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Sample records for nonlinear stacking interactions

  1. Stacking interactions and DNA intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dr. Shen; Cooper, Valentino R; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo; Lundqvist, Prof. Bengt I.; Langreth, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between stacking interactions and the intercalation of proflavine and ellipticine within DNA is investigated using a nonempirical van der Waals density functional for the correlation energy. Our results, employing a binary stack model, highlight fundamental, qualitative differences between base-pair base-pair interactions and that of the stacked intercalator base pair system. Most notable result is the paucity of torque which so distinctively defines the Twist of DNA. Surprisingly, this model, when combined with a constraint on the twist of the surrounding base-pair steps to match the observed unwinding of the sugar-phosphate backbone, was sufficient for explaining the experimentally observed proflavine intercalator configuration. Our extensive mapping of the potential energy surface of base-pair intercalator interactions can provide valuable information for future nonempirical studies of DNA intercalation dynamics.

  2. Stacking interactions in PUF-RNA complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Yiling Koh, Yvonne; Wang, Yeming; Qiu, Chen; Opperman, Laura; Gross, Leah; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Wickens, Marvin

    2012-07-02

    Stacking interactions between amino acids and bases are common in RNA-protein interactions. Many proteins that regulate mRNAs interact with single-stranded RNA elements in the 3' UTR (3'-untranslated region) of their targets. PUF proteins are exemplary. Here we focus on complexes formed between a Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein, FBF, and its cognate RNAs. Stacking interactions are particularly prominent and involve every RNA base in the recognition element. To assess the contribution of stacking interactions to formation of the RNA-protein complex, we combine in vivo selection experiments with site-directed mutagenesis, biochemistry, and structural analysis. Our results reveal that the identities of stacking amino acids in FBF affect both the affinity and specificity of the RNA-protein interaction. Substitutions in amino acid side chains can restrict or broaden RNA specificity. We conclude that the identities of stacking residues are important in achieving the natural specificities of PUF proteins. Similarly, in PUF proteins engineered to bind new RNA sequences, the identity of stacking residues may contribute to 'target' versus 'off-target' interactions, and thus be an important consideration in the design of proteins with new specificities.

  3. Super-resolution and nonlinear absorption with metallodielectric stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katte, Nkorni

    We investigate sub-wavelength imaging, i.e. super-resolution, in metal-dielectric film systems, which are simply referred to as metallodielectrics. Our simulations incorporate experimentally derived material dielectric dispersion properties across the visible region. For demonstration purposes we designed metallodielectric stacks for super-resolution containing GaP and TiO2, dielectric films, and either Ag or Au as the metallic materials. Using the known optical properties of the constituent materials found designs that could be good candidates for super-resolution. We did not have the resources to fabricate these samples; however, based on our computer simulations we are confident that the designed samples would produce super-resolution approaching one-twentieth of a wavelength in air. We examined for the first time the broad bandwidth of the super-resolution phenomenon in metallodielectrics. We validate the results using the finite element method (FEM) and the transfer matrix method (TMM). We also show that the measurement of super-resolution is highly dependent on the distance of the probe from the exit surface; high resolution at the exit plane can quickly decay with a few tens of nanometers when high resolution is sought. Secondly we numerically studied the nonlinear optical transmission of an optical beam through heterogeneous metallodielectric stacks under the action of nonlinear absorption. One film layer is a metal and the other layer is a dielectric; the heterogeneous material is called a metallodielectric stack (MDS). In these studies we also used applied FEM with two-dimensional transverse effects and TMM simulation techniques. Our samples consisted of Ag/ZnS, Ag/SiO 2 and Cu/ZnS. We numerically simulate using two transverse dimensions in our FEM codes, Z-scan experiments for two different MDS designs and draw general observations from these cases. We experimentally examined the nonlinear absorption effect in samples of Ag/SiO2 when irradiated by a

  4. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-09-25

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  5. Interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D.

    PubMed

    Trotts, Issac; Mikula, Shawn; Jones, Edward G

    2007-04-15

    Conventional microscopy, electron microscopy, and imaging techniques such as MRI and PET commonly generate large stacks of images of the sectioned brain. In other domains, such as neurophysiology, variables such as space or time are also varied along a stack axis. Digital image sizes have been progressively increasing and in virtual microscopy, it is now common to work with individual image sizes that are several hundred megapixels and several gigabytes in size. The interactive visualization of these high-resolution, multiresolution images in 2D has been addressed previously [Sullivan, G., and Baker, R., 1994. Efficient quad-tree coding of images and video. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3 (3), 327-331]. Here, we describe a method for interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D. The method, characterized as quad-tree based multiresolution image stack interactive visualization using a texel projection based criterion, relies on accessing and projecting image tiles from multiresolution image stacks in such a way that, from the observer's perspective, image tiles all appear approximately the same size even though they are accessed from different tiers within the images comprising the stack. This method enables efficient navigation of high-resolution image stacks. We implement this method in a program called StackVis, which is a Windows-based, interactive 3D multiresolution image stack visualization system written in C++ and using OpenGL. It is freely available at http://brainmaps.org.

  6. Local nature of substituent effects in stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Steven E

    2011-07-06

    Popular explanations of substituent effects in π-stacking interactions hinge upon substituent-induced changes in the aryl π-system. This entrenched view has been used to explain substituent effects in countless stacking interactions over the past 2 decades. However, for a broad range of stacked dimers, it is shown that substituent effects are better described as arising from local, direct interactions of the substituent with the proximal vertex of the other ring. Consequently, substituent effects in stacking interactions are additive, regardless of whether the substituents are on the same or opposite rings. Substituent effects are also insensitive to the introduction of heteroatoms on distant parts of either stacked ring. This local, direct interaction viewpoint provides clear, unambiguous explanations of substituent effects for myriad stacking interactions that are in accord with robust computational data, including DFT-D and new benchmark CCSD(T) results. Many of these computational results cannot be readily explained using traditional π-polarization-based models. Analyses of stacking interactions based solely on the sign of the electrostatic potential above the face of an aromatic ring or the molecular quadrupole moment face a similar fate. The local, direct interaction model provides a simple means of analyzing substituent effects in complex aromatic systems and also offers simple explanations of the crystal packing of fluorinated benzenes and the recently published dependence of the stability of protein-RNA complexes on the regiochemistry of fluorinated base analogues [J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 3687-3689].

  7. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  8. New Insights into Hydrogen Bonding and Stacking Interactions in Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Langan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this quantum chemical study, we explore hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) and stacking interactions in different crystalline cellulose allomorphs, namely cellulose I and cellulose IIII. We consider a model system representing a cellulose crystalline core, made from six cellobiose units arranged in three layers with two chains per layer. We calculate the contributions of intrasheet and intersheet interactions to the structure and stability in both cellulose I and cellulose IIII crystalline cores. Reference structures for this study were generated from molecular dynamics simulations of water-solvated cellulose I and IIII fibrils. A systematic analysis of various conformations describing different mutual orientations of cellobiose units is performed using the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) with the M06-2X with 6-31+G (d, p) basis sets. We dissect the nature of the forces that stabilize the cellulose I and cellulose IIII crystalline cores and quantify the relative strength of H-bonding and stacking interactions. Our calculations demonstrate that individual H-bonding interactions are stronger in cellulose I than in cellulose IIII. We also observe a significant contribution from cooperative stacking interactions to the stabilization of cellulose I . In addition, the theory of atoms-in-molecules (AIM) has been employed to characterize and quantify these intermolecular interactions. AIM analyses highlight the role of nonconventional CH O H-bonding in the cellulose assemblies. Finally, we calculate molecular electrostatic potential maps for the cellulose allomorphs that capture the differences in chemical reactivity of the systems considered in our study.

  9. Weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic wave interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.M.; Brio, M.; Kruse, M.T.; Zank, G.P.

    1999-06-01

    Equations describing weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave interactions in one Cartesian space dimension are discussed. For wave propagation in uniform media, the wave interactions of interest consist of: (a) three-wave resonant interactions in which high frequency waves, may evolve on long space and time scales if the wave phases satisfy the resonance conditions; (b) Burgers self-wave steepening for the magnetoacoustic waves, and (c) mean wave field effects, in which a particular wave interacts with the mean wave field of the other waves. For wave propagation in non-uniform media, further linear wave mixing terms appear in the equations. The equations describe four types of resonant triads: slow-fast magnetosonic wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-entropy wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-magnetosonic wave interaction; and magnetosonic-entropy wave interaction. The formalism is restricted to coherent wave interactions. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Modelling a PEM fuel cell stack with a nonlinear equivalent circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, U.; Sandrolini, L.; Giuliattini Burbui, G. L.

    A nonlinear circuit model of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack is presented. The model allows the simulation of both steady-state and dynamic behaviour of the stack on condition that the values of some of its parameters are changed in the two operating conditions. The circuit parameters can be obtained by means of simple experimental tests and calculations. A commercial PEM fuel cell stack is modelled as seen from the power conditioning system side, without requiring parameters necessary for complex mathematical models and not easily obtainable by the majority of users. A procedure of parameter determination is developed and a comparison between the simulated and experimental results for both steady-state and dynamic behaviour of the PEM stack is shown.

  11. Third-order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metallodielectric Stacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    developed by Sheik- Bahae et al [7] a (Gaussian) laser beam is focused in free space; a sample is positioned along the propagation (Z) axis of the laser...transmittance and reflectance coefficients are defined for any angle of incidence as 22 0 ||,|| cos cos rRt n n T i tt    ; (2) i  and t are...nonlinear coefficient,    4 2 2 i n  , has a complex value. The longitudinal component of the Poynting vector was used in Eq. (11). The Kerr

  12. The influence of piezoceramic stack location on nonlinear behavior of Langevin transducers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Andrew; Cardoni, Andrea; Cerisola, Niccolò; Lucas, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    Power ultrasonic applications such as cutting, welding, and sonochemistry often use Langevin transducers to generate power ultrasound. Traditionally, it has been proposed that the piezoceramic stack of a Langevin transducer should be located in the nodal plane of the longitudinal mode of vibration, ensuring that the piezoceramic elements are positioned under a uniform stress during transducer operation, maximizing element efficiency and minimizing piezoceramic aging. However, this general design rule is often partially broken during the design phase if features such as a support flange or multiple piezoceramic stacks are incorporated into the transducer architecture. Meanwhile, it has also been well documented in the literature that power ultrasonic devices driven at high excitation levels exhibit nonlinear behaviors similar to those observed in Duffing-type systems, such as resonant frequency shifts, the jump phenomenon, and hysteretic regions. This study investigates three Langevin transducers with different piezoceramic stack locations by characterizing their linear and nonlinear vibrational responses to understand how the stack location influences nonlinear behavior.

  13. Interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.

    2012-05-01

    Asphalt mixtures are complex composites that comprise aggregate, asphalt binder, and air. Several research studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture is strongly influenced by the matrix, i.e. the asphalt binder. Characterization and a thorough understanding of the binder behavior is the first and crucial step towards developing an accurate constitutive model for the composite. Accurate constitutive models for the constituent materials are critical to ensure accurate performance predictions at a material and structural level using micromechanics. This paper presents the findings from a systematic investigation into the nature of the linear and nonlinear response of asphalt binders subjected to different types of loading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Laboratory test data show that a compressive normal force is generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to torsional shear. This paper investigates the source of this normal force and demonstrates that the asphalt binder can dilate when subjected to shear loads. This paper also presents the findings from a study conducted to investigate the source of the nonlinearity in the asphalt binder. Test results demonstrate that the application of cyclic shear loads results in the development of a normal force and a concomitant reduction in the dynamic shear modulus. This form of nonlinear response is referred to as an "interaction nonlinearity". A combination of experimental and analytical tools is used to demonstrate and verify the presence of this interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders. The findings from this study highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the overall stress state of the material.

  14. Theoretical calculations of base-base interactions in nucleic acids: II. Stacking interactions in polynucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, G; Sasisekharan, V

    1978-01-01

    Base-base interactions were computed for single- and double stranded poly,ucleotides, for all possible base sequences. In each case, both right and left stacking arrangements are energetically possible. The preference of one over the other depends upon the base-sequence and the orientation of the bases with respect to helix-axis. Inverted stacking arrangement is also energetically possible for both single- and double-stranded polynucleotides. Finally, interacting energies of a regular duplex and the alternative structures were compared. It was found that the type II model is energetically more favourable than the rest. PMID:662698

  15. Nonlinear optical beam interactions in waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Meier, Joachim; Stegeman, George I; Silberberg, Y; Morandotti, R; Aitchison, J S

    2004-08-27

    We report our investigation of Kerr nonlinear beam interactions in discrete systems. The influence of power and the relative phase between two Gaussian shaped beams was investigated in detail by performing numerical simulations of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation and comparing the results with experiments done in AlGaAs waveguide arrays. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained.

  16. Compensation of nonlinearities in a piezoelectric stack actuator with application in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, A.. S.; Tan, K. K.; Lee, T. H.; Panda, S. K.; Huang, S. N.; Zhao, S.

    2007-12-01

    A method for compensation of nonlinearities, mainly hysteresis, using augmented linear control for a piezoelectric stack actuator is presented in this paper, with its application in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The linear control, realized via a PID control, is enhanced by a regulated chatter signal with variation of duty cycle as well as direction (sign), with constant magnitude and period. The main idea is to augment the PID control signal, which does most of the feedback control, in a low hassle manner by increasing or decreasing the signal via the regulated chatter signal, which does most of the nonlinearities compensation. The variation of duty cycle and direction is updated via an iterative learning technique, taking into consideration the repetitive motion required in the ICSI application. This device is used for assisting oocyte (egg cell) penetration during ICSI process, where the actuator is required to drive a needle, containing a sperm cell, to penetrate an oocyte and then inject the sperm into the oocyte. This technique is able to satisfy the requirements of the process, where a highly-precise motion is mandatory.

  17. Nonlinear Optical Interactions in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-10

    completing bnother article for publication. In addition, we have made four invention disclosures o the U.S. Air Force.We received the delivery of two large...of completing another article for publication. In addition, we have made four invention disclosures to the U. S. Air Force. We received the delivery...gives rise to four -photon mixing. Our attempts were focused on observing a number of new optical effects including nonlinear absorption and transmission

  18. Stacking Interactions between 9-Methyladenine and Heterocycles Commonly Found in Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    An, Yi; Doney, Analise C; Andrade, Rodrigo B; Wheeler, Steven E

    2016-05-23

    Complexes of 9-methyladenine with 46 heterocycles commonly found in drugs were located using dispersion-corrected density functional theory, providing a representative set of 408 unique stacked dimers. The predicted binding enthalpies for each heterocycle span a broad range, highlighting the strong dependence of heterocycle stacking interactions on the relative orientation of the interacting rings. Overall, the presence of NH and carbonyl groups lead to the strongest stacking interactions with 9-methyadenine, and the strength of π-stacking interactions is sensitive to the distribution of heteroatoms within the ring as well as the specific tautomer considered. Although molecular dipole moments provide a sound predictor of the strengths and orientations of the 28 monocyclic heterocycles considered, dipole moments for the larger fused heterocycles show very little correlation with the predicted binding enthalpies.

  19. Experimental and theoretical insights in the alkene–arene intramolecular π-stacking interaction

    PubMed Central

    Corne, Valeria; Sarotti, Ariel M; Ramirez de Arellano, Carmen; Spanevello, Rolando A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chiral acrylic esters derived from biomass were developed as models to have a better insight in the aryl–vinyl π-stacking interactions. Quantum chemical calculations, NMR studies and experimental evidences demonstrated the presence of equilibriums of at least four different conformations: π-stacked and face-to-edge, each of them in an s-cis/s-trans conformation. The results show that the stabilization produced by the π–π interaction makes the π-stacked conformation predominant in solution and this stabilization is slightly affected by the electron density of the aromatic counterpart. PMID:27559414

  20. Nonlinear wave interactions in quantum magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.; Ali, S.; Stenflo, L.; Marklund, M.

    2006-11-15

    Nonlinear interactions involving electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH), ion-cyclotron (IC), lower-hybrid (LH), and Alfven waves in quantum magnetoplasmas are considered. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamical equations are used to derive the governing equations for nonlinearly coupled UH, IC, LH, and Alfven waves. The equations are then Fourier analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations, which admit both decay and modulational instabilities of the UH waves at quantum scales. The growth rates of the instabilities are presented. They can be useful in applications of our work to diagnostics in laboratory and astrophysical settings.

  1. Nonlinear Light-Matter Interactions in Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Kevin Patrick

    Metamaterials possess extraordinary linear optical properties never observed in natural materials such as a negative refractive index, enabling exciting applications such as super resolution imaging and cloaking. In this thesis, we explore the equally extraordinary nonlinear properties of metamaterials. Nonlinear optics, the study of light-matter interactions where the optical fields are strong enough to change material properties, has fundamental importance to physics, chemistry, and material science as a non-destructive probe of material properties and has important technological applications such as entangled photon generation and frequency conversion. Due to their ability to manipulate both linear and nonlinear light matter interactions through sub-wavelength structuring, metamaterials are a promising direction for both fundamental and applied nonlinear optics research. We perform the first experiments on nonlinear propagation in bulk zero and negative index optical metamaterials and demonstrate that a zero index material can phase match four wave mixing processes in ways not possible in finite index materials. In addition, we demonstrate the ability of nonlinear scattering theory to describe the geometry dependence of second and third harmonic generation in plasmonic nanostructures. As an application of nonlinear metamaterials, we propose a phase matching technique called "resonant phase matching" to increase the gain and bandwidth of Josephson junction traveling wave parametric amplifiers. With collaborators, we demonstrate a best in class amplifier for superconducting qubit readout--over 20 dB gain with near quantum limited noise performance with a bandwidth and dynamic range an order of magnitude larger than alternative devices. In conclusion, we have demonstrated several ways in which nonlinear metamaterials surpass their natural counterparts. We look forward to the future of the field where nonlinear and quantum metamaterials will enable further new

  2. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ramini, Abdallah H; Hajjaj, Amal Z; Younis, Mohammad I

    2016-10-04

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  3. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramini, Abdallah H.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  4. Nonlinear Optical Interactions in Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-16

    aU internal audits for TACAN Corporation. 7 V. Coupling A, C. N. R. S., Physique du Solide et Energie Solaire We have an ongoing interaction with Dr...underway at TACAN Corporation. We regularly discuss optical pumping and four - wave parametric mixing in multiple quantum well material and plan to

  5. Nonlinear electromagnetic interactions in energetic materials

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Mitchell Anthony; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro; Moore, David Steven

    2016-01-12

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for the nonionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular-dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional THz spectra for planar slabs made of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and ammonium nitrate. Finally, we discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for standoff explosive detection.

  6. Influence of supramolecular structures in crystals on parallel stacking interactions between pyridine molecules.

    PubMed

    Janjić, Goran V; Ninković, Dragan B; Zarić, Snezana D

    2013-08-01

    Parallel stacking interactions between pyridines in crystal structures and the influence of hydrogen bonding and supramolecular structures in crystals on the geometries of interactions were studied by analyzing data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). In the CSD 66 contacts of pyridines have a parallel orientation of molecules and most of these pyridines simultaneously form hydrogen bonds (44 contacts). The geometries of stacked pyridines observed in crystal structures were compared with the geometries obtained by calculations and explained by supramolecular structures in crystals. The results show that the mean perpendicular distance (R) between pyridine rings with (3.48 Å) and without hydrogen bonds (3.62 Å) is larger than that calculated, because of the influence of supramolecular structures in crystals. The pyridines with hydrogen bonds show a pronounced preference for offsets of 1.25-1.75 Å, close to the position of the calculated minimum (1.80 Å). However, stacking interactions of pyridines without hydrogen bonds do not adopt values at or close to that of the calculated offset. This is because stacking interactions of pyridines without hydrogen bonds are less strong, and they are more susceptible to the influence of supramolecular structures in crystals. These results show that hydrogen bonding and supramolecular structures have an important influence on the geometries of stacked pyridines in crystals.

  7. Interactive Workshop Discusses Nonlinear Waves and Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Morales, George; Passot, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    Eighth International Nonlinear Wave Workshop; La Jolla, California, 1-5 March 2010; Nonlinear waves and chaos were the focus of a weeklong series of informal and interactive discussions at the Eighth International Nonlinear Wave Workshop (NWW8), held in California. The workshop gathered nonlinear plasma and water wave experts from the United States, France, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Holland, India, and Japan. Attendees were from the fields of space, laboratory, and fusion plasma physics, astrophysics, and applied mathematics. Special focus was placed on nonlinear waves and turbulence in the terrestrial environment as well as in the interstellar medium from observational, laboratory, and theoretical perspectives. Discussions covered temperature anisotropies and related instabilities, the properties and origin of the so-called dissipation range, and various coherent structures of electromagnetic as well as electrostatic nature. Reconnection and shocks were also topics of discussion, as were properties of magnetospheric whistler and chorus waves. Examples and analysis techniques for superdiffusion and subdiffusion were identified. On this last topic, a good exchange of ideas and results occurred between a water wave expert and a plasma expert, with the rest of the audience listening intently.

  8. A new insight into π-π stacking involving remarkable orbital interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rundong; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2016-09-14

    For more than half a century, the phenomenon of π-π stacking has attracted much attention in several research fronts including materials science, chemical synthesis, and even drug design. Despite intense theoretical and experimental exploration, no unified description of the factors contributing to π-π stacking interactions and their weak bonding process has been proposed. In this work, based on calculations of the simplest prototype of π-π stacking, namely the benzene sandwich dimer (together with benzene-phenol, toluene and benzonitrile) using the density functional theory with dispersion correction, previously rarely studied intermolecular orbital interaction is discussed in detail and shown to involve considerable hybridizations of some of the orbitals which make a large contribution to the total interaction energy. We now propose a unified model for the often nebulous π-π stacking process and its analogs: firstly when the two monomers are too far apart, the dispersion effect will play a dominant role in bringing them together, but when they are too close, Pauli repulsion will force them apart. Secondly, at the equilibrium distance, electrostatic interaction, Pauli repulsion, dispersion and intermolecular orbital interaction are all pronounced, with part of the molecular orbitals of the two monomers interacting with each other to form a weak intermolecular bond.

  9. Stack emission monitoring using non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy with an optimized nonlinear absorption cross interference correction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. W.; Liu, C.; Chan, K. L.; Xie, P. H.; Liu, W. Q.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, S. M.; Huang, S. H.; Chen, J.; Wang, Y. P.; Si, F. Q.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present an optimized analysis algorithm for non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) to in situ monitor stack emissions. The proposed algorithm simultaneously compensates for nonlinear absorption and cross interference among different gases. We present a mathematical derivation for the measurement error caused by variations in interference coefficients when nonlinear absorption occurs. The proposed algorithm is derived from a classical one and uses interference functions to quantify cross interference. The interference functions vary proportionally with the nonlinear absorption. Thus, interference coefficients among different gases can be modeled by the interference functions whether gases are characterized by linear or nonlinear absorption. In this study, the simultaneous analysis of two components (CO2 and CO) serves as an example for the validation of the proposed algorithm. The interference functions in this case can be obtained by least-squares fitting with third-order polynomials. Experiments show that the results of cross interference correction are improved significantly by utilizing the fitted interference functions when nonlinear absorptions occur. The dynamic measurement ranges of CO2 and CO are improved by about a factor of 1.8 and 3.5, respectively. A commercial analyzer with high accuracy was used to validate the CO and CO2 measurements derived from the NDIR analyzer prototype in which the new algorithm was embedded. The comparison of the two analyzers show that the prototype works well both within the linear and nonlinear ranges.

  10. Nonlinear interactions in an organic polariton condensate.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, K S; Maier, S A; Murray, R; Kéna-Cohen, S

    2014-03-01

    Under the right conditions, cavity polaritons form a macroscopic condensate in the ground state. The fascinating nonlinear behaviour of this condensate is largely dictated by the strength of polariton-polariton interactions. In inorganic semiconductors, these result principally from the Coulomb interaction between Wannier-Mott excitons. Such interactions are considerably weaker for the tightly bound Frenkel excitons characteristic of organic semiconductors and were notably absent in the first reported demonstration of organic polariton lasing. In this work, we demonstrate the realization of an organic polariton condensate, at room temperature, in a microcavity containing a thin film of 2,7-bis[9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)-fluoren-2-yl]-9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)fluorene. On reaching threshold, we observe the spontaneous formation of a linearly polarized condensate, which exhibits a superlinear power dependence, long-range order and a power-dependent blueshift: a clear signature of Frenkel polariton interactions.

  11. Computational Study on the Stacking Interaction in Catechol Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Laura; Otero, Nicolás; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2009-09-01

    The stability and electron density topology of catechol complexes (dimers and tetramer) were studied using the MPW1B95 functional. The QTAIM analysis shows that both dimers (face to face and C-H/π one) display a different electronic origin. The formation of the former is accompanied by a significant change in the values of atomic electron dipole and quadrupole components, flattening the most diffuse part of the electron density distribution toward the molecular plane. A small electron population transfer is observed between catechol monomers connected by C-H/π interactions, whose QTAIM characterization does not differ from that of a weak hydrogen bond. Cooperative effects in the tetramer on binding energies are small and negligible for bond properties and charge transfer. Nevertheless, they are significant on atomic electron populations.

  12. Important factors stabilizing stacking interaction between 3-nitropyrrole and natural nucleobases revealed by ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Seio, Kohji; Ukawa, Hisashi; Shohda, Koh-ichiro; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Stacking energies between canonical nucleobases and a universal base, 3-nitropyrrole (3-NP), were estimated by use of molecular orbital (MO) and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations. The detailed analysis of the energy profiles revealed the importance of the London dispersion energy to stabilize the stacked dimers and electrostatic interactions to determine the orientation of 3-NP to the nucleobases in the dimers. Although the energy profiles of 3-NP/natural base dimers obtained by the MO and MM calculations were qualitatively correlated with each other, the correlations were poorer than those obtained for the stacking between natural bases. The origin of the difference between 3-NP and natural bases will be discussed to understand the possibility and limitation of the current MM calculations for the simulation and design of other universal bases.

  13. Stacking and Electrostatic Interactions Drive the Stereoselectivity of Silylium-Ion Asymmetric Counteranion-Directed Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Trevor J; Wheeler, Steven E

    2016-12-19

    Computational analysis shows that the enantioselectivity of asymmetric Lewis-acid organocatalysis of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene to cinnamates arises from stacking interactions that favor the addition of the diene to the more hindered face of the dienophile, while electrostatic interactions control the diastereoselectivity by selectively stabilizing the endo transition state. These results not only explain the stereoselectivity of these silylium-ion-ACDC reactions but should also guide the development of more effective ion-pairing asymmetric organocatalysts.

  14. Stacked antiaromatic porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Ryo; Tanaka, Hiroko; Cha, Won-Young; Hong, Yongseok; Hisaki, Ichiro; Shimizu, Soji; Shin, Ji-Young; Kowalczyk, Tim; Irle, Stephan; Kim, Dongho; Shinokubo, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Aromaticity is a key concept in organic chemistry. Even though this concept has already been theoretically extrapolated to three dimensions, it usually still remains restricted to planar molecules in organic chemistry textbooks. Stacking of antiaromatic π-systems has been proposed to induce three-dimensional aromaticity as a result of strong frontier orbital interactions. However, experimental evidence to support this prediction still remains elusive so far. Here we report that close stacking of antiaromatic porphyrins diminishes their inherent antiaromaticity in the solid state as well as in solution. The antiaromatic stacking furthermore allows a delocalization of the π-electrons, which enhances the two-photon absorption cross-section values of the antiaromatic porphyrins. This feature enables the dynamic switching of the non-linear optical properties by controlling the arrangement of antiaromatic π-systems on the basis of intermolecular orbital interactions. PMID:27901014

  15. Stacked antiaromatic porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Ryo; Tanaka, Hiroko; Cha, Won-Young; Hong, Yongseok; Hisaki, Ichiro; Shimizu, Soji; Shin, Ji-Young; Kowalczyk, Tim; Irle, Stephan; Kim, Dongho; Shinokubo, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Aromaticity is a key concept in organic chemistry. Even though this concept has already been theoretically extrapolated to three dimensions, it usually still remains restricted to planar molecules in organic chemistry textbooks. Stacking of antiaromatic π-systems has been proposed to induce three-dimensional aromaticity as a result of strong frontier orbital interactions. However, experimental evidence to support this prediction still remains elusive so far. Here we report that close stacking of antiaromatic porphyrins diminishes their inherent antiaromaticity in the solid state as well as in solution. The antiaromatic stacking furthermore allows a delocalization of the π-electrons, which enhances the two-photon absorption cross-section values of the antiaromatic porphyrins. This feature enables the dynamic switching of the non-linear optical properties by controlling the arrangement of antiaromatic π-systems on the basis of intermolecular orbital interactions.

  16. Stacking of purines in water: the role of dipolar interactions in caffeine.

    PubMed

    Tavagnacco, L; Di Fonzo, S; D'Amico, F; Masciovecchio, C; Brady, J W; Cesàro, A

    2016-05-11

    During the last few decades it has been ascertained that base stacking is one of the major contributions stabilizing nucleic acid conformations. However, the understanding of the nature of the interactions involved in the stacking process remains under debate and it is a subject of theoretical and experimental studies. Structural similarity between purine bases (guanine and adenine) in DNA and the caffeine molecule makes caffeine an excellent model for the purine bases. The present study clearly shows that dipolar interactions play a fundamental role in determining stacking of purine molecules in solution. In order to reach this achievement, polarized ultraviolet Raman resonant scattering experiments have been carried out on caffeine aqueous solutions as a function of concentration and temperature. The investigation pointed out at the aggregation and solvation properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. Kubo-Anderson theory was used as a framework to investigate the non-coincidence effect (NCE) occurring in the totally symmetric breathing modes of the purine rings, and in the bending modes of the methyl groups of caffeine. The NCE concentration dependence shows that caffeine aggregation at 80 °C occurs by planar stacking of the hydrophobic faces. The data clearly indicate that dipolar interactions determine the reorientational motion of the molecules in solution and are the driving force for the stacking of caffeine. In parallel, the observed dephasing times imply a change in caffeine interactions as a function of temperature and concentration. A decrease, at low water content, of the dephasing time for the ring breathing vibration mode indicates that self-association alters the solvation structure that is detectable at low concentration. These results are in agreement with simulation predictions and serve as an important validation of the models used in those calculations.

  17. Stack emission monitoring using non-dispersive infrared with optimized nonlinear absorption cross-interference correction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.-W.; Liu, C.; Chan, K.-L.; Xie, P.-H.; Liu, W.-Q.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, S.-M.; Huang, S.-H.; Chen, J.; Wang, Y.-P.; Si, F.-Q.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we present an optimized analysis algorithm for non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) to monitor stack emissions. The newly developed analysis algorithm simultaneously compensates for nonlinear absorption and cross-interference between different gases. We present a mathematical derivation for the measurement error caused by variations in interference coefficients when nonlinear absorption occurs. The optimized algorithm is derived from a classical one and uses interference functions to quantify cross-interference. The interference functions vary proportionally with the nonlinear absorption. Thus, interference coefficients among different gases can be modeled by the interference functions whether gases are characterized by linear or nonlinear absorption. In this study, the simultaneous analysis of two components (CO2 and CO) serves as an example for the validation of the optimized algorithm. The interference functions in this case can be obtained by least-squares fitting with three-order polynomials. Experiments show that the results of cross-interference correction are improved significantly by utilizing fitted interference functions when nonlinear absorptions occur. The dynamic measurement ranges of CO2 and CO are improved by about a factor of 1.8 and 3.5, respectively. A commercial NDIR multi-gas analyzer with high accuracy was used to validate the CO and CO2 measurements derived from the NDIR analyzer prototype in which the new cross-interference correction algorithm was embedded. Both measurements well agreed.

  18. The influence of arene-ring size on stacking interaction with canonical base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formánek, Martin; Burda, Jaroslav V.

    2014-04-01

    Stacking interactions between aromatic molecules (benzene, p-cymene, biphenyl, and di- and tetra-hydrogen anthracene) and G.C and A.T canonical Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs are explored. Two functionals with dispersion corrections: ω-B97XD and B3LYP-D3 are used. For a comparison also the MP2 and B3LYP-D3/PCM methods were used for the most stable p-cymene…WC geometries. It was found that the stacking interaction increases with the size of π-conjugation system. Its extent is in agreement with experimental finding on anticancer activity of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes where intercalation of these aromatic molecules should play an important role. The explored structures are considered as ternary system so that decomposition of the interaction energy to pairwise and non-additivity contributions is also examined.

  19. Characterization of π-stacking interactions between aromatic amino acids and quercetagetin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akher, Farideh Badichi; Ebrahimi, Ali; Mostafavi, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the π-stacking interactions between quercetagetin (QUE), which is one of the most representative flavonol compounds with biological and chemical activities, and some aromatic amino acid (AA) residues has been investigated by the quantum mechanical calculations. The trend in the absolute value of stacking interaction energy |ΔE| with respect to AAs is HIS > PHE > TYR > TPR. The results show that the sum of donor-acceptor interaction energy between AAs and QUE (∑E2) and the sum of electron densities ρ calculated at BCPs and CCPs between the rings (∑ρBCPs and ∑ρCCP) can be useful descriptors for prediction of the ΔE values of the complexes. The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) slightly decreases by the π-stacking interaction, which confirms the positive effect of that interaction on the antioxidant activity of QUE. A reverse trend is observed for BDE when is compared with the |ΔE| values. A reliable relationship is also observed between the Muliken spin density (MSD) distributions of the radical species and the most convenient Osbnd H bond dissociations. In addition, reactivity is in good correlation with the antioxidant activity of the complexes.

  20. Nonlinear shallow ocean-wave soliton interactions on flat beaches.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Baldwin, Douglas E

    2012-09-01

    Ocean waves are complex and often turbulent. While most ocean-wave interactions are essentially linear, sometimes two or more waves interact in a nonlinear way. For example, two or more waves can interact and yield waves that are much taller than the sum of the original wave heights. Most of these shallow-water nonlinear interactions look like an X or a Y or two connected Ys; at other times, several lines appear on each side of the interaction region. It was thought that such nonlinear interactions are rare events: they are not. Here we report that such nonlinear interactions occur every day, close to low tide, on two flat beaches that are about 2000 km apart. These interactions are closely related to the analytic, soliton solutions of a widely studied multidimensional nonlinear wave equation. On a much larger scale, tsunami waves can merge in similar ways.

  1. Nonlinear inversion of pre-stack seismic data using variable metric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fanchang; Dai, Ronghuo

    2016-06-01

    At present, the routine method to perform AVA (Amplitude Variation with incident Angle) inversion is based on the assumption that the ratio of S-wave velocity to P-wave velocity γ is a constant. However, this simplified assumption does not always hold, and it is necessary to use nonlinear inversion method to solve it. Based on Bayesian theory, the objective function for nonlinear AVA inversion is established and γ is considered as an unknown model parameter. Then, variable metric method with a strategy of periodically variational starting point is used to solve the nonlinear AVA inverse problem. The proposed method can keep the inverted reservoir parameters approach to the actual solution and has been performed on both synthetic and real data. The inversion results suggest that the proposed method can solve the nonlinear inverse problem and get accurate solutions even without the knowledge of γ.

  2. Folic acid-polydopamine nanofibers show enhanced ordered-stacking via π-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hailong; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Yang; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Huihui; Nie, Zongxiu; Wu, Decheng; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2015-06-21

    Recent research has indicated that polydopamine and synthetic eumelanins are optoelectronic biomaterials in which one-dimensional aggregates composed of ordered-stacking oligomers have been proposed as unique organic semiconductors. However, improving the ordered-stacking of oligomers in polydopamine nanostructures is a big challenge. Herein, we first demonstrate how folic acid molecules influence the morphology and nanostructure of polydopamine via tuning the π-π interactions of oligomers. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry reveals that porphyrin-like tetramers are characteristic of folic acid-polydopamine (FA-PDA) nanofibers. X-ray diffraction combined with simulation studies indicate that these oligomers favour aggregation into graphite-like ordered nanostructures via strong π-π interactions. High-resolution TEM characterization of carbonized FA-PDA hybrids show that in FA-PDA nanofibers the size of the graphite-like domains is over 100 nm. The addition of folic acid in polydopamine enhances the ordered stacking of oligomers in its nanostructure. Our study steps forward to discover the mystery of the structure-property relationship of FA-PDA hybrids. It paves a way to optimize the properties of PDA through the design and selection of oligomer structures.

  3. Nonlinear interactions in renal blood flow regulation.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Donald J; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Chon, Ki H; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a model of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the myogenic mechanism in afferent arterioles to understand how the two mechanisms are coupled. This paper presents the model. The tubular model predicts pressure, flow, and NaCl concentration as functions of time and tubular length in a compliant tubule that reabsorbs NaCl and water; boundary conditions are glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a nonlinear outflow resistance, and initial NaCl concentration. The glomerular model calculates GFR from a change in protein concentration using estimates of capillary hydrostatic pressure, tubular hydrostatic pressure, and plasma flow rate. The arteriolar model predicts fraction of open K channels, intracellular Ca concentration (Ca(i)), potential difference, rate of actin-myosin cross bridge formation, force of contraction, and length of elastic elements, and was solved for two arteriolar segments, identical except for the strength of TGF input, with a third, fixed resistance segment representing prearteriolar vessels. The two arteriolar segments are electrically coupled. The arteriolar, glomerular, and tubular models are linked; TGF modulates arteriolar circumference, which determines vascular resistance and glomerular capillary pressure. The model couples TGF input to voltage-gated Ca channels. It predicts autoregulation of GFR and renal blood flow, matches experimental measures of tubular pressure and macula densa NaCl concentration, and predicts TGF-induced oscillations and a faster smaller vasomotor oscillation. There are nonlinear interactions between TGF and the myogenic mechanism, which include the modulation of the frequency and amplitude of the myogenic oscillation by TGF. The prediction of modulation is confirmed in a companion study (28).

  4. Third order nonlinear optical properties of stacked bacteriochlorophylls in bacterial photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.X.; Laible, P.D.; Spano, F.C.; Manas, E.S.

    1997-09-01

    Enhancement of the nonresonant second order molecular hyperpolarizabilities {gamma} were observed in stacked macrocyclic molecular systems, previously in a {micro}-oxo silicon phthalocyanine (SiPcO) monomer, dimer and trimer series, and now in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) arrays of light harvesting (LH) proteins. Compared to monomeric BChla in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, the <{gamma}> for each macrocycle was enhanced in naturally occurring stacked macrocyclic molecular systems in the bacterial photosynthetic LH proteins where BChla`s are arranged in tilted face-to-face arrays. In addition, the {gamma} enhancement is more significant in B875 of LH1 than in B850 in LH2. Theoretical modeling of the nonresonant {gamma} enhancement using simplified molecular orbitals for model SiPcO indicated that the energy level of the two photon state is crucial to the {gamma} enhancement when a two photon process is involved, whereas the charge transfer between the monomers is largely responsible when one photon near resonant process is involved. The calculated results can be extended to {gamma} enhancement in B875 and B850 arrays, suggesting that BChla in B875 are more strongly coupled than in B850. In addition, a 50--160 fold increase in <{gamma}> for the S{sub 1} excited state of relative to S{sub 0} of bacteriochlorophyll in vivo was observed which provides an alternative method for probing excited state dynamics and a potential application for molecular switching.

  5. Nonlinear empirical model of gas humidity-related voltage dynamics of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiler, M.; Andre, D.; Schmid, O.; Hofer, E. P.

    Intelligent energy management is a cost-effective key path to realize efficient automotive drive trains [R. O'Hayre, S.W. Cha, W. Colella, F.B. Prinz. Fuel Cell Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2006]. To develop operating strategy in fuel cell drive trains, precise and computational efficient models of all system components, especially the fuel cell stack, are needed. Should these models further be used in diagnostic or control applications, then some major requirements must be fulfilled. First, the model must predict the mean fuel cell voltage very precisely in all possible operating conditions, even during transients. The model output should be as smooth as possible to support best efficient optimization strategies of the complete system. At least, the model must be computational efficient. For most applications, a difference between real fuel cell voltage and model output of less than 10 mV and 1000 calculations per second will be sufficient. In general, empirical models based on system identification offer a better accuracy and consume less calculation resources than detailed models derived from theoretical considerations [J. Larminie, A. Dicks. Fuel Cell Systems Explained, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2003]. In this contribution, the dynamic behaviour of the mean cell voltage of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack due to variations in humidity of cell's reactant gases is investigated. The validity of the overall model structure, a so-called general Hammerstein model (or Uryson model), was introduced recently in [M. Meiler, O. Schmid, M. Schudy, E.P. Hofer. Dynamic fuel cell stack model for real-time simulation based on system identification, J. Power Sources 176 (2007) 523-528]. Fuel cell mean voltage is calculated as the sum of a stationary and a dynamic voltage component. The stationary component of cell voltage is represented by a lookup-table and the dynamic voltage by a parallel placed, nonlinear transfer function. A

  6. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyken, B.; Leo, F.; Clemmen, S.; Dave, U.; Van Laer, R.; Ideguchi, T.; Zhao, H.; Liu, X.; Safioui, J.; Coen, S.; Gorza, S. P.; Selvaraja, S. K.; Massar, S.; Osgood, R. M.; Verheyen, P.; Van Campenhout, J.; Baets, R.; Green, W. M. J.; Roelkens, G.

    2017-03-01

    The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  7. Interlayer-interaction dependence of latent heat in the Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular lattice with competing interactions.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Ryo; Tanaka, Shu

    2013-11-01

    We study the phase transition behavior of a frustrated Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. The model has three types of interactions: the ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interaction J(1) and antiferromagnetic third nearest-neighbor interaction J(3) in each triangular layer and the ferromagnetic interlayer interaction J([perpendicular]). Frustration comes from the intralayer interactions J(1) and J(3). We focus on the case that the order parameter space is SO(3)×C(3). We find that the model exhibits a first-order phase transition with breaking of the SO(3) and C(3) symmetries at finite temperature. We also discover that the transition temperature increases but the latent heat decreases as J([perpendicular])/J(1) increases, which is opposite to the behavior observed in typical unfrustrated three-dimensional systems.

  8. Extended weak bonding interactions in DNA: pi-stacking (base-base), base-backbone, and backbone-backbone interactions.

    PubMed

    Matta, Chérif F; Castillo, Norberto; Boyd, Russell J

    2006-01-12

    We report on several weak interactions in nucleic acids, which, collectively, can make a nonnegligible contribution to the structure and stability of these molecules. Fragments of DNA were obtained from previously determined accurate experimental geometries and their electron density distributions calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The electron densities were analyzed topologically according to the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). A web of closed-shell bonding interactions is shown to connect neighboring base pairs in base-pair duplexes and in dinuleotide steps. This bonding underlies the well-known pi-stacking interaction between adjacent nucleic acid bases and is characterized topologically for the first time. Two less widely appreciated modes of weak closed-shell interactions in nucleic acids are also described: (i) interactions between atoms in the bases and atoms belonging to the backbone (base-backbone) and (ii) interactions among atoms within the backbone itself (backbone-backbone). These interactions include hydrogen bonding, dihydrogen bonding, hydrogen-hydrogen bonding, and several other weak closed-shell X-Y interactions (X, Y = O, N, C). While each individual interaction is very weak and typically accompanied by perhaps 0.5-3 kcal/mol, the sum total of these interactions is postulated to play a role in stabilizing the structure of nucleic acids. The Watson-and-Crick hydrogen bonding is also characterized in detail at the experimental geometries as a prelude to the discussion of the modes of interactions listed in the title.

  9. A theoretical analysis of the potential role of π-π stacking interactions in the photoprotolytic cycle of firefly luciferin.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2014-12-01

    Firefly oxyluciferin is a photoacid that presents a pH-sensitive fluorescence, which results from pH-dependent changes on the conformation of self-aggregated π-π stacking complexes. Luciferin is a derivative of oxyluciferin with very similar fluorescence and photoacidic properties. This similarity indicates that luciferin is also expected to be able to form π-π stacking complexes, but no pH-sensitive fluorescence is found for this compound. Here, a theoretical approach is used to rationalize this finding. We have found that luciferin only forms π-π stacking complexes in the ground state at acidic pH. At basic pH and in the excited state, luciferin is present as a dianion. This species is not able to self-aggregate, owing to repulsive electrostatic interactions. Thus, this emissive species is not subject to π-π stacking interactions; this explains its pH-insensitive fluorescence.

  10. Extracting Drug-Drug Interaction from the Biomedical Literature Using a Stacked Generalization-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Linna; Yang, Zhihao; Zhao, Zhehuan; Lin, Hongfei; Li, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) detection is particularly important for patient safety. However, the amount of biomedical literature regarding drug interactions is increasing rapidly. Therefore, there is a need to develop an effective approach for the automatic extraction of DDI information from the biomedical literature. In this paper, we present a Stacked Generalization-based approach for automatic DDI extraction. The approach combines the feature-based, graph and tree kernels and, therefore, reduces the risk of missing important features. In addition, it introduces some domain knowledge based features (the keyword, semantic type, and DrugBank features) into the feature-based kernel, which contribute to the performance improvement. More specifically, the approach applies Stacked generalization to automatically learn the weights from the training data and assign them to three individual kernels to achieve a much better performance than each individual kernel. The experimental results show that our approach can achieve a better performance of 69.24% in F-score compared with other systems in the DDI Extraction 2011 challenge task. PMID:23785452

  11. Urea destabilizes RNA by forming stacking interactions and multiple hydrogen bonds with nucleic acid bases.

    PubMed

    Priyakumar, U Deva; Hyeon, Changbong; Thirumalai, D; Mackerell, Alexander D

    2009-12-16

    Urea titration of RNA by urea is an effective approach to investigate the forces stabilizing this biologically important molecule. We used all atom molecular dynamics simulations using two urea force fields and two RNA constructs to elucidate in atomic detail the destabilization mechanism of folded RNA in aqueous urea solutions. Urea denatures RNA by forming multiple hydrogen bonds with the RNA bases and has little influence on the phosphodiester backbone. Most significantly we discovered that urea engages in stacking interactions with the bases. We also estimate, for the first time, the m-value for RNA, which is a measure of the strength of urea-RNA interactions. Our work provides a conceptual understanding of the mechanism by which urea enhances RNA folding rates.

  12. System interaction with linear and nonlinear characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.W. ); Tseng, W.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This book is covered under some of the following topics: seismic margins in piping systems, vibrational power flow in a cylindrical shell, inelastic pipework dynamics and aseismic design, an efficient method for dynamic analysis of a linearly elastic piping system with nonlinear supports.

  13. Transport equations for subdiffusion with nonlinear particle interaction.

    PubMed

    Straka, P; Fedotov, S

    2015-02-07

    We show how the nonlinear interaction effects 'volume filling' and 'adhesion' can be incorporated into the fractional subdiffusive transport of cells and individual organisms. To this end, we use microscopic random walk models with anomalous trapping and systematically derive generic non-Markovian and nonlinear governing equations for the mean concentrations of the subdiffusive cells or organisms. We uncover an interesting interaction between the nonlinearities and the non-Markovian nature of the transport. In the subdiffusive case, this interaction manifests itself in a nontrivial combination of nonlinear terms with fractional derivatives. In the long time limit, however, these equations simplify to a form without fractional operators. This provides an easy method for the study of aggregation phenomena. In particular, this enables us to show that volume filling can prevent "anomalous aggregation," which occurs in subdiffusive systems with a spatially varying anomalous exponent.

  14. Nonlinear interaction between BAE and BAAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaqi; Zhang, Huasen; Lin, Zhihong

    2016-10-01

    The beta-induced Alfven-acoustic eigenmode (BAAE) in toroidal plasmas is verified by GTC simulations. The BAAE can be excited by realistic energetic particle density gradient, even though the stable BAAE (in the absence of energetic particles) is heavily damped by the thermal ions. In the simulations with reversed magnetic shear, BAAE frequency sweeping is observed and poloidal mode structure has a triangle shape with a poloidal direction similar to that observed in tokamak experiments. When we decrease the tokamak size ITER to present-day tokamak, the most unstable modes change from BAAE to BAE (beta-induced Alfven eigenmode). For a certain tokamak size, BAE and BAAE coexist with similar linear growth rates. At nonlinear stage, BAE modes saturate first, while BAAE modes continue to grow until nonlinear modes with beating wave (sum of BAE and BAAE frequency) and positive frequencies are excited. In the long time simulation, amplitudes of BAE, BAAE, and beat waves oscillate, indicating mode energy nonlinearly transfers between them. Zonal fields suppress the mode coupling and energy transfer between BAE to BAAE, and reduce frequency chirping and saturation amplitudes. The growth rate of the zonal fields is about twice of the linear growth rate of BAE/BAAE.

  15. Enhanced nonlinear interaction in a microcavity under coherent excitation.

    PubMed

    Serna, Samuel; Oden, Jérèmy; Hanna, Marc; Caer, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Sauvan, Christophe; Delaye, Philippe; Cassan, Eric; Dubreuil, Nicolas

    2015-11-16

    The large field enhancement that can be achieved in high quality factor and small mode volume photonic crystal microcavities leads to strengthened nonlinear interactions. However, the frequency shift dynamics of the cavity resonance under a pulsed excitation, which is driven by nonlinear refractive index change, tends to limit the coupling efficiency between the pulse and the cavity. As a consequence, the cavity enhancement effect cannot last for the entire pulse duration, limiting the interaction between the pulse and the intra-cavity material. In order to preserve the benefit of light localization throughout the pulsed excitation, we report the first experimental demonstration of coherent excitation of a nonlinear microcavity, leading to an enhanced intra-cavity nonlinear interaction. We investigate the nonlinear behavior of a Silicon-based microcavity subject to tailored positively chirped pulses, enabling to increase the free carrier density generated by two-photon absorption by up to a factor of 2.5 compared with a Fourier-transform limited pulse excitation of equal energy. It is accompanied by an extended frequency blue-shift of the cavity resonance reaching 19 times the linear cavity bandwidth. This experimental result highlights the interest in using coherent excitation to control intra-cavity light-matter interactions and nonlinear dynamics of microcavity-based optical devices.

  16. Ghost Dark Energy with Non-Linear Interaction Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, E.

    2016-06-01

    Here we investigate ghost dark energy (GDE) in the presence of a non-linear interaction term between dark matter and dark energy. To this end we take into account a general form for the interaction term. Then we discuss about different features of three choices of the non-linear interacting GDE. In all cases we obtain equation of state parameter, w D = p/ ρ, the deceleration parameter and evolution equation of the dark energy density parameter (Ω D ). We find that in one case, w D cross the phantom line ( w D < -1). However in two other classes w D can not cross the phantom divide. The coincidence problem can be solved in these models completely and there exist good agreement between the models and observational values of w D , q. We study squared sound speed {vs2}, and find that for one case of non-linear interaction term {vs2} can achieves positive values at late time of evolution.

  17. Nonlinear interaction of meta-atoms through optical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Kapitanova, P. V.; Filonov, D. S.; Belov, P. A.; Powell, D. A.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Lapine, M.; McPhedran, R. C.

    2014-01-06

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multi-frequency nonlinear coupling mechanism between split-ring resonators. We engineer the coupling between two microwave resonators through optical interaction, whilst suppressing the direct electromagnetic coupling. This allows for a power-dependent interaction between the otherwise independent resonators, opening interesting opportunities to address applications in signal processing, filtering, directional coupling, and electromagnetic compatibility.

  18. Computational analysis of stacking interactions between 3-nitropyrrole and natural nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Hisashi; Seio, Kohji; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2002-01-01

    The stacking energies between natural nucleobases and a universal base of 3-nitropyrrole (3-NP) were calculated by use of two theoretically independent quantum chemical methods, namely, molecular orbital (MO) and density function theory (DFT) calculations. The parameters required for molecular mechanics calculation of 3-NP were obtained by use of a software of Direct Force Field and used to evaluate the stacking energy of the complexes formed between 3-NP and canonical four nucleobases. Dependence of the twist angle between the two stacked bases on the stacking energy was studied in great detail.

  19. Nonlinear Stochastic Interaction in Aeroelastic Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-29

    Frangopol. D NI (1985ai Sensiti-ts of reltabiltIisbaed optimum de Boyce. W E (1966). Stochastic nonthomogeneous Sturm - Liouville problem. Strut, Dig 111. 1703...It is known that 4,2 =- qlql -q11+- q2 4j the result of any linear operator , with constant coefficients, , 1 = 3E,- - 2 q) applied to a random...Gaussian process results in a Gaussian k. - 3EIIP (2) process. However. if the operator is nonlinear, the resulting It is seen that the left-hand side of

  20. Enhanced energy transport owing to nonlinear interface interaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-20

    It is generally expected that the interface coupling leads to the suppression of thermal transport through coupled nanostructures due to the additional interface phonon-phonon scattering. However, recent experiments demonstrated that the interface van der Waals interactions can significantly enhance the thermal transfer of bonding boron nanoribbons compared to a single freestanding nanoribbon. To obtain a more in-depth understanding on the important role of the nonlinear interface coupling in the heat transports, in the present paper, we explore the effect of nonlinearity in the interface interaction on the phonon transport by studying the coupled one-dimensional (1D) Frenkel-Kontorova lattices. It is found that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing interface nonlinear intensity for weak inter-chain nonlinearity. By developing the effective phonon theory of coupled systems, we calculate the dependence of heat conductivity on interfacial nonlinearity in weak inter-chain couplings regime which is qualitatively in good agreement with the result obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we demonstrate that, with increasing interface nonlinear intensity, the system dimensionless nonlinearity strength is reduced, which in turn gives rise to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. Our results pave the way for manipulating the energy transport through coupled nanostructures for future emerging applications.

