electric charge and show that the net electric charge of the spinning string is proportional to the rotating parameter and the electric field only exists when the rotation parameter does not vanish.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, Md. Rabiul; Anower, Md. Shamim; Hasan, Md. Imran
2016-05-01
A simple hexagonal photonic crystal fiber is proposed to simultaneously achieve ultrahigh birefringence, large nonlinear coefficient, and two zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). The finite element method with circular perfectly matched layer boundary condition is used to simulate the designed structure. Simulation results show that it is possible to achieve two closely lying ZDWs of 1.08 and 1.29 μm for x-polarization with 0.88 and 1.20 μm for y-polarization modes, respectively. In addition, an ultrahigh birefringence of 3.15×10-2 and a high nonlinear coefficient of 58 W-1 km-1 are also obtained at the excitation wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed fiber can have important applications in supercontinuum generation, parametric amplification, four-wave mixing, and optical sensors design.
New Atmospheric and Oceanic Angular Momentum Datasets for Predictions of Earth Rotation/Polar Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salstein, D. A.; Stamatakos, N.
2014-12-01
We are reviewing the state of the art in available datasets for both atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and oceanic angular momentum (OAM) for the purposes of analysis and prediction of both polar motion and length of day series. Both analyses and forecasts of these quantities have been used separately and in combination to aid in short and medium range predictions of Earth rotation parameters. The AAM and OAM combination, with the possible addition of hydrospheric angular momentum can form a proxy index for the Earth rotation parameters themselves due to the conservation of angular momentum in the Earth system. Such a combination of angular momentum of the geophysical fluids has helped in forecasts within periods up to about 10 days, due to the dynamic models, and together with extended statistical predictions of Earth rotation parameters out even as far as 90 days, according to Dill et al. (2013). We assess other dataset combinations that can be used in such analysis and prediction efforts for the Earth rotation parameters, and demonstrate the corresponding skill levels in doing so.
Relaxation of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules in simple liquids
Padilla, A.; Perez, J.
2007-03-15
The relaxation processes of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules diluted in simple liquids are analyzed by applying a non-Markovian relaxation theory to the study of the binary time autocorrelation function of the angular momentum. This non-Markovian theory was previously applied to the study of the infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and also to the analysis of the rotational energy relaxation processes. We have obtained non-Markovian evolution equations for the two-time j-level angular momentum correlation components involved in the angular momentum correlation function. In these equations, the time-dependent angular momentum transfer rates and the pure orientational angular transfer rates are given in terms of the binary time autocorrelation function of the diatomic-solvent anisotropic interaction. The non-Markovian evolution equations converge to Markovian ones in the long time limit, reaching the angular momentum transfer rates in the usual time-independent form. Alternative time scales for the angular relaxation processes, relative to the individual rotational processes as well as to the global decay correlations, are introduced and analyzed. The theory is applied to the study of the angular momentum relaxation processes of HCl diluted in liquid SF{sub 6}, a system for which rotational energy relaxation and infrared and Raman spectroscopy was previously analyzed in the scope of the same theory.
Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan
2015-08-01
We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.
Photonic crystal fiber polarization rotator based on the topological Zeeman effect.
Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Gang; Yan, Tie-Yi; Wang, Li; Sieg, Jonathan; Wang, Biao; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Li-Yu
2015-08-01
A photonic crystal fiber polarization rotator (PR) is proposed based on the topological Zeeman effect. The proposed PR is achieved by permanently twisting a segment of sixfold symmetric photonic crystal fiber with a matched length, and under the optimized parameters, the PR can offer an almost 100% polarization conversion ratio in the wavelength of 1.55-μm band (∼200 nm bandwidth) and a compact length of about 157 μm based on the numerical simulation result of the full-vector finite-element method. The proposed in-line PCF PR can be easily fabricated based on state-of-art PCF manufacturing, and it is a potential inexpensive candidate in the application of modern communication systems. PMID:26258329
Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave
Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan
2015-01-01
We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications. PMID:26244284
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harada, Jun; Shimojo, Takafumi; Oyamaguchi, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Satomi, Koichiro; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Kawamata, Jun; Inabe, Tamotsu
2016-10-01
Ferroelectrics are used in a wide range of applications, including memory elements, capacitors and sensors. Recently, molecular ferroelectric crystals have attracted interest as viable alternatives to conventional ceramic ferroelectrics because of their solution processability and lack of toxicity. Here we show that a class of molecular compounds—known as plastic crystals—can exhibit ferroelectricity if the constituents are judiciously chosen from polar ionic molecules. The intrinsic features of plastic crystals, for example, the rotational motion of molecules and phase transitions with lattice-symmetry changes, provide the crystals with unique ferroelectric properties relative to those of conventional molecular crystals. This allows a flexible alteration of the polarization axis direction in a grown crystal by applying an electric field. Owing to the tunable nature of the crystal orientation, together with mechanical deformability, this type of molecular crystal represents an attractive functional material that could find use in a diverse range of applications.
Photonic crystal fiber polarization rotator based on the topological Zeeman effect.
Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Gang; Yan, Tie-Yi; Wang, Li; Sieg, Jonathan; Wang, Biao; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Li-Yu
2015-08-01
A photonic crystal fiber polarization rotator (PR) is proposed based on the topological Zeeman effect. The proposed PR is achieved by permanently twisting a segment of sixfold symmetric photonic crystal fiber with a matched length, and under the optimized parameters, the PR can offer an almost 100% polarization conversion ratio in the wavelength of 1.55-μm band (∼200 nm bandwidth) and a compact length of about 157 μm based on the numerical simulation result of the full-vector finite-element method. The proposed in-line PCF PR can be easily fabricated based on state-of-art PCF manufacturing, and it is a potential inexpensive candidate in the application of modern communication systems.
Harada, Jun; Shimojo, Takafumi; Oyamaguchi, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Satomi, Koichiro; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Kawamata, Jun; Inabe, Tamotsu
2016-10-01
Ferroelectrics are used in a wide range of applications, including memory elements, capacitors and sensors. Recently, molecular ferroelectric crystals have attracted interest as viable alternatives to conventional ceramic ferroelectrics because of their solution processability and lack of toxicity. Here we show that a class of molecular compounds-known as plastic crystals-can exhibit ferroelectricity if the constituents are judiciously chosen from polar ionic molecules. The intrinsic features of plastic crystals, for example, the rotational motion of molecules and phase transitions with lattice-symmetry changes, provide the crystals with unique ferroelectric properties relative to those of conventional molecular crystals. This allows a flexible alteration of the polarization axis direction in a grown crystal by applying an electric field. Owing to the tunable nature of the crystal orientation, together with mechanical deformability, this type of molecular crystal represents an attractive functional material that could find use in a diverse range of applications. PMID:27657871
Iino, T.; Toyosaki, N.; Katsuki, T.; Noda, T.; Natsume, T.; Yaginuma, T.; Hosoda, S.; Furuse, M.
1987-09-01
The perfusion territories in polar representations of stress Tl-201 rotational myocardial imaging in patients with angina pectoris who had one diseased coronary segment were analyzed. The lesions proximal or distal to the first major septal perforator in left anterior descending arteries were detected by the presence or absence of defects at the base of the anterior septum. Right coronary artery lesions were detected by the presence of defects at the basal posterior septum, in contrast to the preservation of myocardial uptake at this portion in lesions of the left circumflex artery. The specific defect patterns were detected in cases with lesions at the first diagonal, obtuse marginal, and posterolateral branches. Recognition of these defects in the polar maps allows detailed detection of diseased coronary arterial branches.
Rotative polarization system of millimetric wave for detecting fiber orientation in CFRP
Urabe, K. )
1992-02-01
A new system for nondestructive and contact-free detection of fiber orientation in fiber reinforced composites such as CFRP was devised using 35 GHz millimetric wave. In this system, by rotating the polarization of the wave and compensating it after passing through the sample, changes of anisotropy caused by changes in fiber orientation of unidirectional CFRP or carbon fiber prepreg can be easily and efficiently checked. Scanning detection of fiber direction and of fiber misorientation are also possible with high sensitivity. Results of measurements with successful sensitivity are shown for several kinds of unidirectional samples with artificial fiber misorientations. 5 refs.
Analysis of High-Speed Rotating Flow in 2D Polar (r - θ)Coordinate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, S.
2016-03-01
The generalized analytical model for the radial boundary layer in a high-speed rotating cylinder is formulated for studying the gas flow field due to insertion of mass, momentum and energy into the rotating cylinder in the polar (r - θ) plane. The analytical solution includes the sixth order differential equation for the radial boundary layer at the cylindrical curved surface in terms of master potential (χ) , which is derived from the equations of motion in a polar (r - θ) plane. The linearization approximation (Wood & Morton, J. Fluid Mech-1980; Pradhan & Kumaran, J. Fluid Mech-2011; Kumaran & Pradhan, J. Fluid Mech-2014) is used, where the equations of motion are truncated at linear order in the velocity and pressure disturbances to the base flow, which is a solid-body rotation. Additional assumptions in the analytical model include constant temperature in the base state (isothermal condition), and high Reynolds number, but there is no limitation on the stratification parameter. In this limit, the gas flow is restricted to a boundary layer of thickness (Re (1 / 3) R) at the wall of the cylinder. Here, the stratification parameter A = √ ((mΩ 2R2) / (2kB T)) . This parameter Ais the ratio of the peripheral speed, ΩR , to the most probable molecular speed, √(2 k_B T/m), the Reynolds number Re = (ρ _w ΩR2 / μ) , where m is the molecular mass, Ω and R are the rotational speed and radius of the cylinder, k_B is the Boltzmann constant, T is the gas temperature, ρ_w is the gas density at wall, and μ is the gas viscosity. The analytical solutions are then compared with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations.
INTEGRATED POLARIZATION OF SOURCES AT {lambda} {approx} 1 m AND NEW ROTATION MEASURE AMBIGUITIES
Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence; Brown, Shea
2011-06-15
We present an analysis of the polarization of compact radio sources from six pointings of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at 350 MHz with 35% coverage in {lambda}{sup 2}. After correcting for the off-axis instrumental polarization with a simple analytical model, only a small number of 585 strong sources have significant polarizations at these wavelengths. The median depolarization ratio from 1.4 GHz for the strongest sources is <0.2, reinforcing the likelihood that radio galaxies are found in magnetized environments, even outside of rich clusters. Seven sources with significant 350 MHz polarization were selected for a more in-depth Faraday structure analysis. We fit the observed values Q/I and U/I as a function of {lambda}{sup 2} using both a depolarizing screen and two-component models. We also performed rotation measure (RM) Synthesis/Clean and standard fitting of polarization angle versus {lambda}{sup 2}. We find that a single RM, as found using polarization angle fitting or simple screen models, commonly provides a poor fit when the solutions are translated back into Q, U space. Thus, although a single 'characteristic' RM may be found using these techniques, the Faraday structure of the source may not be adequately represented. We also demonstrate that RM Synthesis may yield an erroneous Faraday structure in the presence of multiple, interfering RM components, even when cleaning of the Faraday spectrum is performed. We briefly explore the conditions under which RMs and Faraday structure results can be reliable. Many measurements in the literature do not meet these criteria; we discuss how these influence the resulting scientific conclusions and offer a prescription for obtaining reliable RMs.
Polar octahedral rotations, cation displacement and ferroelectricity in multiferroic SmCrO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, A.; Dey, K.; Chakraborty, M.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.
2014-08-01
Our thorough synchrotron diffraction studies provide a clue on the origin of ferroelectricity in SmCrO3. Careful observation demonstrates that polar order develops in the paramagnetic state. Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data confirms that emergence of polar order is correlated with the structural transformation from centrosymmetric Pbnm to non-centrosymmetric Pna21 space group of the distorted orthorhombic structure. Rotations of polar CrO6 octahedra and Sm displacement are proposed to be correlated with the emergence of polar order, which is extended over a wide temperature range and increases gradually with decreasing temperature. This is consistent with the relaxor behavior as evident from the frequency-dependent dielectric response satisfying the Vogel-Fulcher law. A non-collinear to collinear spin transformation is suggested well below the spin reorientation transition. Appearance of ferroelectricity without any correlation to the antiferromagnetic order in SmCrO3 suggests a new class of ferroelectricity. All-electron full-potential first-principles calculation demonstrates significant Sm-Cr hybridization near the Fermi level, which substantiates the experimental findings.
NMR Properties of the Polar Phase of Superfluid ^3He in Anisotropic Aerogel Under Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mineev, V. P.
2016-09-01
The polar phase of superfluid ^3He is stable in "nematically ordered" densed aerogel. A rotating vessel with the polar superfluid can be filled either by an array of the single quantum vortices or by an array of the half-quantum vortices. It is shown that the inhomogeneous distribution of the spin part of the order parameter arising in an array of half-quantum vortices in strong enough magnetic field tilted to the average direction of aerogel strands leads to the appearance of a satellite in the NMR signal shifted in the negative direction with respect to the Larmor frequency. The satellite is absent in the case of an array of single quantum vortices which allows to distinguish these two configurations. The polar state in the anisotropic aerogel with lower density transforms at lower temperatures to the axipolar state. The array of half-quantum vortices created in the polar phase keeps its structure under transition to the axipolar state. The temperature dependence of the vortex-satellite NMR frequency is found to be slower below the transition temperature to the axipolar state.
Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light-matter energy transfer in solids.
Sommer, A; Bothschafter, E M; Sato, S A; Jakubeit, C; Latka, T; Razskazovskaya, O; Fattahi, H; Jobst, M; Schweinberger, W; Shirvanyan, V; Yakovlev, V S; Kienberger, R; Yabana, K; Karpowicz, N; Schultze, M; Krausz, F
2016-06-01
Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light-matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible-infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device. PMID:27251280
Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light–matter energy transfer in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, A.; Bothschafter, E. M.; Sato, S. A.; Jakubeit, C.; Latka, T.; Razskazovskaya, O.; Fattahi, H.; Jobst, M.; Schweinberger, W.; Shirvanyan, V.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Kienberger, R.; Yabana, K.; Karpowicz, N.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.
2016-06-01
Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light–matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible–infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device.
Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light-matter energy transfer in solids.
Sommer, A; Bothschafter, E M; Sato, S A; Jakubeit, C; Latka, T; Razskazovskaya, O; Fattahi, H; Jobst, M; Schweinberger, W; Shirvanyan, V; Yakovlev, V S; Kienberger, R; Yabana, K; Karpowicz, N; Schultze, M; Krausz, F
2016-05-23
Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light-matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible-infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device.
Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light-matter energy transfer in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, A.; Bothschafter, E. M.; Sato, S. A.; Jakubeit, C.; Latka, T.; Razskazovskaya, O.; Fattahi, H.; Jobst, M.; Schweinberger, W.; Shirvanyan, V.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Kienberger, R.; Yabana, K.; Karpowicz, N.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.
2016-06-01
Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light-matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible-infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device.
Camley, Brian A.; Zhang, Yunsong; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bo; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan
2014-01-01
Pairs of endothelial cells on adhesive micropatterns rotate persistently, but pairs of fibroblasts do not; coherent rotation is present in normal mammary acini and kidney cells but absent in cancerous cells. Why? To answer this question, we develop a computational model of pairs of mammalian cells on adhesive micropatterns using a phase field method and study the conditions under which persistent rotational motion (PRM) emerges. Our model couples the shape of the cell, the cell’s internal chemical polarity, and interactions between cells such as volume exclusion and adhesion. We show that PRM can emerge from this minimal model and that the cell-cell interface may be influenced by the nucleus. We study the effect of various cell polarity mechanisms on rotational motion, including contact inhibition of locomotion, neighbor alignment, and velocity alignment, where cells align their polarity to their velocity. These polarity mechanisms strongly regulate PRM: Small differences in polarity mechanisms can create significant differences in collective rotation. We argue that the existence or absence of rotation under confinement may lead to insight into the cell’s methods for coordinating collective cell motility. PMID:25258412
Camley, Brian A; Zhang, Yunsong; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bo; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan
2014-10-14
Pairs of endothelial cells on adhesive micropatterns rotate persistently, but pairs of fibroblasts do not; coherent rotation is present in normal mammary acini and kidney cells but absent in cancerous cells. Why? To answer this question, we develop a computational model of pairs of mammalian cells on adhesive micropatterns using a phase field method and study the conditions under which persistent rotational motion (PRM) emerges. Our model couples the shape of the cell, the cell's internal chemical polarity, and interactions between cells such as volume exclusion and adhesion. We show that PRM can emerge from this minimal model and that the cell-cell interface may be influenced by the nucleus. We study the effect of various cell polarity mechanisms on rotational motion, including contact inhibition of locomotion, neighbor alignment, and velocity alignment, where cells align their polarity to their velocity. These polarity mechanisms strongly regulate PRM: Small differences in polarity mechanisms can create significant differences in collective rotation. We argue that the existence or absence of rotation under confinement may lead to insight into the cell's methods for coordinating collective cell motility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguiar-González, Borja; Gerkema, Theo
2015-04-01
We derive a new two-fluid layer model consisting of a set of forced rotation-modified Boussinesq equations for studying the generation and evolution of strongly nonlinear weakly nonhydrostatic dispersive interfacial waves in a rotating ocean. The forcing for internal tide generation is due to tide-topography interaction (an oscillating non-flat bottom mimicking a barotropic tidal flow over topography). The resulting model forms a generalization of the Miyata-Choi-Camassa (MCC) equations, to which we add topography, tidal forcing and Coriolis dispersion due to Earth's rotation. Solitons are generated by disintegration of the first-mode of the internal tide. Because of strong non-linearity, they can attain a table-shaped form. Our moving (accelerating) topography is not an inertial frame and, hence, the transformation to a frame at rest is not simply a Galilean transformation. The effect of this transformation is discussed and is shown to be slight for the parameters under consideration. The set of equations is solved numerically using finite-difference methods. Numerical experiments using these equations are a useful tool for exploring and interpreting the conditions under which full nonlinearity becomes important for soliton generation. In particular, this is the case for table-top solitons when approaching the theoretical maximum amplitude and the appearance of nonlinearities when the two-layer system consists of two layers of equal thickness. At the early stage of the strongly nonlinear disintegration of an internal tide into table-top solitons, we observe that the low mode internal tide splits up into two different groups of rank-ordered solitons: a train of depressions on the leading edge and a train of elevations, after the former packet, with initially smaller amplitudes. Evolving in time, the largest elevations reach the smaller depressions in the train ahead, and three leading solitons at the front attain almost equal amplitudes. The table-top soliton
Nonlinear evolution of a large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave: High beta
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, S.; Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.
1994-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics following saturation of the parametric instabilities of a monochromatic field-aligned large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave is investigated via direct numerical simulation in the case of high plasma beta and no wave dispersion. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code permits nonlinear couplings in the parallel direction to the ambient magnetic field and one perpendicular direction. Compressibility is included in the form of a polytropic equation of state. Turbulent cascades develop after saturation of two coupled oblique three-wave parametric instabilities; one of which is an oblique filamentationlike instability reported earlier. Remnants of the parametric processes, as well as of the original Alfven pump wave, persist during late nonlinear times. Nearly incompressible MHD features such as spectral anisotropies appear as well.
Ma, Pengfei; Zhang, Hanwei; Huang, Long; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin
2015-10-01
Ytterbium-Raman cascaded oscillators with linearly polarized output are designed and achieved based on polarization selection loss (PSL) mechanism for the first time. The 1120 nm laser cavity is designed with fully non polarization-maintained (NPM) fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and NPM active fiber while the 1080 nm laser cavity is designed based on polarization-maintained (PM) FBGs and PM active fiber. By using PSL mechanism in 1080 nm cavity, even with fully NPM 1120 nm cavity, both linear-polarized 1120 nm and 1080 nm lasers are achieved in the output port of the cascaded oscillators. Based on the new designed cascaded seeds, a high power polarization-maintained Yb-Raman hybrid nonlinear amplifier is established for further power scaling of the 1120 nm laser. In the nonlinear amplifier, only 21-meter-long active fiber and 1.5-meter-long passive fiber is used for power transferring from 1080 nm to 1120 nm. Output power of 1181 W is achieved at central wavelength of 1120 nm with the M(2) factor of <1.2 and polarization-extinction ratio (PER) of 18.2 dB. As far as we known, the output power of this all fiber format is the highest one in 1120 nm with linear polarization. This type of high power Yb-Raman nonlinear amplifier design with linear polarization can be further extended to Yb-Raman amplifying the wavelength range of 1100-1200 nm. PMID:26480163
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Chih-Jen; Chou, Chien
2011-03-01
An equivalence theory based on a unitary optical system of a generalized elliptical phase retarder was derived. Whereas the elliptical phase retarder can be treated as the combination of a linear phase retarder and a polarization rotator equivalently. Three fundamental parameters, including the elliptical phase retardation, the azimuth angle and the ellipticity angle of the fast elliptical eigen-polarization state were derived. All parameters of a generalized elliptical phase retarder can be determined from the analytical solution of the characteristic parameters of the optical components: linear phase retardation and fast axis angle of the equivalently linear phase retarder respectively, and polarization rotation angle of an equivalent polarization rotator. In this study, the experimental verification was demonstrated by testing a twisted nematic liquid crystal device (TNLCD) treated as a generalized elliptical phase retarder. A dual-frequency heterodyne ellipsometer was setup and the experimental result demonstrates the capability of the equivalent theory on elliptical birefringence measurement at high sensitivity by using heterodyne technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyanaga, S.; Sato, T.
2015-04-01
Polarization-dependent nonlinear transmissions are investigated by a pump-probe method in saturable-dye-doped films in which optically anisotropic saturable dyes are rigidly held with random orientations. The nonlinear transmissions measured by using uranine-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) films are compared with the theoretical predictions that are obtained by considering the effects of pump propagation and molecular orientation on the basis of a rate equation analysis for a four-energy-level model including an excited-state absorption. The measurements were conducted for the two cases of polarization states for which the polarization direction of the probe wave is either parallel or perpendicular to that of the pump wave; the experimental results considerably deviated from the theoretical ones for the probe wave perpendicularly polarized to the pump wave. It is shown that this is explained by modifying the energy level model to include the existence of a nearly-orthogonal component of the transition dipole moment associated with the ground-state absorption in uranine dyes.
Tuer, Adam E; Krouglov, Serguei; Prent, Nicole; Cisek, Richard; Sandkuijl, Daaf; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Wilson, Brian C; Barzda, Virginijus
2011-11-10
Collagen (type I) fibers are readily visualized with second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy though the molecular origin of the signal has not yet been elucidated. In this study, the molecular origin of SHG from type I collagen is investigated using the time-dependent coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock calculations of the hyperpolarizibilities of glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. Two effective nonlinear dipoles are found to orient in-the-plane of the amino acids, with one of the dipoles aligning close to the pitch orientation in the triple-helix, which provides the dominant contribution to the SHG polarization properties. The calculated hyperpolarizability tensor element ratios for the collagen triple-helix models: [(Gly3)n]3, [(Gly-Pro2)n]3, and [(Gly-Pro-Hyp)n]3, are used to predict the second-order nonlinear susceptibility ratios, χ(zzz)(2)/χ(iiz)(2) and χ(zii)(2)/χ(iiz)(2) of collagen fibers. From SHG microscopy polarization in, polarization out (PIPO) measurements of type I collagen in human lung tissue, a theoretical method is used to extract the triple-helix orientation angle with respect to the collagen fiber. The study shows the dominant role of amino acid orientation in the triple-helix for determining the polarization properties of SHG and provides a method for determining the triple-helix orientation angle in the collagen fibers. PMID:21970315
Nonlinear evolution of multi-helicity neo-classical tearing modes in rotating tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Lai; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Wang, Jialei; Yang, Xuefeng
2016-10-01
Plasma perturbations from the core and/or boundary regions of tokamaks can provide seed islands for the excitation of neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs) with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} , where {{ Δ }\\prime} is the linear instability parameter of the classical tearing mode. In this work, by means of reduced magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we numerically investigate the nonlinear evolution of multi-helicity NTMs in rotating tokamak plasmas with these two types of plasma perturbations with different boundary conditions. In the first case of initial plasma perturbations from the core region with a zero boundary condition, the meta-stable property of seed-island triggered NTM with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} is verified in the single helicity simulation. Nevertheless in the multiple helicity simulation, this seed-island triggered NTM with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} can be suppressed by a spontaneous NTM with positive {{ Δ }\\prime} through the competitive interaction between NTMs with different helicities. If a fixed poloidal rotation is taken into account in the first case, two different helicity NTMs could coexist in the saturation stage, which is different qualitatively from the process without plasma rotation. In the second case of initial plasma perturbations from the boundary region with a nonzero boundary condition, as the amplitude of plasma perturbations on the boundary increases, the mode with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} gradually changes from the driven-reconnection state to the NTM state, accompanied by an enhancement of magnetic island width in the single helicity simulation. Nevertheless in the multi-helicity simulation, the spontaneous NTM with positive {{ Δ }\\prime} can make the driven-reconnection triggered NTM with negative {{ Δ }\\prime} transfer from the NTM state back to the driven-reconnection state again. The underlying mechanism behind these transitions is analyzed step by step. Effects of fixed and unfixed poloidal rotations on the nonlinear
Wu, S Q; Hartemann, F V
2010-04-13
The standard Big Bang universe model is mainly based on linear interactions, except during exotic periods such as inflation. The purpose of the present proposal is to explore the effects, if any, of vacuum polarization in the very high energy density environment of the early universe. These conditions can be found today in astrophysical settings and may also be emulated in the laboratory using high intensity advanced lasers. Shortly after the Big Bang, there once existed a time when the energy density of the universe corresponded to a temperature in the range 10{sup 8} - 10{sup 9} K, sufficient to cause vacuum polarization effects. During this period, the nonlinear vacuum polarization may have had significant modifications on the propagation of radiation. Thus the thermal spectrum of the early universe may have been starkly non-Planckian. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background today show a spectrum relatively close to an ideal blackbody. Could the early universe have shown spectral deviations due to nonlinear vacuum effects? If so, is it possible to detect traces of those relic photons in the universe today? Found in galactic environments, compact objects such as blazars and magnetars can possess astronomically large energy densities that far exceed anything that can be created in the laboratory. Their field strengths are known to reach energy levels comparable to or surpassing the energy corresponding to the Schwinger critical field E {approx} 10{sup 18} V/m. Nonlinear vacuum effects become prominent under these conditions and have garnered much interest from the astronomical and theoretical physics communities. The effects of a nonlinear vacuum may be of crucial importance for our understanding of these objects. At energies of the order of the electron rest mass, the most important interactions are described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is predicted that nonlinear photon-photon interactions will occur at energies approaching the Schwinger
Yuan, Y; Axelrod, D
1995-01-01
Polarized fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (PFRAP) is a technique for measuring the rate of rotational motion of biomolecules on living, nondeoxygenated cells with characteristic times previously ranging from milliseconds to many seconds. Although very broad, that time range excludes the possibility of quantitatively observing freely rotating membrane protein monomers that typically should have a characteristic decay time of only several microseconds. This report describes an extension of the PFRAP technique to a much shorter time scale. With this new system, PFRAP experiments can be conducted with sample time as short as 0.4 microseconds and detection of possible characteristic times of less than 2 microseconds. The system is tested on rhodamine-alpha-bungarotoxin-labeled acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on myotubes grown in primary cultures of embryonic rat muscle, in both endogenously clustered and nonclustered regions of AChR distribution. It is found that approximately 40% of the AChRs in nonclustered regions undergoes rotational diffusion fast enough to possibly arise from unrestricted monomer Brownian motion. The AChRs in clusters, on the other hand, are almost immobile. The effects of rat embryonic brain extract (which contains AChR aggregating factors) on the myotube AChR were also examined by the fast PFRAP system. Brain extract is known to abolish the presence of endogenous clusters and to induce the formation of new clusters. It is found here that rotational diffusion of AChR in the extract-induced clusters is as slow as that in endogenous clusters on untreated cells but that rotational diffusion in the nonclustered regions of extract-treated myotubes remains rapid. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:8527682
Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao
2015-01-01
Hybrid plasmonic (HP) modes allow strong optical field confinement and simultaneously low propagation loss, offering a potentially compact and efficient platform for on-chip photonic applications. However, their implementation is hampered by the low coupling efficiency between dielectric guided modes and HP modes, caused by mode mismatch and polarization difference. In this work, we present a mode-evolution-based polarization rotation and coupling structure that adiabatically rotates the TE mode in a silicon waveguide and couples it to the HP mode in a strip silicon-dielectric-metal waveguide. Simulation shows that high coupling factors of 92%, 78%, 75%, and 73% are achievable using Ag, Au, Al, and Cu as the metal cap, respectively, at a conversion length of about 5 μm. For an extremely broad wavelength range of 1300–1800 nm, the coupling factor is >64% with a Ag metal cap, and the total back-reflection power, including all the mode reflections and backscattering, is below −40 dB, due to the adiabatic mode transition. Our device does not require high-resolution lithography and is tolerant to fabrication variations and imperfections. These attributes together make our device suitable for optical transport systems spanning all telecommunication bands. PMID:26680655
Dependence of electronic polarization on octahedral rotations in TbMnO3 from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malashevich, Andrei; Vanderbilt, David
2009-12-01
The electronic contribution to the magnetically induced polarization in orthorhombic TbMnO3 is studied from first principles. We compare the cases in which the spin cycloid, which induces the electric polarization via the spin-orbit interaction, is in either the b-c or a-b plane. We find that the electronic contribution is negligible in the first case, but much larger, and comparable to the lattice-mediated contribution, in the second case. However, we show that this behavior is an artifact of the particular pattern of octahedral rotations characterizing the structurally relaxed Pbnm crystal structure. To do so, we explore how the electronic contribution varies for a structural model of rigidly rotated MnO6 octahedra and demonstrate that it can vary over a wide range, comparable with the lattice-mediated contribution, for both b-c and a-b spirals. We present a phenomenological model that is capable of describing this behavior in terms of sums of symmetry-constrained contributions arising from the displacements of oxygen atoms from the centers of the Mn-Mn bonds.
Matsas, V.J.; Loh, W.H.; Richardson, D.J. )
1993-05-01
During the last three years the potential of mode-locked rare-earth-doped fiber lasers for ultrashort pulse generation has been explored and both passive and active mode-locking schemes have been demonstrated. Three cavity configurations are most commonly used: Fabry-Perot, ring, and those which exploit the nonlinear properties of the fiber Sagnac loop mirror. Systems which use nonlinear polarization evolution (NLPE) in conjunction with an intracavity polarizer to provide the passive mode-locking mechanism have so far been demonstrated in ring and Fabry-Perot configurations, the latter of which employed an intracavity bulk polarizer and modulator. Here, the authors demonstrate pure self-starting mode-locked operation in a fiber Fabry-Perot cavity. The laser produces 1.6 ps transform-limited soliton pulses by means of nonlinear polarization evolution in conjunction with an intracavity fiber polarizer.
