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Sample records for nonlinear transmission lines

  1. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  2. Networks of nonlinear superconducting transmission line resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leib, M.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; Hartmann, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate a network of coupled superconducting transmission line resonators, each of them made nonlinear with a capacitively shunted Josephson junction coupling to the odd flux modes of the resonator. The resulting eigenmode spectrum shows anticrossings between the plasma mode of the shunted junction and the odd resonator modes. Notably, we find that the combined device can inherit the complete nonlinearity of the junction, allowing for a description as a harmonic oscillator with a Kerr nonlinearity. Using a dc SQUID instead of a single junction, the nonlinearity can be tuned between 10 kHz and 4 MHz while maintaining resonance frequencies of a few gigahertz for realistic device parameters. An array of such nonlinear resonators can be considered a scalable superconducting quantum simulator for a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. The device would be capable of accessing the strongly correlated regime and be particularly well suited for investigating quantum many-body dynamics of interacting particles under the influence of drive and dissipation.

  3. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don; Allen-Flowers, Jordan

    2012-12-15

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  4. NOVEL SIGNAL PROCESSING WITH NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    D. REAGOR; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    Nonlinear dielectrics offer uniquely strong and tunable nonlinearities that make them attractive for current devices (for example, frequency-agile microwave filters) and for future signal-processing technologies. The goal of this project is to understand pulse propagation on nonlinear coplanar waveguide prototype devices. We have performed time-domain and frequency-domain experimental studies of simple waveguide structures and pursued a theoretical understanding of the propagation of signals on these nonlinear waveguides. To realistically assess the potential applications, we used a time-domain measurement and analysis technique developed during this project to perform a broadband electrodynamics characterization in terms of nonlinear, dispersive, and dissipative effects. We completed a comprehensive study of coplanar waveguides made from high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} electrodes on nonlinear dielectric single-crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. By using parameters determined from small-signal (linear) transmission characteristics of the waveguides, we develop a model equation that successfully predicts and describes large-signal (nonlinear) behavior.

  5. Nonlinear waves propagating in the electrical transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W.-S.

    2004-04-01

    A coupled Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived for a nonlinear transmission line in which the nonlinear capacitance C is of a general form C = C0(1 + k1V + k2V2 + ...). For a solitary-wave solution of the ZK equation, there is an instability region which is given numerically in this paper. It is in agreement with the analytical results for special cases.

  6. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varactor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varactor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process.

  7. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, G.A.

    1994-10-04

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varistor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varistor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process. 6 figs.

  8. Nonlinear galloping of internally resonant iced transmission lines considering eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhimiao; Yan, Zhitao; Li, Zhengliang; Tan, Ting

    2012-07-01

    Based on the curved-beam theory, a nonlinear galloping model considering three displacement (normal, bi-normal and tangential) components and twist is formulated. According to the property of transmission line, one reduced (normal and bi-normal) galloping model, with regard of bending, rotation and eccentricity of cross section, is obtained. Moreover, the initial rotation angle is also introduced in galloping and aerodynamic models. Additionally, based on the reduced model, the bifurcation and stability of the two cases (1:1 resonance and 2:1 resonance) are analyzed. The results turn out that the importance of ice eccentricity needs to be highlighted. Finally, multiple stabilities are found through the analyses of bifurcation and stability and proved by the reduced model and Reduced Amplitude Modulation Equations (RAME) numerically integrated in time history.

  9. Explanation of the inverse Doppler effect observed in nonlinear transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W

    2005-05-27

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator.

  10. Material selection of a ferrimagnetic loaded coaxial delay line for phasing gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Reale, D V; Cravey, W H; Garcia, R S; Barnett, D H; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2015-08-01

    Implementing nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) technology in the design of a high power microwave source has the benefits of producing a comparatively small and lightweight solid-state system where the emission frequency is easily tuned. Usually, smaller in physical size, single NLTLs may produce significantly less power than its vacuum based counterparts. However, combining individual NLTL outputs electrically or in free-space is an attractive solution to achieve greater output power. This paper discusses a method for aligning a four element NLTL antenna array with coaxial geometry using easily adjustable temporal delay lines. These delay lines, sometimes referred to as pulse shock lines or pulse sharpening lines, are placed serially in front of the main NLTL line. The propagation velocity in each delay line is set by the voltage amplitude of an incident pulse as well as the magnetic field bias. Each is adjustable although for the system described in this paper, the voltage is held constant while the bias is changed through applying an external DC magnetic field of varying magnitude. Three different ferrimagnetic materials are placed in the temporal delay line to evaluate which yields the greatest range of electrical delay with the least amount of variability from consecutive shots. PMID:26329216

  11. Exact Solutions for a Local Fractional DDE Associated with a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, İsmail

    2016-09-01

    Of recent increasing interest in the area of fractional calculus and nonlinear dynamics are fractional differential-difference equations. This study is devoted to a local fractional differential-difference equation which is related to a nonlinear electrical transmission line. Explicit traveling wave solutions (kink/antikink solitons, singular, periodic, rational) are obtained via the discrete tanh method coupled with the fractional complex transform.