  1. Resonant Strong Field Nonlinear Optical Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppeta, David Anthony

    This work considers the steady state nonlinear response of a medium subjected to electromagnetic fields which are resonant and/or strong. In this regime, pertubation expansions in the field amplitude(s) diverge and non-pertubative techniques are required. Two general cases are considered. In the first case, radiative renormalization is applied to Four Wave Mixing (FWM) in a four level system with three resonant driving fields. The absorption and generation of a weak FWM signal are considered. Several variants including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering are considered. The second case is a two level atom subject to excitation by an arbitrarily amplitude modulated field. The domain of solution is extended to non-equal damping rates with zero detuning from resonance. As an example, the steady state response to step function amplitude modulation is treated.

  2. Nonlinear a Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear reaction between two oblique three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and their induced streamwise-vortex flow is considered theoretically for an incompressible boundary layer. The same theory applies to the destabilization of an incident vortex motion by subharmonic TS waves, followed by interaction. The scales and flow structure involved are addressed for high Reynolds numbers. The nonlinear interaction is powerful, starting at quite low amplitudes with a triple-deck structure for the TS waves but a large-scale structure for the induced vortex, after which strong nonlinear amplification occurs. This includes nonparallel-flow effects. The nonlinear interaction is governed by a partial differential system for the vortex flow coupled with an ordinary-differential one for the TS pressure. The solution properties found sometimes produce a breakup within a finite distance and sometimes further downstream, depending on the input amplitudes upstream and on the wave angles, and that then leads to the second stages of interaction associated with higher amplitudes, the main second stages giving either long-scale phenomena significantly affected by nonparallelism or shorter quasi-parallel ones governed by the full nonlinear triple-deck response.

  3. Computational evaluation of intermolecular interactions of a universal base 3-nitropyrrole in stacked dimers and DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Seio, Kohji; Ukawa, Hisashi; Shohda, Koh-ichiro; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2005-06-01

    The stacking interactions between a universal base of 3-nitropyrrole (3NP) and four canonical nucleobases were studied by means of ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The stabilities of the complexes are comparable to those of the stacked dimers of canonical bases reported previously. The detailed analysis of the interaction energies revealed the importance of the dipole-dipole interaction included in the Hartree-Fock terms to determine the geometry dependence of the stacking energies. It was also clarified that the dispersion energies included in the electron-correlation terms were essential to obtain adequate stabilities. The contribution of the nitro group was evaluated by the comparative studies of pyrrole and 3NP. The increased molecular dipole moment and surface are expected to account for the enhancement of the stability of the stacked dimers containing 3NP. The force field parameters required for calculation of the molecular mechanics of 3NP were obtained for 3NP on the basis of these molecular orbital calculations. The energy-minimized structures obtained by the molecular mechanics calculations of 3NP accorded with those obtained by the molecular orbital calculations described above. A DNA duplex structure containing 3NP-A, 3NP-T, or 3NP-C was calculated by use of these force field parameters. In the case of 3NP-A, the computationally calculated structure was in good agreement with that previously determined by use of (1)H-NMR except for the orientation of the nitro group.

  4. Highly sensitive reduced graphene oxide impedance sensor harnessing π-stacking interaction mediated direct deposition of protein probes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Su; Um, Yu Mi; Jang, Ji-Ryang; Choe, Woo-Seok; Yoo, Pil J

    2013-05-01

    Graphene-based electrochemical impedance sensors have recently received much attention due to their outstanding sensing capability and economic viability. In this study, we present a novel means of constructing an impedance sensing platform via harnessing intrinsic π-stacking interactions between probe protein molecules and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) substrate, obviating the need for introducing external chemical groups often required for covalent anchoring of the probes. To achieve this goal, protein molecules used as a probe were denatured to render their hydrophobic residues exposed in order to facilitate their direct π-stacking interactions with the surface of RGO nanosheets. The protein molecules in denatured form, which would otherwise have difficulty in undergoing π-stacking interactions with the RGO surface, were found to uniformly cover the RGO nanosheets at high density, conducive to providing a graphene-based impedance sensing platform capable of detecting a probe-specific analyte at high sensitivity. The proof-of-concept performance of thus-constructed RGO-based impedance sensors was demonstrated via selective detection of biological binding events of antigen-antibody reaction at a femtomolar range. Notably, since the π-stacking interaction can occur on the entire RGO surface, it can desirably exclude a backfill process indispensable for the conventional biosensors to suppress background noise signals. Since the procedure of π-stacking mediated direct deposition of on-purpose denatured protein probes onto the RGO surface is facile and straightforward, the proposed strategy is anticipated to extend its applicability for fabrication of high performance graphene-based bio or chemical sensors.

  5. Nonlinear Bubble Interactions in Acoustic Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbat, Tiberiu; Ashgriz, Nasser; Liu, Ching-Shi

    1996-01-01

    The systems consisting of a two-phase mixture, as clouds of bubbles or drops, have shown many common features in their responses to different external force fields. One of particular interest is the effect of an unsteady pressure field applied to these systems, case in which the coupling of the vibrations induced in two neighboring components (two drops or two bubbles) may result in an interaction force between them. This behavior was explained by Bjerknes by postulating that every body that is moving in an accelerating fluid is subjected to a 'kinetic buoyancy' equal with the product of the acceleration of the fluid multiplied by the mass of the fluid displaced by the body. The external sound wave applied to a system of drops/bubbles triggers secondary sound waves from each component of the system. These secondary pressure fields integrated over the surface of the neighboring drop/bubble may result in a force additional to the effect of the primary sound wave on each component of the system. In certain conditions, the magnitude of these secondary forces may result in significant changes in the dynamics of each component, thus in the behavior of the entire system. In a system containing bubbles, the sound wave radiated by one bubble at the location of a neighboring one is dominated by the volume oscillation mode and its effects can be important for a large range of frequencies. The interaction forces in a system consisting of drops are much smaller than those consisting of bubbles. Therefore, as a first step towards the understanding of the drop-drop interaction subject to external pressure fluctuations, it is more convenient to study the bubble interactions. This paper presents experimental results and theoretical predictions concerning the interaction and the motion of two levitated air bubbles in water in the presence of an acoustic field at high frequencies (22-23 KHz).

  6. Kinetic equation for nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions including the effects of particle (phase) trapping, detrapping, and scattering by high-amplitude coherent waves. After deriving the relationship between probability of trapping and velocity of particle drift induced by nonlinear scattering (phase bunching), we substitute this relation and other characteristic equations of wave-particle interaction into a kinetic equation for the particle distribution function. The final equation has the form of a Fokker-Planck equation with peculiar advection and collision terms. This equation fully describes the evolution of particle momentum distribution due to particle diffusion, nonlinear drift, and fast transport in phase-space via trapping. Solutions of the obtained kinetic equation are compared with results of test particle simulations.

  7. Interactions between nonlinear spur gear dynamics and surface wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Huali; Kahraman, Ahmet

    2007-11-01

    In this study, two different dynamic models, a finite elements-based deformable-body model and a simplified discrete model, and a surface wear model are combined to study the interaction between gear surface wear and gear dynamic response. The proposed dynamic gear wear model includes the influence of worn surface profiles on dynamic tooth forces and transmission error as well as the influence of dynamic tooth forces on wear profiles. This paper first introduces the nonlinear dynamic models that include gear backlash and time-varying gear mesh stiffness, and a wear model separately. It presents a comparison to experiments for validation of the dynamic models. The dynamic models are combined with the wear model to study the interaction of surface wear and dynamic behavior in both linear and nonlinear response regimes. At the end, several sets of simulation results are used to demonstrate the two-way relationship between nonlinear gear dynamics and surface wear.

  8. Nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear reaction between two oblique 3-D Tollmein-Schlichting (TS) waves and their induced streamwise-vortex flow is considered theoretically for an imcompressible boundary layer. The same theory applies to the destabilization of an incident vortex motion by subharmonic TS waves, followed by interaction. The scales and flow structure involved are addressed for high Reynolds numbers. The nonlionear interaction is powerful, starting at quite low amplitudes with a triple-deck structure for the TS waves but a large-scale structure for the induced vortex, after which strong nonlinear amplification occurs. This includes nonparallel-flow effects. The nonlinear interaction is governed by a partial differential system for the vortex flow coupled with an ordinary-differential one for the TS pressure. The solution properties found sometimes produce a breakup within a finite distance and sometimes further downstream, depending on the input amplitudes upstream and on the wave angles, and that then leads to the second stages of interaction associated with higher amplitudes, the main second stages giving either long-scale phenomena significantly affected by nonparallelism or shorter quasi-parallel ones governed by the full nonlinear triple-deck response.

  9. Nonlinear wave interaction problems in the three-dimensional case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curró, C.; Manganaro, N.; Pavlov, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional nonlinear wave interactions have been analytically described. The procedure under interest can be applied to three-dimensional quasilinear systems of first order, whose hydrodynamic reductions are homogeneous semi-Hamiltonian hydrodynamic type systems (i.e. possess diagonal form and infinitely many conservation laws). The interaction of N waves was studied. In particular we prove that they behave like simple waves and they distort after the collision region. The amount of the distortion can be analytically computed.

  10. NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    TOMAS,R.FISCHER,W.JAIN,A.LUO,Y.PILAT,F.

    2004-07-05

    For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability.

  11. Nonlinear Internal Wave Interaction in the China Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-K.

    1998-01-01

    This project researched the nonlinear wave interactions in the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The complicated nature of the internal wave field, including the generation mechanisms, was studied, and is discussed. Discussion of wave-wave interactions in the East China Sea, the area of the China Sea northeast of Taiwan, and the Yellow Sea is included.

  12. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in engineered optical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchinitser, Natalia

    In this talk, we consider fundamental optical phenomena at the interface of nonlinear and singular optics in artificial media, including theoretical and experimental studies of linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions of vector and singular optical beams in metamaterials. We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to ``engineer'' light itself. Thanks to their ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, metamaterials open new degrees of freedom for tailoring complex polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. We will discuss several approaches to structured light manipulation on the nanoscale using metal-dielectric, all-dielectric and hyperbolic metamaterials. These new functionalities, including polarization and OAM conversion, beam magnification and de-magnification, and sub-wavelength imaging using novel non-resonant hyperlens are likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. The emergence of metamaterials also has a strong potential to enable a plethora of novel nonlinear light-matter interactions and even new nonlinear materials. In particular, nonlinear focusing and defocusing effects are of paramount importance for manipulation of the minimum focusing spot size of structured light beams necessary for nanoscale trapping, manipulation, and fundamental spectroscopic studies. Colloidal suspensions offer as a promising platform for engineering polarizibilities and realization of large and tunable nonlinearities. We will present our recent studies of the phenomenon of spatial modulational instability leading to laser beam filamentation in an engineered soft-matter nonlinear medium. Finally, we introduce so-called virtual hyperbolic metamaterials formed by an array of plasma channels in air as a result of self-focusing of an intense laser pulse, and show that such structure can be used to manipulate microwave beams in a free space. This

  13. Exploration of CH···π mediated stacking interactions in saccharide: aromatic residue complexes through conformational sampling.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Manju; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Balaji, Petety V

    2012-11-01

    Saccharides interact with aromatic residues mostly through CH···π mediated stacking interactions. The energetics of such interactions depends upon the mutual position-orientations (POs) of the two moieties. The POs found in the crystal structures are only a subset of the various possible ways of interaction. Hence, potential energy surfaces of saccharide-aromatic residue complexes have been explored by mixed Monte Carlo multiple minimum/low mode sampling. The saccharides considered in this study are α/β-D-glucose, β-D-galactose, α-D-mannose, and α/β-L-fucose. p-Hydroxytoluene, toluene, and 3-methylindole were used as analogs of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, respectively. The saccharides interact from either above or below the π-cloud of an aromatic ring but not along the edges. The POs preferred by different saccharides, both in the preferred chair and skew-boat forms, for interacting with different aromatic amino acid residue analogs have been identified. Aromatic residues can interact with the same -CH group in many POs but not so with the -OH groups. Changes in the configurations of pyranose ring carbon atoms cause remarkable changes in stacking preferences. β-D-Galactose and β-L-fructose interact only through their b- and a-faces, respectively. Saccharides use a wide variety of apolar patches for stacking against aromatic residues and these have been analyzed in detail. As many as four -CH groups can simultaneously participate in CH···π interactions, especially with 3-methylindole owing to its larger surface area.

  14. Model ecosystems with random nonlinear interspecies interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Danielle O. C.; Fontanari, José F.

    2004-12-01

    The principle of competitive exclusion in ecology establishes that two species living together cannot occupy the same ecological niche. Here we present a model ecosystem in which the species are described by a series of phenotypic characters and the strength of the competition between two species is given by a nondecreasing (modulating) function of the number of common characters. Using analytical tools of statistical mechanics we find that the ecosystem diversity, defined as the fraction of species that coexist at equilibrium, decreases as the complexity (i.e., number of characters) of the species increases, regardless of the modulating function. By considering both selective and random elimination of the links in the community web, we show that ecosystems composed of simple species are more robust than those composed of complex species. In addition, we show that the puzzling result that there exists either rich or poor ecosystems for a linear modulating function is not typical of communities in which the interspecies interactions are determined by a complementarity rule.

  15. Generalized Mulliken-Hush analysis of electronic coupling interactions in compressed pi-stacked porphyrin-bridge-quinone systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jieru; Kang, Youn K; Therien, Michael J; Beratan, David N

    2005-08-17

    Donor-acceptor interactions were investigated in a series of unusually rigid, cofacially compressed pi-stacked porphyrin-bridge-quinone systems. The two-state generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) approach was used to compute the coupling matrix elements. The theoretical coupling values evaluated with the GMH method were obtained from configuration interaction calculations using the INDO/S method. The results of this analysis are consistent with the comparatively soft distance dependences observed for both the charge separation and charge recombination reactions. Theoretical studies of model structures indicate that the phenyl units dominate the mediation of the donor-acceptor coupling and that the relatively weak exponential decay of rate with distance arises from the compression of this pi-electron stack.

  16. Selection rules for the nonlinear interaction of internal gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip S

    2009-03-27

    Two intersecting beams of internal gravity waves will generically create two wave packets by nonlinear interaction. The frequency of one packet will be the sum and that of the other packet will be the difference of the frequencies of the intersecting beams. In principle, each packet should form an "X" pattern, or "St. Andrew's cross" consisting of four beams outgoing from the point of intersection. Here we derive selection rules and show that most of the expected nonlinear beams are forbidden. These rules can also be applied to the reflection of a beam from a boundary.

  17. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR CORRECTIONS IN THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT,F.; CAMERON,P.; PTITSYN,V.; KOUTCHOUK,J.P.

    2002-06-02

    A method has been developed to measure operationally the linear and non-linear effects of the interaction region triplets, that gives access to the multipole content through the action kick, by applying closed orbit bumps and analysing tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been extensively tested and used during the RHIC operations in 2001. Measurements were taken at 3 different interaction regions and for different focusing at the interaction point. Non-linear effects up to the dodecapole have been measured as well as the effects of linear, sextupolar and octupolar corrections. An analysis package for the data processing has been developed that through a precise fit of the experimental tune shift data (measured by a phase lock loop technique to better than 10{sup -5} resolution) determines the multipole content of an IR triplet.

  18. Cross-scale interactions, nonlinearities, and forecasting catastrophic events

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Debra P. C.; Pielke, Roger A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Allen, Craig D.; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Havstad, Kris M.

    2004-01-01

    Catastrophic events share characteristic nonlinear behaviors that are often generated by cross-scale interactions and feedbacks among system elements. These events result in surprises that cannot easily be predicted based on information obtained at a single scale. Progress on catastrophic events has focused on one of the following two areas: nonlinear dynamics through time without an explicit consideration of spatial connectivity [Holling, C. S. (1992) Ecol. Monogr. 62, 447–502] or spatial connectivity and the spread of contagious processes without a consideration of cross-scale interactions and feedbacks [Zeng, N., Neeling, J. D., Lau, L. M. & Tucker, C. J. (1999) Science 286, 1537–1540]. These approaches rarely have ventured beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries. We provide an interdisciplinary, conceptual, and general mathematical framework for understanding and forecasting nonlinear dynamics through time and across space. We illustrate the generality and usefulness of our approach by using new data and recasting published data from ecology (wildfires and desertification), epidemiology (infectious diseases), and engineering (structural failures). We show that decisions that minimize the likelihood of catastrophic events must be based on cross-scale interactions, and such decisions will often be counterintuitive. Given the continuing challenges associated with global change, approaches that cross disciplinary boundaries to include interactions and feedbacks at multiple scales are needed to increase our ability to predict catastrophic events and develop strategies for minimizing their occurrence and impacts. Our framework is an important step in developing predictive tools and designing experiments to examine cross-scale interactions. PMID:15469919

  19. Kinematics of nonlinearly interacting MHD instabilities in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Alexander Karl

    2000-10-01

    In reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas several tearing instabilities (modes) are simultaneously active, and are of large amplitude. Theory predicts that in addition to interacting linearly with magnetic perturbations from outside the plasma, such as field errors or a resistive wall, the modes in the RFP can interact nonlinearly with each other through a three-wave interaction. In the current work investigations of both the linear (external) and nonlinear contributions to the kinematics of the tearing modes in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) RFP are reported. Theory predicts that tearing modes will respond only to magnetic perturbations that are spatially resonant with them. The results in this work verified that the theory is applicable to the RFP, in spite of its more complicated magnetic mode structure, involving perturbations of a single poloidal mode number, i.e. that affected multiple modes simultaneously. However, for perturbations of a single toroidal mode number, i.e. resonant with only one mode, it was found that multiple modes were simultaneously affected. Three pieces of evidence were found that indicated experimentally the existence of nonlinear torques in MST. It was found that when the rotation profile was shifted by an applied electric field such that these modes rotated in the opposite direction to normal, episodic accelerations in the rotation were in the same direction as in standard discharges. In addition, when one of the modes that is required for the three-wave nonlinear interaction was removed from the plasma, the large changes in the mode velocity disappeared. Finally, the correlated triple products characteristic of the nonlinear torque were measured, and they were found only to be in the right phase to produce a torque during the sawtooth events.

  20. Triclinic and orthorhombic polymorphs of 2-iodo-4-nitroaniline: interplay of hydrogen bonds, nitro...I interactions and aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, S A; Skakle, J M; Low, J N; Wardell, J L; Garden, S J; Pinto, A C; Torres, J C; Glidewell, C

    2001-08-01

    In the triclinic polymorph of 2-iodo-4-nitroaniline, C(6)H(5)IN(2)O(2), space group P-1, the molecules are linked by paired N-H...O hydrogen bonds into C(8)[R(2)(2)(6)] chains of rings. These chains are linked into sheets by nitro...I interactions, and the sheets are pairwise linked by aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions. In the orthorhombic polymorph, space group Pbca, the molecules are linked by single N-H...O hydrogen bonds into spiral C(8) chains; the chains are linked by nitro...O interactions into sheets, each of which is linked to its two immediate neighbours by aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions, so producing a continuous three-dimensional structure.

  1. Insights into cyclodextrin interactions during sample stacking using capillary isotachophoresis with on-line microcoil NMR detection.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Valentino K; Larive, Cynthia K

    2005-09-01

    On-line capillary isotachophoresis (cITP)-NMR experiments were used to probe the interactions of the pharmaceutical compounds S-alprenolol, S-atenolol, R-propranolol, R-salbutamol and S-terbutaline with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) during cITP concentration. In cITP, ionic analytes are concentrated and separated on the basis of their electrophoretic mobility. Because neutral molecules have an electrophoretic mobility of zero, they are normally not concentrated or separated in electrophoretic experiments like cITP. Most of the analytes studied were concentrated by cITP sample stacking by a factor of around 300. For analytes that formed a strong inclusion complex, beta-CD co-concentrated during cITP sample stacking. However, once the focusing process was complete, a discrete diffusional boundary formed between the cITP-focused analyte band and the leading and trailing electrolyte, which restricted diffusion into and out of the analyte band.

  2. Sideband growth in nonlinear Landau wave-particle interaction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinca, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    The distortion of the electron velocity distribution caused by a large amplitude Landau wave is determined analytically for the initial-value problem. The resulting stability of electrostatic perturbations impressed on the evolving plasma is studied. Narrow sidebands of the applied frequency experience consecutive growths of large magnitude during the early stages of the nonlinear wave-particle interaction. The significance of the derived results to both wave propagation experiments and triggered VLF emissions in the magnetosphere is discussed.

  3. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-01-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities. PMID:27108814

  4. Hydrogen bonds vs. π-stacking interactions in the p-aminophenolp-cresol dimer: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Capello, M C; Hernández, F J; Broquier, M; Dedonder-Lardeux, C; Jouvet, C; Pino, G A

    2016-11-16

    The gas phase structure and excited state lifetime of the p-aminophenolp-cresol heterodimer have been investigated by REMPI and LIF spectroscopy with nanosecond laser pulses and pump-probe experiments with picosecond laser pulses as a model system to study the competition between π-π and H-bonding interactions in aromatic dimers. The excitation is a broad and unstructured band. The excited state of the heterodimer is long lived (2.5 ± 0.5) ns with a very broad fluorescence spectrum red-shifted by 4000 cm(-1) with respect to the excitation spectrum. Calculations at the MP2/RI-CC2 and DFT-ωB97X-D levels indicate that hydrogen-bonded (HB) and π-stacked isomers are almost isoenergetic in the ground state while in the excited state only the π-stacked isomer exists. This suggests that the HB isomer cannot be excited due to negligible Franck-Condon factors and therefore the excitation spectrum is associated with the π-stacked isomer that reaches vibrationally excited states in the S1 state upon vertical excitation. The excited state structure is an exciplex responsible for the fluorescence of the complex. Finally, a comparison was performed between the π-stacked structure observed for the p-aminophenolp-cresol heterodimer and the HB structure reported for the (p-cresol)2 homodimer indicating that the differences are due to different optical properties (oscillator strengths and Franck-Condon factors) of the isomers of both dimers and not to the interactions involved in the ground state.

  5. A nonlinear Bloch model for Coulomb interaction in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Bidegaray-Fesquet, Brigitte Keita, Kole

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we first derive a Coulomb Hamiltonian for electron–electron interaction in quantum dots in the Heisenberg picture. Then we use this Hamiltonian to enhance a Bloch model, which happens to be nonlinear in the density matrix. The coupling with Maxwell equations in case of interaction with an electromagnetic field is also considered from the Cauchy problem point of view. The study is completed by numerical results and a discussion about the advisability of neglecting intra-band coherences, as is done in part of the literature.

  6. Problems in Nonlinear Acoustics: Parametric Receiving Arrays, Focused Finite Amplitude Sound, and Dispersive Nonlinear Interactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-30

    TenCate , who is supported by ONR Contract NOOO I 4-84-K-0574, in the completion of work on pure tones that interact in higher order modes of a...rectangular duct.26 Through collaboration with TenCate , Lind has acquired experience with the same experimental apparatus that he will use beginning I June...34 J. Acoust. Soc. " .. Am. 65.1127-1133(1979). 36. J. A TenCate and K F. Hamilton, "Dispersive nonlinear wave interactions in a rectangular duct," In

  7. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-06-30

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening.

  8. Growing Ultra-flat Organic Films on Graphene with a Face-on Stacking via Moderate Molecule-Substrate Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ti; Kafle, Tika R.; Kattel, Bhupal; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The electronic properties of small molecule organic crystals depend heavily on the molecular orientation. For multi-layer organic photovoltaics, it is desirable for the molecules to have a face-on orientation in order to enhance the out-of-plane transport properties. However, it is challenging to grow well-ordered and smooth films with a face-on stacking on conventional substrates such as metals and oxides. In this work, metal-phthalocyanine molecules is used as a model system to demonstrate that two-dimensional crystals such as graphene can serve as a template for growing high quality, ultra-flat organic films with a face-on orientation. Furthermore, the molecule-substrate interaction is varied systematically from strong to weak interaction regime with the interaction strength characterized by ultrafast electron transfer measurements. We find that in order to achieve the optimum orientation and morphology, the molecule-substrate interaction needs to be strong enough to ensure a face-on stacking while it needs to be weak enough to avoid film roughening. PMID:27356623

  9. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  10. Effects of nonlinearity on cell-ECM interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qi; Janmey, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous biopolymers such as F-actin, vimentin, fibrin and collagen that form networks within the cytoskeleton or the extracellular matrix have unusual rheological properties not present in most synthetic soft materials that are used as cell substrates or scaffolds for tissue engineering. Gels formed by purified filamentous biopolymers are often strain stiffening, with an elastic modulus that can increase an order of magnitude at moderate strains that are relevant to cell and tissue deformation in vivo. This review summarizes some experimental studies of nonlinear rheology in biopolymer gels, discusses possible molecular mechanisms that account for strain stiffening, and explores the possible relevance of non-linear rheology to the interactions between cell and extracellular matrices. PMID:23748051

  11. Nonlinear Interaction of Detuned Instability Waves in Boundary-Layer Transition: Resonant-Triad Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The non-equilibrium critical-layer analysis of a system of frequency-detuned resonant-triads is presented using the generalized scaling of Lee. It is shown that resonant-triads can interact nonlinearly within the common critical layer when their (fundamental) Strouhal numbers are different by a factor whose magnitude is of the order of the growth rate multiplied by the wavenumber of the instability wave. Since the growth rates of the instability modes become larger and the critical layers become thicker as the instability waves propagate downstream, the frequency-detuned resonant-triads that grow independently of each other in the upstream region can interact nonlinearly in the later downstream stage. In the final stage of the non-equilibrium critical-layer evolution, a wide range of instability waves with the scaled frequencies differing by almost an Order of (l) can nonlinearly interact. Low-frequency modes are also generated by the nonlinear interaction between oblique waves in the critical layer. The system of partial differential critical-layer equations along with the jump equations are presented here. The amplitude equations with their numerical solutions are given in Part 2. The nonlinearly generated low-frequency components are also investigated in Part 2.

  12. Nonlinear diffusion and exclusion processes with contact interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Anthony E.; Landman, Kerry A.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Exclusion processes on a regular lattice are used to model many biological and physical systems at a discrete level. The average properties of an exclusion process may be described by a continuum model given by a partial differential equation. We combine a general class of contact interactions with an exclusion process. We determine that many different types of contact interactions at the agent-level always give rise to a nonlinear diffusion equation, with a vast variety of diffusion functions D(C) . We find that these functions may be dependent on the chosen lattice and the defined neighborhood of the contact interactions. Mild to moderate contact interaction strength generally results in good agreement between discrete and continuum models, while strong interactions often show discrepancies between the two, particularly when D(C) takes on negative values. We present a measure to predict the goodness of fit between the discrete and continuous model, and thus the validity of the continuum description of a motile, contact-interacting population of agents. This work has implications for modeling cell motility and interpreting cell motility assays, giving the ability to incorporate biologically realistic cell-cell interactions and develop global measures of discrete microscopic data.

  13. Nonlinear diffusion and exclusion processes with contact interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Anthony E; Landman, Kerry A; Simpson, Matthew J

    2010-01-01

    Exclusion processes on a regular lattice are used to model many biological and physical systems at a discrete level. The average properties of an exclusion process may be described by a continuum model given by a partial differential equation. We combine a general class of contact interactions with an exclusion process. We determine that many different types of contact interactions at the agent-level always give rise to a nonlinear diffusion equation, with a vast variety of diffusion functions D(C). We find that these functions may be dependent on the chosen lattice and the defined neighborhood of the contact interactions. Mild to moderate contact interaction strength generally results in good agreement between discrete and continuum models, while strong interactions often show discrepancies between the two, particularly when D(C) takes on negative values. We present a measure to predict the goodness of fit between the discrete and continuous model, and thus the validity of the continuum description of a motile, contact-interacting population of agents. This work has implications for modeling cell motility and interpreting cell motility assays, giving the ability to incorporate biologically realistic cell-cell interactions and develop global measures of discrete microscopic data.

  14. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (PT) symmetric lasers

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Li; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the -symmetric and -broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system’s design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation against saturation nonlinearity in -symmetric lasers. PMID:27143324

  15. Stretching single-stranded DNA: interplay of electrostatic, base-pairing, and base-pair stacking interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Zhou, H; Ou-Yang, Z C

    2001-01-01

    Recent single-macromolecule observations revealed that the force/extension characteristics of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) are closely related to solution ionic concentration and DNA sequence composition. To understand this, we studied the elastic property of ssDNA through the Monte Carlo implementation of a modified freely jointed chain (FJC), with electrostatic, base-pairing, and base-pair stacking interactions all incorporated. The simulated force-extension profiles for both random and designed sequences have attained quantitative agreements with the experimental data. In low-salt solution, electrostatic interaction dominates, and at low forces, the molecule can be more easily aligned than an unmodified FJC. In high-salt solution, secondary hairpin structure appears in ssDNA by the formation of base pairs between complementary bases, and external stretching causes a hairpin-coil structural transition, which is continuous for ssDNA made of random sequences. In designed sequences such as poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC), the stacking potential between base pairs encourages the aggregation of base pairs into bulk hairpins and makes the hairpin-coil transition a discontinuous (first-order) process. The sensitivity of elongation to the base-pairing rule is also investigated. The comparison of modeling calculations and the experimental data suggests that the base pairing of single-stranded polynucleotide molecules tends to form a nested and independent planar hairpin structure rather than a random intersecting pattern. PMID:11463654

  16. Nonlinear Markov Semigroups and Interacting Lévy Type Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokoltsov, Vassili N.

    2007-02-01

    Semigroups of positivity preserving linear operators on measures of a measurable space X describe the evolutions of probability distributions of Markov processes on X. Their dual semigroups of positivity preserving linear operators on the space of measurable bounded functions B( X) on X describe the evolutions of averages over the trajectories of these Markov processes. In this paper we introduce and study the general class of semigroups of non-linear positivity preserving transformations on measures that is non-linear Markov or Feller semigroups. An explicit structure of generators of such groups is given in case when X is the Euclidean space R d (or more generally, a manifold) showing how these semigroups arise from the general kinetic equations of statistical mechanics and evolutionary biology that describe the dynamic law of large numbers for Markov models of interacting particles. Well posedness results for these equations are given together with applications to interacting particles: dynamic law of large numbers and central limit theorem, the latter being new already for the standard coagulation-fragmentation models.

  17. Modeling of nonlinear interactions between guided waves and fatigue cracks using local interaction simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E S

    2017-02-01

    This article presents a parallel algorithm to model the nonlinear dynamic interactions between ultrasonic guided waves and fatigue cracks. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) is further developed to capture the contact-impact clapping phenomena during the wave crack interactions based on the penalty method. Initial opening and closure distributions are considered to approximate the 3-D rough crack microscopic features. A Coulomb friction model is integrated to capture the stick-slip contact motions between the crack surfaces. The LISA procedure is parallelized via the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables parallel computing on powerful graphic cards. The explicit contact formulation, the parallel algorithm, as well as the GPU-based implementation facilitate LISA's high computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). This article starts with the theoretical formulation and numerical implementation of the proposed algorithm, followed by the solution behavior study and numerical verification against a commercial finite element code. Numerical case studies are conducted on Lamb wave interactions with fatigue cracks. Several nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are addressed. The classical nonlinear higher harmonic and DC response are successfully captured. The nonlinear mode conversion at a through-thickness and a half-thickness fatigue crack is investigated. Threshold behaviors, induced by initial openings and closures of rough crack surfaces, are depicted by the proposed contact LISA model.

  18. Catalysis with Gold Complexes Immobilised on Carbon Nanotubes by π-π Stacking Interactions: Heterogeneous Catalysis versus the Boomerang Effect.

    PubMed

    Vriamont, Charles; Devillers, Michel; Riant, Olivier; Hermans, Sophie

    2013-09-02

    A new pyrene-tagged gold(I) complex has been synthesised and tested as a homogeneous catalyst. First, a simple 1,6-enyne was chosen as a model substrate for cyclisation by using different solvents to optimise the reaction conditions. The non-covalent immobilisation of our pyrene-tagged gold complex onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes through π-π stacking interactions was then explored to obtain a supported homogeneous catalyst. The heterogenised catalyst and its homogeneous counterpart exhibited similar activity in a range of enyne cyclisation reactions. Bearing in mind that π-π interactions are affected by temperature and solvent polarity, the reuse and robustness of the supported homogeneous catalyst was tested to explore the scope and limitations of the recyclability of this catalyst. Under the optimised conditions, recyclability was observed by using the concept of the boomerang effect.

  19. Stacking interactions in RNA and DNA: Roll-slide energy hyperspace for ten unique dinucleotide steps.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kailasam, Senthilkumar; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2015-03-01

    Understanding dinucleotide sequence directed structures of nuleic acids and their variability from experimental observation remained ineffective due to unavailability of statistically meaningful data. We have attempted to understand this from energy scan along twist, roll, and slide degrees of freedom which are mostly dependent on dinucleotide sequence using ab initio density functional theory. We have carried out stacking energy analysis in these dinucleotide parameter phase space for all ten unique dinucleotide steps in DNA and RNA using DFT-D by ωB97X-D/6-31G(2d,2p), which appears to satisfactorily explain conformational preferences for AU/AU step in our recent study. We show that values of roll, slide, and twist of most of the dinucleotide sequences in crystal structures fall in the low energy region. The minimum energy regions with large twist values are associated with the roll and slide values of B-DNA, whereas, smaller twist values correspond to higher stability to RNA and A-DNA like conformations. Incorporation of solvent effect by CPCM method could explain the preference shown by some sequences to occur in B-DNA or A-DNA conformations. Conformational preference of BII sub-state in B-DNA is preferentially displayed mainly by pyrimidine-purine steps and partly by purine-purine steps. The purine-pyrimidine steps show largest effect of 5-methyl group of thymine in stacking energy and the introduction of solvent reduces this effect significantly. These predicted structures and variabilities can explain the effect of sequence on DNA and RNA functionality.

  20. Impact of geometry optimization on base-base stacking interaction energies in the canonical A- and B-forms of DNA.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ashley Ringer; Denning, Elizabeth J; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2013-02-21

    Base stacking is known to make an important contribution to the stability of DNA and RNA, and accordingly, significant efforts are ongoing to calculate stacking energies using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. To date, impressive improvements have been made in the model chemistries used to perform stacking energy calculations, including extensions that include robust treatments of electron correlation with extended basis sets, as required to treat interactions where dispersion makes a significant contribution. However, those efforts typically use rigid monomer geometries when calculating the interaction energies. To overcome this, in the present work, we describe a novel internal coordinate definition that allows the relative, intermolecular orientation of stacked base monomers to be constrained during geometry optimizations while allowing full optimization of the intramolecular degrees of freedom. Use of the novel reference frame to calculate the impact of full geometry optimization versus constraining the bases to be planar on base monomer stacking energies, combined with density-fitted, spin-component scaling MP2 treatment of electron correlation, shows that full optimization makes the average stacking energy more favorable by -3.4 and -1.5 kcal/mol for the canonical A and B conformations of the 16 5' to 3' base stacked monomers. Thus, treatment of geometry optimization impacts the stacking energies to an extent similar to or greater than the impact of current state of the art increases in the rigor of the model chemistry itself used to treat base stacking. Results also indicate that stacking favors the B-form of DNA, though the average difference versus the A-form decreases from -2.6 to -0.6 kcal/mol when the intramolecular geometry is allowed to fully relax. However, stacking involving cytosine is shown to favor the A-form of DNA, with that contribution generally larger in the fully optimized bases. The present results show the importance of allowing

  1. Stacking Interactions between Carbohydrate and Protein Quantified by Combination of Theoretical and Experimental Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nečasová, Ivona; Mishra, Sushil Kumar; Komárek, Jan; Koča, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate – receptor interactions are an integral part of biological events. They play an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell differentiation and in-cell signaling. Carbohydrates can interact with a receptor by using several types of intermolecular interactions. One of the most important is the interaction of a carbohydrate's apolar part with aromatic amino acid residues, known as dispersion interaction or CH/π interaction. In the study presented here, we attempted for the first time to quantify how the CH/π interaction contributes to a more general carbohydrate - protein interaction. We used a combined experimental approach, creating single and double point mutants with high level computational methods, and applied both to Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL) lectin complexes with α-l-Me-fucoside. Experimentally measured binding affinities were compared with computed carbohydrate-aromatic amino acid residue interaction energies. Experimental binding affinities for the RSL wild type, phenylalanine and alanine mutants were −8.5, −7.1 and −4.1 kcal.mol−1, respectively. These affinities agree with the computed dispersion interaction energy between carbohydrate and aromatic amino acid residues for RSL wild type and phenylalanine, with values −8.8, −7.9 kcal.mol−1, excluding the alanine mutant where the interaction energy was −0.9 kcal.mol−1. Molecular dynamics simulations show that discrepancy can be caused by creation of a new hydrogen bond between the α-l-Me-fucoside and RSL. Observed results suggest that in this and similar cases the carbohydrate-receptor interaction can be driven mainly by a dispersion interaction. PMID:23056230

  2. On the nature of the stacking interaction between two graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weizhou; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Tao; Wang, Yi-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The interlayer interaction energy and its components of the bilayer graphene were obtained by extrapolation of the interlayer interaction energies and their components of the dimers formed by graphene with benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, tetracene, perylene, pentacene and hexacene. The resulting interaction energy of the bilayer graphene is -1.82 kcal/mol (or -79 meV) per carbon atom. The dispersion energy represents 70% of the total attractive energy between two graphene layers. In contrast, the electrostatic component is responsible for 25% of the total attractive interaction and the induction term contributes 5% to the stability of two graphene layers.

  3. Probabilistic approach to nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we provide a theoretical model describing the evolution of the charged-particle distribution function in a system with nonlinear wave-particle interactions. Considering a system with strong electrostatic waves propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, we demonstrate that individual particle motion can be characterized by the probability of trapping into the resonance with the wave and by the efficiency of scattering at resonance. These characteristics, being derived for a particular plasma system, can be used to construct a kinetic equation (or generalized Fokker-Planck equation) modeling the long-term evolution of the particle distribution. In this equation, effects of charged-particle trapping and transport in phase space are simulated with a nonlocal operator. We demonstrate that solutions of the derived kinetic equations agree with results of test-particle tracing. The applicability of the proposed approach for the description of space and laboratory plasma systems is also discussed.

  4. Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, Thomas James; Bliss, David E.; Campbell, Edward Michael; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Kimmel, Mark W.; Knapp, Patrick; Lewis, Sean M.; McBride, Ryan D.; Peterson, Kyle; Schollmeier, Marius; Scoglietti, Daniel; Sefkow, Adam B.; Shores, Jonathon; Sinars, Daniel; Slutz, Stephen A.; Smith, Ian C.; Speas, Christopher; Vesey, Roger A.; Porter, John L.

    2016-03-04

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. Although magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Ultimately, nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. We determine and discuss key LPI processes and mitigation methods. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.

  5. On a class of nonlinear dispersive-dissipative interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenau, P.

    1997-07-29

    The authors study the prototypical, genuinely nonlinear, equation; u{sub t} + a(u{sup m}){sub x} + (u{sup n}){sub xxx} = {mu}(u{sup k}){sub xx}, a, {mu} = consts., which encompasses a wide variety of dissipative-dispersive interactions. The parametric surface k = (m + n)/2 separates diffusion dominated from dissipation dominated phenomena. On this surface dissipative and dispersive effects are in detailed balance for all amplitudes. In particular, the m = n + 2 = k + 1 subclass can be transformed into a form free of convection and dissipation making it accessible to theoretical studies. Both bounded and unbounded oscillations are found and certain exact solutions are presented. When a = (2{mu}3/){sup 2} the map yields a linear equation; rational, periodic and aperiodic solutions are constructed.

  6. Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, Thomas James; Bliss, David E.; ...

    2016-03-04

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. Although magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Ultimately, nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Wemore » determine and discuss key LPI processes and mitigation methods. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.« less

  7. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutova, Mariia; Zhdanova, Alexandra; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    Optical vortices find their use in multiple areas of research and technology; in particular, they provide an opportunity to generate short-pulse spatially-structured optical beams, which can be used to study ultrafast processes. In our work, we explore interactions of femtosecond optical vortices in nonlinear crystals. We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple (applied and generated) beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape the applied pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We then examine the transfer of optical angular momentum into each sideband and find that it follows a certain law that can be derived from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for the interacting beams. Presenter is supported by the Herman F. Heep and Minnie Belle Heep Texas A&M University Endowed Fund administered by the Texas A&M Foundation

  8. Nonlinear interaction and wave breaking with a submerged porous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chih-Min; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.; Yang, W. C.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to investigate interactive velocity, streamline, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity perturbations in the near-field of a submerged offshore porous triangular structure, as Stokes waves of different heights pass through. The wave-structure interaction and free-surface breaking for the investigated flow situations are established based on solutions of 2D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations in a Cartesian grid in combination with K-ɛ turbulent closure and the volume of fluid methodology. The accuracy and stability of the adopted model are ascertained by extensive comparisons of computed data with the existing experimental and theoretical findings and through efficient predictions of the internal physical kinetics. Simulations unfold "clockwise" and "anticlockwise" rotation of fluid below the trough and the crest of the viscous waves, and the penetrated wave energy creates systematic flow perturbation in the porous body. The interfacial growths of the turbulent kinetic energy and the vorticity appear phenomenal, around the apex of the immersed structure, and enhanced significantly following wave breaking. Different values of porosity parameter and two non-porous cases have been examined in combination with varied incident wave height to reveal/analyze the nonlinear flow behavior in regard to local spectral amplification and phase-plane signatures. The evolution of leading harmonics of the undulating free-surface and the vertical velocity exhibits dominating roles of the first and the second modes in inducing the nonlinearity in the post-breaking near-field that penetrates well below the surface layer. The study further suggests the existence of a critical porosity that can substantially enhance the wave-shoaling and interface breaking.

  9. Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    We study the effects of a synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network model. The model was introduced to simulate light propagation in the corresponding ring-resonator lattice, and is thus completely bosonic. Without these two items, the model exhibits Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases with topologically gapless and gapped band structures, respectively. The synthetic magnetic field implemented in the model results in a three-dimensional Hofstadter-butterfly-type spectrum in a photonic platform. The resulting gaps are characterized by the winding number of relevant S-matrices together with the Chern number of the bulk bands. The pseudospin-orbit interaction is defined as the mixing term between two pseudospin degrees of freedom in the rings, namely, the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes. It destroys the Floquet-topological-insulator phases, while the Floquet-Weyl phase with multiple Weyl points can be preserved by breaking the space-inversion symmetry. Implementing both the synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction requires a certain nonreciprocity.

  10. Unsupervised learnable neuron model with nonlinear interaction on dendrites.

    PubMed

    Todo, Yuki; Tamura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Kazuya; Tang, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Recent researches have provided strong circumstantial support to dendrites playing a key and possibly essential role in computations. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised learnable neuron model by including the nonlinear interactions between excitation and inhibition on dendrites. The model neuron self-adjusts its synaptic parameters, so that the synapse to dendrite, according to a generalized delta-rule-like algorithm. The model is used to simulate directionally selective cells by the unsupervised learning algorithm. In the simulations, we initialize the interaction and dendrite of the neuron randomly and use the generalized delta-rule-like unsupervised learning algorithm to learn the two-dimensional multi-directional selectivity problem without an external teacher's signals. Simulation results show that the directionally selective cells can be formed by unsupervised learning, acquiring the required number of dendritic branches, and if needed, enhanced and if not, eliminated. Further, the results show whether a synapse exists; if it exists, where and what type (excitatory or inhibitory) of synapse it is. This leads us to believe that the proposed neuron model may be considerably more powerful on computations than the McCulloch-Pitts model because theoretically a single neuron or a single layer of such neurons is capable of solving any complex problem. These may also lead to a completely new technique for analyzing the mechanisms and principles of neurons, dendrites, and synapses.

  11. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-20

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO{sub 2} through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  12. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-01

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  13. Equatorial π-stacking interactions in diruthenium (II,III) tetracarboxylate complexes containing extended π-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Natasha F.; Ronaldson, Michael; Stanley Cameron, T.; Wang, Ruiyao; Aquino, Manuel A. S.

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis of three new valent-averaged tetracarboxylatodiruthenium (II,III) complexes, [Ru2(1-naphthylacetate)4(H2O)2](PF6)ṡ4THF, 1ṡ4THF, [Ru2(2-naphthoate)4(THF)2](PF6)ṡ3THF, 2ṡ3THF, and [Ru2(coumarin-3-carboxylate)4(MeOH)2](PF6)ṡMeOHṡH2O, 3ṡMeOHṡH2O, was accomplished using a well documented carboxylate exchange reaction. All three complexes were thoroughly characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. Due to the extended π-systems present, two of the complexes, 2ṡ3THF and 3ṡMeOHṡH2O, display extensive π-stacking in two dimensions, with similar interactions notably absent in 1ṡ4THF due to the perpendicular orientation of the naphthyl rings. Modest H-bonding is seen in complexes 1ṡ4THF and 3ṡMeOHṡH2O. As these types of complexes are noted secondary building units (SBU's) in the construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOF's), the significance of these interactions in stabilizing even larger, supramolecular structures, are noted.

  14. Non-covalent π-π stacking interactions turn off non-adiabatic effects in proton-coupled electron transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Rugeles, Leonardo; Galano, Annia; Raúl Alvarez-Idaboy, J

    2017-03-08

    π-π stacking interactions do not necessarily change the mechanism involved in the H transfer reaction between phenol and phenoxyl radicals. We propose that, in such cases, the e(-) is transferred between the π delocalized moieties, while the H(+) is transferred between the donor and acceptor atoms.

  15. Simultaneous observations of aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. C.; Ramana, M. V.; Corrigan, C.; Kim, D.; Ramanathan, V.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as −60 W m−2 per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol–cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

  16. Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G C; Ramana, M V; Corrigan, C; Kim, D; Ramanathan, V

    2008-05-27

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds.

  17. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  18. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE PAGES

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; ...

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  19. Nonlinear interaction between two electrostatic harmonics in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verheest, F.; Lewak, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of harmonic and subharmonic generation of electrostatic waves in a general collisionless plasma is treated using coupled-mode theory based on two time scales. A novel feature is that one of the two interacting waves may be a negative-energy wave. Since the model describing the medium need not be specified, only a general linear and nonlinear conductivity or an equivalent description is required. Just by invoking wave-energy conservation, the coupled-mode equations are obtained in such a way that unequivocal conclusions can be drawn. When both waves have positive energy, they exchange part of it in a periodic fashion, provided that both have some energy initially. If initially all the energy is in the fundamental, all of it will eventually end up (irreversibly) in the second harmonic. If all the energy is in the harmonic initially, no generation of the fundamental (or subharmonic) will take place. If one of the two waves is a negative-energy wave, an explosive instability develops, regardless of initial values. For comparable conditions, the instability time depends on whether the negative-energy wave is in the fundamental or in the upper harmonic.

  20. Alternating 2,6-/3,5-substituted pyridine-acetylene macrocycles: π-stacking self-assemblies enhanced by intermolecular dipole-dipole interaction.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hajime; Ohtani, Kohei; Suzuki, Daiki; Chida, Yusuke; Shimada, Yuta; Matsumoto, Shinya; Inouye, Masahiko

    2014-02-07

    Macrocyclic compounds consisting of three 2,6-pyridylene and three 3,5-pyridylene units linked by acetylene bonds were synthesized by a Sonogashira reaction. The X-ray structures showed π-stacked pairs of two macrocycles, in which a 2,6-pyridylene unit of the one molecule overlaps a 3,5-pyridylene of the other molecule because of dipole-dipole interaction. Atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements revealed fibril structures indicating the stacking of the rigid planar macrocycles. Hydrogen-bonding ability of the macrocyclic inside was demonstrated by the addition of octyl β-D-glucopyranoside.

  1. Conformational Preferences of π-π Stacking Between Ligand and Protein, Analysis Derived from Crystal Structure Data Geometric Preference of π-π Interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jue; Gu, Hui; Wei, Dongqing; Xu, Yao-Chang; Fu, Wei; Yu, Zhengtian

    2015-09-01

    π-π Interaction is a direct attractive non-covalent interaction between aromatic moieties, playing an important role in DNA stabilization, drug intercalation, etc. Aromatic rings interact through several different conformations including face-to-face, T-shaped, and offset stacked conformation. Previous quantum calculations indicated that T-shaped and offset stacked conformations are preferred for their smaller electron repulsions. However, substitution group on aromatic ring could have a great impact on π-π interaction by changing electron repulsion force between two rings. To investigate π-π interaction between ligand and aromatic side chain of protein, Brookhaven Protein Data Bank was analyzed. We extracted isolated dimer pairs with the aim of excluding multiple π-π stacking effects and found that T-shaped conformation is prevalent among aromatic interaction between phenyl ring of ligand and protein, which corresponds with the phenomenon of Phe-Phe interactions in small peptide. Specifically, for the non-substitution model, both Phe-Phe and Phenyl-Phe exhibit a favored T-shaped conformation whose dihedral angle is around 50°-70° and centroid distance is between 5.0 and 5.6 Å. However, it could be changed by substituent effect. The hydroxyl group could contact in the case of Tyr-Tyr pairs, while they point away from phenyl plane in Phe-Tyr pairs.

  2. Intramolecular p-Stacking Interactions of Bridged Bis-p-Phenylenediamine Radical Cations and Diradical Dications: Charge-Transfer versus Spin-Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilov, A.S.; Wu, Q.; Nelsen, S.F.; Guzei, I.A.

    2011-07-18

    A bridged mixed-valent compound with direct through-space interactions between the charge-bearing units in its singly charged paramagnetic and its doubly charged diamagnetic forms is isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy (see scheme). {pi}-Stacking interactions for the singlet diradical dication were more pronounced than for the doublet monocation, despite the Coulomb repulsion effect in the diradical dication.

  3. Effect of stacking interactions on the thermodynamics and kinetics of lumiflavin: a study with improved density functionals and density functional tight-binding protocol.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Caitlin G; Reinhardt, Clorice R; Bartholow, Thomas G; Rumpel, John P; North, Michael; Bhattacharyya, Sudeep

    2015-01-08

    The π-π stacking interaction between lumiflavin and a number of π-electron-rich molecules has been studied by density functional theory using several new-generation density functionals. Six known lumiflavin-aromatic adducts were used and the models were evaluated by comparing the geometry and energetics with experimental results. The study found that dispersion-corrected and hybrid functionals with larger (>50%) Hartree-Fock exchanges produced superior results in modeling thermodynamic characteristics of these complexes. The functional producing the best energetics for these model systems was used to study the stacking interactions of lumiflavin with biologically relevant aromatic groups. Additionally, the reduction of flavin-in the presence of both a hydride donor and a nondonor π-electronic system was also studied. Weak interactions were observed in the stacked lumiflavin complexes of benzene, phenol, and indole, mimicking phenyl alanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine side chains, respectively, of an enzyme. The stacked complex of naphthalene and flavin showed little change in flavin's redox potential indicating insignificant effect on the thermodynamics of the hydride transfer reaction. In contrast, the hydride transfer reaction with the hydride donor N-methyl nicotinamide tells a different story, as the transition state was found to be strongly impacted by the stacking interactions. A comparison of performance between the density functional theory (DFT) and the computationally less expensive dispersion-corrected self-consistent density functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB-D) theory revealed that the latter produces consistent energetics for this hydride transfer reaction and additional DFT-computed perturbative corrections could significantly improve these results.

  4. Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing.

    PubMed

    Berger, Or; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Grunwald, Assaf; Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bachar, Mor; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Mossou, Estelle; Forsyth, V Trevor; Schwartz, Tal; Ebenstein, Yuval; Frolow, Felix; Shimon, Linda J W; Patolsky, Fernando; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-04-01

    The two main branches of bionanotechnology involve the self-assembly of either peptides or DNA. Peptide scaffolds offer chemical versatility, architectural flexibility and structural complexity, but they lack the precise base pairing and molecular recognition available with nucleic acid assemblies. Here, inspired by the ability of aromatic dipeptides to form ordered nanostructures with unique physical properties, we explore the assembly of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), which are short DNA mimics that have an amide backbone. All 16 combinations of the very short di-PNA building blocks were synthesized and assayed for their ability to self-associate. Only three guanine-containing di-PNAs-CG, GC and GG-could form ordered assemblies, as observed by electron microscopy, and these di-PNAs efficiently assembled into discrete architectures within a few minutes. The X-ray crystal structure of the GC di-PNA showed the occurrence of both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing. The assemblies were also found to exhibit optical properties including voltage-dependent electroluminescence and wide-range excitation-dependent fluorescence in the visible region.

  5. Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Or; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Grunwald, Assaf; Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bachar, Mor; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Mossou, Estelle; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Schwartz, Tal; Ebenstein, Yuval; Frolow, Felix; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Patolsky, Fernando; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-05-01

    The two main branches of bionanotechnology involve the self-assembly of either peptides or DNA. Peptide scaffolds offer chemical versatility, architectural flexibility and structural complexity, but they lack the precise base pairing and molecular recognition available with nucleic acid assemblies. Here, inspired by the ability of aromatic dipeptides to form ordered nanostructures with unique physical properties, we explore the assembly of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), which are short DNA mimics that have an amide backbone. All 16 combinations of the very short di-PNA building blocks were synthesized and assayed for their ability to self-associate. Only three guanine-containing di-PNAs—CG, GC and GG—could form ordered assemblies, as observed by electron microscopy, and these di-PNAs efficiently assembled into discrete architectures within a few minutes. The X-ray crystal structure of the GC di-PNA showed the occurrence of both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing. The assemblies were also found to exhibit optical properties including voltage-dependent electroluminescence and wide-range excitation-dependent fluorescence in the visible region.