Polar cap models of gamma-ray pulsars: Emision from single poles of nearly aligned rotators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daugherty, Joseph K.; Harding, Alice K.
1994-01-01
We compare a new Monte Carlo simulation of polar cap models for gamma-ray pulsars with observations of sources detected above 10 MeV by the Compton Observatory (CGRO). We find that for models in which the inclination of the magnetic axis is comparable to the angular radius of the polar cap, the radiation from a single cap may exhibit a pusle with either a single broad peak as in PSR 1706-44 and PSR 1055-52, or a doubly peaked profile comparable to those observed from the Crab, Vela and Geminga pulsars. In general, double pulses are seen by observers whose line of sight penetrates into the cap interior and are due to enhanced emission near the rim. For cascades induced by culvature radiation, increased rim emission occurs even when electrons are accelerated over the entire cap, since electrons from the interior escape along magnetic field lines with less curvature and hence emit less radiation. However, we obtain better fits to the duty cycles of observed profiles if we make the empirical assumption that acceleration occurs only near the rim. In either case, the model energy spectra are consistent with most of the observed sources. The beaming factors expected from nearly aligned rotators, based on standard estimates for the cap radius, imply that their luminosities need not be as large as in the case of orthogonal rotators. However, small beam angles are also a difficutly with this model because they imply low detection probablities. In either case the polar cap radius is a critical factor, and in this context we point out that plasma loading of the field lines should make the caps larger than the usual estimates based on pure dipole fields.
The polarization electric field and its effects in an anisotropic rotating magnetospheric plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, T. S.; Birmingham, T. J.
1992-01-01
Spatial variations of density and temperature along a magnetic field line are evaluated for a plasma undergoing adiabatic motion in a rotating magnetosphere. The effects of centrifugal and gravitational forces are accounted for, as is anisotropy in the pitch angle distribution functions of individual species. A polarization electric field is invoked to eliminate the net electric charge density resulting from the aforementioned mass dependent forces and different anisotropies. The position of maximum density in a two-component, electron-ion plasma is determined both in the absence and in the presence of the polarization effect and compared. A scale height, generalized to include anisotropies, is derived for the density fall-off. The polarization electric field is also included in the parallel guiding center equation; equilibrium points are determined and compared in both individual and average senses with the position of density maximum. Finally a transverse (to magnetic field lines) electric component is deduced as a consequence of dissimilar charge neutralization on adjacent field lines. The E x B velocity resultant from such a 'fringing' electric field is calculated and compared with the magnitude of other drifts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yao; Ye, Winnie N.
2016-03-01
Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology has been a promising platform for photonic applications. However, the high index-contrast between silicon and the top cladding (SiO2 or air) of the SOI waveguides makes the modal birefringence hard to control. Consequently, SOI based photonics integrated circuits (PICs) are in general highly polarization-sensitive, making polarization management important. In this paper, a polarization rotator (PR) design on the 220 nm SOI platform is demonstrated through numerical simulations and experiments. The demonstrated PR design is based on asymmetrical periodic loaded waveguide structures. The demonstrated design features compact device footprint and can be fabricated by CMOS compatible process. In addition, no special cladding is required to break the vertical symmetry of the waveguide. The design has shown promising performance over the C-band wavelengths (1530 nm-1565 nm) by simulations. However, the fabrication requirements are stringent for the design, thus the performance of the fabricated devices are limited by the current fabrication technology.
Bills, Bruce G.; James, Thomas S.; Mengel, John G.
1999-01-01
Precessional motion of Earth's rotation axis relative to its orbit is a well-known source of long-period climatic variation. It is less well appreciated that growth and decay of polar ice sheets perturb the symmetry of the global mass distribution enough that the geographic location of the rotation axis will change by at least 15 km and possibly as much as 100 km during a single glacial cycle. This motion of the pole will change the seasonal and latitudinal pattern of temperatures. We present calculations, based on a diurnal average energy balance, which compare the summer and winter temperature anomalies due to a 1° decrease in obliquity with those due to a 1° motion of the rotation pole toward Hudson Bay. Both effects result in peak temperature perturbations of about 1° Celsius. The obliquity change primarily influences the amplitude of the seasonal cycle, while the polar motion primarily changes the annual mean temperatures. The polar motion induced temperature anomaly is such that it will act as a powerful negative feedback on ice sheet growth. We also explore the evolution of the coupled system composed of ice sheet mass and pole position. Oscillatory solutions result from the conflicting constraints of rotational and thermal stability. A positive mass anomaly on an otherwise featureless Earth is in rotational equilibrium only at the poles or the equator. The two polar equilibria are rotationally unstable, and the equatorial equilibrium, though rotationally stable, is thermally unstable. We find that with a plausible choice for the strength of coupling between the thermal and rotational systems, relatively modest external forcing can produce significant response at periods of 104–106 years, but it strongly attenuates polar motion at longer periods. We suggest that these coupled oscillations may contribute to the observed dominance of 100 kyr glacial cycles since the mid-Pleistocene and will tend to stabilize geographic patterns that are suitable to
Effects of rotation on the nonlinear friction of a damped dimer sliding on a periodic substrate.
Neide, I G; Kenkre, V M; Gonçalves, S
2010-10-01
Rotational effects on the nonlinear sliding friction of a damped dimer moving over a substrate are studied within a largely one-dimensional model. The model consists of two masses connected rigidly, internally damped, and sliding over a sinusoidal (substrate) potential while being free to rotate in the plane containing the masses and the direction of sliding. Numerical simulations of the dynamics performed by throwing the dimer with an initial center of mass velocity along the substrate direction show a richness of phenomena including the appearance of three separate regimes of motion. The orientation of the dimer performs tiny oscillations around values that are essentially constant in each regime. The constant orientations form an intricate pattern determined by the ratio of the dimer length to the substrate wavelength as well as by the initial orientations chosen. Corresponding evolution of the center of mass velocity consists, respectively, of regular oscillations in the first and the third regimes, but a power law decay in the second regime; the center of mass motion is effectively damped in this regime because of the coupling to the rotation. Depending on the initial orientation of the dimer, there is considerable variation in the overall behavior. For small initial angles to the vertical, an interesting formal connection can be established to earlier results known in the literature for a vibrating, rather than rotating, dimer. But for large angles, on which we focus in the present paper, quite different evolution occurs. Some of the numerical observations are explained successfully on the basis of approximate analytical arguments but others pose puzzling problems.
The nonlinear response of the polar cap potential under southward IMF: A statistical view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilder, F. D.; Clauer, C. R.; Baker, J. B. H.; Cousins, E. P.; Hairston, M. R.
2011-12-01
We report the results of an investigation into the effect of solar wind properties on the saturation of the polar cap potential (CPCP) during periods of strongly southward IMF. We use propagated solar wind data to search for periods between 1998 and 2007 when the interplanetary electric field is stable for more than 50 min and placed further conditions on the availability of SuperDARN and DMSP velocity data. CPCP values are calculated from these data sets and various fits of the polar cap potential to the interplanetary electric field (IEF) are compared. It is found that the trend is nonlinear, with a square root function fitting better than a straight line, and that the CPCP does not appear to exhibit asymptotic behavior. The nonlinearity of the CPCP is then correlated with various interplanetary parameters to test the various models of polar cap potential saturation. It is also found that the deviation of the CPCP from a linear fit has statistically significant correlation with solar wind Alfvènic Mach number and no significant correlation with solar wind dynamic pressure.
Chen, Frank; Goodfellow, John; Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Hoffman, Matthias; Damodaran, Anoop R.; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaohang; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Rappe, Andrew; et al
2015-09-21
In this article, terahertz pulses are applied as an all-optical bias to ferroelectric thin-film BiFeO3 while monitoring the time-dependent ferroelectric polarization through its nonlinear optical response. Modulations in the intensity of the second harmonic light generated by the film correspond to on–off ratios of 220 × gateable on femtosecond timescales. Polarization modulations comparable to the built-in static polarization are observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dymnikova, Irina; Galaktionov, Evgeny
2016-03-01
In nonlinear electrodynamics minimally coupled to gravity, regular spherically symmetric electrically charged solutions satisfy the weak energy condition and have obligatory de Sitter center. By the Gürses-Gürsey algorithm they are transformed to regular axially symmetric solutions asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer. Rotation transforms de Sitter center into de Sitter equatorial disk embedded as a bridge into a de Sitter vacuum surface. The de Sitter surfaces satisfy p = -ρ and have properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic. The Kerr ring singularity is replaced with the superconducting current which serves as a non-dissipative electromagnetic source of the asymptotically Kerr-Newman geometry. Violation of the weak energy condition is prevented by the basic requirement of electrodynamics of continued media.
Volkova, E. A.; Popov, A. M. Tikhonova, O. V.
2013-03-15
The nonlinear polarization response of a quantum system modeling a silver atom in the field of high-intensity radiation in the IR and UV spectral ranges has been studied by direct numerical integration of a nonstationary Schroedinger equation. The domains of applicability of perturbation theory and polarization expansion in powers of the field intensity are determined. The contribution of excited atoms and electrons in a continuum to the atomic polarization response at the field frequency, which arises due to the radiation-induced excitation and photoionization processes, is analyzed. Features of the nonlinear response to an external field under conditions of atom stabilization are considered.
Nonlinear evolution of a large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave: Low beta
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, S.; Goldstein, M. L.
1994-01-01
The nature of turbulent cascades arising from the parametric instabilities of a monochromatic field-aligned large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave is investigated via direct numerical simulation for the case of low plasma Beta and no wave dispersion. The magnetohydrodynamic code permits nonlinear couplings in the parallel direction to the ambient magnetic field and one perpendicular direction. Compressibility is included in the form of a polytropic equation of state. Anisotropic turbulent cascades, similar to those found in early incompressible two-dimensional simulations, occur after nonlinear saturation of the parallel propagating decay instability. The turbulent spectrum can be divided into three regimes: the lowest wave numbers are dominated by lower sideband remnants of the parametric process, intermediate wave numbers display nearly incompressible dynamics, and the highest wave numbers are dominated by acoustic turbulence.
34-fs, all-fiber all-polarization-maintaining single-mode pulse nonlinear amplifier.
Yu, Jia; Feng, Ye; Cai, Yajun; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Wei; Duan, Lina; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Yishan; Liu, Yuanshan; Zhao, Wei
2016-07-25
We present an all-fiber all-polarization-maintaining (PM) single mode (SM) fiber pulse nonlinear amplification system. The seed laser with a repetition rate of 200 MHz is amplified by two-section erbium-doped PM gain fibers with different peak-absorption rate. The amplified pulse duration can be compressed into 34-fs with 320-mW output power, which corresponds to 1.6-nJ pulse energy and approximate 23.5-kW peak power. In addition, the amplified and compressed pulse is further coupled into the high nonlinear fiber and an octave-spanning supercontinuum generation can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest peak power and the shortest pulse duration obtained in the field of all-fiber all-PM SM pulse-amplification systems. PMID:27464117
Polarization dependence of nonlinear wave mixing of spinor polaritons in semiconductor microcavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewandowski, Przemyslaw; Lafont, Ombline; Baudin, Emmanuel; Chan, Chris K. P.; Leung, P. T.; Luk, Samuel M. H.; Galopin, Elisabeth; Lemaître, Aristide; Bloch, Jacqueline; Tignon, Jerome; Roussignol, Philippe; Kwong, N. H.; Binder, Rolf; Schumacher, Stefan
2016-07-01
The pseudospin dynamics of propagating exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities are known to be strongly influenced by TE-TM splitting. As a vivid consequence, in the Rayleigh scattering regime, the TE-TM splitting gives rise to the optical spin Hall effect (OSHE). Much less is known about its role in the nonlinear optical regime in which four-wave mixing, for example, allows the formation of spatial patterns in the polariton density, such that hexagons and two-spot patterns are observable in the far field. Here we present a detailed analysis of spin-dependent four-wave mixing processes, by combining the (linear) physics of TE-TM splitting with spin-dependent nonlinear processes, i.e., exciton-exciton interaction and fermionic phase-space filling. Our combined theoretical and experimental study elucidates the complex physics of the four-wave mixing processes that govern polarization and orientation of off-axis modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Sheldon; Hartemann, Frederic; Siders, Craig; Barty, Christopher
2009-11-01
A study of thermally induced vacuum polarization stemming from the Euler-Heisenberg radiation correction to Maxwell equations is conducted. While nonlinear effects associated with interactions of electromagnetic pulse with a background photon gas had been previously calculated, we examine the possibility of nonlinear corrective terms to the blackbody radiation spectrum. Suitable conditions can be found in both astrophysical and laboratory environments. Inertial confined, ignited thermonuclear plasmas will produce intense blackbody radiation at temperatures in excess of 20 keV. In this theoretical investigation, our analysis shows that in an ideal incoherent blackbody the radiation spectrum is unaffected in the regime studied. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Yuan, Minghu; Feng, Liqiang; Lü, Rui; Chu, Tianshu E-mail: tschu008@163.com
2014-02-21
We show that by introducing Wigner rotation technique into the solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in length gauge, computational efficiency can be greatly improved in describing atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses. The methodology with Wigner rotation technique underlying our openMP parallel computational code for circularly polarized laser pulses is described. Results of test calculations to investigate the scaling property of the computational code with the number of the electronic angular basis function l as well as the strong field phenomena are presented and discussed for the hydrogen atom.
Right-hand polarized 4fce auroral roar emissions: 2. Nonlinear generation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, P. H.; LaBelle, J.; Weatherwax, A. T.
2016-08-01
Auroral roar emissions are commonly interpreted as Z (or upper hybrid) mode naturally excited by precipitating auroral electrons. Subsequent conversion to escaping radiation makes it possible for these emissions to be detected on the ground. Most emissions are detected as having left-hand (L) circular (or ordinary O) polarization, but the companion paper presents a systematic experimental study on the rare occurrence of the right-hand polarized, or equivalently, extraordinary (X) mode 4fce emission. A similar observation was reported earlier by Sato et al. (2015). The suggested emission mechanism is the nonlinear coalescence of two upper hybrid roars at 2fce. The present paper formulates a detailed theory for such an emission mechanism.
Polarization-dependent colored conical emission in a quadratically nonlinear medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Jie; Zhou, Lina; Zheng, Anshou; Lv, Tao; Xiang, Dong
2012-07-01
Both supercontinuum conical emission (SCCE) and blue-green conical emission (CE) by means of second harmonic generation (SHG) were observed alternately in a β-barium borate (BBO) crystal induced by femtosecond laser pulses with vertical polarization state. Three theoretical models were analyzed to interpret the angular beam of SCCE. The experimental conical angles with different wavelengths in BBO crystal and BK-7 glass can be explained well by nonlinear X-wave model and Cerenkov type phase matching model other than four-wave mixing (FWM) model.
Switchable focus using a polymeric lenticular microlens array and a polarization rotator.
Ren, Hongwen; Xu, Su; Liu, Yifan; Wu, Shin-Tson
2013-04-01
We demonstrate a flat polymeric lenticular microlens array using a mixture of rod-like diacrylate monomer and positive dielectric anisotropy nematic liquid crystal (LC). To create gradient refractive index profile in one microlens, we generate fringing fields from a planar top electrode and two striped bottom electrodes. After UV stabilization, the film is optically anisotropic and can stand alone. We then laminate this film on a 90° twisted-nematic LC cell, which works as a dynamic polarization rotator. The static polymeric lenticular lens exhibits focusing effect only to the extraordinary ray, but no optical effect to the ordinary ray. Such an integrated lens system offers several advantages, such as low voltage, fast response time, and temperature insensitivity, and can be used for switchable 2D/3D displays.
Vortex nucleation in a dissipative variant of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation under rotation
Carretero-González, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Kolokolnikov, T.
2016-03-01
In this work, we motivate and explore the dynamics of a dissipative variant of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation under the impact of external rotation. As in the well established Hamiltonian case, the rotation gives rise to the formation of vortices. We show, however, that the most unstable mode leading to this instability scales with an appropriate power of the chemical potential μ of the system, increasing proportionally to μ2/3. The precise form of the relevant formula, obtained through our asymptotic analysis, provides the most unstable mode as a function of the atomic density and the trap strength. We show howmore » these unstable modes typically nucleate a large number of vortices in the periphery of the atomic cloud. However, through a pattern selection mechanism, prompted by symmetry-breaking, only few isolated vortices are pulled in sequentially from the periphery towards the bulk of the cloud resulting in highly symmetric stable vortex configurations with far fewer vortices than the original unstable mode. We conclude that these results may be of relevance to the experimentally tractable realm of finite temperature atomic condensates.« less
Nonlinear and detuning effects of the nutation angle in precessionally forced rotating cylinder flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Juan M.; Marques, Francisco
2016-06-01
The flow in a rapidly rotating cylinder forced to precess through a nutation angle α is investigated numerically, keeping all parameters constant except α , and tuned to a triadic resonance at α =1∘ . When increasing α , the flow undergoes a sequence of well-characterized bifurcations associated with triadic resonance, involving heteroclinic and homoclinic cycles, for α up to about 4∘. For larger α , we identify two chaotic regimes. In the first regime, with α between about 4∘ and 27∘, the bulk flow retains remnants of the helical structures associated with the triadic resonance, but there are strong nonlinear interactions between the various azimuthal Fourier components of the flow. For the larger α regime, large detuning effects lead to the triadic resonance dynamics being completely swamped by boundary layer eruptions. The azimuthal mean flow at large angles results in a large mean deviation from solid-body rotation and the flow is characterized by strong shear at the boundary layers with temporally chaotic eruptions.
Faraday rotation from magnesium II absorbers toward polarized background radio sources
Farnes, J. S.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Corrigan, M. E.; Gaensler, B. M.
2014-11-01
Strong singly ionized magnesium (Mg II) absorption lines in quasar spectra typically serve as a proxy for intervening galaxies along the line of sight. Previous studies have found a correlation between the number of these Mg II absorbers and the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at ≈5 GHz. We cross-match a sample of 35,752 optically identified non-intrinsic Mg II absorption systems with 25,649 polarized background radio sources for which we have measurements of both the spectral index and RM at 1.4 GHz. We use the spectral index to split the resulting sample of 599 sources into flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum subsamples. We find that our flat-spectrum sample shows significant (∼3.5σ) evidence for a correlation between Mg II absorption and RM at 1.4 GHz, while our steep-spectrum sample shows no such correlation. We argue that such an effect cannot be explained by either luminosity or other observational effects, by evolution in another confounding variable, by wavelength-dependent polarization structure in an active galactic nucleus, by the Galactic foreground, by cosmological expansion, or by partial coverage models. We conclude that our data are most consistent with intervenors directly contributing to the Faraday rotation along the line of sight, and that the intervening systems must therefore have coherent magnetic fields of substantial strength ( B-bar =1.8±0.4 μG). Nevertheless, the weak nature of the correlation will require future high-resolution and broadband radio observations in order to place it on a much firmer statistical footing.
Xu, Shoujun; Rochester, Simon M.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Budker, Dmitry
2006-06-28
We report on the design, characterization, and applicationsof a sensitive atomic magnetic gradiometer. The device is based onnonlinear magneto-optical rotation in alkali-metal (87Rb) vapor, and usesfrequency-modulated laser light. The magnetic field produced by a sampleis detected by measuring the frequency of a resonance in optical rotationthat arises when the modulation frequency equals twice the Larmorprecession frequency of the Rb atoms. The gradiometer consists of twoatomic magnetometers. The rotation of light polarization in eachmagnetometer is detected with a balanced polarimeter. The sensitivity ofthe gradiometer is 0.8 nG/Hz1/2 for near-DC (0.1 Hz) magnetic fields,with a baseline of 2.5 cm. For applications in nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long solenoid that piercesthe magnetic shields provides a ~;0.5 G leading field for the nuclearspins in the sample. Our apparatus is particularly suited for remotedetection of NMR and MRI. We demonstrate a point-by-point free inductiondecay measurement and a spin echo reconstructed with a pulse sequencesimilar to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse. Additionalapplications and future improvements are also discussed.
The tidal-rotational shape of the Moon and evidence for polar wander.
Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Perera, Viranga; Nimmo, Francis; Zuber, Maria T
2014-08-14
The origin of the Moon's large-scale topography is important for understanding lunar geology, lunar orbital evolution and the Moon's orientation in the sky. Previous hypotheses for its origin have included late accretion events, large impacts, tidal effects and convection processes. However, testing these hypotheses and quantifying the Moon's topography is complicated by the large basins that have formed since the crust crystallized. Here we estimate the large-scale lunar topography and gravity spherical harmonics outside these basins and show that the bulk of the spherical harmonic degree-2 topography is consistent with a crust-building process controlled by early tidal heating throughout the Moon. The remainder of the degree-2 topography is consistent with a frozen tidal-rotational bulge that formed later, at a semi-major axis of about 32 Earth radii. The probability of the degree-2 shape having both tidal-heating and frozen shape characteristics by chance is less than 1%. We also infer that internal density contrasts eventually reoriented the Moon's polar axis by 36 ± 4°, to the configuration we observe today. Together, these results link the geology of the near and far sides, and resolve long-standing questions about the Moon's large-scale shape, gravity and history of polar wander.
Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing
2015-05-29
A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system.
Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing
2015-01-01
A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system. PMID:26024434
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Peijun; Samat, Alim; Waske, Björn; Liu, Sicong; Li, Zhenhong
2015-07-01
Fully Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) has the advantages of all-weather, day and night observation and high resolution capabilities. The collected data are usually sorted in Sinclair matrix, coherence or covariance matrices which are directly related to physical properties of natural media and backscattering mechanism. Additional information related to the nature of scattering medium can be exploited through polarimetric decomposition theorems. Accordingly, PolSAR image classification gains increasing attentions from remote sensing communities in recent years. However, the above polarimetric measurements or parameters cannot provide sufficient information for accurate PolSAR image classification in some scenarios, e.g. in complex urban areas where different scattering mediums may exhibit similar PolSAR response due to couples of unavoidable reasons. Inspired by the complementarity between spectral and spatial features bringing remarkable improvements in optical image classification, the complementary information between polarimetric and spatial features may also contribute to PolSAR image classification. Therefore, the roles of textural features such as contrast, dissimilarity, homogeneity and local range, morphological profiles (MPs) in PolSAR image classification are investigated using two advanced ensemble learning (EL) classifiers: Random Forest and Rotation Forest. Supervised Wishart classifier and support vector machines (SVMs) are used as benchmark classifiers for the evaluation and comparison purposes. Experimental results with three Radarsat-2 images in quad polarization mode indicate that classification accuracies could be significantly increased by integrating spatial and polarimetric features using ensemble learning strategies. Rotation Forest can get better accuracy than SVM and Random Forest, in the meantime, Random Forest is much faster than Rotation Forest.
ROTATING MOTIONS AND MODELING OF THE ERUPTING SOLAR POLAR-CROWN PROMINENCE ON 2010 DECEMBER 6
Su, Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan
2013-02-10
A large polar-crown prominence composed of different segments spanning nearly the entire solar disk erupted on 2010 December 6. Prior to the eruption, the filament in the active region part split into two layers: a lower layer and an elevated layer. The eruption occurs in several episodes. Around 14:12 UT, the lower layer of the active region filament breaks apart: One part ejects toward the west, while the other part ejects toward the east, which leads to the explosive eruption of the eastern quiescent filament. During the early rise phase, part of the quiescent filament sheet displays strong rolling motion (observed by STEREO-B) in the clockwise direction (viewed from east to west) around the filament axis. This rolling motion appears to start from the border of the active region, then propagates toward the east. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observes another type of rotating motion: In some other parts of the erupting quiescent prominence, the vertical threads turn horizontal, then turn upside down. The elevated active region filament does not erupt until 18:00 UT, when the erupting quiescent filament has already reached a very large height. We develop two simplified three-dimensional models that qualitatively reproduce the observed rolling and rotating motions. The prominence in the models is assumed to consist of a collection of discrete blobs that are tied to particular field lines of a helical flux rope. The observed rolling motion is reproduced by continuous twist injection into the flux rope in Model 1 from the active region side. Asymmetric reconnection induced by the asymmetric distribution of the magnetic fields on the two sides of the filament may cause the observed rolling motion. The rotating motion of the prominence threads observed by AIA is consistent with the removal of the field line dips in Model 2 from the top down during the eruption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Hong; Khurram, Aliza; Hong, Yanhua
2016-10-01
Time delay (TD) signatures are studied experimentally in orthogonal polarizations and in individual transverse modes respectively in a VCSEL operating with three transverse modes. Different types of concealment of the TD signatures are observed when the polarization of feedback is rotated through large angles. Effects of feedback strength and external cavity length on the TD signatures are investigated. Weak feedback leads to better concealment of the TD signatures in the dominant polarization. When the round-trip time difference between the two external cavities is close to a half of the relaxation oscillation period, the TD signatures are minimized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kogut, J.
1981-01-01
The NIMBUS 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data are analyzed. The impact of cross polarization and Faraday rotation on SMMR derived brightness temperatures is evaluated. The algorithms used to retrieve the geophysical parameters are tested, refined, and compared with values derived by other techniques. The technical approach taken is described and the results presented.
Nonlinear dynamics of double-pass cross-polarized wave generation in the saturation regime.
Iliev, Marin; Meier, Amanda K; Greco, Michael; Durfee, Charles G
2015-01-10
The conversion efficiency of cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation can be improved using two separate thinner nonlinear crystals versus a single thick one, due to the evolution of the beam sizes and individual phases after the first crystal. In this paper, we present an alternative scheme in which a curved mirror is used to reimage a plane just after the BaF2 crystal for a second pass. We also develop a simple analytic model for XPW conversion that describes the origin of a nonlinear phase mismatch and nonlinear lensing for both the fundamental wave and XPW. Coupled with the numerical solution for the process and the Fresnel propagation after the first pass, we also explore the factors that affect the efficiency of saturated, seeded XPW conversion. These include the development of the on-axis relative phase difference in the first crystal and after it (during free-space propagation), mode matching, wavefront curvature difference, and crystal tuning angle. We also experimentally demonstrate that the beam quality of the XPW signal after the second pass can be improved by the reimaging. PMID:25967620
A non-linear induced polarization effect on transient electromagnetic soundings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hallbauer-Zadorozhnaya, Valeriya Yu.; Santarato, Giovanni; Abu Zeid, Nasser; Bignardi, Samuel
2016-10-01
In a TEM survey conducted for characterizing the subsurface for geothermal purposes, a strong induced polarization effect was recorded in all collected data. Surprisingly, anomalous decay curves were obtained in part of the sites, whose shape depended on the repetition frequency of the exciting square waveform, i.e. on current pulse length. The Cole-Cole model, besides being not directly related to physical parameters of rocks, was found inappropriate to model the observed distortion, due to induced polarization, because this model is linear, i.e. it cannot fit any dependence on current pulse. This phenomenon was investigated and explained as due to the presence of membrane polarization linked to constrictivity of (fresh) water-saturated pores. An algorithm for mathematical modeling of TEM data was then developed to fit this behavior. The case history is then discussed: 1D inversion, which accommodates non-linear effects, produced models that agree quite satisfactorily with resistivity and chargeability models obtained by an electrical resistivity tomography carried out for comparison.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devi, Seema; Agarwal, Asha; Pandey, Kiran; Pradhan, Asima
2015-03-01
Reflectance spectroscopy contains information of scatterers and absorbers present inside biological tissues and has been successfully used to diagnose disease. Success of any diagnostic tool depends upon the potential of statistical algorithm to extract appropriate diagnostic features from the measured optical data. In our recent study, we have used the potential of the classification algorithm, Nonlinear Maximum Representation and Discrimination Features (NMRDF) to extract important diagnostic features from reflectance spectra of normal and dysplastic human cervical tissue. This NMRDF algorithm uses the higher order correlation information in the input data, which helps to represent the asymmetrically distributed data and provides the closed form solution of the nonlinear transform for maximum discrimination. We have recorded unpolarized, co and cross-polarized reflectance spectra from 350nm to 650nm, illuminating the human cervical tissue epithelium with white light source. A total of 139 samples were divided into training and validation data sets. The input parameters were optimized using training data sets to extract the appropriate nonlinear features from the input reflectance spectra. These extracted nonlinear features are used as input for nearest mean classifier to calculate the sensitivity and specificity for both training as well as validation data sets. We have observed that co-polarized components provide maximum sensitivity and specificity compared to cross-polarized components and unpolarized data. This is expected since co-polarized light provides subsurface information while cross-polarized and unpolarized data mask the vital epithelial information through high diffuse scattering.
Fukunaga, Atsushi; Urayama, Kenji; Koelsch, Patrick; Takigawa, Toshikazu
2009-05-01
We have investigated the director reorientation behavior of unconstrained nematic gels (nematic elastomer swollen by low molecular mass liquid crystals) under electric fields by means of polarized Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The polarized FTIR reveals that the director rotates about the (y) axis normal to the original director ( x axis) and field directions ( z axis), and the nematic order remains unchanged in the plane where the director stays confined during rotation. The rotation angle of director (theta) is estimated as a function of imposed voltage amplitude on the basis of the absorbances of the cyano group which is aligned along the long axis of the mesogen for light linearly polarized in the x and y directions. The director-rotation drives a two-dimensional macroscopic deformation which is characterized by a contraction along the x axis, an extension in the z direction, and nonappreciable length change along the y axis. The strain in the x direction is linearly proportional to sin;{2} theta in agreement with the expectation of soft or semisoft elasticity theory for thin nematic elastomer films where the shear contribution becomes negligibly small.
Absolute intensity and polarization of rotational Raman scattering from N2, O2, and CO2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penney, C. M.; St.peters, R. L.; Lapp, M.
1973-01-01
An experimental examination of the absolute intensity, polarization, and relative line intensities of rotational Raman scattering (RRS) from N2, O2, and CO2 is reported. The absolute scattering intensity for N2 is characterized by its differential cross section for backscattering of incident light at 647.1 nm, which is calculated from basic measured values. The ratio of the corresponding cross section for O2 to that for N2 is 2.50 plus or minus 5 percent. The intensity recent for N2, O2, and CO2 are shown to compare favorably to values calculated from recent measurements of the depolarization of Rayleigh scattering plus RRS. Measured depolarizations of various RRS lines agree to within a few percent with the theoretical value of 3/4. Detailed error analyses are presented for intensity and depolarization measurements. Finally, extensive RRS spectra at nominal gas temperatures of 23 C, 75 C, and 125 C are presented and shown to compare favorably to theoretical predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopf, Barbara; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes
2016-05-01
Glue-induced stresses decrease the accuracy of surface-mounted fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). Significant temperature dependent glue-induced birefringence was verified when a thermally cured epoxy-based bonding technique had been used. Determining the peak separation of two azimuthally aligned FBGs in PM fibers combined with a polarization resolved measurement set-up in a temperature range between -30°C and 150°C revealed high glue-induced stresses at low temperatures. Peak separations of about 60 pm and a nonlinear temperature dependence of the glue-induced birefringence due to stress relaxation processes and a visco-elastic behavior of the used adhesive have been shown.