  12. Position-momentum-entangled photon pairs in nonlinear waveguides and transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherkunov, Y.; Whittaker, David M.; Fal'ko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the correlation properties of light in nonlinear waveguides and transmission lines, predict the position-momentum realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for photon pairs in Kerr-type nonlinear photonic circuits, and we show how two-photon entangled states can be generated and detected.

  13. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  14. Transverse stability of solitary waves propagating in coupled nonlinear dispersive transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Kengne, E; Bozic, V; Viana, M; Vaillancourt, R

    2008-08-01

    In the semidiscrete limit and in suitably scaled coordinates, the voltage of a system of coupled nonlinear dispersive transmission lines is described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This equation is used to study the transverse stability of solitary waves of the system. Exact results for the growth rate and the corresponding perturbation function of linear transverse perturbations are obtained in terms of the network's and soliton's parameters.

  15. A parametric study of nonlinear seismic response analysis of transmission line structures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Yanming; Yi, Zhenhua; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A parametric study of nonlinear seismic response analysis of transmission line structures subjected to earthquake loading is studied in this paper. The transmission lines are modeled by cable element which accounts for the nonlinearity of the cable based on a real project. Nonuniform ground motions are generated using a stochastic approach based on random vibration analysis. The effects of multicomponent ground motions, correlations among multicomponent ground motions, wave travel, coherency loss, and local site on the responses of the cables are investigated using nonlinear time history analysis method, respectively. The results show the multicomponent seismic excitations should be considered, but the correlations among multicomponent ground motions could be neglected. The wave passage effect has a significant influence on the responses of the cables. The change of the degree of coherency loss has little influence on the response of the cables, but the responses of the cables are affected significantly by the effect of coherency loss. The responses of the cables change little with the degree of the difference of site condition changing. The effect of multicomponent ground motions, wave passage, coherency loss, and local site should be considered for the seismic design of the transmission line structures.

  16. Inductive intrinsic localized modes in a one-dimensional nonlinear electric transmission line.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Mukaide, T; Nakaguchi, T; Sievers, A J

    2016-07-01

    The experimental properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have long been compared with theoretical dynamical lattice models that make use of nonlinear onsite and/or nearest-neighbor intersite potentials. Here it is shown for a one-dimensional lumped electrical transmission line that a nonlinear inductive component in an otherwise linear parallel capacitor lattice makes possible a new kind of ILM outside the plane wave spectrum. To simplify the analysis, the nonlinear inductive current equations are transformed to flux transmission line equations with analog onsite hard potential nonlinearities. Approximate analytic results compare favorably with those obtained from a driven damped lattice model and with eigenvalue simulations. For this mono-element lattice, ILMs above the top of the plane wave spectrum are the result. We find that the current ILM is spatially compressed relative to the corresponding flux ILM. Finally, this study makes the connection between the dynamics of mass and force constant defects in the harmonic lattice and ILMs in a strongly anharmonic lattice.

  17. Inductive intrinsic localized modes in a one-dimensional nonlinear electric transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Mukaide, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Sievers, A. J.

    2016-07-01

    The experimental properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have long been compared with theoretical dynamical lattice models that make use of nonlinear onsite and/or nearest-neighbor intersite potentials. Here it is shown for a one-dimensional lumped electrical transmission line that a nonlinear inductive component in an otherwise linear parallel capacitor lattice makes possible a new kind of ILM outside the plane wave spectrum. To simplify the analysis, the nonlinear inductive current equations are transformed to flux transmission line equations with analog onsite hard potential nonlinearities. Approximate analytic results compare favorably with those obtained from a driven damped lattice model and with eigenvalue simulations. For this mono-element lattice, ILMs above the top of the plane wave spectrum are the result. We find that the current ILM is spatially compressed relative to the corresponding flux ILM. Finally, this study makes the connection between the dynamics of mass and force constant defects in the harmonic lattice and ILMs in a strongly anharmonic lattice.

  18. Inductive intrinsic localized modes in a one-dimensional nonlinear electric transmission line.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Mukaide, T; Nakaguchi, T; Sievers, A J

    2016-07-01

    The experimental properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have long been compared with theoretical dynamical lattice models that make use of nonlinear onsite and/or nearest-neighbor intersite potentials. Here it is shown for a one-dimensional lumped electrical transmission line that a nonlinear inductive component in an otherwise linear parallel capacitor lattice makes possible a new kind of ILM outside the plane wave spectrum. To simplify the analysis, the nonlinear inductive current equations are transformed to flux transmission line equations with analog onsite hard potential nonlinearities. Approximate analytic results compare favorably with those obtained from a driven damped lattice model and with eigenvalue simulations. For this mono-element lattice, ILMs above the top of the plane wave spectrum are the result. We find that the current ILM is spatially compressed relative to the corresponding flux ILM. Finally, this study makes the connection between the dynamics of mass and force constant defects in the harmonic lattice and ILMs in a strongly anharmonic lattice. PMID:27575139