  6. Nonlinear effects in the torsional adjustment of interacting DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, A. A.; Wynveen, A.

    2004-04-01

    DNA molecules in solution, having negatively charged phosphates and countercations readsorbed on its surface, possess a distinct charge separation motif to interact electrostatically. If their double-helical structure were ideal, duplexes in parallel juxtaposition could choose azimuthal alignment providing attraction, or at least a reduction of repulsion, between them. But duplexes are not perfect staircases and the distortions of their helical structure correlate with their base pair texts. If the patterns of distortions on the opposing molecules are uncorrelated, the mismatch will accumulate as a random walk and attraction vanishes. Based on this idea, a model of recognition of homologous sequences has been proposed [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3666 (2001)]. But DNA has torsional elasticity. How will this help to relax a mismatch between the charge distributions on two nonhomologous DNA’s? In the same work, the solution of this problem has been mapped onto a frustrated sine Gordon equation in a nonlocal random field (where the latter represents a pattern of twist angle distortions on the opposing molecules), but the results had been obtained in the limit of torsionally rigid molecules. In the present paper, by solving this equation numerically, we find a strongly nonlinear relaxation mechanism which utilizes static kink-soliton modes triggered by the “random field.” In the range of parameters where the solitons do not emerge, we find good agreement with the results of a variational study [A. G. Cherstvy, A. A. Kornyshev, and S. Leikin, J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published)]. We reproduce the first-order transitions in the interaxial separation dependence, but detect also second-order or weak first-order transitions for shorter duplexes. The recognition energy between two nonhomologous DNA sequences is calculated as a function of interaxial separation and the length of juxtaposition. The soliton-caused kinky length dependence is

  7. Nonlinear Interaction of Shear Alfven Waves with Gradient Driven Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, David William

    An experimental study of the interactions between gradient-driven instabilities (GDI) and beat waves driven between two Alfven waves is presented. A cylindrical density depletion is imposed on the otherwise uniform plasma in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) by selectively blocking the electron beam that produces the plasma. Coherent, single mode fluctuations in density, temperature, plasma potential, and magnetic field are observed to be unstable on the gradient. Measurements of the relative cross-phase between the density and potential fluctuations indicate that the fluctuations are not likely to drive significant cross field transport. Comparisons of the properties of the modes to theoretical predictions for Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and drift wave modes indicate that the fluctuations are likely to be a hybrid of the two instabilities. Analytic eigenmode solutions to the linearized Braginskii fluid equations using the experimentally measured gradient profiles support the conclusion that both instabilities are active. A beat wave between two driven Alfven waves is broadcast into the gradient region using a pair of loop antennas with independently controlled frequency and power. This beat wave is observed to resonantly drive the unstable mode, as well as a second otherwise stable mode slightly higher in frequency and azimuthal mode number. During the drive of the secondary stable mode, the growth of the primary instability is suppressed. The broadcast of the Alfven waves and the beat wave is also observed to drive other fluctuations in the plasma at frequencies higher than either the spontaneous instability or the second, stable mode. Both the resonant drive of the modes and the control of the mode number are observed to have non-linear threshold and saturation behavior.

  8. Near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in channel flow - Nonlinear interaction and focussing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Smith, Frank T.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between planar or near-planar Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices, induced or input, is considered theoretically for channel flows at high Reynolds numbers. Several kinds of nonlinear interaction, dependent on the input amplitudes and wavenumbers or on previously occurring interactions, are found and inter-related. The first, Type 1, is studied the most here and it usually produces spanwise focusing of both the wave and the vortex motion, within a finite scaled time, along with enhancement of both their amplitudes. This then points to the nonlinear interaction Type 2 where new interactive effects come into force to drive the wave and the vortex nonlinearly. Types 3, 4 correspond to still higher amplitudes, with 3 being related to 2, while 4 is connected with a larger-scale interaction 5 studied in an allied paper. Both 3, 4 are subsets of the full three-dimensional triple-deck-lie interaction, 6. The strongest nonlinear interactions are those of 4, 5, 6 since they alter the mean-flow profile substantially, i.e., by an O(1) relative amount. All the types of nonlinear interaction, however, can result in the formation of focused responses in the sense of spanwise concentrations and/or amplifications of vorticity and wave amplitude.

  9. Near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in channel flow: Nonlinear interaction and focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between planar or near-planar Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices, induced or input, is considered theoretically for channel flows at high Reynolds numbers. Several kinds of nonlinear interaction, dependent on the input amplitudes and wavenumbers or on previously occurring interactions, are found and inter-related. The first, Type 1, is studied the most here and it usually produces spanwise focusing of both the wave and the vortex motion, within a finite scaled time, along with enhancement of both their amplitudes. This then points to the nonlinear interaction Type 2 where new interactive effects come into force to drive the wave and the vortex nonlinearly. Types 3, 4 correspond to still higher amplitudes, with 3 being related to 2, while 4 is connected with a larger-scale interaction 5 studied in an allied paper. Both 3, 4 are subsets of the full three-dimensional triple-deck-lie interaction, 6. The strongest nonlinear interactions are those of 4, 5, 6 since they alter the mean-flow profile substantially, i.e., by an 0(1) relative amount. All the types of nonlinear interaction however can result in the formation of focussed responses in the sense of spanwise concentrations and/or amplifications of vorticity and wave amplitude.

  10. Nonlinear interaction of near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in boundary-layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions that evolve between a planar or nearly planar Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave and the associated longitudinal vortices are considered theoretically for a boundary layer at high Reynolds number. The vortex flow is either induced by the TS nonlinear forcing or is input upstream, and similarly for the nonlinear wave development. Three major kinds of nonlinear spatial evolution, Types 1-3, are found. Each can start from secondary instability and then become nonlinear, Type 1 proving to be relatively benign but able to act as a pre-cursor to the Types 2, 3 which turn out to be very powerful nonlinear interactions. Type 2 involves faster stream-wise dependence and leads to a finite-distance blow-up in the amplitudes, which then triggers the full nonlinear 3-D triple-deck response, thus entirely altering the mean-flow profile locally. In contrast, Type 3 involves slower streamwise dependence but a faster spanwise response, with a small TS amplitude thereby causing an enhanced vortex effect which, again, is substantial enough to entirely alter the meanflow profile, on a more global scale. Streak-like formations in which there is localized concentration of streamwise vorticity and/or wave amplitude can appear, and certain of the nonlinear features also suggest by-pass processes for transition and significant changes in the flow structure downstream. The powerful nonlinear 3-D interactions 2, 3 are potentially very relevant to experimental findings in transition.

  11. Stacked and H-Bonded Cytosine Dimers. Analysis of the Intermolecular Interaction Energies by Parallel Quantum Chemistry and Polarizable Molecular Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Gresh, Nohad; Sponer, Judit E; Devereux, Mike; Gkionis, Konstantinos; de Courcy, Benoit; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Sponer, Jiri

    2015-07-30

    Until now, atomistic simulations of DNA and RNA and their complexes have been executed using well calibrated but conceptually simple pair-additive empirical potentials (force fields). Although such simulations provided many valuable results, it is well established that simple force fields also introduce errors into the description, underlying the need for development of alternative anisotropic, polarizable molecular mechanics (APMM) potentials. One of the most abundant forces in all kinds of nucleic acids topologies is base stacking. Intra- and interstrand stacking is assumed to be the most essential factor affecting local conformational variations of B-DNA. However, stacking also contributes to formation of all kinds of noncanonical nucleic acids structures, such as quadruplexes or folded RNAs. The present study focuses on 14 stacked cytosine (Cyt) dimers and the doubly H-bonded dimer. We evaluate the extent to which an APMM procedure, SIBFA, could account quantitatively for the results of high-level quantum chemistry (QC) on the total interaction energies, and the individual energy contributions and their nonisotropic behaviors. Good agreements are found at both uncorrelated HF and correlated DFT and CCSD(T) levels. Resorting in SIBFA to distributed QC multipoles and to an explicit representation of the lone pairs is essential to respectively account for the anisotropies of the Coulomb and of the exchange-repulsion QC contributions.

  12. Nonlinear interactions in mixing layers and compressible heated round jets. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrah, Yousef Mohd

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions between a fundamental instability mode and both its harmonics and the changing mean flow are studied using the weakly nonlinear stability theory of Stuart and Watson, and numerical solutions of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The first part focuses on incompressible cold (or isothermal; constant temperature throughout) mixing layers, and for these, the first and second Landau constants are calculated as functions of wavenumber and Reynolds number. It is found that the dominant contribution to the Landau constants arises from the mean flow changes and not from the higher harmonics. In order to establish the range of validity of the weakly nonlinear theory, the weakly nonlinear and numerical solutions are compared and the limitation of each is discussed. At small amplitudes and at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, the two results compare well in describing the saturation of the fundamental, the distortion of the mean flow, and the initial stages of vorticity roll-up. At larger amplitudes, the interaction between the fundamental, second harmonic, and the mean flow is strongly nonlinear and the numerical solution predicts flow oscillations, whereas the weakly nonlinear theory yields saturation. In the second part, the weakly nonlinear theory is extended to heated (or nonisothermal; mean temperature distribution) subsonic round jets where quadratic and cubic nonlinear interactions are present, and the Landau constants also depend on jet temperature ratio, Mach number and azimuthal mode number. Under exponential growth and nonlinear saturation, it is found that heating and compressibility suppress the growth of instability waves, that the first azimuthal mode is the dominant instability mode, and that the weakly nonlinear solution describes the early stages of the roll-up of an axisymmetric shear layer. The receptivity of a typical jet flow to pulse type input disturbance is also studied by solving the initial value problem

  13. Stacking Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Chimneys and stacks appear to be strong and indestructible, but chimneys begin to deteriorate from the moment they are built. Early on, no signs are apparent; but deterioration accelerates in subsequent years, and major repairs are soon needed instead of minor maintenance. With proper attention, most structures can be repaired and continue to…

  14. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-08

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  15. Resonant wave-particle interaction in the radiation belts: quasi-linear scattering vs. nonlinear acceleration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, Anton; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Mourenas, Didier; Vasiliev, Alexei

    Wave-particle resonant interaction is the main mechanism responsible for electron acceleration and scattering in the radiation belts. There are two approaches describing this interaction - quasi-linear theory describes particle diffusion in momentum space, while nonlinear trapping of particles by high-amplitude waves can describe fast particle acceleration. The diffusion approach is more developed and widely used now. However, many modern observations in the radiation belts suggest the presence of significant population of large amplitude waves which can be responsible for nonlinear wave-particle interaction. We show that such nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction corresponds to the fast transport of particles in phase space. We show that the general approach for the description of the evolution of the particle velocity distribution based on the Fokker-Plank equation can be modified to consider the process of nonlinear wave-particle interaction, including particle trapping. Such a modification consists in one additional operator describing fast particle jumps in phase space. The proposed approach is illustrated by considering the acceleration of relativistic electrons by strongly oblique whistler waves. We determine the typical variation of electron phase-density due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction and compare this variation with pitch-angle/energy diffusion due to quasi-linear electron scattering. We show that relation between nonlinear and quasi-linear effects is controlled by the distribution of wave-amplitudes. When this distribution has a heavy tail, nonlinear effects can become dominant in the formation of the electron energy distribution. We compare effectiveness of quasi-linear diffusion and nonlinear trapping for conditions typical for Earth radiation belts.

  16. Testing non-linearity and directedness of interactions between neural groups in the macaque inferotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, W A; Valdes, P; Bosch, J; Biscay, R; Jimenez, J C; Rodriguez, L M; Rodriguez, V; Kreiter, A K; Singer, W

    1999-12-15

    Information processing in the visual cortex depends on complex and context sensitive patterns of interactions between neuronal groups in many different cortical areas. Methods used to date for disentangling this functional connectivity presuppose either linearity or instantaneous interactions, assumptions that are not necessarily valid. In this paper a general framework that encompasses both linear and non-linear modelling of neurophysiological time series data by means of Local Linear Non-linear Autoregressive models (LLNAR) is described. Within this framework a new test for non-linearity of time series and for non-linearity of directedness of neural interactions based on LLNAR is presented. These tests assess the relative goodness of fit of linear versus non-linear models via the bootstrap technique. Additionally, a generalised definition of Granger causality is presented based on LLNAR that is valid for both linear and non-linear systems. Finally, the use of LLNAR for measuring non-linearity and directional influences is illustrated using artificial data, reference data as well as local field potentials (LFPs) from macaque area TE. LFP data is well described by the linear variant of LLNAR. Models of this sort, including lagged values of the preceding 25 to 60 ms, revealed the existence of both uni- and bi-directional influences between recording sites.

  17. Mechanical properties of base-modified DNA are not strictly determined by base stacking or electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Justin P; Mogil, Lauren S; McCauley, Micah J; Williams, Mark C; Maher, L James

    2014-07-15

    This work probes the mystery of what balance of forces creates the extraordinary mechanical stiffness of DNA to bending and twisting. Here we explore the relationship between base stacking, functional group occupancy of the DNA minor and major grooves, and DNA mechanical properties. We study double-helical DNA molecules substituting either inosine for guanosine or 2,6-diaminopurine for adenine. These DNA variants, respectively, remove or add an amino group from the DNA minor groove, with corresponding changes in hydrogen-bonding and base stacking energy. Using the techniques of ligase-catalyzed cyclization kinetics, atomic force microscopy, and force spectroscopy with optical tweezers, we show that these DNA variants have bending persistence lengths within the range of values reported for sequence-dependent variation of the natural DNA bases. Comparison with seven additional DNA variants that modify the DNA major groove reveals that DNA bending stiffness is not correlated with base stacking energy or groove occupancy. Data from circular dichroism spectroscopy indicate that base analog substitution can alter DNA helical geometry, suggesting a complex relationship among base stacking, groove occupancy, helical structure, and DNA bend stiffness.

  18. Manifestation of π-π stacking interactions in luminescence properties and energy transfer in aromatically-derived Tb, Eu and Gd tris(pyrazolyl)borate complexes.

    PubMed

    Mikhalyova, Elena A; Yakovenko, Anastasiya V; Zeller, Matthias; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Kolomzarov, Yuriy V; Eremenko, Igor L; Addison, Anthony W; Pavlishchuk, Vitaly V

    2015-04-06

    The three new complexes Tp(Py)Ln(CH3CO2)2(H2O) (Ln = Eu (1), Gd(2), or Tb (3)) were prepared and characterized crystallographically. In the crystal lattices of these complexes, separate molecules are connected in infinite chains by π-stacking interactions. Complexes 1 and 3 display intense photoluminescence and triboluminescence (red and green respectively), while compound 3 exhibits electroluminescence commencing at 9 V in an ITO/PVK/3/Al device (ITO = indium-tin oxide, PVK = poly(N-vinylcarbazole)). A series of Eu/Tb-doped Gd compounds was prepared by cocrystallization from mixtures of 1 and 2 or 2 and 3, respectively. It was shown that π-stacking interactions are involved in increasing the efficiency of energy transfer from the gadolinium complex to emitting [Tp(Py)Eu](2+) or [Tp(Py)Tb](2+) centers, and this energy transfer occurs through hundreds of molecules, resembling the process of energy harvesting in chloroplast stacks.

  19. On the tidal interaction between protoplanets and the primordial solar nebula. II - Self-consistent nonlinear interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Papaloizou, J.

    1986-01-01

    A method to analyze the full nonlinear response and physical processes associated with the tidal interaction between a binary system and a thin disk in the steady state is presented. Using this approach, density wave propagation, induced by tidal interaction, may be studied for a wide range of sound speeds and viscosities. The effect of self-gravity may also be incorporated. The results of several calculations relevant to the tidal interaction between a protoplanet and the primordial solar nebula are also presented.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Long-Range Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wunner, G.; Cartarius, H.; Fabcic, T.; Koeberle, P.; Main, J.; Schwidder, T.

    2008-11-13

    The motto of this paper is: Let's face Bose-Einstein condensation through nonlinear dynamics. We do this by choosing variational forms of the condensate wave functions (of given symmetry classes), which convert the Bose-Einstein condensates via the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation into Hamiltonian systems that can be studied using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. We consider in particular cold quantum gases where long-range interactions between the neutral atoms are present, in addition to the conventional short-range contact interaction, viz. gravity-like interactions, and dipole-dipole interactions. The results obtained serve as a useful guide in the search for nonlinear dynamics effects in numerically exact quantum calculations for Bose-Einstein condensates. A main result is the prediction of the existence of stable islands as well as chaotic regions for excited states of dipolar condensates, which could be checked experimentally.

  1. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, David E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E x B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics.

  2. A nonlinear model of cell interaction with an acoustic field.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Subramanian, A; Viljoen, H J

    2017-03-14

    A theoretical and experimental nonlinear analysis of cellular response/displacement to ultrasound excitations is presented. Linear cell models can predict the resonant frequency (fR∼5MHz), but only a nonlinear analysis can reveal the amount of mechanical energy that couples into the cell and the bifurcation behavior of the cell when it is excited near resonance. The cell dynamics is described by the nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive behavior of the cytoplasm, nucleus and their respective membranes, in the presence of a fluid with an oscillating pressure field. The method of multiple scales is used to derive the amplitude of oscillation of the cytoplasm and nucleus as a function of frequency. A major finding is the existence of multiple solutions for a range of sub-resonant frequencies. At positive detuning (f>fR), the mechanical energy that couples into the cell is small, it is higher at resonance but significantly higher at sub-resonant frequencies in the multiplicity range. Experimentally it was shown when 3.5MHz is approached sub- and supra-resonance and 6.5MHz is approached sub-resonance, gene expression was statistically higher than that when stimulated directly. Thus, there exists an optimal range of frequencies for ultrasound treatment - in the region of multiplicity where deformation and thus mechanical energy coupling is maximized. The ultrasound protocol must be designed to operate at the solution associated with the higher mechanical energy - thus the start-up conditions should be in the domain of attraction of the high energy solution.

  3. Strongly nonlinear thermovoltage and heat dissipation in interacting quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Miguel A.; Sánchez, David

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the nonlinear regime of charge and energy transport through Coulomb-blockaded quantum dots. We discuss crossed effects that arise when electrons move in response to thermal gradients (Seebeck effect) or energy flows in reaction to voltage differences (Peltier effect). We find that the differential thermoelectric conductance shows a characteristic Coulomb butterfly structure due to charging effects. Importantly, we show that experimentally observed thermovoltage zeros are caused by the activation of Coulomb resonances at large thermal shifts. Furthermore, the power dissipation asymmetry between the two attached electrodes can be manipulated with the applied voltage, which has implications for the efficient design of nanoscale coolers.

  4. Nonlinear interaction in differential mode delay managed mode-division multiplexed transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Georg; Warm, Stefan; Petermann, Klaus

    2015-01-12

    We analyze the impact of Differential Mode Delay (DMD) Management on the nonlinear impairments in mode-division multiplexed transmission systems. It is found out that DMD Management can lead to a degraded performance, due to enhanced intermodal nonlinear interaction. This can be attributed to an increased correlation of co-propagating channels, similar to the effects that show up in dispersion managed single-mode systems.

  5. Nonlinear modal interaction in HVDC/AC power systems with dc power modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Y.X.; Vittal, V.; Kliemann, W.; Fouad, A.A.

    1996-11-01

    In this paper investigation of nonlinear modal interaction using the normal form of vector fields technique is extended to HVDC/AC power systems with dc power modulation. The ac-dc interface equations are solved to form a state space model with second order approximation. Using the normal form technique, the system`s nonlinear dynamic characteristics are obtained. The proposed approach is applied to a 4-generator HVDC/AC test power system, and compare with the time domain solution.

  6. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

  7. Measurement of material nonlinearity using surface acoustic wave parametric interaction and laser ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Stratoudaki, Theodosia; Ellwood, Robert; Sharples, Steve; Clark, Matthew; Somekh, Michael G; Collison, Ian J

    2011-04-01

    A dual frequency mixing technique has been developed for measuring velocity changes caused by material nonlinearity. The technique is based on the parametric interaction between two surface acoustic waves (SAWs): The low frequency pump SAW generated by a transducer and the high frequency probe SAW generated and detected using laser ultrasonics. The pump SAW stresses the material under the probe SAW. The stress (typically <5 MPa) is controlled by varying the timing between the pump and probe waves. The nonlinear interaction is measured as a phase modulation of the probe SAW and equated to a velocity change. The velocity-stress relationship is used as a measure of material nonlinearity. Experiments were conducted to observe the pump-probe interaction by changing the pump frequency and compare the nonlinear response of aluminum and fused silica. Experiments showed these two materials had opposite nonlinear responses, consistent with previously published data. The technique could be applied to life-time predictions of engineered components by measuring changes in nonlinear response caused by fatigue.

  8. Chaotic saddles in nonlinear modulational interactions in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, Rodrigo A.; Rempel, Erico L.; Chian, Abraham C.-L.

    2012-11-15

    A nonlinear model of modulational processes in the subsonic regime involving a linearly unstable wave and two linearly damped waves with different damping rates in a plasma is studied numerically. We compute the maximum Lyapunov exponent as a function of the damping rates in a two-parameter space, and identify shrimp-shaped self-similar structures in the parameter space. By varying the damping rate of the low-frequency wave, we construct bifurcation diagrams and focus on a saddle-node bifurcation and an interior crisis associated with a periodic window. We detect chaotic saddles and their stable and unstable manifolds, and demonstrate how the connection between two chaotic saddles via coupling unstable periodic orbits can result in a crisis-induced intermittency. The relevance of this work for the understanding of modulational processes observed in plasmas and fluids is discussed.

  9. Contribution of partial charge interactions and base stacking to the efficiency of primer extension at and beyond abasic sites in DNA.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuangluo; Vashishtha, Ashwani; Bulkley, David; Eom, Soo Hyun; Wang, Jimin; Konigsberg, William H

    2012-06-19

    During DNA synthesis, base stacking and Watson-Crick (WC) hydrogen bonding increase the stability of nascent base pairs when they are in a ternary complex. To evaluate the contribution of base stacking to the incorporation efficiency of dNTPs when a DNA polymerase encounters an abasic site, we varied the penultimate base pairs (PBs) adjacent to the abasic site using all 16 possible combinations. We then determined pre-steady-state kinetic parameters with an RB69 DNA polymerase variant and solved nine structures of the corresponding ternary complexes. The efficiency of incorporation for incoming dNTPs opposite an abasic site varied between 2- and 210-fold depending on the identity of the PB. We propose that the A rule can be extended to encompass the fact that DNA polymerase can bypass dA/abasic sites more efficiently than other dN/abasic sites. Crystal structures of the ternary complexes show that the surface of the incoming base was stacked against the PB's interface and that the kinetic parameters for dNMP incorporation were consistent with specific features of base stacking, such as surface area and partial charge-charge interactions between the incoming base and the PB. Without a templating nucleotide residue, an incoming dNTP has no base with which it can hydrogen bond and cannot be desolvated, so that these surrounding water molecules become ordered and remain on the PB's surface in the ternary complex. When these water molecules are on top of a hydrophobic patch on the PB, they destabilize the ternary complex, and the incorporation efficiency of incoming dNTPs is reduced.

  10. Contribution of Partial Charge Interactions and Base Stacking to the Efficiency of Primer Extension at and beyond Abasic Sites in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Shuangluo; Vashishtha, Ashwani; Bulkley, David; Eom, Soo Hyun; Wang, Jimin; Konigsberg, William H.

    2012-08-31

    During DNA synthesis, base stacking and Watson-Crick (WC) hydrogen bonding increase the stability of nascent base pairs when they are in a ternary complex. To evaluate the contribution of base stacking to the incorporation efficiency of dNTPs when a DNA polymerase encounters an abasic site, we varied the penultimate base pairs (PBs) adjacent to the abasic site using all 16 possible combinations. We then determined pre-steady-state kinetic parameters with an RB69 DNA polymerase variant and solved nine structures of the corresponding ternary complexes. The efficiency of incorporation for incoming dNTPs opposite an abasic site varied between 2- and 210-fold depending on the identity of the PB. We propose that the A rule can be extended to encompass the fact that DNA polymerase can bypass dA/abasic sites more efficiently than other dN/abasic sites. Crystal structures of the ternary complexes show that the surface of the incoming base was stacked against the PB's interface and that the kinetic parameters for dNMP incorporation were consistent with specific features of base stacking, such as surface area and partial charge-charge interactions between the incoming base and the PB. Without a templating nucleotide residue, an incoming dNTP has no base with which it can hydrogen bond and cannot be desolvated, so that these surrounding water molecules become ordered and remain on the PB's surface in the ternary complex. When these water molecules are on top of a hydrophobic patch on the PB, they destabilize the ternary complex, and the incorporation efficiency of incoming dNTPs is reduced.

  11. AxiSketcher: Interactive Nonlinear Axis Mapping of Visualizations through User Drawings.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Chul; Kim, Hannah; Wall, Emily; Choo, Jaegul; Park, Haesun; Endert, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Visual analytics techniques help users explore high-dimensional data. However, it is often challenging for users to express their domain knowledge in order to steer the underlying data model, especially when they have little attribute-level knowledge. Furthermore, users' complex, high-level domain knowledge, compared to low-level attributes, posits even greater challenges. To overcome these challenges, we introduce a technique to interpret a user's drawings with an interactive, nonlinear axis mapping approach called AxiSketcher. This technique enables users to impose their domain knowledge on a visualization by allowing interaction with data entries rather than with data attributes. The proposed interaction is performed through directly sketching lines over the visualization. Using this technique, users can draw lines over selected data points, and the system forms the axes that represent a nonlinear, weighted combination of multidimensional attributes. In this paper, we describe our techniques in three areas: 1) the design space of sketching methods for eliciting users' nonlinear domain knowledge; 2) the underlying model that translates users' input, extracts patterns behind the selected data points, and results in nonlinear axes reflecting users' complex intent; and 3) the interactive visualization for viewing, assessing, and reconstructing the newly formed, nonlinear axes.

  12. Suppression of Nonlinear Interactions in Resonant Macroscopic Quantum Devices: The Example of the Solid-State Ring Laser Gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Gutty, Francois; Bouyer, Philippe

    2008-05-09

    We report fine-tuning of nonlinear interactions in a solid-state ring laser gyroscope by vibrating the gain medium along the cavity axis. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that nonlinear interactions vanish for some values of the vibration parameters, leading to quasi-ideal rotation sensing. We eventually point out that our conclusions can be mapped onto other subfields of physics such as ring-shaped superfluid configurations, where nonlinear interactions could be tuned by using Feshbach resonance.

  13. Mass, momentum, and energy flux conservation for nonlinear wave-wave interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Lin, Zhiliang; Tao, Longbin

    2016-12-01

    A fully nonlinear solution for bi-chromatic progressive waves in water of finite depth in the framework of the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is derived. The bi-chromatic wave field is assumed to be obtained by the nonlinear interaction of two monochromatic wave trains that propagate independently in the same direction before encountering. The equations for the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes based on the accurate high-order homotopy series solutions are obtained using a discrete integration and a Fourier series-based fitting. The conservation equations for the mean rates of the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes before and after the interaction of the two nonlinear monochromatic wave trains are proposed to establish the relationship between the steady-state bi-chromatic wave field and the two nonlinear monochromatic wave trains. The parametric analysis on ɛ1 and ɛ2, representing the nonlinearity of the bi-chromatic wave field, is performed to obtain a sufficiently small standard deviation Sd, which is applied to describe the deviation from the conservation state (Sd = 0) in terms of the mean rates of the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes before and after the interaction. It is demonstrated that very small standard deviation from the conservation state can be achieved. After the interaction, the amplitude of the primary wave with a lower circular frequency is found to decrease; while the one with a higher circular frequency is found to increase. Moreover, the highest horizontal velocity of the water particles underneath the largest wave crest, which is obtained by the nonlinear interaction between the two monochromatic waves, is found to be significantly higher than the linear superposition value of the corresponding velocity of the two monochromatic waves. The present study is helpful to enrich and deepen the understanding with insight to steady-state wave-wave interactions.

  14. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.

  15. Charge ordering and nonlinear electrical transport in quasi-one-dimensional organic chains with strong electrostatic interchain interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kentaro; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Wataru; Awaga, Kunio; Inabe, Tamotsu

    2007-08-01

    We here examine the electrical and magnetic properties of the isostructural NT3•MCl4 ( NT=naphtho [2,1- d :6,5- d' ]bis([1,2,3] dithiazole and M=Ga and Fe). The crystal structure of NT3•MCl4 consists of one-dimensional π -stacking chains of NT with strong interchain interactions caused by electrostatic Sδ+•••Nδ- contacts. This structure includes four NT molecules with significant differences in molecular structure and charge, exhibiting a characteristic charge ordering, namely, three-dimensional alternation of charge-rich (or -intermediate) and -poor molecules. NT3•GaCl4 and NT3•FeCl4 are found to be semiconductors with σRT˜0.5Scm-1 and to exhibit a nonlinear electrical transport at room temperature with a very low threshold field of 80Vcm-1 for the negative differential resistance. This threshold field significantly increases with a decrease in temperature. The X -band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of NT3•GaCl4 consist of a single-line absorption ascribable to that of the NT+ cation. When the sample is exposed to a current at room temperature, this signal exhibits a drastic decrease in intensity with little change in linewidth. This is attributed to the inhomogeneous formation of EPR-silent conducting pathways for the nonlinear transport. The temperature dependence of the EPR spin susceptibility χs of NT3•GaCl4 suggests a transition toward a spin-gap state below 20K ; χs exhibits a Bonner-Fisher-type temperature dependence above 20K , but gradually collapses to zero below this temperature.

  16. Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1996-12-17

    A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, {delta}f = f {minus} f{sub 0}, from an initial analytic distribution f{sub 0}. High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question.

  17. Nonlinear effects in interactions of swift ions with solids

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, O.H.; Dorado, J.J.; Flores, F.

    1994-06-01

    The passage of a swift charged particle through a solid gives rise to a wake of induced electron density behind the particle. It is calculated for a proton penetrating an electron gas having the density of the valence electrons in gold, assuming linear response of the medium. The induced potential associated with the wake is responsible for the energy loss of the particle, and for many effects that have captured recent interest. These include, among others, vicinage effects on swift ion clusters, emission of electrons from bombarded solids, forces on swift ions near a surface, and energy shifts in electronic states of channeled ions. Furthermore, the wake has a determining influence on the spatial distribution, and character, of energy deposition in the medium. Previous theoretical studies of these phenomena have employed a linear wake, i.e., one that is proportional to the charge of the projectile, eZ. However, in most experiments that measure these effects, the conditions are such that the wake must include higher-order terms in Z. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nonlinear wake, to understand how the linear results must be revised.

  18. Fast transport in phase space due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction in the radiation belts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, Anton; Vasiliev, Alexii; Mourenas, Didier; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Boscher, Daniel; Rolland, Guy

    2014-05-01

    We present an analytical, simplified formulation accounting for the fast transport of particles in phase space, in the presence of nonlinear wave-particle resonant interactions in an inhomogeneous magnetic field representative of the radiation belts. We show that the general approach for the description of the evolution of the particle velocity distribution based on the Fokker-Plank equation can be modified to consider the process of nonlinear wave-particle interaction, including particle trapping. Such a modification consists in one additional operator describing fast particle jumps in phase space. The proposed approach is illustrated by considering the acceleration of relativistic electrons by strongly oblique whistler waves. We determine the typical variation of electron phase-density due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction and compare this variation with pitch-angle/energy diffusion due to quasi-linear electron scattering. We show that relation between nonlinear and quasi-linear effects is controlled by the distribution of wave-amplitudes. When this distribution has a heavy tail, nonlinear effects can become dominant in the formation of the electron energy distribution.

  19. Interaction of torsional and longitudinal guided waves in weakly nonlinear circular cylinders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Khajeh, Ehsan; Lissenden, Cliff J; Rose, Joseph L

    2013-05-01

    The nonlinear forcing terms for the wave equation in general curvilinear coordinates are derived based on an isotropic homogeneous weakly nonlinear elastic material. The expressions for the nonlinear part of the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress are specialized for axisymmetric torsional and longitudinal fundamental waves in a circular cylinder. The matrix characteristics of the nonlinear forcing terms and secondary mode wave structures are manipulated to analyze the higher harmonic generation due to the guided wave mode self-interactions and mutual interactions. It is proved that both torsional and longitudinal secondary wave fields can be cumulative by a specific type of guided wave mode interactions. A method for the selection of preferred fundamental excitations that generate strong cumulative higher harmonics is formulated, and described in detail for second harmonic generation. Nonlinear finite element simulations demonstrate second harmonic generation by T(0,3) and L(0,4) modes at the internal resonance points. A linear increase of the normalized modal amplitude ratio A2/A1(2) over the propagation distance is observed for both cases, which indicates that mode L(0,5) is effectively generated as a cumulative second harmonic. Counter numerical examples demonstrate that synchronism and sufficient power flux from the fundamental mode to the secondary mode must occur for the secondary wave field to be strongly cumulative.

  20. Modal interactions in primary and subharmonic resonant dynamics of imperfect microplates with geometric nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the modal interactions in the nonlinear, size-dependent dynamics of geometrically imperfect microplates. Based on the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion for the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained employing the von Kármán plate theory as well as Kirchhoff's hypotheses by means of the Lagrange equations. The equations of motions are solved using the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and direct time-integration method. The system parameters are tuned to the values associated with modal interactions, and then nonlinear resonant responses and energy transfer are analysed. Nonlinear motion characteristics are shown in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves, time histories, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms.

  1. Nonlinear interaction of tearing modes: a comparison between the tokamak and the reversed field pinch configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, V.E.; An, Z.G.; Diamond, P.H.

    1984-04-01

    The multiple helicity nonlinear interaction of resistive tearing modes is compared for the tokamak and reversed field pinch configurations using the magnetohydrodynamic equations. Unlike the case of the tokamak disruption, for which this interaction is destabilizing when islands overlap, the nonlinear coupling of the dominant helicities is shown to be a stabilizing influence in the reversed field pinch. The behavior of the coupled instabilities in the two configurations can be understood as a consequence of the stability properties of the nonlinearly driven modes. In the case of the tokamak disruption, quasi-linear effects linearly destabilize the dominant driven mode, which then feeds energy to the driving mode. For the reversed field pinch the driven modes remain stable, acting as a brake on the growth of the dominant instabilities than was observed in single helicity studies.

  2. Characterization of the permeability evolution and nonlinear fluid-rock interaction from induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, N.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Borehole fluid injections into geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs are used to hydraulically stimulate the rock. Usually, hydraulic stimulation operations are accompanied by microseismic activity. In particular, hydraulic fracturing has become a standard industry technique aimed to enhance the permeability of tight reservoir rocks. During such treatments the structure of the rock is actively altered. As a result, the formation permeability can significantly increase and the corresponding interaction between fluid and reservoir rock becomes nonlinear. We show how the fluid-rock interaction can be characterized from the spatio-temporal behavior of induced seismicity. Furthermore, we reveal how the fluid-rock interaction can be used to estimate the permeability evolution inside of the fracture stimulated rock. For this purpose we consider microseismic data recorded during a hydraulic fracturing treatment in the Barnett Shale. We present a scaling approach to transform clouds of hypocenters of events obtained in a hydraulically anisotropic medium into those obtained in an effective isotropic medium. In this approach we assume that the pressure-dependence of permeability is independent of a specific direction although the anisotropic permeability depends on the geological structure and strength of the rock. Hence, we approximate the real medium by a model with a factorized anisotropy and nonlinearity. We analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of Barnett Shale seismicity and find that the fluid-rock interaction is significantly nonlinear. To understand the nonlinear nature of the fluid-rock interaction and to explain corresponding spatio-temporal characteristics of induced seismicity we consider a nonlinear diffusional relaxation of the pore-fluid pressure perturbation. Nonlinearity is introduced by a power-law pressure-dependence of hydraulic permeability. For such a nonlinear fluid-rock interaction we present a numerical modeling approach to generate synthetic

  3. Glucose-β-CD interaction assisted ACN field-amplified sample stacking in CZE for determination of trace amlodipine in beagle dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Li, You; Zhang, Wenting; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Guorong

    2013-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and low-cost method using CE coupled with glucose-β-CD interaction assisted ACN stacking technique has been developed for quantification of trace amlodipine in dog plasma. The plasma samples were extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether. The separation was performed at 25°C in a 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 15 kV. The BGE was composed of 6.25 mM borate/25 mM phosphate (pH 2.5) and 5 mg/mL glucose-β-CD. The detection wavelength was 200 nm. Because CD could diminish the interaction between drugs and matrix, and derivation groups of CD play an important role in separation performance, the effects of β-CD, and its derivatives on the separation were studied at several concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 mg/mL). In this study, organic solvent field-amplified sample stacking technique in combination with glucose-β-CD enhanced the sensitivity about 60-70 folds and glucose-β-CD could effectively improve the peak shape. All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision extraction recovery, and stability, were within the required limits. The calibration curve was linear for amlodipine from 1 to 200 ng/mL. The method developed was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of amlodipine besylate in beagle dogs.

  4. Dynamic nonlinear vago-sympathetic interaction in regulating heart rate.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, K; Kawada, T; Nakahara, T

    1998-01-01

    Although the characteristics of the static interactions between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in regulating heart rate have been well established, how the dynamic interaction modulates the heart rate response remains unknown. Thus, we investigated the dynamic interaction by estimating the transfer function from nerve stimulation to heart rate, using band-limited Gaussian white noise, in anesthetized rabbits. Concomitant tonic vagal stimulation at 5 and 10 Hz increased the gain of the transfer function relating dynamic sympathetic stimulation to heart rate by 55.0%+/-40.1% and 80.7%+/-50.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Concomitant tonic sympathetic stimulation at 5 and 10 Hz increased the gain of the transfer function relating dynamic vagal stimulation to heart rate by 18.2%+/-17.9% and 24.1%+/-18.0%, respectively (P < 0.05). Such bidirectional augmentation was also observed during simultaneous dynamic stimulation of the sympathetic and vagal nerves independent of their stimulation patterns. Because of these characteristics, changes in sympathetic or vagal tone alone can alter the dynamic heart rate response to stimulation of the other nerve. We explained this phenomenon by assuming a sigmoidal static relationship between autonomic nerve activity and heart rate. To confirm this assumption, we identified the static and dynamic characteristics of heart rate regulation by a neural network analysis, using large-amplitude Gaussian white noise input. To examine the mechanism involved in the bidirectional augmentation, we increased cytosolic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) at the postjunctional effector site by applying pharmacological interventions. The cAMP accumulation increased the gain of the transfer function relating dynamic vagal stimulation to heart rate. Thus, accumulation of cAMP contributes, at least in part, to the sympathetic augmentation of the dynamic vagal control of heart rate.

  5. Surface Acoustic Wave Non-Linear Interactions in Lithium Niobate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    X and Y, Z lithium niobate were investigated for two different angles of interaction. The mixed frequency was at least 8. 5 dB weaker than the...Introduction ............................ 165 5.2 Results for Y,Z LiNb0 3 with w1/w,22.6o ........................ 0............ 166 5.3 Results for 38, X ...LiNbO 3 with 11/w20.41 .................................... 173 *5.14 Results for 38, X LiNbO3 with (-1/’ 2 2.44 .. . . . ...... .. .. ...... 179 i Vi

  6. Uranium(IV) Interaction with Aqueous/Solid Interfaces Studied by Nonlinear Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Franz

    2015-03-27

    This is the Final Technical Report for "Uranium(IV) Interaction with Aqueous/Solid Interfaces Studied by Nonlinear Optics", by Franz M. Geiger, PI, from Northwestern University, IL, USA, Grant Number SC0004101 and/or DE-PS02-ER09-07.

  7. Advanced Nonlinear Latent Variable Modeling: Distribution Analytic LMS and QML Estimators of Interaction and Quadratic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelava, Augustin; Werner, Christina S.; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Zapf, Dieter; Ma, Yue; Cham, Heining; Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction and quadratic effects in latent variable models have to date only rarely been tested in practice. Traditional product indicator approaches need to create product indicators (e.g., x[superscript 2] [subscript 1], x[subscript 1]x[subscript 4]) to serve as indicators of each nonlinear latent construct. These approaches require the use of…

  8. A weakly nonlinear theory for wave-vortex interactions in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Zang, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is developed to study the interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The predictions obtained from the theory agree well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of curved channel flow, especially for low amplitude disturbances. Some discrepancies in the results of a previous theory with direct numerical simulations are resolved.

  9. Interaction of Lyapunov vectors in the formulation of the nonlinear extension of the Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Palatella, Luigi; Trevisan, Anna

    2015-04-01

    When applied to strongly nonlinear chaotic dynamics the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is prone to divergence due to the difficulty of correctly forecasting the forecast error probability density function. In operational forecasting applications ensemble Kalman filters circumvent this problem with empirical procedures such as covariance inflation. This paper presents an extension of the EKF that includes nonlinear terms in the evolution of the forecast error estimate. This is achieved starting from a particular square-root implementation of the EKF with assimilation confined in the unstable subspace (EKF-AUS), that is, the span of the Lyapunov vectors with non-negative exponents. When the error evolution is nonlinear, the space where it is confined is no more restricted to the unstable and neutral subspace causing filter divergence. The algorithm presented here, denominated EKF-AUS-NL, includes the nonlinear terms in the error dynamics: These result from the nonlinear interaction among the leading Lyapunov vectors and account for all directions where the error growth may take place. Numerical results show that with the nonlinear terms included, filter divergence can be avoided. We test the algorithm on the Lorenz96 model, showing very promising results.

  10. Ultrafast and octave-spanning optical nonlinearities from strongly phase-mismatched quadratic interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, B B; Chong, A; Wise, F W; Bache, M

    2012-07-27

    Cascaded nonlinearities have attracted much interest, but ultrafast applications have been seriously hampered by the simultaneous requirements of being near phase matching and having ultrafast femtosecond response times. Here we show that in strongly phase-mismatched nonlinear frequency conversion crystals the pump pulse can experience a large and extremely broadband self-defocusing cascaded Kerr-like nonlinearity. The large cascaded nonlinearity is ensured through interaction with the largest quadratic tensor element in the crystal, and the strong phase mismatch ensures an ultrafast nonlinear response with an octave-spanning bandwidth. We verify this experimentally by showing few-cycle soliton compression with noncritical cascaded second-harmonic generation: Energetic 47 fs infrared pulses are compressed in a just 1-mm long bulk lithium niobate crystal to 17 fs (under 4 optical cycles) with 80% efficiency, and upon further propagation an octave-spanning supercontinuum is observed. Such ultrafast cascading is expected to occur for a broad range of pump wavelengths spanning the near- and mid-IR using standard nonlinear crystals.

  11. Carbonyl-carbonyl interactions and amide π-stacking as the directing motifs of the supramolecular assembly of ethyl N-(2-acetylphenyl)oxalamate in a synperiplanar conformation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Pérez, Laura C; García-Báez, Efrén V; Franco-Hernández, Marina O; Martínez-Martínez, Francisco J; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I

    2015-05-01

    The title compound, C12H13NO4, is one of the few examples that exhibits a syn conformation between the amide and ester carbonyl groups of the oxalyl group. This conformation allows the engagement of the amide H atom in an intramolecular three-centred hydrogen-bonding S(6)S(5) motif. The compound is self-assembled by C=O...C=O and amide-π interactions into stacked columns along the b-axis direction. The concurrence of both interactions seems to be responsible for stabilizing the observed syn conformation between the carbonyl groups. The second dimension, along the a-axis direction, is developed by soft C-H...O hydrogen bonding. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory were performed to support the experimental findings.

  12. Nonlinear Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we saw a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  13. Regulation of Nucleosome Stacking and Chromatin Compaction by the Histone H4 N-Terminal Tail-H2A Acidic Patch Interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinming; Yang, Renliang; Korolev, Nikolay; Liu, Chuan Fa; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2017-03-16

    Chromatin folding and dynamics are critically dependent on nucleosome-nucleosome interactions with important contributions from internucleosome binding of the histone H4 N-terminal tail K16-R23 domain to the surface of the H2A/H2B dimer. The H4 Lys16 plays a pivotal role in this regard. Using in vitro reconstituted 12-mer nucleosome arrays, we have investigated the mechanism of the H4 N-terminal tail in maintaining nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and mediating intra- and inter-array chromatin compaction, with emphasis on the role of K16 and the positive charge region, R17-R23. Analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments and precipitation assays were employed to analyze effects on chromatin folding and self-association, respectively. Effects on chromatin folding caused by various mutations and modifications at position K16 in the H4 histone were studied. Additionally, using charge-quenching mutations, we characterized the importance of the interaction of the residues within the H4 positive charge region R17-R23 with the H2A acidic patch of the adjacent nucleosome. Furthermore, crosslinking experiments were conducted to establish the proximity of the basic tail region to the acidic patch. Our data indicate that the positive charge and length of the side chain of H4 K16 are important for its access to the adjacent nucleosome in the process of nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and array folding. The location and orientation of the H4 R17-R23 domain on the H2A/H2B dimer surface of the neighboring nucleosome core particle (NCP) in the compacted chromatin fiber were established. The dominance of electrostatic interactions in maintaining intra-array interaction was demonstrated.

  14. Interharmonic modulation products as a means to quantify nonlinear D-region interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    Experimental observations performed during dual beam ionospheric HF heating experiments at the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to quantify the relative importance of specific nonlinear interactions that occur within the D region ionosphere. During these experiments, HAARP broadcast two amplitude modulated HF beams whose center frequencies were separated by less than 20 kHz. One beam was sinusoidally modulated at 500 Hz while the second beam was sinusoidally modulated using a 1-7 kHz linear frequency-time chirp. ELF/VLF observations performed at two different locations (3 and 98 km from HAARP) provide clear evidence of strong interactions between all field components of the two HF beams in the form of low and high order interharmonic modulation products. From a theoretical standpoint, the observed interharmonic modulation products could be produced by several different nonlinearities. The two primary nonlinearities take the form of wave-medium interactions (i.e., cross modulation), wherein the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by one signal crosses onto the other signal via collision frequency modification, and wave-wave interactions, wherein the conduction current associated with one wave mixes with the electric field of the other wave to produce electron temperature oscillations. We are able to separate and quantify these two different nonlinearities, and we conclude that the wave-wave interactions dominate the wave-medium interactions by a factor of two. These results are of great importance for the modeling of transioinospheric radio wave propagation, in that both the wave-wave and the wave-medium interactions could be responsible for a significant amount of anomalous absorption.

  15. Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments.

  16. Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments. PMID:25101112

  17. Nonlinear wave interaction and spin models in the magnetohydrodynamic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodin, G.; Lundin, J.; Zamanian, J.; Stefan, M.

    2011-08-01

    Here we consider the influence on the electron spin in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime. Recently developed models that include spin-velocity correlations are taken as the starting point. A theoretical argument is presented, suggesting that in the MHD regime a single-fluid electron model with spin correlations is equivalent to a model with spin-up and spin-down electrons constituting different fluids, but where the spin-velocity correlations are omitted. Three-wave interaction of two shear Alfvén waves and a compressional Alfvén wave is then taken as a model problem to evaluate the asserted equivalence. The theoretical argument turns out to be supported, because the predictions of the two models agree completely. Furthermore, the three-wave coupling coefficients obey the Manley-Rowe relations, which further support the soundness of the models and the validity of the assumptions made in the derivation. Finally, we point out that the proposed two-fluid model can be incorporated in standard particle-in-cell schemes with only minor modifications.

  18. Power dependence on the nonlinear interaction enhancement in a coherently excited microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Samuel; Hanna, Marc; Le-Roux, Xavier; Delaye, Philippe; Cassan, Eric; Dubreuil, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    The enhanced nonlinear interaction in a silicon microcavity under coherent excitation is studied under different conditions. By controlling the pulse frequency drift, we guarantee, at every instant, the coincidence with the frequency resonance of the cavity that in the nonlinear regime suffers from a blue shift in time. This limiting shift effect is caused by the free carriers generated by the strong silicon two-photon absorption. Owing to the linear time-frequency relation of the pulse, the coupling efficiency to the drifted resonance can be maintained, further increasing the blue-shift. We study the input power effect after using different pulse durations.

  19. Complete elimination of nonlinear light-matter interactions with broadband ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R.; Henriksen, Niels E.

    2017-03-01

    The absorption of a single photon that excites a quantum system from a low to a high energy level is an elementary process of light-matter interaction, and a route towards realizing pure single-photon absorption has both fundamental and practical implications in quantum technology. Due to nonlinear optical effects, however, the probability of pure single-photon absorption is usually very low, which is particularly pertinent in the case of strong ultrafast laser pulses with broad bandwidth. Here we demonstrate theoretically a counterintuitive coherent single-photon absorption scheme by eliminating nonlinear interactions of ultrafast laser pulses with quantum systems. That is, a completely linear response of the system with respect to the spectral energy density of the incident light at the transition frequency can be obtained for all transition probabilities between 0 and 100% in multilevel quantum systems. To that end, a multiobjective optimization algorithm is developed to find an optimal spectral phase of an ultrafast laser pulse, which is capable of eliminating all possible nonlinear optical responses while maximizing the probability of single-photon absorption between quantum states. This work not only deepens our understanding of light-matter interactions, but also offers a way to study photophysical and photochemical processes in the "absence" of nonlinear optical effects.

  20. Modeling of fatigue crack induced nonlinear ultrasonics using a highly parallelized explicit local interaction simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parallelized modeling technique for the efficient simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics introduced by the wave interaction with fatigue cracks. The elastodynamic wave equations with contact effects are formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The LISA formulation is extended to capture the contact-impact phenomena during the wave damage interaction based on the penalty method. A Coulomb friction model is integrated into the computation procedure to capture the stick-slip contact shear motion. The LISA procedure is coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized supercomputing on powerful graphic cards. Both the explicit contact formulation and the parallel feature facilitates LISA's superb computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). The theoretical formulations based on the penalty method is introduced and a guideline for the proper choice of the contact stiffness is given. The convergence behavior of the solution under various contact stiffness values is examined. A numerical benchmark problem is used to investigate the new LISA formulation and results are compared with a conventional contact finite element solution. Various nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are successfully captured using this contact LISA formulation, including the generation of nonlinear higher harmonic responses. Nonlinear mode conversion of guided waves at fatigue cracks is also studied.

  1. A robust method for detection of linear and nonlinear interactions: application to renal blood flow dynamics.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Siu, Kin; Moore, Leon C; Marsh, Donald J; Chon, Ki H

    2006-02-01

    We have developed a method that can identify switching dynamics in time series, termed the improved annealed competition of experts (IACE) algorithm. In this paper, we extend the approach and use it for detection of linear and nonlinear interactions, by employing histograms showing the frequency of switching modes obtained from the IACE, then examining time-frequency spectra. This extended approach is termed Histogram of improved annealed competition of experts-time frequency (HIACE-TF). The hypothesis is that frequent switching dynamics in HIACE-TF results are due to interactions between different dynamic components. To validate this assertion, we used both simulation examples as well as application to renal blood flow data. We compared simulation results to a time-phase bispectrum (TPB) approach, which can also be used to detect time-varying quadratic phase coupling between various components. We found that the HIACE-TF approach is more accurate than the TPB in detecting interactions, and remains accurate for signal-to-noise ratios as low as 15 dB. With all 10 data sets, comprised of volumetric renal blood flow data, we also validated the feasibility of the HIACE-TF approach in detecting nonlinear interactions between the two mechanisms responsible for renal autoregulation. Further validation of the HIACE-TF approach was achieved by comparing it to a realistic mathematical model that has the capability to generate either the presence or the absence of nonlinear interactions between two renal autoregulatory mechanisms.

  2. π-Stacking attraction vs. electrostatic repulsion: competing supramolecular interactions in a tpphz-bridged Ru(ii)/Au(iii) complex.

    PubMed

    Sorsche, Dieter; Schaub, Markus; Heinemann, Frank W; Habermehl, Johannes; Kuhri, Susanne; Guldi, Dirk; Guthmuller, Julien; Rau, Sven

    2016-08-09

    The synthesis and characterization of a mixed metal ruthenium(ii)/gold(iii) complex bridged by tetrapyridophenazine (tpphz) are described. It is isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-known photocatalysts with palladium(ii) or platinum(ii). Concentration dependent (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and XRD studies show that the electrostatic repulsion between the gold(iii) moieties exceeds the attractive π-stacking interaction. Theoretical calculations based on the new structural data confirm an increased positive charge on the bridging ligand as well as significantly altered orbital symmetry as compared to the previously investigated palladium(ii) complex. This is the first example of a tpphz ruthenium(ii) complex where π-stacking is completely inhibited. The detailed investigation of the solid-state structure showed for the first time in bimetallic tpphz bridged complexes no significant torsion within the bridging ligand itself. Although catalytic performance for proton reduction by gold(iii) is naturally not observed, its photochemical decomposition in colloidal gold particles could be shown by TEM and DLS.