Nonlinear effects related to circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Swati; Gaur, Nidhi; Sharma, R. P.
2016-09-01
In situ measurements of solar wind have strongly implicated its turbulent behavior. The observed power spectra report a breakpoint around length scales of the order of ion scales. As one of the responsible mechanisms for the observed steepening in power spectrum, our approach includes a right circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén wave (DAW) with finite frequency correction which, when subjected to transverse collapse/filamentation instability, may possibly result in steepening of spectrum and progressive transfer of energy from larger scales to smaller scales. We have studied the nonlinear effects associated with coupling of DAW with kinetic Alfvén wave in solar wind at 1 A.U. The formation of localized structures provides a clue about the emergence of turbulence. Numerical simulation is performed to study localization and power spectral density of the field and density fluctuations. The results show steeper spectrum indicating transfer of large scale turbulent energy down to small scales.
Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao
2016-01-01
On-chip polarization manipulation is pivotal for silicon-on-insulator material platform to realize polarization-transparent circuits and polarization-division-multiplexing transmissions, where polarization splitters and rotators are fundamental components. In this work, we propose an ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) using a partially-etched subwavelength grating (SWG) coupler. The proposed PSR consists of a taper-integrated SWG coupler combined with a partially-etched waveguide between the input and output strip waveguides to make the input transverse-electric (TE) mode couple and convert to the output transverse-magnetic (TM) mode at the cross port while the input TM mode confine well in the strip waveguide during propagation and directly output from the bar port with nearly neglected coupling. Moreover, to better separate input polarizations, an additional tapered waveguide extended from the partially-etched waveguide is also added. From results, an ultracompact PSR of only 8.2 μm in length is achieved, which is so far the reported shortest one. The polarization conversion loss and efficiency are 0.12 dB and 98.52%, respectively, together with the crosstalk and reflection loss of −31.41/−22.43 dB and −34.74/−33.13 dB for input TE/TM mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm. These attributes make the present device suitable for constructing on-chip compact photonic integrated circuits with polarization-independence. PMID:27306112
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao
2016-06-01
On-chip polarization manipulation is pivotal for silicon-on-insulator material platform to realize polarization-transparent circuits and polarization-division-multiplexing transmissions, where polarization splitters and rotators are fundamental components. In this work, we propose an ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) using a partially-etched subwavelength grating (SWG) coupler. The proposed PSR consists of a taper-integrated SWG coupler combined with a partially-etched waveguide between the input and output strip waveguides to make the input transverse-electric (TE) mode couple and convert to the output transverse-magnetic (TM) mode at the cross port while the input TM mode confine well in the strip waveguide during propagation and directly output from the bar port with nearly neglected coupling. Moreover, to better separate input polarizations, an additional tapered waveguide extended from the partially-etched waveguide is also added. From results, an ultracompact PSR of only 8.2 μm in length is achieved, which is so far the reported shortest one. The polarization conversion loss and efficiency are 0.12 dB and 98.52%, respectively, together with the crosstalk and reflection loss of ‑31.41/‑22.43 dB and ‑34.74/‑33.13 dB for input TE/TM mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm. These attributes make the present device suitable for constructing on-chip compact photonic integrated circuits with polarization-independence.
Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao
2016-01-01
On-chip polarization manipulation is pivotal for silicon-on-insulator material platform to realize polarization-transparent circuits and polarization-division-multiplexing transmissions, where polarization splitters and rotators are fundamental components. In this work, we propose an ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) using a partially-etched subwavelength grating (SWG) coupler. The proposed PSR consists of a taper-integrated SWG coupler combined with a partially-etched waveguide between the input and output strip waveguides to make the input transverse-electric (TE) mode couple and convert to the output transverse-magnetic (TM) mode at the cross port while the input TM mode confine well in the strip waveguide during propagation and directly output from the bar port with nearly neglected coupling. Moreover, to better separate input polarizations, an additional tapered waveguide extended from the partially-etched waveguide is also added. From results, an ultracompact PSR of only 8.2 μm in length is achieved, which is so far the reported shortest one. The polarization conversion loss and efficiency are 0.12 dB and 98.52%, respectively, together with the crosstalk and reflection loss of -31.41/-22.43 dB and -34.74/-33.13 dB for input TE/TM mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm. These attributes make the present device suitable for constructing on-chip compact photonic integrated circuits with polarization-independence. PMID:27306112
Mustafa, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.
2016-01-01
Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-linear radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-linear energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the flow. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4–water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration. PMID:26894690
Mustafa, M; Mushtaq, A; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A
2016-01-01
Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-linear radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-linear energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the flow. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4-water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration. PMID:26894690
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekhoucha, Ferhat; Rechak, Said; Duigou, Laëtitia; Cadou, Jean-Marc
2015-05-01
This paper deals with the computation of backbone curves bifurcated from a Hopf bifurcation point in the framework of nonlinear free vibrations of a rotating flexible beams. The intrinsic and geometrical equations of motion for anisotropic beams subjected to large displacements are used and transformed with Galerkin and harmonic balance methods to one quadratic algebraic equation involving one parameter, the pulsation. The latter is treated with the asymptotic numerical method using Padé approximants. An algorithm, equivalent to the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction is proposed, to compute the bifurcated branches accurately from a Hopf bifurcation point, with singularity of co-rank 2, related to a conservative and gyroscopic dynamical system steady state, toward a nonlinear periodic state. Numerical tests dealing with clamped, isotropic and composite, rotating beams show the reliability of the proposed method reinforced by accurate results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasper, R. G.
1985-02-01
Based on completed experimental electric-field scans and the corresponding finite-element field predictions, it appears that the finite-element numerical technique presents a strong analytical tool in calculating the nearfield (within 650 micrometers electric-field distributions about active microcells. This was analytically achieved with the new double membrane finite-element configuration representing nonlinear polarization and by using a local tangent slope (impedance) definition dependent on the local potential difference. The experimental determination of the normal current was realized with a newly developed scanning vibrating electrode technique. The finite-element model utilizes a priori measured uncoupled polarization curves for pure iron and pure copper. The current densities and the electric field intensity was calculated for all the grid points within the electrolyte and on its boundaries. Results appear to indicate that first order anodic mass loss can be predicted using finite-element predicted current density distributions on the anodic surface and the imposition of Faraday's law. The electric-field correlation established for the normal current-density vector provides the confidence to proceed in the evaluation of electric fields associated with pitting and crevice corrosion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahaye, N.; Zeitlin, V.
2015-12-01
Studies of stability of tropical cyclones (TC) are mostly performed either in over-simplified (2D Euler, e.g. [1]), or in over-complexified "all-inclusive", e.g. [2], models. TC have very high Rossby numbers, so Lighthill radiation is operational and instabilities are radiative. Yet, the quantitative results for radiative instabilities of vortices are available only for simplified vortex profiles, e.g. [3]. TC evolve in the essentially moist and precipitating atmosphere, yet studies of precise dynamical role of moisture in developing instability are scarce [4]. We use the moist-convective Rotating Shallow Water model of [5], the simplest possible one which includes inertia-gravity gravity waves (IGW) and the effects of moisture and precipitation. Unstable modes are investigated by means of a linear stability analysis, then the nonlinear saturation is simulated in cases with precipitation off (dry), precipitation on but evaporation off (moist-precipitating), and precipitation and evaporation on (moist-precipitating-evaporating). Our main results are: Linear stability: Main instability: ageostrophic barotropic instability Unstable modes: mixed Rossby - inertia gravity waves. Dry saturation: Axisymmetrization of the TC Intensification of winds inside the radius of maximum wind Bursts in the IGW emission Moist-precipitating saturation: Amplification of the IGW emission with respect to the dry case Amplification of the wind intensification mechanism Moist-precipitating-evaporating saturation: Appearance of convectively-coupled IGWs Net intensification of wind (even at the radius of maximum wind) References: J.P. Kossin and W.H. Schubert, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2196, 2001. Y.C. Kwon and W.M. Frank, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 106, 2008. S. Le Dizes and P. Billant, Phys. Fluids, 21, 1, 2009. D.A. Schecter and M.T. Montgomery, J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 314, 2007. F. Bouchut, J. Lambaerts, G. Lapeyre, and V. Zeitlin, Phys. Fluids, 21, 126601, 2009. Figure: Nondimensional vorticity (colors
Switch-on Shock and Nonlinear Kink Alfvén Waves in Solar Polar Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Uritsky, Vadim
2016-05-01
It is widely accepted that solar polar jets are produced by fast magnetic reconnection in the low corona, whether driven directly by flux emergence from below or indirectly by instability onset above the photosphere. In either scenario, twisted flux on closed magnetic field lines reconnects with untwisted flux on nearby open field lines. Part of the twist is inherited by the newly reconnected open flux, which rapidly relaxes due to magnetic tension forces that transmit the twist impulsively into the outer corona and heliosphere. We propose that this transfer of twist launches switch-on MHD shock waves, which propagate parallel to the ambient coronal magnetic field ahead of the shock and convect a perpendicular component of magnetic field behind the shock. In the frame moving with the shock front, the post-shock flow is precisely Alfvénic in all three directions, whereas the pre-shock flow is super-Alfvénic along the ambient magnetic field, yielding a density enhancement at the shock front. Nonlinear kink Alfvén waves are exact solutions of the time-dependent MHD equations in the post-shock region when the ambient corona is uniform and the magnetic field is straight. We have performed and analyzed 3D Cartesian and spherical simulations of polar jets driven by instability onset in the corona. The results of both simulations are consistent with the generation of MHD switch-on shocks trailed predominantly by incompressible kink Alfvén waves. It is noteworthy that the kink waves are irrotational, in sharp contrast to the vorticity-bearing torsional waves reported from previous numerical studies. We will discuss the implications of the results for understanding solar polar jets and predicting their heliospheric signatures. Our research was supported by NASA’s LWS TR&T and H-SR programs.
Xu, Wei-Jian; He, Chun-Ting; Ji, Cheng-Min; Chen, Shao-Li; Huang, Rui-Kang; Lin, Rui-Biao; Xue, Wei; Luo, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Xiong; Chen, Xiao-Ming
2016-07-01
The changeable molecular dynamics of flexible polar cations in the variable confined space between inorganic chains brings about a new type of two-step nonlinear optical (NLO) switch with genuine "off-on-off" second harmonic generation (SHG) conversion between one NLO-active state and two NLO-inactive states. PMID:27159779
Current-induced giant polarization rotation using a ZnO single crystal doped with nitrogen ions
Tate, Naoya; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi
2015-01-01
Giant polarization rotation in a ZnO single crystal was experimentally demonstrated based on a novel phenomenon occurring at the nanometric scale. The ZnO crystal was doped with N+ and N2+ ions serving as p-type dopants. By applying an in-plane current using a unique arrangement of electrodes on the device, current-induced polarization rotation of the incident light was observed. From the results of experimental demonstrations and discussions, it was verified that this novel behavior originates from a specific distribution of dopants and the corresponding light–matter interactions in a nanometric space, which are allowed by the existence of such a dopant distribution. PMID:26246456
Sharples, Thomas R; Luxford, Thomas F M; Townsend, Dave; McKendrick, Kenneth G; Costen, Matthew L
2015-11-28
We present the implementation of a new crossed-molecular beam, velocity-map ion-imaging apparatus, optimized for collisions of electronically excited molecules. We have applied this apparatus to rotational energy transfer in NO(A(2)Σ(+), v = 0, N = 0, j = 0.5) + Ar collisions, at an average energy of 525 cm(-1). We report differential cross sections for scattering into NO(A(2)Σ(+), v = 0, N' = 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9), together with quantum scattering calculations of the differential cross sections and angle dependent rotational alignment. The differential cross sections show dramatic forward scattered peaks, together with oscillatory behavior at larger scattering angles, while the rotational alignment moments are also found to oscillate as a function of scattering angle. In general, the quantum scattering calculations are found to agree well with experiment, reproducing the forward scattering and oscillatory behavior at larger scattering angles. Analysis of the quantum scattering calculations as a function of total rotational angular momentum indicates that the forward scattering peak originates from the attractive minimum in the potential energy surface at the N-end of the NO. Deviations in the quantum scattering predictions from the experimental results, for scattering at angles greater than 10°, are observed to be more significant for scattering to odd final N'. We suggest that this represents inaccuracies in the potential energy surface, and in particular in its representation of the difference between the N- and O-ends of the molecule, as given by the odd-order Legendre moments of the surface. PMID:26627953
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasquez, Bernard J.; Hollweg, Joseph V.
1996-06-01
The forms of Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind sometimes possess nearly constant magnetic intensities but have an approximate arc rather than circular polarization. They are also associated with layers of abrupt field rotation called rotational discontinuities (RDs) where the field changes direction by <180°. Ion-sense and electron-sense rotations are observed in approximately equal numbers. To explore the origin of this form, we conduct a one-and-one-half-dimensional hybrid numerical simulation study of the evolution of obliquely propagating, low-frequency (<
Rotation of X-ray polarization in the glitches of a silicon crystal monochromator
Sutter, John P.; Boada, Roberto; Bowron, Daniel T.; Stepanov, Sergey A.; Díaz-Moreno, Sofía
2016-01-01
EXAFS studies on dilute samples are usually carried out by collecting the fluorescence yield using a large-area multi-element detector. This method is susceptible to the ‘glitches’ produced by all single-crystal monochromators. Glitches are sharp dips or spikes in the diffracted intensity at specific crystal orientations. If incorrectly compensated, they degrade the spectroscopic data. Normalization of the fluorescence signal by the incident flux alone is sometimes insufficient to compensate for the glitches. Measurements performed at the state-of-the-art wiggler beamline I20-scanning at Diamond Light Source have shown that the glitches alter the spatial distribution of the sample’s quasi-elastic X-ray scattering. Because glitches result from additional Bragg reflections, multiple-beam dynamical diffraction theory is necessary to understand their effects. Here, the glitches of the Si(111) four-bounce monochromator of I20-scanning just above the Ni K edge are associated with their Bragg reflections. A fitting procedure that treats coherent and Compton scattering is developed and applied to a sample of an extremely dilute (100 micromolal) aqueous solution of Ni(NO3)2. The depolarization of the wiggler X-ray beam out of the electron orbit is modeled. The fits achieve good agreement with the sample’s quasi-elastic scattering with just a few parameters. The X-ray polarization is rotated up to ±4.3° within the glitches, as predicted by dynamical diffraction. These results will help users normalize EXAFS data at glitches. PMID:27504076
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okayama, Hideaki; Onawa, Yosuke; Shimura, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Sasaki, Hironori
2016-08-01
We describe a Bragg grating with a phase shift section and a sampled grating scheme that converts input polarization to orthogonal polarization. A very narrow polarization-independent wavelength peak can be generated by phase shift structures and polarization-independent multiple diffraction peaks by sampled gratings. The characteristics of the device were examined by transfer matrix and finite-difference time-domain methods.
David, D.; Bar, I.; Rosenwaks, S. )
1993-11-11
The [mu]-v, v-J, and [mu]-v-J vector correlations of the OH fragments from the photodissociation at 193 nm of the 3[sub 03] in-plane rotational state of the fundamental symmetric stretch of water, H[sub 2]O (1,0,0), are probed by Doppler polarization spectroscopy. The observed correlations are close to the limiting values expected for an idealized orientation (with minimal influence of the parent rotation) where the transition dipole moment of the parent is parallel to the fragment angular momentum and perpendicular to its velocity. This is the first time that these correlations are measured for the photodissociation of an initially prepared, vibrationally excited molecule in a specific rotational state. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoine, Xavier; Tang, Qinglin; Zhang, Yong
2016-11-01
In this paper, we propose some efficient and robust numerical methods to compute the ground states and dynamics of Fractional Schrödinger Equation (FSE) with a rotation term and nonlocal nonlinear interactions. In particular, a newly developed Gaussian-sum (GauSum) solver is used for the nonlocal interaction evaluation [31]. To compute the ground states, we integrate the preconditioned Krylov subspace pseudo-spectral method [4] and the GauSum solver. For the dynamics simulation, using the rotating Lagrangian coordinates transform [14], we first reformulate the FSE into a new equation without rotation. Then, a time-splitting pseudo-spectral scheme incorporated with the GauSum solver is proposed to simulate the new FSE. In parallel to the numerical schemes, we also prove some existence and nonexistence results for the ground states. Dynamical laws of some standard quantities, including the mass, energy, angular momentum and the center of mass, are stated. The ground states properties with respect to the fractional order and/or rotating frequencies, dynamics involving decoherence and turbulence together with some interesting phenomena are reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voĭtovich, A. P.; Kul'minskiĭ, A. M.; Severikov, V. N.
1993-09-01
We investigate theoretically the laser dynamics of a He-Ne rod laser (λ= 1.15 μm) and the modes of a resonator with simultaneous rotation and harmonic modulation of the resonator anisotropy directions. We find that in both the resonator and the laser natural oscillation modes are possible for which the polarization ellipse rotates at a rate that exceeds the rotation rate of the directions of anisotropy of the modulator. We obtain parameters of the anisotropy and modulation for which this increased frequency of rotation of the polarization ellipse can be observed.
Interlocked chiral/polar domain walls and large optical rotation in Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}
Wang, Xueyun; Huang, Fei-Ting; Yang, Junjie; Oh, Yoon Seok; Cheong, Sang-Wook
2015-07-01
Chirality, i.e., handedness, pervades much of modern science from elementary particles, DNA-based biology to molecular chemistry; however, most of the chirality-relevant materials have been based on complex molecules. Here, we report inorganic single-crystalline Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}, forming in a corundum-related R3 structure with both chirality and polarity. These chiral Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} single crystals exhibit a large optical specific rotation (α)—1355° dm{sup −1} cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. We demonstrate, for the first time, that in Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}, chiral and polar domains form an intriguing domain pattern, resembling a radiation warning sign, which stems from interlocked chiral and polar domain walls through lowering of the wall energy.
Ardavan, Houshang; Ardavan, Arzhang; Singleton, John
2003-11-01
We investigate the spectral features of the emission from a superluminal polarization current whose distribution pattern rotates (with an angular frequency omega) and oscillates (with a frequency omega > omega differing from an integral multiple of omega) at the same time. This type of polarization current is found in recent practical machines designed to investigate superluminal emission. Although all of the processes involved are linear, we find that the broadband emission contains frequencies that are higher than omega by a factor of the order of (omega/omega)2. This generation of frequencies not required for the creation of the source stems from mathematically rigorous consequences of the familiar classical expression for the retarded potential. The results suggest practical applications for superluminal polarization currents as broadband radio-frequency and infrared sources.
Wu, T; Peng, X; Lin, Z; Guo, H
2015-10-01
We demonstrate an all-optical (4)He atomic magnetometer experimental scheme based on an original Bell-Bloom configuration. A single intensity-modulated linearly polarized laser beam is used both for generating spin polarization within a single (4)He vapor and probing the spin precessing under a static magnetic field. The transmitted light signal from the vapor is then phase-sensitively detected at the modulation frequency and its harmonics, which lead to the atomic magnetic resonance signals. Based on this structure, a liquid crystal is added in our magnetometer system and constitutes a polarization rotator. By controlling the voltage applied on the liquid crystal, the light linear polarization vector can be kept perpendicular with the ambient magnetic field direction, which in turn provides the maximum resonance signal amplitude. Moreover, the system exhibits a magnetic-field noise floor of about 2pT/√Hz, which is not degraded due to the presence of the liquid crystal and varying magnetic field direction. The experiment results prove that our method can eliminate the dead-zone effect, improve the system spatial isotropy, and thus be suitable in mobile applications.
Rotational behavior of oblate golden nanoparticles in circularly polarized dual beam optical trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šiler, Martin; Chvátal, Lukáš; Brzobohatý, Oto; Arzola, Alejandro V.; Jákl, Petr; Simpson, Stephen H.; Zemánek, Pavel
2015-08-01
Larger golden nanoparticles grow into several preferred forms. Some of those may be easily approximated by ellipsoids. In this paper we examine the rotational dynamics of spheroidal particles in an optical trap comprising counter-propagating Gaussian beams of opposing helicity. Isolated spheroids undergo continuous rotation with frequencies determined by their size and aspect ratio. We study the rotational frequencies and stability of these golden nano-particles theoretically by the means of T-Matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying-Hua; Shao, Jian; Li, Jie; Zhu, Ming-Jie; Li, Jiaqi; Dong, Zheng-Gao
2016-05-01
We demonstrate the optical activity for linear polarization by twisting cascading multilayer nanobars, for which the x- (y-)polarized light is significantly transformed to a y- (x-)polarized one with enhanced transmittance in a unidirectional manner, and the bandwidth can be broadened by increasing the cascading number of layers. The polarization conversion rate reaches nearly 100% with a maximum cross-polarization transmission coefficient larger than 0.95. This phenomenon is attributed to the chiral structural arrangement and anisotropic resonance of nanobars, which consequently leads to different cross-polarization conversions between forward and backward incident lights, and thus the unidirectional transmission with an extinction ratio up to 103. These characteristics show application potential in optical nano-devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hao-Ran; Huang, Ka-Ma
2015-12-01
In this paper, an experimental set-up based on a novel microstrip cancellation circuit is presented for investigating the effects of external microwave fields on the dielectric properties of polar solution. The circuit consists of a 3 dB Wilkinson power combiner, a conventional 20 dB backward coupler, and a specially designed 20 dB single-sectioned forward coupler. Besides, in order to realize a uniform electric field in the tested solution, a nicked microstrip ring is designed in the circuit. An improvement of measurement sensitivity in the proposed circuit was obtained when compared to the conventional transmission lines method. We exploit interference cancellation processes to suppress the probing signal at the output port under the principle that two identical amplitude signals with 180° phase difference will completely cancel each other. The measurements are carried out at the frequency of 2.45 GHz, and the temperature effects caused by microwave heating are excluded by the flowing fluid. Experimental results show that the dielectric properties of DMSO-methanol/ethanol mixtures change at the electric field intensity of 105 V m - 1 and present a distinctly nonlinear dielectric change with the electric fields. The study of the microwave-material interaction has expanded our insights into the high-power microwave’s industry application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trisnanto, Suko Bagus; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka
2016-02-01
The magnetization induced by oscillatory magnetic-field in a polydispersive superparamagnetic-suspension shows a nonlinearity which strongly depends on the applied frequency. Referring to the initially-measured complex magnetic-susceptibility in function of field-strength, the highly-nonlinear curve of dynamic magnetization at low frequency tends to be linear at higher frequency. Likewise, the dynamic susceptibility appears to be less field-strength dependent at higher frequency, emphasizing a frequency-dependence of magnetically-induced particle-dynamics. This finding is attributable to the imaginary part of magnetization which saturates at lower field-strength of low-frequency magnetic-field. Hence, Brownian relaxation losses should be constant after the saturation due to a confinement of particle rotations.
Kotake, Kei; Iwakami-Nakano, Wakana; Ohnishi, Naofumi
2011-08-01
By performing three-dimensional (3D) simulations that demonstrate the neutrino-driven core-collapse supernovae aided by the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), we study how the spiral modes of the SASI can impact the properties of the gravitational-wave (GW) emission. To see the effects of rotation in the nonlinear postbounce phase, we give a uniform rotation on the flow advecting from the outer boundary of the iron core, the specific angular momentum of which is assumed to agree with recent stellar evolution models. We compute fifteen 3D models in which the initial angular momentum and the input neutrino luminosities from the protoneutron star are changed in a systematic manner. By performing a ray-tracing analysis, we accurately estimate the GW amplitudes generated by anisotropic neutrino emission. Our results show that the gravitational waveforms from neutrinos in models that include rotation exhibit a common feature; otherwise, they vary much more stochastically in the absence of rotation. The breaking of the stochasticity stems from the excess of the neutrino emission parallel to the spin axis. This is because the compression of matter is more enhanced in the vicinity of the equatorial plane due to the growth of the spiral SASI modes, leading to the formation of the spiral flows circulating around the spin axis with higher temperatures. We point out that recently proposed future space interferometers like Fabry-Perot-type DECIGO would permit the detection of these signals for a Galactic supernova.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lou, Y. Q.
1987-01-01
This paper considers two-dimensional nonlinear MHD waves of large horizontal spatial scales for a thin magnetofluid layer on the surface of a rotating sphere. The 'shallow fluid' hydrodynamic equations are generalized to include the effects of magnetic fields, and it is shown that the resulting MHD equations can be reduced to a single scalar equation for a stream function involving several free functions. For special choices of these free functions, two kinds of finite-amplitude MHD waves are obtained, propagating in the azimuthal direction relative to the uniformly rotating background atmosphere in the presence of a background zonal magnetic field and a steady differential zonal flow. These two kinds of MHD waves are fundamentally due to the joint effects of the uniform rotation of the background atmosphere and background magnetic field; the first is an inertial wave of the Rossby (1939) and Haurwitz (1940) type, modified by the presence of the background zonal magnetic field, while the second is a magnetic Alfven-like wave which is modified by the uniform rotation of the background atmosphere.
Fabris, A.R.; Oka, T.
1983-03-15
The technique of four-level microwave double resonance has been applied to the study of rotation-inversion transitions of NH/sub 3/ induced by collisions with various polar molecules. H/sub 2/O, D/sub 2/O, CH/sub 3/OH, CH/sub 3/X and CHX/sub 3/ (X = F, Cl, Br, I), NO, CO, and OCS were used as collision partners. The values of eta = ..delta..I/I observed for many four-level systems which are connected by dipole-type transitions (..delta..J = +- 1, ..delta..K = 0, parity +bold-arrow-left-right-) are given and qualitatively explained taking into account the long-range dipole--dipole interaction and the pattern of rotational energy levels of the collision partners.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiunov, V. F.
2012-12-01
The behavior of the magnetic losses in Fe-Si crystals in rotating and linear-polarized fields has been studied and particular features of the dependence of the ratio of these losses on the induction amplitude have been revealed. It has been demonstrated that abnormally high magnitudes of magnetic losses in rotating fields at low induction values ( B < 1.0 T) are caused by the nonuniformity of the displacement speeds of 180° walls of the stripe domain structure. At high induction values ( B > 1.0 T), the high magnitude of magnetic losses is caused by particular features of the motion of 90° and 180° walls of the closure domain structure of the tested samples.
Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Zhuge, Qunbi; Chen, Lawrence R; Plant, David V
2011-12-12
We propose the use of pilot-aided (PA) transmission, enabled by single-sideband-subcarrier modulation of both quadratures in the DSP-domain, in single-carrier systems to mitigate jointly laser phase noise and fiber nonlinearity. In addition to tolerance against laser phase noise, we show that the proposed scheme also improves the nonlinear tolerance of both polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) QPSK and 16-QAM coherent transmission systems by increasing the maximum allowable launch power by 1 dB and 1.5 dB, respectively. The improved nonlinear performance of both systems also manifests itself as an increase in the maximum reach by 720 km and 480 km, respectively. Finally, when digital-to-analog converters (DACs) with lower bit resolutions are used at the transmitter, PA transmission is shown to preserve the same performance improvement over the non-PA case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wenhui
2016-04-01
Strain-driven and temperature-driven monoclinic-orthorhombic phase transition in epitaxial PbTiO3 exhibit similar behavior under electric field, i.e., polarization discontinuity is reduced at the first-order ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition whose latent heat vanishes at a critical point. Due to critical phenomena the energy barrier for polarization rotation significantly diminishes, and hence thermodynamic response functions tend to diverge in the induced monoclinic states. Phenomenological calculations show that dielectric and piezoelectric properties are highly tunable by in-plane strain and electric field, and large electromechanical response may occur in epitaxial PbTiO3 thin films at room temperature. Phenomenological calculations show that large electrocaloric responsivity can also be expected at room temperature by manipulating the phase transition.
Oliver, Neus; Soriano, Miguel C; Sukow, David W; Fischer, Ingo
2011-12-01
Chaotic semiconductor lasers have been proven attractive for fast random bit generation. To follow this strategy, simple robust systems and a systematic approach determining the required dynamical properties and most suitable conditions for this application are needed. We show that dynamics of a single mode laser with polarization-rotated feedback are optimal for random bit generation when characterized simultaneously by a broad power spectrum and low autocorrelation. We observe that successful random bit generation also is sensitive to digitization and postprocessing procedures. Applying the identified criteria, we achieve fast random bit generation rates (up to 4 Gbit/s) with minimal postprocessing.
Twu, Ruey-Ching; Wang, Jhao-Sheng
2016-04-01
An optical phase interrogation is proposed to study reflection-induced linear polarization rotation in a common-path homodyne interferometer. This optical methodology can also be applied to the measurement of the refractive index variation of a liquid solution. The performance of the refractive index sensing structure is discussed theoretically, and the experimental results demonstrated a very good ability based on the proposed schemes. Compared with a conventional common-path heterodyne interferometer, the proposed homodyne interferometer with only a single channel reduced the usage of optic elements. PMID:27192320
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitanaka, Yuuki; Yanai, Ken; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Kagawa, Yutaka; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro
2014-03-01
The behavior of the polarization switching by applying electric fields (E) along the <100> and <111> directions has been investigated for the single crystals of ferroelectric (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) using high-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Single-crystal SR-XRD analyses reveal that the E-induced switching of spontaneous polarization (Ps) occurs via the non-180° (71° and/or 109°) Ps rotation. The DFT calculations show that the energy barrier for the 71° Ps rotation is much lower than those for the 109° Ps rotation and for the direct 180° Ps reversal. These experimental and DFT calculation results lead to the conclusion that the 71° Ps rotation is the dominant pathway for the E-induced polarization switching in the BNT crystals.
Asters, Vortices, and Rotating Spirals in Active Gels of Polar Filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruse, K.; Joanny, J. F.; Jülicher, F.; Prost, J.; Sekimoto, K.
2004-02-01
We develop a general theory for active viscoelastic materials made of polar filaments. This theory is motivated by the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. The continuous consumption of a fuel generates a nonequilibrium state characterized by the generation of flows and stresses. Our theory applies to any polar system with internal energy consumption such as active chemical gels and cytoskeletal networks which are set in motion by active processes at work in cells.
Polarity and Nonpolarity of Ionic Liquids Viewed from the Rotational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide.