  19. Bias-field controlled phasing and power combination of gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Reale, D. V. Bragg, J.-W. B.; Gonsalves, N. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2014-05-15

    Gyromagnetic Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) generate microwaves through the damped gyromagnetic precession of the magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic material, and are thus utilized as compact, solid-state, frequency agile, high power microwave (HPM) sources. The output frequency of a NLTL can be adjusted by control of the externally applied bias field and incident voltage pulse without physical alteration to the structure of the device. This property provides a frequency tuning capability not seen in many conventional e-beam based HPM sources. The NLTLs developed and tested are mesoband sources capable of generating MW power levels in the L, S, and C bands of the microwave spectrum. For an individual NLTL the output power at a given frequency is determined by several factors including the intrinsic properties of the ferrimagnetic material and the transmission line structure. Hence, if higher power levels are to be achieved, it is necessary to combine the outputs of multiple NLTLs. This can be accomplished in free space using antennas or in a transmission line via a power combiner. Using a bias-field controlled delay, a transient, high voltage, coaxial, three port, power combiner was designed and tested. Experimental results are compared with the results of a transient COMSOL simulation to evaluate combiner performance.

  20. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Reale, D. V.; Krile, J. T.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  1. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Reale, D V; Krile, J T; Garcia, R S; Cravey, W H; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed. PMID:27250448

  2. Solid-State Radio Frequency Plasma Heating Using a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2015-11-01

    Radio Frequency heating systems are rarely used by the small-scale validation platform experiments due to the high cost and complexity of these systems, which typically require high power gyrotrons or klystrons, associated power supplies, waveguides and vacuum systems. The cost and complexity of these systems can potentially be reduced with a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) based system. In the past, NLTLs have lacked a high voltage driver that could produce long duration high voltage pulses with fast rise times at high pulse repetition frequency. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) has created new high voltage nanosecond pulser, which combined with NLTL technology will produce a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies (0.5 to 10 GHz) and peak power levels (~ 10 MW) necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems for the validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. The proposed system does not require the use of vacuum tube technology, is inherently lower cost, and is more robust than traditional high power RF heating schemes. Design details and initial bench testing results for the new RF system will be presented. This work is supported under DOE Grant # DE-SC0013747.

  3. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Romanchenko, I. V. Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  4. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  5. Analytical study of dynamics of matter-wave solitons in lossless nonlinear discrete bi-inductance transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Kengne, E; Lakhssassi, A

    2015-03-01

    We consider a lossless one-dimensional nonlinear discrete bi-inductance electrical transmission line made of N identical unit cells. When lattice effects are considered, we use the reductive perturbation method in the semidiscrete limit to show that the dynamics of modulated waves can be modeled by the classical nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equation, which describes the modulational instability and the propagation of bright and dark solitons on a continuous-wave background. Our theoretical analysis based on the CNLS equation predicts either two or four frequency regions with different behavior concerning the modulational instability of a plane wave. With the help of the analytical solutions of the CNLS equation, we investigate analytically the effects of the linear capacitance CS on the dynamics of matter-wave solitons in the network. Our results reveal that the linear parameter CS can be used to manipulate the motion of bright, dark, and kink soliton in the network.

  6. An MMIC implementation of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons using a resonant tunneling diode nonlinear transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klofaï, Yerima; Essimbi, B. Z.; Jäger, D.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the electronic implementation of FitzHugh-Nagumo (F-N) neurons via monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) based upon a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) using a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is considered. The goals are twofold. In the framework of electrical equivalent circuit emulating nonlinear active wave propagation effects, it is shown, on one hand, how different physical mechanisms are responsible for the time evolution of given input signals. A key result is that this medium supports stable and stationary pulse propagation that is only determined by the parameters of the RTD-NLTL and is independent of the boundary conditions. On the other hand, the influence of specific line elements on the output signal waveform is discussed in a most systematic manner. This leads, for the first time, to a more physical interpretation of the properties of the RTD-NLTL and, furthermore, to interesting technical applications at multi-GHz frequencies and on picosecond time scales. As a result, physically based ways are elucidated regarding how the technical design of those compact neuromorphic electrical circuits can be optimized by numerical simulations and performed using standard MMIC technologies.

  7. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  8. Transient even and odd order nonlinearity of a YBCO transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizen, Richard; Remillard, Stephen

    Second (IMD2) and third (IMD3) order intermodulation distortions were found to exhibit dependencies on temperature and magnetic field. A carrier wave at the 890 MHz resonant frequency of the type-II YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting resonator circuit, with TC = 89K, was introduced into the circuit via an electric coupling antenna. Two off-resonance probe signals were injected into the circuit via a separate magnetic coupling element. The combination of these three signals locally excited synchronous second and third order IMD. A static magnetic field was applied perpendicularly to the film which induced magnetic flux vortices in the sample. Upon removal of the static magnetic field, IMD2 and IMD3 exhibited distinct transient decay modes correlating to temperature. Between 85.0K and 87.5K, IMD3 decayed exponentially. Above 87.5K, IMD3 exhibited bounded exponential growth, while within a narrow temperature range around 87.5K, removal of a static magnetic field strongly suppressed IMD3. IMD2 exhibited exponential decay at all temperatures. Even and odd order microwave nonlinearities were thus shown to result from different, magnetically coupled, physical mechanisms. Funding for this project was provided by Award Number DMR-1206149 from the National Science Foundation.

