Science.gov

Sample records for nonlinear stacking interactions

  1. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  2. Nonlinear acoustic impedance of thermoacoustic stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Huan; Fan, Li; Xiao, Shu-yu; Tao, Sha; Qiu, Mei-chen; Zhang, Shu-yi; Zhang, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In order to optimize the performances of the thermoacoustic refrigerator working with the high sound pressure level, the nonlinear acoustic characteristics of the thermoacoustic stack in the resonant pipe are studied. The acoustic fluid impedance of the stack made of copper mesh and set up in a resonant pipe is measured in the acoustic fields with different intensities. It is found that when the sound pressure level in the pipe increases to a critical value, the resistance of the stack increases nonlinearly with the sound pressure, while the reactance of the stack keeps constant. Based on the experimental results, a theory model is set up to describe the acoustic characteristics of the stack, according to the rigid frame theory and Forchheimmer equation. Furthermore, the influences of the sound pressure level, operating frequency, volume porosity, and length of the stack on the nonlinear impedance of the stack are evaluated.

  3. Stacking interactions in PUF-RNA complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Yiling Koh, Yvonne; Wang, Yeming; Qiu, Chen; Opperman, Laura; Gross, Leah; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Wickens, Marvin

    2012-07-02

    Stacking interactions between amino acids and bases are common in RNA-protein interactions. Many proteins that regulate mRNAs interact with single-stranded RNA elements in the 3' UTR (3'-untranslated region) of their targets. PUF proteins are exemplary. Here we focus on complexes formed between a Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein, FBF, and its cognate RNAs. Stacking interactions are particularly prominent and involve every RNA base in the recognition element. To assess the contribution of stacking interactions to formation of the RNA-protein complex, we combine in vivo selection experiments with site-directed mutagenesis, biochemistry, and structural analysis. Our results reveal that the identities of stacking amino acids in FBF affect both the affinity and specificity of the RNA-protein interaction. Substitutions in amino acid side chains can restrict or broaden RNA specificity. We conclude that the identities of stacking residues are important in achieving the natural specificities of PUF proteins. Similarly, in PUF proteins engineered to bind new RNA sequences, the identity of stacking residues may contribute to 'target' versus 'off-target' interactions, and thus be an important consideration in the design of proteins with new specificities.

  4. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-09-25

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  5. The aromatic stacking interactions between proteins and their macromolecular ligands.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Muhseen, Ziyad Tariq; Junaid, Muhammad; Zhang, Houjin

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic stacking interactions arise from the attractive force between the π-electron clouds in the neighboring aromatic groups. The aromatic stacking is common between proteins and small molecules. The stacking interactions at the interfaces of proteins and other macromolecules are relatively rare. However it contributes to a significant portion of the stabilizing forces. In the proteinprotein complexes, aromatic interactions are involved in the protein oligomerization, such as dimer, trimer and tetramer formation. Also, aromatic residues can bind to nanoparticles through stacking interactions which offer them stronger affinity than other residues. These interactions play crucial roles in proteinnanoparticle conjugation. In the protein-nucleotide complexes, the specific recognitions are realized through stacking interactions between aromatic residues and the bases in the nucleotides. Many nucleoproteins use aromatic stacking to recognize binding site on DNA or RNA. Stacking interactions are involved in the process of mismatch repair, strand separation, deadenylation, degradation and RNA cap binding. They are proved to be important for the stability of complexes. The aromatic stacking is also the underlying reasons of many fatal diseases such as Alzheimer, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The chemicals that can block the stacking interactions could have potential pharmaceutical values. In this review, we summarize recent finding regarding the functions of aromatic stacking interactions in the protein-macromolecule complexes. Our aim is to understand the mechanisms underlying the stacking-mediated complex formation and facilitate the development of drugs and other bio-products.

  6. Evaluating interaction techniques for stack mode viewing.

    PubMed

    Atkins, M Stella; Fernquist, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E; Forster, Bruce B

    2009-08-01

    Three interaction techniques were evaluated for scrolling stack mode displays of volumetric data. Two used a scroll-wheel mouse: one used only the wheel, while another used a "click and drag" technique for fast scrolling, leaving the wheel for fine adjustments. The third technique used a Shuttle Xpress jog wheel. In a within-subjects design, nine radiologists searched stacked images for simulated hyper-intense regions on brain, knee, and thigh MR studies. Dependent measures were speed, accuracy, navigation path, and user preference. The radiologists considered the task realistic. They had high inter-subject variability in completion times, far larger than the differences between techniques. Most radiologists (eight out of nine) preferred familiar mouse-based techniques. Most participants scanned the data in two passes, first locating anomalies, then scanning for omissions. Participants spent a mean 10.4 s/trial exploring anomalies, with only mild variation between participants. Their rates of forward navigation searching for anomalies varied much more. Interaction technique significantly affected forward navigation rate (scroll wheel 5.4 slices/s, click and drag 9.4, and jog wheel 6.9). It is not clear what constrained the slowest navigators. The fastest navigator used a unique strategy of moving quickly just beyond an anomaly, then backing up. Eight naïve students performed a similar protocol. Their times and variability were similar to the radiologists, but more (three out of eight) students preferred the jog wheel. It may be worthwhile to introduce techniques such as the jog wheel to radiologists during training, and several techniques might be provided on workstations, allowing individuals to choose their preferred method.

  7. Interaction Terms in Nonlinear Models

    PubMed Central

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Norton, Edward C; Dowd, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explain the use of interaction terms in nonlinear models. Study Design We discuss the motivation for including interaction terms in multivariate analyses. We then explain how the straightforward interpretation of interaction terms in linear models changes in nonlinear models, using graphs and equations. We extend the basic results from logit and probit to difference-in-differences models, models with higher powers of explanatory variables, other nonlinear models (including log transformation and ordered models), and panel data models. Empirical Application We show how to calculate and interpret interaction effects using a publicly available Stata data set with a binary outcome. Stata 11 has added several features which make those calculations easier. LIMDEP code also is provided. Conclusions It is important to understand why interaction terms are included in nonlinear models in order to be clear about their substantive interpretation. PMID:22091735

  8. Nonlinear interaction between single photons.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, T; Martin, A; Sanguinetti, B; Pelc, J S; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H; Sangouard, N; Thew, R T

    2014-10-24

    Harnessing nonlinearities strong enough to allow single photons to interact with one another is not only a fascinating challenge but also central to numerous advanced applications in quantum information science. Here we report the nonlinear interaction between two single photons. Each photon is generated in independent parametric down-conversion sources. They are subsequently combined in a nonlinear waveguide where they are converted into a single photon of higher energy by the process of sum-frequency generation. Our approach results in the direct generation of photon triplets. More generally, it highlights the potential for quantum nonlinear optics with integrated devices and, as the photons are at telecom wavelengths, it opens the way towards novel applications in quantum communication such as device-independent quantum key distribution.

  9. Edge-edge interactions in stacked graphene nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Silva, Eduardo; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Jia, Xiaoting; Sumpter, Bobby G; Dresselhaus, M; Meunier, V.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies show the dynamics of small graphene platelets on larger graphene layers. The platelets move nearly freely to eventually lock in at well-defined positions close to the edges of the larger underlying graphene sheet. While such movement is driven by a shallow potential energy surface described by an interplane interaction, the lock-in position occurs by via edge-edge interactions of the platelet and the graphene surface located underneath. Here we quantitatively study this behavior using van der Waals density functional calculations. Local interactions at the open edges are found to dictate stacking configurations that are different from Bernal (AB) stacking. These stacking configurations are known to be otherwise absent in edge-free two-dimensional (2D) graphene. The results explain the experimentally observed platelet dynamics and provide a detailed account of the new electronic properties of these combined systems.

  10. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers. PMID:27098387

  11. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers. PMID:27098387

  12. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  13. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  14. Optical frequency conversion in quasi-phase-matched stacks of nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustagi, K. C.; Mehendale, S. C.; Meenakshi, S.

    1982-06-01

    The paper presents a quantitative theory of nonlinear frequency conversion in stacks of crystals in which the phase mismatch due to dispersion is compensated by changing the sign of the nonlinear coupling coefficient in successive crystals. The effects of systematic and random departures in crystal lengths are studied with emphasis on the evolution of the relative phase. It is shown that with the appropriate choice of the signs of the nonlinear coupling coefficient in various crystals, high efficiency frequency conversion should be possible using almost any sufficiently large set of nonlinear crystals. In addition, the theory of second harmonic generation in periodic stacks and in rotating twinned crystals of zinc-blend structure is described.

  15. New Insights into Hydrogen Bonding and Stacking Interactions in Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Langan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this quantum chemical study, we explore hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) and stacking interactions in different crystalline cellulose allomorphs, namely cellulose I and cellulose IIII. We consider a model system representing a cellulose crystalline core, made from six cellobiose units arranged in three layers with two chains per layer. We calculate the contributions of intrasheet and intersheet interactions to the structure and stability in both cellulose I and cellulose IIII crystalline cores. Reference structures for this study were generated from molecular dynamics simulations of water-solvated cellulose I and IIII fibrils. A systematic analysis of various conformations describing different mutual orientations of cellobiose units is performed using the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) with the M06-2X with 6-31+G (d, p) basis sets. We dissect the nature of the forces that stabilize the cellulose I and cellulose IIII crystalline cores and quantify the relative strength of H-bonding and stacking interactions. Our calculations demonstrate that individual H-bonding interactions are stronger in cellulose I than in cellulose IIII. We also observe a significant contribution from cooperative stacking interactions to the stabilization of cellulose I . In addition, the theory of atoms-in-molecules (AIM) has been employed to characterize and quantify these intermolecular interactions. AIM analyses highlight the role of nonconventional CH O H-bonding in the cellulose assemblies. Finally, we calculate molecular electrostatic potential maps for the cellulose allomorphs that capture the differences in chemical reactivity of the systems considered in our study.

  16. Atomic-scale details of dislocation - stacking fault tetrahedra interaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Rodney, David; Bacon, David J

    2005-01-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are formed during irradiation of fcc. metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy. The high number density of SFTs observed suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, be taken into account when estimating mechanical property changes of irradiated materials. The key issue is to describe the interaction between a moving dislocation and an individual SFT, which is characterized by a small physical scale of about 100 nm. In this paper we present results of an atomistic simulation of edge and screw dislocations interacting with small SFTs at different temperatures and strain rates and present mechanisms which can explain the formation of defect-free channels observed experimentally.

  17. Interactive histology of large-scale biomedical image stacks.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Schneider, Jens; Turney, Stephen G; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Meyer, Dominik; Westermann, Rüdiger; Reid, R Clay; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Histology is the study of the structure of biological tissue using microscopy techniques. As digital imaging technology advances, high resolution microscopy of large tissue volumes is becoming feasible; however, new interactive tools are needed to explore and analyze the enormous datasets. In this paper we present a visualization framework that specifically targets interactive examination of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our framework is built upon two core techniques: display-aware processing and GPU-accelerated texture compression. With display-aware processing, only the currently visible image tiles are fetched and aligned on-the-fly, reducing memory bandwidth and minimizing the need for time-consuming global pre-processing. Our novel texture compression scheme for GPUs is tailored for quick browsing of image stacks. We evaluate the usability of our viewer for two histology applications: digital pathology and visualization of neural structure at nanoscale-resolution in serial electron micrographs.

  18. The influence of piezoceramic stack location on nonlinear behavior of Langevin transducers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Andrew; Cardoni, Andrea; Cerisola, Niccolò; Lucas, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    Power ultrasonic applications such as cutting, welding, and sonochemistry often use Langevin transducers to generate power ultrasound. Traditionally, it has been proposed that the piezoceramic stack of a Langevin transducer should be located in the nodal plane of the longitudinal mode of vibration, ensuring that the piezoceramic elements are positioned under a uniform stress during transducer operation, maximizing element efficiency and minimizing piezoceramic aging. However, this general design rule is often partially broken during the design phase if features such as a support flange or multiple piezoceramic stacks are incorporated into the transducer architecture. Meanwhile, it has also been well documented in the literature that power ultrasonic devices driven at high excitation levels exhibit nonlinear behaviors similar to those observed in Duffing-type systems, such as resonant frequency shifts, the jump phenomenon, and hysteretic regions. This study investigates three Langevin transducers with different piezoceramic stack locations by characterizing their linear and nonlinear vibrational responses to understand how the stack location influences nonlinear behavior. PMID:25004475

  19. The influence of piezoceramic stack location on nonlinear behavior of Langevin transducers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Andrew; Cardoni, Andrea; Cerisola, Niccolò; Lucas, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    Power ultrasonic applications such as cutting, welding, and sonochemistry often use Langevin transducers to generate power ultrasound. Traditionally, it has been proposed that the piezoceramic stack of a Langevin transducer should be located in the nodal plane of the longitudinal mode of vibration, ensuring that the piezoceramic elements are positioned under a uniform stress during transducer operation, maximizing element efficiency and minimizing piezoceramic aging. However, this general design rule is often partially broken during the design phase if features such as a support flange or multiple piezoceramic stacks are incorporated into the transducer architecture. Meanwhile, it has also been well documented in the literature that power ultrasonic devices driven at high excitation levels exhibit nonlinear behaviors similar to those observed in Duffing-type systems, such as resonant frequency shifts, the jump phenomenon, and hysteretic regions. This study investigates three Langevin transducers with different piezoceramic stack locations by characterizing their linear and nonlinear vibrational responses to understand how the stack location influences nonlinear behavior.

  20. Examination of tyrosine/adenine stacking interactions in protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kari L; Pellock, Samuel J; Cox, James R; Cafiero, Mauricio L; Tschumper, Gregory S

    2013-11-14

    The π-stacking interactions between tyrosine amino acid side chains and adenine-bearing ligands are examined. Crystalline protein structures from the protein data bank (PDB) exhibiting face-to-face tyrosine/adenine arrangements were used to construct 20 unique 4-methylphenol/N9-methyladenine (p-cresol/9MeA) model systems. Full geometry optimization of the 20 crystal structures with the M06-2X density functional theory method identified 11 unique low-energy conformations. CCSD(T) complete basis set (CBS) limit interaction energies were estimated for all of the structures to determine the magnitude of the interaction between the two ring systems. CCSD(T) computations with double-ζ basis sets (e.g., 6-31G*(0.25) and aug-cc-pVDZ) indicate that the MP2 method overbinds by as much as 3.07 kcal mol(-1) for the crystal structures and 3.90 kcal mol(-1) for the optimized structures. In the 20 crystal structures, the estimated CCSD(T) CBS limit interaction energy ranges from -4.00 to -6.83 kcal mol(-1), with an average interaction energy of -5.47 kcal mol(-1), values remarkably similar to the corresponding data for phenylalanine/adenine stacking interactions. Geometry optimization significantly increases the interaction energies of the p-cresol/9MeA model systems. The average estimated CCSD(T) CBS limit interaction energy of the 11 optimized structures is 3.23 kcal mol(-1) larger than that for the 20 crystal structures.

  1. RPLsh: An Interactive Shell for Stack-based Numerical Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Kevin P.

    RPL shell or RPLsh, is an interactive numerical shell designed to combine the convenience of a hand-held calculator with the computational power and advanced numerical functionality of a workstation. The user interface is modelled after stack-based scientific calculators such as those made by Hewlett-Packard RPL is the name of the Forth-like programming language used in the HP 48 series), but includes many features not found in hand-held devices, such as a multi-threaded kernel with job control, integrated extended precision arithmetic, a large library of special functions, and a dynamic, resizable window display. As a native C/C++ application, it is over 1000 times faster than HP 48 emulators (e.g. Emu48 ) in simple benchmarks; for extended precision numerical analysis, its performance can exceed that of Mathematica by similar amounts. Current development focuses on interactive user functionality, with comprehensive programming and debugging support to follow.

  2. RKKY interaction in AB-stacked multilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liwei; Lü, Xiaoling; Gao, Wenzhu; Yu, Guodong; Liu, Zhe; Zheng, Yisong

    2012-05-23

    The RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities absorbed on the surface layer of half-filled AB-stacked multilayer graphene (ABSMLG) is theoretically studied based on the lattice Green's function technique. In comparison with the case of monolayer graphene, the RKKY interaction in such multilayer graphene presents distinct properties in some aspects. Firstly, from the numerical results, we find that the thickness of the ABSMLG influences the RKKY interaction in a complicated manner, depending on the odd/even parity of the number of layers and the sublattice attribution of the positions of the two magnetic impurities. Then, we derive the asymptotic expressions of the RKKY interactions in ABSMLG in the long-distance limit. For even-layered ABSMLG, we find that the RKKY interactions of the 1A-1A, 1B-1A and 1B-1B couplings fall off as 1/R(2), 1/R(4) and 1/R(6) (1A and 1B stand for, respectively, the sublattice points in the surface layer, which are positioned directly on the plaquette and on a lattice point of the layer underneath). On the other hand, in odd-layered ABSMLG, the decays of these interactions follow the 1/R(2), 1/R(3) and 1/R(3) power laws respectively. In addition, we also find that these analytical expressions are quantitatively valid to describe the RKKY interaction in ABSMLG when the distance between the two magnetic impurities is larger than the lattice constant of graphene by one order of magnitude. PMID:22510584

  3. A nonlinear dynamic model of DNA with a sequence-dependent stacking term

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Gelev, Vladimir; Monisova, Yevgeniya; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Bishop, Alan R.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø.; Usheva, Anny

    2009-01-01

    No simple model exists that accurately describes the melting behavior and breathing dynamics of double-stranded DNA as a function of nucleotide sequence. This is especially true for homogenous and periodic DNA sequences, which exhibit large deviations in melting temperature from predictions made by additive thermodynamic contributions. Currently, no method exists for analysis of the DNA breathing dynamics of repeats and of highly G/C- or A/T-rich regions, even though such sequences are widespread in vertebrate genomes. Here, we extend the nonlinear Peyrard–Bishop–Dauxois (PBD) model of DNA to include a sequence-dependent stacking term, resulting in a model that can accurately describe the melting behavior of homogenous and periodic sequences. We collect melting data for several DNA oligos, and apply Monte Carlo simulations to establish force constants for the 10 dinucleotide steps (CG, CA, GC, AT, AG, AA, AC, TA, GG, TC). The experiments and numerical simulations confirm that the GG/CC dinucleotide stacking is remarkably unstable, compared with the stacking in GC/CG and CG/GC dinucleotide steps. The extended PBD model will facilitate thermodynamic and dynamic simulations of important genomic regions such as CpG islands and disease-related repeats. PMID:19264801

  4. Nonlinear optical beam interactions in waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Meier, Joachim; Stegeman, George I; Silberberg, Y; Morandotti, R; Aitchison, J S

    2004-08-27

    We report our investigation of Kerr nonlinear beam interactions in discrete systems. The influence of power and the relative phase between two Gaussian shaped beams was investigated in detail by performing numerical simulations of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation and comparing the results with experiments done in AlGaAs waveguide arrays. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained.

  5. Nonlinear heat transport between the stack and the heat-exchangers of standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Benon, Ph.; Berson, A.

    2008-06-01

    The development of high performance thermoacoustic refrigerators requires an efficient heat transport between the stack and the heat exchangers. A 1D nonlinear model for the thermal coupling of these two components is proposed in the case of a standing-wave thermaocoustic refrigerator. It shows the generation of temperature harmonics close to the edges of the plates that affects heat transport. In order to validate the model, the nonlinear temperature field close to the stack edges is measured using cold-wire anemometry.

  6. A breathing wormlike chain model on DNA denaturation and bubble: effects of stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yeol; Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Sung, Wokyung

    2008-02-01

    DNA stably exists as a double-stranded structure due to hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions between bases. The stacking interactions are strengthened when DNA is paired, which results in great enhancement of bending rigidity. We study the effects of this stacking-induced stiffness difference on DNA denaturation and bubble formations. To this end, we model double-stranded DNA as a duplex of two semiflexible chains whose persistence length varies depending on the base-pair distance. Using this model, we perform the Langevin dynamics simulation to examine the characteristics of the denaturation transition and the statistics of the bubbles. We find that the inclusion of the stacking interactions causes the denaturation transition to be much sharper than otherwise. At physiological temperature, the stacking interactions prohibit the initiation of bubble formation but promote bubbles, once grown, to retain the large size. PMID:18266461

  7. Compensation of nonlinearities in a piezoelectric stack actuator with application in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, A.. S.; Tan, K. K.; Lee, T. H.; Panda, S. K.; Huang, S. N.; Zhao, S.

    2007-12-01

    A method for compensation of nonlinearities, mainly hysteresis, using augmented linear control for a piezoelectric stack actuator is presented in this paper, with its application in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The linear control, realized via a PID control, is enhanced by a regulated chatter signal with variation of duty cycle as well as direction (sign), with constant magnitude and period. The main idea is to augment the PID control signal, which does most of the feedback control, in a low hassle manner by increasing or decreasing the signal via the regulated chatter signal, which does most of the nonlinearities compensation. The variation of duty cycle and direction is updated via an iterative learning technique, taking into consideration the repetitive motion required in the ICSI application. This device is used for assisting oocyte (egg cell) penetration during ICSI process, where the actuator is required to drive a needle, containing a sperm cell, to penetrate an oocyte and then inject the sperm into the oocyte. This technique is able to satisfy the requirements of the process, where a highly-precise motion is mandatory.

  8. Nonlinear electromagnetic interactions in thermal QED

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J. )

    1995-03-06

    We examine the behavior of the nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic fields at high temperature. It is shown that, in general, the ln([ital T]) dependence on the temperature of the Green functions is simply related to their UV behavior at zero temperature. We argue that the effective action describing the nonlinear thermal electromagnetic interactions has a finite limit as [ital T][r arrow][infinity]. This thermal action approaches, in the long wavelength limit, the negative of the corresponding zero-temperature action.

  9. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramini, Abdallah H.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  10. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ramini, Abdallah H.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way. PMID:27698455

  11. Supramolecular step in design of nonlinear optical materials: Effect of π...π stacking aggregation on hyperpolarizability.

    PubMed

    Suponitsky, Kyrill Yu; Masunov, Artëm E

    2013-09-01

    Theoretical estimation of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties is an important step in systematic search for optoelectronic materials. Density functional theory methods are often used to predict first molecular hyperpolarizability for compounds in advance of their synthesis. However, design of molecular NLO materials require an estimation of the bulk properties, which are often approximated as additive superposition of molecular tensors. It is therefore important to evaluate the accuracy of this additive approximation and estimate the extent by which intermolecular interactions influence the first molecular hyperpolarizability β. Here we focused on the stacking aggregates, including up to 12 model molecules (pNA and ANS) and observed enhancement and suppression of molecular hyperpolarizability relative to the additive sum. We found that degree of nonadditivity depends on relative orientation of the molecular dipole moments and does not correlate with intermolecular interaction energy. Frenkel exciton model, based on dipole-dipole approximation can be used for qualitative prediction of intermolecular effects. We report on inaccuracy of this model for the molecules with long π-systems that are significantly shifted relative to each other, when dipole-dipole approximation becomes inaccurate. To obtain more detailed information on the effect of intermolecular interactions on β we proposed electrostatic approach which accounts for the mutual polarization of the molecules by each other. We measure the induced polarization of each molecule in the aggregate by the charge of its donor (or acceptor) group. The proposed approach demonstrates linear correlation β(FF) vs β(elm) (estimated by finite field theory and electrostatic model, respectively) and allows decomposition of the hyperpolarizability for a molecular aggregate into separate molecular contributions. We used this decomposition to analyze the reasons of deviation of aggregate β from additivity, as well as the

  12. Supramolecular step in design of nonlinear optical materials: Effect of π…π stacking aggregation on hyperpolarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suponitsky, Kyrill Yu; Masunov, Artëm E.

    2013-09-01

    Theoretical estimation of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties is an important step in systematic search for optoelectronic materials. Density functional theory methods are often used to predict first molecular hyperpolarizability for compounds in advance of their synthesis. However, design of molecular NLO materials require an estimation of the bulk properties, which are often approximated as additive superposition of molecular tensors. It is therefore important to evaluate the accuracy of this additive approximation and estimate the extent by which intermolecular interactions influence the first molecular hyperpolarizability β. Here we focused on the stacking aggregates, including up to 12 model molecules (pNA and ANS) and observed enhancement and suppression of molecular hyperpolarizability relative to the additive sum. We found that degree of nonadditivity depends on relative orientation of the molecular dipole moments and does not correlate with intermolecular interaction energy. Frenkel exciton model, based on dipole-dipole approximation can be used for qualitative prediction of intermolecular effects. We report on inaccuracy of this model for the molecules with long π-systems that are significantly shifted relative to each other, when dipole-dipole approximation becomes inaccurate. To obtain more detailed information on the effect of intermolecular interactions on β we proposed electrostatic approach which accounts for the mutual polarization of the molecules by each other. We measure the induced polarization of each molecule in the aggregate by the charge of its donor (or acceptor) group. The proposed approach demonstrates linear correlation βFF vs βelm (estimated by finite field theory and electrostatic model, respectively) and allows decomposition of the hyperpolarizability for a molecular aggregate into separate molecular contributions. We used this decomposition to analyze the reasons of deviation of aggregate β from additivity, as well as the

  13. Relative substituent position on the strength of π-π stacking interactions

    PubMed Central

    Emenike, Bright U.; Alverez, Celeste N.; Rakovan, John; Kirschbaum, Kristin; Jain, Nirbhay

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that the relative position of the arene substituents have a profound influence on the strength of π-π stacking in the 9-benzyl substituted triptycene system. A new series of model compounds (3a-i) capable of revealing quantitatively π-π stacking interactions was studied. This series of compounds (3a-i) has an ortho substituted methyl group in one of the two interacting arenes and the syn/anti ratios were determined and compared to a series previously studied compounds (4a-i) that have a para methyl group on the corresponding arene. A greater than 50% increase in the strength of π-π stacking interactions was observed with the methyl group in the ortho position comparing to that in the para position. No difference in π-π stacking interactions was observed when the other aromatic ring was a pentafluorobenzoate group. PMID:20209117

  14. Experimental and theoretical insights in the alkene–arene intramolecular π-stacking interaction

    PubMed Central

    Corne, Valeria; Sarotti, Ariel M; Ramirez de Arellano, Carmen; Spanevello, Rolando A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chiral acrylic esters derived from biomass were developed as models to have a better insight in the aryl–vinyl π-stacking interactions. Quantum chemical calculations, NMR studies and experimental evidences demonstrated the presence of equilibriums of at least four different conformations: π-stacked and face-to-edge, each of them in an s-cis/s-trans conformation. The results show that the stabilization produced by the π–π interaction makes the π-stacked conformation predominant in solution and this stabilization is slightly affected by the electron density of the aromatic counterpart. PMID:27559414

  15. Experimental and theoretical insights in the alkene-arene intramolecular π-stacking interaction.

    PubMed

    Corne, Valeria; Sarotti, Ariel M; Ramirez de Arellano, Carmen; Spanevello, Rolando A; Suárez, Alejandra G

    2016-01-01

    Chiral acrylic esters derived from biomass were developed as models to have a better insight in the aryl-vinyl π-stacking interactions. Quantum chemical calculations, NMR studies and experimental evidences demonstrated the presence of equilibriums of at least four different conformations: π-stacked and face-to-edge, each of them in an s-cis/s-trans conformation. The results show that the stabilization produced by the π-π interaction makes the π-stacked conformation predominant in solution and this stabilization is slightly affected by the electron density of the aromatic counterpart. PMID:27559414

  16. Pi-stacked interactions in explosive crystals: buffers against external mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoyang; Wang, Xiaochuan; Huang, Hui

    2008-07-01

    The pi-stacked interactions in some explosive crystal packing are discussed. Taking a typical pi-stacked explosive 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-1,3,5-triamine (TATB) as a sample and using molecular simulations, we investigated the nature of the pi-stacked interactions versus the external mechanical stimuli causing possible slide and compression of explosives. As a result, between the neighbor layers in the TATB unit cell, the electrostatic attraction decreases with a little decrease of vdW attraction when its top layer slides, whereas the vdW attraction increases with a decrease of electrostatic attraction when TATB crystal is compressed along its c axis. Meanwhile, we studied the correlation between the pi-stacked structures and the impact sensitivities of explosives by means of three representatives including TATB with typical planar pi-stacked structures, 2,2-dinitroethylene-1,1-diamine (Fox-7) with wavelike pi-stacked structures, and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) without pi-stacked structure. The results showed that pi-stacked structures, particularly planar layers, can effectively buffer against external mechanical stimuli. That is, pi-stacked structures can partly convert the mechanical energy acting on them into their intermolecular interaction energy, to avoid the increase of the molecular vibration resulting in the explosive decomposition, the formation of hot spots, and the final detonation. This is another reason for the low mechanical sensitivity of pi-stacked explosives besides their stable conjugated molecular structures. PMID:18529058

  17. A theoretical study of π-stacking interactions in C-substituted tetrazoles.

    PubMed

    Farrokhzadeh, Abdolkarim; Modarresi-Alam, Ali Reza; Akher, Farideh Badichi; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The π-stacking effects of benzene ring (Ben) with 1H- and 2H-tetrazole derivatives (1H-TZ-X and 2H-TZ-X) substituted at C5 (where X is Cl, COH, NO, NO2, CN, NH2, OH, OCH3, SH and H) has been investigated by the quantum mechanical calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level. The results indicate the 1H-TZ-X||Ben complexes (|| donates π-stacking interaction) are more stable than 2H-TZ-X||Ben while in unstacked forms, 1H-TZ-X is less stable than 2H-TZ-X. All substituents enhance the π-stacking interaction relative to the unsubstituted ones and enhancement is higher for the electron-withdrawing substituents (EWSs). Also, investigation of the local and direct effect of substituents in stacking interaction showed that all substituents regardless of whether are electron donating or electron withdrawing have an additive effect in π-stacking interaction. Excellent correlations were found between the binding energies of the complexes and combination of substituent constant terms. The results showed that the electrostatic interaction alone is not responsible for stacking stabilization but charge penetration is important. Furthermore, analysis of aromaticity, AIM, ESP and NPA were investigated to obtain aromaticity index, non-bonding interactions, chemical reactivity and polarity (dipole moment), respectively. PMID:27258189

  18. Nonlinear electromagnetic interactions in energetic materials

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Mitchell Anthony; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro; Moore, David Steven

    2016-01-12

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for the nonionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular-dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional THz spectra for planar slabs made of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and ammonium nitrate. Finally, we discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for standoff explosive detection.

  19. A Numerical Study of Nonlinear Wave Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, A.; Tissier, M.; Ruessink, G.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear triad interactions redistribute energy among a wave field, which transforms the shape of the incident short waves (f = 0.05 - 2 Hz) and generates energy at infragravity frequencies (f = 0.005-0.05 Hz). Recently, it has been suggested that infragravity energy may dissipate by energy transfers from infragravity frequencies to either the (former) short-wave spectral peak, or through infragravity-infragravity self-interactions that cause the infragravity waves to steepen and to eventually break. To investigate these infragravity dissipation mechanisms, we use the non-hydrostatic SWASH model. In this study, we first validate the model with the high-resolution GLOBEX laboratory data set and then explore the dependence of the energy transfers, with a focus on infragravity frequencies, on beach slope. Consistent with previous studies we find that SWASH is able to reproduce the transformation and corresponding nonlinear energy transfers of shoreward propagating waves to great detail. Bispectral analysis is used to study the coupling between wave frequencies; nonlinear energy transfers are then quantified using the Boussinesq coupling coefficient. To obtain more detailed insight we divide the nonlinear interactions in four categories based on triads including 1) infragravity frequencies only, 2) two infragravity frequencies and one short-wave frequency, 3) one infragravity frequency and two short-wave frequencies and 4) short-wave frequencies only. Preliminary results suggest that interactions are rather weak on gently beach slopes (1:80) and, in the innermost part of the surf zone, are dominated by infragravity-infragravity interactions. On steeper slopes (1:20), interactions are stronger, but entirely dominated by those involving short-wave frequencies only. The dependence of the transfers on offshore wave conditions and beach shape will be explored too. Funded by NWO.

  20. Nonlinear Interaction of Waves in Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Progress of 1990s - 2000s in studying vibroacoustic nonlinearities in geomaterials is largely related to experiments in resonance samples of rock and soils. It is now a common knowledge that many such materials are very strongly nonlinear, and they are characterized by hysteresis in the dependence between the stress and strain tensors, as well as by nonlinear relaxation ("slow time"). Elastic wave propagation in such media has many peculiarities; for example, third harmonic amplitude is a quadratic (not cubic as in classical solids) function of the main harmonic amplitude, and average wave velocity is linearly (not quadratically as usual) dependent on amplitude. The mechanisms of these peculiarities are related to complex structure of a material typically consisting of two phases: a hard matrix and relatively soft inclusions such as microcracks and grain contacts. Although most informative experimental results have been obtained in rock in the form of resonant bars, few theoretical models are yet available to describe and calculate waves interacting in such samples. In this presentation, a brief overview of structural vibroacoustic nonlinearities in rock is given first. Then, a simple but rather general approach to the description of wave interaction in solid resonators is developed based on accounting for resonance nonlinear perturbations which are cumulating from period to period. In particular, the similarity and the differences between traveling waves and counter-propagating waves are analyzed for materials with different stress-strain dependences. These data can be used for solving an inverse problem, i.e. characterizing nonlinear properties of a geomaterial by its measured vibroacoustic parameters. References: 1. L. Ostrovsky and P. Johnson, Riv. Nuovo Chimento, v. 24, 1-46, 2007 (a review); 2. L. Ostrovsky, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., v. 116, 3348-3353, 2004.

  1. Interactive Workshop Discusses Nonlinear Waves and Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Morales, George; Passot, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    Eighth International Nonlinear Wave Workshop; La Jolla, California, 1-5 March 2010; Nonlinear waves and chaos were the focus of a weeklong series of informal and interactive discussions at the Eighth International Nonlinear Wave Workshop (NWW8), held in California. The workshop gathered nonlinear plasma and water wave experts from the United States, France, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Holland, India, and Japan. Attendees were from the fields of space, laboratory, and fusion plasma physics, astrophysics, and applied mathematics. Special focus was placed on nonlinear waves and turbulence in the terrestrial environment as well as in the interstellar medium from observational, laboratory, and theoretical perspectives. Discussions covered temperature anisotropies and related instabilities, the properties and origin of the so-called dissipation range, and various coherent structures of electromagnetic as well as electrostatic nature. Reconnection and shocks were also topics of discussion, as were properties of magnetospheric whistler and chorus waves. Examples and analysis techniques for superdiffusion and subdiffusion were identified. On this last topic, a good exchange of ideas and results occurred between a water wave expert and a plasma expert, with the rest of the audience listening intently.

  2. Stacking interaction and its role in kynurenic acid binding to glutamate ionotropic receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, Alexander V; Zakharov, Gennady A; Shchegolev, Boris F; Savvateeva-Popova, Elena V

    2012-05-01

    Stacking interaction is known to play an important role in protein folding, enzyme-substrate and ligand-receptor complex formation. It has been shown to make a contribution into the aromatic antagonists binding with glutamate ionotropic receptors (iGluRs), in particular, the complex of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit with the kynurenic acid (KYNA) derivatives. The specificity of KYNA binding to the glutamate receptors subtypes might partially result from the differences in stacking interaction. We have calculated the optimal geometry and binding energy of KYNA dimers with the four types of aromatic amino acid residues in Rattus and Drosophila ionotropic iGluR subunits. All ab initio quantum chemical calculations were performed taking into account electron correlations at MP2 and MP4 perturbation theory levels. We have also investigated the potential energy surfaces (PES) of stacking and hydrogen bonds (HBs) within the receptor binding site and calculated the free energy of the ligand-receptor complex formation. The energy of stacking interaction depends both on the size of aromatic moieties and the electrostatic effects. The distribution of charges was shown to determine the geometry of polar aromatic ring dimers. Presumably, stacking interaction is important at the first stage of ligand binding when HBs are weak. The freedom of ligand movements and rotation within receptor site provides the precise tuning of the HBs pattern, while the incorrect stacking binding prohibits the ligand-receptor complex formation. PMID:21833825

  3. Nonlinear quantum optics mediated by Rydberg interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstenberg, O.; Adams, C. S.; Hofferberth, S.

    2016-08-01

    By mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg excitations in ultra-cold atomic ensembles onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency, it is now possible to realize a medium which exhibits a strong optical nonlinearity at the level of individual photons. We review the theoretical concepts and the experimental state-of-the-art of this exciting new field, and discuss first applications in the field of all-optical quantum information processing.

  4. Dynamic investigation of PEFC stacks in interaction with the air supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, F.; Simons, G.; Schiefer, K.

    This paper explores the behaviour of a dynamically operated fuel cell system regarding to an automotive application, examining the air supply and their interaction with the fuel cell stacks. The dynamic limits of stack operation are also discussed. Finally, the paper provides a description of the test facility used in these investigations. The research of dynamically operated fuel cell stacks shows that in order to achieve high energy efficiency, a power-dependent modulation of the pressure and flow rate of the air supply is necessary. A test facility designed for energy management and power train research (up to 42 kW) was used for the experiment. A number of 11.5 kW fuel cell stacks was examined experimentally with respect to performance in interaction with the air supply in stationary and dynamic operation. The stacks were tested individually and in parallel. All of them were operated "dead-end" on the hydrogen side. Experimental results varying the parameters and load curves applied to the air supply system are given in the paper. The results show different dynamic behaviours between the stacks and a substantial difference in efficiency and dynamic response of the fuel cell system operated with different strategies. The results of different operating strategies for fuel cell systems, with respect to the interaction between the fuel cell stack and the air supply and in their dependency on air mass flow and pressure level are presented. The examinations were done with the test facility using real current demand profile of the experimental car HyLite ® from zero to full load and the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC).

  5. Π-Stacking Interaction between Heterocyclic Rings in a Reaction Field of Biological System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyimatu, Muhamad; Shimahara, Hideto; Sugimori, Kimikazu; Kawaguchi, Kazutomo; Saito, Hiroaki; Nagao, Hidemi

    Reaction fields in biological systems are given by surrounding structures where various interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals, and π-stacking interaction. However, there is no experimental method to evaluate the interaction energy. Recently, computational techniques have been used as a standard method in order to estimate the interaction energy or to verify the experimental results. Here, we are focusing on the π-electrons, p-orbitals, and conjugate systems in relation to the π-stacking interaction between heterocyclic rings in the reaction field: the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). The electron correlation interaction was calculated on the basis of the Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. Since the His64 has two conformations in the HCA II, the rotational motion of His64 has been used to explain the catalytic mechanism of HCA II. The calculated results indicate that the π-stacking interaction stabilizes the structure and restrict the rotational motion of His64.

  6. Double pancake bonds: pushing the limits of strong π-π stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhong-hua; Lischka, Hans; Beneberu, Habtamu Z; Kertesz, Miklos

    2014-09-17

    The concept of a double-bonded pancake bonding mechanism is introduced to explain the extremely short π-π stacking contacts in dimers of dithiatriazines. While ordinary single pancake bonds occur between radicals and already display significantly shorter interatomic distances in comparison to van der Waals (vdW) contacts, the double-bonded pancake dimer is based on diradicaloid or antiaromatic molecules and exhibits even shorter and stronger intermolecular bonds that breach into the range of extremely stretched single bonds in terms of bond distances and binding energies. These properties give rise to promising possibilities in the design of new materials with high electrical conductivity and for the field of spintronics. The analysis of the double pancake bond is based on cutting edge electron correlation theory combining multireference (nondynamical) effects and dispersion (dynamical) contributions in a balanced way providing accurate interaction energies and distributions of unpaired spins. It is also shown that the present examples do not stand isolated but that similar mechanisms operate in several analogous nonradical molecular systems to form double-bonded π-stacking pancake dimers. We report on the amazing properties of a new type of stacking interaction mechanism between π conjugated molecules in the form of a "double pancake bond" which breaks the record for short intermolecular distances and provides formidable strength for some π-π stacking interactions. PMID:25203200

  7. Nonlinear shallow ocean-wave soliton interactions on flat beaches.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Baldwin, Douglas E

    2012-09-01

    Ocean waves are complex and often turbulent. While most ocean-wave interactions are essentially linear, sometimes two or more waves interact in a nonlinear way. For example, two or more waves can interact and yield waves that are much taller than the sum of the original wave heights. Most of these shallow-water nonlinear interactions look like an X or a Y or two connected Ys; at other times, several lines appear on each side of the interaction region. It was thought that such nonlinear interactions are rare events: they are not. Here we report that such nonlinear interactions occur every day, close to low tide, on two flat beaches that are about 2000 km apart. These interactions are closely related to the analytic, soliton solutions of a widely studied multidimensional nonlinear wave equation. On a much larger scale, tsunami waves can merge in similar ways.

  8. Anisotropic effective interactions and stack formation in mixtures of semiflexible ring polymers.

    PubMed

    Poier, Peter; Bačová, Petra; Moreno, Angel J; Likos, Christos N; Blaak, Ronald

    2016-05-25

    By means of extensive computer simulations, we investigate the formation of columnar structures (stacks) in concentrated solutions of semiflexible ring polymers. To characterize the stacks we employ an algorithm that identifies tube-like structures in the simulation cell. Stacks are found both in the real system and in the fluid of soft disks interacting through the effective anisotropic pair potential derived for the rings [P. Poier et al., Macromolecules, 2015, 48, 4983-4997]. Furthermore, we investigate binary mixtures of cluster-forming and non-cluster-forming rings. We find that monodispersity is not a requirement for stack formation. The latter is found for a broad range of mixture compositions, though the columns in the mixtures exhibit important differences to those observed in the monodisperse case. We extend the anisotropic effective model to mixtures. We show that it correctly predicts stack formation and constitutes a significant improvement with respect to the usual isotropic effective description based only on macromolecular centers-of-mass.

  9. Stacking of purines in water: the role of dipolar interactions in caffeine.

    PubMed

    Tavagnacco, L; Di Fonzo, S; D'Amico, F; Masciovecchio, C; Brady, J W; Cesàro, A

    2016-05-11

    During the last few decades it has been ascertained that base stacking is one of the major contributions stabilizing nucleic acid conformations. However, the understanding of the nature of the interactions involved in the stacking process remains under debate and it is a subject of theoretical and experimental studies. Structural similarity between purine bases (guanine and adenine) in DNA and the caffeine molecule makes caffeine an excellent model for the purine bases. The present study clearly shows that dipolar interactions play a fundamental role in determining stacking of purine molecules in solution. In order to reach this achievement, polarized ultraviolet Raman resonant scattering experiments have been carried out on caffeine aqueous solutions as a function of concentration and temperature. The investigation pointed out at the aggregation and solvation properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. Kubo-Anderson theory was used as a framework to investigate the non-coincidence effect (NCE) occurring in the totally symmetric breathing modes of the purine rings, and in the bending modes of the methyl groups of caffeine. The NCE concentration dependence shows that caffeine aggregation at 80 °C occurs by planar stacking of the hydrophobic faces. The data clearly indicate that dipolar interactions determine the reorientational motion of the molecules in solution and are the driving force for the stacking of caffeine. In parallel, the observed dephasing times imply a change in caffeine interactions as a function of temperature and concentration. A decrease, at low water content, of the dephasing time for the ring breathing vibration mode indicates that self-association alters the solvation structure that is detectable at low concentration. These results are in agreement with simulation predictions and serve as an important validation of the models used in those calculations. PMID:27127808

  10. Stacking of purines in water: the role of dipolar interactions in caffeine.

    PubMed

    Tavagnacco, L; Di Fonzo, S; D'Amico, F; Masciovecchio, C; Brady, J W; Cesàro, A

    2016-05-11

    During the last few decades it has been ascertained that base stacking is one of the major contributions stabilizing nucleic acid conformations. However, the understanding of the nature of the interactions involved in the stacking process remains under debate and it is a subject of theoretical and experimental studies. Structural similarity between purine bases (guanine and adenine) in DNA and the caffeine molecule makes caffeine an excellent model for the purine bases. The present study clearly shows that dipolar interactions play a fundamental role in determining stacking of purine molecules in solution. In order to reach this achievement, polarized ultraviolet Raman resonant scattering experiments have been carried out on caffeine aqueous solutions as a function of concentration and temperature. The investigation pointed out at the aggregation and solvation properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. Kubo-Anderson theory was used as a framework to investigate the non-coincidence effect (NCE) occurring in the totally symmetric breathing modes of the purine rings, and in the bending modes of the methyl groups of caffeine. The NCE concentration dependence shows that caffeine aggregation at 80 °C occurs by planar stacking of the hydrophobic faces. The data clearly indicate that dipolar interactions determine the reorientational motion of the molecules in solution and are the driving force for the stacking of caffeine. In parallel, the observed dephasing times imply a change in caffeine interactions as a function of temperature and concentration. A decrease, at low water content, of the dephasing time for the ring breathing vibration mode indicates that self-association alters the solvation structure that is detectable at low concentration. These results are in agreement with simulation predictions and serve as an important validation of the models used in those calculations.

  11. The influence of arene-ring size on stacking interaction with canonical base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formánek, Martin; Burda, Jaroslav V.

    2014-04-01

    Stacking interactions between aromatic molecules (benzene, p-cymene, biphenyl, and di- and tetra-hydrogen anthracene) and G.C and A.T canonical Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs are explored. Two functionals with dispersion corrections: ω-B97XD and B3LYP-D3 are used. For a comparison also the MP2 and B3LYP-D3/PCM methods were used for the most stable p-cymene…WC geometries. It was found that the stacking interaction increases with the size of π-conjugation system. Its extent is in agreement with experimental finding on anticancer activity of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes where intercalation of these aromatic molecules should play an important role. The explored structures are considered as ternary system so that decomposition of the interaction energy to pairwise and non-additivity contributions is also examined.

  12. Nonlinear inversion of pre-stack seismic data using variable metric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fanchang; Dai, Ronghuo

    2016-06-01

    At present, the routine method to perform AVA (Amplitude Variation with incident Angle) inversion is based on the assumption that the ratio of S-wave velocity to P-wave velocity γ is a constant. However, this simplified assumption does not always hold, and it is necessary to use nonlinear inversion method to solve it. Based on Bayesian theory, the objective function for nonlinear AVA inversion is established and γ is considered as an unknown model parameter. Then, variable metric method with a strategy of periodically variational starting point is used to solve the nonlinear AVA inverse problem. The proposed method can keep the inverted reservoir parameters approach to the actual solution and has been performed on both synthetic and real data. The inversion results suggest that the proposed method can solve the nonlinear inverse problem and get accurate solutions even without the knowledge of γ.

  13. Stack zooming for multifocus interaction in skewed-aspect visual spaces.

    PubMed

    Javed, Waqas; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-08-01

    Many 2D visual spaces have a virtually one-dimensional nature with very high aspect ratio between the dimensions: examples include time-series data, multimedia data such as sound or video, text documents, and bipartite graphs. Common among these is that the space can become very large, e.g., temperature measurements could span a long time period, surveillance video could cover entire days or weeks, and documents can have thousands of pages. Many analysis tasks for such spaces require several foci while retaining context and distance awareness. In this extended version of our IEEE PacificVis 2010 paper, we introduce a method for supporting this kind of multifocus interaction that we call stack zooming. The approach is based on building hierarchies of 1D strips stacked on top of each other, where each subsequent stack represents a higher zoom level, and sibling strips represent branches in the exploration. Correlation graphics show the relation between stacks and strips of different levels, providing context and distance awareness for the foci. The zoom hierarchies can also be used as graphical histories and for communicating insights to stakeholders and can be further extended with annotation and integrated statistics. PMID:23744266

  14. Effect of interlayer interaction on domain structure of CoPt stacked films with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Hayakawa, K.; Nomiya, N.; Sugita, R.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of interlayer magnetostatic interaction on the domain structure of CoPt (3 nm)/Pt (δPt nm)/CoPt (10 nm) stacked films having perpendicular anisotropy is investigated. The domain structure of the demagnetized CoPt stacked films is observed using magnetic force microscope. The Co80Pt20 stacked films with Pt interlayer thickness δPt less than about 20 nm have the maze domain similar to that of the film with δPt of 0 nm. This is because the top and bottom layers are connected by the magnetostatic interaction and the magnetization distribution of both layers is integrated. The domain structure of the films with δPt around 25 nm is mixture of the maze and irregular domains. For the films with δPt over about 30 nm, because the interaction between the top and bottom layers decreases, the irregular domain which is observed in the 3 nm thick CoPt single layer film appears. In the region where the domain structure changes from the maze domain to the irregular one, domain size steeply increases with increase of δPt.

  15. Third order nonlinear optical properties of stacked bacteriochlorophylls in bacterial photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.X.; Laible, P.D.; Spano, F.C.; Manas, E.S.

    1997-09-01

    Enhancement of the nonresonant second order molecular hyperpolarizabilities {gamma} were observed in stacked macrocyclic molecular systems, previously in a {micro}-oxo silicon phthalocyanine (SiPcO) monomer, dimer and trimer series, and now in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) arrays of light harvesting (LH) proteins. Compared to monomeric BChla in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, the <{gamma}> for each macrocycle was enhanced in naturally occurring stacked macrocyclic molecular systems in the bacterial photosynthetic LH proteins where BChla`s are arranged in tilted face-to-face arrays. In addition, the {gamma} enhancement is more significant in B875 of LH1 than in B850 in LH2. Theoretical modeling of the nonresonant {gamma} enhancement using simplified molecular orbitals for model SiPcO indicated that the energy level of the two photon state is crucial to the {gamma} enhancement when a two photon process is involved, whereas the charge transfer between the monomers is largely responsible when one photon near resonant process is involved. The calculated results can be extended to {gamma} enhancement in B875 and B850 arrays, suggesting that BChla in B875 are more strongly coupled than in B850. In addition, a 50--160 fold increase in <{gamma}> for the S{sub 1} excited state of relative to S{sub 0} of bacteriochlorophyll in vivo was observed which provides an alternative method for probing excited state dynamics and a potential application for molecular switching.

  16. Nonlinear empirical model of gas humidity-related voltage dynamics of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiler, M.; Andre, D.; Schmid, O.; Hofer, E. P.

    Intelligent energy management is a cost-effective key path to realize efficient automotive drive trains [R. O'Hayre, S.W. Cha, W. Colella, F.B. Prinz. Fuel Cell Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2006]. To develop operating strategy in fuel cell drive trains, precise and computational efficient models of all system components, especially the fuel cell stack, are needed. Should these models further be used in diagnostic or control applications, then some major requirements must be fulfilled. First, the model must predict the mean fuel cell voltage very precisely in all possible operating conditions, even during transients. The model output should be as smooth as possible to support best efficient optimization strategies of the complete system. At least, the model must be computational efficient. For most applications, a difference between real fuel cell voltage and model output of less than 10 mV and 1000 calculations per second will be sufficient. In general, empirical models based on system identification offer a better accuracy and consume less calculation resources than detailed models derived from theoretical considerations [J. Larminie, A. Dicks. Fuel Cell Systems Explained, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2003]. In this contribution, the dynamic behaviour of the mean cell voltage of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack due to variations in humidity of cell's reactant gases is investigated. The validity of the overall model structure, a so-called general Hammerstein model (or Uryson model), was introduced recently in [M. Meiler, O. Schmid, M. Schudy, E.P. Hofer. Dynamic fuel cell stack model for real-time simulation based on system identification, J. Power Sources 176 (2007) 523-528]. Fuel cell mean voltage is calculated as the sum of a stationary and a dynamic voltage component. The stationary component of cell voltage is represented by a lookup-table and the dynamic voltage by a parallel placed, nonlinear transfer function. A

  17. Conditional nonlinear operations by sequential Jaynes-Cummings interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kimin; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear operations are essential for quantum information processing. We propose a way of implementing a class of nonlinear operations by sequential application of conditional gates based on Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction and projective measurements. The scheme has many advantages over the previously proposed all-optical methods and can be applied in several available experimental platforms, such as cavity quantum electrodynamics, trapped ions, and others. We demonstrate performance of the approach on the example of the cubic nonlinearity. We show several different ways in which the full nonlinear operation can be decomposed into sequences of the individual gates, and we compare their performance.

  18. System interaction with linear and nonlinear characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.W. ); Tseng, W.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This book is covered under some of the following topics: seismic margins in piping systems, vibrational power flow in a cylindrical shell, inelastic pipework dynamics and aseismic design, an efficient method for dynamic analysis of a linearly elastic piping system with nonlinear supports.

  19. Transport equations for subdiffusion with nonlinear particle interaction.

    PubMed

    Straka, P; Fedotov, S

    2015-02-01

    We show how the nonlinear interaction effects 'volume filling' and 'adhesion' can be incorporated into the fractional subdiffusive transport of cells and individual organisms. To this end, we use microscopic random walk models with anomalous trapping and systematically derive generic non-Markovian and nonlinear governing equations for the mean concentrations of the subdiffusive cells or organisms. We uncover an interesting interaction between the nonlinearities and the non-Markovian nature of the transport. In the subdiffusive case, this interaction manifests itself in a nontrivial combination of nonlinear terms with fractional derivatives. In the long time limit, however, these equations simplify to a form without fractional operators. This provides an easy method for the study of aggregation phenomena. In particular, this enables us to show that volume filling can prevent "anomalous aggregation," which occurs in subdiffusive systems with a spatially varying anomalous exponent.