  3. Supramolecular self-assembly of a coumarine-based acylthiourea synthon directed by π-stacking interactions: Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Aamer; Ashraf, Saba; Flörke, Ulrich; Delgado Espinoza, Zuly Yuliana; Erben, Mauricio F.; Pérez, Hiram

    2016-05-01

    The structure of 1-(2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonyl)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)thiourea (1) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 7.455 (2) Å, b = 12.744 (3) Å, c = 16.892 (4) Å, β = 90.203 (6)° and Z = 4. Both, the coumarin and the phenyl rings are nearly coplanar with the central 1-acylthiourea group, with the Cdbnd O and Cdbnd S bonds adopting an opposite orientation. Intramolecular N-H···O, C-H···O, and C-H···S hydrogen bonds are favored by the planar conformation. The molecules are packed through C-H···O, C-H···S and C-H···C hydrogen bonds, and two π···π interactions with offset arrangement. Inter-centroid distance of 3.490 (2) Å, slip angles of 18.5 and 20.9°, and vertical displacements of 1.10 and 1.24 Å are the stacking parameters corresponding to the stronger π···π interaction. Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed for visualizing, exploring and quantifying intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice of compound 1, and compared with two closely related species. Shape index and Curvedness surfaces indicated π-stacking with different features in opposed sides of the molecule. Fingerprint plot showed C···C contacts with similar contributions to the crystal packing in comparison with those associated to hydrogen bonds. Enrichment ratios for H···H, O···H, S···H and C···C contacts revealed a high propensity to form in the crystal.

  4. Nonlinear theory for a terahertz gyrotron with a special cross-section interaction cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Xuesong; Han Yu; Yan Yang; Lan Ying

    2012-05-15

    The fully numerical nonlinear theory for a gyrotron with a special cross-section interaction cavity has been developed in this paper. In this theory, the analytical solution to different modes in the special cross-section interaction cavity is replaced by the numerical solution based on electromagnetic simulation results. A 0.4 THz third harmonic gyrotron with an azimuthally corrugated interaction cavity has been investigated by using this theory and simulation results show that this approach has a significant advantage of developing high harmonic terahertz gyrotrons.

  5. Nonlinear pressure dependence of the interaction potential of dense protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Martin A; Markgraf, Jonas; Wieland, D C Florian; Sahle, Christoph J; Möller, Johannes; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2011-04-29

    The influence of pressure on the structure and protein-protein interaction potential of dense protein solutions was studied and analyzed using small-angle x-ray scattering in combination with a liquid state theoretical approach. The structural as well as the interaction parameters of dense lysozyme solutions are affected by pressure in a nonlinear way. The structural properties of water lead to a modification of the protein-protein interactions below 4 kbar, which might have significant consequences for the stability of proteins in extreme natural environments.

  6. Rashba spin orbit interaction effect on nonlinear optical properties of quantum dot with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pradip Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Lahon, Siddhartha; Gumber, Sukirti; Mohan, Man

    2014-01-01

    Here we have investigated the influence of external magnetic field on the optical absorption and refractive index changes of a parabolically confined quantum dot in the presence of Rashba spin orbit interaction. We have used density matrix formulation for obtaining optical properties within the effective mass approximation. The results are presented as a function of quantum confinement potential, magnetic field, Rashba spin orbit interaction strength and photon energy. Our results indicate the important influence of magnetic field on the peak positions of absorption coefficient and refractive index changes. The role of confinement strength and spin orbit interaction strength as control parameters on the linear and nonlinear properties have been demonstrated.

  7. Numerical and experimental study of the nonlinear interaction between a shear wave and a frictional interface.

    PubMed

    Blanloeuil, Philippe; Croxford, Anthony J; Meziane, Anissa

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of shear waves with a frictional interface are presented and modeled using simple Coulomb friction. Analytical and finite difference implementations are proposed with both in agreement and showing a unique trend in terms of the generated nonlinearity. A dimensionless parameter ξ is proposed to uniquely quantify the nonlinearity produced. The trends produced in the numerical study are then validated with good agreement experimentally. This is carried out loading an interface between two steel blocks and exciting this interface with different amplitude normal incidence shear waves. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, suggesting the simple friction model does a reasonable job of capturing the fundamental physics. The resulting approach offers a potential way to characterize a contacting interface; however, the difficulty in activating that interface may ultimately limit its applicability.

  8. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-09-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs.

  9. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625

  10. A bundled-stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline phase with inter-stack electronic coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Bin; Sun, Runkun; Günbaş, Duygu D.; ...

    2015-06-15

    The first compound proving to be capable of forming a bundled-stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline (BSDCLC) phase was designed and synthesized. Finally, the unique perylene anhydride inter-stack interaction was found to be the key to the formation of the BSDCLC structure and inter-stack electronic coupling (ISEC).

  11. Fuel cell stack arrangements

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Somers, Edward V.

    1982-01-01

    Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

  12. Wave–vortex interactions in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yuan Bühler, Oliver

    2014-02-15

    This is a theoretical study of wave–vortex interaction effects in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is a useful conceptual model for the limiting dynamics of superfluid quantum condensates at zero temperature. The particular wave–vortex interaction effects are associated with the scattering and refraction of small-scale linear waves by the straining flows induced by quantized point vortices and, crucially, with the concomitant nonlinear back-reaction, the remote recoil, that these scattered waves exert on the vortices. Our detailed model is a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude waves refracted by one or two vortices. Weak interactions are studied using a suitable perturbation method in which the nonlinear recoil force on the vortex then arises at second order in wave amplitude, and is computed in terms of a Magnus-type force expression for both finite and infinite wavetrains. In the case of an infinite wavetrain, an explicit asymptotic formula for the scattering angle is also derived and cross-checked against numerical ray tracing. Finally, under suitable conditions a wavetrain can be so strongly refracted that it collapses all the way onto a zero-size point vortex. This is a strong wave–vortex interaction by definition. The conditions for such a collapse are derived and the validity of ray tracing theory during the singular collapse is investigated.

  13. Nonlinear tearing mode interactions and mode locking in reversed field pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Hegna, C.C.

    1996-06-01

    The nonlinear interaction of a set of tearing instabilities and plasma flow is studied in a cylindrical plasma. An analytic theory of mode locking is developed which includes the effects of the localized electromagnetic torques, plasma inertia and cross-field viscosity. The calculation is specialized for the case of mode locking on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch. In MST plasmas, a set of m = 1 tearing instabilities become phase locked and form a toroidally localized, rotating magnetic disturbance. An evolution equation for the phase velocity of this magnetic disturbance is derived which accounts for two types of electromagnetic torques. The external torques describe the interaction of the tearing modes with static magnetic perturbations located outside the plasma region. The interior torques describe the nonlinear interaction of three tearing modes which satisfy a wave number resonance condition. For conditions typical of MST, the internal torques dominate the external torques, which suggest the nonlinear interaction of tearing instabilities play a prominent role in the momentum degradation and mode locking.

  14. Pitch glide effect induced by a nonlinear string-barrier interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartofelev, Dmitri; Stulov, Anatoli; Välimäki, Vesa

    2015-10-01

    Interactions of a vibrating string with its supports and other spatially distributed barriers play a significant role in the physics of many stringed musical instruments. It is well known that the tone of the string vibrations is determined by the string supports, and that the boundary conditions of the string termination may cause a short-lasting initial fundamental frequency shifting. Generally, this phenomenon is associated with the nonlinear modulation of the stiff string tension. The aim of this paper is to study the initial frequency glide phenomenon that is induced only by the string-barrier interaction, apart from other possible physical causes, and without the interfering effects of dissipation and dispersion. From a numerical simulation perspective, this highly nonlinear problem may present various difficulties, not the least of which is the risk of numerical instability. We propose a numerically stable and a purely kinematic model of the string-barrier interaction, which is based on the travelling wave solution of the ideal string vibration. The model is capable of reproducing the motion of the vibrating string exhibiting the initial fundamental frequency glide, which is caused solely by the complex nonlinear interaction of the string with its termination. The results presented in this paper can expand our knowledge and understanding of the timbre evolution and the physical principles of sound generation of numerous stringed instruments, such as lutes called the tambura, sitar and biwa.

  15. On the efficacy of friction damping in the presence of nonlinear modal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krack, Malte; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2016-05-01

    This work addresses friction-induced modal interactions in jointed structures, and their effects on the passive mitigation of vibrations by means of friction damping. Under the condition of (nearly) commensurable natural frequencies, the nonlinear character of friction can cause so-called nonlinear modal interactions. If harmonic forcing near the natural frequency of a specific mode is applied, for instance, another mode may be excited due to nonlinear energy transfer and thus contribute considerably to the vibration response. We investigate how this phenomenon affects the performance of friction damping. To this end, we study the steady-state, periodic forced vibrations of a system of two beams connected via a local mechanical friction joint. The system can be tuned to continuously adjust the ratio between the first two natural frequencies in the range around the 1:3 internal resonance, in order to trigger or suppress the emergence of modal interactions. Due to the re-distribution of the vibration energy, the vibration level can in fact be reduced in certain situations. However, in other situations, the multi-harmonic character of the vibration has detrimental effects on the effective damping provided by the friction joint. The resulting response level can be significantly larger than in the absence of modal interactions. Moreover, it is shown that the vibration behavior is highly sensitive in the neighborhood of internal resonances. It is thus concluded that the condition of internal resonance should be avoided in the design of friction-damped systems.

  16. Wave-vortex interactions in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuan; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-02-01

    This is a theoretical study of wave-vortex interaction effects in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is a useful conceptual model for the limiting dynamics of superfluid quantum condensates at zero temperature. The particular wave-vortex interaction effects are associated with the scattering and refraction of small-scale linear waves by the straining flows induced by quantized point vortices and, crucially, with the concomitant nonlinear back-reaction, the remote recoil, that these scattered waves exert on the vortices. Our detailed model is a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude waves refracted by one or two vortices. Weak interactions are studied using a suitable perturbation method in which the nonlinear recoil force on the vortex then arises at second order in wave amplitude, and is computed in terms of a Magnus-type force expression for both finite and infinite wavetrains. In the case of an infinite wavetrain, an explicit asymptotic formula for the scattering angle is also derived and cross-checked against numerical ray tracing. Finally, under suitable conditions a wavetrain can be so strongly refracted that it collapses all the way onto a zero-size point vortex. This is a strong wave-vortex interaction by definition. The conditions for such a collapse are derived and the validity of ray tracing theory during the singular collapse is investigated.

  17. Nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the outer radiation belts: Van Allen Probes results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James; Vasko, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. Observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B provided long-lasting signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. The feedback from trapped particles provides steepening of parallel electric field and development of TDS seeded from initial whistler structure (well explained in terms of Particle-In-Cell model). The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system and are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts.

  18. Latitudinal dependence of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave and terrestrial ring current ions

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhenpeng Zhu, Hui; Zheng, Huinan; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhang, Min; Liu, Y. C.-M.; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2014-05-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can lead to the rapid decay (on a timescale of hours) of the terrestrial ring current. Such decay process is usually investigated in the framework of quasi-linear theory. Here, both theoretical analysis and test-particle simulation are performed to understand the nonlinear interaction between ring current ions and EMIC waves. In particular, the dependence of the nonlinear wave-particle interaction processes on the ion initial latitude is investigated in detail. These nonlinear processes are classified into the phase trapping and phase bunching, and the phase bunching is further divided into the channel and cluster effects. Compared to the prediction of the quasi-linear theory, the ring current decay rate can be reduced by the phase trapping, increased by the channel effect phase bunching, but non-deterministically influenced by the cluster effect phase bunching. The ion initial latitude changes the occurrence of the phase trapping, modulates the transport direction and strength of the cluster effect phase bunching, and only slightly affects the channel effect phase bunching. The current results suggest that the latitudinal dependence of these nonlinear processes should be considered in the evaluation of the ring current decay induced by EMIC waves.

  19. Modeling relativistic soliton interactions in overdense plasmas: a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation framework.

    PubMed

    Siminos, E; Sánchez-Arriaga, G; Saxena, V; Kourakis, I

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of localized solutions of the relativistic cold-fluid plasma model in the small but finite amplitude limit, for slightly overcritical plasma density. Adopting a multiple scale analysis, we derive a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation that describes the evolution of the envelope of circularly polarized electromagnetic field. Retaining terms up to fifth order in the small perturbation parameter, we derive a self-consistent framework for the description of the plasma response in the presence of localized electromagnetic field. The formalism is applied to standing electromagnetic soliton interactions and the results are validated by simulations of the full cold-fluid model. To lowest order, a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a focusing nonlinearity is recovered. Classical quasiparticle theory is used to obtain analytical estimates for the collision time and minimum distance of approach between solitons. For larger soliton amplitudes the inclusion of the fifth-order terms is essential for a qualitatively correct description of soliton interactions. The defocusing quintic nonlinearity leads to inelastic soliton collisions, while bound states of solitons do not persist under perturbations in the initial phase or amplitude.

  20. Interactions between time-varying mesh stiffness and clearance non-linearities in a geared system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, A.; Singh, R.

    1991-04-01

    Frequency response characteristics of a non-linear geared rotor-bearing system with time-varying mesh stiffness k h( overlinet) are examined in this paper. First, the single-degree-of-freedom spur gear pair model with backlash is extended to include sinusoidal or periodic mesh stiffness k h( overlinet) . Second, a three-degree-of-freedom model with k h( overlinet) and clearance non-lineariries associated with gear backlash and rolling element bearings, as excited by the static transmission error overlinee( overlinet) under a mean torque load, is developed. The governing equations are solved using digital simulation technique and only the primary resonances are studied. Resonances of the corresponding linear time-varying system associated with parametric and external excitations are identified using the method of multiple scales and digital simulation. Interactions between the mesh stiffness variation and clearance non-linearities have been investigated; a strong interaction between time-varying mesh stiffness k h( overlinet) and gear backlash is found, whereas the coupling between k h( overlinet) and bearing non-linearities is weak. Finally, our time-varying non-linear formulations yield reasonably good predictions when compared with the benchmark experimental results available in the literature.

  1. Weak-coupling instabilities of SU(N) fermions on the Bernal-stacked honeycomb bilayer in presence of on-site Hubbard Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Sumiran; Lang, Thomas C.; Kaul, Ribhu K.

    Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene hosts an interesting 'non-relativistic' semi-metallic dispersion different from monolayer graphene. At this quadratic band touching, short-range interactions are marginal and hence cause instabilities to a variety of ground states. In this work we consider the instabilities of even N species of fermions on the Bernal bilayer with an SU (N) -symmetric contact interaction. For SU (2) fermions with an on-site Hubbard interaction the ground state has been found to be to a magnetic Néel state for all strengths of the interaction. In contrast, the leading weak coupling instability for N > 2 is a non-magnetic ground state, which is gapped and odd under time reversal. On the other hand, at strong coupling we expect Néel or VBS ground states of the effective self-conjugate SU (N) spin models. Motivated by this observation, we investigate the phase diagram for even N > 2 using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo computations. Support from NSF Grant DMR-1056536 and XSEDE Grant DMR-150037.

  2. DNA-stacking interactions determine the sequence specificity of the deoxyribonuclease activity of 1,10-phenanthroline-copper ion.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, F; Rimsky, S; Spassky, A

    1996-07-26

    Bis(1,10-phenanthroline)-copper(I) ion (OP2Cu+) binds reversibly to B-DNA and makes single-stranded cuts by oxidative attack on the deoxyribose moiety. The deoxyribonuclease activity is sequence-dependent yet not nucleotide-specific at the cutting site. OP2Cu+ sequence specificity was analysed in terms of local variations of DNA stability. Kinetic constants of strand cleavage were measured at sequence positions on the two strands and converted into activation free energies of the cleavage reaction. DNA unwinding free energies were calculated from the base sequence using B-DNA stacking parameters for calculations. The two free-energy variations were statistically compared for a series of DNA restriction fragments bearing the binding sites of regulatory proteins and representing a total of 345 DNA base positions. This study shows that the mean activation free energy of strand cleavage at a pair of opposing sugars across the DNA minor groove varies like the unwinding free energy of the DNA sequence delimited by opposing sugars (3 to 4 bp). A statistical equality between the two free-energy variations is demonstrated when considering the sum of the two cleavage events at the opposing sugars. Systematic deviations between the two free-energy distributions were observed at specific sequences, including polypurine-polypyrimidine tracts (AnTm/AmTn, CnTmCp/GpAmGn), alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts ((TA)n/(TA)n, (TG)n/(CA)n) and at certain G+C-rich triplets (GGC, GCC and CGC). The physical significance of these observations is discussed and a model of OP2Cu+ binding and cleavage specificity based on the free-energy equality is proposed.

  3. The contribution of nonlocal electro-opto-thermal interaction to single molecule nonlinear Raman enhancement.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao-Yi; Yu, Wen-Hsiang

    2013-10-21

    we develop a precise modelling where nonlocal electro-opto-thermal interactions are comprehensively included for the analysis of nonlinear Raman enhancement and plasmonic heating. An interaction enhancement factor G(IEF) is introduced to quantify the coupling between the electromagnetic field and the temperature field which is rarely considered in the estimation of Raman enhancement. For the case of isolated single nanosphere, G(IEF) can be up to ten, indicating a thermal origin which well explains the observed temperature rise, shortened blinking period, and the nonlinearly enhanced Raman cross-section. For the case of nanodimer, the suppression of plasmon heating was analyzed, demonstrating the great capability to mitigate biomolecular degradation and blinking.

  4. Nonlinear and interactive effects in the sorption of hydrophobic organic chemicals by sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, R.; Lick, W.

    1999-08-01

    Long-term experiments were done in order to investigate nonlinear isotherms and interactive effects in the sorption of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) by sediments. In the isotherm experiments, it was demonstrated that the isotherms for all HOCs tested were linear as long as the mass of the sorbed HOC was small by comparison with the mass of organic carbon in the sediments; for larger sorbed HOC concentrations, the isotherms were nonlinear. Sorption experiments also were done with hexachlorobenzene (HCB)-octanol, HCB-ethanol, octanol-ethanol, and HOC-methanol mixtures in water and sediments. Interactive effects were observed and can be described in terms of the partitioning of the primary HOC between the cosolvent, water, and sediments.

  5. The Effect of Crack Orientation on the Nonlinear Interaction of a P-wave with an S-wave

    SciTech Connect

    TenCate, J. A.; Malcolm, A. E.; Feng, X.; Fehler, M. C.

    2016-06-06

    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presence and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal.

  6. The Effect of Crack Orientation on the Nonlinear Interaction of a P-wave with an S-wave

    DOE PAGES

    TenCate, J. A.; Malcolm, A. E.; Feng, X.; ...

    2016-06-06

    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presencemore » and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal.« less

  7. Interaction of solitons with bond defects in discrete nonlinear Schrödinger chains.

    PubMed

    Primatarowa, M T; Stoychev, K T; Kamburova, R S

    2008-06-01

    The interaction of solitons with bond defects in discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) chains is investigated. A perturbed NLS equation is derived on the basis of a microscopic model. Localized soliton-defect solutions are obtained and their stability is analyzed. Scattering of propagating solitons from bond defects is studied numerically and a variety of scattering patterns is obtained. A phase diagram is constructed showing the corresponding parametric regions.

  8. All-optical tunable group-velocity control of femtosecond pulse by quadratic nonlinear cascading interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjie; Chen, Yuping; Miu, Lihong; Chen, Xianfeng; Xia, Yuxing; Zeng, Xianglong

    2008-01-07

    Based on cascading nonlinear interactions of second harmonic generation (SHG) and difference frequency generation (DFG), we present a novel scheme to control the group velocity of femtosecond pulse in MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Group velocity of tunable signal pulse can be controlled by another pump beam within a wide bandwidth of 180nm. Fractional advancement of 2.4 and fractional delay of 4 are obtained in our simulations.

  9. Influence of cross-flow on nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. A. R.; Smith, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The transition of an incompressible three-dimensional boundary layer with strong cross-flow is considered theoretically and computationally in the context of vortex/wave interactions. Specifically the work centers on two lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves which mutually interact nonlinearly to induce a longitudinal vortex flow. The vortex motion in turn gives rise to significant wave modulation via wall-shear forcing. The characteristic Reynolds number is large and, as a consequence, the waves' and the vortex motion are governed primarily by triple deck theory. The nonlinear interaction is captured by a viscous partial-differential system for the vortex coupled with a pair of amplitude equations for each wave pressure. Following analysis and computation over a wide range of parameters, three distinct responses are found to emerge in the nonlinear behavior of the flow solution downstream: an algebraic finite-distance singularity, far-downstream saturation or far-downstream wave decay leaving pure vortex flow. These depend on the input conditions, the wave angles and the size of the cross flow.

  10. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  11. Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions, I., Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    Conventional linear stability analyses may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave-wave coupling, leading to explosive growth. In the dissipationless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially nonresonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. In this and a companion paper [submitted to Physics of Plasmas], this phenomenon is demonstrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counterstreaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamiltonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamiltonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, and to either decay or explosive instability via three-wave interactions. These instabilities are described for various (integrable) systems of waves interacting via single nonlinear terms. This discussion provides the foundation for the treatment of nonintegrable systems in the companion paper.

  12. Characterization of nonlinear heat release-acoustic interactions in gas turbine combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellows, Benjamin D.

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of the flame transfer function between flow disturbances and heat release oscillations in lean, premixed combustors. This research effort was motivated by the fact that modern gas turbines, operating fuel lean to minimize exhaust emissions, are susceptible to self-excited combustion oscillations. These instabilities generally occur when the unsteady combustion process couples with the acoustic modes of the combustion chamber. The resultant flow and structural vibrations can substantially reduce hot section part life. As such, avoiding operating regimes where high dynamics occur often requires operating at lower power outputs and/or higher pollutant emissions than the turbine is otherwise capable. This work demonstrated nonlinearities in the chemiluminescence response at large amplitude velocity oscillations in a turbulent, swirling flame. It is observed that the nonlinear flame response can exhibit a variety of behaviors, both in the shape of the response curve and the forcing amplitude at which nonlinearity is first observed depending on the operating conditions of the combustor. The phase between the flow oscillations and heat release is also seen to have substantial amplitude dependence. In addition, the interactions between the fundamental frequency and the higher and subharmonics of the measured signals can significantly influence the flame as well as the frequency response of the system. The nonlinear flame dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in different frequency and flowrate regimes. Three mechanisms, vortex rollup, unsteady flame liftoff, and parametric instability, are identified to influence the nonlinear flame response in these combustors. Analysis of the results shows that the mechanisms responsible for nonlinearity m the flame response are influenced by the Strouhal number, the mean velocity at the combustor dump plane, and the ratio of the oscillating velocity amplitude to the laminar

  13. Optical bullets and "rockets" in nonlinear dissipative systems and their transformations and interactions.

    PubMed

    Soto-Crespo, J M; Grelu, Philippe; Akhmediev, Nail

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrate the existence of stable optical light bullets in nonlinear dissipative media for both cases of normal and anomalous chromatic dispersion. The prediction is based on direct numerical simulations of the (3+1)-dimensional complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation. We do not impose conditions of spherical or cylindrical symmetry. Regions of existence of stable bullets are determined in the parameter space. Beyond the domain of parameters where stable bullets are found, unstable bullets can be transformed into "rockets" i.e. bullets elongated in the temporal domain. A few examples of the interaction between two optical bullets are considered using spatial and temporal interaction planes.

  14. Nonlinear interaction of a ferromagnet with a high-temperature superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kashurnikov, V. A. Maksimova, A. N.; Rudnev, I. A. Sotnikova, A. P.

    2013-03-15

    The interaction of an Abrikosov vertex with a ferromagnetic substrate is taken into account in the model of a layered high-temperature superconductor (HTSC). The magnetization reversal loops are calculated by the Monte Carlo method for various values of the magnetic moment of the substrate and at various temperatures. The nonlinearity of the interaction of the superconductor with the ferromagnet is demonstrated. The magnetization of HTSC films on magnetic and nonmagnetic substrates is measured. It is found that the ferromagnetism of the substrate strongly affects the shape and magnitude of the magnetization of the HTSC-substrate composite. Experimental data are found to correlate with the results of calculations.

  15. Nonlinear interaction between the diurnal and semidiurnal tides: Terdiurnal and diurnal secondary waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teitelbaum, H.; Vial, F.; Manson, A. H.; Giraldez, R.; Masseboeuf, M.

    1989-01-01

    Many years of measurements obtained using French meteor radars at Garchy (latitude 47 N) and Montpazier (latitude 44 N) are used to show the existence of an 8 hour oscillation. Some examples of the structure of this wave are displayed and compared with measurements performed at Saskatoon (latitude 52 N) and Budrio (latitude 45 N). This wave can be interpreted as the solar driven terdiurnal tide, or as the result of the nonlinear interaction between the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Both hypotheses are tested with numerical models. Incidentally, the possible existence of a 24 hour wave resulting from this interaction is also studied.

  16. Nonlinear Interaction of a Shock Wave with an Anisotropic Entropy Perturbation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodnichev, K. E.; Kuratov, S. E.; Gorodnichev, E. E.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of the interaction of a shock wave with an anisotropic entropy perturbation field has been solved including second-order corrections to hydrodynamic quantities. It has been shown that nonlinear interactions between acoustic waves result in the localization of acoustic perturbations behind the shock front. This effect is observed when sound attenuation is absent in the linear approximation. The problem of the propagation of the shock wave in an incident sample, where the spatially anisotropic density perturbation field initially exists, has been numerically solved in application to the collision of two plates. Numerical calculations confirm the results of the theoretical analysis.

  17. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  18. A Study of π-π Stacking Interactions and Aromaticity in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon/Nucleobase Complexes.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sanz, Goar

    2016-02-03

    We analysed the interactions and aromaticity electron-density delocalisation observed in π-π complexes between the phenalenyl radical and acenaphthylene, and the DNA and RNA nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil). Interaction energies are obtained at the M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,p) computational level for gas phase and PCM-water conditions. For both the phenalenyl radical and acenaphthylene, the complexes formed with guanine are the most stable ones. Atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital results reveal weak π-π interactions between both interacting moieties, characterized by bond critical points between C⋅⋅⋅C and C⋅⋅⋅N atoms. Nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) indicate the retention of the aromatic character of the monomers in the outer region of the complex. The fluctuation indexes reveal a loss of electron delocalisation upon complexation for all cases except guanine complexes. Nevertheless, the interface region shows large negative NICS values, which is not associated with an increase of the aromaticity or electron-density delocalisation, but with magnetic couplings of both molecules, leading to an unrealistic description of the aromatic behaviour in that region.

  19. Recognition of 5'-YpG-3' sequences by coupled stacking/hydrogen bonding interactions with amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Jason S; Maynes, Jason T; Glover, J N Mark

    2004-01-09

    The combined biochemical and structural study of hundreds of protein-DNA complexes has indicated that sequence-specific interactions are mediated by two mechanisms termed direct and indirect readout. Direct readout involves direct interactions between the protein and base-specific atoms exposed in the major and minor grooves of DNA. For indirect readout, the protein recognizes DNA by sensing conformational variations in the structure dependent on nucleotide sequence, typically through interactions with the phosphodiester backbone. Based on our recent structure of Ndt80 bound to DNA in conjunction with a search of the existing PDB database, we propose a new method of sequence-specific recognition that utilizes both direct and indirect readout. In this mode, a single amino acid side-chain recognizes two consecutive base-pairs. The 3'-base is recognized by canonical direct readout, while the 5'-base is recognized through a variation of indirect readout, whereby the conformational flexibility of the particular dinucleotide step, namely a 5'-pyrimidine-purine-3' step, facilitates its recognition by the amino acid via cation-pi interactions. In most cases, this mode of DNA recognition helps explain the sequence specificity of the protein for its target DNA.

  20. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-15

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (∼0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (∼kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇T{sub e}/T{sub e} strength exceeded 0.54 cm{sup −1}. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  1. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (˜0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (˜kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇Te/Te strength exceeded 0.54 cm-1. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  2. Impact of nonlinear effective interactions on group field theory quantum gravity condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pithis, Andreas G. A.; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Tomov, Petar

    2016-09-01

    We present the numerical analysis of effectively interacting group field theory models in the context of the group field theory quantum gravity condensate analog of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for real Bose-Einstein condensates including combinatorially local interaction terms. Thus, we go beyond the usually considered construction for free models. More precisely, considering such interactions in a weak regime, we find solutions for which the expectation value of the number operator N is finite, as in the free case. When tuning the interaction to the strongly nonlinear regime, however, we obtain solutions for which N grows and eventually blows up, which is reminiscent of what one observes for real Bose-Einstein condensates, where a strong interaction regime can only be realized at high density. This behavior suggests the breakdown of the Bogoliubov ansatz for quantum gravity condensates and the need for non-Fock representations to describe the system when the condensate constituents are strongly correlated. Furthermore, we study the expectation values of certain geometric operators imported from loop quantum gravity in the free and interacting cases. In particular, computing solutions around the nontrivial minima of the interaction potentials, one finds, already in the weakly interacting case, a nonvanishing condensate population for which the spectra are dominated by the lowest nontrivial configuration of the quantum geometry. This result indicates that the condensate may indeed consist of many smallest building blocks giving rise to an effectively continuous geometry, thus suggesting the interpretation of the condensate phase to correspond to a geometric phase.

  3. Binding of echinomycin to d(GCGC)2 and d(CCGG)2: distinct stacking interactions dictate the sequence-dependent formation of Hoogsteen base pairs.

    PubMed

    Gallego, J; Luque, F J; Orozco, M; Gago, F

    1994-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to explore the behavior of the complexes of echinomycin with the DNA tetramers d(GCGC)2 and d(CCGG)2 in which the terminal bases have been paired according to either a Hoogsteen or a Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding scheme. The energy of the four resulting complexes has been monitored along the dynamics trajectories and the interaction energy between echinomycin and DNA has been decomposed into contributions arising from the planar aromatic systems and the depsipeptide part of the antibiotic. Our calculations predict a large increase in overall stabilization upon protonation of the terminal cytosines and subsequent Hoogsteen pair formation in the complex of echinomycin with d(GCGC)2 but not with d(CCGG)2, in agreement with the experimental evidence [Gao and Patel, Quart. Rev. Biophys. 22, 93-138 (1989)]. The conformational preferences appear to arise mainly from differential stacking interactions in which the electrostatic component is shown to play a dominant role. Differences in hydrogen bonding patterns are also found among the complexes and these are compared in relation to available crystal structures. The binding of echinomycin to DNA appears as a complex process involving many interrelated variables.

  4. On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven By Energetic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    G.Y. Fu

    2010-10-01

    It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low fluctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.

  5. On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven by Energetic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    G. Y. Fu

    2010-06-04

    It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low uctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.

  6. Quantum-optical nonlinearities induced by Rydberg-Rydberg interactions: A perturbative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grankin, A.; Brion, E.; Bimbard, E.; Boddeda, R.; Usmani, I.; Ourjoumtsev, A.; Grangier, P.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we theoretically study the quantum statistical properties of the light transmitted through or reflected from an optical cavity, filled by an atomic medium with strong optical nonlinearity induced by Rydberg-Rydberg van der Waals interactions. Atoms are driven on a two-photon transition from their ground state to a Rydberg level via an intermediate state by the combination of a weak signal field and a strong control beam. By using a perturbative approach, we get analytic results which remain valid in the regime of weak feeding fields, even when the intermediate state becomes resonant thus generalizing our previous results. We can thus investigate quantitatively new features associated with the resonant behavior of the system. We also propose an effective nonlinear three-boson model of the system which, in addition to leading to the same analytic results as the original problem, sheds light on the physical processes at work in the system.

  7. Nonlinear interaction between surface plasmons and ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M. Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Niknam, A. R.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear interaction between high-frequency surface plasmons and low-frequency ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma. By coupling the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and quantum hydrodynamic model, and taking into account the ponderomotive force, the dispersion equation is obtained. By solving this equation, it is shown that there is a modulational instability in the system, and collisions and quantum forces play significant roles on this instability. The quantum tunneling increases the phase and group velocities of the modulated waves and collisions increase the growth rate of the modulational instability. It is also shown that the effect of quantum forces and collisions is more significant in high modulated wavenumber regions.

  8. Modulus synchronization in a network of nonlinear systems with antagonistic interactions and switching topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shidong

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the collective behavior in a network of nonlinear systems with antagonistic interactions and switching topologies. The concept of modulus synchronization is introduced to characterize the case that the moduli of corresponding components of the agent (node) states reach a synchronization. The network topologies are modeled by a set of directed signed graphs. When all directed signed graphs are structurally balanced and the nonlinear system satisfies a one-sided Lipschitz condition, by using matrix measure and contraction theory, we show that modulus synchronization can be evaluated by the time average of some matrix measures. These matrices are about the second smallest eigenvalue of undirected graphs corresponding to directed signed graphs. Finally, we present two numerical examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  9. A series of Cd(II) complexes with {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions: Structural diversities by varying the ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiuli; Zhang Jinxia; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan

    2011-02-15

    Seven new Cd(II) complexes consisting of different phenanthroline derivatives and organic acid ligands, formulated as [Cd(PIP){sub 2}(dnba){sub 2}] (1), [Cd(PIP)(ox)].H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(PIP)(1,4-bdc)(H{sub 2}O)].4H{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(3-PIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O (4), [Cd{sub 2}(3-PIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (5), [Cd(3-PIP)(nip)(H{sub 2}O)].H{sub 2}O (6), [Cd{sub 2}(TIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (7) (PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 3-PIP=2-(3-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, TIP=2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, Hdnba=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1 and 4 possess mononuclear structures; complexes 5 and 7 are isostructural and have dinuclear structures; complexes 2 and 3 feature 1D chain structures; complex 6 contains 1D double chain, which are further extended to a 3D supramolecular structure by {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The N-donor ligands with extended {pi}-system and organic acid ligands play a crucial role in the formation of the final supramolecular frameworks. Moreover, thermal properties and fluorescence of 1-7 are also investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Seven new supramolecular architectures have been successfully isolated under hydrothermal conditions by reactions of different phen derivatives and Cd(II) salts together with organic carboxylate anions auxiliary ligands. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Complexes 1-7 are 0D or 1D polymeric structure, the {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions extend the complexes into 3D supramolecular network. To our knowledge, systematic study on {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions in cadmium(II) complexes are still limited. {yields} The structural

  10. Nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.; Ishaaya, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents. Unlike the well-understood mixing of quasi-monochromatic waves, this configuration is highly non-intuitive due to the complex coupling between the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom of the interacting pulses. We illustrate the process intuitively with transitions between different branches of the dispersion curves and interpret it in terms of spectral exchange between the interacting pulses. We verify our interpretation with an example whereby a spectrally-narrow pulse “inherits” the wide spectrum of a pump pulse centered at a different wavelength, using exact numerical simulations, as well as a simplified coupled mode analysis and an asymptotic analytical solution. The latter also provides a simple and intuitive quantitative interpretation. The complex wave mixing process studied here may enable flexible spatio-temporal shaping of short pulses and is the starting point of the study of more complicated systems. PMID:27381552

  11. Nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.; Ishaaya, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents. Unlike the well-understood mixing of quasi-monochromatic waves, this configuration is highly non-intuitive due to the complex coupling between the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom of the interacting pulses. We illustrate the process intuitively with transitions between different branches of the dispersion curves and interpret it in terms of spectral exchange between the interacting pulses. We verify our interpretation with an example whereby a spectrally-narrow pulse “inherits” the wide spectrum of a pump pulse centered at a different wavelength, using exact numerical simulations, as well as a simplified coupled mode analysis and an asymptotic analytical solution. The latter also provides a simple and intuitive quantitative interpretation. The complex wave mixing process studied here may enable flexible spatio-temporal shaping of short pulses and is the starting point of the study of more complicated systems.

  12. Exchange interactions through π-π stacking in the lamellar compound [{Cu(bipy)(en)}{Cu(bipy)(H2O)}{VO3}4]n.

    PubMed

    Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Brown, Kareen A; Vega, Andrés; Calvo, Rafael; Aliaga, Carolina; Santana, Ricardo C; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Kniep, Rüdiger; Schnelle, Walter; Spodine, Evgenia

    2011-11-21

    Structural, magnetic, and powder and single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies were performed on [{Cu(bipy)(en)}{Cu(bipy)(H(2)O)}{VO(3)}(4)](n) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, en = ethylenediamine), which is a new copper-vanadium hybrid organic-inorganic compound containing Cu(II) and V(V) centers. The oxovanadium units provide an anionic scaffolding to the structure, where two types of Cu(II) coordination modes, octahedral (Cu1) and square pyramidal (Cu2), contribute to the magnetic properties. The crystal structure contains layers including Cu1 and Cu2 ions, separated by stacked arrangements of 2,2'-bipyridine molecules. Each type of Cu(II) ion in these layers forms parallel spin chains described by exchange coupling parameters J(1) and J(2) for Cu1 and Cu2, respectively (exchange couplings defined as H(ex)(i,j) = -J(ij)S(i)S(j)), which, for necessity, are assumed to be equal to J. These chains are coupled by much weaker Cu1-Cu2 exchange interactions J(3) connecting neighbor Cu1 and Cu2 ions within a layer, through paths acting as rungs of a ladder chain structure. The average coupling J, which is antiferromagnetic (J < 0), according to the susceptibility data, is estimated with similar results with a mean field approximation (J = -1.4 cm(-1)), and with a uniform chain model (J = -1.7 cm(-1)). The EPR spectra of powdered samples and oriented single crystals are shown to be independent of J(1) and J(2), but are dependent on the weak coupling J(3), and the data allow a lower limit to be established: |J(3)| > 0.04 cm(-1). The spectra are also strongly sensitive to extremely weak coupling interactions with average magnitude J(4) between copper atoms in neighboring layers, separated by ∼10 Å, using the stacked 2,2'-bipyridine molecules, which produce a 2D-to-3D quantum phase transition. This is observed in single-crystal samples when the energy levels are changed with the orientation of the magnetic field. From the characteristics of these transitions

  13. A model of a nonlinear DNA-protein interaction system with Killingbeck potential and its stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahroni, E.; Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Fuad, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we presented a model of a nonlinear DNA-protein interaction system. The interaction system consisted of a molecule of protein bound with a single chain of DNA. The interaction between DNA chain, especially adenine and thymine, and DNA-protein bound to glutamine and adenine. The forms of these bonds are adapted from the hydrogen bonds. The Killingbeack potential were used to describe both of the interactions. We proposed the Hamiltonian equation to describe the general model of interaction. The interaction model is satisfied when a protein molecule triggers pulses on a DNA chain. An initial shift in position of protein xm should trigger the shift in position of DNA ym , or alter the state. However, an initial shift in DNA, yn , should not alter the state of a rest protein (i.e. xm = 0), otherwise, the protein would not steadily bind. We also investigated the stability of the model from the DNA-protein interaction with Lyapunov function. The stability of system can be determined when we obtained the equilibrium point.

  14. Mean Field Limit of Interacting Filaments and Vector Valued Non-linear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessaih, Hakima; Coghi, Michele; Flandoli, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Families of N interacting curves are considered, with long range, mean field type, interaction. They generalize models based on classical interacting point particles to models based on curves. In this new set-up, a mean field result is proven, as N→ ∞. The limit PDE is vector valued and, in the limit, each curve interacts with a mean field solution of the PDE. This target is reached by a careful formulation of curves and weak solutions of the PDE which makes use of 1-currents and their topologies. The main results are based on the analysis of a nonlinear Lagrangian-type flow equation. Most of the results are deterministic; as a by-product, when the initial conditions are given by families of independent random curves, we prove a propagation of chaos result. The results are local in time for general interaction kernel, global in time under some additional restriction. Our main motivation is the approximation of 3D-inviscid flow dynamics by the interacting dynamics of a large number of vortex filaments, as observed in certain turbulent fluids; in this respect, the present paper is restricted to smoothed interaction kernels, instead of the true Biot-Savart kernel.

  15. Mean Field Limit of Interacting Filaments and Vector Valued Non-linear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessaih, Hakima; Coghi, Michele; Flandoli, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Families of N interacting curves are considered, with long range, mean field type, interaction. They generalize models based on classical interacting point particles to models based on curves. In this new set-up, a mean field result is proven, as N→ ∞. The limit PDE is vector valued and, in the limit, each curve interacts with a mean field solution of the PDE. This target is reached by a careful formulation of curves and weak solutions of the PDE which makes use of 1-currents and their topologies. The main results are based on the analysis of a nonlinear Lagrangian-type flow equation. Most of the results are deterministic; as a by-product, when the initial conditions are given by families of independent random curves, we prove a propagation of chaos result. The results are local in time for general interaction kernel, global in time under some additional restriction. Our main motivation is the approximation of 3D-inviscid flow dynamics by the interacting dynamics of a large number of vortex filaments, as observed in certain turbulent fluids; in this respect, the present paper is restricted to smoothed interaction kernels, instead of the true Biot-Savart kernel.

  16. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itasse, Maxime; Brazier, Jean-Philippe; Léon, Olivier; Casalis, Grégoire

    2015-08-01

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m1, n1), (m2, n2), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired "target" mode (m1 - m2, n1 - n2). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the "killer" modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes.

  17. Nonlinear Interaction of the Beat-Photon Beams with the Brain Neurocenters: Laser Neurophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2010-03-01

    I propose a novel mechanism for laser-brain interaction: Nonlinear interaction of ultrashort pulses of beat-photon, (φ1-- φ2), or double-photon, (φ1+φ2), footnotetextMaria Goeppert-Mayer, "Uber Elementarakte mit zwei Quantenspr"ungen, Ann Phys 9, 273, 95. (1931). beams with the corrupted brain neurocenters, causing a particular neurological disease. The open-scull cerebral tissue can be irradiated with the beat-photon pulses in the range of several 100s fs, with the laser irradiances in the range of a few mW/cm^2, repetition rate of a few 100s Hz, and in the frequency range of 700-1300nm generated in the beat-wave driven free electron laser.footnotetextV. Alexander Stefan, The Interaction of Photon Beams with the DNA Molecules: Genomic Medical Physics. American Physical Society, 2009 APS March Meeting, March 16-20, 2009, abstract #K1.276; V. Stefan, B. I. Cohen, and C. Joshi, Nonlinear Mixing of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas Science 27 January 1989:Vol. 243. no. 4890, pp. 494 -- 500 (January 1989). This method may prove to be an effective mechanism in the treatment of neurological diseases: Parkinson's, Lou Gehrig's, and others.

  18. On nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dominic A. R.; Smith, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The instability of an incompressible three-dimensional boundary layer (that is, one with cross-flow) is considered theoretically and computationally in the context of vortex/wave interactions. Specifically the work centers on two low amplitude, lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves which mutually interact to induce a weak longitudinal vortex flow; the vortex motion, in turn, gives rise to significant wave-modulation via wall-shear forcing. The characteristic Reynolds number is taken as a large parameter and, as a consequence, the waves' and the vortex motion are governed primarily by triple-deck theory. The nonlinear interaction is captured by a viscous partial-differential system for the vortex coupled with a pair of amplitude equations for each wave pressure. Three distinct possibilities were found to emerge for the nonlinear behavior of the flow solution downstream - an algebraic finite-distance singularity, far downstream saturation or far-downstream wave-decay (leaving pure vortex flow) - depending on the input conditions, the wave angles, and the size of the cross-flow.

  19. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Itasse, Maxime Brazier, Jean-Philippe Léon, Olivier Casalis, Grégoire

    2015-08-15

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m{sub 1}, n{sub 1}), (m{sub 2}, n{sub 2}), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m{sub 1} − m{sub 2}, n{sub 1} − n{sub 2}). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes.

  20. Measurements of the nonlinear beat wave produced by the interaction of counterpropagating Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, D. J.; Howes, G. G.; Rhudy, J. D.; Terry, S. K.; Carter, T. A.; Kletzing, C. A.; Schroeder, J. W. R.; Skiff, F.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma turbulence has been shown to play a critical role in many astrophysical and space environments. In the solar corona and solar wind, this turbulence involves the nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfvén waves. In the Earth's magnetosphere, the turbulence is dominated by inertial Alfvén wave collisions. Observations of these wave-wave interactions in space and in laboratory plasma environments have shown that, in addition to the nonlinear cascade of energy to small scales, the interaction also produces nonlinear beat waves that have a frequency defined by f3±=|f1±f2| . Although the temporal behavior of the beat wave has been well documented, this paper presents the first detailed analysis of the spatial structure of the nonlinearly generated beat wave.

  1. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  2. Resonant modal interactions and adiabatic invariance for a nonlinear wave equation in a variable domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, J.; Li, H. K.

    1984-08-01

    The technique of isolating and order reducing transformations for computing adiabatic invariants in finite-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian sytems is extended to the case of the non-Hamiltonian modal representation of a wave equation with weak nonlinearities in a slowly varying domain. The mechanism of resonant interactions for two or more normal modes whereby the associated actions change rapidly in a short period is exhibited. In the Hamiltonian problem there are a number of global adiabatic invariants associated with each resonance. Conditions for which similar adiabatic invariants can be found for the non-Hamiltonian case are derived. The results are then verified by extensive numerical computations.

  3. Multiphysics modeling of non-linear laser-matter interactions for optically active semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraczek, Brent; Kanp, Jaroslaw

    Development of photonic devices for sensors and communications devices has been significantly enhanced by computational modeling. We present a new computational method for modelling laser propagation in optically-active semiconductors within the paraxial wave approximation (PWA). Light propagation is modeled using the Streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Material response enters through the non-linear polarization, which serves as the right-hand side of the FEM calculation. Maxwell's equations for classical light propagation within the PWA can be written solely in terms of the electric field, producing a wave equation that is a form of the advection-diffusion-reaction equations (ADREs). This allows adaptation of the computational machinery developed for solving ADREs in fluid dynamics to light-propagation modeling. The non-linear polarization is incorporated using a flexible framework to enable the use of multiple methods for carrier-carrier interactions (e.g. relaxation-time-based or Monte Carlo) to enter through the non-linear polarization, as appropriate to the material type. We demonstrate using a simple carrier-carrier model approximating the response of GaN. Supported by ARL Materials Enterprise.

  4. Nonlinear interaction of instability waves and vortex-pairing noise in axisymmetric subsonic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hai-Hua; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Xing-Chen; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Sun, De-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A direct simulation with selected inflow forcing is performed for an accurate description of the jet flow field and far-field noise. The effects of the Mach number and heating on the acoustic field are studied in detail. The beam patterns and acoustic intensities are both varied as the change of the Mach number and temperature. The decomposition of the source terms of the Lilley-Goldstein (L-G) equation shows that the momentum and thermodynamic components lead to distinctly different beam patterns. Significant cancellation is found between the momentum and thermodynamic components at low polar angles for the isothermal jet and large polar angles for the hot jet. The cancellation leads to the minimum values of the far-field sound. Based on linear parabolized stability equation solutions, the nonlinear interaction model for sound prediction is built in combination with the L-G equation. The dominant beam patterns and their original locations predicted by the nonlinear model are in good agreement with the direct simulation results, and the predictions of sound pressure level (SPL) by the nonlinear model are relatively reasonable.

  5. Cable dynamics under non-ideal support excitations: Nonlinear dynamic interactions and asymptotic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tieding; Kang, Houjun; Wang, Lianhua; Zhao, Yueyu

    2016-12-01

    Cable dynamics under ideal longitudinal support motions/excitations assumes that the support's mass, stiffness and mechanical energy are infinite. However, for many long/slender support structures, their finite mass and stiffness should be taken into account and the cable-support dynamic interactions should be modelled and evaluated. These moving supports are non-ideal support excitations, deserving a proper coupling analysis. For systems with a large support/cable mass ratio, using the multiple scale method and asymptotic approximations, a cable-support coupled reduced model, with both cable's geometric nonlinearity and cable-support coupling nonlinearity included, is established asymptotically and validated numerically in this paper. Based upon the reduced model, cable's nonlinear responses under non-ideal support excitations(and also the coupled responses) are found, with stability and bifurcation characteristics determined. By finding the modifications caused by the support/cable mass ratio, boundary damping, and internal detuning, full investigations into coupling-induced dynamic effects on the cable are conducted. Finally, the approximate analytical results based on the reduced model are verified by numerical results from the original full model.

  6. Three-photon interactions and spin exchange in a quantum nonlinear medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Sergio; Liang, Qi-Yu; Thompson, Jeff; Nicholson, Travis; Venkatramani, Aditya; Gullans, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    Robust quantum gates for photonic qubits are a longstanding goal of quantum information science. One promising approach to achieve this goal requires strong nonlinear interactions between single photons, which is impossible with conventional optical media. We realize these interactions with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), and strongly interacting Rydberg states to mediate strong interactions between photons. Operating in the dispersive regime of EIT, we have recently shown that two photons propagating in our system can bind into a photonic molecule. Extending these two-photon experiments to many-body physics would lead to exotic phenomena like photon crystallization. To that end, we have scaled up our two-photon measurements to three-photon experiments. We are now able to discern signatures of three-photon molecules from a variety of two- and three-photon interactions. Three-photon bound states manifest as an increase in photon bunching in g (3) correlation measurements. We also present a recent observation of coherent spin exchange interactions in Rydberg EIT.

  7. Interaction trajectory of solitons in nonlinear media with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Zhiping; Yang, Zhenjun; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shumin; Pang, Zhaoguang

    2016-03-15

    The interaction trajectory of solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media is investigated. A simple differential equation describing the interaction trajectories is derived based on the light ray equation. Numerical calculations are carried out to illustrate the interaction trajectories with different parameters. The results show that the degree of nonlocality greatly affects the interaction of solitons. For a strongly nonlocal case, the interaction trajectory can be described by a cosine function. Analytical expressions describing the trajectory and the oscillation period are obtained. For generally and weakly nonlocal cases, the interaction trajectories still oscillate periodically, however it is no longer sinusoidal and the oscillation period increases with the nonlocal degree decreasing. In addition, the trajectory of two solitons launched with a relative angle at the entrance plane is investigated. It is found that there exists a critical angle. When the initial relative angle is larger than the critical angle, the two solitons do not collide on propagation. The influence of the degree of nonlocality on the critical angle is also discussed.

  8. The polar 2e/12c bond in phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl hetero-dimers: Stronger stacking interaction and fascinating interlayer charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Rong-Lin; Xu, Hong-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of chemists have focused on the two-electron/multicenter bond (2e/mc) that was first introduced to interpret the bonding mechanism of radical dimers. Herein, we report the polar two-electron/twelve center (2e/12c) bonding character in a series of phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl radical hetero-dimers. Interestingly, the bonding energy of weaker polar hetero-dimer (P-TAP) is dominated by the overlap of the two different singly occupied molecular orbital of radicals, while that of stronger polar hetero-dimer (P-HAP) is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. Results show that the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers plays a prominent role in the essential attribution of the polar 2e/12c bond. Correspondingly, a stronger stacking interaction in the hetero-dimer could be effectively achieved by increasing the difference of nitrogen atoms number between the monomers. It is worthy of note that an interesting interlayer charge transfer character is induced in the polar hetero-dimers, which is dependent on the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers. It is our expectation that the new knowledge about the bonding nature of radical hetero-dimers might provide important information for designing radical based functional materials with various applications.

  9. Comparison of zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography in determination of the interaction between seven drugs and immobilised β(2)-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Yuqing Yuan; Yang, Lingjian; Zhang, Yajun; Bian, Liujiao; Zheng, Jianbin; Li, Zijian; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zhang, Youyi

    2015-07-03

    Zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography are two mainstream models for the determination of drug-protein interaction in affinity chromatography. This work intended to compare the results by zonal elution with that by nonlinear chromatography when it comes to the analysis of the interaction between seven drugs and immobilised β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR). The results of the zonal elution showed that clorprenaline, clenbuterol, methoxyphenamine, salbutamol, terbutaline, tulobuterol and bambuterol have only one type of binding site on immobilised β2-AR, while nonlinear chromatography confirmed the existence of at least two types of binding sites between β2-AR and clorprenaline, clenbuterol and bambuterol. On these sites, both zonal elution and nonlinear chromatography presented the same rank order for the association constants of the seven drugs. Compared with the data from zonal elution, the association constants calculated using nonlinear chromatography gave a good linear response to the corresponding values by radio-ligand binding assay. The sampling efficiencies of nonlinear chromatography were clearly higher than zonal elution. Nonlinear chromatography will probably become a powerful alternative for the high throughput determination of drug-protein interaction.

  10. Nonlinear multiple-discipline analysis of conjugate heat transfer and fluid-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Michael A.

    Single-discipline analysis approaches often utilize linearized descriptions of coupled system physics from other disciplines. When this level of approximation is inadequate for the purposes of the analysis, nonlinear governing equations for the separate physical disciplines must be introduced, thus producing a multiple-discipline analysis. The multiple-discipline approach can provide a deeper understanding of the underlying system physics, and can reveal deficiencies in systems designed by single-discipline means. An advantageous way to examine a nonlinear multiple-discipline system is the partitioned method, where each discipline subdomain is formulated and discretized separately, allowing separate modular solvers for each set of discretized equations. Avoiding ad hoc approaches, a unified approach is developed here and applied to analysis of conjugate heat transfer in an arc-heater wind tunnel nozzle, and fluid-structure interaction of a segmented solid rocket motor inhibitor. The specific systems examined represent actual hardware designed by single-discipline methods. The nonlinear effects present in the wind tunnel nozzle problem include separated, viscous fluid flow, forced-convection boiling, and flow-dependent heat transfer properties. Nonlinear effects present in the solid rocket motor inhibitor problem include large structural deformation, and separated, viscous fluid flow. Steady-state results obtained for the nozzle problem show distributions for wall temperature, fluid temperatures, and heat flux, as well as coolant flow field and recirculation patterns. These results indicate a design deficiency in the nozzle cooling system. For the inhibitor problem, steady and unsteady fields of stress, strain, and displacement are obtained for the structural components, accompanied by velocity and pressure fields for the surrounding gas flow. The large stress values present in the solid propellant suggest a possible mode for motor failure, and beckon examination of

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever-Sample Interactions in Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the cantilever tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is obtained by treating the cantilever and sample as independent systems coupled by a nonlinear force acting between the cantilever tip and a volume element of the sample surface. The volume element is subjected to a restoring force from the remainder of the sample that provides dynamical equilibrium for the combined systems. The model accounts for the positions on the cantilever of the cantilever tip, laser probe, and excitation force (if any) via a basis set of set of orthogonal functions that may be generalized to account for arbitrary cantilever shapes. The basis set is extended to include nonlinear cantilever modes. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a matrix iteration procedure. The effects of oscillatory excitation forces applied either to the cantilever or to the sample surface (or to both) are obtained from the solution set and applied to the to the assessment of phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) modalities. The influence of bistable cantilever modes of on AFM signal generation is discussed. The effects on the cantilever-sample surface dynamics of subsurface features embedded in the sample that are perturbed by surface-generated oscillatory excitation forces and carried to the cantilever via wave propagation are accounted by the Bolef-Miller propagating wave model. Expressions pertaining to signal generation and image contrast in A-AFM are obtained and applied to amplitude modulation (intermittent contact) atomic force microscopy and resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM). The influence of phase accumulation in A-AFM on image contrast is discussed, as is the effect of hard contact and maximum nonlinearity regimes of A-AFM operation.