  9. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ania-Castañón, J. D.; Nasieva, I. O.; Kurukitkoson, N.; Turitsyn, S. K.; Borsier, C.; Pincemin, E.

    2004-04-01

    Nonlinearity management in transmission lines with periodic dispersion compensation and hybrid Raman-Erbium doped fiber amplification is studied both analytically and numerically. Different transmission/compensating fiber pairs are considered, with particular focus on the SMF/DCF case.

  12. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  13. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  14. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated outputmore » voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.« less

  15. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated output voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.

  16. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  17. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  18. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  19. Lightning strikes to tall objects: A study of wave interactions at the return-stroke front using a nonlinear transmission line model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Conti, Alberto; Silveira, Fernando H.; Visacro, Silvério

    2015-07-01

    A theoretical study is presented to investigate lightning strikes to towers, with focus on wave interactions occurring at the return-stroke front due to the arrival of current pulses that propagate upward on the channel after being transmitted from the tower. The lightning channel is represented as a transmission line including corona and nonlinear losses. Analyses for the hypothetical case of a lossless channel considering matched tower and channel impedances show that the arrival of current pulses at the upward moving return-stroke front leads to an increase in corona currents leaving the channel. This transient process generates current pulses whose arrival at the tower top can be interpreted as the effect of a current reflection at the upward moving front, even though no impedance discontinuity exists at that point if return-stroke and leader channel properties are assumed the same. In the more realistic case of a lossy channel considering unmatched channel and tower impedances, the nonlinear channel resistance modifies the current pulses that propagate along the channel so that they merge smoothly with the return-stroke front. In this case, the interaction of the current pulses transmitted from the tower to the channel with the upward moving return-stroke front does not lead to features that can be clearly interpreted as the result of current reflections at that point in the evaluated conditions. Finally, it is argued that the current reflection coefficient at the tower top should be viewed as a current dependent parameter as opposed to a constant, linear value.

  20. Nonceramic insulators for transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.M. . High Voltage Transmission Research Center); Hall, J.F. ); Karady, G. ); Rendowden, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Progress in development of nonceramic transmission lines insulator technology is reviewed. The results of a survey to utilities in the United States are presented to indicate the range of applications, distribution by voltage class, appraisal of performance, and failure modes. Concerns expressed by utility representatives at a recent workshop are described and future research and standardization needs are presented.

  1. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  2. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  3. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  4. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  5. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  6. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  7. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, Larry D.; Ballard, William P.; Clark, M. Collins; Marder, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  8. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  9. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  10. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  11. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  12. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, Dr C., Prof; Wong, Y. C.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications.

  13. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1994-12-31

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  14. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  15. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  16. Bird streamer flashovers on FPL transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.

    1995-04-01

    FPL transmission lines with excessive unknown cause outages were investigated and determined to have experiences bird streamer flashovers. Findings are extended to similar lines and the frequency of bird streamer occurrences are estimated. Outage patterns associated with bird streamer flashovers are presented.

  17. Upgrading a 24-in. gas transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Because of increasing population density, Texas Eastern Transmission Corp. removed an existing 24-in. gas line and replaced it with a higher yield line pipe with a greater wall thickness. Work was through exclusive lake subdivisions and across a golf course and required special construction techniques.

  18. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  19. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  20. Application of transmission-line super theory to classical transmission lines with risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambousky, R.; Nitsch, J.; Tkachenko, S.

    2015-11-01

    By applying the Transmission-Line Super Theory (TLST) to a practical transmission-line configuration (two risers and a horizontal part of the line parallel to the ground plane) it is elaborated under which physical and geometrical conditions the horizontal part of the transmission-line can be represented by a classical telegrapher equation with a sufficiently accurate description of the physical properties of the line. The risers together with the part of the horizontal line close to them are treated as separate lines using the TLST. Novel frequency and local dependent reflection coefficients are introduced to take into account the action of the bends and their radiation. They can be derived from the matrizant elements of the TLST solution. It is shown that the solution of the resulting network and the TLST solution of the entire line agree for certain line configurations. The physical and geometrical parameters for these corresponding configurations are determined in this paper.

  1. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  2. Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2006-07-07

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

  3. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and...

  4. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and...

  5. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and...

  6. Fluxon propagation on a Josephson transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, A.; Kawakami, T.

    1983-08-22

    Fluxon propagation profiles for Josephson transmission lines have been directly measured. Single--input-pulse dissociation into multifluxon as well as velocity-dependent wave forms have actually been observed. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical results if a large rf loss term is assumed.

  7. Nonlinear system guidance in the presence of transmission zero dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G.; Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.