  20. On tidal variability induced by nonlinear interaction with planetary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, H.; Vial, F. )

    1991-08-01

    Short-time variability of the atmospheric tides is frequently observed in the meteor region but is not yet fully explained in terms of production mechanisms. This is probably due to the existence of several such mechanisms acting together or separately. In this paper the authors show that many observations can be explained by nonlinear interactions between tides and planetary waves having periods corresponding to those of the observed tidal amplitude modulations. These nonlinear interactions generate two secondary waves whose frequencies are the sum and difference of frequencies of the primary waves. These two waves beat with the tide, modulating its amplitude with the planetary wave period. A numerical model is used to demonstrate that with primary waves of reasonable amplitudes the nonlinear interactions can be quite large. This is because the importance of nonlinearity depends essentially on the amplitude of the induced fluid velocity in the direction of wave propagation compared to the wave propagation velocity. When two waves propagate simultaneously, the fluid velocity can have a large component in the direction of propagation of one of the waves, and advective (nonlinear) terms can be large. This point is further illustrated in the case of two gravity waves interacting together. Finally, some observational campaigns carried out above Garchy (45{degree}N) are analyzed using a nonparametric method. The results indicate that nonlinear interactions between tides and planetary waves really take place in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  1. Extracting Drug-Drug Interaction from the Biomedical Literature Using a Stacked Generalization-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Linna; Yang, Zhihao; Zhao, Zhehuan; Lin, Hongfei; Li, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) detection is particularly important for patient safety. However, the amount of biomedical literature regarding drug interactions is increasing rapidly. Therefore, there is a need to develop an effective approach for the automatic extraction of DDI information from the biomedical literature. In this paper, we present a Stacked Generalization-based approach for automatic DDI extraction. The approach combines the feature-based, graph and tree kernels and, therefore, reduces the risk of missing important features. In addition, it introduces some domain knowledge based features (the keyword, semantic type, and DrugBank features) into the feature-based kernel, which contribute to the performance improvement. More specifically, the approach applies Stacked generalization to automatically learn the weights from the training data and assign them to three individual kernels to achieve a much better performance than each individual kernel. The experimental results show that our approach can achieve a better performance of 69.24% in F-score compared with other systems in the DDI Extraction 2011 challenge task. PMID:23785452

  2. A theoretical analysis of the potential role of π-π stacking interactions in the photoprotolytic cycle of firefly luciferin.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2014-12-01

    Firefly oxyluciferin is a photoacid that presents a pH-sensitive fluorescence, which results from pH-dependent changes on the conformation of self-aggregated π-π stacking complexes. Luciferin is a derivative of oxyluciferin with very similar fluorescence and photoacidic properties. This similarity indicates that luciferin is also expected to be able to form π-π stacking complexes, but no pH-sensitive fluorescence is found for this compound. Here, a theoretical approach is used to rationalize this finding. We have found that luciferin only forms π-π stacking complexes in the ground state at acidic pH. At basic pH and in the excited state, luciferin is present as a dianion. This species is not able to self-aggregate, owing to repulsive electrostatic interactions. Thus, this emissive species is not subject to π-π stacking interactions; this explains its pH-insensitive fluorescence.

  3. Dislocation-stacking fault tetrahedron interaction: what can we learn from atomic scale modelling.

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Matsukawa, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    The high number density of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) observed in irradiated fcc metals suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, taken into account when estimating mechanical properties changes of irradiated materials. The central issue is describing the individual interaction between a moving dislocation and an SFT, which is characterized by a very fine size scale, {approx}100 nm. This scale is amenable to both in situ TEM experiments and large-scale atomic modelling. In this paper we present results of an atomistic simulation of dislocation-SFT interactions using molecular dynamics (MD). The results are compared with observations from in situ deformation experiments. It is demonstrated that in some cases the simulations and experimental observations are quite similar, suggesting a reasonable interpretation of experimental observations.

  4. Nonlinear interaction of meta-atoms through optical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Kapitanova, P. V.; Filonov, D. S.; Belov, P. A.; Powell, D. A.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Lapine, M.; McPhedran, R. C.

    2014-01-06

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multi-frequency nonlinear coupling mechanism between split-ring resonators. We engineer the coupling between two microwave resonators through optical interaction, whilst suppressing the direct electromagnetic coupling. This allows for a power-dependent interaction between the otherwise independent resonators, opening interesting opportunities to address applications in signal processing, filtering, directional coupling, and electromagnetic compatibility.

  5. Nonlinear wave interactions in bubble layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, S.; Prosperetti, A.; Ostrovsky, L.

    2003-03-01

    Due to the large compressibility of gas bubbles, layers of a bubbly liquid surrounded by pure liquid exhibit many resonances that can give rise to a strongly nonlinear behavior even for relatively low-level excitation. In an earlier paper [Druzhinin et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3570 (1996)] it was pointed out that, by exciting the bubbly layer in correspondence of two resonant modes, so chosen that the difference frequency also corresponds to a resonant mode, it might be possible to achieve an efficient parametric generation of a low-frequency signal. The earlier work made use of a simplified model for the bubbly liquid that ignored the dissipation and dispersion introduced by the bubbles. Here a more realistic description of the bubble behavior is used to study the nonlinear oscillations of a bubble layer under both single- and dual-frequency excitation. It is found that a difference-frequency power of the order of 1% can be generated with incident pressure amplitudes of the order of 50 kPa or so. It appears that similar phenomena would occur in other systems, such as porous waterlike or rubberlike media.

  6. Enhanced energy transport owing to nonlinear interface interaction

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    It is generally expected that the interface coupling leads to the suppression of thermal transport through coupled nanostructures due to the additional interface phonon-phonon scattering. However, recent experiments demonstrated that the interface van der Waals interactions can significantly enhance the thermal transfer of bonding boron nanoribbons compared to a single freestanding nanoribbon. To obtain a more in-depth understanding on the important role of the nonlinear interface coupling in the heat transports, in the present paper, we explore the effect of nonlinearity in the interface interaction on the phonon transport by studying the coupled one-dimensional (1D) Frenkel-Kontorova lattices. It is found that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing interface nonlinear intensity for weak inter-chain nonlinearity. By developing the effective phonon theory of coupled systems, we calculate the dependence of heat conductivity on interfacial nonlinearity in weak inter-chain couplings regime which is qualitatively in good agreement with the result obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we demonstrate that, with increasing interface nonlinear intensity, the system dimensionless nonlinearity strength is reduced, which in turn gives rise to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. Our results pave the way for manipulating the energy transport through coupled nanostructures for future emerging applications. PMID:26787363

  7. Collective Political Opinion Formation in Nonlinear Social Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Yong; Park, Chung Hyun; Kim, Kyungsik

    We have presented a numerical model of a collective opinion formation procedure to explain political phenomena such as two-party and multi-party systems in politics, political unrest, military coup d'etats and netizen revolutions. Nonlinear interaction with binary and independent decision making processes can yield various collective behaviors or collective political opinions. Statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics may provide useful tools to study various socio-political dynamics.

  8. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-04-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities.

  9. Atomic-Scale Study of Dislocation-Stacking Fault Tetrahedron Interactions. Part I: Mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Rodney, David; Bacon, David J

    2006-01-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are formed under irradiation in fcc metals and alloys. The high number density of SFTs observed suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, be taken into account when estimating mechanical property changes of irradiated materials. The key issue in this is to describe the interaction between a moving dislocation and an individual SFT, which is distinguished by a small physical size of the order of {approx}1-10 nm. We have performed atomistic simulations of edge and screw dislocations interacting with SFTs of different sizes at different temperatures and strain rates. Five possible interaction outcomes have been identified, involving either partial absorption, or shearing or restoration of SFTs. The mechanisms that give rise to these processes are described and their dependence on interaction parameters, such as SFT size, dislocation-SFT geometry, temperature and stress/strain rate are determined. Mechanisms that help to explain the formation of defect-free channels cleared by gliding dislocations, as observed experimentally, are also discussed. Hardening due to the various mechanisms and their dependence on loading conditions will be presented in a following paper (Part II).

  10. Nonlinear a Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear reaction between two oblique three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and their induced streamwise-vortex flow is considered theoretically for an incompressible boundary layer. The same theory applies to the destabilization of an incident vortex motion by subharmonic TS waves, followed by interaction. The scales and flow structure involved are addressed for high Reynolds numbers. The nonlinear interaction is powerful, starting at quite low amplitudes with a triple-deck structure for the TS waves but a large-scale structure for the induced vortex, after which strong nonlinear amplification occurs. This includes nonparallel-flow effects. The nonlinear interaction is governed by a partial differential system for the vortex flow coupled with an ordinary-differential one for the TS pressure. The solution properties found sometimes produce a breakup within a finite distance and sometimes further downstream, depending on the input amplitudes upstream and on the wave angles, and that then leads to the second stages of interaction associated with higher amplitudes, the main second stages giving either long-scale phenomena significantly affected by nonparallelism or shorter quasi-parallel ones governed by the full nonlinear triple-deck response.

  11. Nonlinear Bubble Interactions in Acoustic Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbat, Tiberiu; Ashgriz, Nasser; Liu, Ching-Shi

    1996-01-01

    The systems consisting of a two-phase mixture, as clouds of bubbles or drops, have shown many common features in their responses to different external force fields. One of particular interest is the effect of an unsteady pressure field applied to these systems, case in which the coupling of the vibrations induced in two neighboring components (two drops or two bubbles) may result in an interaction force between them. This behavior was explained by Bjerknes by postulating that every body that is moving in an accelerating fluid is subjected to a 'kinetic buoyancy' equal with the product of the acceleration of the fluid multiplied by the mass of the fluid displaced by the body. The external sound wave applied to a system of drops/bubbles triggers secondary sound waves from each component of the system. These secondary pressure fields integrated over the surface of the neighboring drop/bubble may result in a force additional to the effect of the primary sound wave on each component of the system. In certain conditions, the magnitude of these secondary forces may result in significant changes in the dynamics of each component, thus in the behavior of the entire system. In a system containing bubbles, the sound wave radiated by one bubble at the location of a neighboring one is dominated by the volume oscillation mode and its effects can be important for a large range of frequencies. The interaction forces in a system consisting of drops are much smaller than those consisting of bubbles. Therefore, as a first step towards the understanding of the drop-drop interaction subject to external pressure fluctuations, it is more convenient to study the bubble interactions. This paper presents experimental results and theoretical predictions concerning the interaction and the motion of two levitated air bubbles in water in the presence of an acoustic field at high frequencies (22-23 KHz).

  12. Kinetic equation for nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions including the effects of particle (phase) trapping, detrapping, and scattering by high-amplitude coherent waves. After deriving the relationship between probability of trapping and velocity of particle drift induced by nonlinear scattering (phase bunching), we substitute this relation and other characteristic equations of wave-particle interaction into a kinetic equation for the particle distribution function. The final equation has the form of a Fokker-Planck equation with peculiar advection and collision terms. This equation fully describes the evolution of particle momentum distribution due to particle diffusion, nonlinear drift, and fast transport in phase-space via trapping. Solutions of the obtained kinetic equation are compared with results of test particle simulations.

  13. Nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear reaction between two oblique 3-D Tollmein-Schlichting (TS) waves and their induced streamwise-vortex flow is considered theoretically for an imcompressible boundary layer. The same theory applies to the destabilization of an incident vortex motion by subharmonic TS waves, followed by interaction. The scales and flow structure involved are addressed for high Reynolds numbers. The nonlionear interaction is powerful, starting at quite low amplitudes with a triple-deck structure for the TS waves but a large-scale structure for the induced vortex, after which strong nonlinear amplification occurs. This includes nonparallel-flow effects. The nonlinear interaction is governed by a partial differential system for the vortex flow coupled with an ordinary-differential one for the TS pressure. The solution properties found sometimes produce a breakup within a finite distance and sometimes further downstream, depending on the input amplitudes upstream and on the wave angles, and that then leads to the second stages of interaction associated with higher amplitudes, the main second stages giving either long-scale phenomena significantly affected by nonparallelism or shorter quasi-parallel ones governed by the full nonlinear triple-deck response.

  14. NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    TOMAS,R.FISCHER,W.JAIN,A.LUO,Y.PILAT,F.

    2004-07-05

    For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability.

  15. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in engineered optical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchinitser, Natalia

    In this talk, we consider fundamental optical phenomena at the interface of nonlinear and singular optics in artificial media, including theoretical and experimental studies of linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions of vector and singular optical beams in metamaterials. We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to ``engineer'' light itself. Thanks to their ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, metamaterials open new degrees of freedom for tailoring complex polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. We will discuss several approaches to structured light manipulation on the nanoscale using metal-dielectric, all-dielectric and hyperbolic metamaterials. These new functionalities, including polarization and OAM conversion, beam magnification and de-magnification, and sub-wavelength imaging using novel non-resonant hyperlens are likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. The emergence of metamaterials also has a strong potential to enable a plethora of novel nonlinear light-matter interactions and even new nonlinear materials. In particular, nonlinear focusing and defocusing effects are of paramount importance for manipulation of the minimum focusing spot size of structured light beams necessary for nanoscale trapping, manipulation, and fundamental spectroscopic studies. Colloidal suspensions offer as a promising platform for engineering polarizibilities and realization of large and tunable nonlinearities. We will present our recent studies of the phenomenon of spatial modulational instability leading to laser beam filamentation in an engineered soft-matter nonlinear medium. Finally, we introduce so-called virtual hyperbolic metamaterials formed by an array of plasma channels in air as a result of self-focusing of an intense laser pulse, and show that such structure can be used to manipulate microwave beams in a free space. This

  16. Model ecosystems with random nonlinear interspecies interactions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danielle O C; Fontanari, José F

    2004-12-01

    The principle of competitive exclusion in ecology establishes that two species living together cannot occupy the same ecological niche. Here we present a model ecosystem in which the species are described by a series of phenotypic characters and the strength of the competition between two species is given by a nondecreasing (modulating) function of the number of common characters. Using analytical tools of statistical mechanics we find that the ecosystem diversity, defined as the fraction of species that coexist at equilibrium, decreases as the complexity (i.e., number of characters) of the species increases, regardless of the modulating function. By considering both selective and random elimination of the links in the community web, we show that ecosystems composed of simple species are more robust than those composed of complex species. In addition, we show that the puzzling result that there exists either rich or poor ecosystems for a linear modulating function is not typical of communities in which the interspecies interactions are determined by a complementarity rule.

  17. Selection rules for the nonlinear interaction of internal gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip S

    2009-03-27

    Two intersecting beams of internal gravity waves will generically create two wave packets by nonlinear interaction. The frequency of one packet will be the sum and that of the other packet will be the difference of the frequencies of the intersecting beams. In principle, each packet should form an "X" pattern, or "St. Andrew's cross" consisting of four beams outgoing from the point of intersection. Here we derive selection rules and show that most of the expected nonlinear beams are forbidden. These rules can also be applied to the reflection of a beam from a boundary.

  18. Nonlinear interactions isolated through scale synthesis in experimental wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; McKeon, Beverley

    2016-07-01

    An experimental investigation of nonlinear scale interactions in a forced turbulent boundary layer is presented here. A dynamic wall perturbation mechanism was used to externally force two distinct large-scale synthetic modes with well-defined spatial and temporal wave numbers in a fully turbulent flow. The focus is on characterizing the nonlinear flow response at triadically consistent wave numbers that arises from the direct interactions of the two synthetic modes. These experimental results isolate triadic scale interactions in wall turbulence in a unique fashion, and provide the ability to explore the dynamics of scale coupling in a systematic and detailed manner. The ideas advanced here are intended to contribute towards modeling efforts of high-Reynolds-number wall turbulence.

  19. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR CORRECTIONS IN THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT,F.; CAMERON,P.; PTITSYN,V.; KOUTCHOUK,J.P.

    2002-06-02

    A method has been developed to measure operationally the linear and non-linear effects of the interaction region triplets, that gives access to the multipole content through the action kick, by applying closed orbit bumps and analysing tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been extensively tested and used during the RHIC operations in 2001. Measurements were taken at 3 different interaction regions and for different focusing at the interaction point. Non-linear effects up to the dodecapole have been measured as well as the effects of linear, sextupolar and octupolar corrections. An analysis package for the data processing has been developed that through a precise fit of the experimental tune shift data (measured by a phase lock loop technique to better than 10{sup -5} resolution) determines the multipole content of an IR triplet.

  20. Cross-scale interactions, nonlinearities, and forecasting catastrophic events

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Debra P. C.; Pielke, Roger A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Allen, Craig D.; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Havstad, Kris M.

    2004-01-01

    Catastrophic events share characteristic nonlinear behaviors that are often generated by cross-scale interactions and feedbacks among system elements. These events result in surprises that cannot easily be predicted based on information obtained at a single scale. Progress on catastrophic events has focused on one of the following two areas: nonlinear dynamics through time without an explicit consideration of spatial connectivity [Holling, C. S. (1992) Ecol. Monogr. 62, 447–502] or spatial connectivity and the spread of contagious processes without a consideration of cross-scale interactions and feedbacks [Zeng, N., Neeling, J. D., Lau, L. M. & Tucker, C. J. (1999) Science 286, 1537–1540]. These approaches rarely have ventured beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries. We provide an interdisciplinary, conceptual, and general mathematical framework for understanding and forecasting nonlinear dynamics through time and across space. We illustrate the generality and usefulness of our approach by using new data and recasting published data from ecology (wildfires and desertification), epidemiology (infectious diseases), and engineering (structural failures). We show that decisions that minimize the likelihood of catastrophic events must be based on cross-scale interactions, and such decisions will often be counterintuitive. Given the continuing challenges associated with global change, approaches that cross disciplinary boundaries to include interactions and feedbacks at multiple scales are needed to increase our ability to predict catastrophic events and develop strategies for minimizing their occurrence and impacts. Our framework is an important step in developing predictive tools and designing experiments to examine cross-scale interactions. PMID:15469919

  1. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (PT) symmetric lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2016-05-01

    Parity-time symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the -symmetric and -broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system’s design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation against saturation nonlinearity in -symmetric lasers.

  2. Note: Resonance magnetoelectric interactions in laminate of FeCuNbSiB and multilayer piezoelectric stack for magnetic sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Zhong, Ming

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a simple miniature magnetoelectric (ME) laminate FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack made up of magnetostrictive Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB) foils and piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) multilayer stack vibrator. Resonant ME interactions of FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with different layers of FeCuNbSiB foil (L) are investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the ME voltage coefficient reaches maximum value of 141.5 (V/cm Oe) for FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with L = 6. The AC-magnetic sensitivities can reach 524.29 mV/Oe and 1.8 mV/Oe under resonance 91.6 kHz and off-resonance 1 kHz, respectively. The FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack can distinguish small dc-magnetic field of ∼9 nT. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites are very promising for the cheap room-temperature magnetic field sensing technology.

  3. Note: Resonance magnetoelectric interactions in laminate of FeCuNbSiB and multilayer piezoelectric stack for magnetic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Zhong, Ming

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a simple miniature magnetoelectric (ME) laminate FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack made up of magnetostrictive Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB) foils and piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) multilayer stack vibrator. Resonant ME interactions of FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with different layers of FeCuNbSiB foil (L) are investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the ME voltage coefficient reaches maximum value of 141.5 (V/cm Oe) for FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with L = 6. The AC-magnetic sensitivities can reach 524.29 mV/Oe and 1.8 mV/Oe under resonance 91.6 kHz and off-resonance 1 kHz, respectively. The FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack can distinguish small dc-magnetic field of ˜9 nT. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites are very promising for the cheap room-temperature magnetic field sensing technology.

  4. Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of π-stacked poly(fluorenemethylene) oligomers. Multiple, interacting electron transfers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Honglan; Chang, Jinho; Abdelwahed, Sameh H; Thakur, Khushabu; Rathore, Rajendra; Bard, Allen J

    2012-10-01

    The electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of a series of π-stacked poly(fluorenemethylene) oligomers (Fn, n = 1-6) were investigated. The pendant cofacially oriented fluorene moieties are essentially in contact with each other by Van der Waals interaction promoting electronic delocalization in these species. All six compounds give successive cyclic voltammetric one-electron (1e) oxidations in 1:1 acetonitrile/benzene (MeCN/Bz), and the multiple 1e transfer properties of all these compounds were confirmed by chronoamperometric experiments with an ultramicroelectrode and digital simulations. The potentials for oxidation of the successive 1e transfers can be explained in terms of electrostatic interactions among the fluorenes. The monomer (F1) shows one irreversible wave, while F2 shows two reversible 1e waves. F3 shows only two reversible 1e oxidation waves, which is consistent with the large energy to remove a third electron because of the greater electrostatic repulsion, so the third wave is shifted toward more positive potentials. Both F4 and F5 show three reversible 1e oxidation waves, while F6 shows four reversible 1e waves. The removal of the first electron from an oligomer becomes easier as n increases. The stability of the radical cations also increases with n. The removal of consecutive electrons from Fn can be correlated with the distance between fluorene moieties. No reduction peaks were observed except for some broad ones at ~-3.2 V vs SCE in THF, which is consitent with the wide highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap in these compounds (absorbance at about 300 nm). No characteristic annihilation ECL signal was observed for these compounds in 1:1 MeCN/Bz mixed solvent. However, the ECL of F6 in the presence of the coreactant C(2)O(4)(2-) showed a long-wavelength ECL emission that was proposed to be electrolyzed byproduct from the radical cation. PMID:22946643

  5. Optical vortex interaction and generation via nonlinear wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzini, F.; Residori, S.; Bortolozzo, U.; Arecchi, F. T.

    2011-12-15

    Optical vortex beams are made to interact via degenerate two-wave mixing in a Kerr-like nonlinear medium. Vortex mixing is shown to occur inside the medium, leading to exchange of topological charge and cascaded generation of vortex beams. A mean-field model is developed and is shown to account for the selection rules of the topological charges observed after the wave-mixing process. Fractional charges are demonstrated to follow the same rules as for integer charges.

  6. Effect of nonlinear electromechanical interaction upon wind power generator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyutskiy, Yury D.; Klimina, Liubov A.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed for describing a small horizontal axis wind turbine with electric generator, such that the electromechanical interaction is non-linear in current. Dependence of steady regimes of the system upon parameters of the model is studied. In particular, it is shown that increase of wind speed causes qualitative restructuring of the set of steady regimes, which leads to considerable change in behavior of the wind power generator. The proposed model is verified against data obtained in experiments.

  7. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification.

    PubMed

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A

    2016-01-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities. PMID:27108814

  8. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-01-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities. PMID:27108814

  9. A nonlinear Bloch model for Coulomb interaction in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Bidegaray-Fesquet, Brigitte Keita, Kole

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we first derive a Coulomb Hamiltonian for electron–electron interaction in quantum dots in the Heisenberg picture. Then we use this Hamiltonian to enhance a Bloch model, which happens to be nonlinear in the density matrix. The coupling with Maxwell equations in case of interaction with an electromagnetic field is also considered from the Cauchy problem point of view. The study is completed by numerical results and a discussion about the advisability of neglecting intra-band coherences, as is done in part of the literature.

  10. Strongly interacting photons in a quantum nonlinear medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyronel, Thibault

    2014-05-01

    Photons are fast and robust carriers of information but their lack of mutual interactions hinders their use in quantum information protocols. Interactions can be mediated by nonlinear media, and optical nonlinearities at the single photon level are a long-standing goal of quantum optical science. By coherently coupling slowly propagating photons to Rydberg states in a dense cold atomic gas, we create a single-pass medium with large photon-photon interactions. We first demonstrate that combining electromagnetically induced transparency techniques with the Rydberg blockade effect leads to strong dissipative interactions between individual photons. As a result, the simultaneous propagation of photons is suppressed in an otherwise transparent medium, and coherent laser pulses are converted into single photons. We subsequently explore the regime of coherent interactions, where simultaneously propagating photons acquire a large conditional phase-shift and become entangled. In this regime, the photons behave as massive particles exerting an attractive force onto each other and their evolution is governed by the existence of a photonic bound-state. This work paves the way for cavity-free deterministic optical quantum gates and quantum many-body physics with light.

  11. Dynamical Nonlinear Interactions of Solids with Strong Terahertz Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirori, Hideki; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2016-08-01

    Table-top high-power terahertz (THz) pulse sources based on the femtosecond lasers are able to reveal fascinating nonlinear transport phenomena in materials and coherently drive low-energy transitions into the nonperturbative nonlinear regime. This article summarizes recent studies on THz nonlinear interactions with solid materials as follows. The tilted-pump-intensity-front scheme uses a LiNbO3 crystal to generate high-field single-cycle THz pulses with a 1 MV/cm amplitude. Such a high amplitude pulse can cause impact ionization in GaAs that excites electrons from the valence band to the conduction band, leading to exciton luminescence. A narrow-bandwidth THz pulse can be generated by using a chirped-pulse-beating method; this scheme has been used to show that resonant intraexcitonic excitation in GaAs induces a large Autler-Townes splitting. Moreover, nonlinear dynamics of magnetism can be studied by using a metallic split ring resonator to enhance the THz magnetic field.

  12. Generalized Mulliken-Hush analysis of electronic coupling interactions in compressed pi-stacked porphyrin-bridge-quinone systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jieru; Kang, Youn K; Therien, Michael J; Beratan, David N

    2005-08-17

    Donor-acceptor interactions were investigated in a series of unusually rigid, cofacially compressed pi-stacked porphyrin-bridge-quinone systems. The two-state generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) approach was used to compute the coupling matrix elements. The theoretical coupling values evaluated with the GMH method were obtained from configuration interaction calculations using the INDO/S method. The results of this analysis are consistent with the comparatively soft distance dependences observed for both the charge separation and charge recombination reactions. Theoretical studies of model structures indicate that the phenyl units dominate the mediation of the donor-acceptor coupling and that the relatively weak exponential decay of rate with distance arises from the compression of this pi-electron stack.

  13. A healable supramolecular polymer blend based on aromatic pi-pi stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Burattini, Stefano; Greenland, Barnaby W; Merino, Daniel Hermida; Weng, Wengui; Seppala, Jonathan; Colquhoun, Howard M; Hayes, Wayne; Mackay, Michael E; Hamley, Ian W; Rowan, Stuart J

    2010-09-01

    An elastomeric, healable, supramolecular polymer blend comprising a chain-folding polyimide and a telechelic polyurethane with pyrenyl end groups is compatibilized by aromatic pi-pi stacking between the pi-electron-deficient diimide groups and the pi-electron-rich pyrenyl units. This interpolymer interaction is the key to forming a tough, healable, elastomeric material. Variable-temperature FTIR analysis of the bulk material also conclusively demonstrates the presence of hydrogen bonding, which complements the pi-pi stacking interactions. Variable-temperature SAXS analysis shows that the healable polymeric blend has a nanophase-separated morphology and that the X-ray contrast between the two types of domain increases with increasing temperature, a feature that is repeatable over several heating and cooling cycles. A fractured sample of this material reproducibly regains more than 95% of the tensile modulus, 91% of the elongation to break, and 77% of the modulus of toughness of the pristine material.

  14. Nonlinear Interactions between Gravity Waves in Water of Constant Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmidt, Kazimierz; Hedzielski, Benedykt

    2015-06-01

    The paper deals with interactions between water waves propagating in fluid of constant depth. In formulation of this problem, a nonlinear character of these interactions is taken into account. In particular, in order to simplify a solution to nonlinear boundary conditions at the free surface, a system of material coordinates is employed as independent variables in the description of the phenomenon. The main attention is focused on the transient solutions corresponding to fluid motion starting from rest. With respect to the initial value problem considered, we confine our attention to a finite fluid domain. For a finite elapse of time, measured from the starting point, the solution in a finite fluid area mimics a solution within an infinite domain, inherent for wave propagation problems. Because of the complicated structure of equations describing nonlinear waves, an approximate formulation is considered, which is based on a power series expansion of dependent variables with respect to a small parameter. Such a solution is assumed to be accurate in describing the main features of the phenomenon. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the approximate formulation developed in this paper.

  15. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, Nicolas; Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Clerk, Aashish A.

    A key challenge limiting truly quantum behaviour in optomechanical systems is the typically small value of the optomechanical coupling at the single-photon, single-phonon level. We present an approach for exponentially enhancing the single-photon coupling strength in an optomechanical system using only additional linear resources. It allows one to reach the quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics, where nonlinear effects are observed at the single photon level, even if the bare coupling strength is much smaller than the mechanical frequency and cavity damping rate. Our method is based on using a large amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical setup, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities. Preprint: arXiv:1509.09238.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of specific DNA-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiputra, D.; Hidayat, W.; Khairani, R.; Zen, F. P.

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between DNA binding protein and specific base pairs of nucleic acid is critical for biological process. We propose a new model of DNA-protein interactions to depict the dynamics of specific DNA-protein interactions. Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) are, among the other intermolecular interactions in DNA, the most distinctive in term of specificity of molecular bonds. As H-bonds account for specificity, we only consider the dynamics affected by H-bonds between DNA base pairs and H-bonds connecting protein side chains and DNA. The H-bonds are modelled by Morse potentials and coupling terms in the Hamiltonian of coupled oscillators resembling a coupling between planar DNA chain and a protein molecule. In this paper we give a perturbative approach as an attempt for a soliton solution. The solution is in the form of nonlinear travelling wave having the amplitudes satisfying coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations and is interpreted as the mediator for nonlocal transmittance of biological information in DNA.

  17. The collapse of stacking fault tetrahedra by interactions with gliding dislocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukawa, Yoshitaka; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stocks, George Malcolm; Zinkle, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    The collapse of stacking-fault tetrahedra (SFT) by gliding dislocations was observed in in situ straining experiments in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A stacking-fault tetrahedron was collapsed by intersection with a gliding perfect dislocation: only the base portion divided by the gliding plane of the dislocation annihilated, while the apex portion remained intact. As a result of analysis on evolution of atom configuration induced by intersection with perfect dislocation in SFT, it was found that an unusual atom configuration inevitably appeared in one of the ledges formed on stacking-fault planes, which is traditionally called I-ledge: the atoms on adjacent (111) planes were overlapping each other. The overlapping configuration provides a strong repulsive force, being a conceivable driving force to induce a chain reaction of atom displacements that collapses the SFT base portion.

  18. Nonlinear Interaction of Detuned Instability Waves in Boundary-Layer Transition: Resonant-Triad Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The non-equilibrium critical-layer analysis of a system of frequency-detuned resonant-triads is presented using the generalized scaling of Lee. It is shown that resonant-triads can interact nonlinearly within the common critical layer when their (fundamental) Strouhal numbers are different by a factor whose magnitude is of the order of the growth rate multiplied by the wavenumber of the instability wave. Since the growth rates of the instability modes become larger and the critical layers become thicker as the instability waves propagate downstream, the frequency-detuned resonant-triads that grow independently of each other in the upstream region can interact nonlinearly in the later downstream stage. In the final stage of the non-equilibrium critical-layer evolution, a wide range of instability waves with the scaled frequencies differing by almost an Order of (l) can nonlinearly interact. Low-frequency modes are also generated by the nonlinear interaction between oblique waves in the critical layer. The system of partial differential critical-layer equations along with the jump equations are presented here. The amplitude equations with their numerical solutions are given in Part 2. The nonlinearly generated low-frequency components are also investigated in Part 2.

  19. Homeotropic alignment of the lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal Sunset Yellow FCF using pi-pi stacking chemical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Joonwoo; Han, Ganghee; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Lubensky, Tom C.; Collings, Peter J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the homeotropic alignment of the lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSY), using pi-pi stacking interactions between the SSY molecules and (1) thin parylene films or (2) a graphene monolayer. The nematic and columnar phases of SSY molecules arise via self-assembly in water into stacks through non-covalent attractions between the SSY molecules. Interestingly, we find that the same non-covalent interactions between SSY molecules and a parylene or graphene alignment layer lead to homeotropic anchoring of these stacks. The nematic phase of SSY is introduced between two glass substrates coated with parylene films or graphene monolayers, and homeotropic alignment of SSY is confirmed by polarized optical microscopy and conoscopy. Additionally, we observe and can explain the stripe domains that occur during cooling of the sample in this cell, and we consider possible novel applications for homeotropically aligned chromonic liquid crystals. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation through NSF DMR-1205463 and UPENN MRSEC DMR-1120901

  20. Nonlinear wave particle interaction in the Earth's foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelle, C.; LeQueau, D.; Meziane, K.; Lin, R. P.; Parks, G.; Reme, H.; Sanderson, T.; Lepping, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility that ion beams could provide a free energy source for driving an ion/ion instability responsible for the ULF wave occurrence is investigated. For this, the wave dispersion relation with the observed parameters is solved. Secondly, it is shown that the ring-like distributions could then be produced by a coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction. It tends to trap the ions into narrow cells in velocity space centered around a well-defined pitch-angle, directly related to the saturation wave amplitude in the analytical theory. The theoretical predictions with the observations are compared.

  1. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (PT) symmetric lasers

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Li; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the -symmetric and -broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system’s design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation against saturation nonlinearity in -symmetric lasers. PMID:27143324

  2. Nonlinear Interaction of the Solar Wind with Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, George; Yang, Zhongwei; Liu, Ying; Lee, Ensang; Lin, Naiguo; Fu, Suiyan; Cao, Jinbin; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis; Reme, Henri; Goldstein, Melvyn

    2014-05-01

    The bow shock is the best-known collisionless shocks in nature. We have known from early on that the solar wind (SW) interaction with the bow shock produces gyrating and reflected particles. Some of these particles travel back into the upstream region, perturb the oncoming SW, and excite a host of nonlinear structures including hot flow anomalies, foreshock cavities and density holes. We have examined these nonlinear structures using data from 2003 when the four Cluster satellites were in a string-of-pearl configuration. We find that the nonlinear structures are evolving as they are convected with the solar wind toward Earth producing many shock-like features similar to those at the bow shock. Full 1D PIC simulation has reproduced many of the features, but the simulation requirements are different from observations. For example, the simulation shows that directly transmitted SW occurs only when the Mach number is small (sub-critical shocks). However, observations show that SW particles can penetrate the bow shock even in super-critical perpendicular shocks. This talk will discuss the new observations and simulation results with emphasis on understanding the SW dissipation mechanisms across the bow shock.

  3. Nonlinear temporal interactions in click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Sarosh

    2000-10-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) may be reduced in amplitude by the presentation of ``suppressor'' clicks that either closely lead or follow the stimulus (``test'') clicks. This ``click suppression'' represents nonlinear temporal interaction between the test and suppressor clicks and/or the CEOAEs they evoke. Such suppression has not previously been studied in detail and the mechanisms giving rise to it are not understood. In particular, it is unclear whether click suppression may simply reflect the compressive nonlinearity of the CEOAE level function. It is also unclear whether the larger magnitude ``rate suppression'' observed in CEOAEs measured using streams of clicks at very high rates may be explained by a simple additive accumulation of click suppression. The present study addresses these questions by detailed measurement of this suppression phenomenon in 20 normal adult ears, and establishes that: (1)Maximum suppression is generally obtained for suppressors presented up to 4 ms in advance of test clicks, contrary to expectation. (2)Suppression by suppressors that lead test clicks does not simply reflect CEOAE level function nonlinearity. It may, instead, arise from disturbance of the generator elements from their resting state prior to generation of the CEOAE. (3)Suppression by following suppressors behaves markedly differently from that by leading suppressors, and appears more closely related to level function nonlinearity. (4)Contrary to previous suggestions, suppression for both leading and following suppressors is insensitive to polarities of test and suppressor clicks. (5)Suppression does not accumulate in a simple, additive manner as has previously been suggested. Consequently, a more complex mechanism underpins the greater magnitude of rate suppression. The parametric characterisation of click suppression presented may form the basis of models to explain this little-studied phenomenon. Further studies using tone bursts instead of clicks are

  4. Learning Petri net models of non-linear gene interactions.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Understanding how an individual's genetic make-up influences their risk of disease is a problem of paramount importance. Although machine-learning techniques are able to uncover the relationships between genotype and disease, the problem of automatically building the best biochemical model or "explanation" of the relationship has received less attention. In this paper, I describe a method based on random hill climbing that automatically builds Petri net models of non-linear (or multi-factorial) disease-causing gene-gene interactions. Petri nets are a suitable formalism for this problem, because they are used to model concurrent, dynamic processes analogous to biochemical reaction networks. I show that this method is routinely able to identify perfect Petri net models for three disease-causing gene-gene interactions recently reported in the literature.

  5. Nonlinear wave interactions in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimachkov, D. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The rotating magnetohydrodynamic flows of a thin layer of astrophysical and space plasmas with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field are considered in the shallow water approximation. The presence of a vertical external magnetic field changes significantly the dynamics of wave processes in an astrophysical plasma, in contrast to a neutral fluid and a plasma layer in an external toroidal magnetic field. There are three-wave nonlinear interactions in the case under consideration. Using the asymptotic method of multiscale expansions, we have derived nonlinear equations for the interaction of wave packets: three magneto- Poincare waves, three magnetostrophic waves, two magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and two magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. The existence of decay instabilities and parametric amplification is predicted. We show that a magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, a magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, a magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and a magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. There are the following parametric amplification mechanisms: the parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, the parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, the amplification of a magneto-Poincare wave in the field of a magnetostrophic wave, and the amplification of a magnetostrophic wave in the field of a magneto-Poincare wave. The instability growth rates and parametric amplification factors have been found for the corresponding processes.

  6. Influence of carbonaceous particles on the interaction of coal combustion stack ash with organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tomkins, B.A.

    1986-03-01

    Stack ash samples were fractionated by aerodynamic size, and the largest particle size fraction was separated into constituent particle type subfractions. Comparison of the mineral, magnetic, and carbonaceous particles showed that coked coal is responsible for the sorptivity of the large particle size fraction for carbon-14 labeled benzo(a)pyrene ((/sup 14/C)BaP) and for low solvent extraction recoveries. Elevated levels of organic matter and surface area also are contributed by the carbonaceous particles. In contrast, solvent extraction recoveries of polar degradation products of (/sup 14/C)BaP are attributable more to the mineral and magnetic particles and to exposure of the ash to light and oxygen. Analysis of bulk ash samples may not fully reflect the true organic composition of stack ash. 27 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  7. Interactions of Nucleic Acid Bases with Temozolomide. Stacked, Perpendicular, and Coplanar Heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Kasende, Okuma Emile; Nziko, Vincent de Paul N; Scheiner, Steve

    2016-09-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) was paired with each of the five nucleic acid bases, and the potential energy surface searched for all minima, in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory and MP2 methods. Three types of arrangements were observed, with competitive stabilities. Coplanar H-bonding structures, reminiscent of Watson-Crick base pairs were typically the lowest in energy, albeit by a small amount. Also very stable were perpendicular arrangements that included one or more H-bonds. The two monomers were stacked approximately parallel to one another in the third category, some of which contained weak and distorted H-bonds. Dispersion was found to be a dominating attractive force, largest for the stacked structures, and smallest for the coplanar dimers.

  8. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening. PMID:27356623

  9. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R.; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening. PMID:27356623

  10. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R.; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-06-01

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening.

  11. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-06-30

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening.

  12. A look to nonlinear interacting Ghost dark energy cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we organize a look to nonlinear interacting Ghost dark energy cosmology involving a discussion on the thermodynamics of the Ghost dark energy, when the universe is bounded via the Hubble horizon. One of the ways to study a dark energy model, is to reconstruct thermodynamics of it. Ghost dark energy is one of the models of the dark energy which has an explicitly given energy density as a function of the Hubble parameter. There is an active discussion towards various cosmological scenarios, where the Ghost dark energy interacts with the pressureless cold dark matter (CDM). Recently, various models of the varying Ghost dark energy has been suggested, too. To have a comprehensive understanding of suggested models, we will discuss behavior of the cosmological parameters on parameter-redshift z plane. Some discussion on Om and statefinder hierarchy analysis of these models is presented. Moreover, up to our knowledge, suggested forms of interaction between the Ghost dark energy and cold dark matter (CDM) are new, therefore, within obtained results, we provide new contribution to previously discussed models available in the literature. Our study demonstrates that the forms of the interactions considered in the Ghost dark energy cosmology are not exotic and the justification of this is due to the recent observational data.

  13. Nonlinear interactions in electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saintillan, David

    2008-06-01

    In the classical analysis of electrophoresis, particle motion is a consequence of the interfacial fluid slip that arises inside the ionic charge cloud (or Debye screening layer) surrounding the particle surface when an external field is applied. Under the assumptions of thin Debye layers, weak applied fields, and zero polarizability, it can be shown that the electrophoretic velocity of a collection of particles with identical zeta potential is the same as that of an isolated particle, unchanged by interactions [L. D. Reed and F. A. Morrison, "Hydrodynamic interaction in electrophoresis," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 54, 117 (1976)]. When some of these assumptions are relaxed, nonlinear effects may also arise and result in relative motions. First, the perturbation of the external field around the particles creates field gradients, which may result in nonzero dielectrophoretic forces due to Maxwell stresses in the fluid. In addition, if the particles are able to polarize, they can acquire a nonuniform surface charge, and the action of the field on the dipolar charge clouds surrounding them drives disturbance flows in the fluid, causing relative motions by induced-charge electrophoresis. These two nonlinear effects are analyzed in detail in the prototypical case of two equal-sized ideally polarizable spheres carrying no net charge, using accurate boundary-element simulations, along with asymptotic calculations by the method of twin multipole expansions and the method of reflections. It is found that both types of interactions result in significant relative motions and can be either attractive or repulsive depending on the configuration of the spheres.

  14. Cation-π and π-π stacking interactions allow selective inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase by modified quinine and cinchonidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Sarfraz A; Ayaz, Muhammad; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Westermann, Bernhard

    2011-01-28

    Scaffold varied quaternized quinine and cinchonidine alkaloid derivatives were evaluated for their selective butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory potential. K(i) values were between 0.4-260.5μM (non-competitive inhibition) while corresponding K(i)values to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) ranged from 7.0-400μM exhibiting a 250-fold selectivity for BChE. Docking arrangements (GOLD, PLANT) revealed that the extended aromatic moieties and the quaternized nitrogen of the inhibitors were responsible for specific π-π stacking and π-cation interactions with the choline binding site and the peripheral anionic site of BChE's active site.

  15. On a class of nonlinear dispersive-dissipative interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenau, P.

    1997-07-29

    The authors study the prototypical, genuinely nonlinear, equation; u{sub t} + a(u{sup m}){sub x} + (u{sup n}){sub xxx} = {mu}(u{sup k}){sub xx}, a, {mu} = consts., which encompasses a wide variety of dissipative-dispersive interactions. The parametric surface k = (m + n)/2 separates diffusion dominated from dissipation dominated phenomena. On this surface dissipative and dispersive effects are in detailed balance for all amplitudes. In particular, the m = n + 2 = k + 1 subclass can be transformed into a form free of convection and dissipation making it accessible to theoretical studies. Both bounded and unbounded oscillations are found and certain exact solutions are presented. When a = (2{mu}3/){sup 2} the map yields a linear equation; rational, periodic and aperiodic solutions are constructed.

  16. Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, Thomas James; Bliss, David E.; Campbell, Edward Michael; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Kimmel, Mark W.; et al

    2016-03-04

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. Although magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Ultimately, nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Wemore » determine and discuss key LPI processes and mitigation methods. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.« less

  17. Nonlinear laser-plasma interaction in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, T. J.; Bliss, D. E.; Campbell, M. E.; Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C.; Kimmel, M. W.; Knapp, P.; Lewis, S. M.; McBride, R. D.; Peterson, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Scoglietti, D. J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Vesey, R. A.; Porter, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. While magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Key LPI processes are determined, and mitigation methods are discussed. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.

  18. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutova, Mariia; Zhdanova, Alexandra; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    Optical vortices find their use in multiple areas of research and technology; in particular, they provide an opportunity to generate short-pulse spatially-structured optical beams, which can be used to study ultrafast processes. In our work, we explore interactions of femtosecond optical vortices in nonlinear crystals. We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple (applied and generated) beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape the applied pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We then examine the transfer of optical angular momentum into each sideband and find that it follows a certain law that can be derived from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for the interacting beams. Presenter is supported by the Herman F. Heep and Minnie Belle Heep Texas A&M University Endowed Fund administered by the Texas A&M Foundation

  19. Interaction of small mobile stacking fault tetrahedra with free surfaces, dislocations, and interfaces in Cu and Cu-Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Enrique; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2016-02-01

    The presence of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) in face-centered-cubic metals substantially modifies the material response to external loading. These defects are extremely stable with increasing energetic stability as they grow in size. At the sizes visible within a transmission electron microscope, they appear nearly immobile. We have recently shown that these defects might indeed migrate, with defective SFTs exhibiting particularly high mobilities. In this paper, using molecular dynamics, we show how mobile SFTs interact with various types of extended defects, including free surfaces, dislocations, and interfaces in Cu and Cu-Nb systems. We observe a direct relation between the energetics of a single vacancy interacting with each external defect and the propensity for the SFT to be absorbed. Finally, using mesoscale modeling, we show how the fact that SFTs can migrate influences the system evolution and potentially important observables of interest such as the void denuded zones around defect sinks.

  20. Identifying diamagnetic interactions in scattering and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Kayn A.; Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L.

    2016-09-01

    In the generic formulation of optical interactions there is, beyond the familiar electric and magnetic multipolar forms of coupling, an additional diamagnetization term that rarely receives attention. In fact it can give rise to effects that should be observable in the general context of nonlinear optical spectroscopy, as well as scattering. A quantum electrodynamical analysis reveals features of special interest in two specific cases: two-photon absorption and Rayleigh scattering. Diamagnetic contributions are seen to be dispersion free with regards to the frequency of input radiation, and can represent unique interactions within optical absorption and emission processes. There is also a configuration in which diamagnetic couplings, which are quadratic in the magnetic field, can supersede those that are dependent linearly on the electric field strength, such as the electric dipole. In this connection the influence of retroreflected circularly polarized light, which leads to a local distance dependence in magnitude of the electromagnetic fields, produces conditions in which the diamagnetization response can become a prominent feature in two-photon absorption.

  1. Interaction of Oblique Instability Waves with a Nonlinear Plane Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wundrow, David W.; Hultgren, Lennart S.; Goldstein, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the downstream evolution of a resonant triad of initially non-interacting linear Instability waves in a boundary layer with a weak adverse pressure gradient. The triad consists of a two-dimensional fundamental mode and a pair of equal-amplitude oblique modes that form a subharmonic standing wave in the spanwise direction. The growth rates are small and there is a well-defined common critical layer for these waves. As in Goldstein & Lee (1992), the wave interaction takes place entirely within this critical layer and is initially of the parametric-resonance type. This enhances the spatial growth rate of the subharmonic but does not affect that of the fundamental. However, in contrast to Goldstein & Lee (1992), the initial subharmonic amplitude is assumed to be small enough so that the fundamental can become nonlinear within its own critical layer before it is affected by the subharmonic. The subharmonic evolution is then dominated by the parametric-resonance effects and occurs on a much shorter streamwise scale than that of the fundamental. The subharmonic amplitude continues to increase during this parametric-resonance stage - even as the growth rate of the fundamental approaches zero - and the subharmonic eventually becomes large enough to influence the fundamental which causes both waves to evolve on the same shorter streamwise scale.

  2. Nonlinear neutrino-photon interactions inside strong laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino

    2015-06-01

    Even though neutrinos are neutral particles and interact only via the exchange of weak gauge bosons, charged leptons and quarks can mediate a coupling to the photon field beyond tree level. Inside a relativistically strong laser field nonlinear effects in the laser amplitude can play an important role, as electrons and positrons interact nonperturbatively with the coherent part of the photon field. Here, we calculate for the first time the leading-order contribution to the axial-vector-vector current-coupling tensor inside an arbitrary plane-wave laser field (which is taken into account exactly by employing the Furry picture). The current-coupling tensor appears in the calculation of various electroweak processes inside strong laser fields like photon emission or trident electron-positron pair production by a neutrino. Moreover, as we will see below, the axial-vector-vector current-coupling tensor contains the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly. This occurrence renders the current-coupling tensor also interesting from a fundamental point of view, as it is the simplest Feynman diagram in an external field featuring this kind of anomaly.

  3. Stacking interactions in RNA and DNA: Roll-slide energy hyperspace for ten unique dinucleotide steps.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kailasam, Senthilkumar; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2015-03-01

    Understanding dinucleotide sequence directed structures of nuleic acids and their variability from experimental observation remained ineffective due to unavailability of statistically meaningful data. We have attempted to understand this from energy scan along twist, roll, and slide degrees of freedom which are mostly dependent on dinucleotide sequence using ab initio density functional theory. We have carried out stacking energy analysis in these dinucleotide parameter phase space for all ten unique dinucleotide steps in DNA and RNA using DFT-D by ωB97X-D/6-31G(2d,2p), which appears to satisfactorily explain conformational preferences for AU/AU step in our recent study. We show that values of roll, slide, and twist of most of the dinucleotide sequences in crystal structures fall in the low energy region. The minimum energy regions with large twist values are associated with the roll and slide values of B-DNA, whereas, smaller twist values correspond to higher stability to RNA and A-DNA like conformations. Incorporation of solvent effect by CPCM method could explain the preference shown by some sequences to occur in B-DNA or A-DNA conformations. Conformational preference of BII sub-state in B-DNA is preferentially displayed mainly by pyrimidine-purine steps and partly by purine-purine steps. The purine-pyrimidine steps show largest effect of 5-methyl group of thymine in stacking energy and the introduction of solvent reduces this effect significantly. These predicted structures and variabilities can explain the effect of sequence on DNA and RNA functionality.

  4. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-20

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO{sub 2} through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  5. Evidence of π-stacking Interactions in the Self-Assembly of hIAPP22–29†

    PubMed Central

    Profit, Adam A.; Felsen, Valentina; Chinwong, Justina; Mojica, Elmer-Rico E.; Desamero, Ruel Z. B.

    2012-01-01

    The role aromatic amino acids play in the formation of amyloid is a subject of controversy. In an effort to clarify the contribution of aromaticity to the self-assembly of hIAPP22–29, peptide analogs containing electron donating groups (EDGs) or electron withdrawing groups (EWGs) as substituents on the aromatic ring of Phe-23 at the para position have been synthesized and characterized using turbidity measurements in conjunction with Raman, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results indicate the incorporation of EDGs on the aromatic ring of Phe-23 virtually abolish the ability of hIAPP22–29 to form amyloid. Peptides containing EWGs were still capable of forming aggregates. These aggregates were found to be rich in β-sheet secondary structure. TEM images of the aggregates confirm the presence of amyloid fibrils. The observed difference in amyloidogenic propensity between peptides containing EDGs and those with EWGs appears not to be based on differences in peptide hydrophobicity. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the environment surrounding the aromatic ring becomes more hydrophobic and ordered upon aggregation. Furthermore, Raman measurements of peptide analogs containing EWGs, conclusively demonstrate a distinct downshift in the -C=C- ring mode (ca. 1600 cm−1) upon aggregation that has previously been shown to be indicative of π-stacking. While previous work has demonstrated that π-stacking is not an absolute requirement for fibrillization, our findings indicate that Phe-23 also contributes to fibril formation through π-stacking interactions and that it is not only the hydrophobic nature of this residue that is relevant in the self-assembly of hIAPP22–29. PMID:23229921

  6. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  7. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE PAGES

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  8. Comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations of the stacking fault tetrahedron interacting with a mixed dislocation at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haidong; Wang, Qingyuan; Ouyang, Chaojun

    2015-10-01

    The defect-free channels were frequently observed in irradiated materials, i.e. copper, as a result of the stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) interactions with dislocations. However, the underlying mechanisms for this process are still unclear to date. To address them, a comprehensive study on the interactions between SFTs and mixed dislocations was performed using molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, eight interaction geometries were considered, in terms of the dislocation Burgers vector directions, dislocation gliding directions and intersection positions on SFT. Various interaction outcomes were revealed after dislocation detachment. (1) SFT is fully absorbed through the transformation into Lomer dislocations, and subsequently moves out of free surfaces along the dislocation. (2) SFT is partially absorbed with the absorbed SFT base moving out of free surfaces along the dislocation. (3) SFT is not absorbed but sheared with ledges left on the SFT faces. (4) SFT is unaffected by the mixed dislocation. The current simulations, especially the full SFT absorption, provide important insights into the forming mechanisms of defect-free channels in irradiated materials.