  12. Nonlinear cardio-respiratory interactions revealed by time-phase bispectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamsek, Janez; Stefanovska, Aneta; McClintock, Peter V. E.

    2004-09-01

    Bispectral analysis based on high order statistics, introduced recently as a technique for revealing time-phase relationships among interacting noisy oscillators, has been used to study the nature of the coupling between cardiac and respiratory activity. Univariate blood flow signals recorded simultaneously by laser-Doppler flowmetry on both legs and arms were analysed. Coupling between cardiac and respiratory activity was also checked by use of bivariate data and computation of the cross-bispectrum between the ECG and respiratory signals. Measurements were made on six healthy males aged 25-27 years. Recordings were taken during spontaneous breathing (20 min), and during paced respiration at frequencies both lower and higher than that of spontaneous respiration (either two or three recordings with a constant frequency in the interval between 0.09 and 0.35 Hz). At each paced frequency recordings were taken for 12 min. It was confirmed that the dynamics of blood flow can usefully be considered in terms of coupled oscillators, and demonstrated that interactions between the cardiac and respiratory processes are weak and time-varying, and that they can be nonlinear. Nonlinear coupling was revealed to exist during both spontaneous and paced respiration. When present, it was detected in all four blood flow signals and in the cross-bispectrum between the ECG and respiratory signal. The episodes with nonlinear coupling were detected in 11 out of 22 recordings and lasted between 19 s in the case of high frequency (0.34 Hz) and 106 s in the case of low frequency paced respiration (0.11 Hz).

  13. Linear and non-linear brain-heart and brain-brain interactions during sleep.

    PubMed

    Faes, L; Marinazzo, D; Jurysta, F; Nollo, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the physiological networks underlying the joint modulation of the parasympathetic component of heart rate variability (HRV) and of the different electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms during sleep were assessed using two popular measures of directed interaction in multivariate time series, namely Granger causality (GC) and transfer entropy (TE). Time series representative of cardiac and brain activities were obtained in 10 young healthy subjects as the normalized high frequency (HF) component of HRV and EEG power in the δ, θ, α, σ, and β bands, measured during the whole duration of sleep. The magnitude and statistical significance of GC and TE were evaluated between each pair of series, conditional on the remaining series, using respectively a linear model-based approach exploiting regression models, and a nonlinear model-free approach combining nearest-neighbor entropy estimation with a procedure for dimensionality reduction. The contribution of nonlinear dynamics to the TE was also assessed using surrogate data. GC and TE consistently detected structured networks of physiological interactions, with links directed predominantly from HRV to the EEG waves in the brain-heart network, and from the σ and β EEG waves to the δ, θ, and α waves in the brain-brain network. While these common patterns supported the suitability of a linear model-based analysis, we also found a significant contribution of nonlinear dynamics, particularly involving the information transferred out of the δ node in the two networks. This suggested the importance of nonparametric TE estimation for evidencing the fine structure of the physiological networks underlying the autonomic regulation of cardiac and brain functions during sleep.

  14. Discrete and continuum links to a nonlinear coupled transport problem of interacting populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, M. H.; Muntean, A.; Richardson, O. M.

    2017-02-01

    We are interested in exploring interacting particle systems that can be seen as microscopic models for a particular structure of coupled transport flux arising when different populations are jointly evolving. The scenarios we have in mind are inspired by the dynamics of pedestrian flows in open spaces and are intimately connected to cross-diffusion and thermo-diffusion problems holding a variational structure. The tools we use include a suitable structure of the relative entropy controlling TV-norms, the construction of Lyapunov functionals and particular closed-form solutions to nonlinear transport equations, a hydrodynamics limiting procedure due to Philipowski, as well as the construction of numerical approximates to both the continuum limit problem in 2D and to the original interacting particle systems.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic response of a simple ice-structure interaction model

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, D.G.; Troesch, A.W.; Wingate, W.C. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The problem addressed in the continuous indentation of a ship or offshore structure into an ice sheet. The impacting ship or offshore structure is represented by a mass-spring-dashpot system having a constant velocity relative to the ice sheet. The dynamic response of this simple analogue model of ice-structure interaction is studied in considerable detail. The complicated, highly nonlinear dynamic response is due to intermittent ice breakage and intermittent contact of the structure with the ice. Periodic motions are found and the periodicity for a particular system is dependent upon initial conditions. For a representative system, a Poincare map is presented showing the fixed points. A description of some of the effects of random variations in system parameters is also presented. Some implications of these findings regarding structural design for ice interaction are discussed.

  16. Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Won; Yamashita, Shinji; Goh, Chee S; Set, Sze Y

    2007-01-15

    We demonstrate a novel passive mode-locking scheme for pulsed lasers enhanced by the interaction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the evanescent field of propagating light in a D-shaped optical fiber. The scheme features all-fiber operation as well as a long lateral interaction length, which guarantees a strong nonlinear effect from the nanotubes. Mode locking is achieved with less than 30% of the CNTs compared with the amount of nanotubes used for conventional schemes. Our method also ensures the preservation of the original morphology of the individual CNTs. The demonstrated pulsed laser with our CNT mode locker has a repetition rate of 5.88 MHz and a temporal pulse width of 470 fs.

  17. Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yong-Won; Yamashita, Shinji; Goh, Chee S.; Set, Sze Y.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel passive mode-locking scheme for pulsed lasers enhanced by the interaction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the evanescent field of propagating light in a D-shaped optical fiber. The scheme features all-fiber operation as well as a long lateral interaction length, which guarantees a strong nonlinear effect from the nanotubes. Mode locking is achieved with less than 30% of the CNTs compared with the amount of nanotubes used for conventional schemes. Our method also ensures the preservation of the original morphology of the individual CNTs. The demonstrated pulsed laser with our CNT mode locker has a repetition rate of 5.88 MHz and a temporal pulse width of 470 fs.

  18. Chimera regimes in a ring of oscillators with local nonlinear interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelev, Igor A.; Zakharova, Anna; Vadivasova, Tatiana E.

    2017-03-01

    One of important problems concerning chimera states is the conditions of their existence and stability. Until now, it was assumed that chimeras could arise only in ensembles with nonlocal character of interactions. However, this assumption is not exactly right. In some special cases chimeras can be realized for local type of coupling [1-3]. We propose a simple model of ensemble with local coupling when chimeras are realized. This model is a ring of linear oscillators with the local nonlinear unidirectional interaction. Chimera structures in the ring are found using computer simulations for wide area of values of parameters. Diagram of the regimes on plane of control parameters is plotted and scenario of chimera destruction are studied when the parameters are changed.

  19. Proposal of a Nonlinear Interaction of Person and Situation (NIPS) model

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Manfred; Gollwitzer, Mario; Baumert, Anna; Blum, Gabriela; Gschwendner, Tobias; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Rothmund, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Marshall and Brown (2006) proposed a Traits as Situational Sensitivities (TASS) Model, which implies a systematic person × situation interaction. We review this model and show that it suffers from several limitations. We extend and modify the model in order to obtain a symmetric pattern of levels and effects for both person and situation factors. Our suggestions result in a general Nonlinear Interaction of Person and Situation (NIPS) Model. The NIPS model bears striking similarities to the Rasch model. Based on the symmetric nature of the NIPS model, we generalize the concept of weak and strong situations to individuals and propose the concepts of weak and strong persons. Finally, we discuss psychological mechanisms that might explain the NIPS pattern and offer ideas for future research. PMID:23935588

  20. Interactive application of quadratic expansion of chi-square statistic to nonlinear curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, F. F.; Everhart, Joel L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains a detailed theoretical description of an all-purpose, interactive curve-fitting routine that is based on P. R. Bevington's description of the quadratic expansion of the Chi-Square statistic. The method is implemented in the associated interactive, graphics-based computer program. Taylor's expansion of Chi-Square is first introduced, and justifications for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations is derived, then solved by matrix algebra. A brief description of the code is presented along with a limited number of changes that are required to customize the program of a particular task. To evaluate the performance of the method and the goodness of nonlinear curve fitting, two typical engineering problems are examined and the graphical and tabular output of each is discussed. A complete listing of the entire package is included as an appendix.

  1. Fuzzy adaptive interacting multiple model nonlinear filter for integrated navigation sensor fusion.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chien-Hao; Chang, Chih-Wen; Jwo, Dah-Jing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the fuzzy interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (FUZZY-IMMUKF) approach to integrated navigation processing for the maneuvering vehicle is presented. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) employs a set of sigma points through deterministic sampling, such that a linearization process is not necessary, and therefore the errors caused by linearization as in the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF) can be avoided. The nonlinear filters naturally suffer, to some extent, the same problem as the EKF for which the uncertainty of the process noise and measurement noise will degrade the performance. As a structural adaptation (model switching) mechanism, the interacting multiple model (IMM), which describes a set of switching models, can be utilized for determining the adequate value of process noise covariance. The fuzzy logic adaptive system (FLAS) is employed to determine the lower and upper bounds of the system noise through the fuzzy inference system (FIS). The resulting sensor fusion strategy can efficiently deal with the nonlinear problem for the vehicle navigation. The proposed FUZZY-IMMUKF algorithm shows remarkable improvement in the navigation estimation accuracy as compared to the relatively conventional approaches such as the UKF and IMMUKF.

  2. Nonlinear Interaction of Detuned Instability Waves in Boundary-Layer Transition: Amplitude Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The non-equilibrium critical-layer analysis of a system of frequency-detuned resonant-triads is presented. In this part of the analysis, the system of partial differential critical-layer equations derived in Part I is solved analytically to yield the amplitude equations which are analyzed using a combination of asymptotic and numerical methods. Numerical solutions of the inviscid non-equilibrium oblique-mode amplitude equations show that the frequency-detuned self-interaction enhances the growth of the lower-frequency oblique modes more than the higher-frequency ones. All amplitudes become singular at the same finite downstream position. The frequency detuning delays the occurrence of the singularity. The spanwise-periodic mean-flow distortion and low-frequency nonlinear modes are generated by the critical-layer interaction between frequency-detuned oblique modes. The nonlinear mean flow and higher harmonics as well as the primary instabilities become as large as the base mean flow in the inviscid wall layer in the downstream region where the distance from the singularity is of the order of the wavelength scale.

  3. Development of a non-ideal plasma target for non-linear beam plasma interaction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, K.; Nishinomiya, S.; Niinou, T.; Kaneko, J.; Hasegawa, J.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.

    2007-07-01

    A shock-driven plasma target was developed to examine non-linear interactions between low-energy heavy ions and cold-dense plasmas. MD calculations predicted that beam-plasma coupling constant γ˜0.1 must be achieved to observe the non-linearity, which corresponds to the plasma coupling constant Γ≈0.2 for projectiles of vproj≈10 keV/u and q≈2. One-dimensional numerical estimations using SESAME equation of state showed that a shock wave propagating in 5-Torr H2 gas with 47 km/s must be produced to satisfy Γ≈0.2. Utilizing an electromagnetic shock tube with a peak current of 50 kA and a current rise time of 800 ns, we achieved a shock speed of 45 km/s. The electron density distribution of the shock-produced plasma along the beam axis was measured by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. From this measurement we confirmed that the electron density was over 1017 cm-3 and the homogeneity was acceptable during several hundred nanoseconds. The electron temperature was also determined by optical spectroscopic measurements. The Coulomb coupling constant was evaluated using these experimental data to investigate feasibility of the beam-plasma interaction experiments.

  4. Nonlinear interactions of kink-unstable flux ropes and shear Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Dehaas, T.; Tripathi, S. K. P.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes and shear Alfvén waves occur simultaneously in plasmas ranging from solar prominences, the solar wind, and the earth's magnetotail. If the flux ropes evolve to become unstable to the kink mode, interactions between the kink oscillations and the shear waves can arise, and may even lead to nonlinear phenomena. Experiments aimed at elucidating such interactions are performed in the upgraded Large Plasma Device at UCLA. Flux ropes are generated using a 20 cm × 20 cm LaB6 cathode discharge (with L=18 m and β 0.1 .) The ropes are embedded in a otherwise current-free, cylindrical (r = 30 cm) ambient plasma produced by a second, BaO cathode. Shear Alfvén waves are launched using either internal antennas, or by modulating the BaO cathode-anode discharge current. In the latter case, kink unstable oscillations and driven shear waves nonlinearly generate sidebands about the higher shear wave frequency (evident in power spectra) via three-wave coupling; this is demonstrated though bi-coherence calculations and k-matching. Informational complexity and entropy of the time series are also investigated. Future work will focus on antenna-launched waves to control amplitude and frequency, as well as a possible evolution to a turbulent state. Work performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by the DoE OFES and the NSF.

  5. Multimodal non-linear optical imaging for the investigation of drug nano-/microcrystal-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Darville, Nicolas; Saarinen, Jukka; Isomäki, Antti; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Cleeren, Dirk; Sterkens, Patrick; van Heerden, Marjolein; Annaert, Pieter; Peltonen, Leena; Santos, Hélder A; Strachan, Clare J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Drug nano-/microcrystals are being used for sustained parenteral drug release, but safety and efficacy concerns persist as the knowledge of the in vivo fate of long-living particulates is limited. There is a need for techniques enabling the visualization of drug nano-/microcrystals in biological matrices. The aim of this work was to explore the potential of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, supported by other non-linear optical methods, as an emerging tool for the investigation of cellular and tissue interactions of unlabeled and non-fluorescent nano-/microcrystals. Raman and CARS spectra of the prodrug paliperidone palmitate (PP), paliperidone (PAL) and several suspension stabilizers were recorded. PP nano-/microcrystals were incubated with RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and their cellular disposition was investigated using a fully-integrated multimodal non-linear optical imaging platform. Suitable anti-Stokes shifts (CH stretching) were identified for selective CARS imaging. CARS microscopy was successfully applied for the selective three-dimensional, non-perturbative and real-time imaging of unlabeled PP nano-/microcrystals having dimensions larger than the optical lateral resolution of approximately 400nm, in relation to the cellular framework in cell cultures and ex vivo in histological sections. In conclusion, CARS microscopy enables the non-invasive and label-free imaging of (sub)micron-sized (pro-)drug crystals in complex biological matrices and could provide vital information on poorly understood nano-/microcrystal-cell interactions in future.

  6. Breather-to-soliton transitions, nonlinear wave interactions, and modulational instability in a higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Zi-Qi; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Guo, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds of the higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (HGNLS) equation describing the propagation of ultrashort optical pulse in optical fibers. We derive the breather, rogue wave, and semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation. Our results show that these three types of solutions can be converted into the nonpulsating soliton solutions. In particular, we present the explicit conditions for the transitions between breathers and solitons with different structures. Further, we investigate the characteristics of the collisions between the soliton and breathers. Especially, based on the semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation, we display the novel interactions between the rogue waves and other nonlinear waves. In addition, we reveal the explicit relation between the transition and the distribution characteristics of the modulation instability growth rate.

  7. Effects of dipolar interactions on linear and nonlinear optical properties of multichromophore assemblies: a case study.

    PubMed

    Terenziani, Francesca; Mongin, Olivier; Katan, Claudine; Bhatthula, Bharath Kumar Goud; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2006-04-03

    Interchromophore interactions in flexible multidipolar structures for nonlinear optics were addressed by a combined experimental and theoretical study on two series of one-, two-, and three-chromophore systems in which identical push-pull chromophores are assembled through covalent and flexible linkers in close proximity. The photophysical and nonlinear optical properties (quadratic hyperpolarizability) of the multichromophore systems were investigated and compared to those of the monomeric chromophores. Multimers have larger dipole moments than their monomeric analogues, that is, the dipolar subchromophores self-orientate within the multimeric structures. This effect was found to depend on the intersubchromophore distance in a nontrivial manner, which confirms that molecular engineering of such flexible systems is more complex than in completely geometrically controlled systems. Electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements in solution revealed increased figures of merit as compared to the monomeric analogue. This effect increases with increasing number and polarity of the individual subchromophores in the nanoassembly and increasing spacing between dipolar subchromophores. Experimental results are interpreted by a theoretical model for interacting polar and polarizable chromophores. The properties of multidipolar assemblies are shown to be related to the relative orientation of chromophores, which is imposed by interchromophore interactions. The supramolecular structure is thus a result of self-organization. The proposed theoretical model was also used to predict the properties of multichromophore structures made up of more polar and polarizable push-pull chromophores, and showed that stronger interchromophore interactions can heavily affect the individual optical responses. This suggests new routes for engineering highly NLO responsive multichromophore systems.

  8. The strong nonlinear interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Taylor-Goertler vortices in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J.; Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    Viscous fluid flows with curved streamlines can support both centrifugal and viscous traveling wave instabilities. Here the interaction of these instabilities in the context of the fully developed flow in a curved channel is discussed. The viscous (Tollmein-Schlichting) instability is described asymptotically at high Reynolds numbers and it is found that it can induce a Taylor-Goertler flow even at extremely small amplitudes. In this interaction, the Tollmein-Schlichting wave can drive a vortex state with wavelength either comparable with the channel width or the wavelength of lower branch viscous modes. The nonlinear equations which describe these interactions are solved for nonlinear equilibrium states.

  9. Getting off the Straight and Narrow: Exploiting Non-Linear, Interactive Narrative Structures in Digital Stories for Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Digital storytelling is already used extensively in language education. Web documentaries, particularly in terms of design and narrative structure, provide an extension of the digital storytelling concept, specifically in terms of increased interactivity. Using a model of interactive, non-linear storytelling, originally derived from computer game…

  10. Nonlinear Source -" Receptor Relationship due to Interactions between Atmospheric Constituents, Water Cycle and Biogenic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, S.; Feichter, J.; Rast, S.; Bey, I.; Folberth, G.; Pozzoli, L.; Kloster, S.; Stier, P.

    2007-05-01

    result in different climate sensitivity will be raised. Feichter J, Roeckner E, Lohmann U., Liepert B (2004): Nonlinear aspects of the climate response to greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing, Journal of Climate; 17, No 12, 2384-2398. Kloster, S. , Feichter, J., Maier-Reimer, E., Roeckner, Wetzel, P., Six, K.D., Stier, P. and Esch, M., (2007): Response of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the ocean and atmosphere to global warming, J. Geophys. Res. (subm). Stier, P., J. Feichter, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, and J. Wilson (2006): Emission-Induced Nonlinearities in the Global Aerosol System - Results from the ECHAM5-HAM Aerosol-Climate Model, J. Clim Pozzoli L, I Bey, S Rast, M Schultz, P Stier and Feichter, (2007): Trace gas and aerosol interactions in a global coupled model of chemistry-aerosol-climate (to be subm.).

  11. Nonlinear interactions in the thalamocortical loop in essential tremor: A model-based frequency domain analysis.

    PubMed

    He, F; Sarrigiannis, P G; Billings, S A; Wei, H; Rowe, J; Romanowski, C; Hoggard, N; Hadjivassilliou, M; Rao, D G; Grünewald, R; Khan, A; Yianni, J

    2016-06-02

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that essential tremor has a central origin. Different structures appear to be part of the central tremorogenic network, including the motor cortex, the thalamus and the cerebellum. Some studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) show linear association in the tremor frequency between the motor cortex and the contralateral tremor electromyography (EMG). Additionally, high thalamomuscular coherence is found with the use of thalamic local field potential (LFP) recordings and tremulous EMG in patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Despite a well-established reciprocal anatomical connection between the thalamus and cortex, the functional association between the two structures during "tremor-on" periods remains elusive. Thalamic (Vim) LFPs, ipsilateral scalp EEG from the sensorimotor cortex and contralateral tremor arm EMG recordings were obtained from two patients with essential tremor who had undergone successful surgery for DBS. Coherence analysis shows a strong linear association between thalamic LFPs and contralateral tremor EMG, but the relationship between the EEG and the thalamus is much less clear. These measurements were then analyzed by constructing a novel parametric nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) model. This new approach uncovered two distinct and not overlapping frequency "channels" of communication between Vim thalamus and the ipsilateral motor cortex, defining robustly "tremor-on" versus "tremor-off" states. The associated estimated nonlinear time lags also showed non-overlapping values between the two states, with longer corticothalamic lags (exceeding 50ms) in the tremor active state, suggesting involvement of an indirect multisynaptic loop. The results reveal the importance of the nonlinear interactions between cortical and subcortical areas in the central motor network of essential tremor. This work is important because it demonstrates

  12. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspers, Fritz; Möhl, Dieter

    2004-10-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the 'azimuthal' schemes.

  13. Intracomplex {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction between adjacent phenanthroline molecules in complexes with rare-earth nitrates: Crystal and molecular structures of bis(1,10-Phenanthroline)trinitratoytterbium and bis(1,10-Phenanthroline)trinitratolanthanum

    SciTech Connect

    Sadikov, G. G. Antsyshkina, A. S.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A.

    2009-01-15

    Crystals of the compounds Yb(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(Phen){sub 2} and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(Phen){sub 2} (Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) are investigated using X-ray diffraction. It is established that there exist two different crystalline modifications: the main modification (phase 1) is characteristic of all members of the isostructural series, and the second modification (phase 2) is observed only for the Eu, Er, and Yb elements. It is assumed that the stability and universality of main phase 1 are associated with the occurrence of the nonbonded {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between the adjacent phenanthroline ligands in the complexes. The indication of the interactions is a distortion of the planar shape of the Phen molecule (the folding of the metallocycle along the N-N line with a folding angle of 11{sup o}-13{sup o} and its 'boomerang' distortion). The assumption regarding the {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction is very consistent with the shape of the ellipsoids of atomic thermal vibrations, as well as with the data obtained from thermography and IR spectroscopy. An analysis of the structures of a number of rare-earth compounds has demonstrated that the intracomplex {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions directly contribute to the formation of supramolecular associates in the crystals, such as molecular dimers, supramolecules, chain and layered ensembles, and framework systems.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction for nonlinear response of shells conveying pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubaldi, Eleonora; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2016-06-01

    Circular cylindrical shells with flexible boundary conditions conveying pulsatile flow and subjected to pulsatile pressure are investigated. The equations of motion are obtained based on the nonlinear Novozhilov shell theory via Lagrangian approach. The flow is set in motion by a pulsatile pressure gradient. The fluid is modeled as a Newtonian pulsatile flow and it is formulated using a hybrid model that contains the unsteady effects obtained from the linear potential flow theory and the pulsatile viscous effects obtained from the unsteady time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A numerical bifurcation analysis employs a refined reduced order model to investigate the dynamic behavior. The case of shells containing quiescent fluid subjected to the action of a pulsatile transmural pressure is also addressed. Geometrically nonlinear vibration response to pulsatile flow and transmural pressure are here presented via frequency-response curves and time histories. The vibrations involving both a driven mode and a companion mode, which appear due to the axial symmetry, are also investigated. This theoretical framework represents a pioneering study that could be of great interest for biomedical applications. In particular, in the future, a more refined model of the one here presented will possibly be applied to reproduce the dynamic behavior of vascular prostheses used for repairing and replacing damaged and diseased thoracic aorta in cases of aneurysm, dissection or coarctation. For this purpose, a pulsatile time-dependent blood flow model is here considered by applying physiological waveforms of velocity and pressure during the heart beating period. This study provides, for the first time in literature, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model with deep insights in the nonlinear vibrations of circular cylindrical shells subjected to pulsatile pressure and pulsatile flow.

  15. Towards modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions with hydrocodes: the thick-ray approach.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Nicolaï, P; Tikhonchuk, V

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the computation of laser beam intensity in large-scale radiative hydrocodes applied to the modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (LPIs) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is adapted for light waves in an inhomogeneous medium and modified to include the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the ponderomotive force. This thick-ray model is compared to the standard ray-tracing (RT) approach, both in the chic code. The PCGO model leads to different power deposition patterns and better diffraction modeling compared to standard RT codes. The intensity-reconstruction technique used in RT codes to model nonlinear LPI leads to artificial filamentation and fails to reproduce realistic ponderomotive self-focusing distances, intensity amplifications, and density channel depletions, whereas PCGO succeeds. Bundles of Gaussian thick rays can be used to model realistic non-Gaussian ICF beams. The PCGO approach is expected to improve the accuracy of ICF simulations and serve as a basis to implement diverse LPI effects in large-scale hydrocodes.

  16. Nonlinear shear wave interaction at a frictional interface: energy dissipation and generation of harmonics.

    PubMed

    Meziane, A; Norris, A N; Shuvalov, A L

    2011-10-01

    Analytical and numerical modeling of the nonlinear interaction of shear wave with a frictional interface is presented. The system studied is composed of two homogeneous and isotropic elastic solids, brought into frictional contact by remote normal compression. A shear wave, either time harmonic or a narrow band pulse, is incident normal to the interface and propagates through the contact. Two friction laws are considered and the influence on interface behavior is investigated: Coulomb's law with a constant friction coefficient and a slip-weakening friction law which involves static and dynamic friction coefficients. The relationship between the nonlinear harmonics and the dissipated energy, and the dependence on the contact dynamics (friction law, sliding, and tangential stress) and on the normal contact stress are examined in detail. The analytical and numerical results indicate universal type laws for the amplitude of the higher harmonics and for the dissipated energy, properly non-dimensionalized in terms of the pre-stress, the friction coefficient and the incident amplitude. The results suggest that measurements of higher harmonics can be used to quantify friction and dissipation effects of a sliding interface.

  17. Towards modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions with hydrocodes: The thick-ray approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaïtis, A.; Duchateau, G.; Nicolaï, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the computation of laser beam intensity in large-scale radiative hydrocodes applied to the modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (LPIs) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is adapted for light waves in an inhomogeneous medium and modified to include the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the ponderomotive force. This thick-ray model is compared to the standard ray-tracing (RT) approach, both in the chic code. The PCGO model leads to different power deposition patterns and better diffraction modeling compared to standard RT codes. The intensity-reconstruction technique used in RT codes to model nonlinear LPI leads to artificial filamentation and fails to reproduce realistic ponderomotive self-focusing distances, intensity amplifications, and density channel depletions, whereas PCGO succeeds. Bundles of Gaussian thick rays can be used to model realistic non-Gaussian ICF beams. The PCGO approach is expected to improve the accuracy of ICF simulations and serve as a basis to implement diverse LPI effects in large-scale hydrocodes.

  18. Nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamics physics. II. Wave propagation and wave-wave interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.; Strohmaier, K. D.

    2008-04-15

    The propagation of low-frequency whistler modes with wave magnetic field exceeding the ambient field is investigated experimentally. Such nonlinear waves are excited with magnetic loop antennas whose axial field is aligned with the background magnetic field and greatly exceeds its strength. The oscillatory antenna field excites propagating wave packets with field topologies alternating between whistler spheromaks and mirrors. The propagation speed of spheromaks is observed to decrease with amplitude while that of mirrors increases with amplitude. The field distribution varies with amplitude: Spheromaks contract axially while mirrors spread out compared to linear whistlers. Consequently, the peak magnetic field and current densities in spheromaks exceed that of mirrors. Wave-wave interactions of nonlinear whistler modes is also studied. Counterpropagating spheromaks collide inelastically and form a stationary field-reversed configuration. The radius of the toroidal current ring depends on current and can be larger than that of the loop antenna. A tilted field-reversed configuration precesses in the direction of the electron drift. The free magnetic energy is dissipated in the plasma volume and converted into electron heat.

  19. Interaction of La0.58Sr0.40Co0.20Fe0.80O3-δ cathode with volatile Cr in a stack test - Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzler, Norbert H.; Sebold, Doris; Wessel, Egbert

    2014-05-01

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with special thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes made by sol-gel technology were operated in a short stack sequentially for about 1300 h at temperatures of 700 °C and subsequently for 1200 h at 600 °C, respectively. The stack was operated galvanostatically at a constant current density of 500 mA cm-2. After operation, the stack was dismantled and the cells were analyzed with respect to Cr interaction with the LSCF cathode. Chemical analysis revealed typical overall Cr amounts of several tenths μg cm-2 cathode area depending on the operation time. SEM cross sections showed less SrCrO4 formation at the typical sites for LSCF (top side of cathode) but there was evidence of chromate formation at the border between the cathode and barrier (electrolyte) layer. This location of foreign phase formation was unexpected. Additional TEM characterizations were therefore conducted. The TEM investigation verified the presence of Cr-containing crystals and revealed pore formation in the barrier layer. The formation of SrCrO4 at this borderline and pore formation were found for the first time after SOFC stack operation.

  20. Tunable infrared generation with diffusion-bonded-stacked gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong

    Mid-infrared (MIR) radiation finds increasing applications in remote sensing, spectroscopy and military counter-measures. Nonlinear optical interactions provide one approach to tunable MIR sources generation. The development of MIR nonlinear optical crystals with excellent performance at a reasonable cost is essential for applications. Diffusion-bonded-stacked (DBS) GaAs periodic structures are a new family of quasi-phasematched (QPM) nonlinear optical crystals. The bonding process preserves the optical and mechanical properties of the bulk material, while the periodic modulation of the nonlinear coefficient permits QPM interactions. DBS GaAs bonding requirements, such as number of bonded layers and tolerable optical loss, are discussed. Nonlinear optical properties like mixing gain, wavelength, temperature and angular acceptance of the bonded structure, are predicted. DBS GaAs devices with up to 50 layers were bonded and characterized. Optical loss from interfacial voids and gaps at shorter wavelengths, from processing induced p- type free carrier absorption at longer wavelengths was characterized. 'Lithographic dicing' was invented and demonstrated as a replacement for mechanical dicing, resulting in the capability to handle thin wafers and cleaner interfaces for better bonding. Absorption due to semi-insulating-to-p-type conversion, a bulk crystal loss mechanism, was found to be induced by high bonding temperatures, and dependent on wafer sources and materials in contact with the stack. Optimized bonding parameters reduced the optical loss of 36-layer DBS GaAs to less than 0.2 cm-1 at long wavelengths. Tunable 15.6 to 17.6 μm coherent radiation at 90-ps pulse width was generated by difference frequency mixing in a 24-layer DBS GaAs device. The wavelength tuning curve agreed with theoretical predictions demonstrating that the bonding process maintained nonlinear optical phasematching over the 6 mm interaction length. Maximum mixing gain of 0.7%, or 5% internal

  1. Multirate Simulations of String Vibrations Including Nonlinear Fret-String Interactions Using the Functional Transformation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautmann, L.; Rabenstein, R.

    2004-12-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.

  2. Nonlinear interaction of energetic ring current protons with magnetospheric hydromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.A.; Chen, Liu; White, R.B.

    1989-09-01

    In order to study nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the earth's magnetosphere we have derived Hamiltonian equations for the gyrophase-averaged nonrealistic motion of charged particles in a perturbed dipole magnetic field. We assume low frequency (less than the proton gyrofrequency) fully electromagnetic perturbations, and we retain finite Larmor radius effects. Analytic and numerical results for the stochastic threshold of energetic protons ({approx gt} 100 keV) in compressional geomagnetic pulsations in the Pc 5 range of frequencies (150--600 seconds) are presented. These protons undergo a drift-bounce resonance with the Pc 5 waves which breaks the second (longitudinal) and third (flux) adiabatic invariants, while the first invariant (the magnetic moment) and the proton energy are approximately conserved. The proton motion in the observed spectrum of waves is found to be strongly diffusive, due to the overlap of neighboring primary resonances. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Non-linear interactions of plasma waves in the context of solar particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos-Cruz, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.

    2001-08-01

    Stochastic particle acceleration in plasmas by means of MHD turbulence in-volves a wide range of alternatives according to, the specific wave mode, the frequency regime of the turbulence, the kind of particles to be accelerated, the assumed plasma model and so on. At present most of the alternatives have been studied with relatively deepness, though some features are not yet com-pletely understood. One of them is the delimitation of the real importance of non-lineal effects of turbulence waves in the process of particle acceleration. In this work we analyse such effects taking into account the temporal evolution of the turbulence. For illustration we exemplify our analysis with the fast MHD mode. Our results show that in some specific stages of the turbulence evolu-tion, non-linear interactions have important effects in the process of particle acceleration.

  4. Interactions between impurities and breather-pairs in a nonlinear lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Han; Chen, Weizhong; Lu, Lei; Wei, Rongjue

    2003-09-01

    Based on the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model with a δ-impurity, this Letter investigates the interactions between impurities and breather-pairs in a nonlinear pendulum chain driven by a vertical vibration. The numerical results show that a long impurity in pendulum length can absorb more energy into the chain and upgrade the energy level of the breather-pair, when the driving frequency is slight lower than that of parametric resonance of the perfect pendulums, while a short one plays a counteractive role. As the chain is driven at a higher frequency, the effect of impurities turns reverse, which shows a clear symmetry and equivalency between long and short impurities. The main results including the effect and the symmetry of impurities generalize the conclusion on the single breather to the breather-pair.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of electrons interacting with oblique whistler mode chorus in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    We perform test particle simulations for relativistic electrons interacting with a whistler mode chorus packet propagating at oblique angles. By confirming that the energy transport of oblique lower band chorus is nearly along the ambient magnetic field, we apply the gyroaveraging method in calculating equations of motion of electrons. We trace evolution of a delta function of relativistic electrons in a phase space of kinetic energy and equatorial pitch angle and obtain numerical Green's functions of the chorus wave-particle interactions. Examining the Green's functions in a wide range of kinetic energies, we find that Landau resonance can accelerate MeV electrons efficiently and that higher nth resonances such as n =- 1 and n = 2 also contribute to acceleration of electrons at high equatorial pitch angles (˜70°) and high energies (˜2 MeV). We investigate the rate of energy gain of the cyclotron resonance acceleration and the Landau resonance acceleration and find that the perpendicular component of wave electric field dominates both accelerations for MeV electrons. Furthermore, the proximity between the parallel components of Vp and Vg of oblique whistler mode waves and the nonlinear trapping condition make the interaction time of Landau resonance much longer than that of n = 1 cyclotron resonance, resulting in efficient acceleration of MeV electrons.

  6. Resonant interactions between discrete phonons in quinhydrone driven by nonlinear electron-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rury, Aaron S.

    2016-06-01

    This study reports experimental, computational, and theoretical evidence for a previously unobserved coherent phonon-phonon interaction in an organic solid that can be described by the application of Fano's analysis to a case without the presence of a continuum. Using Raman spectroscopy of the hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer material quinhydrone, two peaks appear near 700 cm-1 we assign as phonons whose position and line-shape asymmetry depend on the sample temperature and light scattering excitation energy. Density functional theory calculations find two nearly degenerate phonons possessing frequencies near the values found in experiment that share similar atomic motion out of the aromatic plane of electron donor and acceptor molecules of quinhydrone. Further analytical modeling of the steady-state light scattering process using the Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian and time-dependent perturbation theory motivates assignment of the physical origin of the asymmetric features of each peak's line shape to an interaction between two discrete phonons via nonlinear electron-phonon coupling. In the context of analytical model results, characteristics of the experimental spectra upon 2.33 eV excitation of the Raman scattering process are used to qualify the temperature dependence of the magnitude of this coupling in the valence band of quinhydrone. These results broaden the range of phonon-phonon interactions in materials in general while also highlighting the rich physics and fundamental attributes specific to organic solids that may determine their applicability in next generation electronics and photonics technologies.

  7. Compression studies of face-to-face π-stacking interaction in sodium squarate salts: Na2C4O4 and Na2C4O4•3H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Li, Shourui; Wang, Kai; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Jing; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian; Zou, Bo

    2012-11-01

    High-pressure Raman scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements of sodium squarate (Na2C4O4, SS) are performed in a diamond anvil cell. SS possesses a rare, but typical structure, which can show the effect of face-to-face π-stacking without interference of other interactions. At ˜11 GPa, it undergoes a phase transition, identified as a symmetry transformation from P21/c to P21. From high-pressure Raman patterns and the calculated model of SS, it can be proved that the phase transition results from the distorted squarate rings. We infer it is the enhancement of π-stacking that dominates the distortion. For comparison, high-pressure Raman spectra of sodium squarate trihydrate (Na2C4O4•3H2O, SST) are also investigated. The structure of SST is determined by both face-to-face π-stacking and hydrogen bonding. SST can be regarded as a deformation of SS. A phase transition, with the similar mechanism as SS, is observed at ˜10.3 GPa. Our results can be well supported by the previous high-pressure studies of ammonium squarate ((NH4)2C4O4, AS), and vice versa. High-pressure behaviors of the noncovalent interactions in SS, SST, and AS are compared to show the impacts of hydrogen bonding and the role of electrostatic interaction in releasing process.

  8. Adaptive nonlinear polynomial neural networks for control of boundary layer/structural interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, B. Eugene, Jr.; Cellucci, Richard L.; Abbott, Dean W.; Barron, Roger L.; Jordan, Paul R., III; Poor, H. Vincent

    1993-01-01

    The acoustic pressures developed in a boundary layer can interact with an aircraft panel to induce significant vibration in the panel. Such vibration is undesirable due to the aerodynamic drag and structure-borne cabin noises that result. The overall objective of this work is to develop effective and practical feedback control strategies for actively reducing this flow-induced structural vibration. This report describes the results of initial evaluations using polynomial, neural network-based, feedback control to reduce flow induced vibration in aircraft panels due to turbulent boundary layer/structural interaction. Computer simulations are used to develop and analyze feedback control strategies to reduce vibration in a beam as a first step. The key differences between this work and that going on elsewhere are as follows: that turbulent and transitional boundary layers represent broadband excitation and thus present a more complex stochastic control scenario than that of narrow band (e.g., laminar boundary layer) excitation; and secondly, that the proposed controller structures are adaptive nonlinear infinite impulse response (IIR) polynomial neural network, as opposed to the traditional adaptive linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters used in most studies to date. The controllers implemented in this study achieved vibration attenuation of 27 to 60 dB depending on the type of boundary layer established by laminar, turbulent, and intermittent laminar-to-turbulent transitional flows. Application of multi-input, multi-output, adaptive, nonlinear feedback control of vibration in aircraft panels based on polynomial neural networks appears to be feasible today. Plans are outlined for Phase 2 of this study, which will include extending the theoretical investigation conducted in Phase 2 and verifying the results in a series of laboratory experiments involving both bum and plate models.

  9. Charge Central Interpretation of the Full Nonlinear PB Equation: Implications for Accurate and Scalable Modeling of Solvation Interactions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Wang, Changhao; Ye, Xiang; Luo, Ray

    2016-08-25

    Continuum solvation modeling based upon the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely used in structural and functional analysis of biomolecules. In this work, we propose a charge-central interpretation of the full nonlinear PBE electrostatic interactions. The validity of the charge-central view or simply charge view, as formulated as a vacuum Poisson equation with effective charges, was first demonstrated by reproducing both electrostatic potentials and energies from the original solvated full nonlinear PBE. There are at least two benefits when the charge-central framework is applied. First the convergence analyses show that the use of polarization charges allows a much faster converging numerical procedure for electrostatic energy and forces calculation for the full nonlinear PBE. Second, the formulation of the solvated electrostatic interactions as effective charges in vacuum allows scalable algorithms to be deployed for large biomolecular systems. Here, we exploited the charge-view interpretation and developed a particle-particle particle-mesh (P3M) strategy for the full nonlinear PBE systems. We also studied the accuracy and convergence of solvation forces with the charge-view and the P3M methods. It is interesting to note that the convergence of both the charge-view and the P3M methods is more rapid than the original full nonlinear PBE method. Given the developments and validations documented here, we are working to adapt the P3M treatment of the full nonlinear PBE model to molecular dynamics simulations.

  10. Consideration of nonlinear wheel-rail contact forces for dynamic vehicle-bridge interaction in high-speed railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolín, Pablo; Zhang, Nan; Goicolea, José M.; Xia, He; Astiz, Miguel Á.; Oliva, Javier

    2013-03-01

    In this work models with nonlinear wheel-rail contact forces are considered for analysing the dynamic interaction between high speed trains and bridges, in order to study dynamic effects both in the bridge and in the vehicles resulting from the coupling. Nonlinear contact models may be necessary for evaluating the stability and the safety of running traffic in situations such as vehicle overturn when the train is crossing a bridge under strong lateral winds or when an earthquake occurs. For studying the coupled dynamic response of trains and bridges, models of multibody dynamics are used for vehicles and the finite element method for structures. Special relevance is given here to the consideration of contact interaction forces between railway vehicles and the track. Four different interaction models are compared in this work: (1) a model where the vehicle wheelset is considered to be rigidly coupled to the track; (2) a staggered uncoupled method in which vehicle and structure are analysed separately; (3) a linear contact model in which lateral relative displacements between rails and train wheels are allowed, assuming biconic wheel and rail profiles and linear Kalker theory for tangential contact; (4) a nonlinear model in which realistic wheel and rail profiles, Hertz's nonlinear theory for normal contact and Kalker's nonlinear theory for tangential contact are used. The different models are applied and compared to experimental measurements for a test case of a high-speed train in China.

  11. The Role of Nonlinear Interactions in Causing Transitions into Edge Transport-Barrier Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziegler, Istvan

    2015-11-01

    Transitions of tokamak confinement regimes are studied with a focus on interactions between turbulence and zonal flows (ZF) or geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM). Results show that access to im-proved confinement regimes is profoundly affected by these interactions and clarify the role of GAM and ZF in different types of transitions. In order to understand the underlying dynamics of these transitions, both their trigger mechanism and the parametric dependence of nonlinear transfer processes are studied using gas-puff-imaging. For the L-to-H transition, this work shows that the stress mediated transfer rate of kinetic energy from turbulence into ZF leads in the changes, the turbulence collapses, and finally the pressure gradient forms - establishing the trigger as flow organization. For the I-mode, turbulence is studied with the aim of understanding /emphaccess to the improved confinement regime, which exhibits an edge temperature pedestal, but a relaxed density profile. L-to-I and I-to-H transitions are analyzed in a time-resolved manner analogous to the L-H transition. For the L-to-I transition there is a difference between the scaling of the regime's typical edge fluctuation, the Weakly Coherent Mode (WCM), and GAM, known to be essential in shaping the WCM. Both the WCM and the GAM are necessary for the regime, and regime access is found to be sensitive to the GAM drive and damping. Parametric dependences of nonlinearities are examined in steady state discharges from a range of toroidal field, plasma current, and density; and interactions between flows and turbulence in both L-mode and I-mode are estimated using bispectral methods. The ZF drive increases monotonically with cross-field heat flux, i.e. approaches a transition, while GAM follow more complicated trends. These results advance our progress toward predicting the parametric dependences of transition conditions. Work supported by USDoE, Office of Science, Award Numbers DE-SC-0008689 and DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. Role of nonlinear scale interactions in limiting dynamical prediction of lower tropospheric boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, S.

    2010-11-01

    Dominant scale of tropical boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations (BSISOs) being in the range of wave numbers 1-4, dynamical extended range prediction of BSISO is limited by rapid buildup of errors in ultra-long/planetary waves in almost all prediction models. While the initial errors are largely on the small scales, within 3-5 days of forecasts maximum errors appear in the ultra-long waves such as the tropical convergence zone. Spectral decomposition of errors with forecast lead time indicate that the initial error in the small scales is already close to its saturation value at these scales, whereas that in ultra-long waves is about two orders of magnitude smaller than their saturation values. Such an increase of errors in ultra-long waves cannot be explained as growth of initial errors. It is proposed that the fast growth of errors in the planetary waves is due to continuous generation of errors in the small scales (due to inadequacy of the physical parameterizations such as formulation of cumulus clouds) and upscale propagation of these errors through the process of scale interactions. Basic systematic error kinetic energy and the scale interactions in terms of the wave-wave exchanges among nonlinear triads are formulated and the above hypothesis is tested through a diagnostic analysis of the error energetics in two different model predictions at the lower troposphere. It has been revealed that nonlinear triad interactions lead to advection of errors from short and synoptic waves (wave number > 10) to long waves (wave numbers 5-10) and from long waves to ultra-long waves (wave numbers 1-4) and are responsible for the rapid growth of errors in the planetary waves. Unraveling the exact mechanism through which upscale transfer of errors take place may help us in devising a method to inhibit the mingling of small-scale error with the error in prediction of tropical intraseasonal oscillations and improve extended range prediction of the lower tropospheric BSISOs.

  13. Transformable nanostructures of platinum-containing organosilane hybrids: non-covalent self-assembly of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes assisted by Pt···Pt and π-π stacking interactions of alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine moieties.

    PubMed

    Au-Yeung, Ho-Leung; Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Tam, Anthony Yiu-Yan; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-12-31

    An alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine complex functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) moieties has been demonstrated to exhibit self-association behavior to give various distinguishable nanostructures with interesting morphological transformation from rings to rods in response to solvent conditions through the stabilization of Pt···Pt and π-π stacking interactions as well as hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions. These changes can be systemically controlled by varying the solvent composition and have been studied by (1)H NMR, electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption, and emission spectroscopies.

  14. Optimal bipedal interactions with dynamic terrain: synthesis and analysis via nonlinear programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubicki, Christian; Goldman, Daniel; Ames, Aaron

    In terrestrial locomotion, gait dynamics and motor control behaviors are tuned to interact efficiently and stably with the dynamics of the terrain (i.e. terradynamics). This controlled interaction must be particularly thoughtful in bipeds, as their reduced contact points render them highly susceptible to falls. While bipedalism under rigid terrain assumptions is well-studied, insights for two-legged locomotion on soft terrain, such as sand and dirt, are comparatively sparse. We seek an understanding of how biological bipeds stably and economically negotiate granular media, with an eye toward imbuing those abilities in bipedal robots. We present a trajectory optimization method for controlled systems subject to granular intrusion. By formulating a large-scale nonlinear program (NLP) with reduced-order resistive force theory (RFT) models and jamming cone dynamics, the optimized motions are informed and shaped by the dynamics of the terrain. Using a variant of direct collocation methods, we can express all optimization objectives and constraints in closed-form, resulting in rapid solving by standard NLP solvers, such as IPOPT. We employ this tool to analyze emergent features of bipedal locomotion in granular media, with an eye toward robotic implementation.

  15. Pattern Formation and Strong Nonlinear Interactions in Exciton-Polariton Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li; Nersisyan, Ani; Oztop, Baris; Tureci, Hakan

    2014-03-01

    Exciton-polaritons generated by light-induced potentials can spontaneously condense into macroscopic quantum states that display nontrivial spatial and temporal density modulation. While these patterns and their dynamics can be reproduced through the solution of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation, a predictive theory of their thresholds, oscillation frequencies, and multi-pattern interactions has so far been lacking. Here we represent such an approach based on current-carrying quasi-modes of the non-Hermitian potential induced by the pump. The presented theory allows us to capture the patterns formed in the steady-state directly and account for nonlinearities exactly. We find a simple but powerful expression for thresholds of condensation and the associated frequencies of oscillations, quantifying the contribution of particle formation, leakage, and interactions. We also show that the evolution of the condensate with increasing pump strength is strongly geometry dependent and can display contrasting features such as enhancement or reduction of the spatial localization of the condensate. We acknowledge support by DARPA under Grant No. N66001-11-1-4162 and NSF under CAREER Grant No. DMR-1151810.

  16. Three dimensional, non-linear, finite element analysis of compactable soil interaction with a hyperelastic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiroux, Robert Charles

    The objective of this research was to produce a three dimensional, non-linear, dynamic simulation of the interaction between a hyperelastic wheel rolling over compactable soil. The finite element models developed to produce the simulation utilized the ABAQUS/Explicit computer code. Within the simulation two separate bodies were modeled, the hyperelastic wheel and a compactable soil-bed. Interaction between the bodies was achieved by allowing them to come in contact but not to penetrate the contact surface. The simulation included dynamic loading of a hyperelastic, rubber tire in contact with compactable soil with an applied constant angular velocity or torque, including a tow load, applied to the wheel hub. The constraints on the wheel model produced a straight and curved path. In addition the simulation included a shear limit between the tire and soil allowing for the introduction of slip. Soil properties were simulated using the Drucker-Prager, Cap Plasticity model available within the ABAQUS/Explicit program. Numerical results obtained from the three dimensional model were compared with related experimental data and showed good correlation for similar conditions. Numerical and experimental data compared well for both stress and wheel rut formation depth under a weight of 5.8 kN and a constant angular velocity applied to the wheel hub. The simulation results provided a demonstration of the benefit of three-dimensional simulation in comparison to previous two-dimensional, plane strain simulations.

  17. Nonlinear response surface in the study of interaction analysis of three combination drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Wen; Pei, Xin-Yan; Grant, Steven; Birch, Jeffrey B.; Felthousen, Jessica; Dai, Yun; Fang, Hong-Bin; Tan, Ming; Sun, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Few articles have been written on analyzing three-way interactions between drugs. It may seem to be quite straightforward to extend a statistical method from two-drugs to three-drugs. However, there may exist more complex nonlinear response surface of the interaction index (II) with more complex local synergy and/or local antagonism interspersed in different regions of drug combinations in a three-drug study, compared in a two-drug study. In addition, it is not possible to obtain a four-dimensional (4D) response surface plot for a three-drug study. We propose an analysis procedure to construct the dose combination regions of interest (say, the synergistic areas with II ≤ 0.9). First, use the model robust regression method (MRR), a semiparametric method, to fit the entire response surface of the II, which allows to fit a complex response surface with local synergy/antagonism. Second, we run a modified genetic algorithm (MGA), a stochastic optimization method, many times with different random seeds, to allow to collect as many feasible points as possible that satisfy the estimated values of II ≤ 0.9. Last, all these feasible points are used to construct the approximate dose regions of interest in a 3D. A case study with three anti-cancer drugs in an in vitro experiment is employed to illustrate how to find the dose regions of interest. PMID:27185067

  18. The effect of pi-stacking, h-bonding, and electrostatic interactions on the ionization energies of nucleic acid bases: adenine-adenine, thymine-thymine and adenine-thymine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Krylov, Anna I.

    2009-09-02

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of the ionized dimers of thymine and adenine, TT, AA, and AT, is presented. Adiabatic and vertical ionization energies(IEs) for monomers and dimers as well as thresholds for the appearance of the protonated species are reported and analyzed. Non-covalent interactions stronglyaffect the observed IEs. The magnitude and the nature of the effect is different for different isomers of the dimers. The computations reveal that for TT, the largestchanges in vertical IEs (0.4 eV) occur in asymmetric h-bonded and symmetric pi- stacked isomers, whereas in the lowest-energy symmetric h-bonded dimer the shiftin IEs is much smaller (0.1 eV). The origin of the shift and the character of the ionized states is different in asymmetric h-bonded and symmetric stacked isomers. Inthe former, the initial hole is localized on one of the fragments, and the shift is due to the electrostatic stabilization of the positive charge of the ionized fragment by thedipole moment of the neutral fragment. In the latter, the hole is delocalized, and the change in IE is proportional to the overlap of the fragments' MOs. The shifts in AAare much smaller due to a less effcient overlap and a smaller dipole moment. The ionization of the h-bonded dimers results in barrierless (or nearly barrierless) protontransfer, whereas the pi-stacked dimers relax to structures with the hole stabilized by the delocalization or electrostatic interactions.

  19. Interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Dean vortices. Comparison of direct numerical simulation and a weakly nonlinear theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Zang, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used to evaluate a weakly nonlinear theory describing the interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves with Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The theory and the simulation agree for certain combinations of parameters, but the two approaches give conflicting results for other combinations. Some possibilities for these discrepancies are discussed.

  20. Weak interaction for higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation: An application of soliton perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandar, S.; Hoseini, S. M.

    2017-04-01

    Using soliton perturbation theory, we analytically study weak interaction for a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. An ansatz consists of two well-separate single solitons is considered and slow variation of solitons parameters are found. Twelve different scenarios for when the initial velocities are zero are observed. A good comparison is found between numerical and analytical results.

  1. Using Recursive Regression to Explore Nonlinear Relationships and Interactions: A Tutorial Applied to a Multicultural Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how a seldom-used statistical procedure, recursive regression (RR), can numerically and graphically illustrate data-driven nonlinear relationships and interaction of variables. This routine falls into the family of exploratory techniques, yet a few interesting features make it a valuable compliment to factor analysis and…

  2. Theoretical and experimental study on the acoustic wave energy after the nonlinear interaction of acoustic waves in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chao-feng; Li, Feng-chen; Chen, Huan; Lu, Di; Yang, De-sen; Zhang, Meng

    2015-06-01

    Based on the Burgers equation and Manley-Rowe equation, the derivation about nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves has been done in this paper. After nonlinear interaction among the low-frequency weak waves and the pump wave, the analytical solutions of acoustic waves' amplitude in the field are deduced. The relationship between normalized energy of high-frequency and the change of acoustic energy before and after the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves is analyzed. The experimental results about the changes of the acoustic energy are presented. The study shows that new frequencies are generated and the energies of the low-frequency are modulated in a long term by the pump waves, which leads the energies of the low-frequency acoustic waves to change in the pulse trend in the process of the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves. The increase and decrease of the energies of the low-frequency are observed under certain typical conditions, which lays a foundation for practical engineering applications.