    1995-01-01

    An iterative procedure is proposed for computing the commanded state trajectories and controls that guide a possibly multiaxis, time-varying, nonlinear system with transmission zero dynamics through a given arbitrary sequence of control points. The procedure is initialized by the system inverse with the transmission zero effects nulled out. Then the 'steady state' solution of the perturbation model with the transmission zero dynamics intact is computed and used to correct the initial zero-free solution. Both time domain and frequency domain methods are presented for computing the steady state solutions of the possibly nonminimum phase transmission zero dynamics. The procedure is illustrated by means of linear and nonlinear examples.

  8. Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

  9. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  10. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  11. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  12. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  13. Accelerator power concepts using isolated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1981-05-01

    This report outlines the rationale and the advantages of using multiple transmission-line sections isolated by transit time and inductance in accelerating high-current (approx. = 10 -kA), short-pulse (less than or equal to 100-ns) particle beams to the multimegavolt level. The main advantages of this system include reducing the number of output switches required per output pulse by nearly an order of magnitude over conventional systems and increasing the system capability for repetition-rate operation. The isolated transmission-line concept is developed, and possible modes of operation are outlined. In addition, a point design of a 10-kA short-pulse accelerator is presented.

  14. Application of composite insulators to transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, E.A.; Brown, R.L.; Karady, G.; Nicholls, J.L.; Orbeck, T.; Pargamin, L.

    1983-05-01

    The paper provides guidelines for the application of composite insulators to transmission lines. These guidelines are based on utility field experiences, results of research laboratory tests and manufacturers' recommendations. Discussed are interchangeability with porcelain and glass insulators, application in contaminated environments, material ageing, insulator icing, the use of grease, resistance to vandalism, temperature extremes, and the need for grading rings. Clarification is provided on the mechanical rating of composite insulators because there is not yet general agreement by various industry groups.

  15. Microstrip transmission line for soil moisture measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuemin; Li, Jing; Liang, Renyue; Sun, Yijie; Liu, C. Richard; Rogers, Richard; Claros, German

    2004-12-01

    Pavement life span is often affected by the amount of voids in the base and subgrade soils, especially moisture content in pavement. Most available moisture sensors are based on the capacitive sensing using planar blades. Since the planar sensor blades are fabricated on the same surface to reduce the overall size of the sensor, such structure cannot provide very high accuracy for moisture content measurement. As a consequence, a typical capacitive moisture sensor has an error in the range of 30%. A more accurate measurement is based on the time domain refelctometer (TDR) measurement. However, typical TDR system is fairly expensive equipment, very large in size, and difficult to operate, the moisture content measurement is limited. In this paper, a novel microstrip transmission line based moisture sensor is presented. This sensor uses the phase shift measurement of RF signal going through a transmission line buried in the soil to be measured. Since the amplitude of the transmission measurement is a strong function of the conductivity (loss of the media) and the imaginary part of dielectric constant, and the phase is mainly a strong function of the real part of the dielectric constant, measuring phase shift in transmission mode can directly obtain the soil moisture information. This sensor was designed and implemented. Sensor networking was devised. Both lab and field data show that this sensor is sensitive and accurate.

  16. Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, S. M.; Pittman, T. B.; Franson, J. D.

    2009-02-15

    Subwavelength-diameter tapered optical fibers surrounded by rubidium vapor can undergo a substantial decrease in transmission at high atomic densities due to the accumulation of rubidium atoms on the surface of the fiber. Here we demonstrate the ability to control these changes in transmission using light guided within the taper. We observe transmission through a tapered fiber that is a nonlinear function of the incident power. This effect can also allow a strong control beam to change the transmission of a weak probe beam.

  17. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.

    2011-04-12

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  18. View facing north, Structure 162 in foreground, as Transmission Line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing north, Structure 16-2 in foreground, as Transmission Line turns at intersection of Powerline Road and US 87 - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  19. View facing south, near Structure 515, of Transmission Line rising ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing south, near Structure 51-5, of Transmission Line rising out of Marias River Valley - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. 3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print no. S-C-01-00478, no date. Photographer unknown. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Transmission Lines, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Transmission line including support means with barriers

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

  2. Transmission line icing measurement on photogrammetry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Ma, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijin; Du, Hao; Luo, Hong; Mao, Xianyin; Tang, Min; Liu, Yawen

    2015-12-01

    Icing thickness parameter is the basic data for power sector to make decision for icing accident prevention. In this paper, a transmission line icing measurement method is proposed. It used the photogrammetry method to realize icing parameters measurement through the integration of high resolution camera, laser range finder and inertial measurement unit. Compared with traditional icing measurement method, this method is flexible and is the effective supplement of the fixed icing detection terminal. And its high accuracy measurement guarantees the reliability of the icing thickness parameters.