  9. Nonlinear modal interactions in clamped-clamped mechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Westra, H J R; Poot, M; van der Zant, H S J; Venstra, W J

    2010-09-10

    A theoretical and experimental investigation is presented on the intermodal coupling between the flexural vibration modes of a single clamped-clamped beam. Nonlinear coupling allows an arbitrary flexural mode to be used as a self-detector for the amplitude of another mode, presenting a method to measure the energy stored in a specific resonance mode. The observed complex nonlinear dynamics are quantitatively captured by a model based on coupling of the modes via the beam extension; the same mechanism is responsible for the well-known Duffing nonlinearity in clamped-clamped beams. PMID:20867605

  10. Near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in channel flow: Nonlinear interaction and focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between planar or near-planar Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices, induced or input, is considered theoretically for channel flows at high Reynolds numbers. Several kinds of nonlinear interaction, dependent on the input amplitudes and wavenumbers or on previously occurring interactions, are found and inter-related. The first, Type 1, is studied the most here and it usually produces spanwise focusing of both the wave and the vortex motion, within a finite scaled time, along with enhancement of both their amplitudes. This then points to the nonlinear interaction Type 2 where new interactive effects come into force to drive the wave and the vortex nonlinearly. Types 3, 4 correspond to still higher amplitudes, with 3 being related to 2, while 4 is connected with a larger-scale interaction 5 studied in an allied paper. Both 3, 4 are subsets of the full three-dimensional triple-deck-lie interaction, 6. The strongest nonlinear interactions are those of 4, 5, 6 since they alter the mean-flow profile substantially, i.e., by an 0(1) relative amount. All the types of nonlinear interaction however can result in the formation of focussed responses in the sense of spanwise concentrations and/or amplifications of vorticity and wave amplitude.

  11. Near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in channel flow - Nonlinear interaction and focussing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Smith, Frank T.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between planar or near-planar Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices, induced or input, is considered theoretically for channel flows at high Reynolds numbers. Several kinds of nonlinear interaction, dependent on the input amplitudes and wavenumbers or on previously occurring interactions, are found and inter-related. The first, Type 1, is studied the most here and it usually produces spanwise focusing of both the wave and the vortex motion, within a finite scaled time, along with enhancement of both their amplitudes. This then points to the nonlinear interaction Type 2 where new interactive effects come into force to drive the wave and the vortex nonlinearly. Types 3, 4 correspond to still higher amplitudes, with 3 being related to 2, while 4 is connected with a larger-scale interaction 5 studied in an allied paper. Both 3, 4 are subsets of the full three-dimensional triple-deck-lie interaction, 6. The strongest nonlinear interactions are those of 4, 5, 6 since they alter the mean-flow profile substantially, i.e., by an O(1) relative amount. All the types of nonlinear interaction, however, can result in the formation of focused responses in the sense of spanwise concentrations and/or amplifications of vorticity and wave amplitude.

  12. Nonlinear interaction of near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in boundary-layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions that evolve between a planar or nearly planar Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave and the associated longitudinal vortices are considered theoretically for a boundary layer at high Reynolds number. The vortex flow is either induced by the TS nonlinear forcing or is input upstream, and similarly for the nonlinear wave development. Three major kinds of nonlinear spatial evolution, Types 1-3, are found. Each can start from secondary instability and then become nonlinear, Type 1 proving to be relatively benign but able to act as a pre-cursor to the Types 2, 3 which turn out to be very powerful nonlinear interactions. Type 2 involves faster stream-wise dependence and leads to a finite-distance blow-up in the amplitudes, which then triggers the full nonlinear 3-D triple-deck response, thus entirely altering the mean-flow profile locally. In contrast, Type 3 involves slower streamwise dependence but a faster spanwise response, with a small TS amplitude thereby causing an enhanced vortex effect which, again, is substantial enough to entirely alter the meanflow profile, on a more global scale. Streak-like formations in which there is localized concentration of streamwise vorticity and/or wave amplitude can appear, and certain of the nonlinear features also suggest by-pass processes for transition and significant changes in the flow structure downstream. The powerful nonlinear 3-D interactions 2, 3 are potentially very relevant to experimental findings in transition.

  13. Simultaneous observations of aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. C.; Ramana, M. V.; Corrigan, C.; Kim, D.; Ramanathan, V.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as −60 W m−2 per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol–cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

  14. Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G C; Ramana, M V; Corrigan, C; Kim, D; Ramanathan, V

    2008-05-27

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds.

  15. Conformational Preferences of π-π Stacking Between Ligand and Protein, Analysis Derived from Crystal Structure Data Geometric Preference of π-π Interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jue; Gu, Hui; Wei, Dongqing; Xu, Yao-Chang; Fu, Wei; Yu, Zhengtian

    2015-09-01

    π-π Interaction is a direct attractive non-covalent interaction between aromatic moieties, playing an important role in DNA stabilization, drug intercalation, etc. Aromatic rings interact through several different conformations including face-to-face, T-shaped, and offset stacked conformation. Previous quantum calculations indicated that T-shaped and offset stacked conformations are preferred for their smaller electron repulsions. However, substitution group on aromatic ring could have a great impact on π-π interaction by changing electron repulsion force between two rings. To investigate π-π interaction between ligand and aromatic side chain of protein, Brookhaven Protein Data Bank was analyzed. We extracted isolated dimer pairs with the aim of excluding multiple π-π stacking effects and found that T-shaped conformation is prevalent among aromatic interaction between phenyl ring of ligand and protein, which corresponds with the phenomenon of Phe-Phe interactions in small peptide. Specifically, for the non-substitution model, both Phe-Phe and Phenyl-Phe exhibit a favored T-shaped conformation whose dihedral angle is around 50°-70° and centroid distance is between 5.0 and 5.6 Å. However, it could be changed by substituent effect. The hydroxyl group could contact in the case of Tyr-Tyr pairs, while they point away from phenyl plane in Phe-Tyr pairs.

  16. Nonlinear interactions in mixing layers and compressible heated round jets. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrah, Yousef Mohd

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions between a fundamental instability mode and both its harmonics and the changing mean flow are studied using the weakly nonlinear stability theory of Stuart and Watson, and numerical solutions of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The first part focuses on incompressible cold (or isothermal; constant temperature throughout) mixing layers, and for these, the first and second Landau constants are calculated as functions of wavenumber and Reynolds number. It is found that the dominant contribution to the Landau constants arises from the mean flow changes and not from the higher harmonics. In order to establish the range of validity of the weakly nonlinear theory, the weakly nonlinear and numerical solutions are compared and the limitation of each is discussed. At small amplitudes and at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, the two results compare well in describing the saturation of the fundamental, the distortion of the mean flow, and the initial stages of vorticity roll-up. At larger amplitudes, the interaction between the fundamental, second harmonic, and the mean flow is strongly nonlinear and the numerical solution predicts flow oscillations, whereas the weakly nonlinear theory yields saturation. In the second part, the weakly nonlinear theory is extended to heated (or nonisothermal; mean temperature distribution) subsonic round jets where quadratic and cubic nonlinear interactions are present, and the Landau constants also depend on jet temperature ratio, Mach number and azimuthal mode number. Under exponential growth and nonlinear saturation, it is found that heating and compressibility suppress the growth of instability waves, that the first azimuthal mode is the dominant instability mode, and that the weakly nonlinear solution describes the early stages of the roll-up of an axisymmetric shear layer. The receptivity of a typical jet flow to pulse type input disturbance is also studied by solving the initial value problem

  17. Effect of stacking interactions on the thermodynamics and kinetics of lumiflavin: a study with improved density functionals and density functional tight-binding protocol.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Caitlin G; Reinhardt, Clorice R; Bartholow, Thomas G; Rumpel, John P; North, Michael; Bhattacharyya, Sudeep

    2015-01-01

    The π-π stacking interaction between lumiflavin and a number of π-electron-rich molecules has been studied by density functional theory using several new-generation density functionals. Six known lumiflavin-aromatic adducts were used and the models were evaluated by comparing the geometry and energetics with experimental results. The study found that dispersion-corrected and hybrid functionals with larger (>50%) Hartree-Fock exchanges produced superior results in modeling thermodynamic characteristics of these complexes. The functional producing the best energetics for these model systems was used to study the stacking interactions of lumiflavin with biologically relevant aromatic groups. Additionally, the reduction of flavin-in the presence of both a hydride donor and a nondonor π-electronic system was also studied. Weak interactions were observed in the stacked lumiflavin complexes of benzene, phenol, and indole, mimicking phenyl alanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine side chains, respectively, of an enzyme. The stacked complex of naphthalene and flavin showed little change in flavin's redox potential indicating insignificant effect on the thermodynamics of the hydride transfer reaction. In contrast, the hydride transfer reaction with the hydride donor N-methyl nicotinamide tells a different story, as the transition state was found to be strongly impacted by the stacking interactions. A comparison of performance between the density functional theory (DFT) and the computationally less expensive dispersion-corrected self-consistent density functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB-D) theory revealed that the latter produces consistent energetics for this hydride transfer reaction and additional DFT-computed perturbative corrections could significantly improve these results.

  18. Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing.

    PubMed

    Berger, Or; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Grunwald, Assaf; Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bachar, Mor; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Mossou, Estelle; Forsyth, V Trevor; Schwartz, Tal; Ebenstein, Yuval; Frolow, Felix; Shimon, Linda J W; Patolsky, Fernando; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-04-01

    The two main branches of bionanotechnology involve the self-assembly of either peptides or DNA. Peptide scaffolds offer chemical versatility, architectural flexibility and structural complexity, but they lack the precise base pairing and molecular recognition available with nucleic acid assemblies. Here, inspired by the ability of aromatic dipeptides to form ordered nanostructures with unique physical properties, we explore the assembly of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), which are short DNA mimics that have an amide backbone. All 16 combinations of the very short di-PNA building blocks were synthesized and assayed for their ability to self-associate. Only three guanine-containing di-PNAs-CG, GC and GG-could form ordered assemblies, as observed by electron microscopy, and these di-PNAs efficiently assembled into discrete architectures within a few minutes. The X-ray crystal structure of the GC di-PNA showed the occurrence of both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing. The assemblies were also found to exhibit optical properties including voltage-dependent electroluminescence and wide-range excitation-dependent fluorescence in the visible region.

  19. Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Or; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Grunwald, Assaf; Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bachar, Mor; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Mossou, Estelle; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Schwartz, Tal; Ebenstein, Yuval; Frolow, Felix; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Patolsky, Fernando; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-05-01

    The two main branches of bionanotechnology involve the self-assembly of either peptides or DNA. Peptide scaffolds offer chemical versatility, architectural flexibility and structural complexity, but they lack the precise base pairing and molecular recognition available with nucleic acid assemblies. Here, inspired by the ability of aromatic dipeptides to form ordered nanostructures with unique physical properties, we explore the assembly of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), which are short DNA mimics that have an amide backbone. All 16 combinations of the very short di-PNA building blocks were synthesized and assayed for their ability to self-associate. Only three guanine-containing di-PNAs—CG, GC and GG—could form ordered assemblies, as observed by electron microscopy, and these di-PNAs efficiently assembled into discrete architectures within a few minutes. The X-ray crystal structure of the GC di-PNA showed the occurrence of both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing. The assemblies were also found to exhibit optical properties including voltage-dependent electroluminescence and wide-range excitation-dependent fluorescence in the visible region.

  20. Energetic salts with π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions lead the way to future energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Zhang, Qinghua; Vo, Thao T; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-02-01

    Among energetic materials, there are two significant challenges facing researchers: 1) to develop ionic CHNO explosives with higher densities than their parent nonionic molecules and (2) to achieve a fine balance between high detonation performance and low sensitivity. We report a surprising energetic salt, hydroxylammonium 3-dinitromethanide-1,2,4-triazolone, that exhibits exceptional properties, viz., higher density, superior detonation performance, and improved thermal, impact, and friction stabilities, then those of its precursor, 3-dinitromethyl-1,2,4-triazolone. The solid-state structure features of the new energetic salt were investigated with X-ray diffraction which showed π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions that contribute to closer packing and higher density. According to the experimental results and theoretical analysis, the newly designed energetic salt also gives rise to a workable compromise in high detonation properties and desirable stabilities. These findings will enhance the future prospects for rational energetic materials design and commence a new chapter in this field.

  1. Loss of DNA polymerase beta stacking interactions with templating purines, but not pyrimidines, alters catalytic efficiency and fidelity.

    PubMed

    Beard, William A; Shock, David D; Yang, Xiao-Ping; DeLauder, Saundra F; Wilson, Samuel H

    2002-03-01

    Structures of DNA polymerases bound with DNA reveal that the 5'-trajectory of the template strand is dramatically altered as it exits the polymerase active site. This distortion provides the polymerase access to the nascent base pair to interrogate proper Watson-Crick geometry. Upon binding a correct deoxynucleoside triphosphate, alpha-helix N of DNA polymerase beta is observed to form one face of the binding pocket for the new base pair. Asp-276 and Lys-280 stack with the bases of the incoming nucleotide and template, respectively. To determine the role of Lys-280, site-directed mutants were constructed at this position, and the proteins were expressed and purified, and their catalytic efficiency and fidelity were assessed. The catalytic efficiency for single-nucleotide gap filling with the glycine mutant (K280G) was strongly diminished relative to wild type for templating purines (>15-fold) due to a decreased binding affinity for the incoming nucleotide. In contrast, catalytic efficiency was hardly affected by glycine substitution for templating pyrimidines (<4-fold). The fidelity of the glycine mutant was identical to the wild type enzyme for misinsertion opposite a template thymidine, whereas the fidelity of misinsertion opposite a template guanine was modestly altered. The nature of the Lys-280 side-chain substitution for thymidine triphosphate insertion (templating adenine) indicates that Lys-280 "stabilizes" templating purines through van der Waals interactions. PMID:11756435

  2. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-08

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  3. Effect of second order signal-noise interactions in nonlinearity compensated optical transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Mohammad A Z; McCarthy, Mary; Sánchez, Christian; Ellis, Andrew

    2016-04-15

    In this Letter, we theoretically and numerically analyze the performance of coherent optical transmission systems that deploy inline or transceiver based nonlinearity compensation techniques. For systems where signal-signal nonlinear interactions are fully compensated, we find that beyond the performance peak the signal-to-noise ratio degradation has a slope of 3 dBSNR/dBPower suggesting a quartic rather than quadratic dependence on signal power. This is directly related to the fact that signals in a given span will interact not only with linear amplified spontaneous emission noise, but also with the nonlinear four-wave mixing products generated from signal-noise interaction in previous (hitherto) uncompensated spans. The performance of optical systems employing different nonlinearity compensation schemes were numerically simulated and compared against analytical predictions, showing a good agreement within a 0.4 dB margin of error. PMID:27082361

  4. Testing non-linearity and directedness of interactions between neural groups in the macaque inferotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, W A; Valdes, P; Bosch, J; Biscay, R; Jimenez, J C; Rodriguez, L M; Rodriguez, V; Kreiter, A K; Singer, W

    1999-12-15

    Information processing in the visual cortex depends on complex and context sensitive patterns of interactions between neuronal groups in many different cortical areas. Methods used to date for disentangling this functional connectivity presuppose either linearity or instantaneous interactions, assumptions that are not necessarily valid. In this paper a general framework that encompasses both linear and non-linear modelling of neurophysiological time series data by means of Local Linear Non-linear Autoregressive models (LLNAR) is described. Within this framework a new test for non-linearity of time series and for non-linearity of directedness of neural interactions based on LLNAR is presented. These tests assess the relative goodness of fit of linear versus non-linear models via the bootstrap technique. Additionally, a generalised definition of Granger causality is presented based on LLNAR that is valid for both linear and non-linear systems. Finally, the use of LLNAR for measuring non-linearity and directional influences is illustrated using artificial data, reference data as well as local field potentials (LFPs) from macaque area TE. LFP data is well described by the linear variant of LLNAR. Models of this sort, including lagged values of the preceding 25 to 60 ms, revealed the existence of both uni- and bi-directional influences between recording sites.

  5. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E {times} B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics.

  6. Nonlinear interaction of drift waves with driven plasma currents

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Christian; Grulke, Olaf; Klinger, Thomas

    2010-03-15

    In a cylindrical magnetized plasma, coherent drift wave modes are synchronized by a mode selective drive of plasma currents. Nonlinear effects of the synchronization are investigated in detail. Frequency pulling is observed over a certain frequency range. The dependence of the width of this synchronization range on the amplitude of the driven plasma currents forms Arnold tongues. The transition between complete and incomplete synchronization is indicated by the onset of periodic pulling and phase slippage. Synchronization is observed for driven current amplitudes, which are some percent of the typical value of parallel currents generated by drift waves.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Long-Range Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wunner, G.; Cartarius, H.; Fabcic, T.; Koeberle, P.; Main, J.; Schwidder, T.

    2008-11-13

    The motto of this paper is: Let's face Bose-Einstein condensation through nonlinear dynamics. We do this by choosing variational forms of the condensate wave functions (of given symmetry classes), which convert the Bose-Einstein condensates via the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation into Hamiltonian systems that can be studied using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. We consider in particular cold quantum gases where long-range interactions between the neutral atoms are present, in addition to the conventional short-range contact interaction, viz. gravity-like interactions, and dipole-dipole interactions. The results obtained serve as a useful guide in the search for nonlinear dynamics effects in numerically exact quantum calculations for Bose-Einstein condensates. A main result is the prediction of the existence of stable islands as well as chaotic regions for excited states of dipolar condensates, which could be checked experimentally.

  8. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

  9. Nonlinear interaction of ultrasonic waves with a crack of different orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanloeuil, P.; Meziane, A.; Bacon, C.

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction of shear waves with a crack of different orientations is presented. A Finite Element model is proposed to obtain the evolution of the generated nonlinearity when the orientation of the crack changes. The crack is modeled by an interface of unilateral contact with Coulomb's friction. These contact laws are modified in order to take into account a pre-stress σ0 that closes the crack. Finally, the evolution of the higher harmonics is obtained and is related to the nonlinear contact behavior of the crack.

  10. Stacked and H-Bonded Cytosine Dimers. Analysis of the Intermolecular Interaction Energies by Parallel Quantum Chemistry and Polarizable Molecular Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Gresh, Nohad; Sponer, Judit E; Devereux, Mike; Gkionis, Konstantinos; de Courcy, Benoit; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Sponer, Jiri

    2015-07-30

    Until now, atomistic simulations of DNA and RNA and their complexes have been executed using well calibrated but conceptually simple pair-additive empirical potentials (force fields). Although such simulations provided many valuable results, it is well established that simple force fields also introduce errors into the description, underlying the need for development of alternative anisotropic, polarizable molecular mechanics (APMM) potentials. One of the most abundant forces in all kinds of nucleic acids topologies is base stacking. Intra- and interstrand stacking is assumed to be the most essential factor affecting local conformational variations of B-DNA. However, stacking also contributes to formation of all kinds of noncanonical nucleic acids structures, such as quadruplexes or folded RNAs. The present study focuses on 14 stacked cytosine (Cyt) dimers and the doubly H-bonded dimer. We evaluate the extent to which an APMM procedure, SIBFA, could account quantitatively for the results of high-level quantum chemistry (QC) on the total interaction energies, and the individual energy contributions and their nonisotropic behaviors. Good agreements are found at both uncorrelated HF and correlated DFT and CCSD(T) levels. Resorting in SIBFA to distributed QC multipoles and to an explicit representation of the lone pairs is essential to respectively account for the anisotropies of the Coulomb and of the exchange-repulsion QC contributions.

  11. Chaotic saddles in nonlinear modulational interactions in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, Rodrigo A.; Rempel, Erico L.; Chian, Abraham C.-L.

    2012-11-15

    A nonlinear model of modulational processes in the subsonic regime involving a linearly unstable wave and two linearly damped waves with different damping rates in a plasma is studied numerically. We compute the maximum Lyapunov exponent as a function of the damping rates in a two-parameter space, and identify shrimp-shaped self-similar structures in the parameter space. By varying the damping rate of the low-frequency wave, we construct bifurcation diagrams and focus on a saddle-node bifurcation and an interior crisis associated with a periodic window. We detect chaotic saddles and their stable and unstable manifolds, and demonstrate how the connection between two chaotic saddles via coupling unstable periodic orbits can result in a crisis-induced intermittency. The relevance of this work for the understanding of modulational processes observed in plasmas and fluids is discussed.

  12. Interaction dynamics in small networks of nonlinear elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, Michael; Velarde, Manuel G.

    2015-03-01

    We study a small circuit of coupled nonlinear elements to investigate general features of signal transmission through networks. The small circuit itself is perceived as building block for larger networks. Individual dynamics and coupling are motivated by neuronal systems: We consider two types of dynamical modes for an individual element, regular spiking and chattering and each individual element can receive excitatory and/or inhibitory inputs and is subjected to different feedback types (excitatory and inhibitory; forward and recurrent). Both, deterministic and stochastic simulations are carried out to study the input-output relationships of these networks. Major results for regular spiking elements include frequency locking, spike rate amplification for strong synaptic coupling, and inhibition-induced spike rate control which can be interpreted as a output frequency rectification. For chattering elements, spike rate amplification for low frequencies and silencing for large frequencies is characteristic.

  13. Nonlinear and linear bottom interaction effects in shallow water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemdin, O.; Hsiao, S. V.; Hasselmann, K.; Herterich, K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines wave-energy dissipation rates in shallow water calculated from measured wave spectra at different distances from the shore. Different linear and nonlinear transfer and dissipation mechanisms are discussed. The various data sets are interpreted in terms of prevailing mechanisms at the respective sites. The incorporation of different processes in a predictive shallow-water model is outlined. The analysis suggests that bottom motion is primarily responsible for wave-energy dissipation in the Delta Region of the Gulf of Mexico, that friction is mainly responsible for wave-energy dissipation in Marineland, Panama City and Melkbosstrand, and that percolation is probably the dominant mechanism in the JONSWAP area of the North Sea.

  14. Suppression of Nonlinear Interactions in Resonant Macroscopic Quantum Devices: The Example of the Solid-State Ring Laser Gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Gutty, Francois; Bouyer, Philippe

    2008-05-09

    We report fine-tuning of nonlinear interactions in a solid-state ring laser gyroscope by vibrating the gain medium along the cavity axis. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that nonlinear interactions vanish for some values of the vibration parameters, leading to quasi-ideal rotation sensing. We eventually point out that our conclusions can be mapped onto other subfields of physics such as ring-shaped superfluid configurations, where nonlinear interactions could be tuned by using Feshbach resonance.

  15. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.

  16. Nonlinear Interaction of Light with Transversely Moving Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabiryan, N. V.; Nersisyan, S. R.; Warenghem, M.

    1996-10-01

    Interaction of a light beam with matter reveals extreme sensitivity to transverse motions. Spatio-temporal delocalization of interaction and diffusive transport of light-induced perturbations is revealed through a new family of diffraction patterns. The response of the medium to the transverse motion of the light enhances near the second order phase transition point. The phenomenon has large application potential for the study of motions that are beyond the power of Doppler-effect-based methods, and suggests fundamental problems about critical processes with nonstationary influences.

  17. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams. PMID:26832066

  18. Stacking Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Chimneys and stacks appear to be strong and indestructible, but chimneys begin to deteriorate from the moment they are built. Early on, no signs are apparent; but deterioration accelerates in subsequent years, and major repairs are soon needed instead of minor maintenance. With proper attention, most structures can be repaired and continue to…

  19. Suppression of nonlinear optical signals in finite interaction volumes of bulk materials.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Stefano; Siltanen, Mikael; Xiang Wang, Fu; Kauranen, Martti

    2005-11-28

    We show that nonlinear optical signals generated by non-phase-matched interactions are strongly suppressed when the interaction volume is finite and localized deep inside the bulk of a homogeneous material, as opposed to the case where the interaction volume extends across a boundary of the material. The suppression in the bulk originates from destructive interference between the signals generated in the two regions where the interaction is gradually turned on and off and depends on the ratio of the coherence length to the characteristic length of the interaction volume.

  20. Simulations of energetic particles interacting with nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate test-particle diffusion in dynamical turbulence based on a numerical approach presented before. For the turbulence we employ the nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence model which takes into account wave propagation effects as well as damping effects. We compute numerically diffusion coefficients of energetic particles along and across the mean magnetic field. We focus on turbulence and particle parameters which should be relevant for the solar system and compare our findings with different interplanetary observations. We vary different parameters such as the dissipation range spectral index, the ratio of the turbulence bendover scales, and the magnetic field strength in order to explore the relevance of the different parameters. We show that the bendover scales as well as the magnetic field ratio have a strong influence on diffusion coefficients whereas the influence of the dissipation range spectral index is weak. The best agreement with solar wind observations can be found for equal bendover scales and a magnetic field ratio of δ B / B0 = 0.75.

  1. Nonlinear geosphere-biosphere interactions and the Cambrian explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bloh, W.; Bounama, C.; Franck, S.

    2003-04-01

    A conceptual model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, continental biosphere, the kerogen , as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere is presented. In this study the evolution of the mean global surface temperature, the biomass, and reservoir sizes over the whole history and future of the Earth under a maturing Sun is investigated. Reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth are obtained and a pronounced global minimum of mean surface temperature at the present state of the Earth is found. Furthermore, three different biosphere types are introduced: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and higher metazoa. They all differ in their temperature tolerance interval and their biogenic enhancement of silicate rock weathering. Around 500 Myr in the past we find a rise of higher metazoa caused by the nonlinear feedback between biosphere and climate. Biotic amplifying of weathering provides and maintains the environment of higher life forms. Such a mechanism may explain the so-called Cambrian explosion.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Base-Modified DNA Are Not Strictly Determined by Base Stacking or Electrostatic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Justin P.; Mogil, Lauren S.; McCauley, Micah J.; Williams, Mark C.; Maher, L. James

    2014-01-01

    This work probes the mystery of what balance of forces creates the extraordinary mechanical stiffness of DNA to bending and twisting. Here we explore the relationship between base stacking, functional group occupancy of the DNA minor and major grooves, and DNA mechanical properties. We study double-helical DNA molecules substituting either inosine for guanosine or 2,6-diaminopurine for adenine. These DNA variants, respectively, remove or add an amino group from the DNA minor groove, with corresponding changes in hydrogen-bonding and base stacking energy. Using the techniques of ligase-catalyzed cyclization kinetics, atomic force microscopy, and force spectroscopy with optical tweezers, we show that these DNA variants have bending persistence lengths within the range of values reported for sequence-dependent variation of the natural DNA bases. Comparison with seven additional DNA variants that modify the DNA major groove reveals that DNA bending stiffness is not correlated with base stacking energy or groove occupancy. Data from circular dichroism spectroscopy indicate that base analog substitution can alter DNA helical geometry, suggesting a complex relationship among base stacking, groove occupancy, helical structure, and DNA bend stiffness. PMID:25028886

  3. Nonlinear modes of an intense laser beam interacting with a periodic lattice of nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehri Javan, N. Homami, S. H. H.

    2015-08-15

    Self-guided nonlinear propagation of an intense laser beam through a periodic lattice of nanoparticle is studied. Using a perturbative method, a cubic nonlinear wave equation describing the laser-nanoparticle interaction in the weakly relativistic regime is derived. Transverse Eigen modes of the laser, nonlinear dispersion relation and its related group velocity are obtained. It is shown that the best fitted function to the transverse profile is Gaussian. Effect of the laser amplitude and also the ratio of nanoparticles radius to their separation on the nonlinear dispersion and amplitude profiles are investigated. It is found that the increase in the just mentioned parameters leads to the localization of transverse profile around the propagation axis.

  4. Dromion interactions of (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    PubMed

    Ruan; Chen

    2000-10-01

    Starting from two line solitons, the solution of integrable (2+1)-dimensional mKdV system and KdV system in bilinear form yields a dromion solution or a "Solitoff" solution. Such a dromion solution is localized in all directions and the Solitoff solution decays exponentially in all directions except a preferred one for the physical field or a suitable potential. The interactions between two dromions and between the dromion and Solitoff are studied by the method of figure analysis for a (2+1)-dimensional modified KdV equation and a (2+1)-dimensional KdV type equation. Our analysis shows that the interactions between two dromions may be elastic or inelastic for different forms of solutions. PMID:11089133

  5. Scale Interactions by physics in a Simplified Multiscale Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean nonlinear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, E.; Dias, P. L. D. S.; Raupp, C. F. M.; Ramirez Gutierrez, E. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    A simplified multiscale model of the interactions between the atmosphere and ocean is developed. Two coupled nonlinear equatorial β-plane shallow water equations are used. The nonlinearities are of two types: advective and atmosphere-ocean coupling related. To mimic the main differences between the fast-atmosphere and the slow-ocean, multi-space and multi-time scalings are adopted. Three possible regimes have been discussed: intradiurnal/synoptic/intraseasonal (ISIn), synoptic/intraseasonal/interannual-El Niño (SInEN) and intraseasonal/El Niño/decadal (InEND) regimes. Special attention is given to the SInEN regime, where simplified physical parameterizations for the atmosphere-ocean coupling are developed. In this regime, the synoptic scale is the fastest atmospheric scale, the intraseasonal is the intermediate atmosphere-ocean coupling scale and the El Niño refers to the slowest inter-annual ocean scale. Analytical solutions of the SInEN equations reveal that the slow wave amplitude evolution depends on both types of nonlinearities. Nonlinear interactions of synoptic scale atmospheric waves force intraseasonal variability not only in the atmosphere but also in the ocean through wind stress. Intraseasonal ocean temperature perturbations coupled with the atmosphere through evaporation force higher order atmospheric variability and the wave-convection coupling provides another source of higher order atmospheric variability. In the ocean, nonlinear interactions of intraseasonal ocean perturbations force interannual oceanic variability. The slowest inter-annual variability in the SInEN regime is associated with either nonlinear wind stress and advective nonlinearity.

  6. Nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic waves and electron plasma oscillations in quantum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2007-08-31

    We consider nonlinear interactions between intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) in a dense quantum plasma, taking into account the electron density response in the presence of the relativistic ponderomotive force and mass increase in the CPEM wave fields. The dynamics of the CPEM waves and EPOs is governed by the two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations and Poisson's equation. The nonlinear equations admit the modulational instability of an intense CPEM pump wave against EPOs, leading to the formation and trapping of localized CPEM wave pipes in the electron density hole that is associated with a positive potential distribution in our dense plasma. The relevance of our investigation to the next generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments is discussed.

  7. Modal interactions in primary and subharmonic resonant dynamics of imperfect microplates with geometric nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the modal interactions in the nonlinear, size-dependent dynamics of geometrically imperfect microplates. Based on the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion for the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained employing the von Kármán plate theory as well as Kirchhoff's hypotheses by means of the Lagrange equations. The equations of motions are solved using the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and direct time-integration method. The system parameters are tuned to the values associated with modal interactions, and then nonlinear resonant responses and energy transfer are analysed. Nonlinear motion characteristics are shown in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves, time histories, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms.

  8. Characterization of the permeability evolution and nonlinear fluid-rock interaction from induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, N.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Borehole fluid injections into geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs are used to hydraulically stimulate the rock. Usually, hydraulic stimulation operations are accompanied by microseismic activity. In particular, hydraulic fracturing has become a standard industry technique aimed to enhance the permeability of tight reservoir rocks. During such treatments the structure of the rock is actively altered. As a result, the formation permeability can significantly increase and the corresponding interaction between fluid and reservoir rock becomes nonlinear. We show how the fluid-rock interaction can be characterized from the spatio-temporal behavior of induced seismicity. Furthermore, we reveal how the fluid-rock interaction can be used to estimate the permeability evolution inside of the fracture stimulated rock. For this purpose we consider microseismic data recorded during a hydraulic fracturing treatment in the Barnett Shale. We present a scaling approach to transform clouds of hypocenters of events obtained in a hydraulically anisotropic medium into those obtained in an effective isotropic medium. In this approach we assume that the pressure-dependence of permeability is independent of a specific direction although the anisotropic permeability depends on the geological structure and strength of the rock. Hence, we approximate the real medium by a model with a factorized anisotropy and nonlinearity. We analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of Barnett Shale seismicity and find that the fluid-rock interaction is significantly nonlinear. To understand the nonlinear nature of the fluid-rock interaction and to explain corresponding spatio-temporal characteristics of induced seismicity we consider a nonlinear diffusional relaxation of the pore-fluid pressure perturbation. Nonlinearity is introduced by a power-law pressure-dependence of hydraulic permeability. For such a nonlinear fluid-rock interaction we present a numerical modeling approach to generate synthetic

  9. Nonlinear gravity-wave interactions in stratified turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmel, Mark; Sukhatme, Jai; Smith, Leslie M.

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the dynamics of gravity waves in stratified Boussinesq flows, a model is derived that consists of all three-gravity-wave-mode interactions (the GGG model), excluding interactions involving the vortical mode. The GGG model is a natural extension of weak turbulence theory that accounts for exact three-gravity-wave resonances. The model is examined numerically by means of random, large-scale, high-frequency forcing. An immediate observation is a robust growth of the so-called vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF). In addition, there is a forward transfer of energy and equilibration of the nonzero-frequency (sometimes called "fast") gravity-wave modes. These results show that gravity-wave-mode interactions by themselves are capable of systematic interscale energy transfer in a stratified fluid. Comparing numerical simulations of the GGG model and the full Boussinesq system, for the range of Froude numbers ( Fr) considered (0.05 ≤ Fr ≤ 1), in both systems the VSHF is hardest to resolve. When adequately resolved, VSHF growth is more vigorous in the GGG model. Furthermore, a VSHF is observed to form in milder stratification scenarios in the GGG model than the full Boussinesq system. Finally, fully three-dimensional nonzero-frequency gravity-wave modes equilibrate in both systems and their scaling with vertical wavenumber follows similar power-laws. The slopes of the power-laws obtained depend on Fr and approach -2 (from above) at Fr = 0.05, which is the strongest stratification that can be properly resolved with our computational resources.

  10. Uranium(IV) Interaction with Aqueous/Solid Interfaces Studied by Nonlinear Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Franz

    2015-03-27

    This is the Final Technical Report for "Uranium(IV) Interaction with Aqueous/Solid Interfaces Studied by Nonlinear Optics", by Franz M. Geiger, PI, from Northwestern University, IL, USA, Grant Number SC0004101 and/or DE-PS02-ER09-07.

  11. A weakly nonlinear theory for wave-vortex interactions in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Zang, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is developed to study the interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The predictions obtained from the theory agree well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of curved channel flow, especially for low amplitude disturbances. Some discrepancies in the results of a previous theory with direct numerical simulations are resolved.

  12. Advanced Nonlinear Latent Variable Modeling: Distribution Analytic LMS and QML Estimators of Interaction and Quadratic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelava, Augustin; Werner, Christina S.; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Zapf, Dieter; Ma, Yue; Cham, Heining; Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction and quadratic effects in latent variable models have to date only rarely been tested in practice. Traditional product indicator approaches need to create product indicators (e.g., x[superscript 2] [subscript 1], x[subscript 1]x[subscript 4]) to serve as indicators of each nonlinear latent construct. These approaches require the use of…

  13. Nonlinear Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we saw a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  14. Effect of nonlinear soil-structure interaction on seismic response of low-rise SMRF buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychowdhury, Prishati; Singh, Poonam

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear behavior of a soil-foundation system may alter the seismic response of a structure by providing additional fl exibility to the system and dissipating hysteretic energy at the soil-foundation interface. However, the current design practice is still reluctant to consider the nonlinearity of the soil-foundation system, primarily due to lack of reliable modeling techniques. This study is motivated towards evaluating the effect of nonlinear soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the seismic responses of low-rise steel moment resisting frame (SMRF) structures. In order to achieve this, a Winklerbased approach is adopted, where the soil beneath the foundation is assumed to be a system of closely-spaced, independent, nonlinear spring elements. Static pushover analysis and nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 3-story SMRF building and the performance of the structure is evaluated through a variety of force and displacement demand parameters. It is observed that incorporation of nonlinear SSI leads to an increase in story displacement demand and a significant reduction in base moment, base shear and inter-story drift demands, indicating the importance of its consideration towards achieving an economic, yet safe seismic design.

  15. Interaction of Lyapunov vectors in the formulation of the nonlinear extension of the Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Palatella, Luigi; Trevisan, Anna

    2015-04-01

    When applied to strongly nonlinear chaotic dynamics the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is prone to divergence due to the difficulty of correctly forecasting the forecast error probability density function. In operational forecasting applications ensemble Kalman filters circumvent this problem with empirical procedures such as covariance inflation. This paper presents an extension of the EKF that includes nonlinear terms in the evolution of the forecast error estimate. This is achieved starting from a particular square-root implementation of the EKF with assimilation confined in the unstable subspace (EKF-AUS), that is, the span of the Lyapunov vectors with non-negative exponents. When the error evolution is nonlinear, the space where it is confined is no more restricted to the unstable and neutral subspace causing filter divergence. The algorithm presented here, denominated EKF-AUS-NL, includes the nonlinear terms in the error dynamics: These result from the nonlinear interaction among the leading Lyapunov vectors and account for all directions where the error growth may take place. Numerical results show that with the nonlinear terms included, filter divergence can be avoided. We test the algorithm on the Lorenz96 model, showing very promising results.

  16. Diffractive stacks of metamaterial lattices with a complex unit cell: Self-consistent long-range bianisotropic interactions in experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwadrin, Andrej; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces and metamaterials promise arbitrary rerouting of light using two-dimensional (2D) planar arrangements of electric and magnetic scatterers, respectively, 3D stacks built out of such 2D planes. An important problem is how to self-consistently model the response of these systems in a manner that retains dipole intuition yet does full justice to the self-consistent multiple scattering via near-field and far-field retarded interactions. We set up such a general model for metamaterial lattices of complex 2D unit cells of poly-atomic basis as well as allowing for stacking in a third dimension. In particular, each scatterer is quantified by a magnetoelectric polarizability tensor and Ewald lattice summation deals with all near-field and long-range retarded electric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric couplings self-consistently. We show in theory and experiment that grating diffraction orders of dilute split ring lattices with complex unit cells show a background-free signature of magnetic dipole response. For denser lattices experiment and theory show that complex unit cells can reduce the apparent effect of bianisotropy, i.e., the strong oblique-incidence handed response that was reported for simple split ring lattices. Finally, the method is applied to calculate transmission of finite stacks of lattices. Thereby our simple methodology allows us to trace the emergence of effective material constants when building a 3D metamaterial layer by layer, as well as facilitating the design of metasurfaces.

  17. Resonant triad in boundary-layer stability. Part 1: Fully nonlinear interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1991-01-01

    A first principles theory is developed to study the nonlinear spatial evolution of a near-resonance triad of instability waves in boundary layer transition. This triad consists of a plane wave at fundamental frequency and a pair of symmetrical, oblique waves at the subharmonic frequency. A low frequency, high Reynolds number asymptotic scaling leads to a distinct critical layer where nonlinearity first becomes important; the development of the triad's waves is determined by the critical layer's nonlinear, viscous dynamics. The resulting theory is fully nonlinear in that all nonlinearly generated oscillatory and nonoscillatory components are accounted for. The presence of the plane wave initially causes exponential of exponential growth of the oblique waves. However, the plane wave continues to follow the linear theory, even when the oblique waves' amplitude attains the same order of magnitude as that of the plane wave. A fully interactive stage then comes into effect when the oblique waves exceed a certain level compared to that of the plane wave. The oblique waves react back on the fundamental, slowing its growth rate. The oblique waves' saturation results from their self-interaction - a mechanism that does not require the presence of the plane wave. The oblique waves' saturation level is independent of their initial level, but decreases as the obliqueness angle increases.

  18. Contribution of Partial Charge Interactions and Base Stacking to the Efficiency of Primer Extension at and beyond Abasic Sites in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Shuangluo; Vashishtha, Ashwani; Bulkley, David; Eom, Soo Hyun; Wang, Jimin; Konigsberg, William H.

    2012-08-31

    During DNA synthesis, base stacking and Watson-Crick (WC) hydrogen bonding increase the stability of nascent base pairs when they are in a ternary complex. To evaluate the contribution of base stacking to the incorporation efficiency of dNTPs when a DNA polymerase encounters an abasic site, we varied the penultimate base pairs (PBs) adjacent to the abasic site using all 16 possible combinations. We then determined pre-steady-state kinetic parameters with an RB69 DNA polymerase variant and solved nine structures of the corresponding ternary complexes. The efficiency of incorporation for incoming dNTPs opposite an abasic site varied between 2- and 210-fold depending on the identity of the PB. We propose that the A rule can be extended to encompass the fact that DNA polymerase can bypass dA/abasic sites more efficiently than other dN/abasic sites. Crystal structures of the ternary complexes show that the surface of the incoming base was stacked against the PB's interface and that the kinetic parameters for dNMP incorporation were consistent with specific features of base stacking, such as surface area and partial charge-charge interactions between the incoming base and the PB. Without a templating nucleotide residue, an incoming dNTP has no base with which it can hydrogen bond and cannot be desolvated, so that these surrounding water molecules become ordered and remain on the PB's surface in the ternary complex. When these water molecules are on top of a hydrophobic patch on the PB, they destabilize the ternary complex, and the incorporation efficiency of incoming dNTPs is reduced.

  19. Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments. PMID:25101112

  20. Interharmonic modulation products as a means to quantify nonlinear D-region interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    Experimental observations performed during dual beam ionospheric HF heating experiments at the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to quantify the relative importance of specific nonlinear interactions that occur within the D region ionosphere. During these experiments, HAARP broadcast two amplitude modulated HF beams whose center frequencies were separated by less than 20 kHz. One beam was sinusoidally modulated at 500 Hz while the second beam was sinusoidally modulated using a 1-7 kHz linear frequency-time chirp. ELF/VLF observations performed at two different locations (3 and 98 km from HAARP) provide clear evidence of strong interactions between all field components of the two HF beams in the form of low and high order interharmonic modulation products. From a theoretical standpoint, the observed interharmonic modulation products could be produced by several different nonlinearities. The two primary nonlinearities take the form of wave-medium interactions (i.e., cross modulation), wherein the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by one signal crosses onto the other signal via collision frequency modification, and wave-wave interactions, wherein the conduction current associated with one wave mixes with the electric field of the other wave to produce electron temperature oscillations. We are able to separate and quantify these two different nonlinearities, and we conclude that the wave-wave interactions dominate the wave-medium interactions by a factor of two. These results are of great importance for the modeling of transioinospheric radio wave propagation, in that both the wave-wave and the wave-medium interactions could be responsible for a significant amount of anomalous absorption.

  1. Monotonically convergent optimal control theory of quantum systems under a nonlinear interaction with the control field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapert, M.; Tehini, R.; Turinici, G.; Sugny, D.

    2008-08-01

    We consider the optimal control of quantum systems interacting nonlinearly with an electromagnetic field. We propose monotonically convergent algorithms to solve the optimal equations. The monotonic behavior of the algorithm is ensured by a nonstandard choice of the cost, which is not quadratic in the field. These algorithms can be constructed for pure- and mixed-state quantum systems. The efficiency of the method is shown numerically for molecular orientation with a nonlinearity of order 3 in the field. Discretizing the amplitude and the phase of the Fourier transform of the optimal field, we show that the optimal solution can be well approximated by pulses that could be implemented experimentally.

  2. Modeling of fatigue crack induced nonlinear ultrasonics using a highly parallelized explicit local interaction simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parallelized modeling technique for the efficient simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics introduced by the wave interaction with fatigue cracks. The elastodynamic wave equations with contact effects are formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The LISA formulation is extended to capture the contact-impact phenomena during the wave damage interaction based on the penalty method. A Coulomb friction model is integrated into the computation procedure to capture the stick-slip contact shear motion. The LISA procedure is coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized supercomputing on powerful graphic cards. Both the explicit contact formulation and the parallel feature facilitates LISA's superb computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). The theoretical formulations based on the penalty method is introduced and a guideline for the proper choice of the contact stiffness is given. The convergence behavior of the solution under various contact stiffness values is examined. A numerical benchmark problem is used to investigate the new LISA formulation and results are compared with a conventional contact finite element solution. Various nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are successfully captured using this contact LISA formulation, including the generation of nonlinear higher harmonic responses. Nonlinear mode conversion of guided waves at fatigue cracks is also studied.

  3. Nonlinear sound--vortex interactions in an inviscid isentropic fluid: A two-fluid model

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarenko, S.V.; Zabusky, N.J.; Scheidegger, T.

    1995-10-01

    A new two-fluid model is developed to describe the nonlinear interaction of acoustic waves and vortices. Analytical and computational results are presented for a sound pulse interacting with and being modified by a vortex. A novel numerical method based on a particle-in-cell discretization of the acoustic field is developed and used to study the nonlinear scattering of sound by a cylindrical vortex. Equations for the sound wave packet propagating in an axially symmetric mean flow are integrated analytically. Nonlinear modification of the vortex flow by the high-frequency sound is found to be mediated by growing pressure disturbances generated by the radiative forcing on the high gradient regions of the acoustic pulse. The total energy of the vortex mean flow grows monotonically, as the acoustic component loses its energy. The changes in the kinetic and internal energies of the vortex are greater than the changes in its total energy, although these changes are reversible in lowest order of the nonlinear vortex--acoustic interaction. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  4. Effects of randomness, dissipation and interaction on solitons of the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation and related nonlinear wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quan Minh

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of solitons of the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) via asymptotic perturbation techniques and numerical simulations. The dissertation consists of several inter-related projects [22, 98, 103, 108, 109] that are focused on the effects of nonlinear processes and randomness on dynamics of pulses of light in optical waveguides. We particularly consider two of the most important nonlinear processes affecting pulse dynamics in multichannel optical waveguides: weak cubic loss and delayed Raman response. In the presence of weak cubic loss [98], we obtain the analytic expressions for the amplitude and frequency shifts in a single two-soliton collision and show that the impact of a fast three-soliton collision is given by the sum of the two-soliton interactions. Furthermore, we show that amplitude dynamics in an N-channel waveguide system is described by a Lotka-Volterra model for N competing species. We find the conditions on the time slot width and the soliton's equilibrium amplitude value under which the transmission is stable. The predictions of the reduced Lotka-Volterra model are confirmed by numerical solution of a coupled-NLSE model, which takes into account intra-pulse and inter-pulse effects due to cubic nonlinearity and cubic loss. These results uncover an interesting analogy between the dynamics of energy exchange in pulse collisions and population dynamics in Lotka-Volterra models. In the presence of delayed Raman response [103,108,109], we show that the dynamics of pulse amplitudes in an N-channel transmission system in differential phase shift keying (DPSK) scheme is described by an N-dimensional predator-prey model. We find the equilibrium states with non-zero amplitudes and prove their stability by obtaining the Lyapunov function. We then show that stable transmission can be achieved by a proper choice of the frequency profile of linear amplifier gain. We also investigate the impact of Raman self- and collsion

  5. Mode interaction in horses, tea, and other nonlinear oscillators: The universal role of symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weele, Jacobus P.; Banning, Erik J.

    2001-09-01

    This paper is about mode interaction in systems of coupled nonlinear oscillators. The main ideas are demonstrated by means of a model consisting of two coupled, parametrically driven pendulums. On the basis of this we also discuss mode interaction in the Faraday experiment (as observed by Ciliberto and Gollub) and in running animals. In all these systems the interaction between two modes is seen to take place via a third mode: This interaction mode is a common daughter, born by means of a symmetry breaking bifurcation, of the two interacting modes. Thus, not just any two modes can interact with each other, but only those that are linked (in the system's group-theoretical hierarchy) by a common daughter mode. This is the quintessence of mode interaction. In many cases of interest, the interaction mode is seen to undergo further bifurcations, and this can eventually lead to chaos. These stages correspond to lower and lower levels of symmetry, and the constraints imposed by group theory become less and less restrictive. Indeed, the precise sequence of events during these later stages is determined not so much by group-theoretical stipulations as by the accidental values of the nonlinear terms in the equations of motion.

  6. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Banerji, J; Samanta, G K

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625

  7. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625

  8. Nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model for two interacting two-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de los Santos-Sánchez, O.; González-Gutiérrez, C.; Récamier, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we examine a nonlinear version of the Jaynes–Cummings model for two identical two-level atoms allowing for Ising-like and dipole–dipole interplays between them. The model is said to be nonlinear in the sense that it can incorporate both a general intensity-dependent interaction between the atomic system and the cavity field and/or the presence of a nonlinear medium inside the cavity. As an example, we consider a particular type of atom-field coupling based upon the so-called Buck–Sukumar model and a lossless Kerr-like cavity. We describe the possible effects of such features on the evolution of some quantities of current interest, such as atomic excitation, purity, concurrence, the entropy of the field and the evolution of the latter in phase space.

  9. Nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfven wave and whistler: Turbulent spectra and anisotropic scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Dwivedi, Navin; Sharma, R. P.

    2013-04-15

    In this work, we are presenting the excitation of oblique propagating whistler wave as a consequence of nonlinear interaction between whistler wave and kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) in intermediate beta plasmas. Numerical simulation has been done to study the transient evolution of magnetic field structures of KAW when the nonlinearity arises due to ponderomotive effects by taking the adiabatic response of the background density. Weak oblique propagating whistler signals in these nonlinear plasma density filaments (produced by KAW localization) get amplified. The spectral indices of the power spectrum at different times are calculated with given initial conditions of the simulations. Anisotropic scaling laws for KAW and whistlers are presented. The relevance of the present investigation to solar wind turbulence and its acceleration is also pointed out.

  10. Numerical and experimental study of the nonlinear interaction between a shear wave and a frictional interface.

    PubMed

    Blanloeuil, Philippe; Croxford, Anthony J; Meziane, Anissa

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of shear waves with a frictional interface are presented and modeled using simple Coulomb friction. Analytical and finite difference implementations are proposed with both in agreement and showing a unique trend in terms of the generated nonlinearity. A dimensionless parameter ξ is proposed to uniquely quantify the nonlinearity produced. The trends produced in the numerical study are then validated with good agreement experimentally. This is carried out loading an interface between two steel blocks and exciting this interface with different amplitude normal incidence shear waves. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, suggesting the simple friction model does a reasonable job of capturing the fundamental physics. The resulting approach offers a potential way to characterize a contacting interface; however, the difficulty in activating that interface may ultimately limit its applicability. PMID:25234971

  11. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-09-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs.

  12. Nonlinear theory for a terahertz gyrotron with a special cross-section interaction cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Xuesong; Han Yu; Yan Yang; Lan Ying

    2012-05-15

    The fully numerical nonlinear theory for a gyrotron with a special cross-section interaction cavity has been developed in this paper. In this theory, the analytical solution to different modes in the special cross-section interaction cavity is replaced by the numerical solution based on electromagnetic simulation results. A 0.4 THz third harmonic gyrotron with an azimuthally corrugated interaction cavity has been investigated by using this theory and simulation results show that this approach has a significant advantage of developing high harmonic terahertz gyrotrons.

  13. Nonlinear pressure dependence of the interaction potential of dense protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Martin A; Markgraf, Jonas; Wieland, D C Florian; Sahle, Christoph J; Möller, Johannes; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2011-04-29

    The influence of pressure on the structure and protein-protein interaction potential of dense protein solutions was studied and analyzed using small-angle x-ray scattering in combination with a liquid state theoretical approach. The structural as well as the interaction parameters of dense lysozyme solutions are affected by pressure in a nonlinear way. The structural properties of water lead to a modification of the protein-protein interactions below 4 kbar, which might have significant consequences for the stability of proteins in extreme natural environments.

  14. Nonlinear pressure dependence of the interaction potential of dense protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Martin A; Markgraf, Jonas; Wieland, D C Florian; Sahle, Christoph J; Möller, Johannes; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2011-04-29

    The influence of pressure on the structure and protein-protein interaction potential of dense protein solutions was studied and analyzed using small-angle x-ray scattering in combination with a liquid state theoretical approach. The structural as well as the interaction parameters of dense lysozyme solutions are affected by pressure in a nonlinear way. The structural properties of water lead to a modification of the protein-protein interactions below 4 kbar, which might have significant consequences for the stability of proteins in extreme natural environments. PMID:21635065

  15. Local interaction simulation approach to modelling nonclassical, nonlinear elastic behavior in solids.

    PubMed

    Scalerandi, Marco; Agostini, Valentina; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Johnson, Paul A

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies show that a broad category of materials share "nonclassical" nonlinear elastic behavior much different from "classical" (Landau-type) nonlinearity. Manifestations of "nonclassical" nonlinearity include stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasistatic experiments, and specific dependencies of the harmonic amplitudes with respect to the drive amplitude in dynamic wave experiments, which are remarkably different from those predicted by the classical theory. These materials have in common soft "bond" elements, where the elastic nonlinearity originates, contained in hard matter (e.g., a rock sample). The bond system normally comprises a small fraction of the total material volume, and can be localized (e.g., a crack in a solid) or distributed, as in a rock. In this paper a model is presented in which the soft elements are treated as hysteretic or reversible elastic units connected in a one-dimensional lattice to elastic elements (grains), which make up the hard matrix. Calculations are performed in the framework of the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Experimental observations are well predicted by the model, which is now ready both for basic investigations about the physical origins of nonlinear elasticity and for applications to material damage diagnostics.