Yasaka, Y; Kimura, Y
2015-12-17
The rotational dynamics of carbon monoxide (CO) in a molten salt, ionic liquids (ILs), and alkanes were investigated by (17)O NMR T1 measurements using labeled C(17)O. The molten salt and the studied ILs have the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion ([NTf2](-)) in common. In hexane near room temperature, the rotational relaxation times are close to the values predicted from the slip boundary condition in the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) theory. However, in contradiction to the theoretical prediction, the rotational relaxation times decrease as the value of η/T increases, where η and T are the viscosity and absolute temperature, respectively. In other alkanes and ILs used in this study, the rotational relaxation times are much faster than those predicted by SED, and show a unique dependence on the number of alkyl carbons. For the same value of η/T, the CO rotational relaxation times in ILs composed of short-alkyl-chain-length imidazolium cations (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) are close to those for a molten salt (Cs[NTf2]). On the other hand, the rotational relaxation times in ILs composed of long-chain-length imidazolium (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium) and phosphonium (tributylmethylphosphonium and tetraoctylphosphonium) cations are much shorter than the SED predictions. This deviation from theory increases as the alkyl chain length increases. We also found that the rotational relaxation times in dodecane and squalane are similar to those in ILs with a similar number of alkyl carbons. These results are discussed in terms of heterogeneous solvation and in comparison with the translational diffusion of CO in ILs.
Shang, Hui-ning; Quan, Wei; Chen, Yao; Li, Yang; Li, Hong
2016-02-01
High sensitivity measurements of inertia and magnetic field could be achieved by utilizing a category of devices, which manipulate the atomic spins in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free regime. The alkali cell which contains the alkali metal vapor is used to sense magnetic field and inertia. The atomic number density of alkali vapor and the polarization of alkali metal vapor are two of the most important parameters of the cell. They play an important role in the research on atomic spins in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free regime. Besides, optical polarization plays an important role in quantum computing and atomic physics. We propose a measurement of alkali vapor polarization and alkali number density by detecting the optical rotation in one system. This method simplifies existing experimental equipment and processes. A constant bias magnetic field is applied and the Faraday rotation angle is detected by a bunch of the probe beam to deduce alkali-metal density. Then the magnetic field is closed and a bunch of the pump laser is utilized to polarize alkali-metal. Again, the probe beam is utilized to obtain the polarization of alkali metal. The alkali density obtained at first is used to deduce the polarization. This paper applies a numerical method to analyze the Faraday rotation and the polarization rotation. According to the numerical method, the optimal wavelength for the experiment is given. Finally, the fluctuation of magnetic field and wavelength on signal analysis are analyzed. PMID:27209720
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sateesh, V. L.; Upadhyay, C. S.; Venkatesan, C.
2010-07-01
Polarization-electric-field (P-E) interaction results in rendering the stress tensor non-symmetric and in a nonlinear force term in the equilibrium equation. In this paper, an attempt is made to study these (P-E) nonlinear effects on the static response of laminated composite plates with piezo actuators. Further, this paper also focuses on finding the most effective piezo lay-up and ply orientation which gives the maximum deflections. Four different piezo lay-up configurations and three ply orientations are considered. It has been observed from the study that width-wise strips show more transverse bending and twisting. However, full length piezo layers show maximum longitudinal bending. The results of nonlinear analysis show a more considerable softening trend in deformations than that of the linear analysis in the case of longitudinal bending and twisting. In the case of transverse bending this nonlinear effect shows a hardening trend. Further, it has been observed that the influence of P-E nonlinearity depends on the stiffness of the core material, the geometric arrangement of piezo patches, the boundary conditions and the actuation voltage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etemadpour, R.; Sepehri Javan, N.; Dorranian, D.
2016-05-01
The nonlinear dynamics of a circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in the magnetized plasmas whose constituents are superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons is studied theoretically. A nonlinear equation which describes the dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained using a relativistic two-fluid model. Based on this nonlinear equation and taking into account some nonlinear phenomena such as modulational instability, self-focusing and soliton formation are investigated. Effect of the magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons on these phenomena is considered. It is shown that the nonthermality and superthermality of particles can substantially change the nonlinearity of medium.
Pan, Huilin; Yang, Jiayue; Wang, Fengyan; Liu, Kopin
2014-11-01
The transition state in the Cl + CH4 reaction is of Cl-H-C collinear geometry, which serves as the bottleneck to reaction. When the reactant CH4 is antisymmetrically stretch-excited to ν3 = 1 by absorbing a linearly polarized photon, all four C-H bonds are collectively excited, and any one of the H atoms could be attacked by the Cl atom. At first sight, it is not obvious how an excited spherical-top molecule like CH4 is aligned and what consequences will be on chemical reactivity by polarizing the CH4 reagents. As shown here, an enormous steric effect on reactivity is observed, which depends sensitively on the selected rotational states. By exploiting various rotational branches in optical excitation, we quantify the degree of stereospecificity for a few lowest rovibrational states of the aligned CH4(ν3 = 1) reagents, as well as account for the hyperfine depolarization factor. This information lays the foundation for a full stereorequirement study of the Cl + CH4(ν3 = 1) reaction. PMID:26278763
Coupling the solar surface and the corona: Coronal rotation, Alfvén wave-driven polar plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, R. F.; Grappin, R.; Velli, M.; Verdini, A.
2013-06-01
The dynamical response of the solar corona to surface and sub-surface perturbations depends on the chromospheric stratification, and specifically on how efficiently these layers reflect or transmit incoming Alfvén waves. While it would be desirable to include the chromospheric layers in the numerical simulations used to study such phenomena, that is most often not feasible. We defined and tested a simple approximation allowing the study of coronal phenomena while taking into account a parametrised chromospheric reflectivity. We addressed the problems of the transmission of the surface rotation to the corona and that of the generation of polar plumes by Alfvén waves [1, 2]. We found that a high (yet partial) effective chromospheric reflectivity is required to properly describe the angular momentum balance in the corona and the way the surface differential rotation is transmitted upwards. Alfvén wave-driven polar plumes maintain their properties for a wide range of values for the reflectivity, but they become bursty (and eventually disrupt) when the limit of total reflection is attained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raynaud, Franck; Ambühl, Mark E.; Gabella, Chiara; Bornert, Alicia; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.
2016-04-01
How cells break symmetry and organize activity at their edges to move directionally is a fundamental question in cell biology. Physical models of cell motility commonly incorporate gradients of regulatory proteins and/or feedback from the motion itself to describe the polarization of this edge activity. These approaches, however, fail to explain cell behaviour before the onset of polarization. We use polarizing and moving fish epidermal cells as a model system to bridge the gap between cell behaviours before and after polarization. Our analysis suggests a novel and simple principle of self-organizing cell activity, in which local cell-edge dynamics depends on the distance from the cell centre, but not on the orientation with respect to the front-back axis. We validate this principle with a stochastic model that faithfully reproduces a range of cell-migration behaviours. Our findings indicate that spontaneous polarization, persistent motion and cell shape are emergent properties of the local cell-edge dynamics controlled by the distance from the cell centre.
Rotation of the optical polarization angle associated with the 2008 γ-ray flare of blazar W Comae
Sorcia, Marco; Benítez, Erika; Cabrera, José I.; Hiriart, David; López, José M.; Mújica, Raúl
2014-10-10
An R-band photopolarimetric variability analysis of the TeV bright blazar W Comae between 2008 February 28 and 2013 May 17 is presented. The source showed a gradual tendency to decrease its mean flux level with a total change of 3 mJy. A maximum and minimum brightness states in the R band of 14.25 ± 0.04 and 16.52 ± 0.1 mag, respectively, were observed, corresponding to a maximum variation of ΔF = 5.40 mJy. We estimated a minimum variability timescale of Δt = 3.3 days. A maximum polarization degree P = 33.8% ± 1.6%, with a maximum variation of ΔP = 33.2%, was found. One of our main results is the detection of a large rotation of the polarization angle from 78° to 315° (Δθ ∼ 237°) that coincides in time with the γ-ray flare observed in 2008 June. This result indicates that both optical and γ-ray emission regions could be co-spatial. During this flare, a correlation between the R-band flux and polarization degree was found with a correlation coefficient of r {sub F} {sub –} {sub p} = 0.93 ± 0.11. From the Stokes parameters, we infer the existence of two optically thin synchrotron components that contribute to the polarized flux. One of them is stable with a constant polarization degree of 11%. Assuming a shock-in jet model during the 2008 flare, we estimated a maximum Doppler factor δ {sub D} ∼ 27 and a minimum of δ {sub D} ∼ 16; a minimum viewing angle of the jet ∼2.°0; and a magnetic field B ∼ 0.12 G.
Imazono, Takashi; Hirono, Toko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Saitoh, Yuji; Ishino, Masahiko; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Koike, Masato; Sano, Kazuo
2005-12-15
The polarization performance of a reflection-type polarizer made with a synthetic mica (fluorophlogopite) single crystal (002) in symmetric Bragg geometry was evaluated at the photon energy of 880 eV by means of the rotating-analyzer method. An experiment was performed at the undulator beamline at the SPring-8. The reflectance in the s-polarization configuration was 2.6% at an incidence angle of around 45 deg. As the result of the analysis based on the rotating-analyzer method, the polarizance of the polarizer and the degree of linear polarization of the incident light at 880 eV were found to be 0.997{+-}0.002 and 0.993{+-}0.004, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Masaru; Takahashi, Masaaki
2016-04-01
A high significance of planetary rotation and poleward eddy heat fluxes is determined for general circulation driven by baroclinic forcing due to cloud layer heating. In a high-resolution simplified Venus general circulation model, a planetary-scale mixed Rossby-gravity wave with meridional winds across the poles produces strong poleward heat flux and indirect circulation. This strong poleward heat transport induces downward momentum transport of indirect cells in the regions of weak high-latitude jets. It also reduces the meridional temperature gradient and vertical shear of the high-latitude jets in accordance with the thermal wind relation below the cloud layer. In contrast, strong equatorial superrotation and midlatitude jets form in the cloud layer in the absence of polar indirect cells in an experiment involving Titan's rotation. Both the strong midlatitude jet and meridional temperature gradient are maintained in the situation that eddy horizontal heat fluxes are weak. The presence or absence of strong poleward eddy heat flux is one of the important factors determining the slow or fast superrotation state in the cloud layer through the downward angular momentum transport and the thermal wind relation. For fast Earth rotation, a weak global-scale Hadley circulation of the low-density upper atmosphere maintains equatorial superrotation and midlatitude jets above the cloud layer, whereas multiple meridional circulations suppress the zonal wind speed below the cloud layer.
A polarity reversal in the large-scale magnetic field of the rapidly rotating sun HD 190771
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petit, P.; Dintrans, B.; Morgenthaler, A.; Van Grootel, V.; Morin, J.; Lanoux, J.; Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.
2009-12-01
Aims. We investigate the long-term evolution of the large-scale photospheric magnetic field geometry of the solar-type star HD 190771. With fundamental parameters very close to those of the Sun except for a shorter rotation period of 8.8 d, HD 190771 provides us with a first insight into the specific impact of the rotation rate in the dynamo generation of magnetic fields in 1 M_⊙ stars. Methods: We use circularly polarized, high-resolution spectra obtained with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter (Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France) and compute cross-correlation line profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect polarized Zeeman signatures. From three phase-resolved data sets collected during the summers of 2007, 2008, and 2009, we model the large-scale photospheric magnetic field of the star by means of Zeeman-Doppler imaging and follow its temporal evolution. Results: The comparison of the magnetic maps shows that a polarity reversal of the axisymmetric component of the large-scale magnetic field occurred between 2007 and 2008, this evolution being observed in both the poloidal and toroidal magnetic components. Between 2008 and 2009, another type of global evolution occured, characterized by a sharp decrease of the fraction of magnetic energy stored in the toroidal component. These changes were not accompanied by significant evolution in the total photospheric magnetic energy. Using our spectra to perform radial velocity measurements, we also detect a very low-mass stellar companion to HD 190771. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Zhang, Rongchun; Damron, Joshua; Vosegaard, Thomas; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy
2015-01-01
Rotating-frame separated-local-field solid-state NMR experiments measure highly resolved heteronuclear dipolar couplings which, in turn, provide valuable interatomic distances for structural and dynamic studies of molecules in the solid-state. Though many different rotating-frame SLF sequences have been put forth, recent advances in ultrafast MAS technology have considerably simplified pulse sequence requirements due to the suppression of proton-proton dipolar interactions. In this study we revisit a simple two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C dipolar coupling/chemical shift correlation experiment using (13)C detected cross-polarization with a variable contact time (CPVC) and systematically study the conditions for its optimal performance at 60 kHz MAS. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of a proton-detected version of the CPVC experiment. The theoretical analysis of the CPVC pulse sequence under different Hartmann-Hahn matching conditions confirms that it performs optimally under the ZQ (w1H-w1C=±wr) condition for polarization transfer. The limits of the cross polarization process are explored and precisely defined as a function of offset and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch via spin dynamics simulation and experiments on a powder sample of uniformly (13)C-labeled L-isoleucine. Our results show that the performance of the CPVC sequence and subsequent determination of (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings are insensitive to (1)H/(13)C frequency offset frequency when high RF fields are used on both RF channels. Conversely, the CPVC sequence is quite sensitive to the Hartmann-Hahn mismatch, particularly for systems with weak heteronuclear dipolar couplings. We demonstrate the use of the CPVC based SLF experiment as a tool to identify different carbon groups, and hope to motivate the exploration of more sophisticated (1)H detected avenues for ultrafast MAS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossain, M. A.; Namihira, Y.; Islam, M. A.; Hirako, Y.
2012-07-01
A polarization maintaining highly nonlinear Germanium (Ge) doped photonic crystal fiber (HNL-GePCF) is proposed for supercontinuum (SC) generation at 1.55 μm as polarization maintaining properties in a fiber enhance nonlinear interactions to generate SC using less optical power. By designing 3% higher refractive index Ge-doped core with core ellipticity ɛ=0.9 inside silica, nonlinear coefficient γ and birefringence B are increased as large as 83 W-1 km-1 and 2.82×10-4 respectively at 1.55 μm. Using finite element method (FEM) with a circular perfectly matched boundary layer (PML), it is shown through simulations that the proposed HNL-GePCF offers an efficient SC generation at 1.55 μm. By propagating sech2 picosecond optical pulses having 2.5 ps and 1.0 ps pulsewidth at a full width at half maximum (FWHM) through the proposed HNL-GePCF, output optical pulses are analyzed by the split-step Fourier method to obtain the spectral contents. The highest 10 dB bandwidth spectra at 1.55 μm are observed as 100 nm and 150 nm for 2.5 ps input optical pulse and for 1.0 ps input optical pulse respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Hsien-Hao; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping; Xu, Lixin; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello
2015-06-01
Recently, ACTPol measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode and E-mode polarizations and obtained TE, EE, BB, TB, and EB power spectra in the multipole range 225–8725. In our previous paper (Paper I), we jointly analyzed the results of three experiments on the CMB B-mode polarization—SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2—to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and inflationary gravitational waves components, the fluctuation effects induced by cosmic polarization rotation (CPR) if it exists within the upper limits at the time. In this paper, we fit both the mean CPR angle < α > and its fluctuation < δ {{α }2}> from the new ACTPol data, and update our fitting of CPR fluctuations using the BICEP2 data taking the new Planck dust measurement results into consideration. We follow the same method used in Paper I. The mean CPR angle is constrained from the EB correlation power spectra to |< α > |\\lt 14 mrad (0.°8) and the fluctuation (rms) is constrained from the BB correlation power spectra to {{< δ {{α }2}> }1/2}\\lt 29.3 mrad (1.°68). Assuming that the polarization angle of Tau A does not change from 89.2 to 146 GHz, the ACTPol data give < α > =1.0+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 63. These results suggest that the inclusion of the present ACTPol data is consistent with no CPR detection. Using the new Planck dust measurement, we update our fits of the BICEP2 CPR fluctuation constraint to be 32.8 mrad (1.°88). The joint ACTPol-BICEP2-POLARBEAR CPR fluctuation constraint is 23.7 mrad (1.°36).
Chen, Frank; Goodfellow, John; Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Hoffman, Matthias; Damodaran, Anoop R.; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaohang; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Rappe, Andrew; Martin, Lane W.; Wen, Haidan; Lindenberg, Aaron M.
2015-09-21
In this article, terahertz pulses are applied as an all-optical bias to ferroelectric thin-film BiFeO_{3} while monitoring the time-dependent ferroelectric polarization through its nonlinear optical response. Modulations in the intensity of the second harmonic light generated by the film correspond to on–off ratios of 220 × gateable on femtosecond timescales. Polarization modulations comparable to the built-in static polarization are observed.
Non-linear tides in a homogeneous rotating planet or star: global modes and elliptical instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Adrian J.; Braviner, Harry J.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2016-06-01
We revisit the global modes and instabilities of homogeneous rotating ellipsoidal fluid masses, which are the simplest global models of rotationally and tidally deformed gaseous planets or stars. The tidal flow in a short-period planet may be unstable to the elliptical instability, a hydrodynamic instability that can drive tidal evolution. We perform a global (and local WKB) analysis to study this instability using the elegant formalism of Lebovitz & Lifschitz. We survey the parameter space of global instabilities with harmonic orders ℓ ≤ 5, for planets with spins that are purely aligned (prograde) or anti-aligned (retrograde) with their orbits. In general, the instability has a much larger growth rate if the planetary spin and orbit are anti-aligned rather than aligned. We have identified a violent instability for anti-aligned spins outside of the usual frequency range for the elliptical instability (when n/Ω ≲ -1, where n and Ω are the orbital and spin angular frequencies, respectively) if the tidal amplitude is sufficiently large. We also explore the instability in a rigid ellipsoidal container, which is found to be quantitatively similar to that with a realistic free surface. Finally, we study the effect of rotation and tidal deformation on mode frequencies. We find that larger rotation rates and larger tidal deformations both decrease the frequencies of the prograde sectoral surface gravity modes. This increases the prospect of their tidal excitation, potentially enhancing the tidal response over expectations from linear theory. In a companion paper, we use our results to interpret global simulations of the elliptical instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, Jessica C.; Ugryumova, Nadya; Knapp, Karen M.; Matcher, Stephen J.
2006-09-01
Equine articular cartilage has been imaged using both polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and non-linear microscopy. PS-OCT has been used to spatially map the birefringence in the cartilage and we have found that in the vicinity of the lesion the images display a characteristic disruption in the regular birefringence bands shown by normal cartilage. We also note that significant (e.g. x2) variations in the apparent birefringence of samples taken from young (18 month) animals that otherwise appear visually homogeneous are found over spatial scales of a few millimeters. We have also imaged the cartilage using non-linear microscopy and compare the scans taken with second harmonic generation (SHG) light and the two photon fluorescence (TPF) light. SHG images collected using 800 nm excitation reveals the spatial distribution of collagen fibers, whilst TPF images clearly shows the distribution of intracellular and pericellular fluorophores.
Stoller, P; Kim, B-M; Rubenchik, A M; Reiser, K M; Da Silva, L B
2001-03-03
The measurement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility of collagen in various biological tissues has potential applications in the detection of structural changes which are related to different pathological conditions. We investigate second harmonic generation in rat-tail tendon, a highly organized collagen structure consisting of parallel fibers. Using an electro-optic modulator and a quarter-wave plate, we modulate the linear polarization of an ultra-short pulse laser beam that is used to measure second harmonic generation (SHG) in a confocal microscopy setup. Phase-sensitive detection of the generated signal, coupled with a simple model of the collagen protein structures, allows us to measure a parameter {gamma} related to nonlinear susceptibility and to determine the relative orientation of the structures. Our preliminary results indicate that it may be possible to use this parameter to characterize the structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, J. A.
1984-01-01
An effective computational strategy is presented for the large-rotation, nonlinear axisymmetric analysis of shells of revolution. The three key elements of the computational strategy are: (1) use of mixed finite-element models with discontinuous stress resultants at the element interfaces; (2) substantial reduction in the total number of degrees of freedom through the use of a multiple-parameter reduction technique; and (3) reduction in the size of the analysis model through the decomposition of asymmetric loads into symmetric and antisymmetric components coupled with the use of the multiple-parameter reduction technique. The potential of the proposed computational strategy is discussed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy of the mixed models developed and to show the potential of using the proposed computational strategy for the analysis of tires.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, D. H.; Ormiston, R. A.
1973-01-01
The nonlinear partial differential equations for the flapping and lead-lag degrees of freedom of a torisonally rigid, rotating cantilevered beam are derived. These equations are linearized about an equilibrium condition to study the flap-lag stability characteristics of hingeless helicopter rotor blades with zero twist and uniform mass and stiffness in the hovering flight condition. The results indicate that these configurations are stable because the effect of elastic coupling more than compensates for the destabilizing flap-lag Coriolis and aerodynamic coupling. The effect of higher bending modes on the lead-lag damping was found to be small and the common, centrally hinged, spring restrained, rigid blade approximation for elastic rotor blades was shown to be resonably satisfactory for determining flap-lag stability. The effect of pre-cone was generally stabilizing and the effects of rotary inertia were negligible.
Cserháti, T
1996-07-10
The retention of 17 propargylamine derivatives was determined on a beta-cyclodextrin polymer (beta-CDP)-coated silica column using tetrahydrofuran-0.05 M K2HPO4 (6:4, v/v) as eluent. The inclusion complex formation between the propargylamine derivatives and a water-soluble beta-CDP was studied by charge-transfer chromatography carried out on reversed-phase TLC layers. The capacity factors were correlated with the various measured and calculated physicochemical parameters of the solutes using principal component analysis followed by non-linear mapping, varimax rotation and cluster analysis. Calculations proved that the hydrophobicity and steric parameters have the highest influence on the retention of propargylamine derivatives. It has been established that each statistical method can be used for the evaluation of similar retention data matrices, however, the results can be slightly different according to the method applied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ema, S. A.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.
2016-04-01
The nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) waves in a strongly coupled plasma system containing Maxwellian electrons and nonthermal ions has been theoretically and numerically investigated. The well-known reductive perturbation technique is used to derive both the Burgers and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations. Their shock and solitary wave solutions have also been numerically analyzed in understanding localized electrostatic disturbances. It has been observed that the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of IA waves are significantly modified by the effect of polarization force and other plasma parameters (e.g., the electron-to-ion number density ratio and ion-to-electron temperature ratio). This is a unique finding among all theoretical investigations made before, whose probable implications are discussed in this investigation. The implications of the results obtained from this investigation may be useful in understanding the wave propagation in both space and laboratory plasmas.
Polarization instability of Raman solitons ejected during supercontinuum generation.
Chao, Qing; Wagner, Kelvin H
2015-12-28
We numerically investigate polarization instability of soliton fission and the polarization dynamics of Raman solitons ejected during supercontinuum generation in a photonics crystal fiber using the coupled vector generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations for both linear and circular birefringent fibers. The evolution of the state of polarizations of the ejected Raman soliton as representated on the Poincaré sphere is affected by both nonlinear and linear polarization rotations on the Poincaré sphere. The polarization dynamics reveal the presence of a polarization separatrix and the emergence of stable slow and unstable fast eigen-polarizations for the Raman solitons ejected in the supercontinuum generation process. Circularly birefringent fiber is investigated and found to simplify the nonlinear polarization dynamics. PMID:26832032
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaber, K.; Bunge, H.-P.; Schuberth, B. S. A.; Malservisi, R.; Horbach, A.
2009-11-01
Growing evidence points to a substantial heat flow across the core-mantle boundary (CMB), but the rotational stability of strongly bottom heated mantle flow with prominent upwelling plumes is poorly known. Here we calculate polar motion for the past 100 Myr induced in a new class of isochemical high-resolution mantle circulation models (MCMs) with Earth-like convective vigor and up to 12 TW core heat flux. Our MCMs include internal heating and a simple three-layer viscosity profile associated with the lithosphere (1023 Pa s) and the upper (1021 Pa s) and the lower mantle (1023 Pa s), separated at 100 and 650 km depth, respectively. A published mantle mineralogy model in the pyrolite composition, consistent with our assumption of whole mantle flow, allows us to relate thermal to density variations in a thermodynamically self-consistent way. All models yield modest polar motion on the order of 0.5° Myr-1 or less, in accordance with paleomagnetic data and agreeing with a number of studies that demonstrate the stabilizing effect of the rotational bulge. Although a substantially reduced lower mantle viscosity would increase this rate, the good agreement between MCM and seismic mantle heterogeneity lends independent support for our viscosity profile, as otherwise, slabs in the MCM would rapidly sink to depth levels where they are tomographically not observed. In general, there is good agreement between the long-wavelength geoids predicted from our MCMs and recent satellite derived models of Earth's geoid (correlation coefficient of around 0.4), but noticeable differences at intermediate wavelengths, for example, in the western Pacific and in Africa, suggest the use of gravity data to distinguish between competing plate reconstruction models.
Kalkan, Erol; ,
2012-01-01
Building codes in the U.S. require at least two horizontal ground motion components for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all non-redundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using 3D computer models of a single-story structure having symmetric (that is, torsionally-stiff) and asymmetric (that is, torsionally flexible) layouts subjected to an ensemble of bi-directional near-fault strong ground motions with and without apparent velocity pulses. In this parametric study, the elastic vibration period of the structures is varied from 0.2 to 5 seconds, and yield strength reduction factors R is varied from a value that leads to linear-elastic design to 3 and 5. The influence that the rotation angle of the ground motion has on several engineering demand parameters (EDPs) is examined in linear-elastic and nonlinear-inelastic domains to form a benchmark for evaluating the use of the FN/FP directions as well as the maximum-direction (MD) ground motion, a new definition of horizontal ground motions for use in the seismic design of structures according to the 2009 NEHRP Provisions and Commentary.
Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong
2014-04-01
Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popkov, A. F.; Kulagin, N. E.; Soloviov, S. V.; Sukmanova, K. S.; Gareeva, Z. V.; Zvezdin, A. K.
2015-10-01
The room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3, by far the most studied experimentally, exhibits outstanding ferroelectric properties with a cycloidal magnetic order in the bulk and many unexpected advantages for possible applications in spintronics, sensor techniques, and photovoltaics. To consider ferroelectric and magnetic phase transitions in multiferroic BiFeO3 under electric field, we suggest the Ginsburg-Landau-like approach based on the symmetry and P -ω -L coupling, where the order parameters are: P is the electric polarization, ω is the axial vector of antidistorsion (describing a rotation of the oxygen octahedrons), and L is the antiferromagnetic vector. The theoretical model is consistent with experiment and ab initio calculations data. We give the complete set of numerical coefficients of the model and explore the behavior of P and ω vectors in strong electric field. The proposed approach is particularly promising for the analysis of magnetoelectric phenomena whose length scale is significantly larger than the length of the cell used in ab initio calculations. The considered cycloid problem is the clear example of such a system. Electric field-induced transformations of cycloid are exemplified on an epitaxial BiFeO3 film grown on the (001)-oriented substrate. We show that the jump of vectors P and ω in the field E =6 MV/m is accompanied by a jump of a cycloid spin rotation plane. This effect is of particular interest for spintronics and nanoelectronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reznikov, Mitya; Lopatina, Lena M.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Bos, Philip J.
2011-03-01
The effect of surface alignment on the achievement of analog ("V"-shaped) electric field control of director rotation in SmC* liquid crystal devices is investigated experimentally and through numerical modeling. Ferroelectric SmC* liquid crystals are intrinsically analog and thresholdless, i.e. the director can be rotated freely around the tilt cone. Whether or not a SmC* liquid crystal cell exhibits thresholdless switching depends strongly on the influence of the cell's alignment layers, on the magnitude of the liquid crystal's spontaneous polarization, and on whether smectic layers adopt a bookshelf or chevron configuration. To study the effect of the surface alignment layers, we have exploited a technique for the vertical (bookshelf) alignment of the smectic layers that does not depend on surface anisotropy. The alignment technique allows an experimental study of the influence of surfaces spanning a wide range of pretilt angles, azimuthal and zenithal anchoring energies. This technique is used to study the effect of surfaces on the threshold behavior of director rotation in SmC* materials under the influence of an electric field. The alignment technique also allowed us to use a high-PS liquid crystal material having an I-A-C phase sequence and reduced layer shrinkage thought to be well suited to thresholdless switching. We show that the alignment layer has a strong effect, and that excellent analog response can be achieved for the case of alignment layers which promote homeotropic director orientation. We further model and discuss the potential effect of a thin layer of nematic at the surface and the possibility of gliding of the easy axis during switching.
Surprisal analysis of rotational-translational energy transfer - Non-linear versus linear rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, S.
1979-01-01
Surprisal versus energy gap analyses of state-to-state cross sections are presented for a number of linear rigid rotors excited by collisions with atoms for H2-H, H2-He, HCl-He, HCl-Ar, CO-He, CS-H2 (j=0) OCS-H2 (j=0) and HN2(+)-He, where (j=0) indicates that the hydrogen molecule was constrained to remain in its lowest level. Different systems exhibit wide variations in the slope of the surprisal plot and in certain cases, enough to indicate that the energy gap may not be the static dynamical constraint. Similar analyses are presented for nonlinear rotors excited by atoms for H2CO-He and H2O-He. For these, the data show a great deal of scatter, indicating that the reduced energy gap is probably not the appropriate independent variable.
Detection of radio-frequency magnetic fields using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ledbetter, M. P.; Acosta, V. M.; Rochester, S. M.; Budker, D.; Pustelny, S.; Yashchuk, V. V.
2007-02-01
We describe a room-temperature alkali-metal atomic magnetometer for detection of small, high-frequency magnetic fields. The magnetometer operates by detecting optical rotation due to the precession of an aligned ground state in the presence of a small oscillating magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the magnetometer can be adjusted to any desired value by tuning the bias magnetic field. Based on experimentally measured signal-to-noise ratio, we demonstrate a sensitivity of 100pG/Hz (rms) in a 3.5-cm -diameter paraffin coated cell. Assuming detection at the photon shot-noise limit, we project a sensitivity as low as 25pG/Hz (rms).
Detection of radio-frequency magnetic fields using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation
Ledbetter, M. P.; Acosta, V. M.; Rochester, S. M.; Budker, D.; Pustelny, S.; Yashchuk, V. V.
2007-02-15
We describe a room-temperature alkali-metal atomic magnetometer for detection of small, high-frequency magnetic fields. The magnetometer operates by detecting optical rotation due to the precession of an aligned ground state in the presence of a small oscillating magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the magnetometer can be adjusted to any desired value by tuning the bias magnetic field. Based on experimentally measured signal-to-noise ratio, we demonstrate a sensitivity of 100 pG/{radical}(Hz) (rms) in a 3.5-cm-diameter paraffin coated cell. Assuming detection at the photon shot-noise limit, we project a sensitivity as low as 25 pG/{radical}(Hz) (rms)
Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L.