  3. SMILE transmission line adder for RADLAC II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Turman, B.N.; Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R.; Pankuch, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    SMILE is a coaxial Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line voltage adder. It replaces the original beam line of the RADLAC II accelerator by a 12.5 m long cathode electrode. The anode electrode remains practically the same, consisting of the original eight insulating stacks or feeds which are connected with equal diameter stainless steel cylinders. The beam is produced at the end of the accelerator and is free of all the possible instabilities associated with accelerating gaps and magnetic vacuum transport. Annular beams with {beta}{perpendicular} {le} 0.1 and radius r{sub b} {le} 1 cm were routinely obtained and extracted from a small magnetically-immersed foilless electron diode. Results of the experimental evaluation are presented and compared with design parameters and numerical simulation predictions. 4 refs.

  4. SMILE transmission line adder for RADLAC II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Turman, B.N.; Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R. ); Pankuch, P.J. . Special Projects)

    1991-01-01

    SMILE is a coaxial Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line voltage adder. It replaces the original beam line of the RADLAC II accelerator by a 12.5 m long cathode electrode. The anode electrode remains practically the same, consisting of the original eight insulating stacks or feeds which are connected with equal diameter stainless steel cylinders. The beam is produced at the end of the accelerator and is free of all the possible instabilities associated with accelerating gaps and magnetic vacuum transport. Annular beams with {beta}{perpendicular} {le} 0.1 and radius r{sub b} {le} 1 cm were routinely obtained and extracted from a small magnetically-immersed foilless electron diode. Results of the experimental evaluation are presented and compared with design parameters and numerical simulation predictions. 4 refs.

  5. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line. PMID:25002503

  6. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  7. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  8. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  9. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.179 Transmission line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing...

  10. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.179 Transmission line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing...

  11. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  12. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  13. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  14. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  15. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  16. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable...

  17. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  18. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  19. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  20. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  1. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  2. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  3. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  4. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  5. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  6. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable...

  7. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  8. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  9. Nonlinear transmission of an intense terahertz field through monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Hafez, H. A.; Ibrahim, A.; Ozaki, T.; Al-Naib, I.; Dignam, M. M.; Oguri, K.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Cooke, D. G.; Tanaka, S.; Komori, F.

    2014-11-15

    We report nonlinear terahertz (THz) effects in monolayer graphene, giving rise to transmission enhancement of a single-cycle THz pulse when the incident THz peak electric field is increased. This transmission enhancement is attributed to reduced photoconductivity, due to saturation effects in the field-induced current and increased intraband scattering rates arising from transient heating of electrons. We have developed a tight-binding model of the response using the length gauge interaction Hamiltonian that provides good qualitative agreement. The model fully accounts for the nonlinear response arising from the linear dispersion energy spectrum in graphene. The results reveal a strong dependence of the scattering time on the THz field, which is at the heart of the observed nonlinear response.

  10. On the transmissibilities of nonlinear vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeqi; Brennan, Michael J.; Chen, Li-Qun

    2016-08-01

    Transmissibility is a key parameter to quantify the effectiveness of a vibration isolation system. Under harmonic excitation, the force transmissibility of a linear vibration isolation system is defined as the ratio between the amplitude of the force transmitted to the host structure and the excitation force amplitude, and the displacement transmissibility is the ratio between the displacement amplitude of the payload and that of the base. For a nonlinear vibration isolation system, the force or the displacement responses usually have more frequency components than the excitation. For a harmonic excitation, the response may be periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. Therefore, the amplitude ratio cannot well define the transmissibility. The root-mean-square ratio of the response to the excitation is suggested to define the transmissibility. The significance of the modified transmissibility is highlighted in a nonlinear two-stage vibration isolation system consisting of two linear spring connected linear vibration isolators with two additional horizontal linear springs. Harmonic balance method (HBM) is applied to determine the responses with the fundamental and third harmonic. Numerical simulations reveal that chaos may occur in the responses. In both cases, the modified transmissibility works while the original definition cannot be applied to chaotic response.

  11. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  12. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.709 Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  13. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  14. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  16. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  17. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  18. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  19. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  20. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  1. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Microtubule as a Transmission Line for Ionic Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, I. D.; Satarić, V. M.; Ralević, N.

    2009-07-01

    We establish a new model for ionic waves along microtubules based on polyelectrolyte features of cylindrical biopolymers. The nonlinear transmission line described by a nonlinear differential equation is obtained with stable kink solution pertinent to the shape of the front of accompanying potential. The localized ionic wave could be used to explain the behavior of microtubules as biomolecular transistors capable of amplifying electrical information in neurons.

  2. Nonlinearities of biopolymer gels increase the range of force transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Safran, Samuel A.

    2015-09-01

    We present a model of biopolymer gels that includes two types of elastic nonlinearities, stiffening under extension and softening (due to buckling) under compression, to predict the elastic anisotropy induced by both external as well as internal (e.g., due to cell contractility) stresses in biopolymer gels. We show how the stretch-induced anisotropy and the strain-stiffening nonlinearity increase both the amplitude and power-law range of transmission of internal, contractile, cellular forces, and relate this to recent experiments.