  16. On the efficacy of friction damping in the presence of nonlinear modal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krack, Malte; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2016-05-01

    This work addresses friction-induced modal interactions in jointed structures, and their effects on the passive mitigation of vibrations by means of friction damping. Under the condition of (nearly) commensurable natural frequencies, the nonlinear character of friction can cause so-called nonlinear modal interactions. If harmonic forcing near the natural frequency of a specific mode is applied, for instance, another mode may be excited due to nonlinear energy transfer and thus contribute considerably to the vibration response. We investigate how this phenomenon affects the performance of friction damping. To this end, we study the steady-state, periodic forced vibrations of a system of two beams connected via a local mechanical friction joint. The system can be tuned to continuously adjust the ratio between the first two natural frequencies in the range around the 1:3 internal resonance, in order to trigger or suppress the emergence of modal interactions. Due to the re-distribution of the vibration energy, the vibration level can in fact be reduced in certain situations. However, in other situations, the multi-harmonic character of the vibration has detrimental effects on the effective damping provided by the friction joint. The resulting response level can be significantly larger than in the absence of modal interactions. Moreover, it is shown that the vibration behavior is highly sensitive in the neighborhood of internal resonances. It is thus concluded that the condition of internal resonance should be avoided in the design of friction-damped systems.

  17. Pitch glide effect induced by a nonlinear string-barrier interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartofelev, Dmitri; Stulov, Anatoli; Välimäki, Vesa

    2015-10-01

    Interactions of a vibrating string with its supports and other spatially distributed barriers play a significant role in the physics of many stringed musical instruments. It is well known that the tone of the string vibrations is determined by the string supports, and that the boundary conditions of the string termination may cause a short-lasting initial fundamental frequency shifting. Generally, this phenomenon is associated with the nonlinear modulation of the stiff string tension. The aim of this paper is to study the initial frequency glide phenomenon that is induced only by the string-barrier interaction, apart from other possible physical causes, and without the interfering effects of dissipation and dispersion. From a numerical simulation perspective, this highly nonlinear problem may present various difficulties, not the least of which is the risk of numerical instability. We propose a numerically stable and a purely kinematic model of the string-barrier interaction, which is based on the travelling wave solution of the ideal string vibration. The model is capable of reproducing the motion of the vibrating string exhibiting the initial fundamental frequency glide, which is caused solely by the complex nonlinear interaction of the string with its termination. The results presented in this paper can expand our knowledge and understanding of the timbre evolution and the physical principles of sound generation of numerous stringed instruments, such as lutes called the tambura, sitar and biwa.

  18. Wave-vortex interactions in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuan; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-02-01

    This is a theoretical study of wave-vortex interaction effects in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is a useful conceptual model for the limiting dynamics of superfluid quantum condensates at zero temperature. The particular wave-vortex interaction effects are associated with the scattering and refraction of small-scale linear waves by the straining flows induced by quantized point vortices and, crucially, with the concomitant nonlinear back-reaction, the remote recoil, that these scattered waves exert on the vortices. Our detailed model is a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude waves refracted by one or two vortices. Weak interactions are studied using a suitable perturbation method in which the nonlinear recoil force on the vortex then arises at second order in wave amplitude, and is computed in terms of a Magnus-type force expression for both finite and infinite wavetrains. In the case of an infinite wavetrain, an explicit asymptotic formula for the scattering angle is also derived and cross-checked against numerical ray tracing. Finally, under suitable conditions a wavetrain can be so strongly refracted that it collapses all the way onto a zero-size point vortex. This is a strong wave-vortex interaction by definition. The conditions for such a collapse are derived and the validity of ray tracing theory during the singular collapse is investigated.

  19. Wave–vortex interactions in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yuan Bühler, Oliver

    2014-02-15

    This is a theoretical study of wave–vortex interaction effects in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is a useful conceptual model for the limiting dynamics of superfluid quantum condensates at zero temperature. The particular wave–vortex interaction effects are associated with the scattering and refraction of small-scale linear waves by the straining flows induced by quantized point vortices and, crucially, with the concomitant nonlinear back-reaction, the remote recoil, that these scattered waves exert on the vortices. Our detailed model is a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude waves refracted by one or two vortices. Weak interactions are studied using a suitable perturbation method in which the nonlinear recoil force on the vortex then arises at second order in wave amplitude, and is computed in terms of a Magnus-type force expression for both finite and infinite wavetrains. In the case of an infinite wavetrain, an explicit asymptotic formula for the scattering angle is also derived and cross-checked against numerical ray tracing. Finally, under suitable conditions a wavetrain can be so strongly refracted that it collapses all the way onto a zero-size point vortex. This is a strong wave–vortex interaction by definition. The conditions for such a collapse are derived and the validity of ray tracing theory during the singular collapse is investigated.

  20. Nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfvén waves and ion acoustic waves in coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prachi; Yadav, Nitin; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    Over the years, coronal heating has been the most fascinating question among the scientific community. In the present article, a heating mechanism has been proposed based on the wave-wave interaction. Under this wave-wave interaction, the high frequency kinetic Alfvén wave interacts with the low frequency ion acoustic wave. These waves are three dimensionally propagating and nonlinearly coupled through ponderomotive nonlinearity. A numerical code based on pseudo-spectral technique has been developed for solving these normalized dynamical equations. Localization of kinetic Alfvén wave field has been examined, and magnetic power spectrum has also been analyzed which shows the cascading of energy to higher wavenumbers, and this cascading has been found to have Kolmogorov scaling, i.e., k-5 /3 . A breakpoint appears after Kolmogorov scaling and next to this spectral break; a steeper scaling has been obtained. The presented nonlinear interaction for coronal loops plasmas is suggested to generate turbulent spectrum having Kolmogorov scaling in the inertial range and steepened scaling in the dissipation range. Since Kolmogorov turbulence is considered as the main source for coronal heating; therefore, the suggested mechanism will be a useful tool to understand the mystery of coronal loop heating through Kolmogorov turbulence and dissipation.

  1. The role of nonlinear self-interaction in the dynamics of planetary-scale atmospheric fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffioti, C.; Malguzzi, P.; Speranza, A.

    2016-09-01

    A central role in the general circulation of the atmosphere is played by planetary-scale inertial fluctuations with zonal wavenumber in the range k = 1-4. Geopotential variance in this range is markedly non-gaussian and a great fraction of it is non-propagating, in contrast with the normal distribution of amplitudes and the basically propagating character of fluctuations in the baroclinic range (3 > k > 15). While a wave dispersion relationship can be identified in the baroclinic range, no clear relationship between time and space scales emerges in the ultra-long regime (k < 5, period >10 days). We investigate the hypothesis that nonlinear self-interaction of planetary waves influences the mobility (and, therefore, the dispersion) of ultra-long planetary fluctuations. By means of a perturbation expansion of the barotropic vorticity equation we derive a minimal analytic description of the impact of self-nonlinearity on mobility and we show that this is responsible for a correction term to phase speed, with the prevalent effect of slowing down the propagation of waves. The intensity of nonlinear self-interaction is shown to increase with the complexity of the flow, depending on both its zonal and meridional modulations. Reanalysis data of geopotential height and zonal wind are analysed in order to test the effect of self-nonlinearity on observed planetary flows.

  2. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis of SIMQUAKE II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.K.; Isenberg, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes an analytic method for modeling of soil-structure interaction (SSI) for nuclear power plants in earthquakes and discusses its application to SSI analyses of SIMQUAKE II. The method is general and can be used to simulate a three-dimensional structural geometry, nonlinear site characteristics and arbitrary input ground shaking. The analytic approach uses the soil island concept to reduce SSI models to manageable size and cost. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of the soil is represented by the nonlinear, kinematic cap model. In addition, a debonding-rebonding soil-structure interface model is utilized to represent nonlinear effects which singificantly alter structural response in the SIMQUAKE tests. STEALTH, an explicit finite difference code, is used to perform the dynamic, soil-structure interaction analyses. Several two-dimensional posttest SSI analyses of model containment structures in SIMQUAKE II are performed and results compared with measured data. These analyses qualify the analytic method. They also show the importance of including debonding-rebonding at the soil-structure interface. Sensitivity of structural response to compaction characteristics of backfill material is indicated.

  3. The role of nonlinear self-interaction in the dynamics of planetary-scale atmospheric fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffioti, C.; Malguzzi, P.; Speranza, A.

    2016-09-01

    A central role in the general circulation of the atmosphere is played by planetary-scale inertial fluctuations with zonal wavenumber in the range k = 1–4. Geopotential variance in this range is markedly non-gaussian and a great fraction of it is non-propagating, in contrast with the normal distribution of amplitudes and the basically propagating character of fluctuations in the baroclinic range (3 > k > 15). While a wave dispersion relationship can be identified in the baroclinic range, no clear relationship between time and space scales emerges in the ultra-long regime (k < 5, period >10 days). We investigate the hypothesis that nonlinear self-interaction of planetary waves influences the mobility (and, therefore, the dispersion) of ultra-long planetary fluctuations. By means of a perturbation expansion of the barotropic vorticity equation we derive a minimal analytic description of the impact of self-nonlinearity on mobility and we show that this is responsible for a correction term to phase speed, with the prevalent effect of slowing down the propagation of waves. The intensity of nonlinear self-interaction is shown to increase with the complexity of the flow, depending on both its zonal and meridional modulations. Reanalysis data of geopotential height and zonal wind are analysed in order to test the effect of self-nonlinearity on observed planetary flows.

  4. Latitudinal dependence of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave and terrestrial ring current ions

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhenpeng Zhu, Hui; Zheng, Huinan; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhang, Min; Liu, Y. C.-M.; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2014-05-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can lead to the rapid decay (on a timescale of hours) of the terrestrial ring current. Such decay process is usually investigated in the framework of quasi-linear theory. Here, both theoretical analysis and test-particle simulation are performed to understand the nonlinear interaction between ring current ions and EMIC waves. In particular, the dependence of the nonlinear wave-particle interaction processes on the ion initial latitude is investigated in detail. These nonlinear processes are classified into the phase trapping and phase bunching, and the phase bunching is further divided into the channel and cluster effects. Compared to the prediction of the quasi-linear theory, the ring current decay rate can be reduced by the phase trapping, increased by the channel effect phase bunching, but non-deterministically influenced by the cluster effect phase bunching. The ion initial latitude changes the occurrence of the phase trapping, modulates the transport direction and strength of the cluster effect phase bunching, and only slightly affects the channel effect phase bunching. The current results suggest that the latitudinal dependence of these nonlinear processes should be considered in the evaluation of the ring current decay induced by EMIC waves.

  5. Role of Convective Cells in Nonlinear Interaction of Kinetic Alfven Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, Onnie

    The convective cells are observed in the auroral ionosphere and they could play an important role in the nonlinear interaction of Alfven waves and disrupt the kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence. Zonal fields, which are analogous to convective cells, are generated by microturbulence and regulate microturbulence inside toroidally confined plasmas. It is important to understand the role of convective cells in the nonlinear interaction of KAW leading to perpendicular cascade of spectral energy. A nonlinear gyrokinetic particle simulation has been developed to study the perpendicular spectral cascade of kinetic Alfven wave. However, convective cells were excluded in the study. In this thesis project, we have modified the formulation to implement the convective cells to study their role in the nonlinear interactions of KAW. This thesis contains detail description of the code formulation and convergence tests performed, and the simulation results on the role of convective cells in the nonlinear interactions of KAW. In the single KAW pump wave simulations, we observed the pump wave energy cascades to waves with shorter wavelengths, with three of them as dominant daughter waves. Convective cells are among those dominant daughter waves and they enhance the rate of energy transfer from pump to daughter waves. When zonal fields are present, the growth rates of the dominant daughter waves are doubled. The convective cell (zonal flow) of the zonal fields is shown to play a major role in the nonlinear wave interaction, while the linear zonal vector potential has little effects. The growth rates of the daughter waves linearly depends on the pump wave amplitude and the square of perpendicular wavenumber. On the other hand, the growth rates do not depend on the parallel wavenumber in the limit where the parallel wavenumber is much smaller than the perpendicular wavenumber. The nonlinear wave interactions with various perpendicular wavenumbers are also studied in this work. When

  6. Carbonyl-carbonyl interactions and amide π-stacking as the directing motifs of the supramolecular assembly of ethyl N-(2-acetylphenyl)oxalamate in a synperiplanar conformation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Pérez, Laura C; García-Báez, Efrén V; Franco-Hernández, Marina O; Martínez-Martínez, Francisco J; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I

    2015-05-01

    The title compound, C12H13NO4, is one of the few examples that exhibits a syn conformation between the amide and ester carbonyl groups of the oxalyl group. This conformation allows the engagement of the amide H atom in an intramolecular three-centred hydrogen-bonding S(6)S(5) motif. The compound is self-assembled by C=O...C=O and amide-π interactions into stacked columns along the b-axis direction. The concurrence of both interactions seems to be responsible for stabilizing the observed syn conformation between the carbonyl groups. The second dimension, along the a-axis direction, is developed by soft C-H...O hydrogen bonding. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory were performed to support the experimental findings.

  7. Evolution and interaction of twins, dislocations and stacking faults in rolled α-brass during nanostructuring at sub-zero temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Barna; Kumar, Nand Kishor; Nambissan, Padinharu Madathil Gopalakrishnan; Das, Jayanta

    2014-06-01

    The effect of cryorolling (CR) strain at 153 K on the evolution of structural defects and their interaction in α-brass (Cu-30 wt.% Zn) during nanostructuring has been evaluated. Even though the lattice strain increases up to 2.1 × 10-3 at CR strain of 0.6 initially, but it remains constant upon further rolling. Whereas, the twin density (β) increases to a maximum value of 5.9 × 10-3 at a CR strain of 0.7 and reduces to 1.1 × 10-5 at 0.95. Accumulation of stacking faults (SFs) and lattice disorder at the twin boundaries causes dynamic recrystallization, promotes grain refinement and decreases the twin density by forming subgrains. Detailed investigations on the formation and interaction of defects have been done through resistivity, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements in order to understand the micro-mechanism of nanostructuring at sub-zero temperatures.

  8. The Effect of Crack Orientation on the Nonlinear Interaction of a P-wave with an S-wave

    DOE PAGES

    TenCate, J. A.; Malcolm, A. E.; Feng, X.; Fehler, M. C.

    2016-06-06

    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presencemore » and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal.« less

  9. The effect of crack orientation on the nonlinear interaction of a P wave with an S wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TenCate, J. A.; Malcolm, A. E.; Feng, X.; Fehler, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presence and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal.

  10. Diffusion Monte Carlo applied to weak interactions - hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking in (bio-)molecular model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, M.; Ireta, J.; Scheffler, M.; Filippi, C.

    2006-03-01

    Dispersion (Van der Waals) forces are important in many molecular phenomena such as self-assembly of molecular crystals or peptide folding. Calculating this nonlocal correlation effect requires accurate electronic structure methods. Usual density-functional theory with generalized gradient functionals (GGA-DFT) fails unless empirical corrections are added that still need extensive validation. Quantum chemical methods like MP2 and coupled cluster are more accurate, yet limited to rather small systems by their unfavorable computational scaling. Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) can provide accurate molecular total energies and remains feasible also for larger systems. Here we apply the fixed-node DMC method to (bio-)molecular model systems where dispersion forces are significant: (dimethyl-) formamide and benzene dimers, and adenine-thymine DNA base pairs. Our DMC binding energies agree well with data from coupled cluster (CCSD(T)), in particular for stacked geometries where GGA-DFT fails qualitatively and MP2 predicts too strong binding.

  11. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  12. Influence of cross-flow on nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. A. R.; Smith, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The transition of an incompressible three-dimensional boundary layer with strong cross-flow is considered theoretically and computationally in the context of vortex/wave interactions. Specifically the work centers on two lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves which mutually interact nonlinearly to induce a longitudinal vortex flow. The vortex motion in turn gives rise to significant wave modulation via wall-shear forcing. The characteristic Reynolds number is large and, as a consequence, the waves' and the vortex motion are governed primarily by triple deck theory. The nonlinear interaction is captured by a viscous partial-differential system for the vortex coupled with a pair of amplitude equations for each wave pressure. Following analysis and computation over a wide range of parameters, three distinct responses are found to emerge in the nonlinear behavior of the flow solution downstream: an algebraic finite-distance singularity, far-downstream saturation or far-downstream wave decay leaving pure vortex flow. These depend on the input conditions, the wave angles and the size of the cross flow.

  13. Nonlinear interaction of a ferromagnet with a high-temperature superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kashurnikov, V. A. Maksimova, A. N.; Rudnev, I. A. Sotnikova, A. P.

    2013-03-15

    The interaction of an Abrikosov vertex with a ferromagnetic substrate is taken into account in the model of a layered high-temperature superconductor (HTSC). The magnetization reversal loops are calculated by the Monte Carlo method for various values of the magnetic moment of the substrate and at various temperatures. The nonlinearity of the interaction of the superconductor with the ferromagnet is demonstrated. The magnetization of HTSC films on magnetic and nonmagnetic substrates is measured. It is found that the ferromagnetism of the substrate strongly affects the shape and magnitude of the magnetization of the HTSC-substrate composite. Experimental data are found to correlate with the results of calculations.

  14. Nonlinear theory of intense laser-plasma interactions modified by vacuum polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenbo; Bu, Zhigang; Li, Hehe; Luo, Yuee; Ji, Peiyong

    2013-07-15

    The classical nonlinear theory of laser-plasma interactions is corrected by taking account of the vacuum polarization effects. A set of wave equations are obtained by using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian density and the derivative correction with the first-order quantum electrodynamic effects. A model more suitable to formulate the interactions of ultra-strong lasers and high-energy-density plasmas is developed. In the result, some environments in which the effects of vacuum polarization will be enhanced are discussed.

  15. Beam-beam interaction and pacman effects in the SSC with random nonlinear multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Goderre, G.P.; Mahale, N.K.; Ohnuma, S.

    1989-05-25

    In order to find the combined effects of beam-beam interaction (head-on and long-range) and random nonlinear multipoles in dipole magnets, transverse tunes and smears have been calculated as a function of oscillation amplitudes. Two types of particles, ''regular'' and ''pacman,'' have been investigated using a modified version of the tracking code TEAPOT. Regular particles experience beam-beam interactions in all four interaction regions (IR's), both head-on and long-range, while pacman particles interact with bunches of the other beam in one medium-beta and one low-beta IR's only. The model for the beam-beam interaction is of weak-strong type and the strong beam is assumed to have a round Gaussian charge distribution. Furthermore, it is assumed that the vertical closed orbit deviation arising from the finite crossing angle of 70 ..mu..rad is perfectly compensated for regular particles. The same compensation applied to pacman particles creates a closed orbit distortion. Linear tunes are adjusted for regular particles to the design values but there are no nonlinear corrections except for chromaticity correcting sextupoles in two families. Results obtained in this study do not show any reduction of dynamic or linear apertures for pacman particles when the oscillation amplitude is less than /approximately/10sigma. However, smears often exhibit a strong dependence on tunes, casting some doubts on the validity of defining the linear aperture from the smear alone. 10 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Characterizing the nonlinear interaction of S- and P-waves in a rock sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallot, Thomas; Malcolm, Alison; Szabo, Thomas L.; Brown, Stephen; Burns, Daniel; Fehler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear elastic response of rocks is known to be caused by the rocks' microstructure, particularly cracks and fluids. This paper presents a method for characterizing the nonlinearity of rocks in a laboratory scale experiment with a unique configuration. This configuration has been designed to open up the possibility of using the nonlinear characterization of rocks as an imaging tool in the field. In our experiment, we study the nonlinear interaction of two traveling waves: a low-amplitude 500 kHz P-wave probe and a high-amplitude 50 kHz S-wave pump in a room-dry 15 × 15 × 3 cm slab of Berea sandstone. Changes in the arrival time of the P-wave probe as it passes through the perturbation created by the traveling S-wave pump were recorded. Waveforms were time gated to simulate a semi-infinite medium. The shear wave phase relative to the P-wave probe signal was varied with resultant changes in the P-wave probe arrival time of up to 100 ns, corresponding to a change in elastic properties of 0.2%. In order to estimate the strain in our sample, we also measured the particle velocity at the sample surface to scale a finite difference linear elastic simulation to estimate the complex strain field in the sample, on the order of 10-6, induced by the S-wave pump. We derived a fourth order elastic model to relate the changes in elasticity to the pump strain components. We recover quadratic and cubic nonlinear parameters: β ˜ = - 872 and δ ˜ = - 1.1 × 10 10 , respectively, at room-temperature and when particle motions of the pump and probe waves are aligned. Temperature fluctuations are correlated to changes in the recovered values of β ˜ and δ ˜ , and we find that the nonlinear parameter changes when the particle motions are orthogonal. No evidence of slow dynamics was seen in our measurements. The same experimental configuration, when applied to Lucite and aluminum, produced no measurable nonlinear effects. In summary, a method of selectively determining the

  17. π-Stacking attraction vs. electrostatic repulsion: competing supramolecular interactions in a tpphz-bridged Ru(ii)/Au(iii) complex.

    PubMed

    Sorsche, Dieter; Schaub, Markus; Heinemann, Frank W; Habermehl, Johannes; Kuhri, Susanne; Guldi, Dirk; Guthmuller, Julien; Rau, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a mixed metal ruthenium(ii)/gold(iii) complex bridged by tetrapyridophenazine (tpphz) are described. It is isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-known photocatalysts with palladium(ii) or platinum(ii). Concentration dependent (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and XRD studies show that the electrostatic repulsion between the gold(iii) moieties exceeds the attractive π-stacking interaction. Theoretical calculations based on the new structural data confirm an increased positive charge on the bridging ligand as well as significantly altered orbital symmetry as compared to the previously investigated palladium(ii) complex. This is the first example of a tpphz ruthenium(ii) complex where π-stacking is completely inhibited. The detailed investigation of the solid-state structure showed for the first time in bimetallic tpphz bridged complexes no significant torsion within the bridging ligand itself. Although catalytic performance for proton reduction by gold(iii) is naturally not observed, its photochemical decomposition in colloidal gold particles could be shown by TEM and DLS. PMID:27472004

  18. Supramolecular self-assembly of a coumarine-based acylthiourea synthon directed by π-stacking interactions: Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Aamer; Ashraf, Saba; Flörke, Ulrich; Delgado Espinoza, Zuly Yuliana; Erben, Mauricio F.; Pérez, Hiram

    2016-05-01

    The structure of 1-(2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonyl)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)thiourea (1) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 7.455 (2) Å, b = 12.744 (3) Å, c = 16.892 (4) Å, β = 90.203 (6)° and Z = 4. Both, the coumarin and the phenyl rings are nearly coplanar with the central 1-acylthiourea group, with the Cdbnd O and Cdbnd S bonds adopting an opposite orientation. Intramolecular N-H···O, C-H···O, and C-H···S hydrogen bonds are favored by the planar conformation. The molecules are packed through C-H···O, C-H···S and C-H···C hydrogen bonds, and two π···π interactions with offset arrangement. Inter-centroid distance of 3.490 (2) Å, slip angles of 18.5 and 20.9°, and vertical displacements of 1.10 and 1.24 Å are the stacking parameters corresponding to the stronger π···π interaction. Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed for visualizing, exploring and quantifying intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice of compound 1, and compared with two closely related species. Shape index and Curvedness surfaces indicated π-stacking with different features in opposed sides of the molecule. Fingerprint plot showed C···C contacts with similar contributions to the crystal packing in comparison with those associated to hydrogen bonds. Enrichment ratios for H···H, O···H, S···H and C···C contacts revealed a high propensity to form in the crystal.

  19. Robust global sensitivity analysis of a river management model to assess nonlinear and interaction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, L. J. M.; Podger, G. M.; Smith, T.; Pickett, T.; Bark, R. H.; Cuddy, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    The simulation of routing and distribution of water through a regulated river system with a river management model will quickly result in complex and nonlinear model behaviour. A robust sensitivity analysis increases the transparency of the model and provides both the modeller and the system manager with a better understanding and insight on how the model simulates reality and management operations. In this study, a robust, density-based sensitivity analysis, developed by Plischke et al. (2013), is applied to an eWater Source river management model. This sensitivity analysis methodology is extended to not only account for main effects but also for interaction effects. The combination of sensitivity indices and scatter plots enables the identification of major linear effects as well as subtle minor and nonlinear effects. The case study is an idealized river management model representing typical conditions of the southern Murray-Darling Basin in Australia for which the sensitivity of a variety of model outcomes to variations in the driving forces, inflow to the system, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, is examined. The model outcomes are most sensitive to the inflow to the system, but the sensitivity analysis identified minor effects of potential evapotranspiration and nonlinear interaction effects between inflow and potential evapotranspiration.

  20. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (˜0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (˜kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇Te/Te strength exceeded 0.54 cm-1. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  1. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-15

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (∼0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (∼kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇T{sub e}/T{sub e} strength exceeded 0.54 cm{sup −1}. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  2. Impact of nonlinear effective interactions on group field theory quantum gravity condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pithis, Andreas G. A.; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Tomov, Petar

    2016-09-01

    We present the numerical analysis of effectively interacting group field theory models in the context of the group field theory quantum gravity condensate analog of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for real Bose-Einstein condensates including combinatorially local interaction terms. Thus, we go beyond the usually considered construction for free models. More precisely, considering such interactions in a weak regime, we find solutions for which the expectation value of the number operator N is finite, as in the free case. When tuning the interaction to the strongly nonlinear regime, however, we obtain solutions for which N grows and eventually blows up, which is reminiscent of what one observes for real Bose-Einstein condensates, where a strong interaction regime can only be realized at high density. This behavior suggests the breakdown of the Bogoliubov ansatz for quantum gravity condensates and the need for non-Fock representations to describe the system when the condensate constituents are strongly correlated. Furthermore, we study the expectation values of certain geometric operators imported from loop quantum gravity in the free and interacting cases. In particular, computing solutions around the nontrivial minima of the interaction potentials, one finds, already in the weakly interacting case, a nonvanishing condensate population for which the spectra are dominated by the lowest nontrivial configuration of the quantum geometry. This result indicates that the condensate may indeed consist of many smallest building blocks giving rise to an effectively continuous geometry, thus suggesting the interpretation of the condensate phase to correspond to a geometric phase.

  3. Colloquium: Nonlinear collective interactions in quantum plasmas with degenerate electron fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.

    2011-07-01

    The current understanding of some important nonlinear collective processes in quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of quantum plasmas, model equations (e.g., the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schroedinger-Poisson equations) are presented that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in tunneling of electrons and the electron degeneracy pressure. Since electrons are Fermions (spin-1/2 quantum particles), there also appears an electron spin current and a spin force acting on electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The quantum effects produce new aspects of electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) waves in a quantum plasma that are summarized in here. Furthermore, nonlinear features of ES ion waves and electron plasma oscillations are discussed, as well as the trapping of intense EM waves in quantum electron-density cavities. Specifically, simulation studies of the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger and Poisson equations reveal the formation and dynamics of localized ES structures at nanoscales in a quantum plasma. The effect of an external magnetic field on the plasma wave spectra and develop quantum magnetohydrodynamic equations are also discussed. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the cores of white dwarf stars and giant planets), as well as in plasma-assisted nanotechnology (e.g., quantum diodes, quantum free-electron lasers, nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, metallic nanostructures, thin metal films, semiconductor quantum wells, and quantum dots, etc.), and in the next generation of intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments relevant for fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion

  4. Colloquium: Nonlinear collective interactions in quantum plasmas with degenerate electron fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.

    2011-07-01

    The current understanding of some important nonlinear collective processes in quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of quantum plasmas, model equations (e.g., the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equations) are presented that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and Pauli’s exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in tunneling of electrons and the electron degeneracy pressure. Since electrons are Fermions (spin-1/2 quantum particles), there also appears an electron spin current and a spin force acting on electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The quantum effects produce new aspects of electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) waves in a quantum plasma that are summarized in here. Furthermore, nonlinear features of ES ion waves and electron plasma oscillations are discussed, as well as the trapping of intense EM waves in quantum electron-density cavities. Specifically, simulation studies of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger and Poisson equations reveal the formation and dynamics of localized ES structures at nanoscales in a quantum plasma. The effect of an external magnetic field on the plasma wave spectra and develop quantum magnetohydrodynamic equations are also discussed. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the cores of white dwarf stars and giant planets), as well as in plasma-assisted nanotechnology (e.g., quantum diodes, quantum free-electron lasers, nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, metallic nanostructures, thin metal films, semiconductor quantum wells, and quantum dots, etc.), and in the next generation of intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments relevant for fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion

  5. Non-linear wave interaction in a magnetoplasma column. I - Theory. II Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J.-M.; Crawford, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of non-linear three-wave interaction for propagation along a cylindrical plasma column surrounded either by a metallic boundary, or by an infinite dielectric, and immersed in an infinite, static, axial magnetic field. An averaged Lagrangian method is used and the results are specialized to parametric amplification and mode conversion, assuming an undepleted pump wave. Computations are presented for a magneto-plasma column surrounded by free space, indicating that parametric growth rates of the order of a fraction of a decibel per centimeter should be obtainable for plausible laboratory plasma parameters. In addition, experiments on non-linear mode conversion in a cylindrical magnetoplasma column are described. The results are compared with the theoretical predictions and good qualitative agreement is demonstrated.

  6. Modulus synchronization in a network of nonlinear systems with antagonistic interactions and switching topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shidong

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the collective behavior in a network of nonlinear systems with antagonistic interactions and switching topologies. The concept of modulus synchronization is introduced to characterize the case that the moduli of corresponding components of the agent (node) states reach a synchronization. The network topologies are modeled by a set of directed signed graphs. When all directed signed graphs are structurally balanced and the nonlinear system satisfies a one-sided Lipschitz condition, by using matrix measure and contraction theory, we show that modulus synchronization can be evaluated by the time average of some matrix measures. These matrices are about the second smallest eigenvalue of undirected graphs corresponding to directed signed graphs. Finally, we present two numerical examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  7. Nonlinear interaction between surface plasmons and ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M. Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Niknam, A. R.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear interaction between high-frequency surface plasmons and low-frequency ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma. By coupling the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and quantum hydrodynamic model, and taking into account the ponderomotive force, the dispersion equation is obtained. By solving this equation, it is shown that there is a modulational instability in the system, and collisions and quantum forces play significant roles on this instability. The quantum tunneling increases the phase and group velocities of the modulated waves and collisions increase the growth rate of the modulational instability. It is also shown that the effect of quantum forces and collisions is more significant in high modulated wavenumber regions.

  8. Nonlinear interaction of dispersive Alfven waves and magnetosonic waves in space plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. P.; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, H. D.

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the model equations governing the nonlinear interaction between dispersive Alfven wave (DAW) and magnetosonic wave in the low-{beta} plasmas ({beta}<nonlinearities are incorporated in the DAW dynamics, the model equations of DAW and magnetosonic wave turn out to be a modified Zakharov system of equations. Numerical solution of the problem has been obtained when the incident pump kinetic Alfven wave/inertial Alfven wave is having a small perturbation.

  9. Nonlinear acoustoelectric interactions in GaAs/LiNbO3 structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, M.; Wixforth, A.; Govorov, A. O.; Ruile, W.; Bernklau, D.; Riechert, H.

    1999-08-01

    Surface acoustic waves accompanied by very large piezoelectric fields can be created in a semiconductor/piezoelectric hybrid system. Such intense waves interact with the mobile carries in semiconductor quantum well structures in a manner being strongly governed by nonlinear effects. At high sound intensities, a formerly homogeneous two-dimensional electron system breaks up into well confined stripes surfing the wave. As a result, we observe a strong reduction of electronic sound attenuation. On the other hand, large momentum transfer between the electron system and the wave results in nonlinear acoustoelectric effects and acoustoelectric amplification. We describe our experimental findings in terms of a generalized theory of the acoustoelectric effect and discuss the importance for possible device applications.

  10. A bundled-stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline phase with inter-stack electronic coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Bin; Sun, Runkun; Günbaş, Duygu D.; Zhang, Hao; Grozema, Ferdinand C.; Xiao, Kai; Jin, Shi

    2015-06-15

    The first compound proving to be capable of forming a bundled-stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline (BSDCLC) phase was designed and synthesized. Finally, the unique perylene anhydride inter-stack interaction was found to be the key to the formation of the BSDCLC structure and inter-stack electronic coupling (ISEC).

  11. Weak-coupling instabilities of SU(N) fermions on the Bernal-stacked honeycomb bilayer in presence of on-site Hubbard Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Sumiran; Lang, Thomas C.; Kaul, Ribhu K.

    Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene hosts an interesting 'non-relativistic' semi-metallic dispersion different from monolayer graphene. At this quadratic band touching, short-range interactions are marginal and hence cause instabilities to a variety of ground states. In this work we consider the instabilities of even N species of fermions on the Bernal bilayer with an SU (N) -symmetric contact interaction. For SU (2) fermions with an on-site Hubbard interaction the ground state has been found to be to a magnetic Néel state for all strengths of the interaction. In contrast, the leading weak coupling instability for N > 2 is a non-magnetic ground state, which is gapped and odd under time reversal. On the other hand, at strong coupling we expect Néel or VBS ground states of the effective self-conjugate SU (N) spin models. Motivated by this observation, we investigate the phase diagram for even N > 2 using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo computations. Support from NSF Grant DMR-1056536 and XSEDE Grant DMR-150037.

  12. Fuel cell stack arrangements

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Somers, Edward V.

    1982-01-01

    Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

  13. PROPOSAL OF THE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE CONSIDERING INTERACTION BETWEEN BENDING AND TORSION AND NONLINEAR TORSION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Hisanori; Hattori, Masahiro

    When the structures, for example arch bridges are subjected bending moments and torsional moments, the strength and rigidity of the members decline compared to those of pure bending or torsion load condition. However, any analysis soft don't consider interrelation between bending and torsion ,and effects of torsional moments have not been considered severely in seismic design. In this study, the authors proposed analysis technique considering interaction between bending and torsion to estimate torsional moments severely, and formulized the analysis tools for this technique. These are interaction curve, skeleton for combined load, hysteresis for torsion. Moreover, the authors analyzed a RC arch bridge using this method, and inspected the validity of comparing the results obtained equivalent linear analysis about torsion and nonlinear torsional analysis not considering the interaction between bending and torsion.

  14. Temperature Induced Syllable Breaking Unveils Nonlinearly Interacting Timescales in Birdsong Motor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Matías A.; Alonso, Leandro M.; Alliende, Jorge A.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of telencephalic control over premotor and motor circuits is debated. Hypotheses range from complete usurping of downstream circuitry to highly interactive mechanisms of control. We show theoretically and experimentally, that telencephalic song motor control in canaries is consistent with a highly interactive strategy. As predicted from a theoretical model of respiratory control, mild cooling of a forebrain nucleus (HVC) led to song stretching, but further cooling caused progressive restructuring of song, consistent with the hypothesis that respiratory gestures are subharmonic responses to a timescale present in the output of HVC. This interaction between a life-sustaining motor function (respiration) and telencephalic song motor control suggests a more general mechanism of how nonlinear integration of evolutionarily new brain structures into existing circuitry gives rise to diverse, new behavior. PMID:23818988

  15. Nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.; Ishaaya, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents. Unlike the well-understood mixing of quasi-monochromatic waves, this configuration is highly non-intuitive due to the complex coupling between the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom of the interacting pulses. We illustrate the process intuitively with transitions between different branches of the dispersion curves and interpret it in terms of spectral exchange between the interacting pulses. We verify our interpretation with an example whereby a spectrally-narrow pulse “inherits” the wide spectrum of a pump pulse centered at a different wavelength, using exact numerical simulations, as well as a simplified coupled mode analysis and an asymptotic analytical solution. The latter also provides a simple and intuitive quantitative interpretation. The complex wave mixing process studied here may enable flexible spatio-temporal shaping of short pulses and is the starting point of the study of more complicated systems. PMID:27381552

  16. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Itasse, Maxime Brazier, Jean-Philippe Léon, Olivier Casalis, Grégoire

    2015-08-15

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m{sub 1}, n{sub 1}), (m{sub 2}, n{sub 2}), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m{sub 1} − m{sub 2}, n{sub 1} − n{sub 2}). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes.

  17. On nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dominic A. R.; Smith, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The instability of an incompressible three-dimensional boundary layer (that is, one with cross-flow) is considered theoretically and computationally in the context of vortex/wave interactions. Specifically the work centers on two low amplitude, lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves which mutually interact to induce a weak longitudinal vortex flow; the vortex motion, in turn, gives rise to significant wave-modulation via wall-shear forcing. The characteristic Reynolds number is taken as a large parameter and, as a consequence, the waves' and the vortex motion are governed primarily by triple-deck theory. The nonlinear interaction is captured by a viscous partial-differential system for the vortex coupled with a pair of amplitude equations for each wave pressure. Three distinct possibilities were found to emerge for the nonlinear behavior of the flow solution downstream - an algebraic finite-distance singularity, far downstream saturation or far-downstream wave-decay (leaving pure vortex flow) - depending on the input conditions, the wave angles, and the size of the cross-flow.

  18. Nonlinear Interaction of the Beat-Photon Beams with the Brain Neurocenters: Laser Neurophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2010-03-01

    I propose a novel mechanism for laser-brain interaction: Nonlinear interaction of ultrashort pulses of beat-photon, (φ1-- φ2), or double-photon, (φ1+φ2), footnotetextMaria Goeppert-Mayer, "Uber Elementarakte mit zwei Quantenspr"ungen, Ann Phys 9, 273, 95. (1931). beams with the corrupted brain neurocenters, causing a particular neurological disease. The open-scull cerebral tissue can be irradiated with the beat-photon pulses in the range of several 100s fs, with the laser irradiances in the range of a few mW/cm^2, repetition rate of a few 100s Hz, and in the frequency range of 700-1300nm generated in the beat-wave driven free electron laser.footnotetextV. Alexander Stefan, The Interaction of Photon Beams with the DNA Molecules: Genomic Medical Physics. American Physical Society, 2009 APS March Meeting, March 16-20, 2009, abstract #K1.276; V. Stefan, B. I. Cohen, and C. Joshi, Nonlinear Mixing of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas Science 27 January 1989:Vol. 243. no. 4890, pp. 494 -- 500 (January 1989). This method may prove to be an effective mechanism in the treatment of neurological diseases: Parkinson's, Lou Gehrig's, and others.

  19. Study of nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and intermediate cavities in a relativistic klystron amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H.; Tang, C. X.

    2012-07-15

    In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.

  20. Evidence of nonlinear interaction between quasi 2 day wave and quasi-stationary wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Li, Tao; Dou, Xiankang; Wu, Qian; Russell, James M.

    2015-02-01

    The nonlinear interaction between the westward quasi 2 day wave (QTDW) with zonal wave number s = 3 (W3) and stationary planetary wave with s = 1 (SPW1) is first investigated using both Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Mesosphere Electric Dynamics (TIMED) satellite observations and the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) simulations. A QTDW with westward s = 2 (W2) is identified in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region in TIMED/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) temperature and TIMED/TIMED Doppler Imager (TIDI) wind observations during 2011/2012 austral summer period, which coincides with a strong SPW1 episode at high latitude of the northern winter hemisphere. The temperature perturbation of W2 QTDW reaches a maximum amplitude of ~8 K at ~30°S and ~88 km in the Southern Hemisphere, with a smaller amplitude in the Northern Hemisphere at similar latitude and minimum amplitude at the equator. The maximum meridional wind amplitude of the W2 QTDW is observed to be ~40 m/s at 95 km in the equatorial region. The TIME-GCM is utilized to simulate the nonlinear interactions between W3 QTDW and SPW1 by specifying both W3 QTDW and SPW1 perturbations at the lower model boundary. The model results show a clear W2 QTDW signature in the MLT region, which agrees well with the TIMED/SABER temperature and TIMED/TIDI horizontal wind observations. We conclude that the W2 QTDW during the 2011/2012 austral summer period results from the nonlinear interaction between W3 QTDW and SPW1.

  1. Recent Progress on Nonlinear Schrödinger Systems with Quadratic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Hayashi, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    The study of nonlinear Schrödinger systems with quadratic interactions has attracted much attention in the recent years. In this paper, we summarize time decay estimates of small solutions to the systems under the mass resonance condition in 2-dimensional space. We show the existence of wave operators and modified wave operators of the systems under some mass conditions in n-dimensional space, where n ≥ 2. The existence of scattering operators and finite time blow-up of the solutions for the systems in higher space dimensions is also shown. PMID:25143965

  2. Role of convective cell in nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, O. O.; Lin, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Gyrokinetic particle simulations show that electrostatic convective cell (CC) can be generated by kinetic Alfvén waves and plays a dominant role in the nonlinear interactions underlying perpendicular spectral cascade. The CC growth rate increases linearly with the field amplitude of the pump waves and has a small but finite threshold, and decreases with the parallel wavevector. The CC growth is proportional to the perpendicular wavevector when there are two pump waves, but proportional to the square of the perpendicular wavevector when there is a single pump wave.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of inhomogeneous antiferromagnetic system with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christal Vasanthi, C.; Latha, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Soliton excitation in a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction has been studied using the Holstein-Primakoff representation, the coherent-state ansatz and the time-dependent variational principle. The dynamics is found to be governed by a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. Employing the sine-cosine function method with minimal algebra, we analyse the effect of inhomogeneity in terms of soliton under perturbation and it is found that inhomogeneity causes splitting in soliton and hence a disorder in the system.

  4. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  5. Linear and nonlinear information flow based on time delayed mutual information method and its application to corticomuscular interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Lin, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To propose a model-free method to show linear and nonlinear information flow based on time delayed mutual information (TDMI) by employing uni- and bi-variate surrogate tests and to investigate whether there are contributions of the nonlinear information flow in corticomuscular (CM) interaction. Methods Using simulated data, we tested whether our method would successfully detect the direction of information flow and identify a relationship between two simulated time series. As an experimental data application, we applied this method to investigate CM interaction during a right wrist extension task. Results Results of simulation tests show that we can correctly detect the direction of information flow and the relationship between two time series without a prior knowledge of the dynamics of their generating systems. As experimental results, we found both linear and nonlinear information flow from contralateral sensorimotor cortex to muscle. Conclusions Our method is a viable model-free measure of temporally varying causal interactions that is capable of distinguishing linear and nonlinear information flow. With respect to experimental application, there are both linear and nonlinear information flows in CM interaction from contralateral sensorimotor cortex to muscle, which may reflect the motor command from brain to muscle. Significance This is the first study to show separate linear and nonlinear information flow in CM interaction. PMID:20044309

  6. Modelling of multiscale nonlinear interaction of elastic waves with three-dimensional cracks.

    PubMed

    Ciampa, Francesco; Barbieri, Ettore; Meo, Michele

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear elastic material model able to simulate the nonlinear effects generated by the interaction of acoustic/ultrasonic waves with damage precursors and micro-cracks in a variety of materials. Such a constitutive model is implemented in an in-house finite element code and exhibits a multiscale nature where the macroscopic behavior of damaged structures can be represented through a contribution of a number of mesoscopic elements, which are composed by a statistical collection of microscopic units. By means of the semi-analytical Landau formulation and Preisach-Mayergoyz space representation, this multiscale model allows the description of the structural response under continuous harmonic excitation of micro-damaged materials showing both anharmonic and dissipative hysteretic effects. In this manner, nonlinear effects observed experimentally, such as the generation of both even and odd harmonics, can be reproduced. In addition, by using Kelvin eigentensors and eigenelastic constants, the wave propagation problem in both isotropic and orthotropic solids was extended to the three-dimensional Cartesian space. The developed model has been verified for a number of different geometrical and material configurations. Particularly, the influence of a small region with classical and non-classical elasticity and the variations of the input amplitudes on the harmonics generation were analyzed.

  7. Laboratory Studies of Nonlinear Alfvén Interactions and Decay Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S.; Carter, T.; Vincena, S.; Pribyl, P.; Rossi, G.; Sydora, R.; Lin, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Alfvén waves, a fundamental mode of magnetized plasmas, are ubiquitous in lab and space. The non-linear behavior of these modes is thought to play a key role in important problems such as the heating of the solar corona, solar wind turbulence, and Alfvén eigenmodes in tokamaks. In particular, theoretical predictions show that these Alfvén waves may be unstable to various decay instabilities, even at low amplitudes (δB / B <10-3). The present work, conducted at UCLA's Large Plasma Device, represents the first fundamental laboratory study of the non-linear Alfvén wave interactions responsible for Alfvén wave decay instabilities. Experiments include the first laboratory observation of the Alfvén-acoustic mode coupling at the heart of the Parametric Decay Instability. More recently, efforts have focused on the non-linear decay of a KAW into daughter modes with frequencies and wave numbers that suggest co-propagating KAWs. The observed process is parametric, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump amplitude. Efforts are underway to fully characterize this set of experiments and compare with decay instabilities predicted by theory and simulations. Supported by DOE, NSF, and DOE FES and NASA Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowships.

  8. Multiphysics modeling of non-linear laser-matter interactions for optically active semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraczek, Brent; Kanp, Jaroslaw

    Development of photonic devices for sensors and communications devices has been significantly enhanced by computational modeling. We present a new computational method for modelling laser propagation in optically-active semiconductors within the paraxial wave approximation (PWA). Light propagation is modeled using the Streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Material response enters through the non-linear polarization, which serves as the right-hand side of the FEM calculation. Maxwell's equations for classical light propagation within the PWA can be written solely in terms of the electric field, producing a wave equation that is a form of the advection-diffusion-reaction equations (ADREs). This allows adaptation of the computational machinery developed for solving ADREs in fluid dynamics to light-propagation modeling. The non-linear polarization is incorporated using a flexible framework to enable the use of multiple methods for carrier-carrier interactions (e.g. relaxation-time-based or Monte Carlo) to enter through the non-linear polarization, as appropriate to the material type. We demonstrate using a simple carrier-carrier model approximating the response of GaN. Supported by ARL Materials Enterprise.

  9. Computation and analysis of a nonlinear nonlocal cochlear model with applications to multitone interactions in hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jack; Qi, Yingyong; Deng, Li

    2002-11-01

    A nonlinear nonlocal cochlear model of the transmission line type is studied to capture the multitone interactions and tonal suppression effects. The model can serve as a module for voice signal processing. It is a one-dimensional (in space) damped dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) based on mechanics and phenomenology of hearing. The elastic damping is a nonlinear and nonlocal functional of basilar-membrane displacement. The initial boundary value problem is solved with a semi-implicit second-order finite difference method. Numerical results are shown on two-tone suppression from both high-frequency and low-frequency sides, consistent with known behavior. Suppression effects among three tones are demonstrated by showing how the response magnitudes of the two fixed tones are reduced as the third tone is varied in frequency and amplitude. Qualitative agreement with existing cat auditory neural data is observed. The model is thus simple and efficient as a processing tool for voice signals. Mathematical analysis of global well-posedness of the model PDE and the existence of multitone solutions will also be shown via the method of a priori estimates and fixed point theory. [Work partially supported by ARO and NSF.

  10. Nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfven wave with fast magnetosonic wave and turbulent spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, K. V.; Sharma, R. P.

    2013-03-15

    In the present paper, authors have investigated nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) and fast magnetosonic wave for intermediate {beta}-plasma (m{sub e}/m{sub i} Much-Less-Than {beta} Much-Less-Than 1). Authors have developed the set of dimensionless equations in the presence of ponderomotive nonlinearity due to KAW in the dynamics of fast magnetosonic wave. Numerical simulation has been carried out to study the effect of nonlinear coupling and resulting turbulent/power spectrum for the different angles of propagation of fast magnetosonic wave applicable to solar wind at 1 AU. The localization of KAW has been found which becomes more complex as the angle of propagation of fast magnetosonic wave decreases. Results also reveal the steepening of power spectrum as the angle of propagation decreases which can be responsible for heating and acceleration of plasma particles in solar wind. Relevance of the obtained result is pointed out with observation received by Cluster spacecraft for the solar wind 1 AU.

  11. Nonlinear interaction of instability waves and vortex-pairing noise in axisymmetric subsonic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hai-Hua; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Xing-Chen; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Sun, De-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A direct simulation with selected inflow forcing is performed for an accurate description of the jet flow field and far-field noise. The effects of the Mach number and heating on the acoustic field are studied in detail. The beam patterns and acoustic intensities are both varied as the change of the Mach number and temperature. The decomposition of the source terms of the Lilley-Goldstein (L-G) equation shows that the momentum and thermodynamic components lead to distinctly different beam patterns. Significant cancellation is found between the momentum and thermodynamic components at low polar angles for the isothermal jet and large polar angles for the hot jet. The cancellation leads to the minimum values of the far-field sound. Based on linear parabolized stability equation solutions, the nonlinear interaction model for sound prediction is built in combination with the L-G equation. The dominant beam patterns and their original locations predicted by the nonlinear model are in good agreement with the direct simulation results, and the predictions of sound pressure level (SPL) by the nonlinear model are relatively reasonable.

  12. An Efficient Nonlinear Regression Approach for Genome-wide Detection of Marginal and Interacting Genetic Variations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghak; Lozano, Aurélie; Kambadur, Prabhanjan; Xing, Eric P

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed individual genetic variants associated with phenotypic traits such as disease risk and gene expressions. However, detecting pairwise interaction effects of genetic variants on traits still remains a challenge due to a large number of combinations of variants (∼10(11) SNP pairs in the human genome), and relatively small sample sizes (typically <10(4)). Despite recent breakthroughs in detecting interaction effects, there are still several open problems, including: (1) how to quickly process a large number of SNP pairs, (2) how to distinguish between true signals and SNPs/SNP pairs merely correlated with true signals, (3) how to detect nonlinear associations between SNP pairs and traits given small sample sizes, and (4) how to control false positives. In this article, we present a unified framework, called SPHINX, which addresses the aforementioned challenges. We first propose a piecewise linear model for interaction detection, because it is simple enough to estimate model parameters given small sample sizes but complex enough to capture nonlinear interaction effects. Then, based on the piecewise linear model, we introduce randomized group lasso under stability selection, and a screening algorithm to address the statistical and computational challenges mentioned above. In our experiments, we first demonstrate that SPHINX achieves better power than existing methods for interaction detection under false positive control. We further applied SPHINX to late-onset Alzheimer's disease dataset, and report 16 SNPs and 17 SNP pairs associated with gene traits. We also present a highly scalable implementation of our screening algorithm, which can screen ∼118 billion candidates of associations on a 60-node cluster in <5.5 hours. PMID:27159633

  13. Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever-Sample Interactions in Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the cantilever tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is obtained by treating the cantilever and sample as independent systems coupled by a nonlinear force acting between the cantilever tip and a volume element of the sample surface. The volume element is subjected to a restoring force from the remainder of the sample that provides dynamical equilibrium for the combined systems. The model accounts for the positions on the cantilever of the cantilever tip, laser probe, and excitation force (if any) via a basis set of set of orthogonal functions that may be generalized to account for arbitrary cantilever shapes. The basis set is extended to include nonlinear cantilever modes. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a matrix iteration procedure. The effects of oscillatory excitation forces applied either to the cantilever or to the sample surface (or to both) are obtained from the solution set and applied to the to the assessment of phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) modalities. The influence of bistable cantilever modes of on AFM signal generation is discussed. The effects on the cantilever-sample surface dynamics of subsurface features embedded in the sample that are perturbed by surface-generated oscillatory excitation forces and carried to the cantilever via wave propagation are accounted by the Bolef-Miller propagating wave model. Expressions pertaining to signal generation and image contrast in A-AFM are obtained and applied to amplitude modulation (intermittent contact) atomic force microscopy and resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM). The influence of phase accumulation in A-AFM on image contrast is discussed, as is the effect of hard contact and maximum nonlinearity regimes of A-AFM operation.

  14. Comparison of zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography in determination of the interaction between seven drugs and immobilised β(2)-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Yuqing Yuan; Yang, Lingjian; Zhang, Yajun; Bian, Liujiao; Zheng, Jianbin; Li, Zijian; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zhang, Youyi

    2015-07-01

    Zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography are two mainstream models for the determination of drug-protein interaction in affinity chromatography. This work intended to compare the results by zonal elution with that by nonlinear chromatography when it comes to the analysis of the interaction between seven drugs and immobilised β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR). The results of the zonal elution showed that clorprenaline, clenbuterol, methoxyphenamine, salbutamol, terbutaline, tulobuterol and bambuterol have only one type of binding site on immobilised β2-AR, while nonlinear chromatography confirmed the existence of at least two types of binding sites between β2-AR and clorprenaline, clenbuterol and bambuterol. On these sites, both zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography presented the same rank order for the association constants of the seven drugs. Compared with the data from zonal elution, the association constants calculated using nonlinear chromatography gave a good linear response to the corresponding values by radio-ligand binding assay. The sampling efficiencies of nonlinear chromatography were clearly higher than zonal elution. Nonlinear chromatography will probably become a powerful alternative for the high throughput determination of drug-protein interaction.