2010-01-01
We address issues of simultaneous control of the grasping force and the total moment of forces applied to a handheld object during its manipulation. Six young healthy male subjects grasped an instrumented handle and performed its cyclic motion in the vertical direction. The handle allowed for setting different clockwise (negative) or counterclockwise torques. Three movement frequencies: 1, 1.5 and 2 Hz, and five different torques: −1/3, −1/6, 0, 1/6 and 1/3 Nm, were used. The rotational equilibrium was maintained by two means: (1) Concerted changes of the moments produced by the normal and tangential forces, specifically anti-phase changes of the moments during the tasks with zero external torque and in-phase changes during the non-zero-torque tasks, and (2) Redistribution of the normal forces among individual fingers such that the agonist fingers—the fingers that resist external torque—increased the force in phase with the acceleration, while the forces of the antagonist fingers—those that assist the external torque—especially, the fingers with the large moment arms, the index and little fingers, stayed unchanged. The observed effects agree with the principle of superposition—according to which some complex actions, for example, prehension, can be decomposed into elemental actions controlled independently—and the mechanical advantage hypothesis according to which in moment production the fingers are activated in proportion to their moment arms with respect to the axis of rotation. We would like to emphasize the linearity of the observed relations, which was not prescribed by the task mechanics and seems to be produced by specific neural control mechanisms. PMID:16328302
Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields
Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong
2014-01-01
Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia. PMID:24777360
Polar self-assembled thin films for non-linear optical materials
Yang, XiaoGuang; Swanson, Basil I.; Li, DeQuan
2000-01-01
The design and synthesis of a family of calix[4]arene-based nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores are discussed. The calixarene chromophores are macrocyclic compounds consisting of four simple D-.pi.-A units bridged by methylene groups. These molecules were synthesized such that four D-.pi.-A units of the calix[4]arene were aligned along the same direction with the calixarene in a cone conformation. These nonlinear optical super-chromophores were subsequently fabricated into covalently bound self-assembled monolayers on the surfaces of fused silica and silicon. Spectroscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements were carried out to determine the absolute value of the dominant element of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility, d.sub.33, and the average molecular alignment, .PSI.. A value of d.sub.33 =60 pm/V at a fundamental wavelength of 890 nm, and .PSI..about.36.degree. was found with respect to the surface normal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zambo Abou'ou, M. N.; Tchofo Dinda, P.; Ngabireng, C. M.; Pitois, S.; Kibler, B.
2013-03-01
We examine processes of polarization-modulational instability (PMI) in two categories of weakly birefringent optical fibers, namely, fibers whose nonlinearity is comparable to that of a standard telecom fiber, and high-index glass fibers whose nonlinearity is enhanced by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of a standard fiber. We show that the fourth-order dispersion (FOD) has a strong impact on PMI processes in both types of fibers, both at the qualitative and quantitative levels. At the qualitative level, the FOD enriches the phase diagram with nonconventional processes that generate two pairs of sidebands in certain parameter regions, while in other regions we obtain a single pair of sidebands whose frequency is independent of the pump power. The highly nonlinear birefringent fibers cause a pump depletion of a magnitude such that the frequency of the PMI sidebands becomes unstable and undergoes a continual drift. We demonstrate the existence of conditions in which the PMI process takes place in a manner similar to that of a process coupled with a photon reservoir, which feeds in situ the PMI process by continuously providing photons in compensation for those absorbed by the fiber.
El-Taibany, W. F.
2013-09-15
The reductive perturbation technique is employed to investigate the propagation properties of nonlinear dust acoustic (DA) waves in a four-component inhomogeneous dusty plasma (4CIDP). The 4CIDP consists of both positive- and negative-charge dust grains, characterized by different mass, temperature, and density, in addition to a background of Maxwellian electrons and ions. The inhomogeneity caused by nonuniform equilibrium values of particle densities, fluid velocities, and electrostatic potential leads to a significant modification to the nature of nonlinear DA solitary waves. It is found that this model reveals two DA wave velocities, one slow, λ{sub s}, and the other is fast, λ{sub f}. The nonlinear wave evolution is governed by a modified Kortweg-de Vries equation, whose coefficients are space dependent. Both the two soliton types; compressive and rarefactive are allowed corresponding to λ{sub s}. However, only compressive soliton is created corresponding to λ{sub f}. The numerical investigations illustrate the dependence of the soliton amplitude, width, and velocity on the plasma inhomogeneities in each case. The relevance of these theoretical results with 4CIDPs observed in a multi-component plasma configurations in the polar mesosphere is discussed.
Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.
1997-01-01
We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Male, Pim; van Dalen, Karel N.; Metrikine, Andrei V.
2016-11-01
Existing models for the analysis of offshore wind turbines account for the aerodynamic action on the turbine rotor in detail, requiring a high computational price. When considering the foundation of an offshore wind turbine, however, a reduced rotor model may be sufficient. To define such a model, the significance of the nonlinear velocity and history dependency of the aerodynamic force on a rotating blade should be known. Aerodynamic interaction renders the dynamics of a rotating blade in an ambient wind field nonlinear in terms of the dependency on the wind velocity relative to the structural motion. Moreover, the development in time of the aerodynamic force does not follow the flow velocity instantaneously, implying a history dependency. In addition, both the non-uniform blade geometry and the aerodynamic interaction couple the blade motions in and out of the rotational plane. Therefore, this study presents the Euler-Bernoulli formulation of a twisted rotating blade connected to a rigid hub, excited by either instantaneous or history-dependent aerodynamic forces. On this basis, the importance of the history dependency is determined. Moreover, to assess the nonlinear contributions, both models are linearized. The structural response is computed for a stand-still and a rotating blade, based on the NREL 5-MW turbine. To this end, the model is reduced on the basis of its first three free-vibration mode shapes. Blade tip response predictions, computed from turbulent excitation, correctly account for both modal and directional couplings, and the added damping resulting from the dependency of the aerodynamic force on the structural motion. Considering the deflection of the blade tip, the history-dependent and the instantaneous force models perform equally well, providing a basis for the potential use of the instantaneous model for the rotor reduction. The linearized instantaneous model provides similar results for the rotating blade, indicating its potential
Gao, Tao; Xu, Ruimin; Kong, Yuechan Zhou, Jianjun; Kong, Cen; Dong, Xun; Chen, Tangsheng
2015-06-15
We demonstrate highly improved linearity in a nonlinear ferroelectric of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})-gated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT). Distinct double-hump feature in the transconductance-gate voltage (g{sub m}-V{sub g}) curve is observed, yielding remarkable enhancement in gate voltage swing as compared to MIS-HEMT with conventional linear gate dielectric. By incorporating the ferroelectric polarization into a self-consistent calculation, it is disclosed that in addition to the common hump corresponding to the onset of electron accumulation, the second hump at high current level is originated from the nonlinear polar nature of ferroelectric, which enhances the gate capacitance by increasing equivalent dielectric constant nonlinearly. This work paves a way for design of high linearity GaN MIS-HEMT by exploiting the nonlinear properties of dielectric.
Singh, Kamal P.; Ropars, Guy; Brunel, Marc; Le Floch, Albert
2006-03-15
We investigate the two-dimensional optical rotor of a weakly modulated vectorial bistable laser submitted to a single or multiple stochastic perturbations. In the Langevin-type equation of the rotor the role of an even or odd input forcing function on the system dynamics is isolated. Through these two inputs of optical and magnetic natures we verify that the stochastic resonance exists only when the periodic modulation acts on the even parity optical input. When two mutually correlated noises are simultaneously submitted to the input functions of opposite parities, we find a critical regime of the noise interplay whereby one stable state becomes noise-free. In this case, the residence time of the light vector in the noise-free state diverges which leads to a collapse of the output signal-to-noise ratio. But, in this critical regime also obtained when one noise drives both the even and odd functions, if the system symmetry is broken through an independent lever control, we can recover the switching cycle due to a new response mechanism, namely, the dual stochastic response, with a specific output signal-to-noise ratio expression. Both the theoretical analysis and the experiment show that the signal-to-noise ratio now displays a robust behavior for a large range of the input noise amplitude, and a plateau with respect to the input signal amplitude. Furthermore, we isolate an original signature of this synchronization mechanism in the residence-time distribution leading to a broadband forcing frequency range. These noise interplay effects in a double well potential are of generic nature and could be found in other nonlinear systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Adrian J.
2016-06-01
I present results from the first global hydrodynamical simulations of the elliptical instability in a tidally deformed gaseous planet (or star) with a free surface. The elliptical instability is potentially important for tidal evolution of the shortest-period hot Jupiters. I model the planet as a spin-orbit aligned or anti-aligned, and non-synchronously rotating, tidally deformed, homogeneous fluid body. A companion paper presented an analysis of the global modes and instabilities of such a planet. Here I focus on the non-linear evolution of the elliptical instability. This is observed to produce bursts of turbulence that drive the planet towards synchronism with its orbit in an erratic manner. If the planetary spin is initially anti-aligned, the elliptical instability also drives spin-orbit alignment on a similar time-scale as the spin synchronization. The instability generates differential rotation inside the planet in the form of zonal flows, which play an important role in the saturation of the instability, and in producing the observed burstiness. These results are broadly consistent with the picture obtained using a local Cartesian model (where columnar vortices played the role of zonal flows). I also simulate the instability in a container that is rigid (but stress-free) rather than free, finding broad quantitative agreement. The dissipation resulting from the elliptical instability could explain why the shortest-period hot Jupiters tend to have circular orbits inside about 2-3 d, and predicts spin synchronization (and spin-orbit alignment) out to about 10-15 d. However, other mechanisms must be invoked to explain tidal circularization for longer orbital periods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Sydney A.
2010-10-01
We here introduce a simple nonlinear model to describe the rotational evolution of cool stars on the main sequence. It is formulated only in terms of the Rossby number (Ro = P/τ), its inverse, and two dimensionless constants which we specify using solar and open-cluster data. The model has two limiting cases of stellar rotation, previously called C and I, that correspond to two observed sequences of fast and slowly rotating stars in young open clusters. The model describes the evolution of stars from C-type, with particular mass and age dependencies, to I-type, with different mass and age dependencies, through the rotational gap, g, separating them. The proposed model explains various aspects of stellar rotation, and provides an exact expression for the age of a rotating cool star in terms of P and τ, thereby generalizing gyrochronology. Using it, we calculate the time interval required for stars to reach the rotational gap—a monotonically increasing, mildly nonlinear function of τ. Beginning with the range of initial periods indicated by observations, we show that the (mass-dependent) dispersion in rotation period initially increases, and then decreases rapidly with the passage of time. The initial dispersion in period contributes up to 128 Myr to the gyro-age errors of solar-mass field stars. Finally, we transform to color-period space, calculate appropriate isochrones, and show that this model explains some detailed features in the observed color-period diagrams of open clusters, including the positions and shapes of the sequences, and the observed density of stars across these diagrams.
Theory of TE-polarized waves in a lossless cubic-quintic nonlinear planar waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schürmann, Hans Werner; Serov, Valery
2016-06-01
TE-polarized electromagnetic waves, guided by a three-layer slab structure consisting of a central film with quartic permittivity placed between two half spaces with Kerr permittivity, are studied. Traveling-wave solutions of Maxwell's equations are expressed in terms of Weierstrass's elliptic function ℘ . A general dispersion relation is derived and evaluated by using a phase diagram analysis. Emphasis is placed on the conditions of existence and solvability of the dispersion relation. Numerical results are presented.
Nonlinear spectral cleaning of few-cycle pulses via cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jullien, A.; Durfee, C. G.; Trisorio, A.; Canova, L.; Rousseau, J.-P.; Mercier, B.; Antonucci, L.; Chériaux, G.; Albert, O.; Lopez-Martens, R.
2009-08-01
The characterization of a temporal filter based on cross-polarized wave generation working in the few-optical-cycle regime is presented. We show that this device dramatically improves the spectral quality of the ultrashort seed pulses, opening the way to the production of sub-10 fs pulses with high incoherent and coherent contrast. The dispersion compensation conditions for an optimized behavior of the process are experimentally and theoretically discussed.
Yuan, Kai-Jun Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.
2015-04-14
We study effects of pulse durations on molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) in ultrafast circular polarization ultraviolet resonant ionization processes. Simulations performed on aligned H{sub 2}{sup +} by numerically solving time dependent Schrödinger equations show rotations of MPADs with respect to the molecular symmetry axes. It is found that in multi-photon resonant ionization processes, rotation angles are sensitive to pulse durations, which we attribute to the coherent resonant excitation between the ground state and the intermediate excited electronic state induced by Rabi oscillations. Multi-photon nonresonant and single photon ionization processes are simulated and compared which exhibit a constant rotation angle. An asymmetry parameter is introduced to describe the pulse duration sensitivity by perturbation theory models. Influence of pulse frequency detunings on MPADs is also investigated where oscillations of rotations are absent at long pulse durations due to nonresonance excitation.
Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Mengxin; Plum, Eric; Xu, Jingjun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2012-05-01
In 1950, a quarter of a century after his first-ever nonlinear optical experiment when intensity-dependent absorption was observed in uranium-doped glass, Sergey Vavilov predicted that birefringence, dichroism and polarization rotatory power should be dependent on light intensity. It required the invention of the laser to observe the barely detectable effect of light intensity on the polarization rotatory power of the optically active lithium iodate crystal, the phenomenon now known as the nonlinear optical activity, a high-intensity counterpart of the fundamental optical effect of polarization rotation in chiral media. Here we report that a plasmonic metamaterial exhibits nonlinear optical activity 30 million times stronger than lithium iodate crystals, thus transforming this fundamental phenomenon of polarization nonlinear optics from an esoteric phenomenon into a major effect of nonlinear plasmonics with potential for practical applications.
Spin-rotation parameter Q for elastic scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from WO, UCa, and SYPb
Fergerson, R.W.
1985-10-01
The spin-rotation parameter Q was measured for WO, UCa, and SYPb using the 800 MeV proton beam produced at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The experiment was carried out using the High Resolution Spectrometer equipped with a focal-plane polarimeter to determine the scattered polarization components in all three directions. These data (when combined with previous cross section and analyzing power data) determine the amplitude describing the elastic scattering of protons from these spin-zero nuclei to within an overall phase. Q is shown to be more sensitive than either the cross section or analyzing power to differences between the nonrelativistic and relativistic scattering theories that describe the proton-nucleus reaction in terms of fundamental proton-nucleon input. The nonrelativistic predictions for Q generally lie below the data but consistently have the correct structure. The relativistic predictions for the UCa and SYPb Q data are quite good (better than the nonrelativistic predictions). The relativistic predictions for the WO Q data show much more structure than is evident in the data. 51 refs., 39 figs., 4 tabs.
Chen, Yong; Han, Yong; Weng, Fuzhong
2013-09-01
The Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite is a Fourier transform spectrometer and provides a total of 1305 channels for sounding the atmosphere. Quantifying the CrIS spectral accuracy, which is directly related to radiometric accuracy, is crucial for improving its data assimilation in numerical weather prediction. In this study, a cross-correlation method is used for detecting the effect of Earth-rotation Doppler shift (ERDS) on CrIS observations. Based on a theoretical calculation, the ERDS can be as large as about 1.3 parts in 10(6) (ppm) near Earth's equator and at the satellite scan edge for a field of regard (FOR) of 1 or 30. The CrIS observations exhibit a relative Doppler shift as large as 2.6 ppm for a FOR pair of 1 and 30 near the equator. The variation of the ERDS with latitude and scan position detected from CrIS observations is similar to that derived theoretically, which indicates that the spectral stability of the CrIS instrument is very high. To accurately calibrate CrIS spectral accuracy, the ERDS effect should be removed. Since the ERDS is easily predictable, the Doppler shift is correctable in the CrIS spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Sheldon S. Q.; Hartemann, F. V.; Barty, C. P. J.
2010-03-01
A study of thermally-induced vacuum polarization stemming from the Euler-Heisenberg nonlinear radiation correction to Maxwell equations is conducted. While nonlinear effects associated with photon-photon scattering in the photon gas had been previously calculated, we present an analysis in the framework of stochastic electrodynamics. To lowest order of approximation, it is shown that the phase velocity of light is reduced in the presence of intense ambient electromagnetic radiation. Therefore Cherenkov radiation can be generated when charged particles traverse a region of intense blackbody radiation. Suitable conditions may be found in astrophysical environments. Cosmic ray electrons and positrons in the GeV to TeV range meet the energy requirement for this process to occur. We present calculations of the emission characteristics and conditions under which Cherenkov radiation may be observed. This effect combined with synchrotron and inverse Compton processes may lead to a more complete understanding of cosmic ray propagation. Also of interest, the question of the linearity of the relic cosmic microwave background is under investigation using this formalism and will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Takeshi; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Asahi, K.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.
Toward an experimental search for an electron electric dipole moment by using laser cooled francium atoms, a development of a rubidium (Rb) atomic magnetometer based on a nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) effect is presented. In order to obtain a narrow linewidth of the NMOR spectrum, a wall relaxation time of a paraffin coated glass cell, which confined the Rb atom, was experimentally confirmed. A residual field inside a magnetic shield was also evaluated.
Vacuum polarization of massive spinor and vector fields in the spacetime of a nonlinear black hole
Matyjasek, Jerzy
2007-10-15
Building on general formulas obtained from the approximate renormalized effective action, the stress-energy tensor of the quantized massive spinor and vector fields in the spacetime of the regular black hole is constructed. Such a black hole is the solution to the coupled system of nonlinear electrodynamics and general relativity. A detailed analytical and numerical analysis of the stress-energy tensor in the exterior region is presented. It is shown that for small values of the charge as well as large distances from the black hole the leading behavior of the stress-energy tensor is similar to that in the Reissner-Nordstroem geometry. Important differences appear when the inner horizon becomes close to the event horizon. A special emphasis is put on the extremal configuration and it is shown that the stress-energy tensor is regular inside the event horizon of the extremal black hole.
Halevy, A; Megidish, E; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L
2011-10-10
We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated β-BaB₂O₄ (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by 2.5 times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states.
Significant photoinduced Kerr rotation achieved in semiconductor microcavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherbunin, R. V.; Vladimirova, M.; Kavokin, K. V.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Kopteva, N. E.; Lagoudakis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.
2015-05-01
Giant Kerr rotation and ellipticity are observed and investigated in an asymmetric planar microcavity with a quantum well in the active region. Rotation angle of the polarization plane as well as ellipticity were determined from time- and frequency-resolved measurements of the Stokes vector components of reflected light. It was found that in a small range of the cavity mode detunings the polarized pump pulse creates a large splitting of the lower polariton branch while leaving its linewidth almost the same. This fact gives a possibility to observe at such detunings the Kerr rotation angle and ellipticity, close to their extremes. A theoretical analysis shows that the decisive role in reaching extreme polarization rotation angles is played by the structure asymmetry. Comprehensive analysis of the polarization state of the light in this regime shows that both renormalization of the exciton energy and the saturation of the excitonic resonance contribute to the observed optical nonlinearities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Damayanthi, T.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Karatsu, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Otani, C.; Sekimoto, Y.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Yoshida, M.; Won, E.
2016-08-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) is an important source of information about the origin of our universe. In particular, odd-parity large angular scale patterns in the CMB polarization, the primordial B-modes, are strong evidence for an inflationary universe, related to the accelerating expansion of the metric. We are developing a unique telescope, GroundBIRD, to take CMB polarization measurements. The telescope combines novel techniques: high-speed rotation scanning, cold optics, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). We evaluated the response of MKIDs on the rotation stage. Method of shielding from the geo-magnetic field is established. We have also developed a receiver cryostat. We are able to maintain a sufficient cold status for observations on the optical configuration. We plan to start commissioning the system by observing CMB in Japan in 2015-2016. We will then deploy GroundBIRD in the Canary Islands for further scientific observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiunov, V. F.
2013-06-01
The influence of the thickness of Fe-3% Si single crystals on the ratio of magnetic losses in rotating magnetic fields to losses measured in linearly polarized magnetic fields is investigated. A nonmonotonic character of the behavior of this ratio depending on the thickness of the samples in the range of its variation of 0.09-040 mm is revealed. It is established that the thickness of samples, which corresponds to minimal losses upon rotating remagnetization, exceeds their thickness measured for the samples in linearly polarized fields by a factor of almost two. The revealed features in the behavior of magnetic losses of the samples studied are discussed based on the dynamics of their domain structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Feng; Guo, Yichen; Zong, Zhihao; Hao, Xuehong; Shi, Yiwen; Tang, Minghua
2016-07-01
Nd3+/Zr4+-cosubstituted bismuth titanate (BNTZ x , x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) thin films have been fabricated by chemical solution deposition and their polarization hysteresis loops, leakage current, and capacitance butterfly loops investigated. Results show that, at Zr content of x = 0.1, both capacitance and remanent polarization can be greatly improved. The BNTZ0.1 film also exhibits fatigue-free, excellent leakage current characteristics ( I ≈ 9.44 × 10-9 A) at applied voltage of 3 V. High-quality c-axis-oriented BNTZ x = 0.1 films with improved electrical properties were fabricated; this finding supports the feasibility of engineering polarization rotation in ferroelectric bismuth titanate (as suggested theoretically by Roy et al. in Appl. Phys. Lett. 102:182901, 2013).
Huang, Cheng-Hsuan; Cheng, Wen-Li; He, Yan-Ying; Lee, Eric
2010-08-12
Electrophoresis of a soft particle along the centerline of a cylindrical pore is investigated theoretically in this study. The soft particle consists of an inner hard sphere covered by a concentric porous layer with fixed charge uniformly distributed in it. The polarization effect, the deformation of ion clouds surrounding the particle due to convection flow, is taken into account properly by adopting the full nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The study reveals that recent investigation in the literature without consideration of the polarization effect could severely overestimate the particle mobility up to nearly two times if the fixed charge in the porous layer is high. The boundary effect in terms of the reduction of particle mobility is very significant when the double layer is thick and diminishes as it gets very thin. The effect of the highly charged cylindrical wall is analyzed, in particular, among other factors of electrokinetic interest. The presence of the cylindrical wall retards the particle motion in general, as compared with an isolated particle. With the generation of an electroosmotic flow, however, the charged wall can either enhance the particle motion or deter it, depending on the surface potential on the wall and the double-layer thickness. The thinner the double layer, the more significant the influence of the osmotic flow on the particle motion in general. The direction of particle motion may even change twice as the reciprocal of the double-layer thickness increases when both the wall and the particle are highly charged. This is due to the competition between the electric driving force of the charged particle and the hydrodynamic retarding force from the background electroosmotic flow. This has direct impact in practical applications of nanofluidics when a weak electric field is applied. Conducting operations near these critical double-layer thicknesses should be avoided in practice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Feain, I. J.
2016-07-01
We present a broadband polarization analysis of 36 discrete polarized radio sources over a very broad, densely sampled frequency band. Our sample was selected on the basis of polarization behavior apparent in narrowband archival data at 1.4 GHz: half the sample shows complicated frequency-dependent polarization behavior (i.e., Faraday complexity) at these frequencies, while half shows comparatively simple behavior (i.e., they appear Faraday simple). We re-observed the sample using the Australia Telescope Compact Array in full polarization, with 6 GHz of densely sampled frequency coverage spanning 1.3–10 GHz. We have devised a general polarization modeling technique that allows us to identify multiple polarized emission components in a source, and to characterize their properties. We detect Faraday complex behavior in almost every source in our sample. Several sources exhibit particularly remarkable polarization behavior. By comparing our new and archival data, we have identified temporal variability in the broadband integrated polarization spectra of some sources. In a number of cases, the characteristics of the polarized emission components, including the range of Faraday depths over which they emit, their temporal variability, spectral index, and the linear extent of the source, allow us to argue that the spectropolarimetric data encode information about the magneto-ionic environment of active galactic nuclei themselves. Furthermore, the data place direct constraints on the geometry and magneto-ionic structure of this material. We discuss the consequences of restricted frequency bands on the detection and interpretation of polarization structures, and the implications for upcoming spectropolarimetric surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boivinet, S.; Lecourt, J.-B.; Hernandez, Y.; Fotiadi, A.; Mégret, P.
2014-05-01
We present in this study a PM all-fiber laser oscillator passively mode-locked (ML) at 1.03 μm. The laser is based on Nonlinear Polarization Evolution (NPE) in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. In order to obtain the mode-locking regime, a nonlinear reflective mirror including a fibered polarizer, a long fiber span and a fibered Faraday mirror (FM) is inserted in a Fabry-Perot laser cavity. In this work we explain the principles of operation of this original laser design that permits to generate ultrashort pulses at low repetition (lower that 1MHz) rate with a cavity length of 100 m of fiber. In this experiment, the measured pulse duration is about 6 ps. To our knowledge this is the first all-PM mode-locked laser based on the NPE with a cavity of 100m length fiber and a delivered pulse duration of few picosecondes. Furthermore, the different mode-locked regimes of the laser, i.e. multi-pulse, noise-like mode-locked and single pulse, are presented together with the ways of controlling the apparition of these regimes. When the single pulse mode-locking regime is achieved, the laser delivers linearly polarized pulses in a very stable way. Finally, this study includes numerical results which are obtained with the resolution of the NonLinear Schrodinger Equations (NLSE) with the Split-Step Fourier (SSF) algorithm. This modeling has led to the understanding of the different modes of operation of the laser. In particular, the influence of the peak power on the reflection of the nonlinear mirror and its operation are studied.
Sharples, Thomas R.; Luxford, Thomas F. M.; McKendrick, Kenneth G.; Costen, Matthew L.; Townsend, Dave
2015-11-28
We present the implementation of a new crossed-molecular beam, velocity-map ion-imaging apparatus, optimized for collisions of electronically excited molecules. We have applied this apparatus to rotational energy transfer in NO(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}, v = 0, N = 0, j = 0.5) + Ar collisions, at an average energy of 525 cm{sup −1}. We report differential cross sections for scattering into NO(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}, v = 0, N′ = 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9), together with quantum scattering calculations of the differential cross sections and angle dependent rotational alignment. The differential cross sections show dramatic forward scattered peaks, together with oscillatory behavior at larger scattering angles, while the rotational alignment moments are also found to oscillate as a function of scattering angle. In general, the quantum scattering calculations are found to agree well with experiment, reproducing the forward scattering and oscillatory behavior at larger scattering angles. Analysis of the quantum scattering calculations as a function of total rotational angular momentum indicates that the forward scattering peak originates from the attractive minimum in the potential energy surface at the N-end of the NO. Deviations in the quantum scattering predictions from the experimental results, for scattering at angles greater than 10°, are observed to be more significant for scattering to odd final N′. We suggest that this represents inaccuracies in the potential energy surface, and in particular in its representation of the difference between the N- and O-ends of the molecule, as given by the odd-order Legendre moments of the surface.
Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Boppart, Stephen A.
2012-01-01
Dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreased all-normal dispersion (DFDD-ANDi) photonic crystal fibers have been identified as promising candidates for high-spectral-power coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation. However, the effects of the unintentional birefringence of the fibers on the SC generation have been ignored. This birefringence is widely present in nonlinear non-polarization maintaining fibers with a typical core size of 2 µm, presumably due to the structural symmetry breaks introduced in the fiber drawing process. We find that an intrinsic form-birefringence on the order of 10−5 profoundly affects the SC generation in a DFDD-ANDi photonic crystal fiber. Conventional simulations based on the scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) fail to reproduce the prominent observed features of the SC generation in a short piece (9-cm) of this fiber. However, these features can be qualitatively or semi-quantitatively understood by the coupled GNLSE that takes into account the form-birefringence. The nonlinear polarization effects induced by the birefringence significantly distort the otherwise simple spectrotemporal field of the SC pulses. We therefore propose the fabrication of polarization-maintaining DFDD-ANDi fibers to avoid these adverse effects in pursuing a practical coherent fiber SC laser. PMID:22274457
Wang, Li-Jie; Zhong, Rong-Lin; Sun, Shi-Ling; Xu, Hong-Liang; Pan, Xiu-Mei; Su, Zhong-Min
2014-07-01
Recently, a new sulfide cluster fullerene, Sc2S@Cs (10528)-C72 containing two pairs of fused pentagons has been isolated and characterized (Chen et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 7851). Inspired by this investigation, we propose a question: what properties will be influenced by the interaction between the encapsulated V-shaped polar molecule and C72? To answer this question, four encapsulated metallic fullerenes (EMFs) M2N@C72 (M = Sc or Y, N = S or O) along with pristine Cs-C72 (10528) were investigated by quantum chemistry methods. The results show that the Egap (3.01-3.14 eV) of M2N@C72 are significantly greater than that of pristine Cs-C72 (10528) (2.34 eV). This indicates that the stabilities of these EMFs increase by encapsulating the V-shaped polar molecule into the fullerene. Furthermore, the natural bond orbital (NBO) charge analysis indicates electron transfer from M2N to C72 cage, which plays a crucial role in enhancing first hyperpolarizability (βtot). The βtot follows the order of 1174 au (Y2O@C72) ≈ 1179 au (Sc2O@C72) > 886 au (Y2S@C72) ≈ 864 au (Sc2S@C72) > 355 au (C72). This indicates that the βtot of M2N@C72 is more remarkable than that of pristine Cs-C72 (10528) due to the induction effect of the encapsulated molecule. Compared with sulfide cluster fullerenes (Y2S@C72 and Sc2S@C72), oxide cluster fullerenes (Sc2O@C72 and Y2O@C72) show much larger βtot due to the small ionic radius and the large electronegativity of oxygen. In contrast, the metal element (scandium and yttrium) has a slight influence on the βtot. Thus, oxide cluster fullerenes are candidates to become promising nonlinear optical materials with higher performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A. Ismail, M.; J. Tan, S.; S. Shahabuddin, N.; W. Harun, S.; Arof, H.; H., Ahmad
2012-05-01
A mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using a highly concentrated erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as the gain medium in a ring configuration with and without a saturable absorber (SA). Without the SA, the proposed laser generates soliton pulses with a repetition rate of 12 MHz, pulse width of 1.11 ps and energy pulse of 1.6 pJ. By incorporating SA in the ring cavity, the optical output of the laser changes from soliton to stretched pulses due to the slight change in the group velocity dispersion. With the SA, a cleaner pulse is obtained with a repetition rate of 11.3 MHz, a pulse width of 0.58 ps and a pulse energy of 2.3 pJ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, M.-X.; de Vries, M. S.; Weiner, J.