  3. Final report for DOE-FG02-02ER54688: Study of nonlinear interactions between counterpropagating shear Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T A

    2006-11-16

    Final report for DOE Plasma Physics Junior Faculty Development award DOE-FG02-02ER54688. Reports on research undertaken from 8/1/2002 until 5/15/2006, investigating nonlinear interactions between Alfven waves in a laboratory experiment.

  4. Stack gas treatment

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  5. Predicting shunt currents in stacks of bipolar plate cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.; Walton, C. W.; Burney, H. S.; Beaver, R. N.

    1986-03-01

    A method is presented for predicting shunt currents in stacks of undivided and divided bipolar plate cells. The method is an efficient way of solving the coupled sets of algebraic equations that arise from using circuit analog models to represent the current paths in stacks of undivided or divided bipolar plate cells. These algebraic equations can be either linear or nonlinear depending upon the current-potential relationships used in the model (i.e., nonlinear circuit elements can be included). The method is used to show the importance of including nonsymmetrical resistances and nonlinear circuit elements in the models. Also, the method is used to predict the shunt currents for a nine cell stack of pilot plant scale bipolar plate, membrane chlor-alkali cells. It is shown that these predictions agree qualitatively with measured values. Finally, the method is used to predict the shunt currents for stacks of 60 and 120 of these cells.

  6. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  7. Probing hydrogen bond interactions in a shear thickening polysaccharide using nonlinear shear and extensional rheology.

    PubMed

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Wee, May; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-06-05

    Mamaku gum is a polysaccharide extracted from the fronds of the black tree fern found in New Zealand. The cooked pith has traditionally been used for various medicinal purposes and as a food source by the Maori people of New Zealand. It has potential applications as a thickener in the food industry and as a palliative for patients with dysphagia. Studies on the shear rheology of Mamaku gum have revealed that the gum exhibits shear thickening at a critical shear rate due to a transition from intra- to inter-molecular chain interactions upon shear-induced chain elongation. In this paper, we demonstrate that these interactions are primarily due to hydrogen bonding. We perform extensional rheology on mixtures of Mamaku gum and urea (a known disruptor of hydrogen bonds) to quantify the nature of these interactions. Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometry (CaBER) performed on the pure Mamaku gum solutions yield plateau values of the Trouton ratio as high as ∼10(4), showing that the viscoelasticity of the gum in uniaxial elongation is much higher than in shear. For all Mamaku concentrations tested, the extensional viscosity decreases upon increasing urea concentration. Furthermore, the relaxation time decreases exponentially with increasing urea concentration. This exponential relationship is independent of the Mamaku concentration, and is identical to the relationships between urea concentration and characteristic timescales measured in nonlinear shear rheology. We show using the sticky reptation model for polymers with multiple sticker groups along the backbone how such a relationship is consistent with a linear decrease in the free energy for hydrogen bond dissociation. We then demonstrate that a time-concentration superposition principle can be used to collapse the viscoelastic properties of the Mamaku-gum/urea mixtures.

  8. Nonlinear interaction between a pair of oblique modes in a supersonic mixing layer: Long-wave limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsa, Thomas F.; Gartside, James

    1995-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between a pair of symmetric, oblique, and spatial instability modes is studied in the long-wave limit using asymptotic methods. The base flow is taken to be a supersonic mixing layer whose Mach number is such that the corresponding vortex sheet is marginally stable according to Miles' criterion. It is shown that the amplitude of the mode obeys a nonlinear integro-differential equation. Numerical solutions of this equation show that, when the obliqueness angle is less than pi/4, the effect of the nonlinearity is to enhance the growth rate of the instability. The solution terminates in a singularity at a finite streamwise location. This result is reminiscent of that obtained in the vicinity of the neutral point by other authors in several different types of flows. On the other hand, when the obliqueness angle is more than pi/4, the streamwise development of the amplitude is characterized by a series of modulations. This arises from the fact that the nonlinear term in the amplitude equation may be either stabilizing or destabilizing, depending on the value of the streamwise coordinate. However, even in this case the amplitude of the disturbance increases, though not as rapidly as in the case for which the angle is less than pi/4. Quite generally then, the nonlinear interaction between two oblique modes in a supersonic mixing layer enhances the growth of the disturbance.

  9. Application of binary interaction theory to linear and nonlinear rheology of star-branched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Han-Wen

    2001-12-01

    The binary interaction (BI) theory recently developed by David W. Mead, Ronald G. Larson, and Masao Doi (1998) is based on two fundamental postulates strongly supported by experimental data: (1)stress-optic rule, (2)binary interaction principle. The BI theory is general and in principle applies to all entangled flexible polymers regardless of molecular architecture. Three parameters are required in the BI theory to establish the length and time scales for the system: the plateau modulus, the entanglement molecular weight, and the Rouse relaxation time scale. This thesis focuses on the first application of the BI theory to polymers with long-chain branches (LCB): star polymers. A mathematically simplified star model is derived analytically by performing a boundary layer analysis on the full BI model, resulting in an entanglement flux balance between star tip fluctuational penetration inward and convective constraint release (CCR)/convection outward from the star core. The simplified BI star theory for small deformations is compared with the well-established Ball-McLeish model. Juxtaposition of both simulations shows essentially quantitative equivalence. The empirical Cox-Merz viscosity rule for star-branched polymers is analytically derived from the simplified BI star model. The underlying physical basis of the validity of the Cox-Merz relationship for fast, nonlinear flows is a direct consequence of the combined effect of CCR and convection. Simulations from the simplified BI star model agree well with experimental dynamic moduli and flow curves of melts/concentrated solutions of various polymer species from literature data with no adjustable parameters. Flow curve crossover phenomena and subsequent merger reported for matched star and linear polymers are quantitatively predicted by the BI theory. The flow curve crossover of a matched set of star and linear polymers represents a transition of material response from Brownian-motion- governed linear viscoelasticity

  10. Non-linear Alfvén wave interaction leading to resonant excitation of an acoustic mode in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, S.; Carter, T. A.

    2015-05-15

    The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay process is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Other properties of the interaction including the spatial profile of the beat mode and response amplitude are also consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. A simple damped, driven oscillator model making use of the MHD equations well-predicts most of the observations, but the width of the resonance curve is still under investigation.

  11. Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear interactions with VLF chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Omura, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Prompt recovery of MeV (millions of electron Volts) electron populations in the poststorm core of the outer terrestrial radiation belt involves local acceleration of a seed population of energetic electrons in interactions with VLF chorus waves. Electron interactions during the generation of VLF rising tones are strongly nonlinear, such that a fraction of the relativistic electrons at resonant energies are trapped by waves, leading to significant nonadiabatic energy exchange. Through detailed examination of VLF chorus and electron fluxes observed by Van Allen Probes, we investigate the efficiency of nonlinear processes for acceleration of electrons to MeV energies. We find through subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms that electrons with initial energy of hundreds of keV to 3 MeV can be accelerated by 50 keV-200 keV in resonant interactions with a single VLF rising tone on a time scale of 10-100 ms.

  12. Photoresponse of double-stacked graphene to Infrared radiation.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Prarthana; Mohapatra, Dipti R; Misra, Abha

    2015-10-14

    We report the photoresponse of stacked graphene layers towards infrared radiation. Graphene is stacked in two configurations, namely, crossed and parallel layers. Raman analysis demonstrated a strong interaction among the stacked graphene layers. Graphene in the crossed configuration exhibited the presence of both negative and positive conductivities; however, other configurations of graphene exhibited positive conductivity only. The presence of negative photoconductivity is proposed to be due to oxygen or oxygen-related functional group absorbents that are trapped in between two monolayers of graphene and act as scattering centers for free carriers. An interesting trend is reported in differential conductivity when stacked layers are compared with multilayers and parallel-stacked graphene layers.

  13. Photoresponse of double-stacked graphene to Infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Prarthana; Mohapatra, Dipti R.; Misra, Abha

    2015-09-01

    We report the photoresponse of stacked graphene layers towards infrared radiation. Graphene is stacked in two configurations, namely, crossed and parallel layers. Raman analysis demonstrated a strong interaction among the stacked graphene layers. Graphene in the crossed configuration exhibited the presence of both negative and positive conductivities; however, other configurations of graphene exhibited positive conductivity only. The presence of negative photoconductivity is proposed to be due to oxygen or oxygen-related functional group absorbents that are trapped in between two monolayers of graphene and act as scattering centers for free carriers. An interesting trend is reported in differential conductivity when stacked layers are compared with multilayers and parallel-stacked graphene layers.

  14. Nonlinear evolution of interacting oblique waves on two-dimensional shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Choi, S.-W.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of critical layer nonlinearity are considered on spatially growing oblique instability waves on nominally two-dimensional shear layers between parallel streams. The analysis shows that three-dimensional effects cause nonlinearity to occur at much smaller amplitudes than it does in two-dimensional flows. The nonlinear instability wave amplitude is determined by an integro-differential equation with cubic type nonlinearity. The numerical solutions to this equation are worked out and discussed in some detail. The numerical solutions always end in a singularity at a finite downstream distance.

  15. Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions. II. Numerical methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    In Part I of this work and Physics of Plasmas, June 1995, the behavior of linearly stable, integrable systems of waves in a simple plasma model was described using a Hamiltonian formulation. It was shown that explosive instability arises from nonlinear coupling between modes of positive and negative energy, with well-defined threshold amplitudes depending on the physical parameters. In this concluding paper, the nonintegrable case is treated numerically. Several sets of waves are considered, comprising systems of two and three degrees of freedom. The time evolution is modelled with an explicit symplectic integration algorithm derived using Lie algebraic methods. When initial wave amplitudes are large enough to support two-wave decay interactions, strongly chaotic motion destroys the separatrix bounding the stable region for explosive triplets. Phase space orbits then experience diffusive growth to amplitudes that are sufficient for explosive instability, thus effectively reducing the threshold amplitude. For initial amplitudes too small to drive decay instability, small perturbations might still grow to arbitrary size via Arnold diffusion. Numerical experiments do not show diffusion in this case, although the actual diffusion rate is probably underestimated due to the simplicity of the model.

  16. Nonlinear Effects of Nanoparticles: Biological Variability From Hormetic Doses, Small Particle Sizes, and Dynamic Adaptive Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly focused on the nanoscale level of organization where biological processes take place in living systems. Nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., 1–100 nm diameter) are small forms of natural or manufactured source material whose properties differ markedly from those of the respective bulk forms of the “same” material. Certain NPs have diagnostic and therapeutic uses; some NPs exhibit low-dose toxicity; other NPs show ability to stimulate low-dose adaptive responses (hormesis). Beyond dose, size, shape, and surface charge variations of NPs evoke nonlinear responses in complex adaptive systems. NPs acquire unique size-dependent biological, chemical, thermal, optical, electromagnetic, and atom-like quantum properties. Nanoparticles exhibit high surface adsorptive capacity for other substances, enhanced bioavailability, and ability to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes including the blood-brain barrier. With super-potent effects, nano-forms can evoke cellular stress responses or therapeutic effects not only at lower doses than their bulk forms, but also for longer periods of time. Interactions of initial effects and compensatory systemic responses can alter the impact of NPs over time. Taken together, the data suggest the need to downshift the dose-response curve of NPs from that for bulk forms in order to identify the necessarily decreased no-observed-adverse-effect-level and hormetic dose range for nanoparticles. PMID:24910581

  17. Nonlinear effects of nanoparticles: biological variability from hormetic doses, small particle sizes, and dynamic adaptive interactions.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Ives, John A; Jonas, Wayne B

    2014-05-01

    Researchers are increasingly focused on the nanoscale level of organization where biological processes take place in living systems. Nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., 1-100 nm diameter) are small forms of natural or manufactured source material whose properties differ markedly from those of the respective bulk forms of the "same" material. Certain NPs have diagnostic and therapeutic uses; some NPs exhibit low-dose toxicity; other NPs show ability to stimulate low-dose adaptive responses (hormesis). Beyond dose, size, shape, and surface charge variations of NPs evoke nonlinear responses in complex adaptive systems. NPs acquire unique size-dependent biological, chemical, thermal, optical, electromagnetic, and atom-like quantum properties. Nanoparticles exhibit high surface adsorptive capacity for other substances, enhanced bioavailability, and ability to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes including the blood-brain barrier. With super-potent effects, nano-forms can evoke cellular stress responses or therapeutic effects not only at lower doses than their bulk forms, but also for longer periods of time. Interactions of initial effects and compensatory systemic responses can alter the impact of NPs over time. Taken together, the data suggest the need to downshift the dose-response curve of NPs from that for bulk forms in order to identify the necessarily decreased no-observed-adverse-effect-level and hormetic dose range for nanoparticles.

  18. The late Universe with non-linear interaction in the dark sector: The coincidence problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Morais, João; Zhuk, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We study the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At such a scale the Universe is highly inhomogeneous and filled with discretely distributed inhomogeneities in the form of galaxies and groups of galaxies. As a matter source, we consider dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) with a non-linear interaction Q = 3 HγεbarDEεbarDM /(εbarDE +εbarDM) , where γ is a constant. We assume that DM is pressureless and DE has a constant equation of state parameter w. In the considered model, the energy densities of the dark sector components present a scaling behaviour with εbarDM /εbarDE ∼(a0 / a) - 3(w + γ). We investigate the possibility that the perturbations of DM and DE, which are interacting among themselves, could be coupled to the galaxies with the former being concentrated around them. To carry our analysis, we consider the theory of scalar perturbations (within the mechanical approach), and obtain the sets of parameters (w , γ) which do not contradict it. We conclude that two sets: (w = - 2 / 3 , γ = 1 / 3) and (w = - 1 , γ = 1 / 3) are of special interest. First, the energy densities of DM and DE on these cases are concentrated around galaxies confirming that they are coupled fluids. Second, we show that for both of them, the coincidence problem is less severe than in the standard ΛCDM. Third, the set (w = - 1 , γ = 1 / 3) is within the observational constraints. Finally, we also obtain an expression for the gravitational potential in the considered model.

  19. Nonlinear signal-noise interactions in dispersion managed coherent PM-QPSK systems in the presence of PMD.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaogang; Wu, Jian; Li, Yan; Li, Wei; Hong, Xiaobin; Guo, Hongxiang; Zuo, Yong; Lin, Jintong

    2012-12-03

    Considering the polarization mode dispersion(PMD), the transmission penalty induced by nonlinear signal-noise interactions (NSNI) between the amplified spontaneous emission noise (ASE) and the information signal is investigated numerically for 40(100)G dispersion-managed(DM) polarization-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PM-QPSK) systems. We show that for single-channel PM-QPSK systems, PMD is helpful to reduce the NSNI-induced penalty. For multi-channel PM-QPSK system, however, the NSNI-induced nonlinear penalty is significantly enhanced by PMD, especially at low bit-rate. Our results show that due to the NSNI, the reduction of allowed input power that gives 1-dB Q penalty after 1600-km nonlinear transmission will increase from 1dB without PMD to 3.7dB with PMD for 42.8-Gbit/s coherent return-to-zero (RZ)-PM-QPSK systems.

  20. Interaction of elliptically polarised cross-degenerate cnoidal waves in an isotropic gyrotropic medium with spatial dispersion of cubic nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, V A; Petnikova, V M; Shuvalov, V V

    2015-09-30

    Three unusual classes of particular analytical solutions to a system of four nonlinear equations are found for slowly varying complex amplitudes of circularly polarised components of the electric field. The system describes the self-action and interaction of two elliptically polarised plane waves collinearly propagating in an isotropic medium with second-order frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion of cubic nonlinearity. The solutions correspond to self-consistent combinations of two elliptically polarised cnoidal waves whose mutually orthogonal polarisation components vary in accordance with pairwise identical laws during propagation. At the same time, the amplitudes of the component with the same circular polarisation are proportional to two different elliptic Jacobi functions with the same periods. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. Experimental measurements of energy transfer and nonlinear interaction in turbulence at the sino-united spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Song; Xu, Yuhong; Gao, Zhe; Wang, Wenhao; Liu, Yangqing; Tan, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of the energy transfer and nonlinear coupling among edge electromagnetic turbulence have been dedicatedly studied in various discharge stages at the sino-united spherical tokamak using multiple Langmuir and magnetic probe arrays. The wavelet bispectral analysis and the modified Kim's method are applied to investigate turbulence properties and their linear growth/damping and nonlinear energy transfer rates, along with multi-field turbulence interactions. The results show diverse features in the linear growth and nonlinear energy transfer between multi-field fluctuations during the current ramp-up, stationary, and internal connection event discharge phases. The diversity implies the importance to develop more sophisticated multi-field models to directly estimate the energy transfer rate among multiple turbulent fields.

  2. Linear and weakly nonlinear aspects of free shear layer instability, roll-up, subharmonic interaction and wall influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, A. B.; Thompson, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The growth of the momentum thickness and the modal disturbance energies are examined to study the nature and onset of nonlinearity in a temporally growing free shear layer. A shooting technique is used to find solutions to the linearized eigenvalue problem, and pseudospectral weakly nonlinear simulations of this flow are obtained for comparison. The roll-up of a fundamental disturbance follows linear theory predictions even with a 20 percent disturbance amplitude. A weak nonlinear interaction of the disturbance creates a finite-amplitude mean shear stress which dominates the growth of the layer momentum thickness, and the disturbance growth rate changes until the fundamental disturbance dominates. The fundamental then becomes an energy source for the harmonic, resulting in an increase in the growth rate of the subharmonic over the linear prediction even when the fundamental has no energy to give. Also considered are phase relations and the wall influence.

  3. π-stacking and C-X...D (X = H, NO2; D = O, π) interactions in the crystal network of both C-H...N and π-stacked dimers of 1,2-bis(4-bromophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole and 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole.

    PubMed

    González-Padilla, Jazmin E; Rosales-Hernández, Martha C; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I; García-Báez, Efren V; Rojas-Lima, Susana; Salazar-Pereda, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Molecules of 1,2-bis(4-bromophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole, C19H12Br2N2, (I), and 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole, C19H12BrN3O2, (II), are arranged in dimeric units through C-H...N and parallel-displaced π-stacking interactions favoured by the appropriate disposition of N- and C-bonded phenyl rings with respect to the mean benzimidazole plane. The molecular packing of the dimers of (I) and (II) arises by the concurrence of a diverse set of weak intermolecular C-X...D (X = H, NO2; D = O, π) interactions.

  4. Non-linear interactions between {CO}_2 radiative and physiological effects on Amazonian evapotranspiration in an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halladay, Kate; Good, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of mechanisms underlying the evapotranspiration response to increased {CO}_2 in HadGEM2-ES, focussed on western Amazonia. We use three simulations from CMIP5 in which atmospheric {CO}_2 increases at 1% per year reaching approximately four times pre-industrial levels after 140 years. Using 3-hourly data, we found that evapotranspiration (ET) change was dominated by decreased stomatal conductance (g_s ), and to a lesser extent by decreased canopy water and increased moisture gradient (specific humidity difference between surface and near-surface). There were large, non-linear decreases in ET in the simulation in which radiative and physiological forcings could interact. This non-linearity arises from non-linearity in the conductance term (includes aerodynamic and stomatal resistance and partitioning between the two, which is determined by canopy water availability), the moisture gradient, and negative correlation between these two terms. The conductance term is non-linear because GPP responds non-linearly to temperature and GPP is the dominant control on g_s in HadGEM2-ES. In addition, canopy water declines, mainly due to increases in potential evaporation, which further decrease the conductance term. The moisture gradient responds non-linearly owing to the non-linear response of temperature to {CO}_2 increases, which increases the Bowen ratio. Moisture gradient increases resulting from ET decline increase ET and thus constitute a negative feedback. This analysis highlights the importance of the g_s parametrisation in determining the ET response and the potential differences between offline and online simulations owing to feedbacks on ET via the atmosphere, some of which would not occur in an offline simulation.

  5. PAM stack test utility

    SciTech Connect

    Grondona, Mark A.

    2007-08-22

    The pamtest utility calls the normal PAM hooks using a service and username supplied on the command line. This allows an administratory to test any one of many configured PAM stacks as any existing user on the machine.

  6. Nonlinearity Role in Long-Term Interaction of the Ocean Gravity Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation and its exact solutions. Numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear Euler equation have also been performed in... Schrodinger breathers, Proceedings of ECMWF Workshop on "Ocean Waves" - 25 to 27 June 2012 [published] • Onorato, M. and Proment, D.; Approximate rogue wave

  7. Stacked Buoyant Payload Launcher

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-14

    reserved for undersea launched missiles. Underwater deployment of smaller payloads has been limited to ejection from torpedo tubes, the trash disposal...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stacked Buoyant Payload Launcher 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...1 of 11 STACKED BUOYANT PAYLOAD LAUNCHER STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and

  8. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta in the interaction picture method for numerically solving the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongxi; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2010-04-12

    A fourth-order Runge-Kutta in the interaction picture (RK4IP) method is presented for solving the coupled nonlinear Schr odinger equation (CNLSE) that governs the light propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence. The computational error of RK4IP is caused by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, better than the split-step approximation limited by the step size. As a result, the step size of RK4IP can have the same order of magnitude as the dispersion length and/or the nonlinear length of the fiber, provided the birefringence effect is small. For communication fibers with random birefringence, the step size of RK4IP can be orders of magnitude larger than the correlation length and the beating length of the fibers, depending on the interaction between linear and nonlinear effects. Our approach can be applied to the fibers having the general form of local birefringence and treat the Kerr nonlinearity without approximation. Our RK4IP results agree well with those obtained from Manakov-PMD approximation, provided the polarization state can be mixed enough on the Poincar e sphere.

  9. Nonlinear dipole-dipole interactions and spectroscopic properties of van der waals complexes in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshiev, N. G.

    2003-09-01

    We suggest a semiempirical approach to describing the influence of local nonlinear dipole-dipole interactions on the formation of van der Waals complexes of 1: 1 composition in the gas phase. Based on this approach, we quantitatively interpret the experimental data on the patterns of the shift in the electronic (complexes of a 3-aminophthalimide molecule with water and methanol molecules) and vibrational (complexes of a HCl molecule with acetone and acetonitrile molecules) absorption spectra attributable to the processes of complex formation. We confirm the conclusion that a nonlinear dipole-dipole interaction should be considered as one of the most important physical mechanisms that result in the association of molecules both in the gas phase and, under certain conditions, in the condensed state.

  10. The nonlinear interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Taylor-Goertler vortices in curved channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that a viscous fluid flow with curved streamlines can support both Tollmien-Schlichting and Taylor-Goertler instabilities. In a situation where both modes are possible on the basis of linear theory a nonlinear theory must be used to determine the effect of the interaction of the instabilities. The details of this interaction are of practical importance because of its possible catastrophic effects on mechanisms used for laminar flow control. This interaction is studied in the context of fully developed flows in curved channels. A part form technical differences associated with boundary layer growth the structures of the instabilities in this flow are very similar to those in the practically more important external boundary layer situation. The interaction is shown to have two distinct phases depending on the size of the disturbances. At very low amplitudes two oblique Tollmein-Schlichting waves interact with a Goertler vortex in such a manner that the amplitudes become infinite at a finite time. This type of interaction is described by ordinary differential amplitude equations with quadratic nonlinearities.

  11. Study of Nonlinear Interaction and Turbulence of Alfven Waves in LAPD Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos

    2013-11-29

    The complete project had two major goals — investigate MHD turbulence generated by counterpropagating Alfven modes, and study such processes in the LAPD device. In order to study MHD turbulence in numerical simulations, two codes have been used: full MHD, and reduced MHD developed specialy for this project. Quantitative numerical results are obtained through high-resolution simulations of strong MHD turbulence, performed through the 2010 DOE INCITE allocation. We addressed the questions of the spectrum of turbulence, its universality, and the value of the so-called Kolmogorov constant (the normalization coefficient of the spectrum). In these simulations we measured with unprecedented accuracy the energy spectra of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. We also studied the so-called residual energy, that is, the difference between kinetic and magnetic energies in turbulent fluctuations. In our analytic work we explained generation of residual energy in weak MHD turbulence, in the process of random collisions of counterpropagating Alfven waves. We then generalized these results for the case of strong MHD turbulence. The developed model explained generation of residual energy is strong MHD turbulence, and verified the results in numerical simulations. We then analyzed the imbalanced case, where more Alfven waves propagate in one direction. We found that spectral properties of the residual energy are similar for both balanced and imbalanced cases. We then compared strong MHD turbulence observed in the solar wind with turbulence generated in numerical simulations. Nonlinear interaction of Alfv´en waves has been studied in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD). We have simulated the collision of the Alfven modes in the settings close to the experiment. We have created a train of wave packets with the apltitudes closed to those observed n the experiment, and allowed them to collide. We then saw the generation of the second harmonic, resembling that observed in the

  12. Nonlinear optical conductivity of bilayer graphene with Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the terahertz regime

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Cao, J. C.; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao

    2015-07-28

    The effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the nonlinear optical conductivity in a bilayer graphene is investigated. We demonstrate the very different role played by the Rashba term and interlayer hopping; in some cases, the two roles can be quite opposite. It is found that the Rashba term can either enhance or suppress the nonlinear effect in a bilayer graphene, depending on the strength of the interlayer hopping. For a weak interlayer hopping, the Rashba term can significantly enhance the nonlinear effect. An analytical result was derived, showing the interplay of the Rashba effect and the interlayer hopping effect.

  13. Sensitivity of proxies on non-linear interactions in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Johannes; Beck, Christoph; Menz, Gunter; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Ohlwein, Christian; Philipp, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    To understand natural and anthropogenic induced processes, feedbacks, trends, and dynamics in the climate system, it is essential to consider longer timescales. In this context, annually resolved tree-ring data are often used to reconstruct past temperature or precipitation variability as well as atmospheric or oceanic indices. Due to the interrelation of processes at different spatiotemporal scales in the climate system (micro, local, meso, synoptic and global scale), it is even possible to use proxies - such as tree rings - which react to micro/local climate conditions, to reconstruct phenomena on the global scale of the climate system such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) or the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The dependencies between tree-ring chronologies and climate parameters are not always stable over time and trees growing under temperate climate conditions are often sensitive to different climate parameters. Consequently, for climate reconstructions trees are often used which grow under extreme environmental conditions. We utilized nine weather-/circulation-type classifications in combination with two tree-ring datasets to assess weather-type sensitivity across the Northern Atlantic region. Our results demonstrate that nonstationarities in superordinate space and time scales of the climate system (here synoptic to global scale NAO, AMO) can affect the climate sensitivity of tree-rings for phenomena in subordinate levels of the climate system (here weather-types, meso- to synoptic scale). This scale bias effect, has the capability to impact even large multiproxy networks and the ability of these networks to provide information about past climate conditions. The results - recently published in Scientific Reports - indicate that more research is needed to understand how processes or phenomena on different space-/time scales of the climate system interact. They show that the role of non-linear interactions in the climate system which can lead to

  14. Localized excitations in discrete nonlinear Schrödinger systems: Effects of nonlocal dispersive interactions and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, K. Ø.; Christiansen, P. L.; Johansson, M.; Gaididei, Yu. B.; Mingaleev, S. F.

    1998-03-01

    A one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) model with the power dependence, r- s on the distance r, of dispersive interactions is proposed. The stationary states of the system are studied both analytically and numerically. Two kinds of trial functions, exp-like and sech-like are exploited and the results of both approaches are compared. Both on-site and inter-site stationary states are investigated. It is shown that for s sufficiently large all features of the model are qualitatively the same as in the DNLS model with nearest-neighbor interaction. For s less than some critical value, scr, there is an interval of bistability where two stable stationary states exist at each excitation number. The bistability of on-site solitons may occur for dipole-dipole dispersive interaction ( s = 3), while scr for inter-site solitions is close to 2.1. In the framework of the DNLS equation with nearest-neighbor coupling we discuss the stability of highly localized, “breather-like”, excitations under the influence of thermal fluctuations. Numerical analysis shows that the lifetime of the breather is always finite and in a large parameter region inversely proportional to the noise variance for fixed damping and nonlinearity. We also find that the decay rate of the breather decreases with increasing nonlinearity and with increasing damping.

  15. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  16. The influence of surface roughness on the contact stiffness and the contact filter effect in nonlinear wheel-track interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Oskar E.; Nordborg, Anders; Lopez Arteaga, Ines

    2016-03-01

    A state-dependent contact model including nonlinear contact stiffness and nonlinear contact filtering is used to calculate contact forces and rail vibrations with a time-domain wheel-track interaction model. In the proposed method, the full three-dimensional contact geometry is reduced to a point contact in order to lower the computational cost and to reduce the amount of required input roughness-data. Green's functions including the linear dynamics of the wheel and the track are coupled with a point contact model, leading to a numerically efficient model for the wheel-track interaction. Nonlinear effects due to the shape and roughness of the wheel and the rail surfaces are included in the point contact model by pre-calculation of functions for the contact stiffness and contact filters. Numerical results are compared to field measurements of rail vibrations for passenger trains running at 200 kph on a ballast track. Moreover, the influence of vehicle pre-load and different degrees of roughness excitation on the resulting wheel-track interaction is studied by means of numerical predictions.

  17. Dynamics, Thermodynamics and Extratropical Interactions of Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillations in a Simple Nonlinear Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blade, Ileana

    This dissertation examines two possible mechanisms proposed to be responsible for the selection of the preferred period of the Madden and Julian (40-50 day) oscillation and discusses the dynamical interactions between the intraseasonal convection and the extratropical circulation. A global two-level nonlinear model with a positive -only CISK-type cumulus heating parameterization is used to simulate the oscillation, which appears when the SST exceeds a critical value for instability of CISK type. Longitudinal variations of tropical SST are imposed, so that a stable and an unstable region coexist. When the cold SST sector is sufficiently stable, the CISK wave propagates efficiently through the stable region in the form of a damped moisture -modified Kelvin wave, and reemerges in the unstable region where its amplitude grows. When the SST in the stable sector is set closer to the instability threshold, the moist Kelvin wave slows down and decays before reentering the unstable region, but the CISK perturbation periodically regenerates over the warm waters in response to a local build-up of instability. This last experiment implies a new mechanism for setting the time-scale of the oscillation, alternative to that of simple zonal propagation around the globe. A "discharge-recharge" theory is proposed whereby the 40-day recurrence period in the model is set by the growth and duration times of the convective episode together with the recharge time for the instability. It is shown that the midlatitude baroclinic eddies provide the quasi -stochastic forcing required to excite each new intraseasonal episode by organizing a region of subtropical convection which then grows and expands equatorwards due to the effect of the latent heating. The dynamical picture that emerges from the above results is consistent with observations that suggest a local thermodynamically-based time scale for the oscillation, and with case studies indicating that extratropical processes might be

  18. Nonlinear interaction of infrared waves on a VO2 surface at a semiconductor-metal phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, N. K.; Zhukov, E. A.; Novokhatskii, V. V.

    1984-04-01

    Nonlinear interactions (including wavefront reversal) of light from CW or pulsed 10.6-micron CO2 lasers at the semiconductor-metal phase transition in a VO2 film are investigated experimentally. The results are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. The intensity reflection coefficients of the three-wave interactions are found to be 0.5 percent for a CW reference wave of intensity 900 mW/sq cm and 42 percent for a pulsed reference wave of threshold density 600-800 microjoule/sq cm.

  19. Non-linear interactions in a boundary layer developing over an array of cubes using stochastic estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Karin; Perret, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, a boundary layer developing over a rough-wall consisting of staggered cubes with a plan area packing density, λp = 25%, is studied within a wind tunnel using combined particle image velocimetry and hot-wire anemometry to investigate the non-linear interactions between large-scale momentum regions and small-scale structures induced by the presence of the roughness. Due to the highly turbulent nature of the roughness sub-layer and measurement equipment limitations, temporally resolved flow measurements are not feasible, making the conventional filtering methods used for triple decomposition unsuitable for the present work. Thus, multi-time delay linear stochastic estimation is used to decompose the flow into large-scales and small-scales. Analysis of the scale-decomposed skewness of the turbulent velocity (u') shows a significant contribution of the non-linear term uL ' uS ' 2 ¯ , which represents the influence of the large-scales ( uL ' ) onto the small-scales ( uS ' ). It is shown that this non-linear influence of the large-scale momentum regions occurs with all three components of velocity in a similar manner. Finally, through two-point spatio-temporal correlation analysis, it is shown quantitatively that large-scale momentum regions influence small-scale structures throughout the boundary layer through a non-linear top-down mechanism.

  20. Stack filter classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  1. Composite nonlinear structure within the magnetosonic soliton interactions in a spin-1/2 degenerate quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jiu-Ning Luo, Jun-Hua; Li, Jun-Xiu; Li, Sheng-Chang; Liu, Shi-Wei; Yang, Yang; Duan, Wen-Shan; Han, Juan-Fang

    2015-06-15

    We study the basic physical properties of composite nonlinear structure induced by the head-on collision of magnetosonic solitons. Solitary waves are assumed to propagate in a quantum electron-ion magnetoplasma with spin-1/2 degenerate electrons. The main interest of the present work is to investigate the time evolution of the merged composite structure during a specific time interval of the wave interaction process. We consider three cases of colliding-situation, namely, compressive-rarefactive solitons interaction, compressive-compressive solitons interaction, and rarefactive-rarefactive solitons interaction, respectively. Compared with the last two colliding cases, the changing process of the composite structure is more complex for the first situation. Moreover, it is found that they are obviously different for the last two colliding cases.

  2. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.

  3. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  4. Importance of π-stacking interactions in the hydrogen atom transfer reactions from activated phenols to short-lived N-oxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Mazzonna, Marco; Bietti, Massimo; DiLabio, Gino A; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Salamone, Michela

    2014-06-06

    A kinetic study of the hydrogen atom transfer from activated phenols (2,6-dimethyl- and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-substituted phenols, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-ol, caffeic acid, and (+)-cathechin) to a series of N-oxyl radical (4-substituted phthalimide-N-oxyl radicals (4-X-PINO), 6-substituted benzotriazole-N-oxyl radicals (6-Y-BTNO), 3-quinazolin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (QONO), and 3-benzotriazin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (BONO)), was carried out by laser flash photolysis in CH3CN. A significant effect of the N-oxyl radical structure on the hydrogen transfer rate constants (kH) was observed with kH values that monotonically increase with increasing NO-H bond dissociation energy (BDENO-H) of the N-hydroxylamines. The analysis of the kinetic data coupled to the results of theoretical calculations indicates that these reactions proceed by a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism where the N-oxyl radical and the phenolic aromatic rings adopt a π-stacked arrangement. Theoretical calculations also showed pronounced structural effects of the N-oxyl radicals on the charge transfer occurring in the π-stacked conformation. Comparison of the kH values measured in this study with those previously reported for hydrogen atom transfer to the cumylperoxyl radical indicates that 6-CH3-BTNO is the best N-oxyl radical to be used as a model for evaluating the radical scavenging ability of phenolic antioxidants.

  5. Growth and decay of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger breathers interacting with internal modes or standing-wave phonons

    PubMed

    Johansson; Aubry

    2000-05-01

    We investigate the long-time evolution of weakly perturbed single-site breathers (localized stationary states) in the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The perturbations we consider correspond to time-periodic solutions of the linearized equations around the breather, and can be either (i) spatially localized or (ii) spatially extended. For case (i), which corresponds to the excitation of an internal mode of the breather, we find that the nonlinear interaction between the breather and its internal mode always leads to a slow growth of the breather amplitude and frequency. In case (ii), corresponding to interaction between the breather and a standing-wave phonon, the breather will grow provided that the wave vector of the phonon is such that the generation of radiating higher harmonics at the breather is possible. In other cases, breather decay is observed. This condition yields a limit value for the breather frequency above which no further growth is possible. We also discuss another mechanism for breather growth and destruction which becomes important when the amplitude of the perturbation is non-negligible, and which originates from the oscillatory instabilities of the nonlinear standing-wave phonons.

  6. Interacting linear and nonlinear characteristics produce population coding asymmetries between ON and OFF cells in the retina.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Zachary; Nirenberg, Sheila; Victor, Jonathan

    2013-09-11

    The early visual system is a model for understanding the roles of cell populations in parallel processing. Cells in this system can be classified according to their responsiveness to different stimuli; a prominent example is the division between cells that respond to stimuli of opposite contrasts (ON vs OFF cells). These two cell classes display many asymmetries in their physiological characteristics (including temporal characteristics, spatial characteristics, and nonlinear characteristics) that, individually, are known to have important roles in population coding. Here we describe a novel distinction between the information that ON and OFF ganglion cell populations carry in mouse--that OFF cells are able to signal motion information about both light and dark objects, while ON cells have a selective deficit at signaling the motion of dark objects. We found that none of the previously reported asymmetries in physiological characteristics could account for this distinction. We therefore analyzed its basis via a recently developed linear-nonlinear-Poisson model that faithfully captures input/output relationships for a broad range of stimuli (Bomash et al., 2013). While the coding differences between ON and OFF cell populations could not be ascribed to the linear or nonlinear components of the model individually, they had a simple explanation in the way that these components interact. Sensory transformations in other systems can likewise be described by these models, and thus our findings suggest that similar interactions between component properties may help account for the roles of cell classes in population coding more generally.

  7. Non-linear mode interaction between spin torque driven and damped modes in spin torque nano-oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Romera, M.; Monteblanco, E.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Ebels, U.; Delaët, B.

    2015-05-11

    The influence of dynamic coupling in between magnetic layers of a standard spin torque nano-oscillator composed of a synthetic antiferromagnet (SyF) as a polarizer and an in-plane magnetized free layer has been investigated. Experiments on spin valve nanopillars reveal non-continuous features such as kinks in the frequency field dependence that cannot be explained without such interactions. Comparison of experiments to numerical macrospin simulations shows that this is due to non-linear interaction between the spin torque (STT) driven mode and a damped mode that is mediated via the third harmonics of the STT mode. It only occurs at large applied currents and thus at large excitation amplitudes of the STT mode. Under these conditions, a hybridized mode characterized by a strong reduction of the linewidth appears. The reduced linewidth can be explained by a reduction of the non-linear contribution to the linewidth via an enhanced effective damping. Interestingly, the effect depends also on the exchange interaction within the SyF. An enhancement of the current range of reduced linewidth by a factor of two and a reduction of the minimum linewidth by a factor of two are predicted from simulation when the exchange interaction strength is reduced by 30%. These results open directions to optimize the design and microwave performances of spin torque nano-oscillators taking advantage of the coupling mechanisms.

  8. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, R K; Okatan, M Baris; Rajapaksa, I; Kim, Y; Marincel, D; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Jesse, S; Valanoor, N; Kalinin, S V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O₃ (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of n(th) order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials.

  9. Nonlinear mode interactions and frequency-jump effects in a doubly tuned oscillator configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, J.; Lashinsky, H.

    1980-05-01

    Frequency-jump effects associated with nonlinear mode competition are investigated in an oscillator configuration consisting of a passive linear resonance system coupled to an active nonlinear resonance system. These effects give rise to a hysteresis pattern whose height and width can be related to system parameters such as the resonance frequencies, dissipation, coupling coefficient, etc. It is noted that these effects offer a novel means of determining these parameters in cases in which conventional techniques may not be desirable or as advantageous. The analysis provides an qualitative explanation of empirical observations in a recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiment (Timsit and Daniels, 1976). The results also apply to other nonlinear resonance systems such as lasers, microwave generators, and electronic oscillators.

  10. Interaction between Liénard and Ikeda dynamics in a nonlinear electro-optical oscillator with delayed bandpass feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Bicky A.; Larger, Laurent; Brunner, Daniel; Chembo, Yanne K.; Jacquot, Maxime

    2016-12-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical analysis of the complex dynamics generated by a nonlinear time-delayed electro-optic bandpass oscillator. We investigate the interaction between the slow- and fast-scale dynamics of autonomous oscillations in the breather regime. We analyze in detail the coupling between the fast-scale behavior associated to a characteristic low-pass Ikeda behavior and the slow-scale dynamics associated to a Liénard limit-cycle. Finally, we show that when projected onto a two-dimensional phase space, the attractors corresponding to periodic and chaotic breathers display a spiral-like pattern, which strongly depends on the shape of the nonlinear function.

  11. Interaction between Liénard and Ikeda dynamics in a nonlinear electro-optical oscillator with delayed bandpass feedback.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Bicky A; Larger, Laurent; Brunner, Daniel; Chembo, Yanne K; Jacquot, Maxime

    2016-12-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical analysis of the complex dynamics generated by a nonlinear time-delayed electro-optic bandpass oscillator. We investigate the interaction between the slow- and fast-scale dynamics of autonomous oscillations in the breather regime. We analyze in detail the coupling between the fast-scale behavior associated to a characteristic low-pass Ikeda behavior and the slow-scale dynamics associated to a Liénard limit-cycle. Finally, we show that when projected onto a two-dimensional phase space, the attractors corresponding to periodic and chaotic breathers display a spiral-like pattern, which strongly depends on the shape of the nonlinear function.

  12. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions in the subauroral ionosphere on the basis of ISIS-2 satellite observations of Siple station VLF signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohnami, S.; Hayakawa, M.; Bell, T. F.; Ondoh, T.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear wave-wave interaction between signals from a ground-based VLF transmitter and narrow-band ELF emissions in the subauroral ionosphere is studied by means of the bispectrum and bicoherence analysis. A bicoherence analysis has indicated that the sideband structures around the Siple transmitter signal received onboard the ISIS satellite are due to the nonlinear interaction between the Siple VLF signal and the pre-existing ELF emission.

  13. Nonlinear effects in interactions of swift ions with solids. Revised January 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, O.H.; Dorado, J.J.; Flores, F.

    1995-04-01

    When a charged particle penetrates a solid, the response of the electrons is nonlinear in the charge of the projectile, except in the high-velocity limit. This response is of interest in connection with the wake of induced electron density and its various consequences, including energy loss of the particle. In this work, several theoretical approaches to the nonlinear wake of swift particles in an electron gas are compared. These include a hydrodynamical model, a many-body perturbation-theory formulation using a random-phase approximation, the time-dependent Hartree approximation, and two methods within time-dependent density functional theory.

  14. Breather solutions of the integrable quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation and their interactions.

    PubMed

    Chowdury, A; Kedziora, D J; Ankiewicz, A; Akhmediev, N

    2015-02-01

    We present breather solutions of the quintic integrable equation of the Schrödinger hierarchy. This equation has terms describing fifth-order dispersion and matching nonlinear terms. Using a Darboux transformation, we derive first-order and second-order breather solutions. These include first- and second-order rogue-wave solutions. To some extent, these solutions are analogous with the corresponding nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) solutions. However, the presence of a free parameter in the equation results in specific solutions that have no analogues in the NLSE case. We analyze new features of these solutions.

  15. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  16. Gene stacking by recombinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient methods of stacking genes into plant genomes are needed to expedite transfer of multigenic traits into diverse crops grown in a variety of environments. Over two decades of research has identified several site-specific recombinases that carry out efficient cis and trans recombination betw...

  17. Stacked Sequential Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    a constant factor of K + 2. (To see this, note sequential stacking requires training K+2 classifiers: the classifiers f1, . . . , fK used in cross...on the non- sequential learners (ME and VP) but improves per- formance of the sequential learners (CRFs and VPH - MMs) less consistently. This pattern

  18. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  19. On the ground states and dynamics of space fractional nonlinear Schrödinger/Gross-Pitaevskii equations with rotation term and nonlocal nonlinear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Xavier; Tang, Qinglin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose some efficient and robust numerical methods to compute the ground states and dynamics of Fractional Schrödinger Equation (FSE) with a rotation term and nonlocal nonlinear interactions. In particular, a newly developed Gaussian-sum (GauSum) solver is used for the nonlocal interaction evaluation [31]. To compute the ground states, we integrate the preconditioned Krylov subspace pseudo-spectral method [4] and the GauSum solver. For the dynamics simulation, using the rotating Lagrangian coordinates transform [14], we first reformulate the FSE into a new equation without rotation. Then, a time-splitting pseudo-spectral scheme incorporated with the GauSum solver is proposed to simulate the new FSE. In parallel to the numerical schemes, we also prove some existence and nonexistence results for the ground states. Dynamical laws of some standard quantities, including the mass, energy, angular momentum and the center of mass, are stated. The ground states properties with respect to the fractional order and/or rotating frequencies, dynamics involving decoherence and turbulence together with some interesting phenomena are reported.

  20. Modal interactions due to friction in the nonlinear vibration response of the "Harmony" test structure: Experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, M.; Sinou, J.-J.; Lambelin, J.-P.; Todeschini, R.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear vibration response of an assembly with friction joints - named "Harmony" - is studied both experimentally and numerically. The experimental results exhibit a softening effect and an increase of dissipation with excitation level. Modal interactions due to friction are also evidenced. The numerical methodology proposed groups together well-known structural dynamic methods, including finite elements, substructuring, Harmonic Balance and continuation methods. On the one hand, the application of this methodology proves its capacity to treat a complex system where several friction movements occur at the same time. On the other hand, the main contribution of this paper is the experimental and numerical study of evidence of modal interactions due to friction. The simulation methodology succeeds in reproducing complex form of dynamic behavior such as these modal interactions.

  1. Magneto-elastic oscillator: Modeling and analysis with nonlinear magnetic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Aravind; Ali, Shaikh Faruque; Arockiarajan, A.

    2017-04-01

    The magneto-elastically buckled beam is a classic example of a nonlinear oscillator that exhibits chaotic motions. This system serves as a model to analyze the motion of elastic structures in magnetic fields. The system follows a sixth order magneto-elastic potential and may have up to five static equilibrium positions. However, often the non-dimensional Duffing equation is used to approximate the system, with the coefficients being derived from experiments. In few other instances, numerical methods are used to evaluate the magnetic field values. These field values are then used to approximate the nonlinear magnetic restoring force. In this manuscript, we derive analytical closed form expressions for the magneto-elastic potential and the nonlinear restoring forces in the system. Such an analytical formulation would facilitate tracing the effect of change in a parameter, such as the magnet dimension, on the dynamics of the system. The model is derived assuming a single mode approximation, taking into account the effect of linear elastic and nonlinear magnetic forces. The developed model is then numerically simulated to show that it is accurate in capturing the system dynamics and bifurcation of equilibrium positions. The model is validated through experiments based on forced vibrations of the magneto-elastic oscillator. To gather further insights about the magneto-elastic oscillator, a parametric study has been conducted based on the field strength of the magnets and the distance between the magnets and the results are reported.

  2. Nonlinearity of cationic aromatic amine sorption to aluminosilicates and soils: role of intermolecular cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Dharni; Arey, Teresa A; Dickstein, Daniel R; Newman, Mark H; Zhang, Tina Y; Kinnear, Heather M; Bader, Mohammad M

    2013-12-17

    Through the study of substituted anilines and benzylamines, we demonstrated that cooperative cation-π, π-π, and van der Waals interactions can increase aromatic cationic amine sorption to Na/Ca-montmorillonite well beyond the extent expected by cation exchange alone. Cationic amines exhibiting cooperative interactions displayed nonlinear S-shaped isotherms and increased affinity for the sorbent at low surface coverage; parallel cation exchange and cooperative interactions were noted above a sorption threshold of 0.3-2.3% of exchange sites occupied. Our experiments revealed the predominance of intermolecular cation-π interactions, which occurred between the π system of a compound retained on the surface via cation exchange and the cationic amine group of an adjacent molecule. Compounds with greater amine charge/area and electron-donating substituents that allowed for greater electron density at the center of the aromatic ring showed a greater potential for cation-π interactions on montmorillonite surfaces. However, benzylamine sorption to nine soils, at charge loadings comparable to the experiments with montmorillonite, revealed no significant cooperative interactions. It appears that cation-π interactions may be likely in soils with exceptionally high cation exchange capacities (>0.7 mol charge/kg) and low organic matter contents, abundant in montmorillonite and other expanding clay minerals.

  3. ETR WASTE GAS STACK. ABOVE GROUND DUCTWORK AND ETR STACK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR WASTE GAS STACK. ABOVE GROUND DUCTWORK AND ETR STACK, CLOSER VIEW. PERSONNEL LADDER AND CIRCULAR WORK PLATFORM MIDWAY UP STACK. CAMERA FACES NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-7-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Universal power-law decay of electron-electron interactions due to nonlinear screening in a Josephson junction array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Daniel; Rubbert, Sebastian; Ulrich, Jascha; Hassler, Fabian

    2016-09-01

    Josephson junctions are the most prominent nondissipative and at the same time nonlinear elements in superconducting circuits allowing Cooper pairs to tunnel coherently between two superconductors separated by a tunneling barrier. Due to this, physical systems involving Josephson junctions show highly complex behavior and interesting novel phenomena. Here, we consider an infinite one-dimensional chain of superconducting islands where neighboring islands are coupled by capacitances. We study the effect of Josephson junctions shunting each island to a common ground superconductor. We treat the system in the regime where the Josephson energy exceeds the capacitive coupling between the islands. For the case of two offset charges on two distinct islands, we calculate the interaction energy of these charges mediated by quantum phase slips due to the Josephson nonlinearities. We treat the phase slips in an instanton approximation and map the problem onto a classical partition function of interacting particles. Using the Mayer cluster expansion, we find that the interaction potential of the offset charges decays with a universal inverse-square power-law behavior.

  5. Reactions of the phthalimide N-oxyl radical (PINO) with activated phenols: the contribution of π-stacking interactions to hydrogen atom transfer rates.

    PubMed

    D'Alfonso, Claudio; Bietti, Massimo; DiLabio, Gino A; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Salamone, Michela

    2013-02-01

    The kinetics of reactions of the phthalimide N-oxyl radical (PINO) with a series of activated phenols (2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-ol (PMC), 2,6-dimethyl- and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-substituted phenols) were investigated by laser flash photolysis in CH(3)CN and PhCl in order to establish if the reactions with PINO can provide a useful tool for evaluating the radical scavenging ability of phenolic antioxidants. On the basis of the small values of deuterium kinetic isotope effects, the relatively high and negative ρ values in the Hammett correlations and the results of theoretical calculations, we suggest that these reactions proceed by a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism having a significant degree of charge transfer resulting from a π-stacked conformation between PINO and the aromatic ring of the phenols. Kinetic solvent effects were analyzed in detail for the hydrogen transfer from 2,4,6-trimethylphenol to PINO and the data obtained are in accordance with the Snelgrove-Ingold equation for HAT. Experimental rate constants for the reactions of PINO with activated phenols are in accordance with those predicted by applying the Marcus cross relation.

  6. Nonlinear spatio-temporal interactions and neural connections in human vision using transient and M-sequence stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.W.; Aine, C.J.; Flynn, E.R.; Wood, C.C.

    1996-02-01

    Reciprocal connections, in essence, are the dynamic wiring (connections) of the neural network circuitry. Given the high complexity of the neural circuitry in the human brain, it is quite a challenge to study the dynamic wiring of highly parallel and widely distributed neural networks. The measurements of stimulus evoked coherent oscillations provide indirect evidence of dynamic wiring. In this study, in addition to the coherent oscillation measurements, two more techniques are discussed for testing possible dynamic wiring: measurements of spatio-temporal interactions beyond the classical receptive fields, and neural structural testing using nonlinear systems analysis.

  7. On the nonlinear interaction of Gortler vortices and Tollmien-Schlichting waves in curved channel flows at finite Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daudpota, Q. Isa; Hall, Philip; Zang, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    The flow in a two-dimensional curved channel driven by an azimuthal pressure gradient can become linearly unstable due to axisymmetric perturbations and/or nonaxisymmetric perturbations depending on the curvature of the channel and the Reynolds number. For a particular small value of curvature, the critical neighborhood of this curvature value and critical Reynolds number, nonlinear interactions occur between these perturbations. The Stuart-Watson approach is used to derive two coupled Landau equations for the amplitudes of these perturbations. The stability of the various possible states of these perturbations is shown through bifurcation diagrams. Emphasis is given to those cases which have relevance to external flows.

  8. Nonlinear Acoustics: Long Range Underwater Propagation, Air-Filled Porous Materials, and Noncollinear Interaction in a Waveguide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-28

    degree December 1985. 3. A. TenCate , Ph.D. student in Mechanical Engineering. " ’-. I. Sw J -- - . II. PROJECTS 1. Nonlinear effects in long range...interaction in a rectangular waveguide. (Hamilton and TenCate ). This work is an outgrowth of Hamilton’s Ph.D. research (84-6,7) and TenCate’s M.S...Ph.D. dissertation research topics. TenCate has begun work on an acoustical chaos experiment, intense standing waves in a closed tube. His initial

  9. ARTICLES: Nonlinear interaction of infrared waves on a VO2 surface at a semiconductor-metal phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, N. K.; Zhukov, E. A.; Novokhatskiĭ, V. V.

    1984-04-01

    The use of a semiconductor-metal phase transition for wavefront reversal of laser radiation was proposed. An investigation was made of nonlinear reflection of CO2 laser radiation at a phase transition in VO2. A three-wave interaction on a VO2 surface was achieved using low-power cw and pulsed CO2 lasers. In the first case, the intensity reflection coefficient was 0.5% for a reference wave intensity of 0.9 W/cm2 and in the second case, it was 42% for a threshold reference wave energy density of 0.6-0.8 mJ/cm2.