  15. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  16. Breather-to-soliton transitions, nonlinear wave interactions, and modulational instability in a higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Zi-Qi; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Guo, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds of the higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (HGNLS) equation describing the propagation of ultrashort optical pulse in optical fibers. We derive the breather, rogue wave, and semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation. Our results show that these three types of solutions can be converted into the nonpulsating soliton solutions. In particular, we present the explicit conditions for the transitions between breathers and solitons with different structures. Further, we investigate the characteristics of the collisions between the soliton and breathers. Especially, based on the semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation, we display the novel interactions between the rogue waves and other nonlinear waves. In addition, we reveal the explicit relation between the transition and the distribution characteristics of the modulation instability growth rate.

  17. Interactive application of quadratic expansion of chi-square statistic to nonlinear curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, F. F.; Everhart, Joel L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains a detailed theoretical description of an all-purpose, interactive curve-fitting routine that is based on P. R. Bevington's description of the quadratic expansion of the Chi-Square statistic. The method is implemented in the associated interactive, graphics-based computer program. Taylor's expansion of Chi-Square is first introduced, and justifications for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations is derived, then solved by matrix algebra. A brief description of the code is presented along with a limited number of changes that are required to customize the program of a particular task. To evaluate the performance of the method and the goodness of nonlinear curve fitting, two typical engineering problems are examined and the graphical and tabular output of each is discussed. A complete listing of the entire package is included as an appendix.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic response of a simple ice-structure interaction model

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, D.G.; Troesch, A.W.; Wingate, W.C. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The problem addressed in the continuous indentation of a ship or offshore structure into an ice sheet. The impacting ship or offshore structure is represented by a mass-spring-dashpot system having a constant velocity relative to the ice sheet. The dynamic response of this simple analogue model of ice-structure interaction is studied in considerable detail. The complicated, highly nonlinear dynamic response is due to intermittent ice breakage and intermittent contact of the structure with the ice. Periodic motions are found and the periodicity for a particular system is dependent upon initial conditions. For a representative system, a Poincare map is presented showing the fixed points. A description of some of the effects of random variations in system parameters is also presented. Some implications of these findings regarding structural design for ice interaction are discussed.

  19. Nonlinear interaction of a fast magnetogasdynamic shock with a tangential discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, F. M.

    1973-01-01

    A basic problem, which is of considerable interest in geoastrophysical applications of magnetogasdynamics, is the nonlinear interaction of a fast shock (S sub f) with a tangential discontinuity (T). The problem is treated for an arbitrary S sub f interacting with an arbitrary T under the assumption that in the frame of reference in which S sub f and T are at rest, the flow is superfast on both sides of T, and that a steady flow develops. As a result of the nonlinear analysis a flow pattern is obtained consisting of the incident discontinuities S sub f 1 and T2 and a transmitted fast shock S sub f 3, the modified tangential discontinuity T4 and a reflected fast shock S sub f 5 or fast rarefaction wave R sub f 5. The results are discussed in terms of seven significant similarity parameters. In addition special cases like changes in magnetic field direction only, changes in desnity or velocity shear only etc. are discussed.

  20. A Modified Nonlinear Damage Accumulation Model for Fatigue Life Prediction Considering Load Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Yuan, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Many structures are subjected to variable amplitude loading in engineering practice. The foundation of fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude loading is how to deal with the fatigue damage accumulation. A nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation model to consider the effects of load sequences was proposed in earlier literature, but the model cannot consider the load interaction effects, and sometimes it makes a major error. A modified nonlinear damage accumulation model is proposed in this paper to account for the load interaction effects. Experimental data of two metallic materials are used to validate the proposed model. The agreement between the model prediction and experimental data is observed, and the predictions by proposed model are more possibly in accordance with experimental data than that by primary model and Miner's rule. Comparison between the predicted cumulative damage by the proposed model and an existing model shows that the proposed model predictions can meet the accuracy requirement of the engineering project and it can be used to predict the fatigue life of welded aluminum alloy joint of Electric Multiple Units (EMU); meanwhile, the accuracy of approximation can be obtained from the proposed model though more simple computing process and less material parameters calling for extensive testing than the existing model. PMID:24574866

  1. Multimodal non-linear optical imaging for the investigation of drug nano-/microcrystal-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Darville, Nicolas; Saarinen, Jukka; Isomäki, Antti; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Cleeren, Dirk; Sterkens, Patrick; van Heerden, Marjolein; Annaert, Pieter; Peltonen, Leena; Santos, Hélder A; Strachan, Clare J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Drug nano-/microcrystals are being used for sustained parenteral drug release, but safety and efficacy concerns persist as the knowledge of the in vivo fate of long-living particulates is limited. There is a need for techniques enabling the visualization of drug nano-/microcrystals in biological matrices. The aim of this work was to explore the potential of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, supported by other non-linear optical methods, as an emerging tool for the investigation of cellular and tissue interactions of unlabeled and non-fluorescent nano-/microcrystals. Raman and CARS spectra of the prodrug paliperidone palmitate (PP), paliperidone (PAL) and several suspension stabilizers were recorded. PP nano-/microcrystals were incubated with RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and their cellular disposition was investigated using a fully-integrated multimodal non-linear optical imaging platform. Suitable anti-Stokes shifts (CH stretching) were identified for selective CARS imaging. CARS microscopy was successfully applied for the selective three-dimensional, non-perturbative and real-time imaging of unlabeled PP nano-/microcrystals having dimensions larger than the optical lateral resolution of approximately 400nm, in relation to the cellular framework in cell cultures and ex vivo in histological sections. In conclusion, CARS microscopy enables the non-invasive and label-free imaging of (sub)micron-sized (pro-)drug crystals in complex biological matrices and could provide vital information on poorly understood nano-/microcrystal-cell interactions in future.

  2. In-situ observations of nonlinear wave particle interaction of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Keika, K.; Katoh, Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nakamura, S.; Omura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Direct measurement method for the electromagnetic wave and space plasma interaction has been suggested by a computer simulation study [Katoh et al., 2013], so-called Wave Particle Interaction Analysis (WPIA). We perform the WPIA for rising tone electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves (so-called EMIC triggered emissions), of which generation mechanism is essentially the same as the chorus emissions. THEMIS observation data (EFI, FGM, and ESA) are used for the WPIA. In the WPIA, we calculate (1) the inner product of the wave electric field and the velocity of the energetic protons: Wint, (2) the inner product of the wave magnetic field and the velocity of the energetic protons: WBint, and (3) the phase angle ζ between the wave magnetic field and the perpendicular velocity of the energetic protons. The values of (1) and (2) indicate the existence of the resonant currents inducing the nonlinear wave growth and the frequency change, respectively. We find the negative Wint and positive WBint at the nonlinear growing phase of the triggered emission as predicted in the theory [e.g. Omura and Nunn, 2011, Shoji and Omura, 2013]. In histogram of (3), we show the existence of the electromagnetic proton holes in the phase space generating the resonant currents. We also perform a hybrid simulation and evaluate WPIA method for EMIC waves. The simulation results show good agreement with the in-situ THEMIS observations.

  3. Non-covalent biofunctionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes via biotin attachment by π-stacking interactions and pyrrole polymerization.

    PubMed

    Haddad, R; Cosnier, S; Maaref, A; Holzinger, M

    2009-12-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with biotin using either electropolymerization or formation of pi-stacking interactions for the construction of biosensors. Thanks to the high affinity of the avidin-biotin interactions, a biotinylated glucose oxidase (B-GOX) as a biomolecule model was immobilized on the biotinylated nanotubes. The influence of the biosensor configuration on their amperometric performances was investigated by changing the amount of nanotubes and the numbers of avidin/B-GOX layers. By increasing the amount of nanotube and avidin/B-GOX layers, both sensor setups show a perfect linear increase of immobilized enzymes reflecting a high reproducibility of our systems. The highest sensitivities (up to 5.2 mA M(-1) cm(-2)) and maximum current densities (up to 55 microA cm(-2)) were obtained using nanotube deposits modified by electrochemical coatings. In contrast, non-covalently functionalized biotin-nanotubes show a better permeability for the enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide.

  4. The strong nonlinear interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Taylor-Goertler vortices in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J.; Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    Viscous fluid flows with curved streamlines can support both centrifugal and viscous traveling wave instabilities. Here the interaction of these instabilities in the context of the fully developed flow in a curved channel is discussed. The viscous (Tollmein-Schlichting) instability is described asymptotically at high Reynolds numbers and it is found that it can induce a Taylor-Goertler flow even at extremely small amplitudes. In this interaction, the Tollmein-Schlichting wave can drive a vortex state with wavelength either comparable with the channel width or the wavelength of lower branch viscous modes. The nonlinear equations which describe these interactions are solved for nonlinear equilibrium states.

  5. Getting off the Straight and Narrow: Exploiting Non-Linear, Interactive Narrative Structures in Digital Stories for Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Digital storytelling is already used extensively in language education. Web documentaries, particularly in terms of design and narrative structure, provide an extension of the digital storytelling concept, specifically in terms of increased interactivity. Using a model of interactive, non-linear storytelling, originally derived from computer game…

  6. Nonlinear interaction of proton whistler with kinetic Alfvén wave to study solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.; Sharma, R. P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dwivedi, N. K.

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents the nonlinear interaction between small but finite amplitude kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) and proton whistler wave using two-fluid model in intermediate beta plasma, applicable to solar wind. The nonlinearity is introduced by modification in the background density. This change in density is attributed to the nonlinear ponderomotive force due to KAW. The solutions of the model equations, governing the nonlinear interaction (and its effect on the formation of localized structures), have been obtained using semi-analytical method in solar wind at 1AU. It is concluded that the KAW properties significantly affect the threshold field required for the filament formation and their critical size (for proton whistler). The magnetic and electric field power spectra have been obtained and their relevance with the recent observations of solar wind turbulence by Cluster spacecraft has been pointed out.

  7. A series of Cd(II) complexes with {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions: Structural diversities by varying the ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiuli; Zhang Jinxia; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan

    2011-02-15

    Seven new Cd(II) complexes consisting of different phenanthroline derivatives and organic acid ligands, formulated as [Cd(PIP){sub 2}(dnba){sub 2}] (1), [Cd(PIP)(ox)].H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(PIP)(1,4-bdc)(H{sub 2}O)].4H{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(3-PIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O (4), [Cd{sub 2}(3-PIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (5), [Cd(3-PIP)(nip)(H{sub 2}O)].H{sub 2}O (6), [Cd{sub 2}(TIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (7) (PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 3-PIP=2-(3-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, TIP=2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, Hdnba=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1 and 4 possess mononuclear structures; complexes 5 and 7 are isostructural and have dinuclear structures; complexes 2 and 3 feature 1D chain structures; complex 6 contains 1D double chain, which are further extended to a 3D supramolecular structure by {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The N-donor ligands with extended {pi}-system and organic acid ligands play a crucial role in the formation of the final supramolecular frameworks. Moreover, thermal properties and fluorescence of 1-7 are also investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Seven new supramolecular architectures have been successfully isolated under hydrothermal conditions by reactions of different phen derivatives and Cd(II) salts together with organic carboxylate anions auxiliary ligands. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Complexes 1-7 are 0D or 1D polymeric structure, the {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions extend the complexes into 3D supramolecular network. To our knowledge, systematic study on {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions in cadmium(II) complexes are still limited. {yields} The structural

  8. Theory of non-collinear interactions of acoustic waves in an isotropic material with hysteretic quadratic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Vitalyi

    2002-01-01

    A particular form of the energy potential (cubic in strains) is proposed, which leads to the bow-tie behavior of the nonlinear modulus in an isotropic material with hysteresis of quadratic nonlinearity. The nonlinear scattering of a weak probe wave in the field of a strong pump wave is analyzed. It is demonstrated that collinear interactions of the shear waves are allowed in materials with nonlinearity hysteresis. Both in collinear and non-collinear frequency-mixing processes the combination frequency is composed of the probe wave frequency and one of the even harmonics of the pump wave. In general, the developed theory predicts that in the presence of the hysteretic nonlinearity the number of possible resonant scattering processes increases. In particular, if frequency-mixing processes are forbidden in the material with the elastic quadratic nonlinearity (for a fixed ratio of primary frequencies), they may be allowed in the materials with hysteretic quadratic nonlinearity. Moreover, in materials with hysteresis of the nonlinearity the resonant frequency mixing for a fixed ratio of primary frequencies may be allowed for multiple mutual orientations of the primary wave vectors. PMID:11831826

  9. Large eddy simulations and experiments of nonlinear flow interactions in hybrid rocket combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Y.; Lee, C.

    2013-03-01

    Nonlinear combustion phenomenon was investigated through an experiment in a hybrid rocket motor. A poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) / gaseous oxygen (GOx) combination was used with several types of disks equipped in a prechamber with the aim of modifying the local turbulent flow. By allowing this disturbance generated in a prechamber to interact with the shedding vortex inherently produced in the main chamber, a possibility of commonly observed nonlinear combustion feature such as DC-shift was analyzed. In a baseline test, a vortex shedding occurs due to the interaction of a main oxidizer flow with the evaporated fuel stream coming out of the surface during the regression process. Among the several types of disks, it turned out that only the disk4 produced the excitation which subsequently suppressed the vortex shedding phenomenon in the main chamber. This descent interaction was reflected in a sudden pressure drop (which may be described as direct current (DC) shift) of about 10 psi in the time history of the pressure during the nominal combustion. The present result with the disk4 suggests the possibility of phase cancellation between the excitation induced by the disk4 and the shedding vortex but much more work should be conducted to extract more accurate correlation of the phase information. In order to understand the baseline flow physics, a compressible large eddy simulation (LES) was conducted with the prescribed wall blowing boundary condition. The result clearly exhibited the existence of vortex shedding phenomenon with a specified frequency. The fact that important flow features of the present computation are quite similar to those obtained with an incompressible assumption in a flat channel suggests that both compressibility and curvature effects do not dominate in the present flow configuration.

  10. Fluid-structure interaction for nonlinear response of shells conveying pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubaldi, Eleonora; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2016-06-01

    Circular cylindrical shells with flexible boundary conditions conveying pulsatile flow and subjected to pulsatile pressure are investigated. The equations of motion are obtained based on the nonlinear Novozhilov shell theory via Lagrangian approach. The flow is set in motion by a pulsatile pressure gradient. The fluid is modeled as a Newtonian pulsatile flow and it is formulated using a hybrid model that contains the unsteady effects obtained from the linear potential flow theory and the pulsatile viscous effects obtained from the unsteady time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A numerical bifurcation analysis employs a refined reduced order model to investigate the dynamic behavior. The case of shells containing quiescent fluid subjected to the action of a pulsatile transmural pressure is also addressed. Geometrically nonlinear vibration response to pulsatile flow and transmural pressure are here presented via frequency-response curves and time histories. The vibrations involving both a driven mode and a companion mode, which appear due to the axial symmetry, are also investigated. This theoretical framework represents a pioneering study that could be of great interest for biomedical applications. In particular, in the future, a more refined model of the one here presented will possibly be applied to reproduce the dynamic behavior of vascular prostheses used for repairing and replacing damaged and diseased thoracic aorta in cases of aneurysm, dissection or coarctation. For this purpose, a pulsatile time-dependent blood flow model is here considered by applying physiological waveforms of velocity and pressure during the heart beating period. This study provides, for the first time in literature, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model with deep insights in the nonlinear vibrations of circular cylindrical shells subjected to pulsatile pressure and pulsatile flow.

  11. A Nonlinear Model for Gene-Based Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Jian; Liu, Xu; He, Tao; Liu, Guifen; Cui, Yuehua

    2016-01-01

    A vast amount of literature has confirmed the role of gene-environment (G×E) interaction in the etiology of complex human diseases. Traditional methods are predominantly focused on the analysis of interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and an environmental variable. Given that genes are the functional units, it is crucial to understand how gene effects (rather than single SNP effects) are influenced by an environmental variable to affect disease risk. Motivated by the increasing awareness of the power of gene-based association analysis over single variant based approach, in this work, we proposed a sparse principle component regression (sPCR) model to understand the gene-based G×E interaction effect on complex disease. We first extracted the sparse principal components for SNPs in a gene, then the effect of each principal component was modeled by a varying-coefficient (VC) model. The model can jointly model variants in a gene in which their effects are nonlinearly influenced by an environmental variable. In addition, the varying-coefficient sPCR (VC-sPCR) model has nice interpretation property since the sparsity on the principal component loadings can tell the relative importance of the corresponding SNPs in each component. We applied our method to a human birth weight dataset in Thai population. We analyzed 12,005 genes across 22 chromosomes and found one significant interaction effect using the Bonferroni correction method and one suggestive interaction. The model performance was further evaluated through simulation studies. Our model provides a system approach to evaluate gene-based G×E interaction. PMID:27271617

  12. A Nonlinear Model for Gene-Based Gene-Environment Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jian; Liu, Xu; He, Tao; Liu, Guifen; Cui, Yuehua

    2016-01-01

    A vast amount of literature has confirmed the role of gene-environment (G×E) interaction in the etiology of complex human diseases. Traditional methods are predominantly focused on the analysis of interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and an environmental variable. Given that genes are the functional units, it is crucial to understand how gene effects (rather than single SNP effects) are influenced by an environmental variable to affect disease risk. Motivated by the increasing awareness of the power of gene-based association analysis over single variant based approach, in this work, we proposed a sparse principle component regression (sPCR) model to understand the gene-based G×E interaction effect on complex disease. We first extracted the sparse principal components for SNPs in a gene, then the effect of each principal component was modeled by a varying-coefficient (VC) model. The model can jointly model variants in a gene in which their effects are nonlinearly influenced by an environmental variable. In addition, the varying-coefficient sPCR (VC-sPCR) model has nice interpretation property since the sparsity on the principal component loadings can tell the relative importance of the corresponding SNPs in each component. We applied our method to a human birth weight dataset in Thai population. We analyzed 12,005 genes across 22 chromosomes and found one significant interaction effect using the Bonferroni correction method and one suggestive interaction. The model performance was further evaluated through simulation studies. Our model provides a system approach to evaluate gene-based G×E interaction. PMID:27271617

  13. A Nonlinear Model for Gene-Based Gene-Environment Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jian; Liu, Xu; He, Tao; Liu, Guifen; Cui, Yuehua

    2016-06-04

    A vast amount of literature has confirmed the role of gene-environment (G×E) interaction in the etiology of complex human diseases. Traditional methods are predominantly focused on the analysis of interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and an environmental variable. Given that genes are the functional units, it is crucial to understand how gene effects (rather than single SNP effects) are influenced by an environmental variable to affect disease risk. Motivated by the increasing awareness of the power of gene-based association analysis over single variant based approach, in this work, we proposed a sparse principle component regression (sPCR) model to understand the gene-based G×E interaction effect on complex disease. We first extracted the sparse principal components for SNPs in a gene, then the effect of each principal component was modeled by a varying-coefficient (VC) model. The model can jointly model variants in a gene in which their effects are nonlinearly influenced by an environmental variable. In addition, the varying-coefficient sPCR (VC-sPCR) model has nice interpretation property since the sparsity on the principal component loadings can tell the relative importance of the corresponding SNPs in each component. We applied our method to a human birth weight dataset in Thai population. We analyzed 12,005 genes across 22 chromosomes and found one significant interaction effect using the Bonferroni correction method and one suggestive interaction. The model performance was further evaluated through simulation studies. Our model provides a system approach to evaluate gene-based G×E interaction.

  14. Towards modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions with hydrocodes: The thick-ray approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaïtis, A.; Duchateau, G.; Nicolaï, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the computation of laser beam intensity in large-scale radiative hydrocodes applied to the modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (LPIs) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is adapted for light waves in an inhomogeneous medium and modified to include the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the ponderomotive force. This thick-ray model is compared to the standard ray-tracing (RT) approach, both in the chic code. The PCGO model leads to different power deposition patterns and better diffraction modeling compared to standard RT codes. The intensity-reconstruction technique used in RT codes to model nonlinear LPI leads to artificial filamentation and fails to reproduce realistic ponderomotive self-focusing distances, intensity amplifications, and density channel depletions, whereas PCGO succeeds. Bundles of Gaussian thick rays can be used to model realistic non-Gaussian ICF beams. The PCGO approach is expected to improve the accuracy of ICF simulations and serve as a basis to implement diverse LPI effects in large-scale hydrocodes.

  15. Experiments in Nonlinear Wave Interactions and Saturation in Crossflow-Dominated Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibert, Mark S.; Carrillo, Ruben B., Jr.; Saric, William S.

    1996-11-01

    Stability experiments are conducted in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel on a 45^circ swept, natural-laminar-flow airfoil. The test-section floor and ceiling are contoured to simulate an infinite span, and the pressure gradient is designed so that the boundary layer is subcritical to Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities. Under these conditions, transition is dominated by highly amplified crossflow instabilities. Uniform stationary crossflow waves are generated by placing arrays of micron-sized roughness elements near the attachment line. Previous investigations have documented the ability of these roughness elements to control the stationary disturbance wavenumber distribution. The present research focuses on varying the initial conditions by changing the spanwise spacing and height of the roughness elements. The measurements show strong nonlinear interactions between the fundamental disturbance mode and multiple harmonics leading to a nonlinear distortion of the mean boundary layer and a dramatic saturation of the disturbance amplitude. Under the appropriate conditions, the saturation amplitude is found to be insensitive to the initial disturbance amplitude. This work was supported by NASA Langley Research Center Grant NCC-1-194 and the National Science Foundation.

  16. Towards modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions with hydrocodes: the thick-ray approach.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Nicolaï, P; Tikhonchuk, V

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the computation of laser beam intensity in large-scale radiative hydrocodes applied to the modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (LPIs) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is adapted for light waves in an inhomogeneous medium and modified to include the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the ponderomotive force. This thick-ray model is compared to the standard ray-tracing (RT) approach, both in the chic code. The PCGO model leads to different power deposition patterns and better diffraction modeling compared to standard RT codes. The intensity-reconstruction technique used in RT codes to model nonlinear LPI leads to artificial filamentation and fails to reproduce realistic ponderomotive self-focusing distances, intensity amplifications, and density channel depletions, whereas PCGO succeeds. Bundles of Gaussian thick rays can be used to model realistic non-Gaussian ICF beams. The PCGO approach is expected to improve the accuracy of ICF simulations and serve as a basis to implement diverse LPI effects in large-scale hydrocodes.

  17. Numerical simulation of nonlinear mode interactions in ridge-waveguide semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalagara, Hemashilpa; Eliseev, Petr G.; Osinski, Marek

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear perturbation of effective group index is calculated numerically in semiconductor ridge waveguide laser structures under an influence of a strong driving wave (mode). Model of nonlinear interaction of waves is used to obtain conditions for appearance of anomalous dispersion of modal index and also for inversion of the group index of guided waves (modes of the ridge-waveguide laser structures). Ranges around critically anomalous dispersion (CAD) points, where the effective group index passes zero value, are calculated numerically. CAD points form closed loops in graphs of detuning vs. driving wave intensity. These loops define ranges where superluminal propagation, as well as slowed reflection of probe wave can be obtained. Numerical simulations are performed for an InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) laser structure and also for a GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement heterostructure. The threshold intensities for the appearance of CAD points, as well as the influence of relaxation rate and optical confinement on the appearance of superluminal regime are compared for the DQW and SCH structures.

  18. A highly-efficient blue-light excitable red phosphor: intramolecular π-stacking interactions in one dinuclear europium(iii) complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengliang; Yang, Hui; He, Pei; He, Yonghui; Zhao, Jishou; Tang, Huaijun

    2016-02-21

    A series of ternary dinuclear europium(iii) complexes [Eu2(2,7-BTFDBC)3-n(DBM)2n(Phen)2] (n = 0, 1, or 2) were synthesized by using 2,7-bis(4'4'4'-trifluoro-1,3-dioxobutyl)-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazole) (2,7-BTFDBC), dibenzoylmethane (DBM), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and europium(iii) ions. All these complexes display a broad excitation band in the blue region and high intensity emission with high colour purity. The intensity of emission significantly increases with the increase of DBM in [Eu2(2,7-BTFDBC)3-n(DBM)2n(Phen)2] (n = 0, 1, or 2). The theoretical predictions of the molecular geometry and electronic absorption spectrum of [Eu2(2,7-BTFDBC)(DBM)4(Phen)2] confirm that the pendant phenyl domains engage in multiple T-shaped and parallel-displaced π-stacking interactions with the coordination sphere of two europium(iii) centers. Using [Eu2(2,7-BTFDBC)(DBM)4(Phen)2] as a red phosphor, a single red LED has been obtained with a ∼460 nm-emitting GaN chip. PMID:26673545

  19. Plasma surface interactions in nanoscale processing: Preservation of low-k integrity and high-k gate-stack etching with silicon selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeb, Juline

    Plasma-surface interactions are very important in the fabrication of the nm-sized features of integrated circuits. Plasma processes are employed to produce high-resolution patterns in many of the thin layers of silicon integrated circuits and to remove masking layers while maintaining high selectivity. Integrated plasma processes consisting of sequential steps such as etch, clean and surface modification, are used in semiconductor industries. The surface in contact with the process plasma is exposed to the fluxes of neutrals, ions, molecules, electrons and photons. Modeling of surface reaction mechanisms requires the determination of the characterizations of fluxes (e.g. composition, magnitude, energy and angle) and development of the reaction mechanisms of the processes such as adsorption, reflection, bond breaking and etch product evolution, while reproducing the experimental results. When modeling the reaction mechanism for an entirely new material, the experimental data is often fragmentary. Therefore, fundamental principles such as bond energies and volatility of the etch products must be considered to develop the mechanism. In this thesis, results from a computational investigation of porous low-k SiCOH etching in fluorocarbon plasmas, damage during cleaning of CFx polymer etch residue in Ar/O2 and He/H2 plasmas, NH3 plasma pore sealing and low-k degradation due to water uptake, will be discussed. The plasma etching of HfO2 gate-stacks is also computationally investigated with an emphasis on the selectivity between HfO2 and Si.

  20. The polar 2e/12c bond in phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl hetero-dimers: Stronger stacking interaction and fascinating interlayer charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Rong-Lin; Xu, Hong-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of chemists have focused on the two-electron/multicenter bond (2e/mc) that was first introduced to interpret the bonding mechanism of radical dimers. Herein, we report the polar two-electron/twelve center (2e/12c) bonding character in a series of phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl radical hetero-dimers. Interestingly, the bonding energy of weaker polar hetero-dimer (P-TAP) is dominated by the overlap of the two different singly occupied molecular orbital of radicals, while that of stronger polar hetero-dimer (P-HAP) is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. Results show that the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers plays a prominent role in the essential attribution of the polar 2e/12c bond. Correspondingly, a stronger stacking interaction in the hetero-dimer could be effectively achieved by increasing the difference of nitrogen atoms number between the monomers. It is worthy of note that an interesting interlayer charge transfer character is induced in the polar hetero-dimers, which is dependent on the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers. It is our expectation that the new knowledge about the bonding nature of radical hetero-dimers might provide important information for designing radical based functional materials with various applications.

  1. A simple method for wind tunnel balance calibration including non-linear interaction terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, M. A.; Srinivas, T.; Holla, V. S.

    The conventional method for calibrating wind tunnel balances to obtain the coupled linear and nonlinear interaction terms requires the application of combinations of pure components of the loads on the calibration body compensating the deflection of the balance. For a six-component balance, this calls for a complex loading system and an arrangement to translate and tilt the balance support about all three axes. A simple method called the least-square method is illustrated for a three-component balance. The simplicity arises from the fact that application of the pure components of the loads or reorientation of the balance is not required. A single load is applied that has various components whose magnitudes can be easily found knowing the orientation of the calibration body under load and the point of application of the load. The coefficients are obtained by using the least-square-fit approach to match the outputs obtained for various combinations of load.

  2. Non-linear interactions of plasma waves in the context of solar particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos-Cruz, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.

    2001-08-01

    Stochastic particle acceleration in plasmas by means of MHD turbulence in-volves a wide range of alternatives according to, the specific wave mode, the frequency regime of the turbulence, the kind of particles to be accelerated, the assumed plasma model and so on. At present most of the alternatives have been studied with relatively deepness, though some features are not yet com-pletely understood. One of them is the delimitation of the real importance of non-lineal effects of turbulence waves in the process of particle acceleration. In this work we analyse such effects taking into account the temporal evolution of the turbulence. For illustration we exemplify our analysis with the fast MHD mode. Our results show that in some specific stages of the turbulence evolu-tion, non-linear interactions have important effects in the process of particle acceleration.

  3. Evidence for nonlinear wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Levedahl, W. K.; Lotko, W.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that nonlinear wave-wave interactions occur in type III solar radio bursts. Intense, spiky Langmuir waves are observed to be driven by electron beams associated with type III solar radio bursts in the interplanetary medium. Bursts of 30-300 Hz (in the spacecraft frame) waves are often observed coincident in time with the most intense spikes of the Langmuir waves. These low-frequency waves appear to be long-wavelength ion acoustic waves, with wavenumber approximately equal to the beam resonant Langmuir wavenumber. Three possible interpretations of these observations are considered: modulational instability, parametric decay of the parent Langmuir waves to daughter ion acoustic and Langmuir waves, and decay to daughter electromagnetic waves and ion acoustic waves.

  4. Linear and nonlinear interactions between the earth tide and a tectonically stressed earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaumont, C.

    1978-01-01

    In the vincinity of earthquake focal regions, conditions may not be equal. Crustal rocks stressed to more than approximately 0.6 of their failure strength exhibit material properties over and above that of linear elasticity. Interactions between the earth tide and crustal rocks that are under high tectonic stress are discussed in terms of simple phenomenological models. In particular, the difference between a nonlinear elastic model of dilatancy and a dilatancy model that exhibits hysteresis is noted. It is concluded that the small changes in stress produced by the earth tide act as a probe of the properties of crustal rocks. Observations of earth tide tilts and strains in such high stress zones may, therefore, provide keys to the constitutive properties and the tectonic stress rate tensor of these zones.

  5. Unraveling Base Stacking Driving Forces in DNA.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chi H

    2016-07-01

    Base stacking is a key determinant of nucleic acid structures, but the precise origin of the thermodynamic driving force behind the stacking of nucleobases remains open. The rather mild stacking free energy measured experimentally, roughly a kcal/mol depending on the identity of the bases, is physiologically significant because while base stacking confers stability to the genome in its double helix form, the duplex also has to be unwound in order to be replicated or transcribed. A stacking free energy that is either too high or too low will over- or understabilize the genome, impacting the storage of genetic information and also its retrieval. While the molecular origin of stacking driving force has been attributed to many different sources including dispersion, electrostatics, and solvent hydrogen bonding, here we show via a systematic decomposition of the stacking free energy using large-scale computer simulations that the dominant driving force stabilizing base stacking is nonhydrophobic solvent entropy. Counteracting this is the conformational entropic penalty on the sugar-phosphate backbone against stacking, while solvent hydrogen-bonding, charge-charge interactions, and dispersive forces produce only secondary perturbations. Solvent entropic forces and DNA backbone conformational strains therefore work against each other, leading to a very mild composite stacking free energy in agreement with experiments. PMID:27045853

  6. Resonant interactions between discrete phonons in quinhydrone driven by nonlinear electron-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rury, Aaron S.

    2016-06-01

    This study reports experimental, computational, and theoretical evidence for a previously unobserved coherent phonon-phonon interaction in an organic solid that can be described by the application of Fano's analysis to a case without the presence of a continuum. Using Raman spectroscopy of the hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer material quinhydrone, two peaks appear near 700 cm-1 we assign as phonons whose position and line-shape asymmetry depend on the sample temperature and light scattering excitation energy. Density functional theory calculations find two nearly degenerate phonons possessing frequencies near the values found in experiment that share similar atomic motion out of the aromatic plane of electron donor and acceptor molecules of quinhydrone. Further analytical modeling of the steady-state light scattering process using the Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian and time-dependent perturbation theory motivates assignment of the physical origin of the asymmetric features of each peak's line shape to an interaction between two discrete phonons via nonlinear electron-phonon coupling. In the context of analytical model results, characteristics of the experimental spectra upon 2.33 eV excitation of the Raman scattering process are used to qualify the temperature dependence of the magnitude of this coupling in the valence band of quinhydrone. These results broaden the range of phonon-phonon interactions in materials in general while also highlighting the rich physics and fundamental attributes specific to organic solids that may determine their applicability in next generation electronics and photonics technologies.

  7. Interaction model between capsule robot and intestine based on nonlinear viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hao; Tan, Renjia; Li, Hongyi

    2014-03-01

    Active capsule endoscope could also be called capsule robot, has been developed from laboratory research to clinical application. However, the system still has defects, such as poor controllability and failing to realize automatic checks. The imperfection of the interaction model between capsule robot and intestine is one of the dominating reasons causing the above problems. A model is hoped to be established for the control method of the capsule robot in this article. It is established based on nonlinear viscoelasticity. The interaction force of the model consists of environmental resistance, viscous resistance and Coulomb friction. The parameters of the model are identified by experimental investigation. Different methods are used in the experiment to obtain different values of the same parameter at different velocities. The model is proved to be valid by experimental verification. The achievement in this article is the attempted perfection of an interaction model. It is hoped that the model can optimize the control method of the capsule robot in the future.

  8. Ion-π interaction in impacting the nonlinear optical properties of ion-buckybowl complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Wang, Wen-Yong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Chang-Li; Fang, Xin-Yan; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Ion-buckybowl complexes have received considerable attention in modern chemical research due to its fundamental and practical importance. Herein, we performed density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the geometical structure, binding interactions, dipole moments and the first hyperpolarizabilities (βtot) of ion-buckybowl complexes (ions are Cl(-) and Na(+), buckybowls are quadrannulene, corannulene and sumanene). It is found that the stabilities of ion-buckybowl compounds primarily originate from the interaction energy, which was proved by a new isomerization energy decomposition analysis approach. Plots of reduced density gradient mirror the ion-π weak interaction has been formed between the ions and buckybowls. Significantly, the buckybowl subunits cannot effectively impact the nonlinear optical (NLO), but the kind of ion has marked influence on the second-order NLO responses. The βtot values of Cl(-)-buckybowl complexes are all larger as compared to that of Na(+)-buckybowl complexes, which is attributed to the large charge-transfer (CT) from Cl(-) to buckybowl. Our present work will be beneficial for further theoretical and experimental studies on the NLO properties of ion-buckybowl compounds. PMID:26851864

  9. Interaction between mantle and crustal detachments: a non-linear system controlling lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Weinberg, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We use numerical modelling to investigate the development of crustal and mantle detachment faults during lithospheric extension. Our models simulate a wide range of rift systems with varying values of crustal thickness and heat flow, showing how strain localization in the mantle interacts with localization in the upper crust and controls the evolution of extensional systems. Model results reveal a richness of structures and deformation styles, which grow in response to a self-organized mechanism that minimizes the internal stored energy of the system by localizing deformation at different levels of the lithosphere. Crustal detachment faults are well developed during extension of overthickened (60 km) continental crust, even when the initial heat flow is relatively low (50 mW/m2). In contrast, localized mantle deformation is most pronounced when the extended lithosphere has a normal crustal thickness (30-40 km) and an intermediate (60-70 mW/m2) heat flow. Results show a non-linear response to subtle changes in crustal thickness or heat flow, characterized by abrupt and sometime unexpected switches in extension modes (e.g. from diffuse rifting to effective lithospheric-scale rupturing) or from mantle- to crust-dominated strain localization. We interpret this non-linearity to result from the interference of doming wavelengths. Disharmony of crust and mantle doming wavelengths results in efficient communication between shear zones at different lithospheric levels, leading to rupturing of the whole lithosphere. In contrast, harmonious crust and mantle doming inhibits interaction of shear zones across the lithosphere and results in a prolonged rifting history prior to continental breakup.

  10. Interaction between mantle and crustal detachments: A nonlinear system controlling lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Weinberg, Roberto F.

    2010-11-01

    We use numerical modeling to investigate the development of crustal and mantle detachments during lithospheric extension. Our models simulate a wide range of extensional systems with varying values of crustal thickness and heat flow, showing how strain localization in the mantle interacts with localization in the upper crust and controls the evolution of extensional systems. Model results reveal a richness of structures and deformation styles as a response to a self-organized mechanism that minimizes the internal stored energy of the system by localizing deformation. Crustal detachments, here referred as low-angle normal decoupling horizons, are well developed during extension of overthickened (60 km) continental crust, even when the initial heat flow is relatively low (50 mW m-2). In contrast, localized mantle deformation is most pronounced when the extended lithosphere has a normal crustal thickness (30-40 km) and an intermediate heat flow (60-70 mW m-2). Results show a nonlinear response to subtle changes in crustal thickness or heat flow, characterized by abrupt and sometimes unexpected switches in extension modes (e.g., from diffuse extensional deformation to effective lithospheric-scale rupturing) or from mantle- to crust-dominated strain localization. We interpret this nonlinearity to result from the interference of doming wavelengths in the presence of multiple necking instabilities. Disharmonic crust and mantle doming wavelengths results in efficient communication between shear zones at different lithospheric levels, leading to rupturing of the whole lithosphere. In contrast, harmonic crust and mantle doming inhibits interaction of shear zones across the lithosphere and results in a prolonged history of extension prior to continental breakup.

  11. Laboratory Studies of Nonlinear Interactions Relevant to Alfvén Wave Decay Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, Seth

    2014-10-01

    Alfvén waves, a fundamental mode of magnetized plasmas, are ubiquitous in both laboratory and space plasmas. Many theoretical predictions show that these waves may be unstable to various decay instabilities (e.g.). Despite the possible importance of these processes in problems such as the heating of the solar corona and the transfer of energy to small spacial scales in the solar wind, observational evidence is limited. The present work at UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD) represents the first fundamental laboratory study of the non-linear Alfvén wave interactions responsible for this class of instabilities; in particular, we present 1) laboratory observation of the Alfvén-acoustic mode coupling at the heart of the Parametric Decay Instability and 2) laboratory observations consistent with a decay instability in which a Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) decays into two co-propagating KAWs. The first study is conducted by launching counterpropagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the LAPD. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Results are consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. In the second experiment, a single high-frequency ω /ωci ~ 0 . 7 Alfvén wave is launched, resulting in two daughter modes with frequencies and wave numbers that suggest co-propagating KAWs produced by decay of the pump wave. The observed process is parametric in nature, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump amplitude. Efforts are underway to fully characterize the second set of experiments and compare with decay instabilities predicted by theory and simulations. Supported by DOE, NSF, and DOE FES and NASA Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowships.

  12. Adaptive nonlinear polynomial neural networks for control of boundary layer/structural interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, B. Eugene, Jr.; Cellucci, Richard L.; Abbott, Dean W.; Barron, Roger L.; Jordan, Paul R., III; Poor, H. Vincent

    1993-01-01

    The acoustic pressures developed in a boundary layer can interact with an aircraft panel to induce significant vibration in the panel. Such vibration is undesirable due to the aerodynamic drag and structure-borne cabin noises that result. The overall objective of this work is to develop effective and practical feedback control strategies for actively reducing this flow-induced structural vibration. This report describes the results of initial evaluations using polynomial, neural network-based, feedback control to reduce flow induced vibration in aircraft panels due to turbulent boundary layer/structural interaction. Computer simulations are used to develop and analyze feedback control strategies to reduce vibration in a beam as a first step. The key differences between this work and that going on elsewhere are as follows: that turbulent and transitional boundary layers represent broadband excitation and thus present a more complex stochastic control scenario than that of narrow band (e.g., laminar boundary layer) excitation; and secondly, that the proposed controller structures are adaptive nonlinear infinite impulse response (IIR) polynomial neural network, as opposed to the traditional adaptive linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters used in most studies to date. The controllers implemented in this study achieved vibration attenuation of 27 to 60 dB depending on the type of boundary layer established by laminar, turbulent, and intermittent laminar-to-turbulent transitional flows. Application of multi-input, multi-output, adaptive, nonlinear feedback control of vibration in aircraft panels based on polynomial neural networks appears to be feasible today. Plans are outlined for Phase 2 of this study, which will include extending the theoretical investigation conducted in Phase 2 and verifying the results in a series of laboratory experiments involving both bum and plate models.

  13. Adaptive nonlinear polynomial neural networks for control of boundary layer/structural interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, B. Eugene, Jr.; Cellucci, Richard L.; Abbott, Dean W.; Barron, Roger L.; Jordan, Paul R., III; Poor, H. Vincent

    1993-12-01

    The acoustic pressures developed in a boundary layer can interact with an aircraft panel to induce significant vibration in the panel. Such vibration is undesirable due to the aerodynamic drag and structure-borne cabin noises that result. The overall objective of this work is to develop effective and practical feedback control strategies for actively reducing this flow-induced structural vibration. This report describes the results of initial evaluations using polynomial, neural network-based, feedback control to reduce flow induced vibration in aircraft panels due to turbulent boundary layer/structural interaction. Computer simulations are used to develop and analyze feedback control strategies to reduce vibration in a beam as a first step. The key differences between this work and that going on elsewhere are as follows: that turbulent and transitional boundary layers represent broadband excitation and thus present a more complex stochastic control scenario than that of narrow band (e.g., laminar boundary layer) excitation; and secondly, that the proposed controller structures are adaptive nonlinear infinite impulse response (IIR) polynomial neural network, as opposed to the traditional adaptive linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters used in most studies to date. The controllers implemented in this study achieved vibration attenuation of 27 to 60 dB depending on the type of boundary layer established by laminar, turbulent, and intermittent laminar-to-turbulent transitional flows. Application of multi-input, multi-output, adaptive, nonlinear feedback control of vibration in aircraft panels based on polynomial neural networks appears to be feasible today. Plans are outlined for Phase 2 of this study, which will include extending the theoretical investigation conducted in Phase 2 and verifying the results in a series of laboratory experiments involving both bum and plate models.

  14. Multimodal non-linear optical imaging for the investigation of drug nano-/microcrystal-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Darville, Nicolas; Saarinen, Jukka; Isomäki, Antti; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Cleeren, Dirk; Sterkens, Patrick; van Heerden, Marjolein; Annaert, Pieter; Peltonen, Leena; Santos, Hélder A; Strachan, Clare J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Drug nano-/microcrystals are being used for sustained parenteral drug release, but safety and efficacy concerns persist as the knowledge of the in vivo fate of long-living particulates is limited. There is a need for techniques enabling the visualization of drug nano-/microcrystals in biological matrices. The aim of this work was to explore the potential of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, supported by other non-linear optical methods, as an emerging tool for the investigation of cellular and tissue interactions of unlabeled and non-fluorescent nano-/microcrystals. Raman and CARS spectra of the prodrug paliperidone palmitate (PP), paliperidone (PAL) and several suspension stabilizers were recorded. PP nano-/microcrystals were incubated with RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and their cellular disposition was investigated using a fully-integrated multimodal non-linear optical imaging platform. Suitable anti-Stokes shifts (CH stretching) were identified for selective CARS imaging. CARS microscopy was successfully applied for the selective three-dimensional, non-perturbative and real-time imaging of unlabeled PP nano-/microcrystals having dimensions larger than the optical lateral resolution of approximately 400nm, in relation to the cellular framework in cell cultures and ex vivo in histological sections. In conclusion, CARS microscopy enables the non-invasive and label-free imaging of (sub)micron-sized (pro-)drug crystals in complex biological matrices and could provide vital information on poorly understood nano-/microcrystal-cell interactions in future. PMID:26347923

  15. Effect of a novel nonlinearity, viz., electron temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination on electromagnetic wave. Plasma interaction: Nonlinear propagation in the E-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Sweta

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the nonlinearity in the propagation of electromagnetic (e.m.) waves in a plasma caused by the electron temperature dependence of the coefficient of recombination of electrons with ions; specifically, the ionospheric E layer has been investigated. The enhancement in electron temperature by an intense electromagnetic wave causes reduction of the electron-ion recombination coefficient and thereby enhancement of electron density, the electron collision frequency also gets enhanced. The equations for number and energy balance of electrons and the wave equation have been used to predict the dependence of electron density/collision frequency and the nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficient on αE02 (proportional to wave irradiance). The dependence of the propagation parameters on αE02 has been used to investigate the nonlinear electromagnetic wave propagation in the ionosphere. The study concludes that the electron temperature dependence of the recombination coefficient should be considered in all analyses of nonlinear plasma-e.m. wave interaction.

  16. Charge Central Interpretation of the Full Nonlinear PB Equation: Implications for Accurate and Scalable Modeling of Solvation Interactions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Wang, Changhao; Ye, Xiang; Luo, Ray

    2016-08-25

    Continuum solvation modeling based upon the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely used in structural and functional analysis of biomolecules. In this work, we propose a charge-central interpretation of the full nonlinear PBE electrostatic interactions. The validity of the charge-central view or simply charge view, as formulated as a vacuum Poisson equation with effective charges, was first demonstrated by reproducing both electrostatic potentials and energies from the original solvated full nonlinear PBE. There are at least two benefits when the charge-central framework is applied. First the convergence analyses show that the use of polarization charges allows a much faster converging numerical procedure for electrostatic energy and forces calculation for the full nonlinear PBE. Second, the formulation of the solvated electrostatic interactions as effective charges in vacuum allows scalable algorithms to be deployed for large biomolecular systems. Here, we exploited the charge-view interpretation and developed a particle-particle particle-mesh (P3M) strategy for the full nonlinear PBE systems. We also studied the accuracy and convergence of solvation forces with the charge-view and the P3M methods. It is interesting to note that the convergence of both the charge-view and the P3M methods is more rapid than the original full nonlinear PBE method. Given the developments and validations documented here, we are working to adapt the P3M treatment of the full nonlinear PBE model to molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Enthalpy (DeltaH) and entropy (DeltaS) for pi-stacking interactions in near-sandwich configurations: relative importance of electrostatic, dispersive, and charge-transfer effects.

    PubMed

    Gung, Benjamin W; Xue, Xiaowen; Zou, Yan

    2007-03-30

    Interactions between two aromatic rings with various substituents in a near-sandwich configuration have been quantitatively studied by using the triptycene derived molecular models. This model system allows a stacking arrangement of two arenes to assume a near-perfect face-to-face configuration in its ground state conformation. Comparing to our previous study of the parallel displaced configuration, repulsive interactions are predominant for most arenes currently studied. However, if one arene is strongly electron deficient (Ar2=pentafluorobenzoate), attractive interactions were observed regardless of the character of the other arene (Ar1). For stacking interactions between Me2NC6H4 and C6F5CO groups, a DeltaH of -1.84+/-0.2 kcal/mol and a DeltaS of -2.9+/-0.8 cal/(mol.K) were determined. The general trend in the attractive stacking interaction toward a pentafluorobenzoate is Me2NC6H4>Me3C6H2>Me2C6H3>MeC6H4>MeOC6H4>C6H5>O2NC6H4. The observed trend is consistent with a donor-acceptor relationship and the acceptor is a C6F5CO group.

  18. Consideration of nonlinear wheel-rail contact forces for dynamic vehicle-bridge interaction in high-speed railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolín, Pablo; Zhang, Nan; Goicolea, José M.; Xia, He; Astiz, Miguel Á.; Oliva, Javier

    2013-03-01

    In this work models with nonlinear wheel-rail contact forces are considered for analysing the dynamic interaction between high speed trains and bridges, in order to study dynamic effects both in the bridge and in the vehicles resulting from the coupling. Nonlinear contact models may be necessary for evaluating the stability and the safety of running traffic in situations such as vehicle overturn when the train is crossing a bridge under strong lateral winds or when an earthquake occurs. For studying the coupled dynamic response of trains and bridges, models of multibody dynamics are used for vehicles and the finite element method for structures. Special relevance is given here to the consideration of contact interaction forces between railway vehicles and the track. Four different interaction models are compared in this work: (1) a model where the vehicle wheelset is considered to be rigidly coupled to the track; (2) a staggered uncoupled method in which vehicle and structure are analysed separately; (3) a linear contact model in which lateral relative displacements between rails and train wheels are allowed, assuming biconic wheel and rail profiles and linear Kalker theory for tangential contact; (4) a nonlinear model in which realistic wheel and rail profiles, Hertz's nonlinear theory for normal contact and Kalker's nonlinear theory for tangential contact are used. The different models are applied and compared to experimental measurements for a test case of a high-speed train in China.

  19. Generation of secondary waves arising from nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave and the migrating diurnal tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vu A.; Palo, Scott E.; Lieberman, Ruth S.; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Ortland, David A.; Siskind, David E.

    2016-07-01

    Theory and past observations have provided evidence that atmospheric tides and other global-scale waves interact nonlinearly to produce additional secondary waves throughout the space-atmosphere interaction region. However, few studies have investigated the generation region of nonlinearly generated secondary waves, and as a result, the manifestation and impacts of these waves are still poorly understood. This study focuses on the nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave (2dayW3) and the migrating diurnal tide (DW1), two of the largest global-scale waves in the atmosphere. The fundamental goals of this effort are to characterize the forcing region of the secondary waves and to understand how it relates to their manifestation on a global scale. First, the Fast Fourier Synoptic Mapping method is applied to Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics-Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry satellite observations to provide new evidence of secondary waves. These results show that secondary waves are only significant above 80 km. The nonlinear forcing for each secondary wave is then computed by extracting short-term primary wave information from a reanalysis model. The estimated nonlinear forcing quantities are used to force a linearized tidal model in order to calculate numerical secondary wave responses. Model results show that the secondary waves are significant from the upper mesosphere to the middle thermosphere, highlighting the implications for the atmosphere-space weather coupling. The study also concludes that the secondary wave response is most sensitive to the nonlinear forcing occurring in the lower and middle mesosphere and not coincident with the regions of strongest nonlinear forcing.

  20. Optimal bipedal interactions with dynamic terrain: synthesis and analysis via nonlinear programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubicki, Christian; Goldman, Daniel; Ames, Aaron

    In terrestrial locomotion, gait dynamics and motor control behaviors are tuned to interact efficiently and stably with the dynamics of the terrain (i.e. terradynamics). This controlled interaction must be particularly thoughtful in bipeds, as their reduced contact points render them highly susceptible to falls. While bipedalism under rigid terrain assumptions is well-studied, insights for two-legged locomotion on soft terrain, such as sand and dirt, are comparatively sparse. We seek an understanding of how biological bipeds stably and economically negotiate granular media, with an eye toward imbuing those abilities in bipedal robots. We present a trajectory optimization method for controlled systems subject to granular intrusion. By formulating a large-scale nonlinear program (NLP) with reduced-order resistive force theory (RFT) models and jamming cone dynamics, the optimized motions are informed and shaped by the dynamics of the terrain. Using a variant of direct collocation methods, we can express all optimization objectives and constraints in closed-form, resulting in rapid solving by standard NLP solvers, such as IPOPT. We employ this tool to analyze emergent features of bipedal locomotion in granular media, with an eye toward robotic implementation.

  1. The neurochemical mobile with non-linear interaction matrix: an exploratory computational model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Z; Fieni, D; Tretter, F; Voit, E O

    2013-05-01

    Several years ago, the "neurochemical mobile" was introduced as a visual tool for explaining the different balances between neurotransmitters in the brain and their role in mental disorders. Here we complement this concept with a non-linear computational systems model representing the direct and indirect interactions between neurotransmitters, as they have been described in the "neurochemical interaction matrix." The model is constructed within the framework of biochemical systems theory, which facilitates the mapping of numerically ill-characterized systems into a mathematical and computational construct that permits a variety of analyses. Simulations show how short- and long-term perturbations in any of the neurotransmitters migrate through the entire system, thereby affecting the balances within the mobile. In cases of short-term alterations, transients are of particular interest, whereas long-term changes shed light on persistently altered, allostatic states, which in mental diseases and sleep disorders could be due to a combination of unfavorable factors, resulting from a specific genetic predisposition, epigenetic effects, disease, or the repeated use of drugs, such as opioids and amphetamines.

  2. Neurosurgery Simulation Using Non-linear Finite Element Modeling and Haptic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Huai-Ping; Audette, Michel; Joldes, Grand Roman; Enquobahrie, Andinet

    2012-02-23

    Real-time surgical simulation is becoming an important component of surgical training. To meet the real-time requirement, however, the accuracy of the biomechancial modeling of soft tissue is often compromised due to computing resource constraints. Furthermore, haptic integration presents an additional challenge with its requirement for a high update rate. As a result, most real-time surgical simulation systems employ a linear elasticity model, simplified numerical methods such as the boundary element method or spring-particle systems, and coarse volumetric meshes. However, these systems are not clinically realistic. We present here an ongoing work aimed at developing an efficient and physically realistic neurosurgery simulator using a non-linear finite element method (FEM) with haptic interaction. Real-time finite element analysis is achieved by utilizing the total Lagrangian explicit dynamic (TLED) formulation and GPU acceleration of per-node and per-element operations. We employ a virtual coupling method for separating deformable body simulation and collision detection from haptic rendering, which needs to be updated at a much higher rate than the visual simulation. The system provides accurate biomechancial modeling of soft tissue while retaining a real-time performance with haptic interaction. However, our experiments showed that the stability of the simulator depends heavily on the material property of the tissue and the speed of colliding objects. Hence, additional efforts including dynamic relaxation are required to improve the stability of the system.