1986-09-01
We present a semiclassical model to analyze a recent experimental study on the polarization dependence of associative-ionization (AI) collisions between two Na(3p 2P3/2) atoms and the resulting spatial distribution of product rotational angular-momentum vectors. The theory is based on the idea of a ``locking radius'' at which the quantization axis changes from space-fixed coordinates to the molecular frame, and the total AI yield is a sum of the contributions from different collision orbital configurations. The model calculation shows the consistency between the measurements of our earlier study and that of Kircz, Morgenstern, and Nienhuis. We also derive a theoretical expression for the spatial distribution of Na2 + rotational angular-momentum vectors which reproduces the experimentally determined features. We conclude that the σ2 orbital configuration approach is favored over π2 by a factor of about 6, and locking takes place at R larger than 25 Å.
Wang, Chunhui; Lee, Xiaobao; Cui, Tianxiang; Qu, Yang; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi
2016-03-01
The direction rule of the laser beam traveling through a deflected polarizing beam splitter (PBS) cube is derived. It reveals that, due to the influence of end-face reflection of the PBS at the detector side, the emergent beam coming from the incident beam parallels the direction of the original case without rotation, with only a very small translation interval between them. The formula of the translation interval is also given. Meanwhile, the emergent beam from the return signal at the detector side deflects at an angle twice that of the PBS rotation angle. The correctness has been verified by an experiment. The intensity transmittance of the emergent beam when propagating in the PBS is changes very little if the rotation angle is less than 35 deg. In a 3D imaging lidar system, by rotating the PBS cube by an angle, the direction of the return signal optical axis is separated from that of the origin, which can decrease or eliminate the influence of direct reflection caused by the prism end face on target return signal detection. This has been checked by experiment. PMID:26974613
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Jianxin
2016-07-01
A full-duplex radio-over fiber (RoF) link scheme based on single sideband (SSB) optical millimeter (mm)-wave signal with polarization-rotated optical carrier is proposed to realize the source-free colorless base station (BS), in which a polarization beam splitter (PBS) is used to abstract part of the optical carrier for conveying the uplink data. Since the optical carrier for the uplink does not bear the downlink signal, no cross-talk from the downlink contaminates the uplink signal. The simulation results demonstrate that both down- and up-links maintain good performance. The mm-wave signal distribution network based on the proposed full duplex fiber link scheme can use the uniform source-free colorless BSs, which makes the access system very simpler.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Miao; Tian, Yuhua; Zhang, Min; Yao, Yuanlin; Ao, Yuqin; Yin, Bin; Zhu, Zhaoliang
2015-02-01
The response of nitric oxide (NO) emissions to nitrogen (N) input in agricultural ecosystems is generally assumed to be linear, but the availability of inorganic soil N exceeding crop N demands may cause a threshold response of NO. We conducted a four-rotation field measurement with discrepant N fertilizer rates during the wheat season of the rice-wheat rotation in the Taihu Lake region in China to test the hypothesis. Across all years, a nonlinear model well characterized the response of cumulative NO emissions to N fertilizer rates. The direct emission factors of NO induced by fertilizer also increased nonlinearly with increasing N doses, with a mean of 1.06% (ranging from 0.54% to 1.49%). NO emissions were low (<1.81 kg N ha-1 yr-1) over the 0-180 kg N ha-1 fertilizer additions; above these additions, the increasing N rates resulted in substantial NO increases ranging from 73% to 245% but only elevated crop yields by 6%. The results suggested defining the N rate of 180 kg N ha-1 as a promising level for achieving decreased NO emissions without greatly affecting the economic return from grain yield.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Shilpi; Rana, Puneet
2016-04-01
In this paper, we examine a layer of Oldroyd-B nanofluid for linear and nonlinear regimes under local thermal non-equilibrium conditions for the classical Rayleigh-Bénard problem. The free-free boundary condition has been implemented with the flux for nanoparticle concentration being zero at edges. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation holds good and for the rotational effect Coriolis term is included in the momentum equation. A two-temperature model explains the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium among the particle and fluid phases. The criteria for onset of stationary convection has been derived as a function of the non-dimensionalized parameters involved including the Taylor number. The assumed boundary conditions negate the possibility of overstability due to the absence of opposing forces responsible for it. The thermal Nusselt number has been obtained utilizing a weak nonlinear theory in terms of various pertinent parameters in the steady and transient mode, and has been depicted graphically. The main findings signify that the rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. The stress relaxation parameter λ_1 inhibits whereas the strain retardation parameter λ_2 exhibits heat transfer utilizing Al2O3 nanofluids.
Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the
Williams, Jesse R.; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki; Pis, Igor; Kobata, Masaaki; Winkelmann, Aimo; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Keisuke
2012-02-01
X ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) patterns of polar zinc oxide (ZnO) surfaces were investigated experimentally using hard x rays and monochromatized Cr K{alpha} radiation and theoretically using a cluster model approach and a dynamical Bloch wave approach. We focused on photoelectrons emitted from the Zn 2p{sub 3/2} and O 1s orbitals in the analysis. The obtained XPD patterns for the (0001) and (0001) surfaces of a ZnO single crystal were distinct for a given emitter and polarity. Polarity determination of c-axis-textured polycrystalline ZnO thin films was also achieved with the concept of XPD, even though the in-plane orientation of the columnar ZnO grains was random.
Polarization Rotation in Ferroelectric Tricolor PbTiO3/SrTiO3/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 Superlattices.
Lemée, Nathalie; Infante, Ingrid C; Hubault, Cécile; Boulle, Alexandre; Blanc, Nils; Boudet, Nathalie; Demange, Valérie; Karkut, Michael G
2015-09-16
In ferroelectric thin films, controlling the orientation of the polarization is a key element to controlling their physical properties. We use laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate ferroelectric bicolor PbTiO3/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 and tricolor PbTiO3/SrTiO3/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 superlattices and to study the role of the SrTiO3 layers on the domain structure. In the tricolor superlattices, we demonstrate the existence of 180° ferroelectric stripe nanodomains, induced by the depolarization field produced by the SrTiO3 layers. Each ultrathin SrTiO3 layer modifies the electrostatic boundary conditions between the ferroelectric layers compared to the corresponding bicolor structures, leading to the suppression of the a/c polydomain states. Combined with the electrostatic effect, the tensile strain induced by PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 in the PbTiO3 layers leads to polarization rotation in the system as evidenced by grazing incidence X-ray measurements. This polarization rotation is associated with the monoclinic Mc phase as revealed by the splitting of the (HHL) and (H0L) reciprocal lattice points. This work demonstrates that the tricolor paraelectric/ferroelectric superlattices constitute a tunable system to investigate the concomitant effects of strains and depolarizing fields. Our studies provide a pathway to stabilize a monoclinic symmetry in ferroelectric layers, which is of particular interest for the enhancement of the piezoelectric properties.
Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations
Spratt, Kyle S. Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.
2015-10-28
A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Wahed, Mohamed; Akl, Mohamed
2016-09-01
Analysis of the MHD Nanofluid boundary layer flow over a rotating disk with a constant velocity in the presence of hall current and non-linear thermal radiation has been covered in this work. The variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of the fluid due to temperature and nanoparticles concentration and size is considered. The problem described by a system of P.D.E that converted to a system of ordinary differential equations by the similarity transformation technique, the obtained system solved analytically using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) with association of mathematica program. The velocity profiles and temperature profiles of the boundary layer over the disk are plotted and investigated in details. Moreover, the surface shear stress, rate of heat transfer explained in details.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Gang; Wang, Li; Bai, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wang, Biao; Yan, Tie-Yi; Jonathan, Sieg
2014-10-01
A new polarization rotator based on the silica photonic crystal fiber is proposed. The proposed polarization rotator photonic crystal fiber (PR-PCF) possesses a triangle jigsaw-shape core region. The full-vector finite-element method is used to analyze the phenomenon of polarization conversion between the quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes. Numerical simulations show that the wavelengths of 1.31 μm and 1.55 μm are converted with a nearly 100% polarization conversion ratio with their matched coupling length and has a relatively strong realistic fabrication tolerance -100 nm on the y axis and 50 nm on the x axis. The full vectorial finite difference beam propagation method is used to confirm the performance of the proposed PR-PCF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lytova, M.; Lorin, E.; Bandrauk, A. D.
2016-07-01
We present a detailed analysis of the propagation dynamics of short and intense circularly polarized pulses in an aligned diatomic gas. Compared to linearly polarized intense pulses, high harmonic generation (HHG) and the coherent generation of attosecond pulses in the intense-circular-polarization case are a new research area. More specifically, we numerically study the propagation of intense and short circularly polarized pulses in the one-electron H2+ molecular gas, using a micro-macro Maxwell-Schrödinger model. In this model, the macroscopic polarization is computed from the solution of a large number of time-dependent Schrödinger equations, the source of dipole moments, and using a trace operator. We focus on the intensity and the phase of harmonics generated in the H2+ gas as a function of the pulse-propagation distance. We show that short coherent circularly polarized pulses of same helicity can be generated in the molecular gas as a result of cooperative phase-matching effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoriev, K. S.; Makarov, V. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.
2016-01-01
For the first time we have obtained the analytical expressions describing the spatial distribution of the polarization of a second harmonic beam’s light field reflected from the surface of an isotropic gyrotropic medium in the case when a normally incident fundamental beam contains a polarization singularity of an arbitrary type. The contribution of bulk and surface responses of the nonlinear medium in the formation of the lines of circular polarization in the second harmonic beam were analyzed. The relation between topological characteristics and polarization states of the singularities in the incident and reflected beams was established.
Wang, Jing; Niu, Ben; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Qi, Minghao; Gan, Fuwan
2014-06-01
A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator is proposed based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will evolve into the TE0 mode in the wide output arm while the input TE0 mode excites the TE0 mode in the narrow arm. The numerical simulation results show that the mode conversion efficiency increases with the lengths of the tapers and the Y-junction for the output waveguide widths in a large range. This proposed device has < 0.4 dB insertion loss with > 12 dB extinction ratio in an ultra-broad wavelength range from 1350 nm to 1750 nm. With such a broad operating bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for polarization diversity operating across every communication bands. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed in terms of the device width variation, the slab height variation and the variation of the upper-cladding refractive index.
Wang, Jing; Qi, Minghao; Xuan, Yi; Huang, Haiyang; Li, You; Li, Ming; Chen, Xin; Jia, Qi; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan
2014-01-01
A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) with a large fabrication tolerance is proposed based on cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers and an assisted mode-evolution taper. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will output as the TE0 mode after processed by the subsequent MMI mode converter, 90-degree phase shifter (PS) and MMI 3 dB coupler. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed device has a < 0.5 dB insertion loss with < −17 dB crosstalk in C optical communication band. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed with respect to the deviations of MMI coupler width, PS width, slab height and upper-cladding refractive index, showing that this device could work well even when affected by considerable fabrication errors. With such a robust performance with a large bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for CMOS-compatible polarization diversity, especially in the booming 100 Gb/s coherent optical communications based on silicon photonics technology. PMID:25402029
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakimansky, A. V.; Nosova, G. I.; Solovskaya, N. A.; Smirnov, N. N.; Plekhanov, A. I.; Simanchuk, A. E.; Gorkovenko, A. I.
2011-07-01
Detailed investigations of the second harmonic generation of a series of new chromophore-containing polyimides in the range of their absorption bands are performed. Polymer films with thickness of 100-400 nm were spin-cast on glass substrates and corona poled. For the samples, the quadratic nonlinearity coefficients are determined from the intensity of the second harmonic generation signal. Fundamental wavelength was varied from 800 to 1400 nm. The quadratic nonlinear coefficient d33 of these materials with respect to the reference sample of quartz crystal are estimated. Maximum values of the second harmonic generation coefficient, d33, are 25-50 pm/V.
Hillhouse, John W.; Miller, David M.; Turrin, Brent D.
2010-01-01
We report new paleomagnetic results and 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Peach Spring Tuff (PST), a key marker bed that occurs in the desert region between Barstow, California, and Peach Springs, Arizona. The 40Ar/39Ar ages were determined using individual hand-picked sanidine crystals from ash-flow specimens used in previous paleomagnetic studies at eight sites correlated by mineralogy, stratigraphic position, and magnetic inclination. Site-mean ages, which range from 18.43 Ma to 18.78 Ma with analytical precision (1 s.d.) typically 0.04 Ma, were obtained from areas near Fort Rock, AZ; McCullough Mts, NV; Cima Dome, Parker Dam, Danby, Ludlow, Kane Wash, and Stoddard Wash, CA. The regional mean age determination is 18.71 ± 0.13 Ma, after the data were selected for sanidine crystals that yielded greater than 90% radiogenic argon (N = 40). This age determination is compatible with previous 40Ar/39Ar dating of the PST after taking various neutron-flux monitor calibrations into account. We report paleomagnetic results from eight new sites that bear on reconstructions of the Miocene basins associated with the Hector Formation, Barstow Formation, and similar fine-grained sedimentary deposits in the Barstow region. Key findings of the new paleomagnetic study pertain to age control of the Hector Formation and clockwise rotation of the Northeast Mojave Domain. Our study of a rhyolitic ash flow at Baxter Wash, northern Cady Mountains, confirms the correlation of the PST within the Hector Formation and prompts reinterpretation of the previously determined magnetostratigraphy. Our model correlates the PST to the normal-polarity zone just below the C6–C5E boundary (18.748 Ma) of the astronomically tuned Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. After emplacement of the Peach Spring Tuff at Alvord Mountain and the Cady Mountains, the southern part of the Northeast Mojave Domain (between Cady and Coyote Lake faults) underwent clockwise rotation of 30°–55°. Clockwise rotations increase with
Hillhouse, John W.; Miller, David M.; Turrin, Brent D.; Reynolds, Robert E.; Miller, David M.
2010-01-01
We report new paleomagnetic results and 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Peach Spring Tuff (PST), a key marker bed that occurs in the desert region between Barstow, California, and Peach Springs, Arizona. The 40Ar/39Ar ages were determined using individual hand-picked sanidine crystals from ash-flow specimens used in previous paleomagnetic studies at eight sites correlated by mineralogy, stratigraphic position, and magnetic inclination. Site-mean ages, which range from 18.43 Ma to 18.78 Ma with analytical precision (1 s.d.) typically 0.04 Ma, were obtained from areas near Fort Rock, AZ; McCullough Mts, NV; Cima Dome, Parker Dam, Danby, Ludlow, Kane Walsh, and Stoddard Wash, CA. The regional mean age determination is 18.71 ± 0.13 Ma, after the data were selected for sanidine crystals that yielded greater than 90% radiogenic argon (N=40). This age determination is compatible with previous 40Ar/39Ar dating of the PST after taking various neutron-flux monitor calibrations into account. We report paleomagnetic results from eight new sites that bear on reconstructions of the Miocene basins associated with the Hector Formation, Barstow Formation, and similar fine-grained sedimentary deposits in the Barstow region. Key findings of the new paleomagnetic study pertain to age control of the Hector Formation and clockwise rotation of the Northeast Mojave Domain. Our study of a rhyolitic ash flow at Baxter Wash, northern Cady Mountains, confirms the correlation of the PST within the Hector Formation and prompts reinterpretation of the previously determined magnetostratigraphy. Our model correlates the PST to the normal-polarity zone just below the C6-C5E boundary (18.748 Ma) of the astronomically tuned Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. After emplacement of the Peach Spring Tuff at Alvord Mountain and the Cady Mountains, the southern part of the Northeast Mojave Domain (between Cady and Coyote Lake faults) underwent clockwise rotation of 30°–55°. Clockwise rotations increase with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Kotaro; Kuzuwata, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi
2014-12-01
Blazed vector grating liquid crystal (LC) cells, in which the directors of low-molar-mass LCs are antisymmetrically distributed, were fabricated by one-step exposure of an empty glass cell inner-coated with a photocrosslinkable polymer LC (PCLC) to UV light. By adopting a LC cell structure, twisted nematic (TN) and homogeneous (HOMO) alignments were obtained in the blazed vector grating LC cells. Moreover, the diffraction efficiency of the blazed vector grating LC cells was greatly improved by increasing the thickness of the device in comparison with that of a blazed vector grating with a thin film structure obtained in our previous study. In addition, the diffraction efficiency and polarization states of ±1st-order diffracted beams from the resultant blazed vector grating LC cells were controlled by designing a blazed pattern in the alignment films, and these diffraction properties were well explained on the basis of Jones calculus and the elastic continuum theory of nematic LCs.
Ngoko Djiokap, J M; Manakov, N L; Meremianin, A V; Hu, S X; Madsen, L B; Starace, Anthony F
2014-11-28
Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum. We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse.
Ngoko Djiokap, J M; Manakov, N L; Meremianin, A V; Hu, S X; Madsen, L B; Starace, Anthony F
2014-11-28
Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum. We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse. PMID:25494069
Perceiving polarization with the naked eye: characterization of human polarization sensitivity.
Temple, Shelby E; McGregor, Juliette E; Miles, Camilla; Graham, Laura; Miller, Josie; Buck, Jordan; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Roberts, Nicholas W
2015-07-22
Like many animals, humans are sensitive to the polarization of light. We can detect the angle of polarization using an entoptic phenomenon called Haidinger's brushes, which is mediated by dichroic carotenoids in the macula lutea. While previous studies have characterized the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes, other aspects remain unexplored. We developed a novel methodology for presenting gratings in polarization-only contrast at varying degrees of polarization in order to measure the lower limits of human polarized light detection. Participants were, on average, able to perform the task down to a threshold of 56%, with some able to go as low as 23%. This makes humans the most sensitive vertebrate tested to date. Additionally, we quantified a nonlinear relationship between presented and perceived polarization angle when an observer is presented with a rotatable polarized light field. This result confirms a previous theoretical prediction of how uniaxial corneal birefringence impacts the perception of Haidinger's brushes. The rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes were then used to calculate corneal retardance.We suggest that psychophysical experiments, based upon the perception of polarized light, are amenable to the production of affordable technologies for self-assessment and longitudinal monitoring of visual dysfunctions such as age-related macular degeneration.
Perceiving polarization with the naked eye: characterization of human polarization sensitivity.
Temple, Shelby E; McGregor, Juliette E; Miles, Camilla; Graham, Laura; Miller, Josie; Buck, Jordan; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Roberts, Nicholas W
2015-07-22
Like many animals, humans are sensitive to the polarization of light. We can detect the angle of polarization using an entoptic phenomenon called Haidinger's brushes, which is mediated by dichroic carotenoids in the macula lutea. While previous studies have characterized the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes, other aspects remain unexplored. We developed a novel methodology for presenting gratings in polarization-only contrast at varying degrees of polarization in order to measure the lower limits of human polarized light detection. Participants were, on average, able to perform the task down to a threshold of 56%, with some able to go as low as 23%. This makes humans the most sensitive vertebrate tested to date. Additionally, we quantified a nonlinear relationship between presented and perceived polarization angle when an observer is presented with a rotatable polarized light field. This result confirms a previous theoretical prediction of how uniaxial corneal birefringence impacts the perception of Haidinger's brushes. The rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes were then used to calculate corneal retardance.We suggest that psychophysical experiments, based upon the perception of polarized light, are amenable to the production of affordable technologies for self-assessment and longitudinal monitoring of visual dysfunctions such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26136441
Perceiving polarization with the naked eye: characterization of human polarization sensitivity
Temple, Shelby E.; McGregor, Juliette E.; Miles, Camilla; Graham, Laura; Miller, Josie; Buck, Jordan; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Roberts, Nicholas W.
2015-01-01
Like many animals, humans are sensitive to the polarization of light. We can detect the angle of polarization using an entoptic phenomenon called Haidinger's brushes, which is mediated by dichroic carotenoids in the macula lutea. While previous studies have characterized the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes, other aspects remain unexplored. We developed a novel methodology for presenting gratings in polarization-only contrast at varying degrees of polarization in order to measure the lower limits of human polarized light detection. Participants were, on average, able to perform the task down to a threshold of 56%, with some able to go as low as 23%. This makes humans the most sensitive vertebrate tested to date. Additionally, we quantified a nonlinear relationship between presented and perceived polarization angle when an observer is presented with a rotatable polarized light field. This result confirms a previous theoretical prediction of how uniaxial corneal birefringence impacts the perception of Haidinger's brushes. The rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes were then used to calculate corneal retardance. We suggest that psychophysical experiments, based upon the perception of polarized light, are amenable to the production of affordable technologies for self-assessment and longitudinal monitoring of visual dysfunctions such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26136441
Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Sun, Wen Hui; Zhu, Ning Hua
2014-03-15
We report a novel all-optical approach to generate a binary phase-coded microwave signal based on a cross-polarization modulation effect in a highly nonlinear fiber. The carrier frequency of the binary phase-coded microwave signal is widely tunable. Moreover, the precise π phase shift of the microwave signal is independent of the optical power of the control beam. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. For a proof-of-concept demonstration, the binary phase-coded microwave signals with a carrier frequency of 20 GHz at a coding rate of 5 Gb/s and with a carrier frequency of 30 GHz at a coding rate of 7.5 Gb/s are experimentally generated. The pulse compression capability of the system is also evaluated. The measured and simulated results fit well with each other.
Wang, Pan; Bao, Chengying; Fu, Bo; Xiao, Xiaosheng; Grelu, Philippe; Yang, Changxi
2016-05-15
We report on the experimental observation of stable single solitons and soliton molecules in a 2-μm thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser mode-locked through the nonlinear polarization evolution technique within an anomalously dispersive cavity. Single 0.65 nJ solitons feature a 7.3 nm spectral FWHM and 540 fs temporal duration, yielding a time-bandwidth product close to the Fourier-transform limitation. Under the same pumping power of 740 mW, stable out-of-phase twin-soliton molecules, featuring a temporal separation of 2.5 ps between the two ∼700 fs pulses, are generated in a deterministic way, while the central wavelength of the soliton molecules can be tuned from 1920 to 1940 nm. Finally, we present strong experimental evidence of vibrating soliton molecules. PMID:27176976
Novikov, A; Odoulov, S; Jungen, R; Tschudi, T
1991-12-15
The development of a spatial subharmonic, i.e., of a light wave propagating at the bisector of two pump waves, with orthogonal polarizations incident upon a BaTiO(3) crystal in a plane normal to the optical axis is observed and studied. Parametric amplification of a seed wave meeting the phase-matching condition in the presence of two pump waves is shown to be the main reason for subharmonic generation in this crystal.
Xiong, Ming; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Ying D.; Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A.; Owens, Mathew J.; Davis, Chris J.
2013-11-01
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be continuously tracked through a large portion of the inner heliosphere by direct imaging in visible and radio wavebands. White light (WL) signatures of solar wind transients, such as CMEs, result from Thomson scattering of sunlight by free electrons and therefore depend on both viewing geometry and electron density. The Faraday rotation (FR) of radio waves from extragalactic pulsars and quasars, which arises due to the presence of such solar wind features, depends on the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub ∥} and the electron density. To understand coordinated WL and FR observations of CMEs, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of an Earth-directed shock and synthesize the signatures that would be remotely sensed at a number of widely distributed vantage points in the inner heliosphere. Removal of the background solar wind contribution reveals the shock-associated enhancements in WL and FR. While the efficiency of Thomson scattering depends on scattering angle, WL radiance I decreases with heliocentric distance r roughly according to the expression I∝r {sup –3}. The sheath region downstream of the Earth-directed shock is well viewed from the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points, demonstrating the benefits of these points in terms of space weather forecasting. The spatial position of the main scattering site r{sub sheath} and the mass of plasma at that position M{sub sheath} can be inferred from the polarization of the shock-associated enhancement in WL radiance. From the FR measurements, the local B{sub ∥sheath} at r{sub sheath} can then be estimated. Simultaneous observations in polarized WL and FR can not only be used to detect CMEs, but also to diagnose their plasma and magnetic field properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickey, Jean O.
1995-01-01
The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.
2016-01-01
Modeling and prediction of polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) sampling rates (Rs) for 73 compounds using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented for the first time. Two models were constructed: the first was developed ab initio using a genetic algorithm (GSD-model) to shortlist 24 descriptors covering constitutional, topological, geometrical and physicochemical properties and the second model was adapted for Rs prediction from a previous chromatographic retention model (RTD-model). Mechanistic evaluation of descriptors showed that models did not require comprehensive a priori information to predict Rs. Average predicted errors for the verification and blind test sets were 0.03 ± 0.02 L d–1 (RTD-model) and 0.03 ± 0.03 L d–1 (GSD-model) relative to experimentally determined Rs. Prediction variability in replicated models was the same or less than for measured Rs. Networks were externally validated using a measured Rs data set of six benzodiazepines. The RTD-model performed best in comparison to the GSD-model for these compounds (average absolute errors of 0.0145 ± 0.008 L d–1 and 0.0437 ± 0.02 L d–1, respectively). Improvements to generalizability of modeling approaches will be reliant on the need for standardized guidelines for Rs measurement. The use of in silico tools for Rs determination represents a more economical approach than laboratory calibrations. PMID:27363449
Zanchet, A; Roncero, O; González-Lezana, T; Rodríguez-López, A; Aguado, A; Sanz-Sanz, C; Gómez-Carrasco, S
2009-12-31
The state-to-state differential cross sections for some atom + diatom reactions have been calculated using a new wave packet code, MAD-WAVE3, which is described in some detail and uses either reactant or product Jacobi coordinates along the propagation. In order to show the accuracy and efficiency of the coordinate transformation required when using reactant Jacobi coordinates, as recently proposed [ J. Chem. Phys. 2006 , 125 , 054102 ], the method is first applied to the H + D(2) reaction as a benchmark, for which exact time-independent calculations are also performed. It is found that the use of reactant coordinates yields accurate results, with a computational effort slightly lower than that when using product coordinates. The H(+) + D(2) reaction, with the same masses but a much deeper insertion well, is also studied and exhibits a completely different mechanism, a complex-forming one which can be treated by statistical methods. Due to the longer range of the potential, product Jacobi coordinates are more efficient in this case. Differential cross sections for individual final rotational states of the products are obtained based on exact dynamical calculations for some selected total angular momenta, combined with the random phase approximation to save the high computational time required to calculate all partial waves with very long propagations. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with available exact time-independent calculations. Finally, the method is applied to the Li + HF system for which reactant coordinates are very well suited, and quantum differential cross sections are not available. The results are compared with recent quasiclassical simulations and experimental results [J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 122, 244304]. Furthermore, the polarization of the product angular momenta is also analyzed as a function of the scattering angle.
Guo, L Q; Connelly, M J
2006-04-01
An all-optical AND gate based on optically induced nonlinear polarization rotation of a probe light in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier is realized at a bit rate of 2.5Gbit/s. By operating the AND gate in an up and inverted wavelength conversion scheme, the extinction ratio is improved by 8dB compared with previously published work.
Knippenberg, S; Rehn, D R; Wormit, M; Starcke, J H; Rusakova, I L; Trofimov, A B; Dreuw, A
2012-02-14
An earlier proposed approach to molecular response functions based on the intermediate state representation (ISR) of polarization propagator and algebraic-diagrammatic construction (ADC) approximations is for the first time employed for calculations of nonlinear response properties. The two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra are considered. The hierarchy of the first- and second-order ADC∕ISR computational schemes, ADC(1), ADC(2), ADC(2)-x, and ADC(3/2), is tested in applications to H(2)O, HF, and C(2)H(4) (ethylene). The calculated TPA spectra are compared with the results of coupled cluster (CC) models and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, using the results of the CC3 model as benchmarks. As a more realistic example, the TPA spectrum of C(8)H(10) (octatetraene) is calculated using the ADC(2)-x and ADC(2) methods. The results are compared with the results of TDDFT method and earlier calculations, as well as to the available experimental data. A prominent feature of octatetraene and other polyene molecules is the existence of low-lying excited states with increased double excitation character. We demonstrate that the two-photon absorption involving such states can be adequately studied using the ADC(2)-x scheme, explicitly accounting for interaction of doubly excited configurations. Observed peaks in the experimental TPA spectrum of octatetraene are assigned based on our calculations.
Nonlinear optical magnetometry with accessible in situ optical squeezing
Otterstrom, N.; Pooser, R. C.; Lawrie, B. J.
2014-11-14
In this paper, we demonstrate compact and accessible squeezed-light magnetometry using four-wave mixing in a single hot rubidium vapor cell. The strong intrinsic coherence of the four-wave mixing process results in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) on each mode of a two-mode relative-intensity squeezed state. Finally, this framework enables 4.7 dB of quantum noise reduction while the opposing polarization rotation signals of the probe and conjugate fields add to increase the total signal to noise ratio.
a Solar Eruption Driven by Sunspot Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
CHEN, Y.; Ruan, G.
2013-12-01
We present an observational study of a major solar eruption associated with fast sunspot rotation. The event includes a sigmoidal filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection, and a GOES X2.1 flare from NOAA AR11283. The filament and some overlying coronal arcades were partially rooted in a sunspot, which rotated at an average rate of ˜10 degrees per hour during a period of 6 hours prior to the eruption. Along with the sunspot rotation, significant amounts of magnetic energy ~10^31 erg and helicity 10^41 Mx^2 were transported into the corona. In the 6-hour period, we also found an overall decrease (increase) of the mean photospheric horizontal field strength (magnetic field inclination angle) using the HMI data measured in the region along the polarity inversion line underneath the filament, and a gradual levitation of current density concentrations in the corona according to the NLFFF (NonLinear Force Free Field) extrapolation. These results indicate that the magnetic structure carrying the filament undergoes an overall gradual ascending motion before its final eruption, consistent in general with the observed filament dynamical evolution during the sunspot rotation. The study provides direct evidences of sunspot rotation as a major process twisting, energizing, and destabilizing the coronal filament-flux rope system leading to the eruption.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malacinski, G. M.
1983-01-01
Amphibian egg polarity and the mechanism which generates the polarity is addressed. Of particular concern is the question of whether the activation rotation which responds to gravity is a prerequisite for normal development.
Tran, Thi Van Anh; Lee, Kwanil; Lee, Sang Bae; Han, Young-Geun
2008-02-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a switchable multiwavelength erbium doped fiber laser based on a highly nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber and multiple fiber Bragg gratings. A nonlinear optical loop mirror based on a highly nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber is implemented in the ring laser cavity to stabilize the multiwavelength output at room temperature. Multiple fiber Bragg gratings with the wavelength spacing of 0.8 nm are connected with an arrayed waveguide grating to establish a multichannel filter. The high quality of the multiwavelength output with a high extinction ratio of ~60 dB and high output flatness of ~0.5 dB is realized. The nonlinear polarization rotation based on the nonlinear optical loop mirror can provide the switching performance of the proposed multiwavelength fiber laser. The lasing wavelength can be switched individually by controlling the polarization controller and the cavity loss.
Mechanisms for oscillatory true polar wander.
Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X; Chan, N-H; Latychev, K; Matsuyama, I
2012-11-01
Palaeomagnetic studies of Palaeoproterozoic to Cretaceous rocks propose a suite of large and relatively rapid (tens of degrees over 10 to 100 million years) excursions of the rotation pole relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW). These excursions may be linked in an oscillatory, approximately coaxial succession about the centre of the contemporaneous supercontinent. Within the framework of a standard rotational theory, in which a delayed viscous adjustment of the rotational bulge acts to stabilize the rotation axis, geodynamic models for oscillatory TPW generally appeal to consecutive, opposite loading phases of comparable magnitude. Here we extend a nonlinear rotational stability theory to incorporate the stabilizing effect of TPW-induced elastic stresses in the lithosphere. We demonstrate that convectively driven inertia perturbations acting on a nearly prolate, non-hydrostatic Earth with an effective elastic lithospheric thickness of about 10 kilometres yield oscillatory TPW paths consistent with palaeomagnetic inferences. This estimate of elastic thickness can be reduced, even to zero, if the rotation axis is stabilized by long-term excess ellipticity in the plane of the TPW. We speculate that these sources of stabilization, acting on TPW driven by a time-varying mantle flow field, provide a mechanism for linking the distinct, oscillatory TPW events of the past few billion years. PMID:23135471
Mahmood, T; Cannon, B M; Astar, W; Carter, G M
2014-12-29
Polarization-insensitive (PI) all-optical dual pump-phase transmultiplexing from 2 × 10-GBd OOKs to 10-GBd RZ-QPSK was successfully demonstrated in a birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF), by utilizing cross-phase modulation (XPM) and the inherent birefringence of the device, for the first time. PI operation was achieved by launching the probe and one pump off-axis while the state of polarization (SOP) of the other pump was randomized. Optimum pump-probe detuning, all within the C-Band, was also utilized to reduce the polarization-induced power fluctuation. Receiver sensitivity penalty at 10^{-9} bit-error-rate was < 5.5 dB in PI operation, relative to the FPGA-precoded RZ-DQPSK baseline. PMID:25607146
Mahmood, T; Cannon, B M; Astar, W; Carter, G M
2014-12-29
Polarization-insensitive (PI) all-optical dual pump-phase transmultiplexing from 2 × 10-GBd OOKs to 10-GBd RZ-QPSK was successfully demonstrated in a birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF), by utilizing cross-phase modulation (XPM) and the inherent birefringence of the device, for the first time. PI operation was achieved by launching the probe and one pump off-axis while the state of polarization (SOP) of the other pump was randomized. Optimum pump-probe detuning, all within the C-Band, was also utilized to reduce the polarization-induced power fluctuation. Receiver sensitivity penalty at 10^{-9} bit-error-rate was < 5.5 dB in PI operation, relative to the FPGA-precoded RZ-DQPSK baseline.
NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF GLOBAL HYDRODYNAMIC SHALLOW-WATER INSTABILITY IN THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE
Dikpati, Mausumi
2012-02-01
We present a fully nonlinear hydrodynamic 'shallow-water' model of the solar tachocline. The model consists of a global spherical shell of differentially rotating fluid, which has a deformable top, thus allowing motions in radial directions along with latitudinal and longitudinal directions. When the system is perturbed, in the course of its nonlinear evolution it can generate unstable low-frequency shallow-water shear modes from the differential rotation, high-frequency gravity waves, and their interactions. Radiative and overshoot tachoclines are characterized in this model by high and low effective gravity values, respectively. Building a semi-implicit spectral scheme containing very low numerical diffusion, we perform nonlinear evolution of shallow-water modes. Our first results show that (1) high-latitude jets or polar spin-up occurs due to nonlinear evolution of unstable hydrodynamic shallow-water disturbances and differential rotation, (2) Reynolds stresses in the disturbances together with changing shell thickness and meridional flow are responsible for the evolution of differential rotation, (3) disturbance energy primarily remains concentrated in the lowest longitudinal wavenumbers, (4) an oscillation in energy between perturbed and unperturbed states occurs due to evolution of these modes in a nearly dissipation-free system, and (5) disturbances are geostrophic, but occasional nonadjustment in geostrophic balance can occur, particularly in the case of high effective gravity, leading to generation of gravity waves. We also find that a linearly stable differential rotation profile remains nonlinearly stable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.
2008-01-01
Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not
Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids
Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto
2016-01-01
There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. They are realized by strong light irradiation to materials that results in nonlinear polarizations in the electric field. These are of great importance in studying the physics of excited states of the system as well as for applications to optical devices and solar cells. Nonlinear properties of materials are usually described by nonlinear susceptibilities, which have complex expressions including many matrix elements and energy denominators. On the other hand, a nonequilibrium steady state under an electric field periodic in time has a concise description in terms of the Floquet bands of electrons dressed by photons. We show theoretically, using the Floquet formalism, that various nonlinear optical effects, such as the shift current in noncentrosymmetric materials, photovoltaic Hall response, and photo-induced change of order parameters under the continuous irradiation of monochromatic light, can be described in a unified fashion by topological quantities involving the Berry connection and Berry curvature. We found that vector fields defined with the Berry connections in the space of momentum and/or parameters govern the nonlinear responses. This topological view offers a route to designing nonlinear optical materials. PMID:27386523
Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids.
Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto
2016-05-01
There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. They are realized by strong light irradiation to materials that results in nonlinear polarizations in the electric field. These are of great importance in studying the physics of excited states of the system as well as for applications to optical devices and solar cells. Nonlinear properties of materials are usually described by nonlinear susceptibilities, which have complex expressions including many matrix elements and energy denominators. On the other hand, a nonequilibrium steady state under an electric field periodic in time has a concise description in terms of the Floquet bands of electrons dressed by photons. We show theoretically, using the Floquet formalism, that various nonlinear optical effects, such as the shift current in noncentrosymmetric materials, photovoltaic Hall response, and photo-induced change of order parameters under the continuous irradiation of monochromatic light, can be described in a unified fashion by topological quantities involving the Berry connection and Berry curvature. We found that vector fields defined with the Berry connections in the space of momentum and/or parameters govern the nonlinear responses. This topological view offers a route to designing nonlinear optical materials. PMID:27386523
Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics
Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro
2016-01-01
Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms. PMID:27586824
Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics.
Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro
2016-09-02
Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of 'polarization twist', which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms.
Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics.
Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro
2016-01-01
Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of 'polarization twist', which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms. PMID:27586824
Rotating superfluid turbulence.
Tsubota, Makoto; Araki, Tsunehiko; Barenghi, Carlo F
2003-05-23
Almost all studies of vortex states in helium II have been concerned with either ordered vortex arrays or disordered vortex tangles. This work numerically studies what happens in the presence of both rotation (which induces order) and thermal counterflow (which induces disorder). We find a new statistically steady state in which the vortex tangle is polarized along the rotational axis. Our results are used to interpret an instability that was discovered experimentally by Swanson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 190 (1983)
Calibration Technique for Polarization-Sensitive Lidars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alvarez, J. M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hung, W. H.; Winker, D. M.
2006-01-01
Polarization-sensitive lidars have proven to be highly effective in discriminating between spherical and non-spherical particles in the atmosphere. These lidars use a linearly polarized laser and are equipped with a receiver that can separately measure the components of the return signal polarized parallel and perpendicular to the outgoing beam. In this work we describe a technique for calibrating polarization-sensitive lidars that was originally developed at NASA s Langley Research Center (LaRC) and has been used continually over the past fifteen years. The procedure uses a rotatable half-wave plate inserted into the optical path of the lidar receiver to introduce controlled amounts of polarization cross-talk into a sequence of atmospheric backscatter measurements. Solving the resulting system of nonlinear equations generates the system calibration constants (gain ratio, G, and offset angle, theta) required for deriving calibrated measurements of depolarization ratio from the lidar signals. In addition, this procedure also determines the mean depolarization ratio within the region of the atmosphere that is analyzed. Simulations and error propagation studies show the method to be both reliable and well behaved. Operational details of the technique are illustrated using measurements obtained as part of Langley Research Center s participation in the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE).
Chughtai, Mohsan Niaz; Forzati, Marco; Mårtensson, Jonas; Rafique, Danish
2012-03-26
In this paper we numerically investigate nonlinear impairments in a WDM system with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels. First we analyze the dependence of XPM and XPolM on SOP and baud rate in absence of PMD. In this case we find that the nonlinear impairments are highly dependent on relative SOP between the PM (D)QPSK and neighbouring OOK channels. The dependence on relative SOP is more pronounced in differential detection than in coherent detection. However, with increasing values of PMD this dependence decreases, and non-linear tolerance improves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, David W.
1994-01-01
The principal investigator, together with two post-doctoral fellows, several graduate students, and colleagues, has applied the modern mathematical theory of nonlinear waves to problems in nonlinear optics. Projects included the interaction of laser light with nematic liquid crystals, propagation through random nonlinear media, cross polarization instabilities and optical shocks for propagation along nonlinear optical fibers, and the dynamics of bistable optical switches coupled through both diffusion and diffraction. In the first project the extremely strong nonlinear response of a CW laser beam in a nematic liquid crystal medium produced striking undulation and filamentation of the CW beam which was observed experimentally and explained theoretically. In the second project the interaction of randomness with nonlinearity was investigated, as well as an effective randomness due to the simultaneous presence of many nonlinear instabilities. In the polarization problems theoretical hyperbolic structure (instabilities and homoclinic orbits) in the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equations was identified and used to explain cross polarization instabilities in both the focusing and defocusing cases, as well as to describe optical shocking phenomena. For the coupled bistable optical switches, a numerical code was carefully developed in two spatial and one temporal dimensions. The code was used to study the decay of temporal transients to 'on-off' steady states in a geometry which includes forward and backward longitudinal propagation, together with one dimensional transverse coupling of both electromagnetic diffraction and carrier diffusion.
Veeser, L.; Rodriguez, P.; Forman, P.; Deeter, M.
1994-05-01
We describe a fiber-optic rotation sensor based on diffraction of light in a magneto-optic crystal (BIG). Exploitation of this effect permits the construction of a sensor requiring no polarization elements or lenses.
Earth rotation: Solved and unsolved problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cazenave, Anny
The conference presents papers on reference systems and the observation of the earth's rotation parameters, historical and paleoobservations of the earth's rotation, short term atmospheric and oceanic effects, and mantle and core effects. Attention is given to celestial reference systems, polar motion and signal processing, observations of secular and decade changes in the earth's rotation, and tidal and nontidal acceleration of the earth's rotation. Other topics include high accuracy earth rotation and atmospheric angular momentum, ocean-atmosphere coupling and short term fluctuations of earth rotation, the influence of earthquakes on the polar motion, and the resonance effects of the earth's fluid core.
Suzuki, Masato; Yamane, Keisaku; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji
2015-01-01
Cylindrically polarized (CP) modes are laser beam modes which have rotational symmetry of the polarization distribution around the beam axis. Considerable attention has been paid to CP modes for their various applications. In this paper, by using the extended Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization defined for the spatial distribution (DOP-SD), we fully-quantitatively characterize the spectrally-resolved polarization states of arbitrary CP (axisymmetrically polarized and higher-order cylindrically polarized) broadband pulses generated by coherent beam combining. All the generated pulse states were fully-quantitatively analyzed for the first time and proved to have high symmetry (DOP-SD ≳ 0.95) and low spectral dependence of polarization states. Moreover, we show the DOP-SD, which cannot be defined by the conventional higher-order and hybrid Stokes parameters, enables us to make a quantitative evaluation of small degradation of rotational symmetry of polarization distribution. This quantitative characterization with high precision is significant for applications of precise material processing, quantum information processing, magneto-optical storage and nonlinear spectroscopic polarimetry. PMID:26657149
Application of the Nonlinear Vector Product to Lorentz Transformations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farach, Horacio A.; And Others
1979-01-01
Shows that the nonlinear vector product developed by the author in a previous paper to treat successive space rotations can be employed to treat the space time rotations of special relativity in which the angle of rotation is imaginary. (HM)
Swartz, M.L.
1988-07-01
The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko
2012-09-01
In the promising candidate for topological superconductors, CuxBi2Se3, we propose a way to exclusively determine the pairing symmetry. The proposal suggests that the angle dependence of the thermal conductivity in the basal ab plane shows a distinct strong anisotropy only when the pairing symmetry is an odd-parity spin-polarized triplet below the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). Such striking isotropy breaking below Tc is explicitly involved in the Dirac formalism for superconductors, in which the spin-orbit coupling is essential. We classify possible gap functions based on the Dirac formalism and clarify an origin of the isotropy breaking.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekkat, Zouheir; Knoll, Wolfgang
1995-10-01
It was shown recently that the application of a dc field across a polymer film containing polar azo dye chromophores at a temperature far below that of its glass transition leads to an appreciable polar order when the azo dyes undergo cis \\left-right-double-arrow trans isomerization. We present a detailed theoretical study of this phenomenon based on the enhanced mobility of the azo chromophores during the isomerization process. The equations representing this phenomenological theory are solved by recurrence relations of Legendre polynomials, and both the steady state and the dynamics are investigated. Analytical expressions are derived for the photoinduced polar order and its related anisotropy for both cis and trans molecular distributions.
Modeling hybrid stars with an SU(3) nonlinear {sigma} model
Negreiros, Rodrigo; Dexheimer, V. A.; Schramm, S.
2010-09-15
We study the behavior of hybrid stars by using an extended hadronic and quark SU(3) nonlinear sigma model. The degrees of freedom change naturally, in this model, from hadrons to quarks as the density/temperature increases. At zero temperature, we reproduce massive neutron stars, which contain cores of hybrid matter of 2 km for the nonrotating case and 1.18 and 0.87 km, in the equatorial and polar directions, respectively, for stars that rotate at the Kepler frequency (physical cases lie in between). The cooling of such stars is also analyzed.
[Review] Polarization and Polarimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trippe, Sascha
2014-02-01
Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
Faraday rotation due to quadratic gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yihan; Liu, Liping; Tian, Wen-Xiu
2011-01-01
The linearized field equations of quadratic gravitation in stationary space-time are written in quasi-Maxwell form. The rotation of the polarization plane for an electromagnetic wave propagating in the gravito-electromagnetic field caused by a rotating gravitational lens is discussed. The influences of the Yukawa potential in quadratic gravitation on the gravitational Faraday rotation are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamraoui, K.; Guasoni, M.; Picozzi, A.; Assémat, E.; Jauslin, H. R.; Sugny, D.
2016-05-01
The study of the spatiotemporal dynamics of two counterpropagating beams in optical fibers has recently been the subject of a growing renewed interest. This system has been shown to exhibit a phenomenon of polarization attraction which can be used to achieve a complete polarization of an initially unpolarized beam, almost without any loss of energy. In previous works, a theoretical description of this phenomenon has been developed in the particular case where the underlying stationary system exhibits the important property of integrability. Our aim here is to provide a generalization of the theoretical description to nonintegrable stationary systems. The analysis reveals that the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system relaxes towards a stationary trajectory whose geometric structure is revealed by the stable and unstable manifolds of some singular fixed points of the stationary system. We illustrate the theory by considering the representative and concrete example of a weakly birefringent optical fiber system.
Kerr nonlinearity and dispersion characterization of core-pumped thulium-doped fiber at 2 μm.
Kharitonov, Svyatoslav; Billat, Adrien; Brès, Camille-Sophie
2016-07-15
A nonlinear coefficient of 3.6-4.1 W^{-1} km^{-1} and group velocity dispersion of -20 ps^{2}/km of a commercial core-pumped thulium-doped fiber have been evaluated using degenerate four-wave mixing at 2 μm. The anomalous dispersion behavior of the fiber has been confirmed by linear measurements with an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Additionally, no pump-induced dispersion changes due to excitation of Tm^{3+} cations have been detected. These characteristics make these fibers attractive for pulsed fiber laser applications. A nonlinear-polarization rotation mode-locked laser involving nonlinear polarization evolution directly in the doped fiber is demonstrated. PMID:27420488
Beyond linear gyrocenter polarization in gyrokinetic theory
Brizard, Alain J.
2013-09-15
The concept of polarization in gyrokinetic theory is clarified and generalized to include contributions from the guiding-center (zeroth-order) polarization as well as the nonlinear (second-order) gyrocenter polarization. The guiding-center polarization, which appears as the antecedent (zeroth-order) of the standard linear (first-order) gyrocenter polarization, is obtained from a modified guiding-center transformation. The nonlinear gyrocenter polarization is derived either variationally from the third-order gyrocenter Hamiltonian or directly by gyrocenter push-forward method.
Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.âº Asteroid and...
Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P
2003-10-01
Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding. PMID:14603714
Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis
Mayergoyz, I.D.
1996-12-31
Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.
Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.
1962-12-01
The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lin, S.; Aono, M.; Suzuki, T.
The spectral profiles of sum-frequency signal from CH vibrational modes of octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled on gold have been studied for several optical configurations of incident beams. The observed spectra, generally of the shape of dispersion type, have been interpreted by the interference between the resonant contribution from the CH stretching modes of adsorbed molecules and the nonresonant contribution from the gold substrate. We have shown for the first time that the contribution from the zzz component of the resonant nonlinear susceptibility χzzz(R) is dominant in the observed resonant signals, whereas all of the ijk components contribute to the nonresonant signal. The transition frequencies and the relative amplitude of resonant signals are also determined for the CH3 vibrational modes of ODT on gold.
Overcoming Polarization Aberrations In Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Eric W.
1988-06-01
A long-standing problem in polarized light microscopy has been the inability, due to polarization aberrations, to achieve simultaneously high spatial resolution and high contrast. The rotation of the plane of polarization at oblique interfaces between crossed polars causes the pupil function to resemble a dark cross rather than being uniformly dark. Likewise, the point spread function has the visual appearance of a four-leaf clover rather than the ideal Airy disk, and is also space-variant. Images formed with these systems are severely degraded. In this paper the theory of polarization aberrations is applied to the analysis of three solutions to this problem: Reducing the system aperture to block troublesome high-aperture rays; the AVEC-POL method, in which high bias compensation introduces counterbalancing aberrations; and the polarization rectifier, an optical element designed to introduce equal and opposite rotations of the electric vector.
Furman, J M
2016-01-01
The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion. The most common types of rotational testing are whole-body computer-controlled sinusoidal or trapezoidal stimuli during earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR), which stimulates primarily the horizontal semicircular canals bilaterally. Recently, manual impulsive rotations, known as head impulse testing (HIT), have been developed to assess individual horizontal semicircular canals. Most types of rotational stimuli are not used routinely in the clinical setting but may be used in selected research environments. This chapter will discuss clinically relevant rotational stimuli and several types of rotational testing that are used primarily in research settings. PMID:27638070
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Amit P. S.; Shimon, Meir; Keating, Brian G.
2012-10-01
Cosmological Birefringence, a rotation of the polarization plane of radiation coming to us from distant astrophysical sources, may reveal parity violation in either the electromagnetic or gravitational sectors of the fundamental interactions in nature. Until only recently this phenomenon could be probed with only radio observations or observations at UV wavelengths. Recently, there is a substantial effort to constrain such nonstandard models using observations of the rotation of the polarization plane of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This can be done via measurements of the B-modes of the CMB or by measuring its TB and EB correlations which vanish in the standard model. In this paper we show that EB correlations-based estimator is the best for upcoming polarization experiments. The EB-based estimator surpasses other estimators because it has the smallest noise and of all the estimators is least affected by systematics. Current polarimeters are optimized for the detection of B-mode polarization from either primordial gravitational waves or by large-scale structures via gravitational lensing. In the paper we also study the optimization of CMB experiments for the detection of cosmological birefringence, in the presence of instrumental systematics, which by themselves are capable of producing EB correlations, potentially mimicking cosmological birefringence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcclure, P.
1973-01-01
An analytical theory is developed to describe diurnal polar motion in the earth which arises as a forced response due to lunisolar torques and tidal deformation. Doodson's expansion of the tide generating potential is used to represent the lunisolar torques. Both the magnitudes and the rates of change of perturbations in the earth's inertia tensor are included in the dynamical equations for the polar motion so as to account for rotational and tidal deformation. It is found that in a deformable earth with Love's number k = 0.29, the angular momentum vector departs by as much as 20 cm from the rotation axis rather than remaining within 1 or 2 cm as it would in a rigid earth. This 20 cm separation is significant in the interpretation of submeter polar motion observations because it necessitates an additional coordinate transformation in order to remove what would otherwise be a 20 cm error source in the conversion between inertial and terrestrial reference systems.
POLARIZED PROTON COLLISIONS AT RHIC.
BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; ET AL.
2005-05-16
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC. In 2002, polarized proton beams were first accelerated to 100 GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. Optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limited conditions are reported.
Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps
Daly, Ilse M.; How, Martin J.; Partridge, Julian C.; Temple, Shelby E.; Marshall, N. Justin; Cronin, Thomas W.; Roberts, Nicholas W.
2016-01-01
Gaze stabilization is an almost ubiquitous animal behaviour, one that is required to see the world clearly and without blur. Stomatopods, however, only fix their eyes on scenes or objects of interest occasionally. Almost uniquely among animals they explore their visual environment with a series pitch, yaw and torsional (roll) rotations of their eyes, where each eye may also move largely independently of the other. In this work, we demonstrate that the torsional rotations are used to actively enhance their ability to see the polarization of light. Both Gonodactylus smithii and Odontodactylus scyllarus rotate their eyes to align particular photoreceptors relative to the angle of polarization of a linearly polarized visual stimulus, thereby maximizing the polarization contrast between an object of interest and its background. This is the first documented example of any animal displaying dynamic polarization vision, in which the polarization information is actively maximized through rotational eye movements. PMID:27401817
Libration in the earth's rotation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. F.; Liu, H. S.; Dong, D. N.; Herring, T. A.
1991-01-01
External luni-solar torque exerted on the difference (B-A) of the earth's two equatorial principal moments of inertia gives rise to two types of librational motions in the earth's rotation: the semidiurnal libration in spin and the prograde diurnal libration in polar motion. Formulas for the librations considering a realistic earth model and their tidal decompositions are derived and evaluated. The spin libration has a maximum peal-to-peak amplitude of 0.90 milliarcseconds, that of the polar libration is 0.06 milliarcseconds. Implications concerning their detectability and role in the tidal variation of earth rotation are discussed.
Nonlinear optomechanical pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conti, Claudio; Boyd, Robert
2014-03-01
A transparent material exhibits ultrafast optical nonlinearity and is subject to optical pressure if irradiated by a laser beam. However, the effect of nonlinearity on optical pressure is often overlooked, even if a nonlinear optical pressure may be potentially employed in many applications, such as optical manipulation, biophysics, cavity optomechanics, quantum optics, and optical tractors, and is relevant in fundamental problems such as the Abraham-Minkoswky dilemma or the Casimir effect. Here, we show that an ultrafast nonlinear polarization gives indeed a contribution to the optical pressure that also is negative in certain spectral ranges; the theoretical analysis is confirmed by first-principles simulations. An order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the effect can be observable by measuring the deflection of a membrane made by graphene.
Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD
Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.
1998-12-31
Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.
Kalashnikov, M; Risse, E; Schönnagel, H; Husakou, A; Herrmann, J; Sandner, W
2004-10-18
A nonlinear filter using rotation of the polarization ellipse in air is investigated. Scheme to enhance the temporal contrast is developed for a double-CPA multi-terawatt Ti:sapphire laser. It supports an energy level of millijoule and has a high efficiency. The method allows suppression of the ASE pedestal, pre- and post-pulses by 3 orders of magnitude and also steepens the pulse front. For the physical interpretation of the results, numerical simulation of the filtering is performed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lekner, John
2008-01-01
Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrosyan, David; Malakyan, Yuri P.
2004-08-01
We study the interaction of a weak probe field, having two orthogonally polarized components, with an optically dense medium of four-level atoms in a tripod configuration. In the presence of a coherent driving laser, electromagnetically induced transparency is attained in the medium, dramatically enhancing its linear as well as nonlinear dispersion while simultaneously suppressing the probe field absorption. We present the semiclassical and fully quantum analysis of the system. We propose an experimentally feasible setup that can induce large Faraday rotation of the probe field polarization and therefore be used for ultrasensitive optical magnetometry. We then study the Kerr nonlinear coupling between the two components of the probe, demonstrating a novel regime of symmetric, extremely efficient cross-phase modulation, capable of fully entangling two single-photon pulses. This scheme may thus pave the way to photon-based quantum information applications, such as deterministic all-optical quantum computation, dense coding, and teleportation.
Liu, Xueming
2009-12-01
Dissipative soliton evolution in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with large net-normal-dispersion and high nonlinearity is investigated numerically and confirmed experimentally. I have proposed a theoretical model including the nonlinear polarization evolution and spectral filtering effect. This model successfully predicts the pulse behaviors of the proposed laser, such as the multi-soliton evolution, quasi-rectangle-spectrum profile, trapezoid-spectrum profile, and unstable state. Numerical results show that, in contrast to the typical net- or all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers with the slight variation of the pulse breathing, the breathing ratios of the pulse duration and spectral width of our laser are more than three and two during the intra-cavity propagation, respectively. The nonlinear polarization rotation mechanism together with spectral filtering effect plays the key roles on the pulse evolution. The experimental observations confirm the theoretical predictions.
Nonlinear and quantum optics near nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhayal, Suman
We study the behavior of electric fields in and around dielectric and metal nanoparticles, and prepare the ground for their applications to a variety of systems viz. photovoltaics, imaging and detection techniques, and molecular spectroscopy. We exploit the property of nanoparticles being able to focus the radiation field into small regions and study some of the interesting nonlinear, and quantum coherence and interference phenomena near them. The traditional approach to study the nonlinear light-matter interactions involves the use of the slowly varying amplitude approximation (SVAA) as it simplifies the theoretical analysis. However, SVVA cannot be used for systems which are of the order of the wavelength of the light. We use the exact solutions of the Maxwell's equations to obtain the fields created due to metal and dielectric nanoparticles, and study nonlinear and quantum optical phenomena near these nanoparticles. We begin with the theoretical description of the electromagnetic fields created due to the nonlinear wavemixing process, namely, second-order nonlinearity in an nonlinear sphere. The phase-matching condition has been revisited in such particles and we found that it is not satisfied in the sphere. We have suggested a way to obtain optimal conditions for any type and size of material medium. We have also studied the modifications of the electromagnetic fields in a collection of nanoparticles due to strong near field nonlinear interactions using the generalized Mie theory for the case of many particles applicable in photovoltaics (PV). We also consider quantum coherence phenomena such as modification of dark states, stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), optical pumping in 4-level atoms near nanoparticles by using rotating wave approximation to describe the Hamiltonian of the atomic system. We also considered the behavior of atomic and the averaged atomic polarization in 7-level atoms near nanoparticles. This could be used as a prototype to study
Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations.
Li, Guixin; Chen, Shumei; Pholchai, Nitipat; Reineke, Bernhard; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang
2015-06-01
The capability of locally engineering the nonlinear optical properties of media is crucial in nonlinear optics. Although poling is the most widely employed technique for achieving locally controlled nonlinearity, it leads only to a binary nonlinear state, which is equivalent to a discrete phase change of π in the nonlinear polarizability. Here, inspired by the concept of spin-rotation coupling, we experimentally demonstrate nonlinear metasurfaces with homogeneous linear optical properties but spatially varying effective nonlinear polarizability with continuously controllable phase. The continuous phase control over the local nonlinearity is demonstrated for second and third harmonic generation by using nonlinear metasurfaces consisting of nanoantennas of C3 and C4 rotational symmetries, respectively. The continuous phase engineering of the effective nonlinear polarizability enables complete control over the propagation of harmonic generation signals. Therefore, this method seamlessly combines the generation and manipulation of harmonic waves, paving the way for highly compact nonlinear nanophotonic devices. PMID:25849530
Moffeit, K.C.
1988-10-01
The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffeit, Kenneth C.
1989-05-01
The Stanford Linear Collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z0 mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Mo/ller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lockett, Keith
1988-01-01
Demonstrates several objects rolling down a slope to explain the energy transition among potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and rotational kinetic energy. Contains a problem from Galileo's rolling ball experiment. (YP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dziembowski, W.
Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.
Optical nonlinearity of HBI in different solvents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Feng; Ma, Lina; Geng, Yaohui; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Zhe; Cheng, Xiaoman
2014-04-01
2-(2'-Hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazole (HBI) is one kind of organic molecules featuring excited-state proton transfer (ESPT). The nonlinear optical properties of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazole (HBI) in different polar solvents were investigated by means of Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picoseconds laser pulse. The experimental results show that the nonlinear refractive indices decrease with the enhancement of the polarity of the solvent. The nonlinear refractive indices sensitive to the solvent polarity allow them to be widely used for the optoelectronic devices.
Silicon-on-insulator integrated tunable polarization controller (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarmiento-Merenguel, Jose-Dario; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Halir, Robert; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cheben, Pavel; Durán-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Xu, Danxia; Schmid, Jens H.; Janz, Siegfried; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro
2016-05-01
Polarization management is a key functionality in many photonic applications, including optical communications, imaging or quantum information. Developing integrated devices capable of reliably controlling polarization state would result in compact and low cost circuits with improved stability compared with fiber or bulk optics solutions. However, stringent fabrication tolerances make the integration of polarization managing elements highly challenging. The main challenge in polarization controllers, composed by polarization rotators and polarization phase shifters, is to precisely control rotation angle in integrated polarization rotators. Proposed solutions typically require sophisticated fabrication processes or extremely tight fabrication tolerances, seriously hindering their practical application. Here we present a technology independent polarization controller scheme that relies on phase shifters to largely relax fabrication tolerances of polarization rotators. In addition, these phase shifters enable dynamic wavelength tuning. In our scheme, three polarization rotation elements are interconnected with two tunable phase shifters to adjust the polarization extinction ratio, while an output polarization phase shifter is used to select the relative phase. This way we can achieve any desired output state of polarization. We have implemented this scheme in the silicon-on-insulator platform, experimentally demonstrating a record polarization extinction range of 40 dB (± 20 dB) with a 98% coverage of the Poincaré sphere. Furthermore, the device is tunable in the complete C-band. These results constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the highest polarization extinction range achieved in a fully integrated device.
EDITORIAL: Polarization Optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turunen, Jari; Friesem, Asher A.; Friberg, Ari T.