  3. Nonlinearities of biopolymer gels increase the range of force transmission.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinpeng; Safran, Samuel A

    2015-09-01

    We present a model of biopolymer gels that includes two types of elastic nonlinearities, stiffening under extension and softening (due to buckling) under compression, to predict the elastic anisotropy induced by both external as well as internal (e.g., due to cell contractility) stresses in biopolymer gels. We show how the stretch-induced anisotropy and the strain-stiffening nonlinearity increase both the amplitude and power-law range of transmission of internal, contractile, cellular forces, and relate this to recent experiments.

  4. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... lines: Patrolling. (a) Each operator shall have a patrol program to observe surface conditions on and adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  5. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing block valves spaced as follows, unless in a particular case the Administrator finds that alternative...

  6. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be equipped with valves or other components to shut off the flow of gas to an offshore platform in an... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing...

  7. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  8. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a line marker must be placed and maintained as close as practical over...

  9. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a line marker must be placed and maintained as close as practical over...

  10. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a line marker must be placed and maintained as close as practical over...

  11. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Struven, Warren C.

    1984-01-01

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  12. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  13. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  14. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  15. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for...

  16. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for...

  17. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for...

  18. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for...

  19. Algorithm for predictive control implementation on fiber optic transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Voronkov, Andrey A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the algorithm for predictive control implementation on fiber-optic transmission lines. In order to improve the maintenance of fiber optic communication lines, the algorithm prediction uptime optic communication cables have been worked out. It considers the results of scheduled preventive maintenance and database of various works on the track cable line during maintenance.

  20. Citizens, farmers fight huge transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Brummer, J.

    1982-02-01

    Opposition to high tension power lines with a 20-story towers is growing as coalitions of farmers and advocates of safe energy respond with legal intervention and sabotage, and sometimes with success. Examples of citizen action are the efforts opposing a 450 kilovolt direct current line connecting the US with Quebec Hydro and another opposing a 500 kilovolt alternating current line from Georgia Power Co.'s nuclear plants to Florida. The opposition derives partly from evidence of health hazards to humans and adverse effects on livestock. High voltage lines are felt to symbolize a utility and regulatory failure to assess the recent decline in power demand. It is stated that administration efforts to outlaw organized resistence will not deter the opposition, which cites instances of ground shock, aborted and stillborn cattle, physical irritants, and other phenomena. The General Assembly to Stop the Powerline (GASP) objects to the guinea pig position forced upon residents by the utilities. 6 references. (DCK)

  1. Performance robustness of a noise-assisted transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, S. A.; Fierens, P. I.; Perazzo, R. P. J.; Grosz, D. F.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we analyze the stochastic-resonant behavior of a chain of forward-coupled bistable overdamped oscillators used as a transmission line with possible applications to neurophysiology, information transmission and storage. We drive the line with a random sequence of non-return-to-zero bits and each oscillator is independently perturbed by noise. The line is analyzed for varying coupling strengths that lead to different regimes, ranging from noise-supported to coupling-supported transmission. We characterize the transmission performance by parameters such as output bit error rate and delivered signal-to-noise ratio, and show them to improve and remain flat for a broad range of noise intensities in all coupling regimes. In particular, we found that this system exhibits an enhanced robustness as compared to a linear transmission channel impaired only by additive noise.

  2. Computer simulation of multiple coupled transmission lines in electronic packaging application

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jenchyi.

    1989-01-01

    A method for simulating the transient responses of networks containing lossless transmission lines and lumped parameter elements of circuits, both linear and nonlinear, has been developed and investigated. The method combines the technique of network analysis and that of modal decomposition of transmission lines. A prototype computer simulation program, called UANTL, based on the developed algorithm has been implemented. Several example networks have been simulated using this program. The results have been compared with those generated by the well known circuit simulator program called SPICE. UANTL has shown several advantages over SPICE in simulating the transient responses of networks containing transmission lines. A description of the prototype version of UANTL and a summary of the results of numerical experiments are included.

  3. Single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Keech, Jr., Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensor circuits each monitors a specific process variable and each transmits measurement values over a single transmission line to a master interrogating station when addressed by said master interrogating station. Typically, as many as 330 remote stations may be parallel connected to the transmission line which may exceed 7,000 feet. The interrogation rate is typically 330 stations/second. The master interrogating station samples each station according to a shared, charging transmit-receive cycle. All remote station address signals, all data signals from the remote stations/sensors and all power for all of the remote station/sensors are transmitted via a single continuous terminated coaxial cable. A means is provided for periodically and remotely calibrating all remote sensors for zero and span. A provision is available to remotely disconnect any selected sensor station from the main transmission line.

  4. 10. TRANSMISSION LINES BETWEEN DIABLO AND GORGE; CONSTRUCTION DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TRANSMISSION LINES BETWEEN DIABLO AND GORGE; CONSTRUCTION DETAIL OF TOWER STRUCTURE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  5. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  6. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  7. Corrugated outer sheath gas-insulated transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Kemeny, George A.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes two transmission line sections each of which are formed of a corrugated outer housing enclosing an inner high-voltage conductor disposed therein, with insulating support means supporting the inner conductor within the outer housing and an insulating gas providing electrical insulation therebetween. The outer housings in each section have smooth end sections at the longitudinal ends thereof which are joined together by joining means which provide for a sealing fixed joint.