  3. Intracomplex {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction between adjacent phenanthroline molecules in complexes with rare-earth nitrates: Crystal and molecular structures of bis(1,10-Phenanthroline)trinitratoytterbium and bis(1,10-Phenanthroline)trinitratolanthanum

    SciTech Connect

    Sadikov, G. G. Antsyshkina, A. S.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A.

    2009-01-15

    Crystals of the compounds Yb(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(Phen){sub 2} and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(Phen){sub 2} (Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) are investigated using X-ray diffraction. It is established that there exist two different crystalline modifications: the main modification (phase 1) is characteristic of all members of the isostructural series, and the second modification (phase 2) is observed only for the Eu, Er, and Yb elements. It is assumed that the stability and universality of main phase 1 are associated with the occurrence of the nonbonded {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between the adjacent phenanthroline ligands in the complexes. The indication of the interactions is a distortion of the planar shape of the Phen molecule (the folding of the metallocycle along the N-N line with a folding angle of 11{sup o}-13{sup o} and its 'boomerang' distortion). The assumption regarding the {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction is very consistent with the shape of the ellipsoids of atomic thermal vibrations, as well as with the data obtained from thermography and IR spectroscopy. An analysis of the structures of a number of rare-earth compounds has demonstrated that the intracomplex {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions directly contribute to the formation of supramolecular associates in the crystals, such as molecular dimers, supramolecules, chain and layered ensembles, and framework systems.

  4. Interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Dean vortices. Comparison of direct numerical simulation and a weakly nonlinear theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Zang, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used to evaluate a weakly nonlinear theory describing the interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves with Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The theory and the simulation agree for certain combinations of parameters, but the two approaches give conflicting results for other combinations. Some possibilities for these discrepancies are discussed.

  5. Using Recursive Regression to Explore Nonlinear Relationships and Interactions: A Tutorial Applied to a Multicultural Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how a seldom-used statistical procedure, recursive regression (RR), can numerically and graphically illustrate data-driven nonlinear relationships and interaction of variables. This routine falls into the family of exploratory techniques, yet a few interesting features make it a valuable compliment to factor analysis and…

  6. Final report for DOE-FG02-02ER54688: Study of nonlinear interactions between counterpropagating shear Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T A

    2006-11-16

    Final report for DOE Plasma Physics Junior Faculty Development award DOE-FG02-02ER54688. Reports on research undertaken from 8/1/2002 until 5/15/2006, investigating nonlinear interactions between Alfven waves in a laboratory experiment.

  7. Calculation of the first nonlinear contribution to the general-relativistic spin-spin interaction for binary systems.

    PubMed

    Porto, Rafael A; Rothstein, Ira Z

    2006-07-14

    We use recently developed effective field theory techniques to calculate the third order post-Newtonian correction to the spin-spin potential between two spinning objects. This correction represents the first contribution to the spin-spin interaction due to the nonlinear nature of general relativity and will play an important role in forthcoming gravity wave experiments.

  8. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  9. Nonlinear interaction between a pair of oblique modes in a supersonic mixing layer: Long-wave limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsa, Thomas F.; Gartside, James

    1995-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between a pair of symmetric, oblique, and spatial instability modes is studied in the long-wave limit using asymptotic methods. The base flow is taken to be a supersonic mixing layer whose Mach number is such that the corresponding vortex sheet is marginally stable according to Miles' criterion. It is shown that the amplitude of the mode obeys a nonlinear integro-differential equation. Numerical solutions of this equation show that, when the obliqueness angle is less than pi/4, the effect of the nonlinearity is to enhance the growth rate of the instability. The solution terminates in a singularity at a finite streamwise location. This result is reminiscent of that obtained in the vicinity of the neutral point by other authors in several different types of flows. On the other hand, when the obliqueness angle is more than pi/4, the streamwise development of the amplitude is characterized by a series of modulations. This arises from the fact that the nonlinear term in the amplitude equation may be either stabilizing or destabilizing, depending on the value of the streamwise coordinate. However, even in this case the amplitude of the disturbance increases, though not as rapidly as in the case for which the angle is less than pi/4. Quite generally then, the nonlinear interaction between two oblique modes in a supersonic mixing layer enhances the growth of the disturbance.

  10. Non-linear Alfvén wave interaction leading to resonant excitation of an acoustic mode in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, S.; Carter, T. A.

    2015-05-15

    The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay process is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Other properties of the interaction including the spatial profile of the beat mode and response amplitude are also consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. A simple damped, driven oscillator model making use of the MHD equations well-predicts most of the observations, but the width of the resonance curve is still under investigation.

  11. Non-linear Alfvén wave interaction leading to resonant excitation of an acoustic mode in the laboratorya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S.; Carter, T. A.

    2015-05-01

    The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay process is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Other properties of the interaction including the spatial profile of the beat mode and response amplitude are also consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. A simple damped, driven oscillator model making use of the MHD equations well-predicts most of the observations, but the width of the resonance curve is still under investigation.

  12. Nonlinear evolution of interacting oblique waves on two-dimensional shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Choi, S.-W.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of critical layer nonlinearity are considered on spatially growing oblique instability waves on nominally two-dimensional shear layers between parallel streams. The analysis shows that three-dimensional effects cause nonlinearity to occur at much smaller amplitudes than it does in two-dimensional flows. The nonlinear instability wave amplitude is determined by an integro-differential equation with cubic type nonlinearity. The numerical solutions to this equation are worked out and discussed in some detail. The numerical solutions always end in a singularity at a finite downstream distance.

  13. Estimation and Inference in Generalized Additive Coefficient Models for Nonlinear Interactions with High-Dimensional Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Shujie, MA; Carroll, Raymond J.; Liang, Hua; Xu, Shizhong

    2015-01-01

    In the low-dimensional case, the generalized additive coefficient model (GACM) proposed by Xue and Yang [Statist. Sinica 16 (2006) 1423–1446] has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying nonlinear interaction effects of variables. In this paper, we propose estimation and inference procedures for the GACM when the dimension of the variables is high. Specifically, we propose a groupwise penalization based procedure to distinguish significant covariates for the “large p small n” setting. The procedure is shown to be consistent for model structure identification. Further, we construct simultaneous confidence bands for the coefficient functions in the selected model based on a refined two-step spline estimator. We also discuss how to choose the tuning parameters. To estimate the standard deviation of the functional estimator, we adopt the smoothed bootstrap method. We conduct simulation experiments to evaluate the numerical performance of the proposed methods and analyze an obesity data set from a genome-wide association study as an illustration. PMID:26412908

  14. State estimation of stochastic non-linear hybrid dynamic system using an interacting multiple model algorithm.

    PubMed

    Elenchezhiyan, M; Prakash, J

    2015-09-01

    In this work, state estimation schemes for non-linear hybrid dynamic systems subjected to stochastic state disturbances and random errors in measurements using interacting multiple-model (IMM) algorithms are formulated. In order to compute both discrete modes and continuous state estimates of a hybrid dynamic system either an IMM extended Kalman filter (IMM-EKF) or an IMM based derivative-free Kalman filters is proposed in this study. The efficacy of the proposed IMM based state estimation schemes is demonstrated by conducting Monte-Carlo simulation studies on the two-tank hybrid system and switched non-isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor system. Extensive simulation studies reveal that the proposed IMM based state estimation schemes are able to generate fairly accurate continuous state estimates and discrete modes. In the presence and absence of sensor bias, the simulation studies reveal that the proposed IMM unscented Kalman filter (IMM-UKF) based simultaneous state and parameter estimation scheme outperforms multiple-model UKF (MM-UKF) based simultaneous state and parameter estimation scheme.

  15. Engineering aspect of the microwave ionosphere nonlinear interaction experiment (MINIX) with a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Makoto; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    The Microwave Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment (MINIX) is a sounding rocket experiment to study possible effects of strong microwave fields in case it is used for energy transmission from the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) upon the Earth's atmosphere. Its secondary objective is to develop high power microwave technology for space use. Two rocket-borne magnetrons were used to emit 2.45 GHz microwave in order to make a simulated condition of power transmission from an SPS to a ground station. Sounding of the environment radiated by microwave was conducted by the diagnostic package onboard the daughter unit which was separated slowly from the mother unit. The main design drivers of this experiment were to build such high power equipments in a standard type of sounding rocket, to keep the cost within the budget and to perform a series of experiments without complete loss of the mission. The key technology for this experiment is a rocket-borne magnetron and high voltage converter. Location of position of the daughter unit relative to the mother unit was a difficult requirement for a spin-stabilized rocket. These problems were solved by application of such a low cost commercial products as a magnetron for microwave oven and a video tape recorder and camera.

  16. Nonlinear Effects of Nanoparticles: Biological Variability From Hormetic Doses, Small Particle Sizes, and Dynamic Adaptive Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly focused on the nanoscale level of organization where biological processes take place in living systems. Nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., 1–100 nm diameter) are small forms of natural or manufactured source material whose properties differ markedly from those of the respective bulk forms of the “same” material. Certain NPs have diagnostic and therapeutic uses; some NPs exhibit low-dose toxicity; other NPs show ability to stimulate low-dose adaptive responses (hormesis). Beyond dose, size, shape, and surface charge variations of NPs evoke nonlinear responses in complex adaptive systems. NPs acquire unique size-dependent biological, chemical, thermal, optical, electromagnetic, and atom-like quantum properties. Nanoparticles exhibit high surface adsorptive capacity for other substances, enhanced bioavailability, and ability to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes including the blood-brain barrier. With super-potent effects, nano-forms can evoke cellular stress responses or therapeutic effects not only at lower doses than their bulk forms, but also for longer periods of time. Interactions of initial effects and compensatory systemic responses can alter the impact of NPs over time. Taken together, the data suggest the need to downshift the dose-response curve of NPs from that for bulk forms in order to identify the necessarily decreased no-observed-adverse-effect-level and hormetic dose range for nanoparticles. PMID:24910581

  17. Nonlinear dynamic fluid-structure interaction calculations with coupled finite element and finite volume programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.W.; Kashiwa, B.A.; Meier, R.W.; Bishop, S.

    1994-08-01

    Two- and three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computer programs for the simulation of nonlinear dynamics were developed and applied to a number of problems. The programs were created by coupling Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite volume fluid dynamics programs with strictly Lagrangian finite element structural dynamics programs. The resulting coupled programs can use either fully explicit or implicit time integration. The implicit time integration is accomplished by iterations of the fluid dynamics pressure solver and the structural dynamics system solver. The coupled programs have been used to solve problems involving incompressible fluids, membrane and shell elements, compressible multiphase flows, explosions in both air and water, and large displacements. In this paper, we present the approach used for the coupling and describe test problems that verify the two-dimensional programs against an experiment and an analytical linear problem. The experiment involves an explosion underwater near an instrumented thin steel plate. The analytical linear problem is the vibration of an infinite cylinder surrounded by an incompressible fluid to a given radius.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic fluid-structure interaction calculations with coupled finite element and finite volume programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M. W.; Kashiwa, B. A.; Meier, R. W.; Bishop, S.

    1994-07-01

    Two- and three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computer programs for the simulation of nonlinear dynamics were developed and applied to a number of problems. The programs were created by coupling Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite volume fluid dynamics programs with strictly Lagrangian finite element structural dynamics programs. The resulting coupled programs can use either fully explicit or implicit time integration. The implicit time integration is accomplished by iterations of the fluid dynamics pressure solver and the structural dynamics system solver. The coupled programs have been used to solve problems involving incompressible fluids, membrane and shell elements, compressible multiphase flows, explosions in both air and water, and large displacements. In this paper, we present the approach used for the coupling and describe test problems that verify the two-dimensional programs against an experiment and an analytical linear problem. The experiment involves an explosion underwater near an instrumented thin steel plate. The analytical linear problem is the vibration of an infinite cylinder surrounded by an incompressible fluid to a given radius.

  19. Highly sensitive analysis of microstructure and interaction of natural remanent magnetization carriers by non-linear Preisach mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Nathan; Fabian, Karl; McEnroe, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    Interacting natural magnetic mineral mixtures with intergrowth microstructures lead to coercivity distributions covering several orders of magnitude that cannot be dynamically resolved by equispaced measurement schemes. To be able to analyse such complex samples, especially from areas with strong remanent aeromagnetic anomalies, a non-linear isothermal magnetic mapping scheme is described that efficiently improves sensitivity and resolution power of Preisach maps of remanent magnetization carriers in natural samples. By using a non-linear sampling scheme and by mapping magnetization instead of magnetization density measurement noise is sufficiently suppressed to remove the need for smoothing of the measured data. Examples from synthetic and natural samples, as well as different types of natural remanent anomalies indicate that non-linear Preisach maps yield a useful classification scheme to help unraveling difficult magnetic samples and to detect characteristic features for different microstructures. This is an important step towards the physical understanding and modeling of the observed complex magnetization behaviors.

  20. Nonlinear signal-noise interactions in dispersion managed coherent PM-QPSK systems in the presence of PMD.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaogang; Wu, Jian; Li, Yan; Li, Wei; Hong, Xiaobin; Guo, Hongxiang; Zuo, Yong; Lin, Jintong

    2012-12-01

    Considering the polarization mode dispersion(PMD), the transmission penalty induced by nonlinear signal-noise interactions (NSNI) between the amplified spontaneous emission noise (ASE) and the information signal is investigated numerically for 40(100)G dispersion-managed(DM) polarization-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PM-QPSK) systems. We show that for single-channel PM-QPSK systems, PMD is helpful to reduce the NSNI-induced penalty. For multi-channel PM-QPSK system, however, the NSNI-induced nonlinear penalty is significantly enhanced by PMD, especially at low bit-rate. Our results show that due to the NSNI, the reduction of allowed input power that gives 1-dB Q penalty after 1600-km nonlinear transmission will increase from 1dB without PMD to 3.7dB with PMD for 42.8-Gbit/s coherent return-to-zero (RZ)-PM-QPSK systems.

  1. The effect of pi-stacking, h-bonding, and electrostatic interactions on the ionization energies of nucleic acid bases: adenine-adenine, thymine-thymine and adenine-thymine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Krylov, Anna I.

    2009-09-02

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of the ionized dimers of thymine and adenine, TT, AA, and AT, is presented. Adiabatic and vertical ionization energies(IEs) for monomers and dimers as well as thresholds for the appearance of the protonated species are reported and analyzed. Non-covalent interactions stronglyaffect the observed IEs. The magnitude and the nature of the effect is different for different isomers of the dimers. The computations reveal that for TT, the largestchanges in vertical IEs (0.4 eV) occur in asymmetric h-bonded and symmetric pi- stacked isomers, whereas in the lowest-energy symmetric h-bonded dimer the shiftin IEs is much smaller (0.1 eV). The origin of the shift and the character of the ionized states is different in asymmetric h-bonded and symmetric stacked isomers. Inthe former, the initial hole is localized on one of the fragments, and the shift is due to the electrostatic stabilization of the positive charge of the ionized fragment by thedipole moment of the neutral fragment. In the latter, the hole is delocalized, and the change in IE is proportional to the overlap of the fragments' MOs. The shifts in AAare much smaller due to a less effcient overlap and a smaller dipole moment. The ionization of the h-bonded dimers results in barrierless (or nearly barrierless) protontransfer, whereas the pi-stacked dimers relax to structures with the hole stabilized by the delocalization or electrostatic interactions.

  2. Time-domain simulations of nonlinear interaction in microring resonators using finite-difference and coupled mode techniques.

    PubMed

    Shugayev, Roman; Bermel, Peter

    2014-08-11

    Nonlinear interactions within compact, on-chip microring resonant cavities is a topic of increasing interest in current silicon photonics research. Frequency combs, one of the emerging nonlinear applications in microring optics, offers great potential from both scientific and practical perspectives. However, the mechanisms of comb formation appear to differ from traditional frequency combs formed by pulsed femtosecond lasers, and thus require detailed elucidation through theory and simulation. Here we propose a technique to mimic the accuracy of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) full wave nonlinear optical simulations with only a small fraction of the computational resources. Our new hybrid approach combines a single linear FDTD simulation of the key interaction parameters, then directly inserts them into a coupled-mode theory simulation. Comparison of the hybrid approach and full FDTD shows a good match both in frequency domain and in time domain. Thus, it retains the advantage of FDTD in terms of direct connection with experimental designs, while finishing much faster and sidestepping stability issues associated with direct simulation of nonlinear phenomena. The hybrid technique produces several key results explored in this paper, including: demonstrating that comb formation can occur with both anomalous and normal dispersion; suggesting a new mechanism for incoherent (Type II) frequency comb formation; and illustrating a method for creating soliton-like pulses in on-chip microresonators.

  3. Finite Element Modeling of Non-linear Coupled Interacting Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, H. L.; Zhang, J.; Wyborn, D.

    2009-04-01

    PANDAS - Parallel Adaptive static/dynamic Nonlinear Deformation Analysis System - a novel supercomputer simulation tool is developed for simulating the highly non-linear coupled geomechanical-fluid flow-thermal systems involving heterogeneously fractured geomaterials. PANDAS includes the following key components: Pandas/Pre, ESyS_Crustal, Pandas/Thermo, Pandas/Fluid and Pandas/Post as detailed in the following: • Pandas/Pre is developed to visualise the microseismicity events recorded during the hydraulic stimulation process to further evaluate the fracture location and evolution and geological setting of a certain reservoir, and then generate the mesh by it and/or other commercial graphics software (such as Patran) for the further finite element analysis of various cases; The Delaunay algorithm is applied as a suitable method for mesh generation using such a point set; • ESyS_Crustal is a finite element code developed for the interacting fault system simulation, which employs the adaptive static/dynamic algorithm to simulate the dynamics and evolution of interacting fault systems and processes that are relevant on short to mediate time scales in which several dynamic phenomena related with stick-slip instability along the faults need to be taken into account, i.e. (a). slow quasi-static stress accumulation, (b) rapid dynamic rupture, (c) wave propagation and (d) corresponding stress redistribution due to the energy release along the multiple fault boundaries; those are needed to better describe ruputure/microseimicity/earthquake related phenomena with applications in earthquake forecasting, hazard quantification, exploration, and environmental problems. It has been verified with various available experimental results[1-3]; • Pandas/Thermo is a finite element method based module for the thermal analysis of the fractured porous media; the temperature distribution is calculated from the heat transfer induced by the thermal boundary conditions without/with the

  4. Study of Nonlinear Interaction and Turbulence of Alfven Waves in LAPD Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos

    2013-11-29

    The complete project had two major goals — investigate MHD turbulence generated by counterpropagating Alfven modes, and study such processes in the LAPD device. In order to study MHD turbulence in numerical simulations, two codes have been used: full MHD, and reduced MHD developed specialy for this project. Quantitative numerical results are obtained through high-resolution simulations of strong MHD turbulence, performed through the 2010 DOE INCITE allocation. We addressed the questions of the spectrum of turbulence, its universality, and the value of the so-called Kolmogorov constant (the normalization coefficient of the spectrum). In these simulations we measured with unprecedented accuracy the energy spectra of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. We also studied the so-called residual energy, that is, the difference between kinetic and magnetic energies in turbulent fluctuations. In our analytic work we explained generation of residual energy in weak MHD turbulence, in the process of random collisions of counterpropagating Alfven waves. We then generalized these results for the case of strong MHD turbulence. The developed model explained generation of residual energy is strong MHD turbulence, and verified the results in numerical simulations. We then analyzed the imbalanced case, where more Alfven waves propagate in one direction. We found that spectral properties of the residual energy are similar for both balanced and imbalanced cases. We then compared strong MHD turbulence observed in the solar wind with turbulence generated in numerical simulations. Nonlinear interaction of Alfv´en waves has been studied in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD). We have simulated the collision of the Alfven modes in the settings close to the experiment. We have created a train of wave packets with the apltitudes closed to those observed n the experiment, and allowed them to collide. We then saw the generation of the second harmonic, resembling that observed in the

  5. Nonlinear collective effects in photon-photon and photon-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Shukla, Padma K.

    2006-04-01

    Strong-field effects in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas and high intensity laser and cavity systems are considered, related to quantum electrodynamical (QED) photon-photon scattering. Current state-of-the-art laser facilities are close to reaching energy scales at which laboratory astrophysics will become possible. In such high energy density laboratory astrophysical systems, quantum electrodynamics will play a crucial role in the dynamics of plasmas and indeed the vacuum itself. Developments such as the free-electron laser may also give a means for exploring remote violent events such as supernovae in a laboratory environment. At the same time, superconducting cavities have steadily increased their quality factors, and quantum nondemolition measurements are capable of retrieving information from systems consisting of a few photons. Thus, not only will QED effects such as elastic photon-photon scattering be important in laboratory experiments, it may also be directly measurable in cavity experiments. Here implications of collective interactions between photons and photon-plasma systems are described. An overview of strong field vacuum effects is given, as formulated through the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian. Based on the dispersion relation for a single test photon traveling in a slowly varying background electromagnetic field, a set of equations describing the nonlinear propagation of an electromagnetic pulse on a radiation plasma is derived. The stability of the governing equations is discussed, and it is shown using numerical methods that electromagnetic pulses may collapse and split into pulse trains, as well as be trapped in a relativistic electron hole. Effects, such as the generation of novel electromagnetic modes, introduced by QED in pair plasmas is described. Applications to laser-plasma systems and astrophysical environments are also discussed.

  6. Stack gas treatment

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  7. Nonlinear optical conductivity of bilayer graphene with Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the terahertz regime

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Cao, J. C.; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao

    2015-07-28

    The effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the nonlinear optical conductivity in a bilayer graphene is investigated. We demonstrate the very different role played by the Rashba term and interlayer hopping; in some cases, the two roles can be quite opposite. It is found that the Rashba term can either enhance or suppress the nonlinear effect in a bilayer graphene, depending on the strength of the interlayer hopping. For a weak interlayer hopping, the Rashba term can significantly enhance the nonlinear effect. An analytical result was derived, showing the interplay of the Rashba effect and the interlayer hopping effect.

  8. The nonlinear interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Taylor-Goertler vortices in curved channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that a viscous fluid flow with curved streamlines can support both Tollmien-Schlichting and Taylor-Goertler instabilities. In a situation where both modes are possible on the basis of linear theory a nonlinear theory must be used to determine the effect of the interaction of the instabilities. The details of this interaction are of practical importance because of its possible catastrophic effects on mechanisms used for laminar flow control. This interaction is studied in the context of fully developed flows in curved channels. A part form technical differences associated with boundary layer growth the structures of the instabilities in this flow are very similar to those in the practically more important external boundary layer situation. The interaction is shown to have two distinct phases depending on the size of the disturbances. At very low amplitudes two oblique Tollmein-Schlichting waves interact with a Goertler vortex in such a manner that the amplitudes become infinite at a finite time. This type of interaction is described by ordinary differential amplitude equations with quadratic nonlinearities.

  9. Sensitivity of proxies on non-linear interactions in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Johannes; Beck, Christoph; Menz, Gunter; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Ohlwein, Christian; Philipp, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    To understand natural and anthropogenic induced processes, feedbacks, trends, and dynamics in the climate system, it is essential to consider longer timescales. In this context, annually resolved tree-ring data are often used to reconstruct past temperature or precipitation variability as well as atmospheric or oceanic indices. Due to the interrelation of processes at different spatiotemporal scales in the climate system (micro, local, meso, synoptic and global scale), it is even possible to use proxies - such as tree rings - which react to micro/local climate conditions, to reconstruct phenomena on the global scale of the climate system such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) or the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The dependencies between tree-ring chronologies and climate parameters are not always stable over time and trees growing under temperate climate conditions are often sensitive to different climate parameters. Consequently, for climate reconstructions trees are often used which grow under extreme environmental conditions. We utilized nine weather-/circulation-type classifications in combination with two tree-ring datasets to assess weather-type sensitivity across the Northern Atlantic region. Our results demonstrate that nonstationarities in superordinate space and time scales of the climate system (here synoptic to global scale NAO, AMO) can affect the climate sensitivity of tree-rings for phenomena in subordinate levels of the climate system (here weather-types, meso- to synoptic scale). This scale bias effect, has the capability to impact even large multiproxy networks and the ability of these networks to provide information about past climate conditions. The results - recently published in Scientific Reports - indicate that more research is needed to understand how processes or phenomena on different space-/time scales of the climate system interact. They show that the role of non-linear interactions in the climate system which can lead to

  10. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  11. The influence of surface roughness on the contact stiffness and the contact filter effect in nonlinear wheel-track interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Oskar E.; Nordborg, Anders; Lopez Arteaga, Ines

    2016-03-01

    A state-dependent contact model including nonlinear contact stiffness and nonlinear contact filtering is used to calculate contact forces and rail vibrations with a time-domain wheel-track interaction model. In the proposed method, the full three-dimensional contact geometry is reduced to a point contact in order to lower the computational cost and to reduce the amount of required input roughness-data. Green's functions including the linear dynamics of the wheel and the track are coupled with a point contact model, leading to a numerically efficient model for the wheel-track interaction. Nonlinear effects due to the shape and roughness of the wheel and the rail surfaces are included in the point contact model by pre-calculation of functions for the contact stiffness and contact filters. Numerical results are compared to field measurements of rail vibrations for passenger trains running at 200 kph on a ballast track. Moreover, the influence of vehicle pre-load and different degrees of roughness excitation on the resulting wheel-track interaction is studied by means of numerical predictions.

  12. Modal interactions and complex responses in weaklyNONLINEAR MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, A. K.; Davies, P.

    1994-12-01

    The analysis of forced nonlinear response of mechanical and structural systems, subjected to harmonic excitations, is considered in this report. It is shown that the presence of internal resonances on the various linear modes of vibration of the structure can result in quite complex dynamical motions and the motion may not settle down to either a periodic or a sub/super-harmonic response. Internal resonances, which allow for the exchange of energy between the participating modes give rise to beat-like fluctuations in the amplitudes of vibration. The nonlinear amplitude variation is very slow and can be either periodic or chaotic, depending on the level of forcing, damping and the nonlinearity coefficients. The analytical and numerical results are derived for the nonlinear vibrations of a thin rectangular plate, the response of the pendulum vibration absorber, and a double pendulum. Some experimental results of the measured response for a harmonically forced rectangular plate are also presented and compared to analytical predictions.

  13. Nuclear matter properties in the non-linear Walecka model at finite temperature with interaction between the σ - ω mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Cortes, M. R.; Nunes, D. R.; Batista, A. S. A.

    2014-11-11

    In this work in contrast to the usual Walecka model [1] we include the interaction between the σ – ω mesons [2,3] with the aim of studying the nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean-field theory in the regime of high temperatures. Therefore in our work we use the non-linear Walecka model. We investigate whether the phase transition characteristic of other models without these interactions vanishes for a given value of chemical potential μ and baryon density ρ{sub N}.

  14. Non-linear interactions in a boundary layer developing over an array of cubes using stochastic estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Karin; Perret, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, a boundary layer developing over a rough-wall consisting of staggered cubes with a plan area packing density, λp = 25%, is studied within a wind tunnel using combined particle image velocimetry and hot-wire anemometry to investigate the non-linear interactions between large-scale momentum regions and small-scale structures induced by the presence of the roughness. Due to the highly turbulent nature of the roughness sub-layer and measurement equipment limitations, temporally resolved flow measurements are not feasible, making the conventional filtering methods used for triple decomposition unsuitable for the present work. Thus, multi-time delay linear stochastic estimation is used to decompose the flow into large-scales and small-scales. Analysis of the scale-decomposed skewness of the turbulent velocity (u') shows a significant contribution of the non-linear term uL ' uS ' 2 ¯ , which represents the influence of the large-scales ( uL ' ) onto the small-scales ( uS ' ). It is shown that this non-linear influence of the large-scale momentum regions occurs with all three components of velocity in a similar manner. Finally, through two-point spatio-temporal correlation analysis, it is shown quantitatively that large-scale momentum regions influence small-scale structures throughout the boundary layer through a non-linear top-down mechanism.

  15. Composite nonlinear structure within the magnetosonic soliton interactions in a spin-1/2 degenerate quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jiu-Ning Luo, Jun-Hua; Li, Jun-Xiu; Li, Sheng-Chang; Liu, Shi-Wei; Yang, Yang; Duan, Wen-Shan; Han, Juan-Fang

    2015-06-15

    We study the basic physical properties of composite nonlinear structure induced by the head-on collision of magnetosonic solitons. Solitary waves are assumed to propagate in a quantum electron-ion magnetoplasma with spin-1/2 degenerate electrons. The main interest of the present work is to investigate the time evolution of the merged composite structure during a specific time interval of the wave interaction process. We consider three cases of colliding-situation, namely, compressive-rarefactive solitons interaction, compressive-compressive solitons interaction, and rarefactive-rarefactive solitons interaction, respectively. Compared with the last two colliding cases, the changing process of the composite structure is more complex for the first situation. Moreover, it is found that they are obviously different for the last two colliding cases.

  16. Time domain contact model for tyre/road interaction including nonlinear contact stiffness due to small-scale roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, P. B. U.; Kropp, W.

    2008-11-01

    Rolling resistance, traction, wear, excitation of vibrations, and noise generation are all attributes to consider in optimisation of the interaction between automotive tyres and wearing courses of roads. The key to understand and describe the interaction is to include a wide range of length scales in the description of the contact geometry. This means including scales on the order of micrometres that have been neglected in previous tyre/road interaction models. A time domain contact model for the tyre/road interaction that includes interfacial details is presented. The contact geometry is discretised into multiple elements forming pairs of matching points. The dynamic response of the tyre is calculated by convolving the contact forces with pre-calculated Green's functions. The smaller-length scales are included by using constitutive interfacial relations, i.e. by using nonlinear contact springs, for each pair of contact elements. The method is presented for normal (out-of-plane) contact and a method for assessing the stiffness of the nonlinear springs based on detailed geometry and elastic data of the tread is suggested. The governing equations of the nonlinear contact problem are solved with the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Relations between force, indentation, and contact stiffness are calculated for a single tread block in contact with a road surface. The calculated results have the same character as results from measurements found in literature. Comparison to traditional contact formulations shows that the effect of the small-scale roughness is large; the contact stiffness is only up to half of the stiffness that would result if contact is made over the whole element directly to the bulk of the tread. It is concluded that the suggested contact formulation is a suitable model to include more details of the contact interface. Further, the presented result for the tread block in contact with the road is a suitable input for a global tyre/road interaction model

  17. π-stacking and C-X...D (X = H, NO2; D = O, π) interactions in the crystal network of both C-H...N and π-stacked dimers of 1,2-bis(4-bromophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole and 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole.

    PubMed

    González-Padilla, Jazmin E; Rosales-Hernández, Martha C; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I; García-Báez, Efren V; Rojas-Lima, Susana; Salazar-Pereda, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Molecules of 1,2-bis(4-bromophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole, C19H12Br2N2, (I), and 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole, C19H12BrN3O2, (II), are arranged in dimeric units through C-H...N and parallel-displaced π-stacking interactions favoured by the appropriate disposition of N- and C-bonded phenyl rings with respect to the mean benzimidazole plane. The molecular packing of the dimers of (I) and (II) arises by the concurrence of a diverse set of weak intermolecular C-X...D (X = H, NO2; D = O, π) interactions.

  18. Interacting linear and nonlinear characteristics produce population coding asymmetries between ON and OFF cells in the retina.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Zachary; Nirenberg, Sheila; Victor, Jonathan

    2013-09-11

    The early visual system is a model for understanding the roles of cell populations in parallel processing. Cells in this system can be classified according to their responsiveness to different stimuli; a prominent example is the division between cells that respond to stimuli of opposite contrasts (ON vs OFF cells). These two cell classes display many asymmetries in their physiological characteristics (including temporal characteristics, spatial characteristics, and nonlinear characteristics) that, individually, are known to have important roles in population coding. Here we describe a novel distinction between the information that ON and OFF ganglion cell populations carry in mouse--that OFF cells are able to signal motion information about both light and dark objects, while ON cells have a selective deficit at signaling the motion of dark objects. We found that none of the previously reported asymmetries in physiological characteristics could account for this distinction. We therefore analyzed its basis via a recently developed linear-nonlinear-Poisson model that faithfully captures input/output relationships for a broad range of stimuli (Bomash et al., 2013). While the coding differences between ON and OFF cell populations could not be ascribed to the linear or nonlinear components of the model individually, they had a simple explanation in the way that these components interact. Sensory transformations in other systems can likewise be described by these models, and thus our findings suggest that similar interactions between component properties may help account for the roles of cell classes in population coding more generally.

  19. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, R K; Okatan, M Baris; Rajapaksa, I; Kim, Y; Marincel, D; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Jesse, S; Valanoor, N; Kalinin, S V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O₃ (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of n(th) order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials.

  20. Nonlinear mode interactions and frequency-jump effects in a doubly tuned oscillator configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, J.; Lashinsky, H.

    1980-05-01

    Frequency-jump effects associated with nonlinear mode competition are investigated in an oscillator configuration consisting of a passive linear resonance system coupled to an active nonlinear resonance system. These effects give rise to a hysteresis pattern whose height and width can be related to system parameters such as the resonance frequencies, dissipation, coupling coefficient, etc. It is noted that these effects offer a novel means of determining these parameters in cases in which conventional techniques may not be desirable or as advantageous. The analysis provides an qualitative explanation of empirical observations in a recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiment (Timsit and Daniels, 1976). The results also apply to other nonlinear resonance systems such as lasers, microwave generators, and electronic oscillators.

  1. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials. PMID:24045269

  2. Non-linear mode interaction between spin torque driven and damped modes in spin torque nano-oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Romera, M.; Monteblanco, E.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Ebels, U.; Delaët, B.

    2015-05-11

    The influence of dynamic coupling in between magnetic layers of a standard spin torque nano-oscillator composed of a synthetic antiferromagnet (SyF) as a polarizer and an in-plane magnetized free layer has been investigated. Experiments on spin valve nanopillars reveal non-continuous features such as kinks in the frequency field dependence that cannot be explained without such interactions. Comparison of experiments to numerical macrospin simulations shows that this is due to non-linear interaction between the spin torque (STT) driven mode and a damped mode that is mediated via the third harmonics of the STT mode. It only occurs at large applied currents and thus at large excitation amplitudes of the STT mode. Under these conditions, a hybridized mode characterized by a strong reduction of the linewidth appears. The reduced linewidth can be explained by a reduction of the non-linear contribution to the linewidth via an enhanced effective damping. Interestingly, the effect depends also on the exchange interaction within the SyF. An enhancement of the current range of reduced linewidth by a factor of two and a reduction of the minimum linewidth by a factor of two are predicted from simulation when the exchange interaction strength is reduced by 30%. These results open directions to optimize the design and microwave performances of spin torque nano-oscillators taking advantage of the coupling mechanisms.

  3. PAM stack test utility

    2007-08-22

    The pamtest utility calls the normal PAM hooks using a service and username supplied on the command line. This allows an administratory to test any one of many configured PAM stacks as any existing user on the machine.

  4. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach.

  5. Nonlinear resonant magnetoelectric interactions and efficient frequency doubling in a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, L. Y.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Sreenivasulu, G.; Srinivasan, G.

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical strain mediated non-linear magnetoelectric (NLME) coupling is studied in layered composites of ferromagnetic FeBSiC and piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) bimorph. The NLME manifests as frequency doubling in the voltage response of the sample to an applied ac magnetic field. It is shown that NLME is strong (i) in the absence of DC magnetic bias, (ii) when the frequency of h is tuned to half the frequency for bending oscillations, and (iii) a PZT bimorph (instead of a single layer of PZT) is used. A model is discussed for the non-linear magnetoelectric coupling that is of interest for RF frequency doublers.

  6. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  7. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach. PMID:27132149

  8. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions in the subauroral ionosphere on the basis of ISIS-2 satellite observations of Siple station VLF signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohnami, S.; Hayakawa, M.; Bell, T. F.; Ondoh, T.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear wave-wave interaction between signals from a ground-based VLF transmitter and narrow-band ELF emissions in the subauroral ionosphere is studied by means of the bispectrum and bicoherence analysis. A bicoherence analysis has indicated that the sideband structures around the Siple transmitter signal received onboard the ISIS satellite are due to the nonlinear interaction between the Siple VLF signal and the pre-existing ELF emission.

  9. Stacked optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Dieter W.; Rodrigo, Sergio G.; Novotny, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    We propose and analyze a stacked optical antenna (SOA). It is characterized by a stacked structure of its arms at the center, and an interstitial gap layer (IGL) in between, which plays the role of the feed gap. Because of its in-plane arrangement, the IGL can be fabricated by standard planar deposition techniques providing high accuracy and control. A SOA can be an enabling element for several technologies, in particular for optical detection, communication, and encryption besides applications in microscopy.

  10. On the ground states and dynamics of space fractional nonlinear Schrödinger/Gross-Pitaevskii equations with rotation term and nonlocal nonlinear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Xavier; Tang, Qinglin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose some efficient and robust numerical methods to compute the ground states and dynamics of Fractional Schrödinger Equation (FSE) with a rotation term and nonlocal nonlinear interactions. In particular, a newly developed Gaussian-sum (GauSum) solver is used for the nonlocal interaction evaluation [31]. To compute the ground states, we integrate the preconditioned Krylov subspace pseudo-spectral method [4] and the GauSum solver. For the dynamics simulation, using the rotating Lagrangian coordinates transform [14], we first reformulate the FSE into a new equation without rotation. Then, a time-splitting pseudo-spectral scheme incorporated with the GauSum solver is proposed to simulate the new FSE. In parallel to the numerical schemes, we also prove some existence and nonexistence results for the ground states. Dynamical laws of some standard quantities, including the mass, energy, angular momentum and the center of mass, are stated. The ground states properties with respect to the fractional order and/or rotating frequencies, dynamics involving decoherence and turbulence together with some interesting phenomena are reported.

  11. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    PubMed

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing.

  12. Exactly solvable model for nonlinear light-matter interaction in an arbitrary time-dependent field

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. M.; Lotti, A.; Teleki, A.; Kolesik, M.

    2011-12-15

    Exact analytic expressions are derived for the dipole moment and nonlinear current of a one-dimensional quantum particle subject to a short-range attractive potential and an arbitrary time-dependent electric field. An efficient algorithm for the current evaluation is described and a robust implementation suitable for numerical simulations is demonstrated.

  13. Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media. [laser beam interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    Third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media have been successfully used for tripling the efficiency of high-power laser radiation for the production of tunable and fixed-frequency coherent vacuum UV radiation and for up-conversion of IR radiation. The effects of focusing on two processes of this type are studied theoretically and experimentally.

  14. Modal interactions due to friction in the nonlinear vibration response of the "Harmony" test structure: Experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, M.; Sinou, J.-J.; Lambelin, J.-P.; Todeschini, R.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear vibration response of an assembly with friction joints - named "Harmony" - is studied both experimentally and numerically. The experimental results exhibit a softening effect and an increase of dissipation with excitation level. Modal interactions due to friction are also evidenced. The numerical methodology proposed groups together well-known structural dynamic methods, including finite elements, substructuring, Harmonic Balance and continuation methods. On the one hand, the application of this methodology proves its capacity to treat a complex system where several friction movements occur at the same time. On the other hand, the main contribution of this paper is the experimental and numerical study of evidence of modal interactions due to friction. The simulation methodology succeeds in reproducing complex form of dynamic behavior such as these modal interactions.

  15. Nonlinearity of cationic aromatic amine sorption to aluminosilicates and soils: role of intermolecular cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Dharni; Arey, Teresa A; Dickstein, Daniel R; Newman, Mark H; Zhang, Tina Y; Kinnear, Heather M; Bader, Mohammad M

    2013-12-17

    Through the study of substituted anilines and benzylamines, we demonstrated that cooperative cation-π, π-π, and van der Waals interactions can increase aromatic cationic amine sorption to Na/Ca-montmorillonite well beyond the extent expected by cation exchange alone. Cationic amines exhibiting cooperative interactions displayed nonlinear S-shaped isotherms and increased affinity for the sorbent at low surface coverage; parallel cation exchange and cooperative interactions were noted above a sorption threshold of 0.3-2.3% of exchange sites occupied. Our experiments revealed the predominance of intermolecular cation-π interactions, which occurred between the π system of a compound retained on the surface via cation exchange and the cationic amine group of an adjacent molecule. Compounds with greater amine charge/area and electron-donating substituents that allowed for greater electron density at the center of the aromatic ring showed a greater potential for cation-π interactions on montmorillonite surfaces. However, benzylamine sorption to nine soils, at charge loadings comparable to the experiments with montmorillonite, revealed no significant cooperative interactions. It appears that cation-π interactions may be likely in soils with exceptionally high cation exchange capacities (>0.7 mol charge/kg) and low organic matter contents, abundant in montmorillonite and other expanding clay minerals.

  16. Universal power-law decay of electron-electron interactions due to nonlinear screening in a Josephson junction array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Daniel; Rubbert, Sebastian; Ulrich, Jascha; Hassler, Fabian

    2016-09-01

    Josephson junctions are the most prominent nondissipative and at the same time nonlinear elements in superconducting circuits allowing Cooper pairs to tunnel coherently between two superconductors separated by a tunneling barrier. Due to this, physical systems involving Josephson junctions show highly complex behavior and interesting novel phenomena. Here, we consider an infinite one-dimensional chain of superconducting islands where neighboring islands are coupled by capacitances. We study the effect of Josephson junctions shunting each island to a common ground superconductor. We treat the system in the regime where the Josephson energy exceeds the capacitive coupling between the islands. For the case of two offset charges on two distinct islands, we calculate the interaction energy of these charges mediated by quantum phase slips due to the Josephson nonlinearities. We treat the phase slips in an instanton approximation and map the problem onto a classical partition function of interacting particles. Using the Mayer cluster expansion, we find that the interaction potential of the offset charges decays with a universal inverse-square power-law behavior.

  17. Nonlinear optical studies of hydrogen interaction with silicon(001)-2 x 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet Burak

    The adsorption and desorption of H2/Si have attracted a great deal of interest over the last two decades as a model system of covalent bonding on semiconductor surfaces. Nonlinear optical techniques (especially the surface second harmonic generation) have emerged as the method of choice for the study of hydrogen on silicon as most standard surface analytical techniques are insensitive to hydrogen. In addition, second harmonic generation (SHG) technique is noninvasive, and sensitive to very small amounts of hydrogen on the silicon surface. This work contains a detailed study of the surface second harmonic generation efficiency at Si(001)-2x1, a model description of this process (which includes an exact solution for the cluster size distribution in the one dimensional Ising model) and the details of a (1+1) resonantly enhanced multi photon ionization (REMPI) setup for analyzing hydrogen desorbing from surfaces. We have measured the SHG efficiency as a function of hydrogen coverage, relative to that of the clean surface, at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm, for substrate temperatures between 200 and 600 K, and for different polarization directions of both the fundamental and the second harmonic beams. The dependence of hydrogen induced SHG quenching on H coverage is explained with a statistical mechanical model that has previously been invoked to describe the kinetics and dynamics of H2 adsorption/desorption. The model predicts an increase in the SHG intensity upon rearranging randomly adsorbed H atoms by thermal annealing, which was confirmed experimentally. An empirical parametrization of the SHG efficiency curves is presented which may be used as a practical calibration to determine hydrogen coverage on Si(001) as a function of SHG signal and temperature. As part of the model description of the quenching of the SHG, we solved the cluster size distribution in the one-dimensional Ising model exactly. In the thermodynamic limit the result is a simple analytical

  18. Signatures of nonlinear mode interactions in the pulsating hot B subdwarf star KIC 10139564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, W.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The unprecedented photometric quality and time coverage offered by the Kepler spacecraft has opened up new opportunities to search for signatures of nonlinear effects that affect oscillation modes in pulsating stars. Aims: The data accumulated on the pulsating hot B subdwarf KIC 10139564 are used to explore in detail the stability of its oscillation modes, focusing in particular on evidences of nonlinear behaviors. Methods: We analyzed 38 months of contiguous short-cadence data, concentrating on mode multiplets induced by the star rotation and on frequencies forming linear combinations that show intriguing behaviors during the course of the observations. Results: We find clear signatures that point toward nonlinear effects predicted by resonant mode coupling mechanisms. These couplings can induce various mode behaviors for the components of multiplets and for frequencies related by linear relationships. We find that a triplet at 5760 μHz, a quintuplet at 5287 μHz and a (ℓ > 2) multiplet at 5412 μHz, all induced by rotation, show clear frequency and amplitude modulations which are typical of the so-called intermediate regime of a resonance between the components. One triplet at 316 μHz and a doublet at 394 μHz show modulated amplitude and constant frequency which can be associated with a narrow transitory regime of the resonance. Another triplet at 519 μHz appears to be in a frequency-locked regime where both frequency and amplitude are constant. Additionally, three linear combinations of frequencies near 6076 μHz also show amplitude and frequency modulations, which are likely related to a three-mode direct resonance of the type ν0 ~ ν1 + ν2. Conclusions: The identified frequency and amplitude modulations are the first clear-cut signatures of nonlinear resonant couplings occurring in pulsating hot B subdwarf stars. However, the observed behaviors suggest that the resonances occurring in these stars usually follow more complicated patterns than

  19. Application of the non-linear harmonic method to study the rotor-stator interaction in Francis-99 test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buron, J. D.; Houde, S.; Lestriez, R.; Deschênes, C.

    2015-01-01

    Steady state and non-linear harmonic (NLH) flow simulations were performed within the framework of the Francis-99 project in order to assess the capacity of the NLH method to capture the main pressure fluctuations associated with the rotor-stator interactions between the distributor and the runner of the turbine. This paper focusses on the methodology developed to obtain harmonic solutions and presents preliminary results from the simulations using the flow solver NUMECA FineTURBO on intermediate grid level meshes. Comparisons of the first simulations to experimental data reveal good agreement concerning the predicted pressure amplitudes notably at high load operating condition.

  20. Communication: The origin of many-particle signals in nonlinear optical spectroscopy of non-interacting particles.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-07-28

    Nonlinear spectroscopy signals detected by fluorescence from dilute samples of N non-interacting molecules are usually adequately described by simply multiplying the single molecule response by N. We show that signals that scale with higher powers of N are generated by the joint detection of several particles. This can be accomplished by phase sensitive detection such as phase cycling, photo-acoustic modulation, or by Hanbury-Brown Twiss photon coincidence. Such measurements can dissect the ensemble according to the number of excited particles.

  1. Communication: The origin of many-particle signals in nonlinear optical spectroscopy of non-interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy signals detected by fluorescence from dilute samples of N non-interacting molecules are usually adequately described by simply multiplying the single molecule response by N. We show that signals that scale with higher powers of N are generated by the joint detection of several particles. This can be accomplished by phase sensitive detection such as phase cycling, photo-acoustic modulation, or by Hanbury-Brown Twiss photon coincidence. Such measurements can dissect the ensemble according to the number of excited particles.

  2. Nonlinear spatio-temporal interactions and neural connections in human vision using transient and M-sequence stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.W.; Aine, C.J.; Flynn, E.R.; Wood, C.C.

    1996-02-01

    Reciprocal connections, in essence, are the dynamic wiring (connections) of the neural network circuitry. Given the high complexity of the neural circuitry in the human brain, it is quite a challenge to study the dynamic wiring of highly parallel and widely distributed neural networks. The measurements of stimulus evoked coherent oscillations provide indirect evidence of dynamic wiring. In this study, in addition to the coherent oscillation measurements, two more techniques are discussed for testing possible dynamic wiring: measurements of spatio-temporal interactions beyond the classical receptive fields, and neural structural testing using nonlinear systems analysis.

  3. Low-amplitude magnetic vortex core reversal by non-linear interaction between azimuthal spin waves and the vortex gyromode

    SciTech Connect

    Sproll, Markus; Noske, Matthias; Kammerer, Matthias; Dieterle, Georg; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Bauer, Hans; Gangwar, Ajay; Woltersdorf, Georg; Back, Christian H.

    2014-01-06

    We show, by experiments and micromagnetic simulations in vortex structures, that an active “dual frequency” excitation of both the sub-GHz vortex gyromode and multi-GHz spin waves considerably changes the frequency response of spin wave mediated vortex core reversal. Besides additional minima in the switching threshold, a significant broadband reduction of the switching amplitudes is observed, which can be explained by non-linear interaction between the vortex gyromode and the spin waves. We conclude that the well known frequency spectra of azimuthal spin waves in vortex structures are altered substantially, when the vortex gyromode is actively excited simultaneously.

  4. New nonlinear optical effect: self-reflection phenomenon due to exciton-biexciton-light interaction in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadzhi, P. I.; Lyakhomskaya, K. D.; Nadkin, L. Y.; Markov, D. A.

    2002-05-01

    The characteristic peculiarities of the self-reflection of a strong electromagnetic wave in a system of coherent excitons and biexcitons due to the exciton-photon interaction and optical exciton-biexciton conversion in semiconductors were investigated as one of the manifestations of nonlinear optical Stark-effect. It was found that a monotonously decreasing standing wave with an exponential decreasing spatial tail is formed in the semiconductor. Under the action of the field of a strong pulse, an optically homogeneous medium is converted, into the medium with distributed feedback. The appearance of the spatially separated narrow pears of the reflective index, extinction and reflection coefficients is predicted.

  5. On the nonlinear interaction of Gortler vortices and Tollmien-Schlichting waves in curved channel flows at finite Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daudpota, Q. Isa; Hall, Philip; Zang, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    The flow in a two-dimensional curved channel driven by an azimuthal pressure gradient can become linearly unstable due to axisymmetric perturbations and/or nonaxisymmetric perturbations depending on the curvature of the channel and the Reynolds number. For a particular small value of curvature, the critical neighborhood of this curvature value and critical Reynolds number, nonlinear interactions occur between these perturbations. The Stuart-Watson approach is used to derive two coupled Landau equations for the amplitudes of these perturbations. The stability of the various possible states of these perturbations is shown through bifurcation diagrams. Emphasis is given to those cases which have relevance to external flows.

  6. Nonlinear generation of harmonics through the interaction of an internal wave beam with a model oceanic pycnocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamessis, P. J.; Wunsch, S.; Delwiche, I.; Richter, M. P.

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of an internal wave beam (IWB) with an idealized oceanic pycnocline is examined using two-dimensional fully nonlinear direct numerical simulations based on a spectral multidomain penalty method in the vertical direction. The phenomenon of focus is the nonlinear generation of harmonics. A total of 24 simulations have been performed, varying the normalized pycnocline thickness and the ratio of peak pycnocline Brunt-Väisälä frequency to that of the stratified lower layer. Harmonics at the point of IWB entry into the pycnocline increase in amplitude and number with a measure of the maximum gradient of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, suggesting refraction as an important factor in harmonic generation. Among the simulations performed, two distinct limits of pycnocline thickness are identified. For thin pynoclines, whose thickness is 10% of the incident IWB's horizontal wavelength, harmonics trapped within the pycnocline have maximum amplitude when their frequency and wavenumber match those of the natural pycnocline interfacial wave mode. Results in this case are compared with weakly nonlinear theory for harmonic generation by plane wave refraction. For thicker pycnoclines, whose thickness is equal the incident IWB's horizontal wavelength, IWB refraction results in harmonic generation at multiple locations in addition to pycnocline entry, giving rise to complex flow structure inside the pycnocline.

  7. Boundary velocity method for continuum shape sensitivity of nonlinear fluid-structure interaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaobin; Canfield, Robert A.

    2013-07-01

    A Continuum Sensitivity Equation (CSE) method was developed in local derivative form for fluid-structure shape design problems. The boundary velocity method was used to derive the continuum sensitivity equations and sensitivity boundary conditions in local derivative form for a built-up joined beam structure under transient aerodynamic loads. For nonlinear problems, when the Newton-Raphson method is used, the tangent stiffness matrix yields the desired sensitivity coefficient matrix for solving the linear sensitivity equations in the Galerkin finite element formulation. For built-up structures with strain discontinuity, the local sensitivity variables are not continuous at the joints, requiring special treatment to assemble the elemental local sensitivities and the generalized force vector. The coupled fluid-structure physics and continuum sensitivity equations for gust response of a nonlinear joined beam with an airfoil model were posed and solved. The results were compared to the results obtained by finite difference (FD) method.

  8. Nonlinear interaction of long dispersive Kelvin waves in deep natural basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnev, Nikolay M.; Lovtsov, Sergey V.; Portyanskaya, Inna A.; Rastegin, Alexey E.; Rubtsov, Valeriy Yu.