  10. Signatures of nonlinear mode interactions in the pulsating hot B subdwarf star KIC 10139564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, W.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The unprecedented photometric quality and time coverage offered by the Kepler spacecraft has opened up new opportunities to search for signatures of nonlinear effects that affect oscillation modes in pulsating stars. Aims: The data accumulated on the pulsating hot B subdwarf KIC 10139564 are used to explore in detail the stability of its oscillation modes, focusing in particular on evidences of nonlinear behaviors. Methods: We analyzed 38 months of contiguous short-cadence data, concentrating on mode multiplets induced by the star rotation and on frequencies forming linear combinations that show intriguing behaviors during the course of the observations. Results: We find clear signatures that point toward nonlinear effects predicted by resonant mode coupling mechanisms. These couplings can induce various mode behaviors for the components of multiplets and for frequencies related by linear relationships. We find that a triplet at 5760 μHz, a quintuplet at 5287 μHz and a (ℓ > 2) multiplet at 5412 μHz, all induced by rotation, show clear frequency and amplitude modulations which are typical of the so-called intermediate regime of a resonance between the components. One triplet at 316 μHz and a doublet at 394 μHz show modulated amplitude and constant frequency which can be associated with a narrow transitory regime of the resonance. Another triplet at 519 μHz appears to be in a frequency-locked regime where both frequency and amplitude are constant. Additionally, three linear combinations of frequencies near 6076 μHz also show amplitude and frequency modulations, which are likely related to a three-mode direct resonance of the type ν0 ~ ν1 + ν2. Conclusions: The identified frequency and amplitude modulations are the first clear-cut signatures of nonlinear resonant couplings occurring in pulsating hot B subdwarf stars. However, the observed behaviors suggest that the resonances occurring in these stars usually follow more complicated patterns than

  11. Nonlinear light-Higgs coupling in superconductors beyond BCS: Effects of the retarded phonon-mediated interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Naoto; Murakami, Yuta; Aoki, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    We study the contribution of the Higgs amplitude mode on the nonlinear optical response of superconductors beyond the BCS approximation by taking into account the retardation effect in the phonon-mediated attractive interaction. To evaluate the vertex correction in nonlinear optical susceptibilities that contains the effect of collective modes, we propose an efficient scheme which we call the "dotted DMFT" based on the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory (nonequilibrium DMFT), to get around the difficulty of solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation and analytical continuation. The vertex correction is represented by the derivative of the self-energy with respect to the external driving field, which is self-consistently determined by the differentiated ("dotted") DMFT equations. We apply the method to the Holstein model, a prototypical electron-phonon-coupled system, to calculate the susceptibility for the third-harmonic generation including the vertex correction. The results show that, in sharp contrast to the BCS theory, the Higgs mode can contribute to the third-harmonic generation for general polarization of the laser field with an order of magnitude comparable to the contribution from the pair breaking or charge density fluctuations. The physical origin is traced back to the nonlinear resonant light-Higgs coupling, which has been absent in the BCS approximation.

  12. Nonlinear generation of harmonics through the interaction of an internal wave beam with a model oceanic pycnocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamessis, P. J.; Wunsch, S.; Delwiche, I.; Richter, M. P.

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of an internal wave beam (IWB) with an idealized oceanic pycnocline is examined using two-dimensional fully nonlinear direct numerical simulations based on a spectral multidomain penalty method in the vertical direction. The phenomenon of focus is the nonlinear generation of harmonics. A total of 24 simulations have been performed, varying the normalized pycnocline thickness and the ratio of peak pycnocline Brunt-Väisälä frequency to that of the stratified lower layer. Harmonics at the point of IWB entry into the pycnocline increase in amplitude and number with a measure of the maximum gradient of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, suggesting refraction as an important factor in harmonic generation. Among the simulations performed, two distinct limits of pycnocline thickness are identified. For thin pynoclines, whose thickness is 10% of the incident IWB's horizontal wavelength, harmonics trapped within the pycnocline have maximum amplitude when their frequency and wavenumber match those of the natural pycnocline interfacial wave mode. Results in this case are compared with weakly nonlinear theory for harmonic generation by plane wave refraction. For thicker pycnoclines, whose thickness is equal the incident IWB's horizontal wavelength, IWB refraction results in harmonic generation at multiple locations in addition to pycnocline entry, giving rise to complex flow structure inside the pycnocline.

  13. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  14. Detecting nonlinear causal interactions between dynamical systems by non-uniform embedding of multiple time series.

    PubMed

    Faes, Luca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Erla, Silvia; Papadelis, Christos; Braun, Christoph; Porta, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces a new approach for the detection of nonlinear Granger causality between dynamical systems. The approach is based on embedding the multivariate (MV) time series measured from the systems X and Y by means of a sequential, non-uniform procedure, and on using the corrected conditional entropy (CCE) as unpredictability measure. The causal coupling from X to Y is quantified as the relative decrease of CCE measured after allowing the series of X to enter the embedding procedure for the description of Y. The ability of the approach to quantify nonlinear causality is assessed on MV time series measured from simulated dynamical systems with unidirectional coupling (the Rössler-Lorenz deterministic system) and bidirectional coupling (two coupled stochastic systems). The method is then applied to real magnetoencephalographic data measured during a visuo-tactile cognitive experiment, showing values of causal coupling consistent with the hypothesis of a cross-processing of different sensory modalities.

  15. Nonlinear elastic wave interaction in a sandstone bar: A summary of recent pulse-mode experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; TenCate, J.A.; Cherry, R.; McCall, K.; Van Den Abeele, K.; Kadish, A.; Shankland, T.; Guyer, R. |

    1995-03-01

    We have performed nonlinear pulse propagation experiments in a 3.8 cm diameter rod of Berea sandstone 1.8 m long at ambient conditions. Unlike earlier studies, we measured acceleration and not displacement. Moreover, we detected 2nd and 3rd harmonic growth at smaller strain amplitudes than were observed previously (10{sup {minus}7}). Harmonic growth at identical strain amplitudes has also been noted in resonance studies using the same rock type. Current measurements are underway with the rod in vacuum where the wave attenuation is less and the conditions can be carefully controlled. Ultimately, we wish to test the validity of current analytic and numerical models for nonlinear propagation in microcracked materials.

  16. Nonlinear interaction of long dispersive Kelvin waves in deep natural basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnev, Nikolay M.; Lovtsov, Sergey V.; Portyanskaya, Inna A.; Rastegin, Alexey E.; Rubtsov, Valeriy Yu.

    2010-05-01

    Nonlinear phenomena are of great importance for complete understanding of dynamical processes in fluids. However, direct studies of hydrodynamic equations seem to be very hard just due to nonlinear terms. Many approaches to nonlinear dispersive waves are related to the technique of multiple scales. It is one of most seminal ways to obtain those models that combine possibility of analytic investigation with actual effects of nonlinearity. Consideration of long Kelvin waves within the linear theory is well known issue of geophysical hydrodynamics. An influence of boundary effects leads to dispersion of Kelvin waves. At the same time, mutual balance between dispersive and nonlinear terms in motion equations can provide a formation of stable localized structures so-called solitary waves. When stratification is essential, different vertical modes of oscillation are typically excited. Corresponding analysis of vertical structure for solitary Rossby waves has been developed in many works, mainly due to Redekopp. But proper treatment of large-scale Kelvin waves seems to be not indicated in the literature. The principal aim of our work is to fill this lacuna. The present work has been partially inspired by temperature monitoring data obtained in south area of Lake Baikal. Under conditions of winter stratification, specific displacements of fragments of temperature profile from up to down were observed within upper layer. It is valuable that a shape of moving fragment remains almost undistorted. After ending this temperature decreasing, the temperature profile was rectified to initial shape. In all the years of observations, vertical displacements reach several tens of meters with duration of several days. These phenomena were interpreted as manifestation of long dispersive Kelvin waves, especially due to direction of propagation along the coastline. Regularly observed displacements from up to down may be evidences for nonlinear character of wave dynamics. Indeed, internal

  17. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  18. Fuel Cell Stacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    AD-A009 587 FUEL CELL STACKS Bernard S. Baker Energy Research Corporation Prepared for: Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center April... Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center Unclassified For- Belvoir, Virginia 22060 [15. DE.CLASSIFICATION/L.TWNOGRADING SCREOUJLE 16...the majority of effort has been directed at translating technoilogy for small comn- ponent manufacture on a laboratory scale into large size components

  19. Fungal melanins differ in planar stacking distances.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nakouzi, Antonio; Crippa, Pier R; Eisner, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to deduce stacking parameters. In this study we used X ray diffraction to analyze melanins derived from Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Wangiella dermatitides and Coprinus comatus. Analysis of melanin in melanized C. neoformans encapsulated cells was precluded by the fortuitous finding that the capsular polysaccharide had a diffraction spectrum that was similar to that of isolated melanin. The capsular polysaccharide spectrum was dominated by a broad non-Bragg feature consistent with origin from a repeating structural motif that may arise from inter-molecular interactions and/or possibly gel organization. Hence, we isolated melanin from each fungal species and compared diffraction parameters. The results show that the inferred stacking distances of fungal melanins differ from that reported for synthetic melanin and neuromelanin, occupying intermediate position between these other melanins. These results suggest that all melanins have a fundamental diffracting unit composed of planar graphitic assemblies that can differ in stacking distance. The stacking peak appears to be a distinguishing universal feature of melanins that may be of use in characterizing these enigmatic pigments.

  20. Wave-particle interaction and the nonlinear saturation of the electron temperature gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamani, Srinath; Parker, Scott E.; Chen, Yang; Howard, James E.

    2004-11-01

    It has been proposed that the electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence is responsible for experimentally relevant electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas. Significant transport levels are possible by the creation of radially elongated vortices or ``streamers" [1,2], which are sustained by the nonlinear saturation of the instability and are not susceptible to shear flow destruction, as is the case with the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode. We present a dynamical system to explore the dependence of saturation level due to E × B and E_\\| motion, as well as the effect of radial elongation. With this model, we can predict the nonlinear saturation level of the ETG streamers. We compare our theoretical predictions with a 2D shear-less slab gyrokinetic electron code that includes the E_\\| nonlinearity. [1]F. Jenko, W. Dorland, M Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000). [2]C. Holland, and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3857 (2002). [3]W. M. Manheimer, Phys. Fluids 14, 579 (1971). [4]R. A. Smith, John A. Krommes, and W. W. Lee, Phys. Fluids 28, 1069 (1985).

  1. The crucial role of chelate-chelate stacking interactions in the crystal structure of a square planar copper(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Subrata; Khan, Samim; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Shouvik

    2017-01-01

    A square planar copper(II) complex has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. The X-ray structure of the complex is used to analyze the crucial role of the π-interactions in the solid state. The complex also shows significant hydrogen-bonding interactions. Moreover, we have evaluated energetically both interactions by means of high level DFT calculations (BP86-D3/def2-TZVP) and characterized them using the Bader's theory of "atoms-in-molecules".

  2. An added-mass partition algorithm for fluid–structure interactions of compressible fluids and nonlinear solids

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.W. Henshaw, W.D. Kapila, A.K. Schwendeman, D.W.

    2016-01-15

    We describe an added-mass partitioned (AMP) algorithm for solving fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems involving inviscid compressible fluids interacting with nonlinear solids that undergo large rotations and displacements. The computational approach is a mixed Eulerian–Lagrangian scheme that makes use of deforming composite grids (DCG) to treat large changes in the geometry in an accurate, flexible, and robust manner. The current work extends the AMP algorithm developed in Banks et al. [1] for linearly elasticity to the case of nonlinear solids. To ensure stability for the case of light solids, the new AMP algorithm embeds an approximate solution of a nonlinear fluid–solid Riemann (FSR) problem into the interface treatment. The solution to the FSR problem is derived and shown to be of a similar form to that derived for linear solids: the state on the interface being fundamentally an impedance-weighted average of the fluid and solid states. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the AMP algorithm is stable even for light solids when added-mass effects are large. The accuracy and stability of the AMP scheme is verified by comparison to an exact solution using the method of analytical solutions and to a semi-analytical solution that is obtained for a rotating solid disk immersed in a fluid. The scheme is applied to the simulation of a planar shock impacting a light elliptical-shaped solid, and comparisons are made between solutions of the FSI problem for a neo-Hookean solid, a linearly elastic solid, and a rigid solid. The ability of the approach to handle large deformations is demonstrated for a problem of a high-speed flow past a light, thin, and flexible solid beam.

  3. Nonlinear normal mode interactions in the SF6 molecule studied with the aid of density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechin, G.; Ryabov, D.; Shcherbinin, S.

    2015-07-01

    Some exact interactions between vibrational modes in systems with discrete symmetry can be described by the theory of the bushes of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) [G. M. Chechin and V. P. Sakhnenko, Phys. D (Amsterdam, Neth.) 117, 43 (1998), 10.1016/S0167-2789(98)80012-2]. Each bush represents a dynamical object conserving the energy of the initial excitation. The existence of bushes of NNMs is ensured by some group-theoretical selection rules. In G. M. Chechin et al. [Int. J. Nonlinear Mech. 38, 1451 (2003), 10.1016/S0020-7462(02)00081-1], existence and stability of the bushes of vibrational modes in the simple octahedral model of mass points interacting via Lennard-Jones potential were investigated. In the present paper, we study these dynamical objects by the density functional theory in the SF6 molecule, which possesses the same symmetry and structure. We have fully confirmed the results previously obtained in the framework of the group-theoretical approach and have found some properties of the bushes of NNMs.

  4. Research Note : RESEARCH NOTE Stacking three-component seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.

    2000-04-01

    Standard stacking procedures are based on the combination of many scalar traces, and can exploit the coherency of arrivals between traces using non-linear methods. Such stacks can be used with some success for three-component data but do not exploit the vector character of the seismic wavefield. A set of stacking methods are introduced to work directly with three-component data and include intercomponent coherency through 3 x 3 matrix measures. These techniques include extensions of both semblance and phase stacks. Such techniques allow the exploitation of cross-component information, which can be particularly valuable in the analysis of the S wavefield. Potential applications arise for the analysis of three-component records from controlled-source experiments, arrays of portable broad-band instruments and beam-forming at permanent monitoring installations.

  5. The effect of Coulomb interactions on nonlinear thermovoltage and thermocurrent in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2015-06-28

    In the present work, we theoretically study the nonlinear regime of charge transport through a quantum dot coupled to the source and drain reservoirs. The investigation is carried out using a nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. Employed approximations for the relevant Green’s functions allow to trace a transition from Coulomb blockade regime to Kondo regime in the thermoelectric transport. Effects arising when electrons move in response to thermal gradient applied across the system are discussed, including experimentally observed thermovoltage zeros.

  6. Enhanced nonlinear crack-wave interactions for structural damage detection based on Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziedziech, Kajetan; Pieczonka, Lukasz; Kijanka, Piotr; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a novel damage detection method that combines Lamb wave propagation with nonlinear acoustics. Low-frequency excitation is used to modulate Lamb waves in the presence of fatigue cracks. The work presented shows that the synchronization of the interrogating high-frequency Lamb wave with the low-frequency vibration is a key element of the proposed method. The main advantages of the proposed method are the lack of necessity for baseline measurements representing undamaged condition and lack of sensitivity to temperature variations. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements are performed to demonstrate the application of the proposed method to detect fatigue crack in aluminum beam.

  7. Nonlinear Model of the Specificity of DNA-Protein Interactions and Its Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiputra, D.; Hidayat, W.; Khairani, R.; Zen, F. P.

    2016-08-01

    Specific DNA-protein interactions are fundamental processes of living cells. We propose a new model of DNA-protein interactions to explain the site specificity of the interactions. The hydrogen bonds between DNA base pairs and between DNA-protein peptide groups play a significant role in determination of the specific binding site. We adopt the Morse potential with coupling terms to construct the Hamiltonian of coupled oscillators representing the hydrogen bonds in which the depth of the potentials vary in the DNA chain. In this paper we investigate the stability of the model to determine the conditions satisfying the biological circumstances of the DNA-protein interactions.

  8. Stochastic modeling of transient stream aquifer interaction with the nonlinear Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Kirti; Serrano, Sergio E.; Workman, S. R.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryIn this article the effect of highly fluctuating stream stage on the adjacent alluvial valley aquifer is studied with a new analytical solution to the nonlinear transient groundwater flow equation subject to stochastic conductivity and time varying boundary conditions. A random conductivity field with known correlation structure represents uncertain heterogeneity. The resulting nonlinear stochastic Boussinesq equation is solved with the decomposition method. New expressions for the mean of the hydraulic head and its variance distribution are given. The procedure allows for the calculation of the mean head and error bounds in real situations when a limited sample allows the estimation of the conductivity mean and correlation structure only. Under these circumstances, the usual assumptions of a specific conductivity probability distribution, logarithmic transformation, small perturbation, discretization, or Monte Carlo simulations are not possible. The solution is verified via an application to the Scioto River aquifer in Ohio, which suffers from periodic large fluctuations in river stage from seasonal flooding. Predicted head statistics are compared with observed heads at different monitoring wells across the aquifer. Results show that the observed transient water table elevation in the observation well lies in the predicted mean plus or minus one standard deviation bounds. The magnitude of uncertainty in predicted head depends on the statistical properties of the conductivity field, as described by its coefficient of variability and its correlation length scale.

  9. Development of a Nonlinear Acoustic Phased Array and its Interaction with Thin Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzel, Paul; Donahue, Carly; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    Numerous technologies are based on the principle of focusing acoustic energy. We propose a new device to focus sound waves which exploits highly nonlinear dynamics. The advantages of this device are the capability of generating very highly powerful acoustic pulses and potential operation in high-temperature environments where traditional piezoelectrics may fail. This device is composed of rows of ball bearings placed in contact with a medium of interest and with an actuator on the top. Elastic spherical particles have a contact force that grows with their relative displacement to the three-halves power (Hertzian contact). When several spheres are placed in a row, the particles support the propagation of ``solitary waves''--strong, compact stress-wave pulses whose tendency to disperse is counteracted by the nonlinearity of the sphere's contact force. We present results regarding the experimental operation of the device and its comparison to theory and numerical simulations. We will show how well this system is capable of focusing energy at various locations in the medium, and the limits imposed by pre-compression. Finally, the effects of timing error on energy focusing will be demonstrated. This research has been supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  10. Conformation-Specific and Mass-Resolved Infrared-Population Transfer Spectroscopy of the Model γ^{2}-PEPTIDE Ac-γ^{2}-hPhe-NHMe: Evidence for the Presence of Intramolecular Amide-Amide Stacking Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, William H. James, III; Buchanan, Evan G.; Müller, Christian W.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Nix, Michael G. D.; Guo, Li; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2009-06-01

    Recently, double resonance spectroscopy has been utilized to elucidate the conformational preferences of natural peptide mimetics. These studies demonstrated the power of double resonance methods and highlighted the ability of even short peptide mimetics to form a variety of intramolecular hydrogen bonded architectures. Currently, we have undertaken a detailed study of a model γ^{2}-peptide using double resonance spectroscopy. Conformation-specific IR spectra in the amide NH and amide I stretch spectral regions of Ac-γ^{2}-hPhe-NHMe provide evidence for three unique conformational isomers in a jet-cooled environment. The results of DFT and MP2 calculations will be presented as a basis for assignment of the experimentally resolved conformers. Two conformers form nine atom, intramolecular hydrogen bonded rings, which differ by the position of the aromatic ring relative to the peptide backbone. The third conformer does not contain intramolecular hydrogen bonding, but forms an intramolecular, amide-amide stacking structural motif, which when analyzed with the quantum theory of Atoms In Molecules is shown to contain an interaction between the carbon atom of the acetylated N-terminal amide and the nitrogen atom of the methylated C-terminal amide. In an effort to quantitatively assess the competition between hydrogen bonded and amide-amide stacked conformers, mass-resolved, infrared-population transfer spectroscopy was developed, where the IR and molecular beams are counter-propagated allowing for a re-cooling step prior to detection via resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Using this method the fractional abundances of each conformer were experimentally determined. W. Chin, F. Piuzzi, I. Dimicoli, and M. Mons, PCCP, 2006, 8, 1033. E. E. Baquero, W. H. James III, S. H. Choi, S. H. Gellman, and T. S. Zwier, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 4784.

  11. The nonlinear interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Taylor-Goertler vortices in curved channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of Tollmien-Schlichting waves (TSWs) and Taylor-Goertler vortices (TGVs) in fully developed viscous curved-channel flows is investigated analytically, with a focus on their nonlinear interactions. Two types of interactions are identified, depending on the amplitude of the initial disturbances. In the low-amplitude type, two TSWs and one TGV interact, and the scaled amplitudes go to infinity on a finite time scale; in the higher-amplitude type, which can also occur in a straight channel, the same singularity occurs if the angle between the TSW wavefront and the TGV is greater than 41.6 deg, but the breakdown is exponential and takes an infinite time if the angle is smaller. The implications of these findings for external flow problems such as the design of laminar-flow wings are indicated. It is concluded that longitudinal vortices like those observed in the initial stages of the transition to turbulence can be produced unless the present interaction mechanism is destroyed by boundary-layer growth.

  12. Nonlinear thermoelectric transport in single-molecule junctions: the effect of electron-phonon interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we theoretically analyze steady-state thermoelectric transport through a single-molecule junction with a vibrating bridge. The thermally induced charge current in the system is explored using a nonequilibrium Green function formalism. We study the combined effects of Coulomb interactions between charge carriers on the bridge and electron-phonon interactions on the thermocurrent beyond the linear response regime. It is shown that electron-vibron interactions may significantly affect both the magnitude and the direction of the thermocurrent, and vibrational signatures may appear.

  13. Interactions of nonlinear electron-acoustic solitary waves with vortex electron distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Hilmi

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, based on a one dimensional model, we consider the head-on-collision of nonlinear electron-acoustic waves in a plasma composed of a cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a trapped/vortex-like distribution, and stationary ions. The analysis is based on the use of extended Poincare, Lighthill-Kuo method [C. H. Su and R. M. Mirie, J. Fluid Mech. 98, 509 (1980); R. M. Mirie and C. H. Su, J. Fluid Mech. 115, 475 (1982)]. It is shown that, for the first order approximation, the waves propagating in opposite directions are characterized by modified Korteweg-de Vries equations. In contrary to the results of previous investigations on this subject, we showed that the phase shifts are functions of both amplitudes of the colliding waves. The numerical results indicate that the waves with larger amplitude experience smaller phase shifts. Such a result seems to be plausible from physical considerations.

  14. Nonlinear Amplification in Electrokinetic Pumping in Nanochannels in the Presence of Hydrophobic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Chatterjee, Dipankar; Bakli, Chirodeep

    2013-05-01

    We discover a nonlinear coupling between the hydrophobicity of a charged substrate and electrokinetic pumping in narrow fluidic confinements. Our analyses demonstrate that the effective electrokinetic transport in nanochannels may get massively amplified over a regime of bare surface potentials and may subsequently get attenuated beyond a threshold surface charging condition because of a complex interplay between reduced hydrodynamic resistance on account of the spontaneous inception of a less dense interfacial phase and ionic transport within the electrical double layer. We also show that the essential physics delineated by our mesoscopic model, when expressed in terms of a simple mathematical formula, agrees remarkably with that portrayed by molecular dynamics simulations. The nontrivial characteristics of the initial increment followed by a decrement of the effective zeta potential with a bare surface potential may open up the realm of hitherto-unexplored operating regimes of electrohydrodynamically actuated nanofluidic devices.

  15. Helical waves and non-linear dynamics of fluid/structure interactions in a tube row

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, F.C.; Thothadri, M.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study has been to investigate low-dimensional models for fluid-structure dynamics of flow across a row of cylindrical tubes. Four principle results of this experimental-theoretical study are discussed. (i) Experimental evidence has shown that the dynamic instability of the tube row is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. (ii) The critical flow velocity decreases as the number of flexible cylinders increases. (iii) The linear model exhibits coupled helical wave solutions in the tube dynamics. (iv) A nonlinear model of the tube motions shows a complex subcritical Hopf bifurcation with a secondary bifurcation to a torus or quasi-periodic oscillation. In this analysis the tools of center manifolds, normal forms and numerical simulation are used.

  16. Nonlinear longitudinal resonance interaction of energetic charged particles and VLF waves in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkalcevic, S.

    1982-01-01

    The longitudinal resonance of waves and energetic electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere, and the possible role this resonance may play in generating various magnetospheric phenomena are studied. The derivation of time-averaged nonlinear equations of motion for energetic particles longitudinally resonant with a whistler mode wave propagating with nonzero wave normal is considered. It is shown that the wave magnetic forces can be neglected at lower particle pitch angles, while they become equal to or larger than the wave electric forces for alpha 20 deg. The time-averaged equations of motion were used in test particle simulation which were done for a wide range of wave amplitudes, wave normals, particle pitch angles, particle parallel velocities, and in an inhomogeneous medium such as the magnetosphere. It was found that there are two classes of particles, trapped and untrapped, and that the scattering and energy exchange for those two groups exhibit significantly different behavior.

  17. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  18. Donor-Acceptor Interaction Determines the Mechanism of Photoinduced Electron Injection from Graphene Quantum Dots into TiO2: π-Stacking Supersedes Covalent Bonding.

    PubMed

    Long, Run; Casanova, David; Fang, Wei-Hai; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2017-02-22

    Interfacial electron transfer (ET) constitutes the key step in conversion of solar energy into electricity and fuels. Required for fast and efficient charge separation, strong donor-acceptor interaction is typically achieved through covalent chemical bonding and leads to fast, adiabatic ET. Focusing on interfaces of pyrene, coronene, and a graphene quantum dot (GQD) with TiO2, we demonstrate the opposite situation: covalent bonding leads to weak coupling and nonadiabatic (NA) ET, while through-space π-electron interaction produces adiabatic ET. Using real-time time-dependent density functional theory combined with NA molecular dynamics, we simulate photoinduced ET into TiO2 from flat and vertically placed molecules and GQD containing commonly used carboxylic acid linkers. Both arrangements can be achieved experimentally with GQDs and other two-dimensional materials, such as MoS2. The weak through-bond donor-acceptor coupling is attributed to the π-electron withdrawing properties of the carboxylic acid group. The calculated ET time scales are in excellent agreement with pump-probe optical experiments. The simulations show that the ET proceeds faster than energy relaxation. The electron couples to a broad spectrum of vibrational modes, ranging from 100 cm(-1) large-scale motions to 1600 cm(-1) C-C stretches. Compared to graphene/TiO2 heterojunctions, the molecule/TiO2 and GQD/TiO2 systems exhibit energy gaps, allowing for longer-lived excited states and hot electron injection, facilitating charge separation and higher voltage. The reported state-of-the-art simulations generate a detailed time-domain, atomistic description of the interfacial charge and energy transfer and relaxation processes, and demonstrate that the fundamental principles leading to efficient charge separation in nanoscale materials depend strongly and often unexpectedly on the type of donor-acceptor interaction. Understanding these principles is critical to the development of highly efficient

  19. EPRI wet stacks design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Weilert, C.V.; Pattison, D.C.; Richart, S.D.

    1995-06-01

    Because of the high cost of reheat, wet stacks are being considered for new or retrofit applications of wet FGD systems in the United States. All retrofit systems designed for compliance with Phase I of the Acid Rain Control program under the Clean Air Act have utilized wet stacks. For Phase II, utilities with existing wet FGD systems would benefit from overscrubbing. For those units which currently use bypass reheat, this could be accomplished by closing the bypass to treat the entire boiler flue gas stream. This would require conversion to wet stack operation. Due to the level of interest in these wet stack scenarios for future FGD applications, EPRI, in a tailored collaboration with NYSEG, retained Bums & McDonnell and DynaFlow Systems to prepare a design guide for wet stacks. This paper provides a brief summary of the wet stacks design guide.

  20. Nonlinear adhesion dynamics of confined lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, Tung; Le Goff, Thomas; Pierre-Louis, Olivier

    Lipid membranes, which are ubiquitous objects in biological environments are often confined. For example, they can be sandwiched between a substrate and the cytoskeleton between cell adhesion, or between other membranes in stacks, or in the Golgi apparatus. We present a study of the nonlinear dynamics of membranes in a model system, where the membrane is confined between two flat walls. The dynamics derived from the lubrication approximation is highly nonlinear and nonlocal. The solution of this model in one dimension exhibits frozen states due to oscillatory interactions between membranes caused by the bending rigidity. We develope a kink model for these phenomena based on the historical work of Kawasaki and Otha. In two dimensions, the dynamics is more complex, and depends strongly on the amount of excess area in the system. We discuss the relevance of our findings for experiments on model membranes, and for biological systems. Supported by the grand ANR Biolub.

  1. Purity loss and degradation of qubit-field correlations and entanglement due to phase noise in nonlinear interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessian, H. A.; Mohamed, A.-B. A.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical simulations and calculation of both the total entropy and the sub-entropies are used to investigate the purity loss in nonlinear interaction of a qubit with coherent field. While, the mutual entropy is used as a measure of the total correlations and the negativity as a measure to the entanglement. We show that the purity and entanglement behave different for standard energy dissipation as compared to an energy preserving phase noise coupling as introduced by Milburn. It is found that a very strong sensitivity of the degradation both total correlation with entanglement to the amount of phase damping and the chosen coupling. In particular for a coherent initial field state the maximum obtainable correlation is strongly reduced even for very weak noise.

  2. EGAM induced by energetic electrons and nonlinear interactions among EGAM, BAEs and tearing modes in a toroidal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HL-2A Team; Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Yu, L. M.; Ji, X. Q.; Dong, J. Q.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Yi.; Yan, L. W.; Zhou, Y.; Li, W.; Song, X. M.; Chen, S. Y.; Shi, Z. B.; Duan, X. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, it is reported that the first experimental results are associated with the GAM induced by energetic electrons (EGAM) in HL-2A Ohmic plasma. The energetic electrons are jointly generated by Ohmic electric fields and parallel electric fields during magnetic reconnection associated with tearing mode (TM). The EGAM localizes in the core plasma, i.e. in the vicinity of q=2 surface, and is very different from one excited by the drift-wave turbulence in the edge plasma. The analysis indicated that the EGAM is provided with the magnetic components, whose intensities depend on the poloidal angles, and its mode numbers are |m/n|=2/0. Further, there exist intense nonlinear interactions among EGAM, BAEs and strong tearing modes (TMs). These new findings shed light on the underlying physics mechanism for the excitation of the low frequency (LF) Alfvénic and acoustic fluctuations.

  3. Experimental investigation of non-linear wave to plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, G.; Mascali, D.; Agnello, R.; Celona, L.; Leonardi, O.; Neri, L.; Nicolosi, D.; Torrisi, G.; Gammino, S.

    2016-02-01

    A characterization of wave-to-plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field at 3.75 GHz has been carried out by using a small-wire movable RF antenna, connected to a spectrum analyzer. The coupling between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves leads to a characteristic spectral emission in low frequency range and around the pumping wave frequency. The most relevant results consist in the broadening of the pumping wave spectrum above critical RF power thresholds and in the generation of sidebands of the pumping frequency, with corresponding components in low frequency domain. The non-linearities are accompanied by the generation of overdense plasmas and intense fluxes of X-rays.

  4. Linear and nonlinear interactions of an electron beam with oblique whistler and electrostatic waves in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.

    1993-12-01

    Both linear and nonlinear interactions between oblique whistler, electrostatic, quasi-upper hybrid mode waves and an electron beam are studied by linear analyses and electromagnetic particle simulations. In addition to a background cold plasma, we assumed a hot electron beam drifting along a static magnetic field. Growth rates of the oblique whistler, oblique electrostatic, and quasi-upper hybrid instabilities were first calculated. We found that there are four kinds of unstable mode waves for parallel and oblique propagations. They are the electromagnetic whistler mode wave (WW1), the electrostatic whistler mode wave (WW2), the electrostatic mode wave (ESW), and the quasi-upper hybrid mode wave (UHW). A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the satellite observations of whistler mode chorus and accompanied electrostatic waves, whose amplitudes are sometimes modulated at the chorus frequency.

  5. Local Environment and Interactions of Liquid and Solid Interfaces Revealed by Spectral Line Shape of Surface Selective Nonlinear Vibrational Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shun-Li; Fu, Li; Chase, Zizwe A.; Gan, Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei

    2016-11-10

    Vibrational spectral lineshape contains important detailed information of molecular vibration and reports its specific interactions and couplings to its local environment. In this work, recently developed sub-1 cm-1 high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS) was used to measure the -C≡N stretch vibration in the 4-n-octyl-4’-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) Langmuir or Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer as a unique vibrational probe, and the spectral lineshape analysis revealed the local environment and interactions at the air/water, air/glass, air/calcium fluoride and air/-quartz interfaces for the first time. The 8CB Langmuir or LB film is uniform and the vibrational spectral lineshape of its -C≡N group has been well characterized, making it a good choice as the surface vibrational probe. Lineshape analysis of the 8CB -C≡N stretch SFG vibrational spectra suggests the coherent vibrational dynamics and the structural and dynamic inhomogeneity of the -C≡N group at each interface are uniquely different. In addition, it is also found that there are significantly different roles for water molecules in the LB films on different substrate surfaces. These results demonstrated the novel capabilities of the surface nonlinear spectroscopy in characterization and in understanding the specific structures and chemical interactions at the liquid and solid interfaces in general.

  6. IAS Stacking Library in IDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavouzet, Nicolas; Beelen, Alexandre; Bethermin, Matthieu; Dole, Herve; Ponthieu, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    This IDL library is designed to be used on astronomical images. Its main aim is to stack data to allow a statistical detection of faint signal, using a prior. For instance, you can stack 160um data using the positions of galaxies detected at 24um or 3.6um, or use WMAP sources to stack Planck data. It can estimate error bars using bootstrap, and it can perform photometry (aperture photometry, or PSF fitting, or other that you can plug). The IAS Stacking Library works with gnomonic projections (RA---TAN), and also with HEALPIX projection.

  7. Stacked insulator induction accelerator gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T.I.; Westenskow, G.A.; Kim, J.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Vanecek, D.

    1997-05-01

    Stacked insulators, with alternating layers of insulating material and conducting film, have been shown to support high surface electrical field stresses. We have investigated the application of the stacked insulator technology to the design of induction accelerator modules for the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator program. The rf properties of the accelerating gaps using stacked insulators, particularly the impedance at frequencies above the beam pipe cutoff frequency, are investigated. Low impedance is critical for Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator applications where a high current, bunched beam is trsnsported through many accelerating gaps. An induction accelerator module designs using a stacked insulator is presented.

  8. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (<0.1 Hz), but also over the higher frequency range from ˜0.1 to 0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  9. Problems in Nonlinear Acoustics: Parametric Receiving Arrays, Focused Finite Amplitude Sound, & Noncollinear Tone-Noise Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    plane waves that propagate in different directions. This approach was followed by TenCate and Hamilton [33,34], who investigated both theoretically...75, 1383-1391 (1984). • i I ■ [33] J. A. TenCate and M. F. Hamilton, "Dispersive NonUnear Wave Interactions in a Rect- angular Duct," in...and J. A. TenCate , "Sum and Difference Frequency Generation due to Noncollinear Wave Interaction in a Rectangular Duct," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81

  10. Electronic dynamics under effect of a nonlinear Morse interaction and a static electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranciaro Neto, A.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2016-11-01

    Considering non-interacting electrons in a one-dimension alloy in which atoms are coupled by a Morse potential, we study the system dynamics in the presence of a static electric field. Calculations are performed assuming a quantum mechanical treatment for the electronic transport and a classical Hamiltonian model for the lattice vibrations. We report numerical evidence of the existence of a soliton-electron pair, even when the electric field is turned on, and we offer a description of how the existence of such a phase depends on the magnitude of the electric field and the electron-phonon interaction.

  11. Fundamental nonlinearities of the reactor-settler interaction in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Stefan; Farås, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The activated sludge process can be modelled by ordinary and partial differential equations for the biological reactors and secondary settlers, respectively. Because of the complexity of such a system, simulation models are most often used to investigate them. However, simulation models cannot give general rules on how to control a complex nonlinear process. For a reduced-order model with only two components, soluble substrate and particulate biomass, general results on steady-state solutions have recently been obtained, such as existence, uniqueness and stability of solutions. The aim of the present paper is to utilize those results to formulate some implications of practical importance. In particular, strategies are described for the manual control of the effluent substrate concentration subject to the constraint that the settler is maintained in normal operation (with a sludge blanket in the thickening zone) in steady state. Such strategies contain how the two control parameters, the recycle and waste volumetric flow ratios, should be chosen for any (steady-state) values of the input variables.

  12. MPI parallelization of Vlasov codes for the simulation of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, V.; Won, K.; Afeyan, B.; Decyk, V.; Albrecht-Marc, M.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.

    2003-10-01

    The simulation of optical mixing driven KEEN waves [1] and electron plasma waves [1] in laser-produced plasmas require nonlinear kinetic models and massive parallelization. We use Massage Passing Interface (MPI) libraries and Appleseed [2] to solve the Vlasov Poisson system of equations on an 8 node dual processor MAC G4 cluster. We use the semi-Lagrangian time splitting method [3]. It requires only row-column exchanges in the global data redistribution, minimizing the total number of communications between processors. Recurrent communication patterns for 2D FFTs involves global transposition. In the Vlasov-Maxwell case, we use splitting into two 1D spatial advections and a 2D momentum advection [4]. Discretized momentum advection equations have a double loop structure with the outer index being assigned to different processors. We adhere to a code structure with separate routines for calculations and data management for parallel computations. [1] B. Afeyan et al., IFSA 2003 Conference Proceedings, Monterey, CA [2] V. K. Decyk, Computers in Physics, 7, 418 (1993) [3] Sonnendrucker et al., JCP 149, 201 (1998) [4] Begue et al., JCP 151, 458 (1999)

  13. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree. The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.

  14. Design Interactive: A Nonlinear, Multimedia Approach to Teaching Introduction to Visual Communication and Principles of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell; Leidig-Farmen, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    As online teaching techniques continue to evolve, new opportunities surface for research and insight regarding best practices for the development and implementation of interactive, multimedia teaching and learning tools. These tools are particularly attractive for courses that lend themselves to a rich media approach. Such is the case for visual…

  15. Perfect polar stacking of parallel beloamphiphile layers. Synthesis, structure and solid-state optical properties of the unsymmetrical acetophenone azine DCA.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Rainer; Knotts, Nathan; Yu, Ping; Li, Linghui; Chandrasekhar, Meera; Martin, Christopher; Barnes, Charles L

    2006-06-21

    Extraordinary high degrees of polar order can be achieved by a rational design that involves the polar stacking of parallel beloamphiphile monolayers (PBAM). This strategy is exemplified by the acetophenone azines MCA (4-methoxy-4'-chloroacetophenone azine) and DCA (4-decoxy-4'-chloroacetophenone azine). The beloamphiphile design aims to achieve strong lateral interactions by way of arene-arene, azine-azine, arene-azine and halogen-bonding interactions. Dipole-induced interactions and halogen bonding dominate interlayer interactions and halogen bonding is shown to effect the layer stacking. Crystals of DCA contain PBAMs with perfect polar order and perfect polar layer stacking, while crystals of MCA features perfect polar order only in one of two layers and layer stacking is polar but not entirely perfect. We report the synthesis of the beloamphiphile DCA, its crystal structure, and we present a comparative discussion of the structures and intermolecular interactions of MCA and DCA. Absorbance and photoluminescence measurements have been carried out for solutions of DCA and for DCA crystals. DCA exhibits a broad emission centered at 2.5 eV when excited with UV radiation. The nonlinear optical response was studied by measuring second harmonic generation (SHG). Strong SHG signals have been observed due to the polar alignment and the DCA crystal's NLO response is 34 times larger than that of urea. Optimization of the beloamphiphile and systematic SAR studies of the polar organic crystals, which are now possible for the very first time, will further improve the performance of this new class of functional organic materials. The materials are organic semiconductors and show promise as blue emitters, as nonlinear optical materials and as OLED materials.

  16. Zigzag stacks and m-regular linear stacks.

    PubMed

    Chen, William Y C; Guo, Qiang-Hui; Sun, Lisa H; Wang, Jian

    2014-12-01

    The contact map of a protein fold is a graph that represents the patterns of contacts in the fold. It is known that the contact map can be decomposed into stacks and queues. RNA secondary structures are special stacks in which the degree of each vertex is at most one and each arc has length of at least two. Waterman and Smith derived a formula for the number of RNA secondary structures of length n with exactly k arcs. Höner zu Siederdissen et al. developed a folding algorithm for extended RNA secondary structures in which each vertex has maximum degree two. An equation for the generating function of extended RNA secondary structures was obtained by Müller and Nebel by using a context-free grammar approach, which leads to an asymptotic formula. In this article, we consider m-regular linear stacks, where each arc has length at least m and the degree of each vertex is bounded by two. Extended RNA secondary structures are exactly 2-regular linear stacks. For any m ≥ 2, we obtain an equation for the generating function of the m-regular linear stacks. For given m, we deduce a recurrence relation and an asymptotic formula for the number of m-regular linear stacks on n vertices. To establish the equation, we use the reduction operation of Chen, Deng, and Du to transform an m-regular linear stack to an m-reduced zigzag (or alternating) stack. Then we find an equation for m-reduced zigzag stacks leading to an equation for m-regular linear stacks.

  17. Nonlinear multiscale interactions and internal dynamics underlying a typical eddy-shedding event at Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-Bing; Liang, X. San; Gan, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Eddy-shedding is a highly nonlinear process that presents a major challenge in geophysical fluid dynamics. Using the newly developed localized multiscale energy and vorticity analysis (MS-EVA), this study investigates an observed typical warm eddy-shedding event as the Kuroshio passes the Luzon Strait, in order to gain insight into the underlying internal dynamics. Through multiscale window transform (MWT), it is found that the loop-form Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea (SCS) is not a transient feature, but a quasi-equilibrium state of the system. A mesoscale reconstruction reveals that the eddy does not have its origin at the intrusion path, but comes from the Northwest Pacific. It propagates westward, preceded by a cyclonic (cold) eddy, through the Kuroshio into the SCS. As the eddy pair runs across the main current, the cold one weakens and the warm one intensifies through a mixed instability. In its development, another cold eddy is generated to its southeast, which also experiences a mixed instability. It develops rapidly and cuts the warm eddy off the stream. Both the warm and cold eddies then propagate westward in the form of a Rossby wave (first baroclinic mode). As the eddies approach the Dongsha Islands, they experience another baroclinic instability, accompanied by a sudden accumulation of eddy available potential energy. This part of potential energy is converted to eddy kinetic energy through buoyancy conversion, and is afterward transferred back to the large-scale field through inverse cascading, greatly reducing the intensity of the eddy and eventually leading to its demise.

  18. CMB and matter power spectra with non-linear dark-sector interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vom Marttens, R. F.; Casarini, L.; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2017-01-01

    An interaction between dark matter and dark energy, proportional to the product of their energy densities, results in a scaling behavior of the ratio of these densities with respect to the scale factor of the Robertson-Walker metric. This gives rise to a class of cosmological models which deviate from the standard model in an analytically tractable way. In particular, it becomes possible to quantify the role of potential dark-energy perturbations. We investigate the impact of this interaction on the structure formation process. Using the (modified) CAMB code we obtain the CMB spectrum as well as the linear matter power spectrum. It is shown that the strong degeneracy in the parameter space present in the background analysis is considerably reduced by considering Planck data. Our analysis is compatible with the ΛCDM model at the 2σ confidence level with a slightly preferred direction of the energy flow from dark matter to dark energy.

  19. Energy transfer due to nonlinear wave-wave interactions in deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Lvov, Yuri V.

    2007-11-01

    It was believed that the Garrett-Munk spectrum was the ``universal'' energy spectrum of oceanic internal waves. However, it has become apparent from recent categorization of oceanic observations that the Garrett-Munk spectrum can not be as universal as been previously thought. One may use the weak turbulence theory to attempt to explain the formation of the spectral energy density of internal waves. It turns out that the large wavenumbers (small scales) interact in triads via small wavenumbers (large scales). This hypothesis provides possible explanation for the variability of the energy spectra. Namely, several families of statistically steady solutions are found in consideration of the nonlocality in wavenumber spaces of resonant interactions. The new families of power-law exponents of the energy spectra are in good agreement with the observations. To check these theory we perform direct numerical simulations based on Hamiltonian formalism. It is shown also by the numerical simulations that the nonlocal interactions in the wavenumber space are dominant in the inertial wavenumbers. The validity of the weak turbulence theory is also discussed.

  20. Stacking disorder in ice I.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Murray, Benjamin J; Salzmann, Christoph G; Molinero, Valeria; Pickering, Steven J; Whale, Thomas F

    2015-01-07

    Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history.

  1. Exciton Dynamics and Many Body Interactions in Layered Semiconducting Materials Revealed with Non-linear Coherent Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Prasenjit

    understanding the basic unexplored science as well as creating technological developments. The dephasing dynamics in semiconductors typically occur in the picosecond to femtosecond timescale, thus the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a potential route to probe such excitonic responses. The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, to develop the necessary instrumentation to accurately probe the aforementioned parameters and secondly, to explore the quantum dynamics and the underlying many-body interactions in different layered semiconducting materials. A custom-built multidimensional optical non-linear spectrometer was developed in order to perform two-dimensional spectroscopic (2DFT) measurements. The advantages of this technique are multifaceted compared to regular one-dimensional and non-linear incoherent techniques. 2DFT technique is based on an enhanced version of Four wave mixing experiments. This powerful tool is capable of identifying the resonant coupling, probing the coherent pathways, unambiguously extracting the homogeneous linewidth in the presence of inhomogeneity and decomposing a complex spectra into real and imaginary parts. It is not possible to uncover such crucial features by employing one dimensional non-linear technique. Monolayers as well as bulk TMDs and group III-VI bulk layered materials are explored in this dissertation. The exciton quantum dynamics is explored with three pulse four-wave mixing whereas the phase sensitive measurements are obtained by employing two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy. Temperature and excitation density dependent 2DFT experiments unfold the information associated with the many-body interactions in the layered semiconducting samples.

  2. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stacking test. 178.815 Section 178.815... Stacking test. (a) General. The stacking test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types intended to be stacked. (b) Special preparation for the stacking test. (1) All IBCs...

  3. Nonlinear Quantum Optics in a Waveguide: Distinct Single Photons Strongly Interacting at the Single Atom Level

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchin, Pavel; Oulton, Rupert F.; Zhang Xiang

    2011-03-18

    We propose a waveguide-QED system where two single photons of distinct frequency or polarization interact strongly. The system consists of a single ladder-type three level atom coupled to a waveguide. When both optical transitions are coupled strongly to the waveguide's mode, we show that a control photon tuned to the upper transition induces a {pi} phase shift and tunneling of a probe photon tuned to the otherwise reflective lower transition. Furthermore, the system exhibits single photon scattering by a classical control beam. Waveguide-QED schemes could be an alternative to high quality cavities or dense atomic ensembles in quantum information processing.

  4. Role of free-surface boundary conditions and nonlinearities in wave/boundary-layer and wake interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung-Eun

    1993-01-01

    convective acceleration, i.e., nonlinear interaction between the steady and first-harmonic solutions. The traveling wave shows limiting behavior for small and large wave speed of the spatial and temporal waves, respectively, and smooth transition between the two for intermediate values, and extreme wake response for small wave speeds and short wave lengths. In both Parts, implications with regard to practical applications are discussed.

  5. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B

    2016-09-20

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale-a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability.

  6. Non-linear QCD dynamics in two-photon interactions at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Kugeratski, M. S.; Cazaroto, E. R.; Carvalho, F.; Navarra, F. S.

    2011-10-01

    Perturbative QCD predicts that the growth of the gluon density at high energies should saturate, forming a Color Glass Condensate (CGC), which is described in mean field approximation by the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation. In this paper we study the γγ interactions at high energies and estimate the main observables which will be probed at future linear colliders using the color dipole picture. We discuss in detail the dipole-dipole cross section and propose a new relation between this quantity and the dipole scattering amplitude. The total γγ, γ ∗ γ ∗ cross sections and the real photon structure function F2^{γ }(x,Q2) are calculated using the recent solution of the BK equation with running coupling constant and the predictions are compared with those obtained using phenomenological models for the dipole-dipole cross section and scattering amplitude. We demonstrate that these models are able to describe the LEP data at high energies, but predict a very different behavior for the observables at higher energies. Therefore we conclude that the study of γγ interactions can be useful to constrain the QCD dynamics.

  7. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R.; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale—a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability. PMID:27601643

  8. Nonlinear Amplification of the Whistler Wave in a Magnetized Relativistic Beam-Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Toshihiro; Antonsen, Thomas; Mima, Kunioki

    2015-11-01

    We have been investigating a relativistic electron beam-plasma interaction under a strong magnetic field using a hybrid simulation code. In an initial stage, the electron beam drives a return current in a background plasma and such a two beam state causes a longitudinal two stream instability and a transverse Weibel instability. The application of a strong magnetic field is proposed for the suppression of the beam instabilities. When a sufficiently strong magnetic field is applied along the beam propagation, the Weibel instability is well suppressed and electrons flow laminarly. When the magnetic field strength is not large enough, however, electrons stagnate and the total number of beam electrons is largely reduced. Our detailed analyses show that a strong whistler wave is excited during the interaction and the wave stops the beam electrons. Since the whistler wave is composed of transverse electromagnetic fields, there should be a mechanism to convert the transverse field to a longitudinal one. In order to investigate this problem, we have performed a lot of simulation runs for a simple geometry. Then we found the amplified transverse modulation of the background plasma due to the Weibel instability plays an important role for the amplification of the whistler wave. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), 15H03758.

  9. On-line and real-time diagnosis method for proton membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack by the superposition principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jonghyeon; Yoo, Seungyeol

    2016-09-01

    The critical cell voltage drop in a stack can be followed by stack defect. A method of detecting defective cell is the cell voltage monitoring. The other methods are based on the nonlinear frequency response. In this paper, the superposition principle for the diagnosis of PEMFC stack is introduced. If critical cell voltage drops exist, the stack behaves as a nonlinear system. This nonlinearity can explicitly appear in the ohmic overpotential region of a voltage-current curve. To detect the critical cell voltage drop, a stack is excited by two input direct test-currents which have smaller amplitude than an operating stack current and have an equal distance value from the operating current. If the difference between one voltage excited by a test current and the voltage excited by a load current is not equal to the difference between the other voltage response and the voltage excited by the load current, the stack system acts as a nonlinear system. This means that there is a critical cell voltage drop. The deviation from the value zero of the difference reflects the grade of the system nonlinearity. A simulation model for the stack diagnosis is developed based on the SPP, and experimentally validated.

  10. Study of the Dependence of Photoenhanced Nonlinear Acoustic Surface Wave Interactions on the Wavelength of Light.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-10

    CenterRockwell International SC5027.4FR 5.0 APPEND IX a) Participating Sci enti fic Personnel: Dr. Edgar A. Kraut Dr. T. C. Lim Mr. Fran k J. Morin Mr. John...Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 JUN 23 19fl _ / L~. Co-Inve stigators F— 0 . Edgar A. Kraut Dr. Te g C. Lim ___________ 4nr...INTERACTIONS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ON THE WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT~ I sc~o~i.~ p. /7 QR(a,) ~~~~~O~~TRA~~’T O R GRA NT NUMBER(S) Dr. Edgar A

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of emotion-cognition interaction: when emotion does not destroy cognition?

    PubMed

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Young, Todd; Muezzinoglu, Mehmet K; Rabinovich, Mikhail I

    2011-02-01

    Emotion (i.e., spontaneous motivation and subsequent implementation of a behavior) and cognition (i.e., problem solving by information processing) are essential to how we, as humans, respond to changes in our environment. Recent studies in cognitive science suggest that emotion and cognition are subserved by different, although heavily integrated, neural systems. Understanding the time-varying relationship of emotion and cognition is a challenging goal with important implications for neuroscience. We formulate here the dynamical model of emotion-cognition interaction that is based on the following principles: (1) the temporal evolution of cognitive and emotion modes are captured by the incoming stimuli and competition within and among themselves (competition principle); (2) metastable states exist in the unified emotion-cognition phase space; and (3) the brain processes information with robust and reproducible transients through the sequence of metastable states. Such a model can take advantage of the often ignored temporal structure of the emotion-cognition interaction to provide a robust and generalizable method for understanding the relationship between brain activation and complex human behavior. The mathematical image of the robust and reproducible transient dynamics is a Stable Heteroclinic Sequence (SHS), and the Stable Heteroclinic Channels (SHCs). These have been hypothesized to be possible mechanisms that lead to the sequential transient behavior observed in networks. We investigate the modularity of SHCs, i.e., given a SHS and a SHC that is supported in one part of a network, we study conditions under which the SHC pertaining to the cognition will continue to function in the presence of interfering activity with other parts of the network, i.e., emotion.