2004-03-01
This special issue on Polarization Optics contains one review article and 23 research papers, many of which are based on presentations at the International Commission for Optics Topical Meeting on Polarization Optics, held in Polvijärvi, Finland, between 30 June and 3 July 2003. While this issue should not in any sense be considered as a `proceedings' of this meeting, the possibility of submitting papers to it was widely advertised during the meeting, which was attended by a large fraction of prominent scientists in the field of polarization optics. Thus the quality of papers in this special issue is high. In announcing both the meeting and this special issue, we emphasized that the concept of `polarization optics' should be understood in a wide sense. In fact, all contributions dealing with the vectorial nature of light were welcome. As a result, the papers included here cover a wide range of different aspects of linear and nonlinear polarization optics. Both theoretical and experimental features are discussed. We are pleased to see that the conference and this special issue both reflect the wide diversity of important and novel polarization phenomena in optics. The papers in this special issue, and other recently published works, demonstrate that even though polarization is a fundamental property of electromagnetic fields, interest in it is rapidly increasing. The fundamental relations between partial coherence and partial polarization are currently under vigorous research in electromagnetic coherence theory. In diffractive optics it has been found that the exploitation of the vectorial nature of light can be of great benefit. Fabrication of sophisticated, spatially variable polarization-control elements is becoming possible with the aid of nanolithography. Polarization singularities and the interplay of bulk properties and topology in nanoscale systems have created much enthusiasm. In nonlinear optics, the second harmonic waves generated on reflection and
Geometric aspects of phonon polarization transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrafarin, Mohammad; Torabi, Reza
2009-06-01
We study the polarization transport of transverse phonons by adopting a new approach based on the quantum mechanics of spin-orbit interactions. This approach has the advantage of being apt for incorporating fluctuations in the system. The formalism gives rise to Berry effect terms manifested as the Rytov polarization rotation law and the polarization-dependent Hall effect. We derive the distribution of the Rytov rotation angle in the presence of thermal noise and show that the rotation angle is robust against fluctuations.
Yang, Yufei; Yan, Changxiang
2016-02-20
The polarization properties of a two-axis periscopic optical scanner constituted by a pair of rotating planar mirrors have been studied by using the three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing matrix method. The separate and cumulative matrices that define the transformation of the polarization state are obtained and expressed in terms of the rotation angles of two mirrors. The variations of diattenuation and retardance are investigated and graphically shown as functions of the rotation angles. On this basis, a further investigation about the cumulative polarization aberrations of three different metal-coated periscopic scanners is accomplished. Finally, the output polarization states of the three metal-coated scanners are calculated with the input beam of the arbitrary polarization states, and the results show that aluminum film is more appropriate than gold film or silver film for the polarization-maintaining periscopic scanner.
Yang, Yufei; Yan, Changxiang
2016-02-20
The polarization properties of a two-axis periscopic optical scanner constituted by a pair of rotating planar mirrors have been studied by using the three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing matrix method. The separate and cumulative matrices that define the transformation of the polarization state are obtained and expressed in terms of the rotation angles of two mirrors. The variations of diattenuation and retardance are investigated and graphically shown as functions of the rotation angles. On this basis, a further investigation about the cumulative polarization aberrations of three different metal-coated periscopic scanners is accomplished. Finally, the output polarization states of the three metal-coated scanners are calculated with the input beam of the arbitrary polarization states, and the results show that aluminum film is more appropriate than gold film or silver film for the polarization-maintaining periscopic scanner. PMID:26906587
A solar eruption driven by rapid sunspot rotation
Ruan, Guiping; Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Wang, Shuo; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Haiqing; Li, Gang; Li, Xing
2014-04-01
We present the observation of a major solar eruption that is associated with fast sunspot rotation. The event includes a sigmoidal filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection, and a GOES X2.1 flare from NOAA active region 11283. The filament and some overlying arcades were partially rooted in a sunspot. The sunspot rotated at ∼10° hr{sup –1} during a period of 6 hr prior to the eruption. In this period, the filament was found to rise gradually along with the sunspot rotation. Based on the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observation, for an area along the polarity inversion line underneath the filament, we found gradual pre-eruption decreases of both the mean strength of the photospheric horizontal field (B{sub h} ) and the mean inclination angle between the vector magnetic field and the local radial (or vertical) direction. These observations are consistent with the pre-eruption gradual rising of the filament-associated magnetic structure. In addition, according to the nonlinear force-free field reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field, a pre-eruption magnetic flux rope structure is found to be in alignment with the filament, and a considerable amount of magnetic energy was transported to the corona during the period of sunspot rotation. Our study provides evidence that in this event sunspot rotation plays an important role in twisting, energizing, and destabilizing the coronal filament-flux rope system, and led to the eruption. We also propose that the pre-event evolution of B{sub h} may be used to discern the driving mechanism of eruptions.
The effects of local rotation on roll vection induced by globally rotating visual inducer
Nakamura, Shinji
2015-01-01
A visual stimulus rotating globally along an observer's line of sight can induce the illusory perception of self-rotation in the opposite direction (roll vection). Psychophysical experiments were conducted to examine the effects of local rotations of visual elements of the stimulus that were manipulated independently of the global rotation. The results indicated that the addition of local rotations inconsistent with the global rotation (assumed to be the primary inducer of roll vection), generally decreased the strength of perceived self-rotation. The uniformity of orientation of the elements composing the global visual pattern and the visual polarities assigned to each visual element, i.e., intrinsic directionality concerning up and down, were observed to function as modulators of the effects of the local rotation. These results suggested that local motion signals arising from independent rotations assigned to each element of a visual object cannot be ignored in the perceptual mechanism underlying roll vection. PMID:26074848
The effects of local rotation on roll vection induced by globally rotating visual inducer.
Nakamura, Shinji
2015-01-01
A visual stimulus rotating globally along an observer's line of sight can induce the illusory perception of self-rotation in the opposite direction (roll vection). Psychophysical experiments were conducted to examine the effects of local rotations of visual elements of the stimulus that were manipulated independently of the global rotation. The results indicated that the addition of local rotations inconsistent with the global rotation (assumed to be the primary inducer of roll vection), generally decreased the strength of perceived self-rotation. The uniformity of orientation of the elements composing the global visual pattern and the visual polarities assigned to each visual element, i.e., intrinsic directionality concerning up and down, were observed to function as modulators of the effects of the local rotation. These results suggested that local motion signals arising from independent rotations assigned to each element of a visual object cannot be ignored in the perceptual mechanism underlying roll vection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Harith; Hassan, Nor Ahya; Aidit, Siti Nabila; Tiu, Zian Cheak
2016-07-01
The applications of graphene thin film as a nonlinear medium and stabilizer to generate a stable multi-wavelength is proposed and demonstrated. A 50 m long highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is incorporated into the cavity to achieve unstable multi-wavelength based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect. By introducing the graphene thin film into the cavity, a stable multi-wavelength oscillation is obtained. The laser generates more than 7 lasings with constant spacing of 0.47 nm. The output is highly stable with power fluctuation of less than 3 dB within a period of 30 min. The multi-wavelength EDFL exhibits a tunability from the center wavelength of 1550 nm to 1560 nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Yada, Hiroyuki; Yamakawa, Hiromichi; Okamoto, Hiroshi
2013-10-01
Ferroelectrics sometimes show large electro-optical and non-linear optical effects, available for polarization rotation and frequency conversion of light, respectively. If the amplitude of ferroelectric polarization is modulated in the picosecond time domain, terahertz repetition of optical switching via electro-optical and non-linear optical effects would be achieved. Here we show that polarization amplitude can be rapidly modulated by a terahertz electric field in an organic ferroelectric, tetrathiafulvalene-p-chloranil (TTF-CA). In this compound, alternately stacked donor (TTF) and acceptor (CA) molecules are dimerized via the spin-Peierls mechanism, and charge transfer within each dimer results in a new type of ferroelectricity called electronic-type ferroelectricity. Using a terahertz field, the intradimer charge transfer is strongly modulated, producing a subpicosecond change in the macroscopic polarization, which is demonstrated by transient reflectivity and second-harmonic generation measurements. Subsequently, coherent oscillation of the dimeric molecular displacements occur, which is explained by the modulation of the spin moment of each molecule.
A liquid crystal tunable polarization filters for polarization imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Dong-Feng; Winker, Bruce; Wen, Bing; Mansell, John; Zachery, Karen; Taber, Donald; Chang, Tallis; Choi, Sung; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiaomin; Sage, Keith
2008-08-01
We report a new familiy of polarimetric imaging cameras based on tunable liquid crystal components. Our camera designs use a dual frequency liquid crystal tunable filter that rotates the polarization of incoming light, in front of a single linear polarizer. The unique features of this approach include fast switching speed, high transmission throughput, no mechanical moving parts, broad bandwidth, high contrast ratio, wide viewing angle, and compact/monolithic architecture. This paper discusses these tunable liquid crystal polarimetric imaging camera architectures (time division, amplitude division), the benefits of our design, the analysis of laboratory and field data, and the applicability of polarization signatures in imaging.
Decker, Derek E.; Toeppen, John S.
1994-01-01
Apparatus and process are disclosed for calibrating measurements of the phase of the polarization of a polarized beam and the angle of the polarized optical beam's major axis of polarization at a diagnostic point with measurements of the same parameters at a point of interest along the polarized beam path prior to the diagnostic point. The process is carried out by measuring the phase angle of the polarization of the beam and angle of the major axis at the point of interest, using a rotatable polarizer and a detector, and then measuring these parameters again at a diagnostic point where a compensation apparatus, including a partial polarizer, which may comprise a stack of glass plates, is disposed normal to the beam path between a rotatable polarizer and a detector. The partial polarizer is then rotated both normal to the beam path and around the axis of the beam path until the detected phase of the beam polarization equals the phase measured at the point of interest. The rotatable polarizer at the diagnostic point may then be rotated manually to determine the angle of the major axis of the beam and this is compared with the measured angle of the major axis of the beam at the point of interest during calibration. Thereafter, changes in the polarization phase, and in the angle of the major axis, at the point of interest can be monitored by measuring the changes in these same parameters at the diagnostic point.
Polarization Preservation and Control in a Figure-8 Ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derbenev, Ya. S.; Morozov, V. S.; Lin, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu. N.
2016-02-01
We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab’s proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider’s experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.
Circularly Polarized MHOHG with Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandrauk, Andre D.; Mauger, Francois; Uzer, Turgay
2016-05-01
Circularly polarized MHOHG-Molecular High Order Harmonic Generation is shown to occur efficiently with intense ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized pulses due to frequent electron-parent -ion recollision with co-or counter-rotating incident circular pulses as predicted in 1995. We show in this context that molecules offer a very robust and efficient frameworkfor the production of circularly polarized harmonics for the generation of single circularly polarized ``attosecond'' pulses. The efficiency of such new MHOHG is shown to depend on the compatibility of the symmetry of the molecular medium with the net electric field generated by the combination of the laser pulses.Using a time-dependent symmetry analysis with concrete examples such as H 2 + vs H 3 + we show how all the features(harmonic order and ∧ polarization) of MHOHG can be explained and predicted.
Makdisi, Y.
1992-10-01
The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.
Makdisi, Y.
1992-01-01
The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.
Cilia organize ependymal planar polarity
Mirzadeh, Zaman; Han, Young-Goo; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo
2010-01-01
Multi-ciliated epithelial cells, called ependymal cells, line the ventricles in the adult brain. Most ependymal cells are born prenatally and are derived from radial glia. Ependymal cells have a remarkable planar polarization that determines orientation of ciliary beating and propulsion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Disruption of ependymal ciliary beating, by injury or disease, results in aberrant CSF circulation and hydrocephalus, a common disorder of the central nervous system. Very little is known about the mechanisms guiding ependymal planar polarity and whether this organization is acquired during ependymal cell development or is already present in radial glia. Here we show that basal bodies in ependymal cells in the lateral ventricle walls of adult mice are polarized in two ways: i) rotational; angle of individual basal bodies with respect to their long axis and ii) translational; the position of basal bodies on the apical surface of the cell. Conditional ablation of motile cilia disrupted rotational orientation, but translational polarity was largely preserved. In contrast, translational polarity was dramatically affected when radial glial primary cilia were ablated earlier in development. Remarkably, radial glia in the embryo have a translational polarity that predicts the orientation of mature ependymal cells. These results suggest that ependymal planar cell polarity is a multi-step process initially organized by primary cilia in radial glia and then refined by motile cilia in ependymal cells. PMID:20164345
Air nonlinear dynamics initiated by ultra-intense lambda-cubic terahertz pulses
Shalaby, Mostafa E-mail: christoph.hauri@psi.ch; Hauri, Christoph P. E-mail: christoph.hauri@psi.ch
2015-05-04
We report on the measurement of the instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity and the retarded alignment of air molecules CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} triggered by an intense, lambda-cubic terahertz pulse, a diffraction- and transform-limited single-cycle pulse. The strong-field, impulsive low-frequency excitation (3.9 THz) leads to field-free alignment dynamics of these molecules thanks to the terahertz-induced transient dipole moments in the otherwise non-polar molecules. The strong coupling to the terahertz electric transient results in the excitation of coherent large amplitude long-living rotational states at room temperature and ambient pressure. Beyond fundamental investigations of nonlinear properties in gases, our results suggest a route towards field-free molecular alignment at laser intensity well below the ionization threshold.
Nonlinear Faraday effect in CdS semiconductor in an ultrahigh magnetic field
Druzhinin, V.V.; Tatsenko, O.M.; Bykov, A.I.
1994-08-01
A significant nonlinearity in the angle of rotation polarization plane was observed in CdS at wavelengths of 494 in the presence of high magnetic fields (0.5-5 MG). The onset significant nonlinearity also depended on sample temperature. An absorption study with probe wavelength of {approximately} 494 nm revealed an increase in optical transmission associated with a splitting of the conduction band. Dispersion, field and temperature curves indicate a low conduction electron mass m{sub e} = 0.3 m{sub o}. A numerical calculation and interpretation of the observed effects was carried out using band theory. The optical and magnetooptical properties of semiconducting crystals of CdS were studied, reviews of which are presented in [1,2]. This article describes joint American-Russian experiments to study the optical and magnetooptical properties of CdS in ultrahigh fields to {approximately} 7 MG.
Optical nonlinearities in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zayats, Anatoly V.
2016-04-01
Metals exhibit strong and fast nonlinearities making metallic, plasmonic, structures very promising for ultrafast all-optical applications at low light intensities. Combining metallic nanostructures in metamaterials provides additional functionalities via prospect of precise engineering of spectral response and dispersion. From this point of view, hyperbolic metamaterials, in particular those based on plasmonic nanorod arrays, provide wealth of exciting possibilities in nonlinear optics offering designed linear and nonlinear properties, polarization control, spontaneous emission control and many others. Experiments and modeling have already demonstrated very strong Kerr-nonlinear response and its ultrafast recovery due to the nonlocal nature of the plasmonic mode of the metamaterial, so that small changes in the permittivity of the metallic component under the excitation modify the nonlocal response that in turn leads to strong changes of the metamaterial transmission. In this talk, we will discuss experimental studies and numerical modeling of second- and third-order nonlinear optical processes in hyperbolic metamaterials based on metallic nanorods and other plasmonic systems where coupling between the resonances plays important role in defining nonlinear response. Second-harmonic generation and ultrafast Kerr-type nonlinearity originating from metallic component of the metamaterial will be considered, including nonlinear magneto-optical effects. Nonlinear optical response of stand-alone as well as integrated metamaterial components will be presented. Some of the examples to be discussed include nonlinear polarization control, nonlinear metamaterial integrated in silicon photonic circuitry and second-harmonic generation, including magneto-optical effects.
Saturn's elusive nightside polar arc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Milan, S. E.; Fear, R. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Bonfond, B.; Pryor, W.
2014-09-01
Nightside polar arcs are some of the most puzzling auroral emissions at Earth. They are features which extend from the nightside auroral oval into the open magnetic field line region (polar cap), and they represent optical signatures of magnetotail dynamics. Here we report the first observation of an arc at Saturn, which is attached at the nightside main oval and extends into the polar cap region, resembling a terrestrial transpolar arc. We show that Earth-like polar arcs can exceptionally occur in a fast rotational and internally influenced magnetosphere such as Saturn's. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the polar arc at Saturn is related to tail reconnection and we address the role of solar wind in the magnetotail dynamics at Saturn.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herbst, E.; Leung, C. M.
1986-01-01
In order to incorporate large ion-polar neutral rate coefficients into existing gas phase reaction networks, it is necessary to utilize simplified theoretical treatments because of the significant number of rate coefficients needed. The authors have used two simple theoretical treatments: the locked dipole approach of Moran and Hamill for linear polar neutrals and the trajectory scaling approach of Su and Chesnavich for nonlinear polar neutrals. The former approach is suitable for linear species because in the interstellar medium these are rotationally relaxed to a large extent and the incoming charged reactants can lock their dipoles into the lowest energy configuration. The latter approach is a better approximation for nonlinear neutral species, in which rotational relaxation is normally less severe and the incoming charged reactants are not as effective at locking the dipoles. The treatments are in reasonable agreement with more detailed long range theories and predict an inverse square root dependence on kinetic temperature for the rate coefficient. Compared with the locked dipole method, the trajectory scaling approach results in rate coefficients smaller by a factor of approximately 2.5.
Montgomery, M.T.; Farrell, B.F. )
1992-12-15
Polar lows are intense subsynoptic-scale cyclones that form over high-latitude oceans in association with deep cumulus convection and strong ambient baroclinicity. Recent observations indicate that polar lows are generally initiated by a nonaxisymmetric interaction between a surface disturbance and an upper-level mobile trough. Extant theories of polar low formation preclude study of such a process since they either constrain their models to be axisymmetric, or do not explicitly account for his transient interaction. In this work the physics of interacting upper- and lower-level potential vorticity structures is studied as an initial-value problem using a three-dimensional nonlinear geostrophic momentum model that incorporates moist processes and includes strong baroclinic dynamics. Model results illustrate the rapid formation of an intense small-scale cyclone whose structure is consistent with observations of mature polar lows. A conceptual model of polar low development is proposed. In the first stage of development, called induced self-development, a mobile upper trough initiates a rapid low-level spinup due to the enhanced omega response in a conditionally neutral baroclinic atmosphere. A secondary development follows, called diabatic destabilization, that is associated with the production of low-level potential vorticity by diabatic processes. Diabatic destabilization represents a simple mechanism for maintaining the intensity of polar lows until they reach land. In exceptional instances of negligible upper-level forcing, the latter may also describe the gradual intensification of small-scale cyclones in regions of sustained neutrality and surface baroclinicity. Ideas regarding polar low equilibration and prospects for a unified theory of arctic and midlatitude cyclones are discussed. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Faraday rotation system. Topical report
Bauman, L.E.; Wang, W.
1994-07-01
The Faraday Rotation System (FRS) is one of the advanced laser-based diagnostics developed at DIAL to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the MHD channel, the system directly measures electron density through a measurement of the induced rotation in the polarization of a far infrared laser beam after passing through the MHD flow along the magnetic field lines. A measurement of the induced polarization ellipticity provides a measure of the electron collision frequency which together with the electron density gives the electron conductivity, a crucial parameter for MHD channel performance. The theory of the measurements, a description of the system, its capabilities, laboratory demonstration measurements on seeded flames with comparison to emission absorption measurements, and the current status of the system are presented in this final report.
In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor
Kronberg, James W.
1991-01-01
A method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources.
Prescott, C.Y.
1993-07-01
Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz-Granados, Beatriz; Battaner, Eduardo; Florido, Estrella
2016-10-01
WMAP CMB polarization maps have been used to detect a low signal of Faraday Rotation (FR). If this detection is not interpreted as simple noise, it could be produced: at the last scattering surface (LSS) (z=1100), being primordial, at Reionization (z=10), in the Milky Way. The second interpretation is favoured here. In this case magnetic fields at Reionization with peak values of the order of 10-8 G should produce this observational FR.
Takano, Tetsuya; Xu, Chundi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Kaibuchi, Kozo
2015-06-15
Neurons are highly polarized cells with structurally and functionally distinct processes called axons and dendrites. This polarization underlies the directional flow of information in the central nervous system, so the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarization is crucial for correct development and function. Great progress in our understanding of how neurons establish their polarity has been made through the use of cultured hippocampal neurons, while recent technological advances have enabled in vivo analysis of axon specification and elongation. This short review and accompanying poster highlight recent advances in this fascinating field, with an emphasis on the signaling mechanisms underlying axon and dendrite specification in vitro and in vivo.
Polarization properties of macroscopic Bell states
Iskhakov, Timur Sh.; Chekhova, Maria V.; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-10-15
The four two-photon polarization Bell states are one of the main instruments in the toolbox of quantum optics and quantum information. In our experiment we produce their multiphoton counterparts, macroscopic Bell states. These are relevant to applications in quantum technologies because they provide efficient interactions with material quantum objects and with each other via nonlinear interactions. Furthermore, we study the polarization properties of these states using the concept of second-order degree of polarization and its higher-order generalization.
Progress in geophysical aspects of the rotation of the earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambeck, K.
1978-01-01
The geophysical causes and consequences of the Earth's rotation are reviewed. Specific topics covered include: (1) the motion of the rotation axis in space, precession and nutation; (2) the motion of the rotation axis relative to the Earth, polar motion; and (3) the rate of rotation about this axis, or changes in the length of day. Secular decrease in obliquity and evolution of the Earth-Moon system are also discussed.
Axial polarizers based on dichroic liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nersisyan, Sarik; Tabiryan, Nelson; Steeves, Diane M.; Kimball, Brian R.
2010-08-01
Polarizers capable of producing linearly polarized beams with axial (radial and azimuthal) symmetry have been fabricated with the aid of a dichroic liquid crystal. Photoalignment was achieved using a printing technique to reduce the UV exposure time required for production of axially aligning substrates from 1 h, typical for direct writing techniques, to 10 min. The polarizing features of axial polarizers and their pairs are characterized and their differences outlined. We demonstrate that the transmission switching contrast of an axial polarizer/analyzer pair, comprised of an electrically controlled liquid crystal cell, is comparable to conventional systems with linear polarizers. The opportunities for using axial polarizers for polarization imaging, sensor protection, and nonlinear optics are discussed. Particularly, we show that the technology could reduce the fluence of a laser beam on an optical sensor without affecting imaging.
Polarized light scattering from individual semiconductor nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jian
reported the first time for individual ˜10 mum long crystalline GaP nanowires using 514.5 nm excitation. The Rayleigh back-scattering intensity polar pattern I(theta) was measured at room temperature, where theta is the angle between the incident electric field and the nanowire axis. The collected radiation was polarized parallel to the incident electric field. For small nanowire diameter (d˜70 nm), we observed ˜cos4theta polar patterns. With increasing nanowire diameter above 100 nm, the polar scattering patterns rotate by 90° with respect to those seen in small diameter nanowires and then they rotate back again to cos4theta patterns and finally broaden to a circle. Our experimental data are compared to the Rayleigh back-scattering efficiency calculated via the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). Our DDA calculations show that the polar patterns are sensitive to both the diameter and the nanowire length. Although the calculated polar patterns qualitatively support our data, improvement in the modeling is still needed (Chapter 8); (4) Giant nonlinear Raman scattering of both Stokes and anti-Stokes TO and LO phonons from several GaP nanowire segments with length L<1.2 mum formed by cutting a long 210 nm diameter GaP nanowire is reported for the first time. The nonlinear Raman effect has been demonstrated to be stronger when the lengths of nanowire segments become shorter. We also observed that there exist threshold pump laser powers which separate the linear and superlinear region of the Raman spectra. The threshold laser powers which are indentified ˜0.7-1.5 mW are two orders of magnitude smaller than reported threshold laser power for the typical Raman crystals, such as LiIO3 and Ba(NO3) 2, one order smaller than the fabricated silicon waveguide and is comparable with that from SWNTs suspended between two SiO2 pillars. The threshold laser powers for short GaP nanowires are found to decrease linearly with decreasing length of nanowire segments. We contribute this
Microwave Stark decelerator for polar molecules
Enomoto, Katsunari; Momose, Takamasa
2005-12-15
We propose a method to decelerate polar molecules from a beam using a microwave field. A moving standing wave of a microwave electric field causes an ac Stark shift to polar molecules and decelerates them. The method is applicable to polar molecules in rotational ground states and can be used to directly load a microwave trap. Numerical simulations are presented indicating large phase-space acceptance volume.
RHIC polarized proton performance in run-8.
Montag,C.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Barton, D.; et al.
2008-06-23
During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Helical spin rotators at these two interaction regions were used to control the spin orientation of both beams at the collision points. Physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8.
Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.
2001-01-01
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Nonlinear metamaterials for holography.
Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam
2016-01-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency-the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581
Nonlinear metamaterials for holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam
2016-08-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency--the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.
Nonlinear metamaterials for holography
Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora
2016-01-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency—the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581
Nonradial oscillations of slowly and differentially rotating compact stars
Stavridis, Adamantios; Kokkotas, Kostas; Passamonti, Andrea
2007-03-15
The equations describing nonradial adiabatic oscillations of differentially rotating relativistic stars are derived in relativistic slow rotation approximation. The differentially rotating configuration is described by a perturbative version of the relativistic j-constant rotation law. Focusing on the oscillation properties of the stellar fluid, the adiabatic nonradial perturbations are studied in the Cowling approximation with a system of five partial differential equations. In these equations, differential rotation introduces new coupling terms between the perturbative quantities with respect to the uniformly rotating stars. In particular, we investigate the axisymmetric and barotropic oscillations and compare their spectral properties with those obtained in nonlinear hydrodynamical studies. The perturbative description of the differentially rotating background and the oscillation spectrum agree within a few percent with those of the nonlinear studies.
Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation ellipsometric microscopy at video rate.
DeWalt, Emma L; Sullivan, Shane Z; Schmitt, Paul D; Muir, Ryan D; Simpson, Garth J
2014-08-19
Fast 8 MHz polarization modulation coupled with analytical modeling, fast beam-scanning, and synchronous digitization (SD) have enabled simultaneous nonlinear optical Stokes ellipsometry (NOSE) and polarized laser transmittance imaging with image acquisition rates up to video rate. In contrast to polarimetry, in which the polarization state of the exiting beam is recorded, NOSE enables recovery of the complex-valued Jones tensor of the sample that describes all polarization-dependent observables of the measurement. Every video-rate scan produces a set of 30 images (10 for each detector with three detectors operating in parallel), each of which corresponds to a different polarization-dependent result. Linear fitting of this image set contracts it down to a set of five parameters for each detector in second harmonic generation (SHG) and three parameters for the transmittance of the incident beam. These parameters can in turn be used to recover the Jones tensor elements of the sample. Following validation of the approach using z-cut quartz, NOSE microscopy was performed for microcrystals of both naproxen and glucose isomerase. When weighted by the measurement time, NOSE microscopy was found to provide a substantial (>7 decades) improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio relative to our previous measurements based on the rotation of optical elements and a 3-fold improvement relative to previous single-point NOSE approaches. PMID:25050448
Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation Ellipsometric Microscopy at Video Rate
2015-01-01
Fast 8 MHz polarization modulation coupled with analytical modeling, fast beam-scanning, and synchronous digitization (SD) have enabled simultaneous nonlinear optical Stokes ellipsometry (NOSE) and polarized laser transmittance imaging with image acquisition rates up to video rate. In contrast to polarimetry, in which the polarization state of the exiting beam is recorded, NOSE enables recovery of the complex-valued Jones tensor of the sample that describes all polarization-dependent observables of the measurement. Every video-rate scan produces a set of 30 images (10 for each detector with three detectors operating in parallel), each of which corresponds to a different polarization-dependent result. Linear fitting of this image set contracts it down to a set of five parameters for each detector in second harmonic generation (SHG) and three parameters for the transmittance of the incident beam. These parameters can in turn be used to recover the Jones tensor elements of the sample. Following validation of the approach using z-cut quartz, NOSE microscopy was performed for microcrystals of both naproxen and glucose isomerase. When weighted by the measurement time, NOSE microscopy was found to provide a substantial (>7 decades) improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio relative to our previous measurements based on the rotation of optical elements and a 3-fold improvement relative to previous single-point NOSE approaches. PMID:25050448
Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.
1988-01-01
Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.
Können, G P; de Boer, J H
1979-06-15
The Airy theory of the rainbow is extended to polarized light. For both polarization directions a simple analytic expression is obtained for the intensity distribution as a function of the scattering angle in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. This approach is valid at least down to droplet diameters of 0.3 mm in visible light. The degree of polarization of the rainbow is less than expected from geometrical optics; it increases with droplet size. For a droplet diameter >1 mm the locations of the supernumerary rainbows are equal for both polarization directions, but for a diameter <1 mm the supernumerary rainbows of the weaker polarization component are located between those in the strong component. PMID:20212586
The rotation of Titan and Ganymede
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Hoolst, Tim; Coyette, Alexis; Baland, Rose-Marie; Trinh, Antony
2016-10-01
The rotation rates of Titan and Ganymede, the largest satellites of Saturn and Jupiter, are on average equal to their orbital mean motion. Here we discuss small deviations from the average rotation for both satellites and evaluate the polar motion of Titan induced by its surface fluid layers. We examine different causes at various time scales and assess possible consequences and the potential of using librations and polar motion as probes of the interior structure of the satellites.The rotation rate of Titan and Ganymede cannot be constant on the orbital time scale as a result of the gravitational torque of the central planet acting on the satellites. Titan is moreover expected to show significant polar motion and additional variations in the rotation rate due to angular momentum exchange with the atmosphere, mainly at seasonal periods. Observational evidence for deviations from the synchronous state has been reported several times for Titan but is unfortunately inconclusive. The measurements of the rotation variations are based on determinations of the shift in position of Cassini radar images taken during different flybys. The ESA JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission will measure the rotation variations of Ganymede during its orbital phase around the satellite starting in 2032.We report on different theoretical aspects of the librations and polar motion. We consider the influence of the rheology of the ice shell and take into account Cassini measurements of the external gravitational field and of the topography of Titan and similar Galileo data about Ganymede. We also evaluate the librations and polar motion induced by Titan's hydrocarbon seas and use the most recent results of Titan's atmosphere dynamics. We finally evaluate the potential of rotation variations to constrain the satellite's interior structure, in particular its ice shell and ocean.
Polarization perception device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitehead, Victor S. (Inventor); Coulson, Kinsel L. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A polarization perception device comprises a base and a polarizing filter having opposite broad sides and a centerline perpendicular thereto. The filter is mounted on the base for relative rotation and with a major portion of the area of the filter substantially unobstructed on either side. A motor on the base automatically moves the filter angularly about its centerline at a speed slow enough to permit changes in light transmission by virtue of such movement to be perceived as light-dark pulses by a human observer, but fast enough so that the light phase of each such pulse occurs prior to fading of the light phase image of the preceding pulse from the observer's retina. In addition to an observer viewing a scene in real time through the filter while it is so angularly moved, or instead of such observation, the scene can be photographed, filmed or taped by a camera whose lens is positioned behind the filter.