    2010-05-01

    Nonlinear phenomena are of great importance for complete understanding of dynamical processes in fluids. However, direct studies of hydrodynamic equations seem to be very hard just due to nonlinear terms. Many approaches to nonlinear dispersive waves are related to the technique of multiple scales. It is one of most seminal ways to obtain those models that combine possibility of analytic investigation with actual effects of nonlinearity. Consideration of long Kelvin waves within the linear theory is well known issue of geophysical hydrodynamics. An influence of boundary effects leads to dispersion of Kelvin waves. At the same time, mutual balance between dispersive and nonlinear terms in motion equations can provide a formation of stable localized structures so-called solitary waves. When stratification is essential, different vertical modes of oscillation are typically excited. Corresponding analysis of vertical structure for solitary Rossby waves has been developed in many works, mainly due to Redekopp. But proper treatment of large-scale Kelvin waves seems to be not indicated in the literature. The principal aim of our work is to fill this lacuna. The present work has been partially inspired by temperature monitoring data obtained in south area of Lake Baikal. Under conditions of winter stratification, specific displacements of fragments of temperature profile from up to down were observed within upper layer. It is valuable that a shape of moving fragment remains almost undistorted. After ending this temperature decreasing, the temperature profile was rectified to initial shape. In all the years of observations, vertical displacements reach several tens of meters with duration of several days. These phenomena were interpreted as manifestation of long dispersive Kelvin waves, especially due to direction of propagation along the coastline. Regularly observed displacements from up to down may be evidences for nonlinear character of wave dynamics. Indeed, internal

  9. Nonlinear elastic wave interaction in a sandstone bar: A summary of recent pulse-mode experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; TenCate, J.A.; Cherry, R.; McCall, K.; Van Den Abeele, K.; Kadish, A.; Shankland, T.; Guyer, R. |

    1995-03-01

    We have performed nonlinear pulse propagation experiments in a 3.8 cm diameter rod of Berea sandstone 1.8 m long at ambient conditions. Unlike earlier studies, we measured acceleration and not displacement. Moreover, we detected 2nd and 3rd harmonic growth at smaller strain amplitudes than were observed previously (10{sup {minus}7}). Harmonic growth at identical strain amplitudes has also been noted in resonance studies using the same rock type. Current measurements are underway with the rod in vacuum where the wave attenuation is less and the conditions can be carefully controlled. Ultimately, we wish to test the validity of current analytic and numerical models for nonlinear propagation in microcracked materials.

  10. Lithium-Niobate Tailored Structures and Properties for Nonlinear Optical Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, Yih-Shyong

    Lithium Niobate (LiNbO_{rm 3}) has been extensively studied for over two decades and is widely used in acousto-optic, electro -optic, nonlinear optical, and integrated opto-electronic devices. Unfortunately, LiNbO_{rm 3} crystals irradiated with moderately intense laser radiation suffer photorefractive damage. Spatial variations in birefringence make it impossible for a device to have reproducible performance and severely limits its nonlinear optical applications. We have developed a vapor transport equilibration technique which can be used to improve the homogeneity and adjust the Li/Nb ratio in LiNbO_{ rm 3} single crystals. When equilibrated with a Li-rich powder crystals of stoichiometric composition can be obtained. This treatment raised the phasematching temperature of congruent LiNbO_{rm 3} for second harmonic generation of 1064 nm radiation to 238 ^circC above the annealing temperature for photorefractive damage. This property, along with the good optical homogeneity, should allow efficient conversion of laser sources. We also, for the first time, demonstrate the doubling of 954 nm radiation in a LiNbO_{rm 3} crystal. Control of the ferroelectric domain structure in LiNbO_{rm 3} crystal is important for efficient nonlinear optical devices. After a systematic study we found that the thermoelectric potential generated by axial and radial temperature gradients explains the unusual single domain structures in c-axis fibers and bi-domain configurations in a-axis fibers. The thermoelectric model can also explain the process induced domain changes and be used to control domain structures in LiNbO _{rm 3} crystals. Use of VTE to tailor properties and the thermoelectric model to control domain structures could both greatly enhance the application of LiNbO_{rm 3} for nonlinear devices.

  11. Wave-particle interaction and the nonlinear saturation of the electron temperature gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamani, Srinath; Parker, Scott E.; Chen, Yang; Howard, James E.

    2004-11-01

    It has been proposed that the electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence is responsible for experimentally relevant electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas. Significant transport levels are possible by the creation of radially elongated vortices or ``streamers" [1,2], which are sustained by the nonlinear saturation of the instability and are not susceptible to shear flow destruction, as is the case with the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode. We present a dynamical system to explore the dependence of saturation level due to E × B and E_\\| motion, as well as the effect of radial elongation. With this model, we can predict the nonlinear saturation level of the ETG streamers. We compare our theoretical predictions with a 2D shear-less slab gyrokinetic electron code that includes the E_\\| nonlinearity. [1]F. Jenko, W. Dorland, M Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000). [2]C. Holland, and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3857 (2002). [3]W. M. Manheimer, Phys. Fluids 14, 579 (1971). [4]R. A. Smith, John A. Krommes, and W. W. Lee, Phys. Fluids 28, 1069 (1985).

  12. Towards highly efficient red thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials by the control of intra-molecular π-π stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunge; Zhang, Dongdong; Cai, Minghan; Li, Yilang; Zhang, Deqiang; Qiu, Yong; Duan, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials have attracted much attention as they can achieve 100% theoretical internal quantum efficiency without using expensive noble metals. However, efficient red TADF emitters are hard to realize according to the energy gap law. Here, three donor-acceptor-donor type TADF emitters with the same acceptor of o-phthalodinitrile (PN) but different donors (9, 9-dimethyl-9, 10-dihydroacridine (DMAC), phenoxazine (PXZ), and phenothiazine (PTZ) for DMAC-PN, PXZ-PN, and PTZ-PN, respectively) have been synthesized, and it is observed that the performance of the emitters can be improved by reducing the intra-molecular π-π stacking. DMAC-PN with reduced intra-molecular π-π stacking shows a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 20.2% in degassed toluene solution, much higher than those of PXZ-PN, and PTZ-PN (0.8%, 0.2%, respectively). An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) employing DMAC-PN doped into 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) as the emitting layer exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 10.2% with the emission peak at 564 nm. Moreover, when DMAC-PN is doped into a polar host, bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl] ether oxide (DPEPO), the OLED shows a large redshift of the emission maximum to 594 nm, while maintaining a peak EQE as high as 7.2%, indicating that efficient red TADF OLEDs can be fabricated by doping orange TADF emitters into hosts with proper polarity. PMID:26821694

  13. Towards highly efficient red thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials by the control of intra-molecular π-π stacking interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunge; Zhang, Dongdong; Cai, Minghan; Li, Yilang; Zhang, Deqiang; Qiu, Yong; Duan, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials have attracted much attention as they can achieve 100% theoretical internal quantum efficiency without using expensive noble metals. However, efficient red TADF emitters are hard to realize according to the energy gap law. Here, three donor-acceptor-donor type TADF emitters with the same acceptor of o-phthalodinitrile (PN) but different donors (9, 9-dimethyl-9, 10-dihydroacridine (DMAC), phenoxazine (PXZ), and phenothiazine (PTZ) for DMAC-PN, PXZ-PN, and PTZ-PN, respectively) have been synthesized, and it is observed that the performance of the emitters can be improved by reducing the intra-molecular π-π stacking. DMAC-PN with reduced intra-molecular π-π stacking shows a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 20.2% in degassed toluene solution, much higher than those of PXZ-PN, and PTZ-PN (0.8%, 0.2%, respectively). An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) employing DMAC-PN doped into 4,4‧-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) as the emitting layer exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 10.2% with the emission peak at 564 nm. Moreover, when DMAC-PN is doped into a polar host, bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl] ether oxide (DPEPO), the OLED shows a large redshift of the emission maximum to 594 nm, while maintaining a peak EQE as high as 7.2%, indicating that efficient red TADF OLEDs can be fabricated by doping orange TADF emitters into hosts with proper polarity.

  14. Importance of π-stacking interactions in the hydrogen atom transfer reactions from activated phenols to short-lived N-oxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Mazzonna, Marco; Bietti, Massimo; DiLabio, Gino A; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Salamone, Michela

    2014-06-01

    A kinetic study of the hydrogen atom transfer from activated phenols (2,6-dimethyl- and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-substituted phenols, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-ol, caffeic acid, and (+)-cathechin) to a series of N-oxyl radical (4-substituted phthalimide-N-oxyl radicals (4-X-PINO), 6-substituted benzotriazole-N-oxyl radicals (6-Y-BTNO), 3-quinazolin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (QONO), and 3-benzotriazin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (BONO)), was carried out by laser flash photolysis in CH3CN. A significant effect of the N-oxyl radical structure on the hydrogen transfer rate constants (kH) was observed with kH values that monotonically increase with increasing NO-H bond dissociation energy (BDENO-H) of the N-hydroxylamines. The analysis of the kinetic data coupled to the results of theoretical calculations indicates that these reactions proceed by a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism where the N-oxyl radical and the phenolic aromatic rings adopt a π-stacked arrangement. Theoretical calculations also showed pronounced structural effects of the N-oxyl radicals on the charge transfer occurring in the π-stacked conformation. Comparison of the kH values measured in this study with those previously reported for hydrogen atom transfer to the cumylperoxyl radical indicates that 6-CH3-BTNO is the best N-oxyl radical to be used as a model for evaluating the radical scavenging ability of phenolic antioxidants.

  15. Phase dynamics modeling of parallel stacks of Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2014-11-01

    The phase dynamics of two parallel connected stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions (JJs) in high temperature superconductors is numerically investigated. The calculations are based on the system of nonlinear differential equations obtained within the CCJJ + DC model, which allows one to determine the general current-voltage characteristic of the system, as well as each individual stack. The processes with increasing and decreasing base currents are studied. The features in the behavior of the current in each stack of the system due to the switching between the states with rotating and oscillating phases are analyzed.

  16. Barrier RF stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Wildman, D.; Zheng, H.; Takagi, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2004-12-01

    A novel wideband RF system, nicknamed the barrier RF, has been designed, fabricated and installed in the Fermilab Main Injector. The cavity is made of seven Finemet cores, and the modulator made of two bipolar high-voltage fast solid-state switches. The system can deliver {+-}7 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. The main application is to stack two proton batches injected from the Booster and squeeze them into the size of one so that the bunch intensity can be doubled. High intensity beams have been successfully stacked and accelerated to 120 GeV with small losses. The problem of large longitudinal emittance growth is the focus of the present study. An upgraded system with two barrier RF cavities for continuous stacking is under construction. This work is part of the US-Japan collaborative agreement.

  17. Barrier RF Stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Wildman, D.; Zheng, H.; Takagi, A.

    2005-06-08

    A novel wideband RF system, nicknamed the barrier RF, has been designed, fabricated and installed in the Fermilab Main Injector. The cavity is made of seven Finemet cores, and the modulator made of two bipolar high-voltage fast solid-state switches. The system can deliver {+-}7 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. The main application is to stack two proton batches injected from the Booster and squeeze them into the size of one so that the bunch intensity can be doubled. High intensity beams have been successfully stacked and accelerated to 120 GeV with small losses. The problem of large longitudinal emittance growth is the focus of the present study. An upgraded system with two barrier RF cavities for continuous stacking is under construction. This work is part of the US-Japan collaborative agreement.

  18. Barrier RF Stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Wildman, D.; Zheng, H.; Takagi, A.

    2005-06-01

    A novel wideband RF system, nicknamed the barrier RF, has been designed, fabricated and installed in the Fermilab Main Injector. The cavity is made of seven Finemet cores, and the modulator made of two bipolar high-voltage fast solid-state switches. The system can deliver ±7 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. The main application is to stack two proton batches injected from the Booster and squeeze them into the size of one so that the bunch intensity can be doubled. High intensity beams have been successfully stacked and accelerated to 120 GeV with small losses. The problem of large longitudinal emittance growth is the focus of the present study. An upgraded system with two barrier RF cavities for continuous stacking is under construction. This work is part of the US-Japan collaborative agreement.

  19. Stack filter classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  20. An added-mass partition algorithm for fluid-structure interactions of compressible fluids and nonlinear solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Kapila, A. K.; Schwendeman, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an added-mass partitioned (AMP) algorithm for solving fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving inviscid compressible fluids interacting with nonlinear solids that undergo large rotations and displacements. The computational approach is a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme that makes use of deforming composite grids (DCG) to treat large changes in the geometry in an accurate, flexible, and robust manner. The current work extends the AMP algorithm developed in Banks et al. [1] for linearly elasticity to the case of nonlinear solids. To ensure stability for the case of light solids, the new AMP algorithm embeds an approximate solution of a nonlinear fluid-solid Riemann (FSR) problem into the interface treatment. The solution to the FSR problem is derived and shown to be of a similar form to that derived for linear solids: the state on the interface being fundamentally an impedance-weighted average of the fluid and solid states. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the AMP algorithm is stable even for light solids when added-mass effects are large. The accuracy and stability of the AMP scheme is verified by comparison to an exact solution using the method of analytical solutions and to a semi-analytical solution that is obtained for a rotating solid disk immersed in a fluid. The scheme is applied to the simulation of a planar shock impacting a light elliptical-shaped solid, and comparisons are made between solutions of the FSI problem for a neo-Hookean solid, a linearly elastic solid, and a rigid solid. The ability of the approach to handle large deformations is demonstrated for a problem of a high-speed flow past a light, thin, and flexible solid beam.

  1. Effects of radial electric field on suppression of electron-temperature-gradient mode through multiscale nonlinear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chanho; Kaneko, Toshiro; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ida, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Shigeru; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2016-11-01

    Turbulence in fluids and plasmas is ubiquitous in Nature and in the laboratory. Contrary to the importance of the ‘scale-free’ nature of cascade in neutral fluid turbulence, the turbulence in plasma is characterised by dynamics of distinct length scales. The cross-scale interactions can be highly non-symmetric so as to generate the plasma turbulence structures. Here we report that the system of hyper-fine electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) fluctuations and microscopic drift-wave (DW) fluctuations is strongly influenced by the sign of the gradient of the radial electric field through multiscale nonlinear interactions. The selective suppression effects by radial electric field inhomogeneity on DW mode induce a new route to modify ETG mode. This suppression mechanism shows disparity with respect to the sign of the radial electric field inhomogeneity, which can be driven by turbulence, so that it could be a new source for symmetry breaking in the turbulence structure formation in plasmas.

  2. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  3. Nonlinear attenuation from the interaction between different types of seismic waves and interaction of seismic waves with shallow ambient tectonic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Nakata, Nori

    2015-07-01

    Strong seismic waves bring rock into frictional failure at the uppermost few hundred meters. Numerous small fractures slip with the cumulative effect of anelastic strain and nonlinear attenuation; these fractures should not distinguish between remote sources of stress. Still, frictional failure criteria are not evident especially when seismic waves change the normal traction on fractures. We identify three earthquakes as examples where consideration of interaction among dynamic stresses from different wave types and ambient tectonic stress provides theoretical predictions of nonlinear attenuation that are potentially testable with single station seismograms. For example, because Rayleigh waves produce shallow horizontal dynamic tension and compression, frictional failure should preferentially occur on the tensile half-cycle if no shallow tectonic stress is present and on the compressional half-cycle if the tectonic stress is already near thrust-faulting failure. We observed neither effect on records from the 2011 Mw 9.0 Great Tohoku earthquake. However, Rayleigh waves from this event appear to have brought rock beneath MYGH05 station into frictional failure at ˜10 m depth and thus suppressed high-frequency S waves. The tensile half-cycle of high-frequency P waves reduced normal traction on horizontal planes beneath station IWTH25 during the 2008 Mw 6.9 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake, weakening the rock in shear and suppressing high-frequency S waves. The near-field velocity pulse from the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake brought the uppermost few hundred meters of granite beneath Lucerne station into frictional failure, suppressing high-frequency S waves. These moderately positive examples support the reality of nonlinear wave interaction, warranting study future strong ground motions.

  4. LOCA hydroloads calculations with multidimensional nonlinear fluid/structure interaction. Volume 3. Fluid/structure interaction studies using 3-D STEALTH/WHAMSE. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Santee, G.E. Jr.; Chang, F.H.; Mortensen, G.A.; Brockett, G.F.; Gross, M.B.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1982-11-01

    This report, the third in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the final step in the stepwise approach for developing the three-dimensional, nonlinear, fluid-structure interaction methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The final step in the methodology implements enhancements and special modifications to the STEALTH 3D computer program and the WHAMSE 3D computer program. After describing the enhancements, the individual and the coupled computer programs are assessed by comparing calculational results with either analytical solutions or with experimental data. The coupled 3D STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program is then applied to the simulation of HDR Test V31.1 to further assess the program and to investigate the role that fluid-structure interaction plays in the hydrodynamic loading of reactor internals during subcooled blowdown.

  5. Nonlinear vortex-phonon interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Haas, F.; Gammal, A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the nonlinear coupling between an exact vortex solution in a Bose-Einstein condensate and a spectrum of elementary excitations in the medium. These excitations, or Bogoliubov-de Gennes modes, are indeed a special kind of phonons. We treat the spectrum of elementary excitations in the medium as a gas of quantum particles, sometimes also called bogolons. An exact kinetic equation for the bogolon gas is derived, and an approximate form of this equation, valid in the quasi-classical limit, is also obtained. We study the energy transfer between the vortex and the bogolon gas, and establish conditions for vortex instability and damping.

  6. The effect of Coulomb interactions on nonlinear thermovoltage and thermocurrent in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2015-06-28

    In the present work, we theoretically study the nonlinear regime of charge transport through a quantum dot coupled to the source and drain reservoirs. The investigation is carried out using a nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. Employed approximations for the relevant Green’s functions allow to trace a transition from Coulomb blockade regime to Kondo regime in the thermoelectric transport. Effects arising when electrons move in response to thermal gradient applied across the system are discussed, including experimentally observed thermovoltage zeros.

  7. Nonlinear Model of the Specificity of DNA-Protein Interactions and Its Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiputra, D.; Hidayat, W.; Khairani, R.; Zen, F. P.

    2016-08-01

    Specific DNA-protein interactions are fundamental processes of living cells. We propose a new model of DNA-protein interactions to explain the site specificity of the interactions. The hydrogen bonds between DNA base pairs and between DNA-protein peptide groups play a significant role in determination of the specific binding site. We adopt the Morse potential with coupling terms to construct the Hamiltonian of coupled oscillators representing the hydrogen bonds in which the depth of the potentials vary in the DNA chain. In this paper we investigate the stability of the model to determine the conditions satisfying the biological circumstances of the DNA-protein interactions.

  8. Nonlinear interaction of intense hypergeometric Gaussian subfamily laser beams in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani, H.; Vaziri (Khamedi), M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian laser beam in a nonlinear plasma medium is investigated by considering the Source Dependent Expansion method. A subfamily of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams with a non-negative, even and integer radial index, can be expressed as the linear superposition of finite number of Laguerre-Gaussian functions. Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams in a nonlinear plasma medium depends on the value of radial index. The bright rings' number of these beams is changed during the propagation in plasma medium. The effect of beam vortex charge number l and initial (input) beam intensity on the self-focusing of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams is explored. Also, by choosing the suitable initial conditions, Hypergeometric-Gaussian subfamily beams can be converted to one or more mode components that a typical of mode conversion may be occurred. The self-focusing of these winding beams can be used to control the focusing force and improve the electron bunch quality in laser plasma accelerators.

  9. Development of a Nonlinear Acoustic Phased Array and its Interaction with Thin Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzel, Paul; Donahue, Carly; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    Numerous technologies are based on the principle of focusing acoustic energy. We propose a new device to focus sound waves which exploits highly nonlinear dynamics. The advantages of this device are the capability of generating very highly powerful acoustic pulses and potential operation in high-temperature environments where traditional piezoelectrics may fail. This device is composed of rows of ball bearings placed in contact with a medium of interest and with an actuator on the top. Elastic spherical particles have a contact force that grows with their relative displacement to the three-halves power (Hertzian contact). When several spheres are placed in a row, the particles support the propagation of ``solitary waves''--strong, compact stress-wave pulses whose tendency to disperse is counteracted by the nonlinearity of the sphere's contact force. We present results regarding the experimental operation of the device and its comparison to theory and numerical simulations. We will show how well this system is capable of focusing energy at various locations in the medium, and the limits imposed by pre-compression. Finally, the effects of timing error on energy focusing will be demonstrated. This research has been supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  10. Gene stacking by recombinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient methods of stacking genes into plant genomes are needed to expedite transfer of multigenic traits into diverse crops grown in a variety of environments. Over two decades of research has identified several site-specific recombinases that carry out efficient cis and trans recombination betw...

  11. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  12. The nonlinear interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Taylor-Goertler vortices in curved channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of Tollmien-Schlichting waves (TSWs) and Taylor-Goertler vortices (TGVs) in fully developed viscous curved-channel flows is investigated analytically, with a focus on their nonlinear interactions. Two types of interactions are identified, depending on the amplitude of the initial disturbances. In the low-amplitude type, two TSWs and one TGV interact, and the scaled amplitudes go to infinity on a finite time scale; in the higher-amplitude type, which can also occur in a straight channel, the same singularity occurs if the angle between the TSW wavefront and the TGV is greater than 41.6 deg, but the breakdown is exponential and takes an infinite time if the angle is smaller. The implications of these findings for external flow problems such as the design of laminar-flow wings are indicated. It is concluded that longitudinal vortices like those observed in the initial stages of the transition to turbulence can be produced unless the present interaction mechanism is destroyed by boundary-layer growth.

  13. Nonlinear thermoelectric transport in single-molecule junctions: the effect of electron-phonon interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we theoretically analyze steady-state thermoelectric transport through a single-molecule junction with a vibrating bridge. The thermally induced charge current in the system is explored using a nonequilibrium Green function formalism. We study the combined effects of Coulomb interactions between charge carriers on the bridge and electron-phonon interactions on the thermocurrent beyond the linear response regime. It is shown that electron-vibron interactions may significantly affect both the magnitude and the direction of the thermocurrent, and vibrational signatures may appear.

  14. Nonlinear Amplification in Electrokinetic Pumping in Nanochannels in the Presence of Hydrophobic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Chatterjee, Dipankar; Bakli, Chirodeep

    2013-05-01

    We discover a nonlinear coupling between the hydrophobicity of a charged substrate and electrokinetic pumping in narrow fluidic confinements. Our analyses demonstrate that the effective electrokinetic transport in nanochannels may get massively amplified over a regime of bare surface potentials and may subsequently get attenuated beyond a threshold surface charging condition because of a complex interplay between reduced hydrodynamic resistance on account of the spontaneous inception of a less dense interfacial phase and ionic transport within the electrical double layer. We also show that the essential physics delineated by our mesoscopic model, when expressed in terms of a simple mathematical formula, agrees remarkably with that portrayed by molecular dynamics simulations. The nontrivial characteristics of the initial increment followed by a decrement of the effective zeta potential with a bare surface potential may open up the realm of hitherto-unexplored operating regimes of electrohydrodynamically actuated nanofluidic devices.

  15. Interactions of nonlinear electron-acoustic solitary waves with vortex electron distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Demiray, Hilmi

    2015-02-15

    In the present work, based on a one dimensional model, we consider the head-on-collision of nonlinear electron-acoustic waves in a plasma composed of a cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a trapped/vortex-like distribution, and stationary ions. The analysis is based on the use of extended Poincare, Lighthill-Kuo method [C. H. Su and R. M. Mirie, J. Fluid Mech. 98, 509 (1980); R. M. Mirie and C. H. Su, J. Fluid Mech. 115, 475 (1982)]. It is shown that, for the first order approximation, the waves propagating in opposite directions are characterized by modified Korteweg-de Vries equations. In contrary to the results of previous investigations on this subject, we showed that the phase shifts are functions of both amplitudes of the colliding waves. The numerical results indicate that the waves with larger amplitude experience smaller phase shifts. Such a result seems to be plausible from physical considerations.

  16. Numerical simulation of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction for the application to solar radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, T.

    The Takakura (1977, 1979) semi-analytical method is used in numerical simulations of nonlinear scattering of axially-symmetric plasma waves into both plasma and radio waves, where the initial electron beam has a finite length and one-dimensional velocity distribution power law. The ratio between plasma wave and thermal electron energy densities is of the order of 10 to the -6th, which may be several orders of magnitude lower than the threshold value required for a caviton collapse of the plasma waves to occur. In addition, the second harmonic radio emission attributed to the coalescence of two plasma waves is several orders of magnitude higher than the fundamental radio emission caused by the scattering of plasma waves by thermal ions.

  17. Nonlinear interaction of intense electromagnetic waves with a magnetoactive electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M.; Rastbood, E.; Zeinaddini Meymand, H.; Niknam, A. R.

    2013-08-15

    The nonlinear coupling between circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and acoustic-like waves in a magnetoactive electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma is studied, taking into account the relativistic motion of electrons and positrons. The possibility of modulational instability and its growth rate as well as the envelope soliton formation and its characteristics in such plasmas are investigated. It is found that the growth rate of modulation instability increases in the case that ω{sub c}/ω<1 (ω{sub c} and ω are the electron gyrofrequency and the CPEM wave frequency, respectively) and decreases in the case that ω{sub c}/ω>1. It is also shown that in a magnetoactive e-p-i plasma, the width of bright soliton increases/decreases in case of (ω{sub c}/ω)<1/(ω{sub c}/ω)>1 by increasing the magnetic field strength.

  18. Helical waves and non-linear dynamics of fluid/structure interactions in a tube row

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, F.C.; Thothadri, M.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study has been to investigate low-dimensional models for fluid-structure dynamics of flow across a row of cylindrical tubes. Four principle results of this experimental-theoretical study are discussed. (i) Experimental evidence has shown that the dynamic instability of the tube row is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. (ii) The critical flow velocity decreases as the number of flexible cylinders increases. (iii) The linear model exhibits coupled helical wave solutions in the tube dynamics. (iv) A nonlinear model of the tube motions shows a complex subcritical Hopf bifurcation with a secondary bifurcation to a torus or quasi-periodic oscillation. In this analysis the tools of center manifolds, normal forms and numerical simulation are used.

  19. Tuning of Supramolecular Architectures of l-Valine-Containing Dicyanoplatinum(II) 2,2'-Bipyridine Complexes by Metal-Metal, π-π Stacking, and Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Heidi Li-Ki; Po, Charlotte; He, Hexiang; Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Wong, Kam Sing; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-08-01

    A series of newly synthesized dicyanoplatinum(II) 2,2'-bipyridine complexes exhibits self-assembly properties in solution after the incorporation of the l-valine amino units appended with various hydrophobic motifs. These l-valine-derived substituents were found to have critical control over the aggregation behaviors of the complexes in the solution state. On one hand, one of the complexes was found to exhibit interesting circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) signals at low temperature due to the formation of chiral spherical aggregates in the temperature-dependent studies. On the other hand, systematic transformation from less uniform aggregates to well-defined fibrous and rod-like structures via Pt⋅⋅⋅Pt and π-π stacking interactions has also been observed in the mixed-solvent studies. These changes were monitored by UV/Vis absorption, emission, circular dichroism (CD), and CPL spectroscopies, and morphologies were studied by electron microscopy.

  20. A nonlinear macroscopic multi-phasic model for describing interactions between solid, fluid and ionic species in biological tissue materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long-yuan; Pinsky, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A nonlinear, macroscopic multi-phasic model for describing the interactions between solid, fluid, and ionic species in porous materials is presented. Governing equations are derived based on the nonlinear theories of solid mechanics, linear flow theory of Newtonian fluids, and theory of irreversible thermodynamics for the transport of ions and ionic solutions. The model shows that the transport coupling between ions and ionic solution exists only when the porous material has a membrane-like feature, which could be inside the material or on the material boundaries. Otherwise, the coupling occurs only between the solid and fluid phases and the transport of ionic species will have no effect on the macroscopic stresses, strains and displacements of the porous material. As an application of the present multi-phasic model, a numerical example of the human cornea under the shock of NaCl hypertonic solution applied to its endothelial surface is presented. This is a typical example of how ionic transport induces swelling in biological tissues. The results obtained from the present multi-phasic model demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the tissue have an important influence on the swelling of the cornea. Without taking into account this influence, the predicted swelling may be exaggerated.

  1. Review of Stack CSP Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, R.

    1999-01-01

    CSP is an emerging technology with significant potential growth in stacking. Many of the stacking techniques for conventional packages could be implemented for CSP once materials, process, and system development for finer features are developed.

  2. Experimental investigation of non-linear wave to plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, G.; Mascali, D.; Agnello, R.; Celona, L.; Leonardi, O.; Neri, L.; Nicolosi, D.; Torrisi, G.; Gammino, S.

    2016-02-01

    A characterization of wave-to-plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field at 3.75 GHz has been carried out by using a small-wire movable RF antenna, connected to a spectrum analyzer. The coupling between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves leads to a characteristic spectral emission in low frequency range and around the pumping wave frequency. The most relevant results consist in the broadening of the pumping wave spectrum above critical RF power thresholds and in the generation of sidebands of the pumping frequency, with corresponding components in low frequency domain. The non-linearities are accompanied by the generation of overdense plasmas and intense fluxes of X-rays.

  3. Experimental investigation of non-linear wave to plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field.

    PubMed

    Castro, G; Mascali, D; Agnello, R; Celona, L; Leonardi, O; Neri, L; Nicolosi, D; Torrisi, G; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    A characterization of wave-to-plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field at 3.75 GHz has been carried out by using a small-wire movable RF antenna, connected to a spectrum analyzer. The coupling between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves leads to a characteristic spectral emission in low frequency range and around the pumping wave frequency. The most relevant results consist in the broadening of the pumping wave spectrum above critical RF power thresholds and in the generation of sidebands of the pumping frequency, with corresponding components in low frequency domain. The non-linearities are accompanied by the generation of overdense plasmas and intense fluxes of X-rays. PMID:26931915

  4. Quantum signature of discrete breathers in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice with nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bing; Li, De-Jun

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical work on quantum breathers in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice model with nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions is presented. The semiclassical and the full quantum cases are respectively considered. For the semiclassical case, we obtain the analytical solution of discrete breather, and find that the wave number corresponding to the appearance of discrete breather changes when the ratio of the next-nearest- to -nearest - neighbor harmonic force constants is greater than 1/4. For the full quantum case, by calculating the energy spectrum of the system containing two quanta, we prove numerically the existence of quantum breathers (two-quanta bound states) and find the shape of energy spectrum changes dramatically as the value of next -nearest neighbor harmonic force constant increasing.

  5. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  6. Fungal melanins differ in planar stacking distances.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nakouzi, Antonio; Crippa, Pier R; Eisner, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to deduce stacking parameters. In this study we used X ray diffraction to analyze melanins derived from Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Wangiella dermatitides and Coprinus comatus. Analysis of melanin in melanized C. neoformans encapsulated cells was precluded by the fortuitous finding that the capsular polysaccharide had a diffraction spectrum that was similar to that of isolated melanin. The capsular polysaccharide spectrum was dominated by a broad non-Bragg feature consistent with origin from a repeating structural motif that may arise from inter-molecular interactions and/or possibly gel organization. Hence, we isolated melanin from each fungal species and compared diffraction parameters. The results show that the inferred stacking distances of fungal melanins differ from that reported for synthetic melanin and neuromelanin, occupying intermediate position between these other melanins. These results suggest that all melanins have a fundamental diffracting unit composed of planar graphitic assemblies that can differ in stacking distance. The stacking peak appears to be a distinguishing universal feature of melanins that may be of use in characterizing these enigmatic pigments.

  7. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (<0.1 Hz), but also over the higher frequency range from ˜0.1 to 0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  8. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-06-15

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines.

  9. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  10. Electronic dynamics under effect of a nonlinear Morse interaction and a static electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranciaro Neto, A.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2016-11-01

    Considering non-interacting electrons in a one-dimension alloy in which atoms are coupled by a Morse potential, we study the system dynamics in the presence of a static electric field. Calculations are performed assuming a quantum mechanical treatment for the electronic transport and a classical Hamiltonian model for the lattice vibrations. We report numerical evidence of the existence of a soliton-electron pair, even when the electric field is turned on, and we offer a description of how the existence of such a phase depends on the magnitude of the electric field and the electron-phonon interaction.

  11. Thermoacoustic Refrigerator's Stack Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fawal, Mawahib Hassan; Mohd-Ghazali, Normah; Yaacob, Mohd. Shafik; Darus, Amer Nordin

    2010-06-01

    The standing wave thermoacoustic refrigerator, which uses sound generation to transfer heat, was developed rapidly during the past four decades. It was regarded as a new, promising and environmentally benign alternative to conventional compression vapor refrigerators, although it was not competitive regarding the coefficient of performance (COP) yet. Thus the aim of this paper is to enhance thermoacoustic refrigerator's stack performance through optimization. A computational optimization procedure of thermoacoustic stack design was fully developed. The procedure was designed to achieve optimal coefficient of performance based on most of the design and operating parameters. Cooling load and acoustic power governing equations were set assuming the linear thermoacoustic theory. Lagrange multipliers method was used as an optimization technique tool to solve the governing equations. Numerical analyses results of the developed design procedure are presented. The results showed that the stack design parameters are the most significant parameters for the optimal overall performance. The coefficient of performance obtained increases by about 48.8% from the published experimental optimization methods. The results are in good agreement with past established studies.

  12. Intermolecular forces and nonbonded interactions: Superoperator nonlinear time-dependent density-functional-theory response approach

    SciTech Connect

    Harbola, Upendra; Mukamel, Shaul

    2004-11-01

    Electrostatic and dispersive interactions of polarizable molecules are expressed in terms of generalized (nonretarded) charge-density response functions of the isolated molecules, which in turn are expanded using the collective electronic oscillator (CEO) eigenmodes of linearized time-dependent density-functional theory. Closed expressions for the intermolecular energy are derived to sixth order in charge fluctuation amplitudes.

  13. Design Interactive: A Nonlinear, Multimedia Approach to Teaching Introduction to Visual Communication and Principles of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell; Leidig-Farmen, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    As online teaching techniques continue to evolve, new opportunities surface for research and insight regarding best practices for the development and implementation of interactive, multimedia teaching and learning tools. These tools are particularly attractive for courses that lend themselves to a rich media approach. Such is the case for visual…

  14. Memory Stacking in Hierarchical Networks.

    PubMed

    Westö, Johan; May, Patrick J C; Tiitinen, Hannu

    2016-02-01

    Robust representations of sounds with a complex spectrotemporal structure are thought to emerge in hierarchically organized auditory cortex, but the computational advantage of this hierarchy remains unknown. Here, we used computational models to study how such hierarchical structures affect temporal binding in neural networks. We equipped individual units in different types of feedforward networks with local memory mechanisms storing recent inputs and observed how this affected the ability of the networks to process stimuli context dependently. Our findings illustrate that these local memories stack up in hierarchical structures and hence allow network units to exhibit selectivity to spectral sequences longer than the time spans of the local memories. We also illustrate that short-term synaptic plasticity is a potential local memory mechanism within the auditory cortex, and we show that it can bring robustness to context dependence against variation in the temporal rate of stimuli, while introducing nonlinearities to response profiles that are not well captured by standard linear spectrotemporal receptive field models. The results therefore indicate that short-term synaptic plasticity might provide hierarchically structured auditory cortex with computational capabilities important for robust representations of spectrotemporal patterns. PMID:26654206

  15. NONLINEAR WAVE INTERACTIONS AS EMISSION PROCESS OF TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ganse, Urs; Kilian, Patrick; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami

    2012-06-01

    The emission of fundamental and harmonic frequency radio waves of type II radio bursts are assumed to be products of three-wave interaction processes of beam-excited Langmuir waves. Using a particle-in-cell code, we have performed simulations of the assumed emission region, a coronal mass ejection foreshock with two counterstreaming electron beams. Analysis of wavemodes within the simulation shows self-consistent excitation of beam-driven modes, which yield interaction products at both fundamental and harmonic emission frequencies. Through variation of the beam strength, we have investigated the dependence of energy transfer into electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, confirming the quadratic dependence of electromagnetic emission on electron beam strength.

  16. Assessment of non-linear combination effect terms for drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gilbert; Schropp, Johannes; Jusko, William J

    2016-10-01

    Drugs interact with their targets in different ways. A diversity of modeling approaches exists to describe the combination effects of two drugs. We investigate several combination effect terms (CET) regarding their underlying mechanism based on drug-receptor binding kinetics, empirical and statistical summation principles and indirect response models. A list with properties is provided and the interrelationship of the CETs is analyzed. A method is presented to calculate the optimal drug concentration pair to produce the half-maximal combination effect. This work provides a comprehensive overview of typically applied CETs and should shed light into the question as to which CET is appropriate for application in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models to describe a specific drug-drug interaction mechanism. PMID:27638639

  17. Mother-Infant Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction as Predictor of Attachment: Nonlinear Dynamic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M; Sierra, Purificacion

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study examined flexibility in early mother-infant interaction at the age of approximately 6 months (N=30) and whether flexibility indices predicted (in) secure child attachment at 15 months. Dyadic flexibility was measured using dynamic systems-based modelling of patterns during mother-child free play in terms of NDS variables derived from SSG: the propensity to change states (dynamic flexibility), number of states visited (diversity) and predictability (dispersion). Results showed significant discriminant functions on the attachment type groups, A, B & C, for the total grid, which included verbal and non-verbal, and for the reciprocal verbal region. Specifically, the prediction outcomes seem to work better in total grid for A-dyads and in the reciprocal verbal region for B and C-dyads. Diversity emerged as the most relevant index in dyadic flexibility: A-dyads showed the least diversity, distinguished them from B-dyads in the verbal regions, (both the reciprocal and non-reciprocal, 'child verbal-mother non-verbal' one), and, from C-dyads in the reciprocal non-verbal region. A-dyads showed remarkably low activity in the regions involving child verbal behavior, showing that children who became avoidant attached at 15 months of age, were mostly silent at approximately 6 months, when they interacted with their mothers. Findings in this study contribute to advancing conceptually informed measurement of dyadic interaction to provide a new perspective on maternal sensitivity and early markers of child insecure/secure attachment. PMID:27550705

  18. A free energy analysis of nucleic acid base stacking in aqueous solution.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, R A; Honig, B

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a theoretical study of the free energy contributions to nucleic acid base stacking in aqueous solution. Electrostatic interactions are treated by using the finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann method and nonpolar effects are treated with explicit calculation of van der Waals interactions and/or free energy-surface area relationships. Although for some pairs of bases there is a favorable Coulombic interaction in the stacked conformation, generally the net effect of electrostatic interactions is to oppose stacking. This result is caused by the loss of favorable base-solvent electrostatic interactions, that accompany the partial removal of polar atoms from water in the stacked conformation. Nonpolar interactions, involving the hydrophobic effect and enhancement of van der Waals interactions caused by close-packing, drive stacking. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the experimental dependence of stacking free energy on purine-pyrimidine composition. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8534823

  19. Exciton Dynamics and Many Body Interactions in Layered Semiconducting Materials Revealed with Non-linear Coherent Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Prasenjit

    understanding the basic unexplored science as well as creating technological developments. The dephasing dynamics in semiconductors typically occur in the picosecond to femtosecond timescale, thus the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a potential route to probe such excitonic responses. The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, to develop the necessary instrumentation to accurately probe the aforementioned parameters and secondly, to explore the quantum dynamics and the underlying many-body interactions in different layered semiconducting materials. A custom-built multidimensional optical non-linear spectrometer was developed in order to perform two-dimensional spectroscopic (2DFT) measurements. The advantages of this technique are multifaceted compared to regular one-dimensional and non-linear incoherent techniques. 2DFT technique is based on an enhanced version of Four wave mixing experiments. This powerful tool is capable of identifying the resonant coupling, probing the coherent pathways, unambiguously extracting the homogeneous linewidth in the presence of inhomogeneity and decomposing a complex spectra into real and imaginary parts. It is not possible to uncover such crucial features by employing one dimensional non-linear technique. Monolayers as well as bulk TMDs and group III-VI bulk layered materials are explored in this dissertation. The exciton quantum dynamics is explored with three pulse four-wave mixing whereas the phase sensitive measurements are obtained by employing two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy. Temperature and excitation density dependent 2DFT experiments unfold the information associated with the many-body interactions in the layered semiconducting samples.

  20. Nonlinear phase interaction between nonstationary signals: a comparison study of methods based on Hilbert-Huang and Fourier transforms.

    PubMed

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Novak, Vera; Peng, C-K; Liu, Yanhui; Hu, Kun

    2009-06-01

    Phase interactions among signals of physical and physiological systems can provide useful information about the underlying control mechanisms of the systems. Physical and biological recordings are often noisy and exhibit nonstationarities that can affect the estimation of phase interactions. We systematically studied effects of nonstationarities on two phase analyses including (i) the widely used transfer function analysis (TFA) that is based on Fourier decomposition and (ii) the recently proposed multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) analysis that is based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)-an advanced nonlinear decomposition algorithm. We considered three types of nonstationarities that are often presented in physical and physiological signals: (i) missing segments of data, (ii) linear and step-function trends embedded in data, and (iii) multiple chaotic oscillatory components at different frequencies in data. By generating two coupled oscillatory signals with an assigned phase shift, we quantify the change in the estimated phase shift after imposing artificial nonstationarities into the oscillatory signals. We found that all three types of nonstationarities affect the performances of the Fourier-based and the HHT-based phase analyses, introducing bias and random errors in the estimation of the phase shift between two oscillatory signals. We also provided examples of nonstationarities in real physiological data (cerebral blood flow and blood pressure) and showed how nonstationarities can complicate result interpretation. Furthermore, we propose certain strategies that can be implemented in the TFA and the MMPF methods to reduce the effects of nonstationarities, thus improving the performances of the two methods.

  1. Nonlinear Amplification of Small Spin Precession Using Long-Range Dipolar Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledbetter, M. P.; Savukov, I. M.; Romalis, M. V.

    2005-02-01

    In measurements of small signals using spin precession the precession angle usually grows linearly in time. We show that a dynamic instability caused by spin interactions can lead to an exponentially growing spin-precession angle, amplifying small signals and raising them above the noise level of a detection system. We demonstrate amplification by a factor of greater than 8 of a spin-precession signal due to a small magnetic field gradient in a spherical cell filled with hyperpolarized liquid 129Xe. This technique can improve the sensitivity in many measurements that are limited by the noise of the detection system, rather than the fundamental spin-projection noise.

  2. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R.; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale—a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability. PMID:27601643

  3. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B

    2016-09-20

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale-a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability. PMID:27601643

  4. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B

    2016-09-20

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale-a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability.

  5. Nonlocal interactions in color perception: nonlinear processing of chromatic signals from remote inducers.

    PubMed

    Wachtler, T; Albright, T D; Sejnowski, T J

    2001-05-01

    The perceived color of an object depends on the chromaticity of its immediate background. But color appearance is also influenced by remote chromaticities. To quantify these influences, the effects of remote color fields on the appearance of a fixated 2 degrees test field were measured using a forced-choice method. Changes in the appearance of the test field were induced by chromaticity changes of the background and of 2 degrees color fields not adjacent to the test field. The appearance changes induced by the color of the background corresponded to a fraction of between 0.5 and 0.95 of the cone contrast of the background change, depending on the observer. The magnitude of induction by the background color was modulated on average by 7.6% by chromaticity changes in the remote color fields. Chromaticity changes in the remote fields had virtually no inducing effect when they occurred without a change in background color. The spatial range of these chromatic interactions extended over at least 10 degrees from the fovea. They were established within the first few hundred milliseconds after the change of background color and depended only weakly on the number of inducing fields. These results may be interpreted as reflecting rapid chromatic interactions that support robustness of color vision under changing viewing conditions.

  6. Ecological Effect of Nonlinear Internal Wave Interaction on Chlorophyll Concentration on the Continental Shelf in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Xu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean internal waves (IWs) occurred frequently and extensively in the northern South China Sea (SCS). We studied the effect of interacting nonlinear internal waves (IWs) on chlorophyll concentration variations in the northern South China Sea using the multi-sensors of the Envisat, ERS-2 and MODIS synthetically. Representative cases of the IWs spatial distribution in June in 2005, 2007 and 2009 provide the detailed analysis on the vicinity of the Dongsha Atoll. Unambiguously, results from the depth-integrated body force model, indicated that Luzon Strait was the main generation source of the large-scale IWs. Forcing of two parallel meridional ridges, Lan-yu and Heng-chun, played a more important role than adjacent regions (over 2 m2/s2). The chlorophyll (CHL) concentration enhancement detected by the ocean color sensors was consistent with the large-scale IWs activity from Luzon Strait. Our studies demonstrated that large-amplitude IW packets had a significant influence on the phytoplankton. In the vertical direction, CHL concentration lifting from sub-surface fluctuated along with the IWs activity, and was up to maximum (0.35 mg/m3) at the wave crest. Meanwhile, the peak value of CHL concentration decreased and the fluctuation disappeared with the spread of nonlinear IWs horizontally. A Deep Chlorophyll Maximum model (DCM) was introduced with this remote sensing inversion results, and the presence of IWs activities displace the top of the DCM and have an elevation where the effective light is just enough to produce a measurable response in the ocean color sensors. As further revealed, these large-scale IWs generated from Luzon Strait travelled long distance on the continental shelf in the SCS, significantly impacting vertical distribution, water masses and the ocean mixing.

  7. Barrier RF stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou and Akira Takagi

    2003-02-24

    This paper introduces a new method for stacking beams in the longitudinal phase space. It uses RF barriers to confine and compress beams in an accelerator, provided that the machine momentum acceptance is a few times larger than the momentum spread of the injected beam. This is the case for the Fermilab Main Injector. A barrier RF system employing Finemet cores and high-voltage solid-state switches is under construction. The goal is to double the number of protons per cycle on the production target for Run2 and NuMI experiments.

  8. Nonlinear fluid-structure interaction in a flexible shelter under blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sangeon

    Recently, numerous flexible structures have been employed in various fields of industry. Loading conditions sustained by these flexible structures are often not described well enough for engineering analyses even though these conditions are important. Here, a flexible tent with an interior Collective Protection System, which is subjected to an explosion, is analyzed. The tent protects personnel from biological and chemical agents with a pressurized liner inside the tent as an environmental barrier. Field tests showed unexpected damage to the liner, and most of the damage occurred on tent's leeward side. To solve this problem, various tests and analyses have been performed, involving material characteristics of the liner, canvas, and zip seals, modeling of the blast loading over the tent and inside the tent, and structural response of the tent to the blast loading as collaborative research works with others. It was found that the blast loading and the structural response can not be analyzed separately due to the interaction between the flexible structure and the dynamic pressure loading. In this dissertation, the dynamic loadings imposed on both the interior and the exterior sides of the tent structure due to the airblasts and the resulting dynamic responses were studied. First, the blast loadings were obtained by a newly proposed theoretical method of analytical/empirical models which was developed into a FORTRAN program. Then, a numerical method of an iterative Fluid-Structure Interaction using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Structural Dynamics was employed to simulate the blast wave propagation inside and outside the flexible structure and to calculate the dynamic loads on it. All the results were compared with the field test data conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory. The experimental pressure data were gathered from pressure gauges attached to the tent surfaces at different locations. The comparison showed that the proposed methods can

  9. Role of aromatic stacking interactions in the modulation of the two-electron reduction potentials of flavin and substrate/product in Megasphaera elsdenii short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Pellett, J D; Becker, D F; Saenger, A K; Fuchs, J A; Stankovich, M T

    2001-06-26

    The effects of aromatic stacking interactions on the stabilization of reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and substrate/product have been investigated in short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) from Megasphaera elsdenii. Mutations were made at the aromatic residues Phe160 and Tyr366, which flank either face of the noncovalently bound flavin cofactor. The electrochemical properties of the mutants were then measured in the presence and absence of a butyryl-CoA/crotonyl-CoA mixture. Results from these redox studies suggest that the phenylalanine and tyrosine both engage in favorable pi-sigma interactions with the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin to help stabilize formation of the anionic flavin hydroquinone. Disruption of these interactions by replacing either residue with a leucine (F160L and Y366L) causes the midpoint potential for the oxidized/hydroquinone couple (E(ox/hq)) to shift negative by 44-54 mV. The E(ox/hq) value was also found to decrease when aromatic residues containing electron-donating heteroatoms were introduced at the 160 position. Potential shifts of -32 and -43 mV for the F160Y and F160W mutants, respectively, are attributed to increased pi-pi repulsive interactions between the ring systems. This study also provides evidence for thermodynamic regulation of the substrate/product couple in the active site of SCAD. Binding to the wild-type enzyme caused the midpoint potential for the butyryl-CoA/crotonyl-CoA couple (E(BCoA/CCoA)) to shift 14 mV negative, stabilizing the oxidized product. Formation of product was found to be even more favorable in complexes with the F160Y and F160W mutants, suggesting that the electrostatic environment around the flavin plays a role in substrate/product activation.

  10. Interaction of light and surface plasmon polaritons in Ag islands studied by nonlinear photoemission microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buckanie, N M; Kirschbaum, P; Sindermann, S; Meyer zu Heringdorf, F-J

    2013-07-01

    Two photon photoemission microscopy was used to study the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with Ag islands prepared using different strategies on Si(111) and SiO₂. The femtosecond laser pulses initiate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves at the edges of the island. The superposition of the electrical fields of the femtosecond laser pulses with the electrical fields of the SPP results in a moiré pattern that is comparable despite the rather different methods of preparation and that gives access to the wavelength and direction of the SPP waves. If the SPPs reach edges of the Ag islands, they can be converted back into light waves. The incident and refracted light waves result in an interference pattern that can again be described with a moiré pattern, demonstrating that Ag islands can be used as plasmonic beam deflectors for light.

  11. Linear and nonlinear wave-particle interactions. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, A.Y.

    1994-12-31

    In part 1, a quasi-particle approach is adopted to examine the effect of ionospheric irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellite signals through the ionosphere. The experimental data corresponding to the Bottomside Sinusoidal (BSS) irregularity is used to validate the approach. Good agreement in the scintillation index S4 is found. It is demonstrated that a traveling BSS irregularity can indeed cause a scintillation in the transionospheric signal in agreement with the experimental measurements. The theory is then used to make a prediction for future experimental observations. In part 2, the authors show that when an energetic proton originally trapped by the geomagnetic mirror field near the equator interacts with a Kinetic Alfven Wave (KAW), its trajectory may become chaotic. As a result of this chaotic motion, the proton will escape from its confines and either precipitate into the polar region or drift downward into the lower altitude region. A cyclotron average is first used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom of the system from 2.5 to 1.5 so that the chaoticity of the system can be revealed by Poincare surface of section method. Next, a Lyapunov exponent analysis for limited cases of initial conditions provides a quantitative measure of chaos. In the chaotic region, the longitudinal motion of the proton is shown to involve irregular oscillation in excursion amplitude leading to proton diffusion into the loss cone. The proton also drifts radially via a nonzero average E x B drift velocity acquired in the interaction with the wave. In part 3, an experiment is performed to study the electromagnetic wave absorption and scattering properties of the structured and lossy plasma for use in a radar cloaking device. Measurements of microwave attenuation and scattering by a hollow cathode produced plasma column show greater than 20 dB attenuation in transmission for wave frequency range of 3.5 to 11 GHz.

  12. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  13. Can Dispersion Forces Govern Aromatic Stacking in an Organic Solvent?

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixu; Brazier, John B; Hubbard, Thomas A; Rogers, David M; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-18

    Experimental support for the dominance of van der Waals dispersion forces in aromatic stacking interactions occurring in organic solution is surprisingly limited. The size-dependence of aromatic stacking in an organic solvent was examined. The interaction energy was found to vary by about 7.5 kJ mol(-1) on going from a phenyl-phenyl to an anthracene-pyrene stack. Strikingly, the experimental data were highly correlated with dispersion energies determined using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), while the induction, exchange, electrostatic, and solvation energy components correlated poorly. Both the experimental data and the SAPT-dispersion energies gave high-quality correlations with the change in solvent accessible area upon complexation. Thus, the size-dependence of aromatic stacking interactions is consistent with the dominance of van der Waals dispersion forces even in the presence of a competing polarizable solvent. PMID:26632979

  14. Can Dispersion Forces Govern Aromatic Stacking in an Organic Solvent?

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixu; Brazier, John B; Hubbard, Thomas A; Rogers, David M; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-18

    Experimental support for the dominance of van der Waals dispersion forces in aromatic stacking interactions occurring in organic solution is surprisingly limited. The size-dependence of aromatic stacking in an organic solvent was examined. The interaction energy was found to vary by about 7.5 kJ mol(-1) on going from a phenyl-phenyl to an anthracene-pyrene stack. Strikingly, the experimental data were highly correlated with dispersion energies determined using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), while the induction, exchange, electrostatic, and solvation energy components correlated poorly. Both the experimental data and the SAPT-dispersion energies gave high-quality correlations with the change in solvent accessible area upon complexation. Thus, the size-dependence of aromatic stacking interactions is consistent with the dominance of van der Waals dispersion forces even in the presence of a competing polarizable solvent.