  12. Nonlinear Gulf Stream Interaction with the Deep Western Boundary Current System: Observations and a Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, David E.; Mehra, Avichal; Haney, Robert L.; Bowman, Malcolm J.; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2003-01-01

    Gulf Stream (GS) separation near its observed Cape Hatteras (CH) separation location, and its ensuing path and dynamics, is a challenging ocean modeling problem. If a model GS separates much farther north than CH, then northward GS meanders, which pinch off warm core eddies (rings), are not possible or are strongly constrained by the Grand Banks shelfbreak. Cold core rings pinch off the southward GS meanders. The rings are often re-absorbed by the GS. The important warm core rings enhance heat exchange and, especially, affect the northern GS branch after GS bifurcation near the New England Seamount Chain. This northern branch gains heat by contact with the southern branch water upstream of bifurcation, and warms the Arctic Ocean and northern seas, thus playing a major role in ice dynamics, thermohaline circulation and possible global climate warming. These rings transport heat northward between the separated GS and shelf slope/Deep Western Boundary Current system (DWBC). This region has nearly level time mean isopycnals. The eddy heat transport convergence/divergence enhances the shelfbreak and GS front intensities and thus also increases watermass transformation. The fronts are maintained by warm advection by the Florida Current and cool advection by the DWBC. Thus, the GS interaction with the DWBC through the intermediate eddy field is climatologically important.

  13. Can nonlinear epigenetic interactions obscure causal relations between genotype and phenotype?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Andreas

    1996-05-01

    Does natural selection always penetrate the web of epigenetic interactions that produced the phenotypic character it acts upon and thereby affect individual genes? Or, alternatively, are there instances where character evolution is partly decoupled from DNA level events, i.e. are there characters that are `irreducible', `emergent', `collective' features of the system that produced them? These are two persistent questions in evolutionary biology, and for good reasons: to answer them means to determine what level of biological organization is relevant to our understanding of evolution. Conceptual problems associated with this notion of collective behaviour are not the only reason for the elusiveness of these questions: they have to be answered by experiment, but available experimental methods are insufficient to resolve them. Since the nature of the problem is such that adequate experimental methods are not yet available, preliminary studies on models motivated by experimental evidence are called for. Such a study is presented here. It is based on a biochemically motivated model for sets of genes encoding for transcriptional regulators which mutually regulate each other's expression. The ubiquity of these `gene networks' in higher eukaryotes and their central role in development make their evolution an important subject of study. On the basis of several statistical criteria, it is argued that selection acting on the level of individual genes within a network is most likely a minor factor in network evolution. Reasons are given for why these results are likely to be robust to alterations in model architecture and why they may thus be expected to apply to real gene networks. Possible implications of the results to evolutionary theory and molecular studies of development are discussed.

  14. Generation of Nonlinear Force Driven Blocks from Skin Layer Interaction of Petawatt-Picosecond Laser Pulses for ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Hora; Cang, Yu; He, Xiantu; Zhang, Jie; F, Osman; J, Badziak; F, P. Boody; S, Gammino; R, Höpfl; K, Jungwirth; B, Kralikova; J, Kraska; L, Laska; Liu, Hong; G, H. Miley; P, Parys; Peng, Hansheng; M, Pfeifer; K, Rohlena; J, Skala; Z, Skladanowski; L, Torrisi; J, Ullschmied; J, Wolowski; Zhang, Weiyan

    2004-02-01

    The discovery of the essential difference of maximum ion energy for TW - ps laser plasma interaction compared with the 100 ns laser pulses [1] led to the theory of a skin layer model [2] where the control of prepulses suppressed the usual relativistic self-focusing. The subsequent generation of two nonlinear force driven blocks has been demonstrated experimentally and in extensive numerical studies where one block moves against the laser light and the other block into the irradiated target. These blocks of nearly solid state density DT plasma correspond to ion beam current densities [3] exceeding 1010 A/cm2 where the ion velocity can be chosen up to highly relativistic values. Using the results of the expected ignition of DT fuel by light ion beams, a self-sustained fusion reaction front may be generated even into uncompressed solid DT fuel similar to the Nuckolls-Wood [4] scheme where 10 kJ laser pulses produce 100 MJ fusion energy. This new and simplified scheme of laser-ICF needs and optimisation of the involved parameters.

  15. Nonlinear Interaction of Edge-Localized Modes and Turbulent Eddies in Toroidal Plasma under n =1 Magnetic Perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Yun, Gunsu S.; Choi, Minjun J.; Kwon, Jae-Min; Jeon, Young-Mu; Lee, Woochang; Luhmann, Neville C.; Park, Hyeon K.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of static n =1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of edge-localized modes (ELMs) and edge turbulence in tokamak plasma has been investigated. Two-dimensional images measured by a millimeter-wave camera on the KSTAR tokamak revealed that the coherent filamentary modes (i.e., ELMs) are still present in the edge region when the usual large scale collapse of the edge confinement, i.e., the ELM crash, is completely suppressed by n =1 RMP. Cross-correlation analyses on the 2D images show that (1) the RMP enhances turbulent fluctuations in the edge toward the ELM-crash-suppression phase, (2) the induced turbulence has a clear dispersion relation for wide ranges of wave number and frequency, and (3) the turbulence involves a net radially outward energy transport. Nonlinear interactions of the turbulent eddies with the coexisting ELMs are clearly observed by bispectral analysis, which implies that the exchange of energy between them may be the key to the prevention of large scale crashes.

  16. Non-Linear Interactions Determine the Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Estuarine Benthic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches. PMID:23861863

  17. Non-linear interactions determine the impact of sea-level rise on estuarine benthic biodiversity and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C L

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches.

  18. Response analysis of a nuclear containment structure with nonlinear soil-structure interaction under bi-directional ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Raychowdhury, Prishati; Gundlapalli, Prabhakar

    2015-06-01

    Design of critical facilities such as nuclear power plant requires an accurate and precise evaluation of seismic demands, as any failure of these facilities poses immense threat to the community. Design complexity of these structures reinforces the necessity of a robust 3D modeling and analysis of the structure and the soil-foundation interface. Moreover, it is important to consider the multiple components of ground motion during time history analysis for a realistic simulation. Present study is focused on investigating the seismic response of a nuclear containment structure considering nonlinear Winkler-based approach to model the soil-foundation interface using a distributed array of inelastic springs, dashpots and gap elements. It is observed from this study that the natural period of the structure increases about 10 %, whereas the force demands decreases up to 24 % by considering the soil-structure interaction. Further, it is observed that foundation deformations, such as rotation and sliding are affected by the embedment ratio, indicating an increase of up to 56 % in these responses for a reduction of embedment from 0.5 to 0.05× the width of the footing.

  19. Optimization of non-linear gradient in hydrophobic interaction chromatography for the analytical characterization of antibody-drug conjugates.

    PubMed

    Bobály, Balázs; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Rudaz, Serge; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2017-01-20

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the potential of non-linear gradients in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), to improve the separation between the different homologous species (drug-to-antibody, DAR) of commercial antibody-drug conjugates (ADC). The selectivities between Brentuximab Vedotin species were measured using three different gradient profiles, namely linear, power function based and logarithmic ones. The logarithmic gradient provides the most equidistant retention distribution for the DAR species and offers the best overall separation of cysteine linked ADC in HIC. Another important advantage of the logarithmic gradient, is its peak focusing effect for the DAR0 species, which is particularly useful to improve the quantitation limit of DAR0. Finally, the logarithmic behavior of DAR species of ADC in HIC was modelled using two different approaches, based on i) the linear solvent strength theory (LSS) and two scouting linear gradients and ii) a new derived equation and two logarithmic scouting gradients. In both cases, the retention predictions were excellent and systematically below 3% compared to the experimental values.

  20. Challenges for the Sequential Interaction Between Optimal Design of Field Campaigns and Model Calibration for Non-Linear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Stochastic models of sub-surface systems generally suffer from parametric and conceptual uncertainty. To reduce the model uncertainty, model parameters are calibrated using additional collected data. These data often come from costly data acquisition campaigns that need to be optimized to collect the data with the highest data utility (DU) or value of information. In model-based approaches, the DU is evaluated based on the uncertain model itself and is therefore uncertain as well. Additionally, for non-linear models, data utility depends on the yet unobserved measurement values and can only be estimated as an expected value over an assumed distribution of possible measurement values. Both factors introduce uncertainty into the optimization of field campaigns. We propose and investigate a sequential interaction scheme between campaign optimization, data collection and model calibration. The field campaign is split in individual segments. Each segment consists of optimization, segment-wise data collection, and successive model calibration or data assimilation. By doing so, (1) the expected data utility for the newly collected data is replaced by their actual one, (2) the calibration restricts both conceptual and parametric model uncertainty, and thus (3) the distribution of possible future data values for the subsequent campaign segments also changes. Hence, the model to describe the real system improves successively with each collected data segment, and so does the estimate of the yet remaining data requirements to achieve the overall investigation goals. We will show that using the sequentially improved model for the optimal design (OD) of the remaining field campaign leads to superior and more targeted designs.However, this traditional sequential OD optimizes small data segments one-by-one. In such a strategy, possible mutual dependencies with the possible data values and the optimization of data values collection in later segments are neglected. This allows a

  1. Nonreciprocal nonlinear wave scattering by loss-compensated active hyperbolic structures

    PubMed Central

    Shramkova, O. V.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The combinatorial frequency generation (CFG) in active periodic semiconductor-dielectric structures has been explored through illumination by a pair of pump waves with dissimilar frequencies and incidence angles. We study the influence of gain on linear refraction properties of the stack and on the efficiency of the mixing processes by the system with the resistive character of nonlinearity. We demonstrate that the introduction of gain dielectric material inside the stack not only compensates for losses caused by the collisions of the electrons in semiconductor media but also improves the efficiency of the CFG. We show that in systems with weak asymmetry of linear response we can get significant nonreciprocity of nonlinear interaction. PMID:28225004

  2. Extremely strong tubular stacking of aromatic oligoamide macrocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Mark A.; Wei, Xiaoxi; Horner, Ian J.; Liu, Rui; Chen, Shuang; Chen, Si; Yung, Ka Yi; Yamato, Kazuhiro; Cai, Zhonghou; Bright, Frank V.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gong, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the third-generation rigid macrocycles evolved from progenitor 1, cyclic aromatic oligoamides 3, with a backbone of reduced constraint, exhibit extremely strong stacking with an astoundingly high affinity (estimated lower limit of Kdimer > 1013 M-1 in CHCl3), which leads to dispersed tubular stacks that undergo further assembly in solution. Computational study reveals a very large binding energy (-49.77 kcal mol-1) and indicates highly cooperative local dipole interactions that account for the observed strength and directionality for the stacking of 3. In the solid-state, X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the aggregation of 3 results in well-aligned tubular stacks. The persistent tubular assemblies of 3, with their non-deformable sub-nm pore, are expected to possess many interesting functions. One such function, transmembrane ion transport, is observed for 3.

  3. Extremely strong tubular stacking of aromatic oligoamide macrocycles

    DOE PAGES

    Kline, Mark A.; Wei, Xiaoxi; Horner, Ian J.; ...

    2015-01-01

    As the third-generation rigid macrocycles evolved from progenitor 1, cyclic aromatic oligoamides 3, with a backbone of reduced constraint, exhibit extremely strong stacking with an astoundingly high affinity (estimated lower limit of Kdimer > 1013 M-1 in CHCl3), which leads to dispersed tubular stacks that undergo further assembly in solution. Computational study reveals a very large binding energy (-49.77 kcal mol-1) and indicates highly cooperative local dipole interactions that account for the observed strength and directionality for the stacking of 3. In the solid-state, X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the aggregation of 3 results in well-aligned tubular stacks. The persistentmore » tubular assemblies of 3, with their non-deformable sub-nm pore, are expected to possess many interesting functions. One such function, transmembrane ion transport, is observed for 3.« less

  4. Research in nonlinear structural and solid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Nonlinear analysis of building structures and numerical solution of nonlinear algebraic equations and Newton's method are discussed. Other topics include: nonlinear interaction problems; solution procedures for nonlinear problems; crash dynamics and advanced nonlinear applications; material characterization, contact problems, and inelastic response; and formulation aspects and special software for nonlinear analysis.

  5. 49 CFR 178.1055 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stacking test. 178.1055 Section 178.1055... Containers § 178.1055 Stacking test. (a) General. The stacking test must be conducted for the qualification of all Flexible Bulk Containers design types. (b) Special preparation for the stacking test....

  6. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  7. Synchronized dynamics of Josephson vortices in artificial stacks of SNS Josephson junctions under both dc and ac bias currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Savel'ev, S. E.; Milošević, M. V.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-05-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of Josephson vortices (fluxons) in artificial stacks of superconducting-normal-superconducting Josephson junctions under simultaneously applied time-periodic ac and constant biasing dc currents is studied using the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism with a Lawrence-Doniach extension. At zero external magnetic field and dc biasing current the resistive state of the system is characterized by periodic nucleation and annihilation of fluxon-antifluxon pairs, relative positions of which are determined by the state of neighboring junctions. Due to the mutual repulsive interaction, fluxons in different junctions move out of phase. Their collective motion can be synchronized by adding a small ac component to the biasing dc current. Coherent motion of fluxons is observed for a broad frequency range of the applied drive. In the coherent state the maximal output voltage, which is proportional to the number of junctions in the stack, is observed near the characteristic frequency of the system determined by the crossing of the fluxons across the sample. However, in this frequency range the dynamically synchronized state has an alternative—a less ordered state with smaller amplitude of the output voltage. Collective behavior of the junctions is strongly affected by the sloped sidewalls of the stack. Synchronization is observed only for weakly trapezoidal cross sections, whereas irregular motion of fluxons is observed for larger slopes of the sample edge.

  8. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelebi, E.; Göktepe, F.; Karahan, N.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of wave transmission along the truncated interface of the semi-infinite space, are adopted in the non-linear finite element formulation in the time domain along with Newmark's integration. The slenderness ratio of the superstructure and the local soil conditions as well as the characteristics of input excitations are important parameters for the numerical simulation in this research. The mechanical behavior of the underlying soil medium considered in this prediction model is simulated by an undrained elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model under plane-strain conditions. To emphasize the important findings of this type of problems to civil engineers, systematic calculations with different controlling parameters are accomplished to evaluate directly the structural response of the vibrating soil-structure system. When the underlying soil becomes stiffer, the frequency content of the seismic motion has a major role in altering the seismic response. The sudden increase of the dynamic response is more pronounced for resonance case, when the frequency content of the seismic ground motion is close to that of the SSI system. The SSI effects under different seismic inputs are different for all considered soil conditions and structural types.

  9. Nonlinear Interaction between Shunting and Adaptation Controls a Switch between Integration and Coincidence Detection in Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Steven A.; Ratté, Stéphanie; De Koninck, Yves; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The membrane conductance of a pyramidal neuron in vivo is substantially increased by background synaptic input. Increased membrane conductance, or shunting, does not simply reduce neuronal excitability. Recordings from hippocampal pyramidal neurons using dynamic clamp revealed that adaptation caused complete cessation of spiking in the high conductance state, whereas repetitive spiking could persist despite adaptation in the low conductance state. This behavior was reproduced in a phase plane model and was explained by a shunting-induced increase in voltage threshold. The increase in threshold allows greater activation of the M current (IM) at subthreshold potentials and reduces the minimum adaptation required to stabilize the system; in contrast, activation of the afterhyperpolarization current is unaffected by the increase in threshold and therefore remains unable to stop repetitive spiking. The nonlinear interaction between shunting and IM has other important consequences. First, timing of spikes elicited by brief stimuli is more precise when background spikes elicited by sustained input are prohibited, as occurs exclusively with IM-mediated adaptation in the high conductance state. Second, activation of IM at subthreshold potentials, which is increased in the high conductance state, hyperpolarizes average membrane potential away from voltage threshold, allowing only large, rapid fluctuations to reach threshold and elicit spikes. These results suggest that the shift from a low to high conductance state in a pyramidal neuron is accompanied by a switch from encoding time-averaged input with firing rate to encoding transient inputs with precisely timed spikes, in effect, switching the operational mode from integration to coincidence detection. PMID:16957065

  10. Slippage in stacking of graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yanyu; Jiang, Wanrun; Dai, Xing; Song, Ruixia; Wang, Bo; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-06-01

    Spin polarization and stacking are interesting effects in complex molecular systems and are both presented in graphene-based materials. Their possible combination may provide a new perspective in understanding the intermolecular force. The nanoscale graphene structures with zigzag edges could possess spin-polarized ground states. However, the mechanical effect of spin polarization in stacking of graphene nanofragments is not clear. Here we demonstrate the displacement between two stacked rhombic graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization, using first-principles density-functional methods. We found that, in stacking of two rhombic graphene nanofragments, a spin-polarized stacked conformation with zero total spin is energetically more favorable than the closed-shell stacking. The spin-polarized conformation gives a further horizontal interlayer displacement within 1 angstrom compared with the closed-shell structure. This result highlights that, besides the well-known phenomenologically interpreted van der Waals forces, a specific mechanism dependent on the monomeric spin polarization may lead to obvious mechanical effects in some intermolecular interactions.

  11. Slippage in stacking of graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yanyu; Jiang, Wanrun; Dai, Xing; Song, Ruixia; Wang, Bo; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Spin polarization and stacking are interesting effects in complex molecular systems and are both presented in graphene-based materials. Their possible combination may provide a new perspective in understanding the intermolecular force. The nanoscale graphene structures with zigzag edges could possess spin-polarized ground states. However, the mechanical effect of spin polarization in stacking of graphene nanofragments is not clear. Here we demonstrate the displacement between two stacked rhombic graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization, using first-principles density-functional methods. We found that, in stacking of two rhombic graphene nanofragments, a spin-polarized stacked conformation with zero total spin is energetically more favorable than the closed-shell stacking. The spin-polarized conformation gives a further horizontal interlayer displacement within 1 angstrom compared with the closed-shell structure. This result highlights that, besides the well-known phenomenologically interpreted van der Waals forces, a specific mechanism dependent on the monomeric spin polarization may lead to obvious mechanical effects in some intermolecular interactions. PMID:26078005

  12. Single-molecule dissection of stacking forces in DNA.

    PubMed

    Kilchherr, Fabian; Wachauf, Christian; Pelz, Benjamin; Rief, Matthias; Zacharias, Martin; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-09-09

    We directly measured at the single-molecule level the forces and lifetimes of DNA base-pair stacking interactions for all stack sequence combinations. Our experimental approach combined dual-beam optical tweezers with DNA origami components to allow positioning of blunt-end DNA helices so that the weak stacking force could be isolated. Base-pair stack arrays that lacked a covalent backbone connection spontaneously dissociated at average rates ranging from 0.02 to 500 per second, depending on the sequence combination and stack array size. Forces in the range from 2 to 8 piconewtons that act along the helical direction only mildly accelerated the stochastic unstacking process. The free-energy increments per stack that we estimate from the measured forward and backward kinetic rates ranged from -0.8 to -3.4 kilocalories per mole, depending on the sequence combination. Our data contributes to understanding the mechanics of DNA processing in biology, and it is helpful for designing the kinetics of DNA-based nanoscale devices according to user specifications.

  13. Slippage in stacking of graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yanyu; Jiang, Wanrun; Dai, Xing; Song, Ruixia; Wang, Bo; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-06-16

    Spin polarization and stacking are interesting effects in complex molecular systems and are both presented in graphene-based materials. Their possible combination may provide a new perspective in understanding the intermolecular force. The nanoscale graphene structures with zigzag edges could possess spin-polarized ground states. However, the mechanical effect of spin polarization in stacking of graphene nanofragments is not clear. Here we demonstrate the displacement between two stacked rhombic graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization, using first-principles density-functional methods. We found that, in stacking of two rhombic graphene nanofragments, a spin-polarized stacked conformation with zero total spin is energetically more favorable than the closed-shell stacking. The spin-polarized conformation gives a further horizontal interlayer displacement within 1 angstrom compared with the closed-shell structure. This result highlights that, besides the well-known phenomenologically interpreted van der Waals forces, a specific mechanism dependent on the monomeric spin polarization may lead to obvious mechanical effects in some intermolecular interactions.

  14. A Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Simulation System (PhyNNeSS) for multimodal interactive virtual environments involving nonlinear deformable objects.

    PubMed

    De, Suvranu; Deo, Dhannanjay; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Arikatla, Venkata S

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: While an update rate of 30 Hz is considered adequate for real time graphics, a much higher update rate of about 1 kHz is necessary for haptics. Physics-based modeling of deformable objects, especially when large nonlinear deformations and complex nonlinear material properties are involved, at these very high rates is one of the most challenging tasks in the development of real time simulation systems. While some specialized solutions exist, there is no general solution for arbitrary nonlinearities. METHODS: In this work we present PhyNNeSS - a Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Simulation System - to address this long-standing technical challenge. The first step is an off-line pre-computation step in which a database is generated by applying carefully prescribed displacements to each node of the finite element models of the deformable objects. In the next step, the data is condensed into a set of coefficients describing neurons of a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN). During real-time computation, these neural networks are used to reconstruct the deformation fields as well as the interaction forces. RESULTS: We present realistic simulation examples from interactive surgical simulation with real time force feedback. As an example, we have developed a deformable human stomach model and a Penrose-drain model used in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) training tool box. CONCLUSIONS: A unique computational modeling system has been developed that is capable of simulating the response of nonlinear deformable objects in real time. The method distinguishes itself from previous efforts in that a systematic physics-based pre-computational step allows training of neural networks which may be used in real time simulations. We show, through careful error analysis, that the scheme is scalable, with the accuracy being controlled by the number of neurons used in the simulation. PhyNNeSS has been integrated into SoFMIS (Software Framework for Multimodal

  15. Effects of obliqueness and strong electrostatic interaction on linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-03-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma is theoretically investigated. The normal mode analysis (reductive perturbation method) is employed to investigate the role of ambient/external magnetic field, obliqueness, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature in modifying the properties of linear (nonlinear) dust-acoustic waves propagating in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The effective electrostatic dust-temperature, which arises from strong electrostatic interactions among highly charged dust, is considered as a dynamical variable. The linear dispersion relation (describing the linear propagation characteristics) for the obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves is derived and analyzed. On the other hand, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the nonlinear propagation of the dust-acoustic waves (particularly, propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves) is derived and solved. It is shown that the combined effects of obliqueness, magnitude of the ambient/external magnetic field, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature significantly modify the basic properties of linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic waves. The results of this work are compared with those observed by some laboratory experiments.

  16. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  17. The Direct FuelCell™ stack engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, J.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    FuelCell Energy (FCE) has developed power plants in the size range of 300 kW to 3 MW for distributed power generation. Field-testing of the sub-megawatt plants is underway. The FCE power plants are based on its Direct FuelCell™ (DFC) technology. This is so named because of its ability to generate electricity directly from a hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, by reforming it inside the fuel cell stack itself. All FCE products use identical 8000 cm 2 cell design, approximately 350-400 cells per stack, external gas manifolds, and similar stack compression systems. The difference lies in the packaging of the stacks inside the stack module. The sub-megawatt system stack module contains a single horizontal stack whereas the MW-class stack module houses four identical vertical stacks. The commonality of the design, internal reforming features, and atmospheric operation simplify the system design, reduce cost, improve efficiency, increase reliability and maintainability. The product building-block stack design has been advanced through three full-size stack operations at company's headquarters in Danbury, CT. The initial proof-of-concept of the full-size stack design was verified in 1999, followed by a 1.5 year of endurance verification in 2000-2001, and currently a value-engineered stack version is in operation. This paper discusses the design features, important engineering solutions implemented, and test results of FCE's full-size DFC stacks.

  18. Problems In Nonlinear Acoustics: pulsed finite amplitude sound beams, nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer, nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams, effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams and parametric receiving arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-07

    Proceedings of the 13th Interna- tional Congress on Acoustics, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, August 1989, edited by P. Pravica and G. Drakulic (Sava Centar...Congress on Acoustics (Sava Centar, Belgrade, 1989), edited by P. Pravica and G. Drakulic , Vol. 1, pp. 145-148. [11] K.-E. Froysa, "Weakly nonlinear...Congress on Acoustics (Sava Centar, Belgrade, 1989), edited by P. Pravica and G. Drakulic , Vol. 1, pp. 283-286. [41] C. M. Darvennes, M. F. Hamilton, J

  19. Enhanced localized energetic ion losses resulting from first-orbit linear and non-linear interactions with Alfvén eigenmodes in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Podesta, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K.; Zeng, L.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-08-15

    Two key insights into interactions between Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and energetic particles in the plasma core are gained from measurements and modeling of first-orbit beam-ion loss in DIII-D. First, the neutral beam-ion first-orbit losses are enhanced by AEs and a single AE can cause large fast-ion displacement. The coherent losses are from born trapped full energy beam-ions being non-resonantly scattered by AEs onto loss orbits within their first poloidal transit. The loss amplitudes scale linearly with the mode amplitude but the slope is different for different modes. The radial displacement of fast-ions by individual AEs can be directly inferred from the measurements. Second, oscillations in the beam-ion first-orbit losses are observed at the sum, difference, and harmonic frequencies of two independent AEs. These oscillations are not plasma modes and are absent in magnetic, density, and temperature fluctuations. The origin of the non-linearity as a wave-particle coupling is confirmed through bi-coherence analysis, which is clearly observed because the coherences are preserved by the first-orbit loss mechanism. An analytic model and full orbit simulations show that the non-linear features seen in the loss signal can be explained by a non-linear interaction between the fast ions and the two independent AEs.

  20. A non-linear 4-wave resonant model for non-perturbative fast ion interactions with Alfv'enic modes in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2007-11-01

    We adopt the 4-wave modulation interaction model, introduced by Chen et al [1] for analyzing modulational instabilities of the radial envelope of Ion Temperature Gradient driven modes in toroidal geometry, extending it to the modulations on the fast particle distribution function due to nonlinear Alfv'enic mode dynamics, as proposed in Ref. [2]. In the case where the wave-particle interactions are non-perturbative and strongly influence the mode evolution, as in the case of Energetic Particle Modes (EPM) [3], radial distortions (redistributions) of the fast ion source dominate the mode nonlinear dynamics. In this work, we show that the resonant particle motion is secular with a time-scale inversely proportional to the mode amplitude [4] and that the time evolution of the EPM radial envelope can be cast into the form of a nonlinear Schr"odinger equation a la Ginzburg-Landau [5]. [1] L. Chen et al, Phys. Plasmas 7 3129 (2000) [2] F. Zonca et al, Theory of Fusion Plasmas (Bologna: SIF) 17 (2000) [3] L. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1519 (1994).[4] F. Zonca et al, Nucl. Fusion 45 477 (2005) [5] F. Zonca et al, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 48 B15 (2006)

  1. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    ScienceCinema

    Cody, Tom

    2016-07-12

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  2. Multibeam collimator uses prism stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1981-01-01

    Optical instrument creates many divergent light beams for surveying and machine element alignment applications. Angles and refractive indices of stack of prisms are selected to divert incoming laser beam by small increments, different for each prism. Angles of emerging beams thus differ by small, precisely-controlled amounts. Instrument is nearly immune to vibration, changes in gravitational force, temperature variations, and mechanical distortion.

  3. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  4. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  5. Late Pleistocene Sea Level Stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, R. M.; Lisiecki, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Sea level reconstructions have been created using wide variety of proxies and models. The accuracy of individual sea level reconstructions is limited by measurement, noise, local variations in salinity and temperature, and the assumptions particular to each reconstruction. To address these limitations, we have created a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of sea level estimates by combining 5-7 sea level reconstructions over the last 800 kyr. Principal Component analysis (PCA) of seven sea level records from 0-430 kyr ago shows that 82% of the variance in these records is explained by their first principal component (i.e., the stack). Additionally, a stack of just the 5 longer records that extends to 800 kyr closely matches the timing and amplitude of our seven-record mean. We find that the mean sea level estimate for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e is 0-4 m above modern, and that the standard deviation of individual estimates is 11 m. Mean sea level estimates for MIS 11 are 12-16 m above modern with a standard deviation of 30 m. Due to the large variability between individual reconstructions, our sea level stack may provide more robust sea level estimates than any single technique.

  6. Multilayer piezoelectric stack actuator characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-03-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180°C to +200°C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  7. On the multiscale nature of soil moisture-temperature couplings: the role of seasonality, causation and non-linear feedbacks in land-atmosphere interactions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molini, A.; Casagrande, E.; Mueller, B.

    2013-12-01

    Land-Atmosphere (L-A) interactions, their strength and directionality, are one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate modeling, with strong implications on the accurate assessment of future climate variability and climate change impacts. Beside from the scarcity of direct observations, major uncertainties derive from the inherent complexity and nonlinearity of these interactions, and from their multi-scale character. Statistical analysis of L-A couplings is traditionally based on linear correlation methods and metrics. However, these approaches are not designed to detect causal connections or non-linear couplings and they poorly perform in presence of non-stationarities. Additionally these methods assess L-A couplings essentially in the time domain, despite the fact that L-A dynamical drivers can act simultaneously over a wide range of different space and time scales. This talk explores the multi-scale nature of L-A interactions, through the example of soil moisture-temperature couplings and soil-moisture memory effects. In several regions of the world, soil moisture can have a dampening effect on temperature due to evaporative cooling. By using spectral decomposition techniques and both newly developed satellite based products and re-analysis, we analyze the contribution of different time scales to the build-up of global soil moisture-temperature coupling hot spots, addressing at the same time the role of seasonality, causation and non-linear feedbacks in land-atmosphere interactions. Finally we focus on the role of fine (sub-monthly) time scales and their interplay with the seasonal scales.

  8. Non-linear Tidal Interactions and Their Role in Determining the Mean State and Variability of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere (IT) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, McArthur, Jr.

    Atmospheric tides are vertically-propagating waves generated in the lower and middle atmosphere that are widely known to affect the dynamics and electrodynamics of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system. The tidal spectrum evolves with height due to wave-mean flow, wave-wave, and wave-plasma interactions, leading to the tidal spectrum observed by ground- and space-based observing platforms in the IT. Some of these observations and prior theoretical work suggest that non-linear interactions may produce important effects. However, one can only speculate about how non-linear tidal interactions and their various generation mechanisms might result in mean state, spatial, and temporal variations in the IT system based on prior work. Through numerical experiments performed with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere General Circulation Models, this work seeks to quantify and understand how non-linear tidal interactions affect the IT system. The main results to emerge from this study are as follows: (1) Interaction between the zonally-symmetric solar-driven circulation and the longitude-dependent ionospheric magneto-plasma produce non-migrating atmospheric tides that reconcile existing data-model disparities, mainly under solar maximum conditions; (2) Dissipating tides of lower atmospheric origin act to alter the pressure gradient force via the eddy heat transport causing zonal-mean wind differences of up to 30 m/s in the dynamo region; (3) Variations of up to 30 K in zonal-mean temperatures of the IT between solar minimum and maximum result from a combination of net eddy heat transport effects and tidal modulation of net nitric oxide cooling; (4) The net transport of atomic oxygen produced by dissipating tides is shown to significantly contribute to atomic oxygen changes in the IT; (5) Measurable solar cycle variations in electron density in the F-region result from tidally driven net changes in the major constituents of the thermosphere. The major

  9. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Nonlinear increase in the interaction efficiency of a second pulse with a target upon excitation of a plasma by a train of pulses from a Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershin, Sergei M.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of hole drilling in an aluminium plate was studied experimentally upon excitation of a plasma on its surface in air by a train of pulses from a Nd:YAG laser, the interval between pulses being 15-20 μs. It was found that the crater depth increases nonmonotonically with each successive pulse of the train. A nonlinear, more than by a factor of six, increase in the depth was detected upon interaction of the second pulse with the target. The mechanism explaining this increase in the interaction efficiency of the second pulse in the train with the target is proposed.

  10. The Effect of Ionic Strength, Temperature, and Pressure on the Interaction Potential of Dense Protein Solutions: From Nonlinear Pressure Response to Protein Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Johannes; Schroer, Martin A.; Erlkamp, Mirko; Grobelny, Sebastian; Paulus, Michael; Tiemeyer, Sebastian; Wirkert, Florian J.; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the intermolecular interaction potential, V(r), of proteins under the influence of temperature, pressure, and salt concentration is essential for understanding protein aggregation, crystallization, and protein phase behavior in general. Here, we report small-angle x-ray scattering studies on dense lysozyme solutions of high ionic strength as a function of temperature and pressure. We show that the interaction potential changes in a nonlinear fashion over a wide range of temperatures, salt, and protein concentrations. Neither temperature nor protein and salt concentration lead to marked changes in the pressure dependence of V(r), indicating that changes of the water structure dominate the pressure dependence of the intermolecular forces. Furthermore, by analysis of the temperature, pressure, and ionic strength dependence of the normalized second virial coefficient, b2, we show that the interaction can be fine-tuned by pressure, which can be used to optimize b2 values for controlled protein crystallization. PMID:22713580

  11. Numerical Analysis of Constrained Dynamical Systems, with Applications to Dynamic Contact of Solids, Nonlinear Elastodynamics and Fluid-Structure Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINED DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS, WITH APPLICATIONS TO DYNAMIC CONTACT OF SOLIDS, NONLINEAR ELASTODYNAMICS AND FLUID-STRUCTURE...2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Numerical Analysis of Constrained Dynamical Systems, with 5b. GRANT NUMBER Applications to Dynamic...This extension allows the analysis of fluid-structure interfaces through the Lagrangian contact logic previously developed. Similarly, we have developed

  12. Soliton excitations and interactions for the three-coupled fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the alpha helical proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhen, Hui-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Three-coupled fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations describe the dynamics of alpha helical proteins with the interspine coupling at the higher order. Through symbolic computation and binary Bell-polynomial approach, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions for such equations are constructed. Key point lies in the introduction of auxiliary functions in the Bell-polynomial expression. Asymptotic analysis is applied to investigate the elastic interaction between the two solitons: two solitons keep their original amplitudes, energies and velocities invariant after the interaction except for the phase shifts. Soliton amplitudes are related to the energy distributed in the solitons of the three spines. Overtaking interaction, head-on interaction and bound-state solitons of two solitons are given. Bound states of three bright solitons arise when all of them propagate in parallel. Elastic interaction between the bound-state solitons and one bright soliton is shown. Increase of the lattice parameter can lead to the increase of the soliton velocity, that is, the interaction period becomes shorter. The solitons propagating along the neighbouring spines are found to interact elastically. Those solitons, exhibited in this paper, might be viewed as a possible carrier of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules.

  13. Correlated lateral phase separations in stacks of lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Takuma; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the experimental study of Tayebi et al. [Nat. Mater. 11, 1074 (2012)] on phase separation of stacked multi-component lipid bilayers, we propose a model composed of stacked two-dimensional Ising spins. We study both its static and dynamical features using Monte Carlo simulations with Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics that conserves the order parameter. We show that at thermodynamical equilibrium, due to strong inter-layer correlations, the system forms a continuous columnar structure for any finite interaction across adjacent layers. Furthermore, the phase separation shows a faster dynamics as the inter-layer interaction is increased. This temporal behavior is mainly due to an effective deeper temperature quench because of the larger value of the critical temperature, Tc, for larger inter-layer interaction. When the temperature ratio, T/Tc, is kept fixed, the temporal growth exponent does not increase and even slightly decreases as a function of the increased inter-layer interaction.

  14. Correlated lateral phase separations in stacks of lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Takuma; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2015-12-28

    Motivated by the experimental study of Tayebi et al. [Nat. Mater. 11, 1074 (2012)] on phase separation of stacked multi-component lipid bilayers, we propose a model composed of stacked two-dimensional Ising spins. We study both its static and dynamical features using Monte Carlo simulations with Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics that conserves the order parameter. We show that at thermodynamical equilibrium, due to strong inter-layer correlations, the system forms a continuous columnar structure for any finite interaction across adjacent layers. Furthermore, the phase separation shows a faster dynamics as the inter-layer interaction is increased. This temporal behavior is mainly due to an effective deeper temperature quench because of the larger value of the critical temperature, Tc, for larger inter-layer interaction. When the temperature ratio, T/Tc, is kept fixed, the temporal growth exponent does not increase and even slightly decreases as a function of the increased inter-layer interaction.

  15. Nonlinear interaction between edge-localized modes (ELMs) and edge turbulence during ELM-crash-suppression phase under n=1 RMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Yun, Gunsu; Choi, Minjun; Kwon, Jae-Min; Jeon, Young-Mu; Lee, Woochang; Luhmann, Neville C., Jr.; Park, Hyeon K.

    2016-10-01

    Mutual interactions between edge-localized modes (ELMs) and turbulent eddies have been investigated in 2-D by using the KSTAR electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system. ECEI shows that ELM filaments still exist in the edge when the usual large scale collapse of the edge pedestal, i.e., the ELM crash, is completely suppressed by n = 1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Correlation analysis among ECEI channels reveals that the RMP enhances turbulent fluctuations in the edge and that ELM crashes are suppressed when the RMP exceeds a certain threshold. The spectral power distribution of turbulence shows a clear dispersion for a wide range of wavenumber (kθ < 1 cm-1) and frequency (f < 70 kHz). The radial velocity and ECE intensity fluctuations of the turbulent eddies are approximately in-phase and thus the turbulence involves a net radial energy transport. Bispectral analysis indicates the coexisting ELMs and turbulent eddies nonlinearly interact with each other. Both the enhancement of radial transport and the nonlinear interaction with ELMs may be the key to the physics mechanism of ELM-crash-suppression by low-n RMP. This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea under Grant No. NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029865 and NRF-2014M1A7AA03029881.

  16. Stacking transition in bilayer graphene caused by thermally activated rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Ghazaryan, Davit; Son, Seok-Kyun; Woods, Colin R.; Misra, Abhishek; He, Lin; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Cao, Yang; Mishchenko, Artem

    2017-03-01

    Crystallographic alignment between two-dimensional crystals in van der Waals heterostructures brought a number of profound physical phenomena, including observation of Hofstadter butterfly and topological currents, and promising novel applications, such as resonant tunnelling transistors. Here, by probing the electronic density of states in graphene using graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene tunnelling transistors, we demonstrate a structural transition of bilayer graphene from incommensurate twisted stacking state into a commensurate AB stacking due to a macroscopic graphene self-rotation. This structural transition is accompanied by a topological transition in the reciprocal space and by pseudospin texturing. The stacking transition is driven by van der Waals interaction energy of the two graphene layers and is thermally activated by unpinning the microscopic chemical adsorbents which are then removed by the self-cleaning of graphene.

  17. Efficiency of coaxial stacking depends on the DNA duplex structure.

    PubMed

    Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V; Goldberg, Eugenii L; Ivanova, Eugenia M

    2003-12-01

    Thermodynamic parameters of coaxial stacking at complementary helix-helix interfaces GX*pYG/CZVC (X,Y=A,C,T,G;*-nick) created by contiguous oligonucleotide hybridization were determined. The data obtained were compared to the thermodynamic parameters of coaxial stacking at the interfaces CX*pYC/GZVG. Multiple linear regression analysis has revealed that the free-energy increments of interaction for the contacts GX*pYG/CZVC and CX*pYC/GZVG can be described by a set of uniform Delta G degrees(X*pY/ZV) values. The difference in the observed free-energy of the coaxial stacking between the two sets is defined by the contribution from the factors reflecting structural differences between compared DNA duplexes.

  18. Calculated state densities of aperiodic nucleotide base stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yuan-Jie; Chen, Run-Shen; Martinez, Alberto; Otto, Peter; Ladik, Janos

    2000-05-01

    Electronic density of states (DOS) histograms and of the nucleotide base stack regions of a segment of human oncogene (both single and double stranded, in B conformation) and of single-stranded random DNA base stack (also in B conformation), were calculated. The computations were performed with the help of the ab initio matrix block negative factor counting (NFC) method for the DOSs. The neglected effects of the sugar-phosphate chain and the water environment (with the counterions) were assessed on the basis of previous ab initio band structure calculations. Further, in the calculation of single nucleotide base stacks also basis set and correlation effects have been investigated. In the case of a single strand the level spacing widths of the allowed regions and the fundamental gap were calculated also with Clementi's double ς basis and corrected for correlation at the MP2 level. The inverse interaction method was applied for the study of Anderson localization.

  19. Magneto-optical properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ping; Lin, Chiun-Yan; Ho, Yen-Hung; Do, Thi-Nga; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2015-06-28

    The generalized tight-binding model is developed to investigate the magneto-optical absorption spectra of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. The absorption peaks can be classified into nine categories of inter-Landau-level optical excitations, including three intra-group and six inter-group ones. Most of them belong to the twin-peak structures because of the asymmetric Landau level spectrum. The threshold absorption peak alone comes from a certain excitation channel, and its frequency is associated with a specific interlayer atomic interaction. The Landau-level anticrossings cause extra absorption peaks. Moreover, a simple relationship between the absorption frequency and the field strength is absent. The magneto-optical properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene are totally different from those of AAA- and ABA-stacked ones, such as the number, intensity and frequency of absorption peaks.

  20. Trapped modes and resonances in gyrotropic graphene stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaz, Faroq; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the anomalous electromagnetic wave interactions with gyrotropic graphene-dielectric stacks and characterizes their perturbed wave resonances. Expressions for the dispersion relations, trapped mode condition, and the propagating and evanescent modes in the gyrotropic graphene stack have been derived and numerically quantified. The evanescent modes supported in the ambient medium couple as propagating modes in the gyrotropic graphene-dielectric stack at the discrete frequencies of the trapped modes. Valuation of the resonances in the material tensor and the resonances around the trapped modes that result in transmission anomalies (total transmission and total reflection) and field amplifications in the gyrotropic graphene is described. The effects of the chemical potential and the external magnetic field on the number of discrete trapped modes and subsequently on the transmission resonances are numerically assessed.

  1. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  2. 49 CFR 178.980 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stacking test. 178.980 Section 178.980... Packagings § 178.980 Stacking test. (a) General. The stacking test must be conducted for the qualification of... test. (1) All Large Packagings except flexible Large Packaging design types must be loaded to...

  3. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stacking test. 178.606 Section 178.606... Packagings and Packages § 178.606 Stacking test. (a) General. All packaging design types other than bags must be subjected to a stacking test. (b) Number of test samples. Three test samples are required for...

  4. A Lagrangian approach to the weakly nonlinear interaction of Kelvin waves and a symmetry-breaking bifurcation of a rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Mie, Youichi

    2015-02-01

    We develop a general framework of using the Lagrangian variables for calculating the energy of waves on a steady Euler flow and the mean flow induced by their nonlinear interaction. With the mean flow at hand we can determine, without ambiguity, all the coefficients of the amplitude equations to third order in amplitude for a rotating flow subject to a steady perturbation breaking the circular symmetry of the streamlines. Moreover, a resonant triad of waves is identified which brings in the secondary instability of the Moore-Saffman-Tsai-Widnall instability, and with the aid of the energetic viewpoint, resonant amplification of the waves without bound is numerically confirmed.

  5. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-08-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  6. Glass transition dynamics of stacked thin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Koji; Terasawa, Takehide; Oda, Yuto; Nakamura, Kenji; Tahara, Daisuke

    2011-10-01

    The glass transition dynamics of stacked thin films of polystyrene and poly(2-chlorostyrene) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature Tg of as-stacked thin polystyrene films has a strong depression from that of the bulk samples. However, after annealing at high temperatures above Tg, the stacked thin films exhibit glass transition at a temperature almost equal to the Tg of the bulk system. The α-process dynamics of stacked thin films of poly(2-chlorostyrene) show a time evolution from single-thin-film-like dynamics to bulk-like dynamics during the isothermal annealing process. The relaxation rate of the α process becomes smaller with increase in the annealing time. The time scale for the evolution of the α dynamics during the annealing process is very long compared with that for the reptation dynamics. At the same time, the temperature dependence of the relaxation time for the α process changes from Arrhenius-like to Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann dependence with increase of the annealing time. The fragility index increases and the distribution of the α-relaxation times becomes smaller with increase in the annealing time for isothermal annealing. The observed change in the α process is discussed with respect to the interfacial interaction between the thin layers of stacked thin polymer films.

  7. Nonlinear full-wave-interaction analysis of a gyrotron-traveling-wave-tube amplifier based on a lossy dielectric-lined circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Du Chaohai; Liu Pukun

    2010-03-15

    The stability of the millimeter-wave gyrotron-traveling-wave-tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier can be effectively improved via controlling the propagation characteristics of the operating modes using lossy dielectric-lined (DL) waveguide. Self-consistent nonlinear theory of the electron cyclotron maser (ECM) interaction in lossy DL circuit is developed based on a full-wave study of the propagation characteristics of the DL waveguide. This nonlinear theory fully takes into consideration the waveguide structure and the lossy dielectric characteristics. It is capable of accurately calculating the ECM instability between a cyclotron harmonic and a circular polarized mode, and effectively predicting the nonlinear stability of the DL waveguide-based gyro-TWT. Systematic investigation of a Ka-band TE{sub 01} mode DL waveguide-based gyro-TWT is carried out, and numerical calculation reveals a series of interesting results. This work provides a basic theoretical tool for further exploring the application of the lossy DL waveguide in millimeter-wave gyro-TWTs.

  8. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2009-05-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative “all modes” failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  9. Stacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Lizzie

    2010-01-01

    Linton Waters and Jayne Kranat ran a session on the Nuffield "Applying Mathematical Processes" (AMP) activities at BCME7 in Manchester in April this year. These 1-2 hour activities are revamps of some of the Graded Assessment in Mathematics (GAIM) resources, developed in the 1980s, and are freely available via the Nuffield website and…

  10. Nonlinear Interactions of Zinc Phthalocyanine-Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposites: Investigation of Effects of Surface Functionalization with Heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Owolabi M; Achadu, Ojodomo J; Nyokong, Tebello

    2017-03-01

    This study reports the development of functional optical limiting materials composed of pristine graphene (GQDs), nitrogen-doped (NGQDs) and sulfur-nitrogen co-doped (SNGQDs) graphene quantum dots covalently linked to mono-amino substituted zinc phthalocyanine (Pc). Open aperture Z-scan technique was employed to monitor the behaviour of the conjugates under tightly focussed Gaussian laser beam using a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser delivering 10 nanosecond (FWHM) pulses at 532 nm wavelength. Nonlinear effect due to reverse saturable absorption was the predominant mechanism; and was attributed to the moderately enhanced triplet population. The major factor(s) responsible for the enhanced nonlinearities in the Pc-NGQDs and Pc-SNGQDs was fully described and attributed to the surface defects caused by the presence of heteroatoms of N and S.

  11. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16231.001 PMID:27542195

  12. Modeling Piezoelectric Stack Actuators for Control of Micromanipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, Michael; Celanovic, Nikola

    1997-01-01

    A nonlinear lumped-parameter model of a piezoelectric stack actuator has been developed to describe actuator behavior for purposes of control system analysis and design, and, in particular, for microrobotic applications requiring accurate position and/or force control. In formulating this model, the authors propose a generalized Maxwell resistive capacitor as a lumped-parameter causal representation of rate-independent hysteresis. Model formulation is validated by comparing results of numerical simulations to experimental data. Validation is followed by a discussion of model implications for purposes of actuator control.

  13. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  14. Robust scalable stabilisability conditions for large-scale heterogeneous multi-agent systems with uncertain nonlinear interactions: towards a distributed computing architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredi, Sabato

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale dynamic systems are becoming highly pervasive in their occurrence with applications ranging from system biology, environment monitoring, sensor networks, and power systems. They are characterised by high dimensionality, complexity, and uncertainty in the node dynamic/interactions that require more and more computational demanding methods for their analysis and control design, as well as the network size and node system/interaction complexity increase. Therefore, it is a challenging problem to find scalable computational method for distributed control design of large-scale networks. In this paper, we investigate the robust distributed stabilisation problem of large-scale nonlinear multi-agent systems (briefly MASs) composed of non-identical (heterogeneous) linear dynamical systems coupled by uncertain nonlinear time-varying interconnections. By employing Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, new conditions are given for the distributed control design of large-scale MASs that can be easily solved by the toolbox of MATLAB. The stabilisability of each node dynamic is a sufficient assumption to design a global stabilising distributed control. The proposed approach improves some of the existing LMI-based results on MAS by both overcoming their computational limits and extending the applicative scenario to large-scale nonlinear heterogeneous MASs. Additionally, the proposed LMI conditions are further reduced in terms of computational requirement in the case of weakly heterogeneous MASs, which is a common scenario in real application where the network nodes and links are affected by parameter uncertainties. One of the main advantages of the proposed approach is to allow to move from a centralised towards a distributed computing architecture so that the expensive computation workload spent to solve LMIs may be shared among processors located at the networked nodes, thus increasing the scalability of the approach than the network

  15. Spectroscopic and theoretical study of the charge transfer interaction effect on the vibrational modes and nonlinear optical properties in L-asparaginium nitrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elleuch, Nabil; Abid, Younes; Feki, Habib

    2016-09-01

    Single crystals of L-asparaginium nitrate (LAsnN) were grown by slow evaporation technique. To confirm the crystalline nature of the obtained compound, samples were the subject of an XRPD. The density functional theory (DFT) computations were carried out at B3LYP/6-31G (d) level to reach the optimized geometry, the vibrational spectra and the NLO properties. The excellent agreement between simulated and observed vibrational spectra led to a reliable vibrational assignment. To demonstrate the various charge transfer interactions that stabilize the compound and led to the high nonlinear optical activity, NBO analysis was performed. Also, owing to the hydrogen bond formation, a lowering in the HOMO-LUMO energy gap is noticed. Moreover, as a result of the charge transfer interactions, the symmetry of the nitrate ions was lost and some forbidden modes were excited.

  16. Wave-particle interactions with parallel whistler waves: Nonlinear and time-dependent effects revealed by particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Camporeale, Enrico; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2015-09-15

    We present a self-consistent Particle-in-Cell simulation of the resonant interactions between anisotropic energetic electrons and a population of whistler waves, with parameters relevant to the Earth's radiation belt. By tracking PIC particles and comparing with test-particle simulations, we emphasize the importance of including nonlinear effects and time evolution in the modeling of wave-particle interactions, which are excluded in the resonant limit of quasi-linear theory routinely used in radiation belt studies. In particular, we show that pitch angle diffusion is enhanced during the linear growth phase, and it rapidly saturates well before a single bounce period. This calls into question the widely used bounce average performed in most radiation belt diffusion calculations. Furthermore, we discuss how the saturation is related to the fact that the domain in which the particles pitch angle diffuses is bounded, and to the well-known problem of 90° diffusion barrier.

  17. Dynamics of States in the Nonlinear Interaction Regime Between a Three-Level Atom and Generalized Coherent States and Their Non-Classical Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassoly, M. K.; Yadollahi, F.

    The present study investigates the interaction of an equidistant three-level atom and a single-mode cavity field that has been initially prepared in a generalized coherent state. The atom-field interaction is considered to be, in general, intensity-dependent. We suppose that the nonlinearity of the initial generalized coherent state of the field and the intensity-dependent coupling between atom and field are distinctly chosen. Interestingly, an exact analytical solution for the time evolution of the state of atom-field system can be found in this general regime in terms of the nonlinearity functions. Finally, the presented formalism has been applied to a few known physical systems such as Gilmore-Perelomov and Barut-Girardello coherent states of SU(1,1) group, as well as a few special cases of interest. Mean photon number and atomic population inversion will be calculated, in addition to investigating particular non-classicality features such as revivals, sub-Poissonian statistics and quadratures squeezing of the obtained states of the entire system. Also, our results will be compared with some of the earlier works in this particular subject.

  18. Observation of chirality transition of quasiparticles at stacking solitons in trilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Wang, Wen-Xiao; Zhang, Yu; Ou, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Hao-Ting; Shen, Cai-Yun; He, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Trilayer graphene (TLG) exhibits rich, alternative electronic properties and extraordinary quantum Hall phenomena owing to enhanced electronic interactions and tunable chirality of its quasiparticles. Here, we report direct observation of chirality transition of quasiparticles at stacking solitons of TLG via spatial-resolved Landau level spectroscopy. The one-dimensional stacking solitons with width of the order of 10 nm separate adjacent Bernal-stacked TLG and rhombohedral-stacked TLG. By using high-field tunneling spectra from scanning tunneling microscopy, we measured Landau quantization in both the Bernal-stacked TLG and the rhombohedral-stacked TLG and, importantly, we observed evolution of quasiparticles between the chiral degree l =1 and 2 and l =3 across the stacking domain-wall solitons. Our experiment indicates that such a chirality transition occurs smoothly, accompanying the transition of the stacking orders of TLG, around the domain-wall solitons. This result demonstrates the important relationship between the crystallographic stacking order and the chirality of quasiparticles in graphene systems.

  19. A High Volume Stack Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boubel, Richard W.

    1971-01-01

    The stack sampler described in this paper has been developed to overcome the difficulties of particulate sampling with presently available equipment. Its use on emissions from hog fuel fired boilers, back-fired incinerators, wigwam burners, asphalt plants, and seed cleaning cyclones is reported. The results indicate that the sampler is rapid and reliable in its use. It is relatively simple and inexpensive to operate. For most sources it should be considered over the more complicated and expensive sampling trains being used and specified.

  20. Status of MCFC stack development at Hitachi

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, S.; Kahara, T.; Takeuchi, M.

    1996-12-31

    Hitachi, Ltd. has been developing Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in the New Sunshine project in Japan, and Hitachi is taking part in the development of 1,000kW MCFC pilot plant at Kawagoe. Hitachi is engaged in system planning of the 1,000kW pilot plant, design and manufacturing of the reformer subsystem and the fuel cell subsystem, and design and manufacturing of the 250kW stacks for the 1,000kW plant. The 250kW stacks are developed on the basis of the results of the 100kW stack in 1993 and the following 25kW stack in 1994. In parallel to the stack development, Hitachi is also conducting researches for long endurance cells and stacks. In addition to the researches for anode, cathode, electrolyte, and electrolyte matrix, improvement of temperature distribution in stacks is investigated to extend the stack life. This paper describes the planning status of the 250kW stacks for the 1,000kW MCFC plant and the developing status of stack cooling method for longer life.