  15. Atmospheric infrasound from nonlinear wave interactions during Hurricanes Felicia and Neki of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; GarcéS, Milton A.; Badger, Nickles

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring stations around the globe routinely detect microbarom signals with a dominant frequency of ˜0.2 Hz from regions of marine storminess. International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound array IS59 in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii recorded clear signals in close proximity of Hurricanes Felicia and Neki of 2009 for a first-hand investigation of the detailed source mechanism through a hindcast analysis. A spectral wave model describes the tropical cyclone and ambient sea states through a system of two-way nested grids with forcing from a blended data set of global, regional, and cyclonic winds. The computed wave conditions are validated with altimetry measurements and utilized in an acoustic model to estimate the intensity and spatial distribution of the microbarom source. The model results elucidate origins of infrasound signals from the tropical cyclone waves as well as their interactions with the ambient conditions consisting of swells, wind seas, and storm waves from nearby systems. The positive correlation between the IS59 observations and the theoretical microbarom estimates, and the saturation of recorded signals from high-energy sources support the use of infrasound signals for inference of tropical cyclone waves.

  16. A finite strain nonlinear human mitral valve model with fluid-structure interaction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hao; Ma, Xingshuang; Qi, Nan; Berry, Colin; Griffith, Boyce E; Luo, Xiaoyu

    2014-12-01

    A computational human mitral valve (MV) model under physiological pressure loading is developed using a hybrid finite element immersed boundary method, which incorporates experimentally-based constitutive laws in a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction framework. A transversely isotropic material constitutive model is used to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the MV tissue based on recent mechanical tests of healthy human mitral leaflets. Our results show good agreement, in terms of the flow rate and the closing and opening configurations, with measurements from in vivo magnetic resonance images. The stresses in the anterior leaflet are found to be higher than those in the posterior leaflet and are concentrated around the annulus trigons and the belly of the leaflet. The results also show that the chordae play an important role in providing a secondary orifice for the flow when the valve opens. Although there are some discrepancies to be overcome in future work, our simulations show that the developed computational model is promising in mimicking the in vivo MV dynamics and providing important information that are not obtainable by in vivo measurements. PMID:25319496

  17. Nonlinear Gulf Stream Interaction with the Deep Western Boundary Current System: Observations and a Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, David E.; Mehra, Avichal; Haney, Robert L.; Bowman, Malcolm J.; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2003-01-01

    Gulf Stream (GS) separation near its observed Cape Hatteras (CH) separation location, and its ensuing path and dynamics, is a challenging ocean modeling problem. If a model GS separates much farther north than CH, then northward GS meanders, which pinch off warm core eddies (rings), are not possible or are strongly constrained by the Grand Banks shelfbreak. Cold core rings pinch off the southward GS meanders. The rings are often re-absorbed by the GS. The important warm core rings enhance heat exchange and, especially, affect the northern GS branch after GS bifurcation near the New England Seamount Chain. This northern branch gains heat by contact with the southern branch water upstream of bifurcation, and warms the Arctic Ocean and northern seas, thus playing a major role in ice dynamics, thermohaline circulation and possible global climate warming. These rings transport heat northward between the separated GS and shelf slope/Deep Western Boundary Current system (DWBC). This region has nearly level time mean isopycnals. The eddy heat transport convergence/divergence enhances the shelfbreak and GS front intensities and thus also increases watermass transformation. The fronts are maintained by warm advection by the Florida Current and cool advection by the DWBC. Thus, the GS interaction with the DWBC through the intermediate eddy field is climatologically important.

  18. A finite strain nonlinear human mitral valve model with fluid-structure interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hao; Ma, Xingshuang; Qi, Nan; Berry, Colin; Griffith, Boyce E; Luo, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    A computational human mitral valve (MV) model under physiological pressure loading is developed using a hybrid finite element immersed boundary method, which incorporates experimentally-based constitutive laws in a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction framework. A transversely isotropic material constitutive model is used to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the MV tissue based on recent mechanical tests of healthy human mitral leaflets. Our results show good agreement, in terms of the flow rate and the closing and opening configurations, with measurements from in vivo magnetic resonance images. The stresses in the anterior leaflet are found to be higher than those in the posterior leaflet and are concentrated around the annulus trigons and the belly of the leaflet. The results also show that the chordae play an important role in providing a secondary orifice for the flow when the valve opens. Although there are some discrepancies to be overcome in future work, our simulations show that the developed computational model is promising in mimicking the in vivo MV dynamics and providing important information that are not obtainable by in vivo measurements. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25319496

  19. Superalkali atoms bonding to the phenalenyl radical: structures, intermolecular interaction and nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sa; Xu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Shi-Ling; Zhao, Liang; Su, Zhong-Min

    2015-08-01

    Due to unpaired electrons, both radicals and superalkali are investigated widely. In this work, two interesting complexes (Li3O-PLY and Li3-PLY) were constructed by phenalenyl radical and superalkali atoms. Why are they interesting? Firstly, for Li3O-PLY and Li3-PLY, although the charge transfer between superalkali atoms and PLY is similar, the sandwich-like charge distribution for Li3O-PLY causes a smaller dipole moment than that of Li3-PLY. Secondly, their UV-vis absorption show that the maximum wavelengths for Li3O-PLY and Li3-PLY display a bathochromic shift compared to PLY. Moreover, Li3-PLY has two new peaks at 482 and 633 nm. Significantly, the β 0 values of Li3-PLY (4943-5691 a.u.) are much larger than that of Li3O-PLY (225-347 a.u.). Further, the β HRS values of Li3O-PLY decrease slightly while β HRS of Li3-PLY increase dramatically with increasing frequency. It is our expectation that these results might provide beneficial information for theoretical and experimental studies on complexes with superalkali and PLY radicals. Graphical Abstract Two interesting complexes (Li3O-PLY and Li3-PLY) were constructed by phenalenyl radical and superalkali atoms. We explore their structures, Wiberg bond indices, interaction energies and the static first hyperpolarizabilities (β 0). The β 0 values of Li3-PLY (4943-5691 a.u.) were much larger than those of Li3O-PLY (225-347 a.u.).

  20. Nonlinear Acoustics in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander

    At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at in fluids sufficiently low damping acoustic phenomena become nonlinear. This chapter focuses on nonlinear acoustic wave properties in gases and liquids. The origin of nonlinearity, equations of state, simple nonlinear waves, nonlinear acoustic wave equations, shock-wave formation, and interaction of waves are presented and discussed. Tables are given for the nonlinearity parameter B/A for water and a range of organic liquids, liquid metals and gases. Acoustic cavitation with its nonlinear bubble oscillations, pattern formation and sonoluminescence (light from sound) are modern examples of nonlinear acoustics. The language of nonlinear dynamics needed for understanding chaotic dynamics and acoustic chaotic systems is introduced.

  1. Nonlinear Interaction of Edge-Localized Modes and Turbulent Eddies in Toroidal Plasma under n =1 Magnetic Perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Yun, Gunsu S.; Choi, Minjun J.; Kwon, Jae-Min; Jeon, Young-Mu; Lee, Woochang; Luhmann, Neville C.; Park, Hyeon K.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of static n =1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of edge-localized modes (ELMs) and edge turbulence in tokamak plasma has been investigated. Two-dimensional images measured by a millimeter-wave camera on the KSTAR tokamak revealed that the coherent filamentary modes (i.e., ELMs) are still present in the edge region when the usual large scale collapse of the edge confinement, i.e., the ELM crash, is completely suppressed by n =1 RMP. Cross-correlation analyses on the 2D images show that (1) the RMP enhances turbulent fluctuations in the edge toward the ELM-crash-suppression phase, (2) the induced turbulence has a clear dispersion relation for wide ranges of wave number and frequency, and (3) the turbulence involves a net radially outward energy transport. Nonlinear interactions of the turbulent eddies with the coexisting ELMs are clearly observed by bispectral analysis, which implies that the exchange of energy between them may be the key to the prevention of large scale crashes.

  2. Response analysis of a nuclear containment structure with nonlinear soil-structure interaction under bi-directional ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Raychowdhury, Prishati; Gundlapalli, Prabhakar

    2015-06-01

    Design of critical facilities such as nuclear power plant requires an accurate and precise evaluation of seismic demands, as any failure of these facilities poses immense threat to the community. Design complexity of these structures reinforces the necessity of a robust 3D modeling and analysis of the structure and the soil-foundation interface. Moreover, it is important to consider the multiple components of ground motion during time history analysis for a realistic simulation. Present study is focused on investigating the seismic response of a nuclear containment structure considering nonlinear Winkler-based approach to model the soil-foundation interface using a distributed array of inelastic springs, dashpots and gap elements. It is observed from this study that the natural period of the structure increases about 10 %, whereas the force demands decreases up to 24 % by considering the soil-structure interaction. Further, it is observed that foundation deformations, such as rotation and sliding are affected by the embedment ratio, indicating an increase of up to 56 % in these responses for a reduction of embedment from 0.5 to 0.05× the width of the footing.

  3. Generation of Nonlinear Force Driven Blocks from Skin Layer Interaction of Petawatt-Picosecond Laser Pulses for ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Hora; Cang, Yu; He, Xiantu; Zhang, Jie; F, Osman; J, Badziak; F, P. Boody; S, Gammino; R, Höpfl; K, Jungwirth; B, Kralikova; J, Kraska; L, Laska; Liu, Hong; G, H. Miley; P, Parys; Peng, Hansheng; M, Pfeifer; K, Rohlena; J, Skala; Z, Skladanowski; L, Torrisi; J, Ullschmied; J, Wolowski; Zhang, Weiyan

    2004-02-01

    The discovery of the essential difference of maximum ion energy for TW - ps laser plasma interaction compared with the 100 ns laser pulses [1] led to the theory of a skin layer model [2] where the control of prepulses suppressed the usual relativistic self-focusing. The subsequent generation of two nonlinear force driven blocks has been demonstrated experimentally and in extensive numerical studies where one block moves against the laser light and the other block into the irradiated target. These blocks of nearly solid state density DT plasma correspond to ion beam current densities [3] exceeding 1010 A/cm2 where the ion velocity can be chosen up to highly relativistic values. Using the results of the expected ignition of DT fuel by light ion beams, a self-sustained fusion reaction front may be generated even into uncompressed solid DT fuel similar to the Nuckolls-Wood [4] scheme where 10 kJ laser pulses produce 100 MJ fusion energy. This new and simplified scheme of laser-ICF needs and optimisation of the involved parameters.

  4. Non-linear interactions determine the impact of sea-level rise on estuarine benthic biodiversity and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C L

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches. PMID:23861863

  5. Nonlinear Advection Algorithms Applied to Inter-related Tracers: Errors and Implications for Modeling Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Easter, Richard C.

    2009-02-01

    Monotonicity constraints and gradient preserving flux corrections employed by many advection algorithms used in atmospheric models make these algorithms non-linear. Consequently, any relations among model variables transported separately are not necessarily preserved in such models. These errors cannot be revealed by traditional algorithm testing based on advection of a single tracer. New type of tests are developed and conducted to evaluate the preservation of a sum of several number mixing ratios advected independently of each other, as is the case, for example, in models using bin or sectional representation of aerosol or cloud particle size distribution. The tests show that when three tracers are advected in 1D uniform constant velocity flow, local errors in the sum can be on the order of 10%. When cloud-like interactions are allowed among the tracers, errors in total sum of three mixing ratios can reach up to 30%. Several approaches to eliminate the error are suggested, all based on advecting the sum as a separate variable and then normalizing mixing ratios for individual tracers to match the total sum. A simple scalar normalization preserves the total number mixing ratio and positive definiteness of the variables but the monotonicity constraint for individual tracers is no longer maintained. More involved flux normalization procedures are developed for the flux based advection algorithms to maintain the monotonicity for individual scalars and their sum.

  6. Non-Linear Interactions Determine the Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Estuarine Benthic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches. PMID:23861863

  7. Non-linear interactions determine the impact of sea-level rise on estuarine benthic biodiversity and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C L

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches.

  8. Nonlinear Interaction of Edge-Localized Modes and Turbulent Eddies in Toroidal Plasma under n=1 Magnetic Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyun; Yun, Gunsu S; Choi, Minjun J; Kwon, Jae-Min; Jeon, Young-Mu; Lee, Woochang; Luhmann, Neville C; Park, Hyeon K

    2016-08-12

    The effect of static n=1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of edge-localized modes (ELMs) and edge turbulence in tokamak plasma has been investigated. Two-dimensional images measured by a millimeter-wave camera on the KSTAR tokamak revealed that the coherent filamentary modes (i.e., ELMs) are still present in the edge region when the usual large scale collapse of the edge confinement, i.e., the ELM crash, is completely suppressed by n=1 RMP. Cross-correlation analyses on the 2D images show that (1) the RMP enhances turbulent fluctuations in the edge toward the ELM-crash-suppression phase, (2) the induced turbulence has a clear dispersion relation for wide ranges of wave number and frequency, and (3) the turbulence involves a net radially outward energy transport. Nonlinear interactions of the turbulent eddies with the coexisting ELMs are clearly observed by bispectral analysis, which implies that the exchange of energy between them may be the key to the prevention of large scale crashes. PMID:27563970

  9. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree. The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.

  10. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  11. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    2008-01-16

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallel application. STAT uses the MRNet free based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to form a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence classes. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  12. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-16

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallel application. STAT uses the MRNet free based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to form a single call prefix tree. The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence classes. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.

  13. The LSST Software Stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Timothy; LSST Data Management Team

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an 8-m optical ground-based telescope being constructed on Cerro Pachon in Chile. LSST will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands. The data will be transferred to the data center in North America and within 60 seconds it will be reduced using difference imaging and an alert list be generated for the community. Additionally, annual data releases will be constructed from all the data during the 10-year mission, producing catalogs and deep co-added images with unprecedented time resolution for such a large region of sky. In the paper we present the current status of the LSST stack including the data processing components, Qserv database and data visualization software, describe how to obtain it, and provide a summary of the development road map.

  14. Non-linear wave-particle interactions and fast ion loss induced by multiple Alfvén eigenmodes in the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Kramer, G. J.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Fisher, R. K.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Podesta, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    A new non-linear feature has been observed in fast-ion loss from tokamak plasmas in the form of oscillations at the sum, difference and second harmonic frequencies of two independent Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs). Full orbit calculations and analytic theory indicate this non-linearity is due to coupling of fast-ion orbital response as it passes through each AE—a change in wave-particle phase k · r by one mode alters the force exerted by the next. The loss measurement is of barely confined, non-resonant particles, while similar non-linear interactions can occur between well-confined particles and multiple AEs leading to enhanced fast-ion transport.

  15. Recognition of O6-benzyl-2′-deoxyguanosine by a perimidinone-derived synthetic nucleoside: a DNA interstrand stacking interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Ewa A.; Lad, Rahul R.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Dhummakupt, Elizabeth; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Egli, Martin; Sturla, Shana J.; Stone, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The 2′-deoxynucleoside containing the synthetic base 1-[(2R,4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-1H-perimidin-2(3H)-one] (dPer) recognizes in DNA the O6-benzyl-2′-deoxyguanosine nucleoside (O6-Bn-dG), formed by exposure to N-benzylmethylnitrosamine. Herein, we show how dPer distinguishes between O6-Bn-dG and dG in DNA. The structure of the modified Dickerson–Drew dodecamer (DDD) in which guanine at position G4 has been replaced by O6-Bn-dG and cytosine C9 has been replaced with dPer to form the modified O6-Bn-dG:dPer (DDD-XY) duplex [5′-d(C1G2C3X4A5A6T7T8Y9G10C11G12)-3′]2 (X = O6-Bn-dG, Y = dPer) reveals that dPer intercalates into the duplex and adopts the syn conformation about the glycosyl bond. This provides a binding pocket that allows the benzyl group of O6-Bn-dG to intercalate between Per and thymine of the 3′-neighbor A:T base pair. Nuclear magnetic resonance data suggest that a similar intercalative recognition mechanism applies in this sequence in solution. However, in solution, the benzyl ring of O6-Bn-dG undergoes rotation on the nuclear magnetic resonance time scale. In contrast, the structure of the modified DDD in which cytosine at position C9 is replaced with dPer to form the dG:dPer (DDD-GY) [5′-d(C1G2C3G4A5A6T7T8Y9G10C11G12)-3′]2 duplex (Y = dPer) reveals that dPer adopts the anti conformation about the glycosyl bond and forms a less stable wobble pairing interaction with guanine. PMID:23748954

  16. Zigzag stacks and m-regular linear stacks.

    PubMed

    Chen, William Y C; Guo, Qiang-Hui; Sun, Lisa H; Wang, Jian

    2014-12-01

    The contact map of a protein fold is a graph that represents the patterns of contacts in the fold. It is known that the contact map can be decomposed into stacks and queues. RNA secondary structures are special stacks in which the degree of each vertex is at most one and each arc has length of at least two. Waterman and Smith derived a formula for the number of RNA secondary structures of length n with exactly k arcs. Höner zu Siederdissen et al. developed a folding algorithm for extended RNA secondary structures in which each vertex has maximum degree two. An equation for the generating function of extended RNA secondary structures was obtained by Müller and Nebel by using a context-free grammar approach, which leads to an asymptotic formula. In this article, we consider m-regular linear stacks, where each arc has length at least m and the degree of each vertex is bounded by two. Extended RNA secondary structures are exactly 2-regular linear stacks. For any m ≥ 2, we obtain an equation for the generating function of the m-regular linear stacks. For given m, we deduce a recurrence relation and an asymptotic formula for the number of m-regular linear stacks on n vertices. To establish the equation, we use the reduction operation of Chen, Deng, and Du to transform an m-regular linear stack to an m-reduced zigzag (or alternating) stack. Then we find an equation for m-reduced zigzag stacks leading to an equation for m-regular linear stacks. PMID:25455155

  17. Research in nonlinear structural and solid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Nonlinear analysis of building structures and numerical solution of nonlinear algebraic equations and Newton's method are discussed. Other topics include: nonlinear interaction problems; solution procedures for nonlinear problems; crash dynamics and advanced nonlinear applications; material characterization, contact problems, and inelastic response; and formulation aspects and special software for nonlinear analysis.

  18. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-18

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device.

  19. Stacking disorder in ice I.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Murray, Benjamin J; Salzmann, Christoph G; Molinero, Valeria; Pickering, Steven J; Whale, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history. PMID:25380218

  20. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  1. On-line and real-time diagnosis method for proton membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack by the superposition principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jonghyeon; Yoo, Seungyeol

    2016-09-01

    The critical cell voltage drop in a stack can be followed by stack defect. A method of detecting defective cell is the cell voltage monitoring. The other methods are based on the nonlinear frequency response. In this paper, the superposition principle for the diagnosis of PEMFC stack is introduced. If critical cell voltage drops exist, the stack behaves as a nonlinear system. This nonlinearity can explicitly appear in the ohmic overpotential region of a voltage-current curve. To detect the critical cell voltage drop, a stack is excited by two input direct test-currents which have smaller amplitude than an operating stack current and have an equal distance value from the operating current. If the difference between one voltage excited by a test current and the voltage excited by a load current is not equal to the difference between the other voltage response and the voltage excited by the load current, the stack system acts as a nonlinear system. This means that there is a critical cell voltage drop. The deviation from the value zero of the difference reflects the grade of the system nonlinearity. A simulation model for the stack diagnosis is developed based on the SPP, and experimentally validated.

  2. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stacking test. 178.815 Section 178.815... Stacking test. (a) General. The stacking test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types intended to be stacked. (b) Special preparation for the stacking test. (1) All IBCs...

  3. Non-linear eye movements during visual-vestibular interaction under body oscillation with step-mode lateral linear acceleration.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shigeo; Katayama, Naomi

    2005-02-01

    . To extend this hypothesis further, another group of subjects was exposed to three different optokinetic-stimulus speeds of 20, 40 and 60 deg/s combined with an acceleration of 0.3 G (Experiment 2, N=15). Combined stimulation tended to optimize the combined-OKR velocity around the given optokinetic stimulus-speed, especially in those cases where the reference-OKR velocity deviated significantly from the stimulus speed. Changes in combined-OKR velocity were small at 20 deg/s, and were likely to be linear across the agonistic and antagonistic conditions. With increasing optokinetic stimulus-speeds, the direction-selective asymmetry hypothesized above was maintained in more than half of the subjects, while in the other subjects the combined-OKR velocity difference increased remarkably, probably due to an enhancement of the OKR gain. We conclude that tVOR suppression during the antagonistic stimulus-condition and non-linearity in the tVOR-OKR interaction are characteristic of the otolith system, even under moderate-stimulus environments, in contrast to the linear eye-movement interaction in the semicircular canal system.

  4. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelebi, E.; Göktepe, F.; Karahan, N.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of wave transmission along the truncated interface of the semi-infinite space, are adopted in the non-linear finite element formulation in the time domain along with Newmark's integration. The slenderness ratio of the superstructure and the local soil conditions as well as the characteristics of input excitations are important parameters for the numerical simulation in this research. The mechanical behavior of the underlying soil medium considered in this prediction model is simulated by an undrained elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model under plane-strain conditions. To emphasize the important findings of this type of problems to civil engineers, systematic calculations with different controlling parameters are accomplished to evaluate directly the structural response of the vibrating soil-structure system. When the underlying soil becomes stiffer, the frequency content of the seismic motion has a major role in altering the seismic response. The sudden increase of the dynamic response is more pronounced for resonance case, when the frequency content of the seismic ground motion is close to that of the SSI system. The SSI effects under different seismic inputs are different for all considered soil conditions and structural types.

  5. Dynamics of different entanglement measures of two three-level atoms interacting nonlinearly with a single-mode field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghshahi, H. R.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model which exhibits two identical Ξ-type three-level atoms interacting with a single-mode field with k-photon transition in an optical cavity enclosed by a Kerr medium. Considering full nonlinear formalism, it is assumed that the single-mode field, atom-field coupling and Kerr medium are all f-deformed. By using the adiabatic elimination method, it is shown that, the Hamiltonian of the considered system can be reduced to an effective Hamiltonian with two two-level atoms and f-deformed Stark shift. In spite of the fact that, the system seems to be complicated, under initial conditions which may be prepared for the atoms (coherent superposition of their ground and upper states) and the field (coherent state), the explicit form of the state vector of the entire system is analytically obtained. Then, the entanglement dynamics between different subsystems ( i.e. "field-two atoms", "atom-(field+atom)" and "atom-atom") are evaluated through appropriate measures like von Neumann entropy, tangle and concurrence. In addition, the effects of intensity-dependent coupling, deformed Kerr medium, detuning parameter, deformed Stark shift and multi-photon process on the considered entanglement measures are numerically analyzed, in detail. It is shown that the degree of entanglement between subsystems can be controlled by selecting the evolved parameters, suitably. Briefly, the Kerr medium highly decreases the amount of different considered measures of entanglement, especially for two-photon transition. This destructive effect preserves even when all other parameters are present, too. Furthermore, we find that the so-called entanglement sudden death and birth can occur in the atom-atom entanglement.

  6. A Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Simulation System (PhyNNeSS) for multimodal interactive virtual environments involving nonlinear deformable objects

    PubMed Central

    De, Suvranu; Deo, Dhannanjay; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Arikatla, Venkata S.

    2012-01-01

    Background While an update rate of 30 Hz is considered adequate for real time graphics, a much higher update rate of about 1 kHz is necessary for haptics. Physics-based modeling of deformable objects, especially when large nonlinear deformations and complex nonlinear material properties are involved, at these very high rates is one of the most challenging tasks in the development of real time simulation systems. While some specialized solutions exist, there is no general solution for arbitrary nonlinearities. Methods In this work we present PhyNNeSS - a Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Simulation System - to address this long-standing technical challenge. The first step is an off-line pre-computation step in which a database is generated by applying carefully prescribed displacements to each node of the finite element models of the deformable objects. In the next step, the data is condensed into a set of coefficients describing neurons of a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN). During real-time computation, these neural networks are used to reconstruct the deformation fields as well as the interaction forces. Results We present realistic simulation examples from interactive surgical simulation with real time force feedback. As an example, we have developed a deformable human stomach model and a Penrose-drain model used in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) training tool box. Conclusions A unique computational modeling system has been developed that is capable of simulating the response of nonlinear deformable objects in real time. The method distinguishes itself from previous efforts in that a systematic physics-based pre-computational step allows training of neural networks which may be used in real time simulations. We show, through careful error analysis, that the scheme is scalable, with the accuracy being controlled by the number of neurons used in the simulation. PhyNNeSS has been integrated into SoFMIS (Software Framework for Multimodal

  7. A Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Simulation System (PhyNNeSS) for multimodal interactive virtual environments involving nonlinear deformable objects.

    PubMed

    De, Suvranu; Deo, Dhannanjay; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Arikatla, Venkata S

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: While an update rate of 30 Hz is considered adequate for real time graphics, a much higher update rate of about 1 kHz is necessary for haptics. Physics-based modeling of deformable objects, especially when large nonlinear deformations and complex nonlinear material properties are involved, at these very high rates is one of the most challenging tasks in the development of real time simulation systems. While some specialized solutions exist, there is no general solution for arbitrary nonlinearities. METHODS: In this work we present PhyNNeSS - a Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Simulation System - to address this long-standing technical challenge. The first step is an off-line pre-computation step in which a database is generated by applying carefully prescribed displacements to each node of the finite element models of the deformable objects. In the next step, the data is condensed into a set of coefficients describing neurons of a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN). During real-time computation, these neural networks are used to reconstruct the deformation fields as well as the interaction forces. RESULTS: We present realistic simulation examples from interactive surgical simulation with real time force feedback. As an example, we have developed a deformable human stomach model and a Penrose-drain model used in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) training tool box. CONCLUSIONS: A unique computational modeling system has been developed that is capable of simulating the response of nonlinear deformable objects in real time. The method distinguishes itself from previous efforts in that a systematic physics-based pre-computational step allows training of neural networks which may be used in real time simulations. We show, through careful error analysis, that the scheme is scalable, with the accuracy being controlled by the number of neurons used in the simulation. PhyNNeSS has been integrated into SoFMIS (Software Framework for Multimodal

  8. Effects of obliqueness and strong electrostatic interaction on linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-03-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma is theoretically investigated. The normal mode analysis (reductive perturbation method) is employed to investigate the role of ambient/external magnetic field, obliqueness, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature in modifying the properties of linear (nonlinear) dust-acoustic waves propagating in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The effective electrostatic dust-temperature, which arises from strong electrostatic interactions among highly charged dust, is considered as a dynamical variable. The linear dispersion relation (describing the linear propagation characteristics) for the obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves is derived and analyzed. On the other hand, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the nonlinear propagation of the dust-acoustic waves (particularly, propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves) is derived and solved. It is shown that the combined effects of obliqueness, magnitude of the ambient/external magnetic field, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature significantly modify the basic properties of linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic waves. The results of this work are compared with those observed by some laboratory experiments.

  9. Dependence of Raman and absorption spectra of stacked bilayer MoS2 on the stacking orientation.

    PubMed

    Park, Seki; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Min Su; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2016-09-19

    Stacked bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) exhibits interesting physical properties depending on the stacking orientation and interlayer coupling strength. Although optical properties, such as photoluminescence, Raman, and absorption properties, are largely dependent on the interlayer coupling of stacked bilayer MoS2, the origin of variations in these properties is not clearly understood. We performed comprehensive confocal Raman and absorption mapping measurements to determine the dependence of these spectra on the stacking orientation of bilayer MoS2. The results indicated that with 532-nm laser excitation, the Raman scattering intensity gradually increased upon increasing the stacking angle from 0° to 60°, whereas 458-nm laser excitation resulted in the opposite trend of decreasing Raman intensity with increasing stacking angle. This opposite behavior of the Raman intensity dependence was explained by the varying resonance condition between the Raman excitation wavelength and C exciton absorption energy of bilayer MoS2. Our work sheds light on the intriguing effect of the subtle interlayer interaction in stacked MoS2 bilayers on the resulting optical properties.

  10. Dependence of Raman and absorption spectra of stacked bilayer MoS2 on the stacking orientation.

    PubMed

    Park, Seki; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Min Su; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2016-09-19

    Stacked bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) exhibits interesting physical properties depending on the stacking orientation and interlayer coupling strength. Although optical properties, such as photoluminescence, Raman, and absorption properties, are largely dependent on the interlayer coupling of stacked bilayer MoS2, the origin of variations in these properties is not clearly understood. We performed comprehensive confocal Raman and absorption mapping measurements to determine the dependence of these spectra on the stacking orientation of bilayer MoS2. The results indicated that with 532-nm laser excitation, the Raman scattering intensity gradually increased upon increasing the stacking angle from 0° to 60°, whereas 458-nm laser excitation resulted in the opposite trend of decreasing Raman intensity with increasing stacking angle. This opposite behavior of the Raman intensity dependence was explained by the varying resonance condition between the Raman excitation wavelength and C exciton absorption energy of bilayer MoS2. Our work sheds light on the intriguing effect of the subtle interlayer interaction in stacked MoS2 bilayers on the resulting optical properties. PMID:27661893

  11. Extremely strong tubular stacking of aromatic oligoamide macrocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Mark A.; Wei, Xiaoxi; Horner, Ian J.; Liu, Rui; Chen, Shuang; Chen, Si; Yung, Ka Yi; Yamato, Kazuhiro; Cai, Zhonghou; Bright, Frank V.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gong, Bing

    2014-09-16

    As the third-generation rigid macrocycles evolved from progenitor 1, cyclic aromatic oligoamides 3, with a backbone of reduced constraint, exhibit extremely strong stacking with an astoundingly high affinity (estimated lower limit of K-dimer > 1013 M-1 in CHCl3), which leads to dispersed tubular stacks that undergo further assembly in solution. Computational study reveals a very large binding energy (-49.77 kcal mol-1) and indicates highly cooperative local dipole interactions that account for the observed strength and directionality for the stacking of 3. In the solid-state, X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the aggregation of 3 results in well-aligned tubular stacks. Furthermore, the persistent tubular assemblies of 3, with their non-deformable sub-nm pore, are expected to possess many interesting functions. One such function, transmembrane ion transport, is observed for 3.

  12. Extremely strong tubular stacking of aromatic oligoamide macrocycles

    DOE PAGES

    Kline, Mark A.; Wei, Xiaoxi; Horner, Ian J.; Liu, Rui; Chen, Shuang; Chen, Si; Yung, Ka Yi; Yamato, Kazuhiro; Cai, Zhonghou; Bright, Frank V.; et al

    2014-09-16

    As the third-generation rigid macrocycles evolved from progenitor 1, cyclic aromatic oligoamides 3, with a backbone of reduced constraint, exhibit extremely strong stacking with an astoundingly high affinity (estimated lower limit of K-dimer > 1013 M-1 in CHCl3), which leads to dispersed tubular stacks that undergo further assembly in solution. Computational study reveals a very large binding energy (-49.77 kcal mol-1) and indicates highly cooperative local dipole interactions that account for the observed strength and directionality for the stacking of 3. In the solid-state, X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the aggregation of 3 results in well-aligned tubular stacks. Furthermore, themore » persistent tubular assemblies of 3, with their non-deformable sub-nm pore, are expected to possess many interesting functions. One such function, transmembrane ion transport, is observed for 3.« less

  13. Extremely strong tubular stacking of aromatic oligoamide macrocycles

    DOE PAGES

    Kline, Mark A.; Wei, Xiaoxi; Horner, Ian J.; Liu, Rui; Chen, Shuang; Chen, Si; Yung, Ka Yi; Yamato, Kazuhiro; Cai, Zhonghou; Bright, Frank V.; et al

    2015-01-01

    As the third-generation rigid macrocycles evolved from progenitor 1, cyclic aromatic oligoamides 3, with a backbone of reduced constraint, exhibit extremely strong stacking with an astoundingly high affinity (estimated lower limit of Kdimer > 1013 M-1 in CHCl3), which leads to dispersed tubular stacks that undergo further assembly in solution. Computational study reveals a very large binding energy (-49.77 kcal mol-1) and indicates highly cooperative local dipole interactions that account for the observed strength and directionality for the stacking of 3. In the solid-state, X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the aggregation of 3 results in well-aligned tubular stacks. The persistentmore » tubular assemblies of 3, with their non-deformable sub-nm pore, are expected to possess many interesting functions. One such function, transmembrane ion transport, is observed for 3.« less

  14. Extremely strong tubular stacking of aromatic oligoamide macrocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Mark A.; Wei, Xiaoxi; Horner, Ian J.; Liu, Rui; Chen, Shuang; Chen, Si; Yung, Ka Yi; Yamato, Kazuhiro; Cai, Zhonghou; Bright, Frank V.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gong, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the third-generation rigid macrocycles evolved from progenitor 1, cyclic aromatic oligoamides 3, with a backbone of reduced constraint, exhibit extremely strong stacking with an astoundingly high affinity (estimated lower limit of Kdimer > 1013 M-1 in CHCl3), which leads to dispersed tubular stacks that undergo further assembly in solution. Computational study reveals a very large binding energy (-49.77 kcal mol-1) and indicates highly cooperative local dipole interactions that account for the observed strength and directionality for the stacking of 3. In the solid-state, X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the aggregation of 3 results in well-aligned tubular stacks. The persistent tubular assemblies of 3, with their non-deformable sub-nm pore, are expected to possess many interesting functions. One such function, transmembrane ion transport, is observed for 3.

  15. Enhanced localized energetic ion losses resulting from first-orbit linear and non-linear interactions with Alfvén eigenmodes in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Podesta, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K.; Zeng, L.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-08-15

    Two key insights into interactions between Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and energetic particles in the plasma core are gained from measurements and modeling of first-orbit beam-ion loss in DIII-D. First, the neutral beam-ion first-orbit losses are enhanced by AEs and a single AE can cause large fast-ion displacement. The coherent losses are from born trapped full energy beam-ions being non-resonantly scattered by AEs onto loss orbits within their first poloidal transit. The loss amplitudes scale linearly with the mode amplitude but the slope is different for different modes. The radial displacement of fast-ions by individual AEs can be directly inferred from the measurements. Second, oscillations in the beam-ion first-orbit losses are observed at the sum, difference, and harmonic frequencies of two independent AEs. These oscillations are not plasma modes and are absent in magnetic, density, and temperature fluctuations. The origin of the non-linearity as a wave-particle coupling is confirmed through bi-coherence analysis, which is clearly observed because the coherences are preserved by the first-orbit loss mechanism. An analytic model and full orbit simulations show that the non-linear features seen in the loss signal can be explained by a non-linear interaction between the fast ions and the two independent AEs.

  16. Enhanced localized energetic ion losses resulting from first-orbit linear and non-linear interactions with Alfvén eigenmodes in DIII-Da)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K.; Nazikian, R.; Zeng, L.; Austin, M. E.; Grierson, B. A.; Podesta, M.

    2014-08-01

    Two key insights into interactions between Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and energetic particles in the plasma core are gained from measurements and modeling of first-orbit beam-ion loss in DIII-D. First, the neutral beam-ion first-orbit losses are enhanced by AEs and a single AE can cause large fast-ion displacement. The coherent losses are from born trapped full energy beam-ions being non-resonantly scattered by AEs onto loss orbits within their first poloidal transit. The loss amplitudes scale linearly with the mode amplitude but the slope is different for different modes. The radial displacement of fast-ions by individual AEs can be directly inferred from the measurements. Second, oscillations in the beam-ion first-orbit losses are observed at the sum, difference, and harmonic frequencies of two independent AEs. These oscillations are not plasma modes and are absent in magnetic, density, and temperature fluctuations. The origin of the non-linearity as a wave-particle coupling is confirmed through bi-coherence analysis, which is clearly observed because the coherences are preserved by the first-orbit loss mechanism. An analytic model and full orbit simulations show that the non-linear features seen in the loss signal can be explained by a non-linear interaction between the fast ions and the two independent AEs.

  17. Diffusion-bonded-stacked gallium arsenide for mid- infrared generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Leslie Ann

    One of the limiting factors in mid-infrared nonlinear generation is the availability of adequate crystals. Current mid-infrared nonlinear crystals suffer from poor thermal properties and/or high absorption, minimizing their usefulness for high-peak and high-average-power conversion. While new materials are continually being explored, more than 15 years may be necessary to develop and test a new crystal, with no guarantee of final success. A new nonlinear material has been synthesized, combining the knowledge from two existing fields: quasi- phasematching (QPM) and diffusion bonding. QPM allows the use of well known semiconductors which are not birefringent, but which have good thermal properties, high damage thresholds, and high nonlinear coefficients. Diffusion bonding provides a robust monolithic structure. Prior to this work, bonded semiconductor structures were single interface, with little attention to optical losses. During this work, techniques were developed to precisely thin and clean the wafers in preparation for bonding. Two generations of bonding furnaces were designed and built to provide uniform temperatures and pressures, fully adjustable and repeatable bonding parameters, and multiple-interface capabilities. GaAs wafers were stacked with alternating crystal orientation, and annealed under compression to diffusion bond the interfaces. The quasi-phasematching was controlled by the wafer thickness. Diffusion-bonded stacks of 2 to 50-layers were bonded, and demonstrated close to theoretical conversion efficiency of second- harmonic generation of CO2 laser radiation. The quality of the bonds was affected by surface cleanliness and contact uniformity of the interfaces. Conversion efficiency was limited by fabrication techniques, chiefly accurate wafer thinning and process- induced bulk losses. Diffusion-bonded-stacked structures can be optimized for all types of nonlinear devices. This technology can be expanded to other well known semiconductors, and is

  18. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  19. 49 CFR 178.1055 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stacking test. 178.1055 Section 178.1055... Containers § 178.1055 Stacking test. (a) General. The stacking test must be conducted for the qualification of all Flexible Bulk Containers design types. (b) Special preparation for the stacking test....

  20. Statistically Differentiating between Interaction and Nonlinearity in Multiple Regression Analysis: A Monte Carlo Investigation of a Recommended Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Foster-Johnson, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Shows that the procedure recommended by D. Lubinski and L. Humphreys (1990) for differentiating between moderated and nonlinear regression models evidences statistical problems characteristic of stepwise procedures. Interprets Monte Carlo results in terms of the researchers' need to differentiate between exploratory and confirmatory aspects of…

  1. Fuel cell stack compressive loading system

    DOEpatents

    Fahle, Ronald W.; Reiser, Carl A.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell module comprising a stack of fuel cells with reactant gas manifolds sealed against the external surfaces of the stack includes a constraint system for providing a compressive load on the stack wherein the constraint system maintains the stack at a constant height (after thermal expansion) and allows the compressive load to decrease with time as a result of the creep characteristics of the stack. Relative motion between the manifold sealing edges and the stack surface is virtually eliminated by this constraint system; however it can only be used with a stack having considerable resiliency and appropriate thermal expansion and creep characteristics.

  2. Non-linear pharmacokinetics of piperine and its herb-drug interactions with docetaxel in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenrui; Wang, Qian; Ren, Tianjing; Zhang, Yufeng; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Piperine (PIP), the major alkaloid component from Piper longum L. and Piper nigrum L., could enhance the bioavailabilities of other drugs including rosuvastatin, peurarin and docetaxel (DOX) via inhibition of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activity. Nevertheless, the effect of such drug combination usage on the in vivo exposure of PIP has not been investigated due to lack of assay for the simultaneous determination of PIP and other drugs such as DOX. Besides, the reported pharmacokinetics of PIP varied a lot without appropriate bioavailability determined from the same dose. In the current study, an LC/MS/MS method has been developed to simultaneously determine the plasma concentrations of PIP and DOX and further applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics properties of PIP after oral and intravenous administrations as well as the pharmacokinetics interactions between PIP and DOX after their co-administration. A simple protein precipitation method was employed for plasma sample treatment by adding a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with glibenclamide as internal standard (IS). The LC/MS/MS system consisted of Agilent 6430 series LC pumps and auto-sampler. The chromatographic separation was carried out in 15min on a Waters C18 column (150×3.9mm i.d., 4μm) with a mobile phase containing 0.2% formic acid and acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The detection was performed using the positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with precursor-to-product ion transitions at m/z 286.1→201.1 for PIP, m/z 830.3→548.9 for DOX and m/z 494.2→369.0 for IS. The method demonstrated good linearity for both PIP and DOX over the concentration range of 2.5-1280ng/ml with LLOD at 2.5ng/ml. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 13.34% and relative error (R.E.) representing accuracy was in the range of -11.38 to 3.15%. The recoveries of PIP, DOX and IS were above 75% and there was no matrix effect

  3. Single-molecule dissection of stacking forces in DNA.

    PubMed

    Kilchherr, Fabian; Wachauf, Christian; Pelz, Benjamin; Rief, Matthias; Zacharias, Martin; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    We directly measured at the single-molecule level the forces and lifetimes of DNA base-pair stacking interactions for all stack sequence combinations. Our experimental approach combined dual-beam optical tweezers with DNA origami components to allow positioning of blunt-end DNA helices so that the weak stacking force could be isolated. Base-pair stack arrays that lacked a covalent backbone connection spontaneously dissociated at average rates ranging from 0.02 to 500 per second, depending on the sequence combination and stack array size. Forces in the range from 2 to 8 piconewtons that act along the helical direction only mildly accelerated the stochastic unstacking process. The free-energy increments per stack that we estimate from the measured forward and backward kinetic rates ranged from -0.8 to -3.4 kilocalories per mole, depending on the sequence combination. Our data contributes to understanding the mechanics of DNA processing in biology, and it is helpful for designing the kinetics of DNA-based nanoscale devices according to user specifications.

  4. Slippage in stacking of graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yanyu; Jiang, Wanrun; Dai, Xing; Song, Ruixia; Wang, Bo; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Spin polarization and stacking are interesting effects in complex molecular systems and are both presented in graphene-based materials. Their possible combination may provide a new perspective in understanding the intermolecular force. The nanoscale graphene structures with zigzag edges could possess spin-polarized ground states. However, the mechanical effect of spin polarization in stacking of graphene nanofragments is not clear. Here we demonstrate the displacement between two stacked rhombic graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization, using first-principles density-functional methods. We found that, in stacking of two rhombic graphene nanofragments, a spin-polarized stacked conformation with zero total spin is energetically more favorable than the closed-shell stacking. The spin-polarized conformation gives a further horizontal interlayer displacement within 1 angstrom compared with the closed-shell structure. This result highlights that, besides the well-known phenomenologically interpreted van der Waals forces, a specific mechanism dependent on the monomeric spin polarization may lead to obvious mechanical effects in some intermolecular interactions. PMID:26078005

  5. Single-molecule dissection of stacking forces in DNA.

    PubMed

    Kilchherr, Fabian; Wachauf, Christian; Pelz, Benjamin; Rief, Matthias; Zacharias, Martin; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    We directly measured at the single-molecule level the forces and lifetimes of DNA base-pair stacking interactions for all stack sequence combinations. Our experimental approach combined dual-beam optical tweezers with DNA origami components to allow positioning of blunt-end DNA helices so that the weak stacking force could be isolated. Base-pair stack arrays that lacked a covalent backbone connection spontaneously dissociated at average rates ranging from 0.02 to 500 per second, depending on the sequence combination and stack array size. Forces in the range from 2 to 8 piconewtons that act along the helical direction only mildly accelerated the stochastic unstacking process. The free-energy increments per stack that we estimate from the measured forward and backward kinetic rates ranged from -0.8 to -3.4 kilocalories per mole, depending on the sequence combination. Our data contributes to understanding the mechanics of DNA processing in biology, and it is helpful for designing the kinetics of DNA-based nanoscale devices according to user specifications. PMID:27609897

  6. Split stack blowout prevention system

    SciTech Connect

    Crager, B.L.; Ray, D.R.; Steddum, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    A blowout prevention system for an offshore structure positioned on the underwater bottom in a body of water which contains moving ice masses that could force the structure off location wherein a surface blowout preventer stack for conventional well control is connected to the upper end of a riser with the lower end of the riser being disconnectably connected to a subsurface blowout preventer stack which provides the necessary well control should the structure be forced off location. The subsurface stack is positioned on a wellhead located in a chamber in the subsea bottom and is disconnectably connected to the riser so that the riser may be quickly removed from the subsea bottom should the structure be forced off location.

  7. Nonlinear full-wave-interaction analysis of a gyrotron-traveling-wave-tube amplifier based on a lossy dielectric-lined circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Du Chaohai; Liu Pukun

    2010-03-15

    The stability of the millimeter-wave gyrotron-traveling-wave-tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier can be effectively improved via controlling the propagation characteristics of the operating modes using lossy dielectric-lined (DL) waveguide. Self-consistent nonlinear theory of the electron cyclotron maser (ECM) interaction in lossy DL circuit is developed based on a full-wave study of the propagation characteristics of the DL waveguide. This nonlinear theory fully takes into consideration the waveguide structure and the lossy dielectric characteristics. It is capable of accurately calculating the ECM instability between a cyclotron harmonic and a circular polarized mode, and effectively predicting the nonlinear stability of the DL waveguide-based gyro-TWT. Systematic investigation of a Ka-band TE{sub 01} mode DL waveguide-based gyro-TWT is carried out, and numerical calculation reveals a series of interesting results. This work provides a basic theoretical tool for further exploring the application of the lossy DL waveguide in millimeter-wave gyro-TWTs.

  8. Dynamical DMRG study of non-linear optical response in one-dimensional dimerized Hubbard model with nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction and alternating on-site potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, Shigetoshi; Tohyama, Takami; Brazovskii, Serguei

    2012-02-01

    The optical response of organic compounds has been attracting much attention. The one of the reasons is the huge non-linear and ultrafast optical response [K. Yamamoto et. al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 074709(2008)]. In order to investigate such optical properties, we carry out dynamical DMRG calculations to obtain optical responses in the 1/4-filled one-dimensional Hubbard model including the nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction and the alternating electron hopping. The charge gap [S. Nishimoto, M. Takahashi, and Y. Ohta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 1594(2000)] and the bound state [H. Benthien and E. Jeckelmann, Eur. Phys. J. B 44, 287(2005)] in this model have been discussed based on DMRG calculations. In the present study, we introduce an alternating on-site potential giving the polarization in the system into the dimerized Hubbard model, which breaks the reflection symmetry of the system. In this talk, we discuss the obtained linear and the 2nd order non-linear optical susceptibility in order to make a prediction for non-linear optical experiments in the future.

  9. Integrable nonlinear coupled waves with an exact asymptotic singular solution in the context of laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, A.

    2016-07-01

    A special case of coupled integrable nonlinear equations with a singular dispersion law is derived in the context of the small amplitude limit of general wave equations in a fluid-type warm electrons/cold ions plasma irradiated by a continuous laser beam. This model accounts for a nonlinear mode coupling of the electrostatic wave with the ion sound wave and is shown to be highly unstable. Its instability is understood as a continuous secular transfer of energy from the electrostatic wave to the ion sound wave through the ponderomotive force. The exact asymptotic solution of the system is constructed and shows that the dynamics of the energy transfer results in a singular asymptotic behavior of the ion sound wave, which explains the low penetration of the incident laser beam.

  10. Integrable nonlinear coupled waves with an exact asymptotic singular solution in the context of laser–plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, A.

    2016-07-01

    A special case of coupled integrable nonlinear equations with a singular dispersion law is derived in the context of the small amplitude limit of general wave equations in a fluid-type warm electrons/cold ions plasma irradiated by a continuous laser beam. This model accounts for a nonlinear mode coupling of the electrostatic wave with the ion sound wave and is shown to be highly unstable. Its instability is understood as a continuous secular transfer of energy from the electrostatic wave to the ion sound wave through the ponderomotive force. The exact asymptotic solution of the system is constructed and shows that the dynamics of the energy transfer results in a singular asymptotic behavior of the ion sound wave, which explains the low penetration of the incident laser beam.

  11. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.

  12. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  13. Robust scalable stabilisability conditions for large-scale heterogeneous multi-agent systems with uncertain nonlinear interactions: towards a distributed computing architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredi, Sabato

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale dynamic systems are becoming highly pervasive in their occurrence with applications ranging from system biology, environment monitoring, sensor networks, and power systems. They are characterised by high dimensionality, complexity, and uncertainty in the node dynamic/interactions that require more and more computational demanding methods for their analysis and control design, as well as the network size and node system/interaction complexity increase. Therefore, it is a challenging problem to find scalable computational method for distributed control design of large-scale networks. In this paper, we investigate the robust distributed stabilisation problem of large-scale nonlinear multi-agent systems (briefly MASs) composed of non-identical (heterogeneous) linear dynamical systems coupled by uncertain nonlinear time-varying interconnections. By employing Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, new conditions are given for the distributed control design of large-scale MASs that can be easily solved by the toolbox of MATLAB. The stabilisability of each node dynamic is a sufficient assumption to design a global stabilising distributed control. The proposed approach improves some of the existing LMI-based results on MAS by both overcoming their computational limits and extending the applicative scenario to large-scale nonlinear heterogeneous MASs. Additionally, the proposed LMI conditions are further reduced in terms of computational requirement in the case of weakly heterogeneous MASs, which is a common scenario in real application where the network nodes and links are affected by parameter uncertainties. One of the main advantages of the proposed approach is to allow to move from a centralised towards a distributed computing architecture so that the expensive computation workload spent to solve LMIs may be shared among processors located at the networked nodes, thus increasing the scalability of the approach than the network

  14. Wave-particle interactions with parallel whistler waves: Nonlinear and time-dependent effects revealed by particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Camporeale, Enrico; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2015-09-15

    We present a self-consistent Particle-in-Cell simulation of the resonant interactions between anisotropic energetic electrons and a population of whistler waves, with parameters relevant to the Earth's radiation belt. By tracking PIC particles and comparing with test-particle simulations, we emphasize the importance of including nonlinear effects and time evolution in the modeling of wave-particle interactions, which are excluded in the resonant limit of quasi-linear theory routinely used in radiation belt studies. In particular, we show that pitch angle diffusion is enhanced during the linear growth phase, and it rapidly saturates well before a single bounce period. This calls into question the widely used bounce average performed in most radiation belt diffusion calculations. Furthermore, we discuss how the saturation is related to the fact that the domain in which the particles pitch angle diffuses is bounded, and to the well-known problem of 90° diffusion barrier.

  15. Spectroscopic and theoretical study of the charge transfer interaction effect on the vibrational modes and nonlinear optical properties in L-asparaginium nitrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elleuch, Nabil; Abid, Younes; Feki, Habib

    2016-09-01

    Single crystals of L-asparaginium nitrate (LAsnN) were grown by slow evaporation technique. To confirm the crystalline nature of the obtained compound, samples were the subject of an XRPD. The density functional theory (DFT) computations were carried out at B3LYP/6-31G (d) level to reach the optimized geometry, the vibrational spectra and the NLO properties. The excellent agreement between simulated and observed vibrational spectra led to a reliable vibrational assignment. To demonstrate the various charge transfer interactions that stabilize the compound and led to the high nonlinear optical activity, NBO analysis was performed. Also, owing to the hydrogen bond formation, a lowering in the HOMO-LUMO energy gap is noticed. Moreover, as a result of the charge transfer interactions, the symmetry of the nitrate ions was lost and some forbidden modes were excited.

  16. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  17. Multibeam collimator uses prism stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1981-01-01

    Optical instrument creates many divergent light beams for surveying and machine element alignment applications. Angles and refractive indices of stack of prisms are selected to divert incoming laser beam by small increments, different for each prism. Angles of emerging beams thus differ by small, precisely-controlled amounts. Instrument is nearly immune to vibration, changes in gravitational force, temperature variations, and mechanical distortion.

  18. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    ScienceCinema

    Cody, Tom

    2016-07-12

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  19. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  20. Lexicographic multi-objective optimization of thermoacoustic refrigerator's stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.; Sun, B.; Kaunda, M. A. E.

    2015-05-01

    This work develops a novel mathematical programming model to optimize the performance of a simple thermoacoustic refrigerator (TAR). This study aims to optimize the geometric parameters namely the stack position, the stack length, the blockage ratio and the plate spacing involved in designing TARs. System parameters and constraints that capture the underlying thermoacoustic dynamics have been used to define the models. The cooling load, the coefficient of performance and the acoustic power loss have been used to measure the performance of the device. The optimization task is formulated as a three-criterion nonlinear programming problem with discontinuous derivatives (DNLP). Since we optimize multiple objectives simultaneously, each objective component has been given a weighting factor to provide appropriate user-defined emphasis. A practical example is given to illustrate the approach. We have determined a design statement of a stack describing how the geometrical parameters describing would change if emphasis is given to one objective in particular. We also considered optimization of multiple objectives components simultaneously and identify global optimal solutions describing the stack geometry using a lexicographic multi-objective optimization scheme. Additionally, this approach illustrates the difference between a design for maximum cooling and best coefficient of performance of a simple TAR.