  8. Multimode circuit quantum electrodynamics with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K

    2013-10-18

    Quantum transmission lines are central to superconducting and hybrid quantum computing. In this work we show how coupling them to a left-handed transmission line allows circuit QED to reach a new regime: multimode ultrastrong coupling. Out of the many potential applications of this novel device, we discuss the preparation of multipartite entangled states and the simulation of the spin-boson model where a quantum phase transition is reached up to finite size effects.

  9. High aspect ratio transmission line circuits micromachined in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Shane Truman

    The performance of complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) fabricated on silicon has improved dramatically. The scaling down of silicon transistors has increased the maximum frequency of transistors to the point where silicon MMICs have become a viable alternative to compound semiconductor MMICs in certain applications. A fundamental problem still exists in silicon MMICs however in that transmission lines fabricated on silicon can suffer from high loss due to the finite conductivity of the silicon substrate. A novel approach for creating low-loss transmission lines on silicon is presented in this work. Low-loss transmission lines are created on low resistivity silicon by using a micromachining method that combines silicon deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), thermal oxidation, electroplating, and planarization. Two types of high aspect ratio transmission lines are created with this method including high aspect ratio coplanar waveguide (hicoplanar) and semi-rectangular coaxial (semicoaxial). Transmission lines with impedances ranging from 20--80 O have been fabricated with minimum measured loss lower than 1 dB/cm at 67 GHz. Low-loss dielectrics are created for the high aspect ratio transmission lines using the mesa merging method. The mesa merging method works by creating silicon mesa arrays using DRIE and then converting and merging the mesa arrays into a solid oxide dielectric using thermal oxidation. The transmission lines are designed so that the fields penetrate the low-loss oxide dielectric and are isolated from the lossy silicon substrate. The mesa merging method has successfully created large volume oxide with depth up to 65 microm and width up to 240 microm in short oxidation times. Other advantages of the high aspect ratio transmission lines are demonstrated including low-loss over a wide impedance range, high isolation, and high coupling for coupled-line circuits. Transmission line models have been

  10. Five Mass Power Transmission Line of a Ship Computer Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakoff, Alexander Borisoff; Marinov, Boycho Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    The work, presented in this paper, appears to be a natural continuation of the work presented and reported before, on the design of power transmission line of a ship, but with different multi-mass model. Some data from the previous investigations are used as a reference data, mainly from the analytical investigations, for the developed in the previ- ous study, frequency and modal analysis of a five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship. In the paper, a profound dynamic analysis of a concrete five mass dynamic model of the power transmission line of a ship is performed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), based on the previously recommended model, investigated in the previous research and reported before. Thus, the partially validated by frequency analysis five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship is subjected to dynamic analysis. The objective of the work presented in this paper is dynamic modelling of a five mass transmission line of a ship, partial validation of the model and von Mises stress analysis calculation with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and comparison of the derived results with the analytically calculated values. The partially validated five mass power transmission line of a ship can be used for definition of many dy- namic parameters, particularly amplitude of displacement, velocity and acceleration, respectively in time and frequency domain. The frequency behaviour of the model parameters is investigated in frequency domain and it corresponds to the predicted one.

  11. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices. PMID:27553759

  12. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices. PMID:27553759

  13. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices.

  14. Microwave frequency tuning and harmonic generation in ferroelectric thin film transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, James C.; Ono, R. H.; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Chang, Kao-Shuo

    2002-07-01

    We evaluate dielectric tuning on nanosecond time scales in ferroelectric Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 thin films by measuring nonlinear harmonic generation at a fundamental frequency of 3 GHz. We compare the form of the distributed nonlinear capacitance per unit length C(Vrf) extracted from a simple model of harmonic generation in coplanar waveguide transmission line structures with the nonlinear capacitance C(Vdc) measured using a dc bias voltage, and obtain excellent agreement for temperatures in the range 235-295 K. This demonstrated agreement implies that full dielectric tuning can be expected in these ferroelectric thin films on nanosecond time scales, and also demonstrates that detrimental high-frequency nonlinear effects in device structures can be accurately predicted based on dc biased measurements.

  15. Engineering the electrical characteristics of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, F.; Bonache, J.; Gil, M.; Sisó, G.

    2008-04-01

    This paper is focused on the control of the electrical characteristics of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines, that is, transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). The key parameters of metamaterial transmission lines for microwave and millimetre wave circuit design are the characteristic impedance and the phase constant (rather than the effective magnetic permeability or dielectric permittivity). Thanks to the presence of reactive elements loading the host line, metamaterial transmission lines exhibit a major design flexibility that can be useful for circuit design purposes. Specifically, we can tailor the dispersion diagram and the characteristic impedance to some extent. By virtue of this, it is possible the design of microwave and millimetre wave components with superior performance in terms of bandwidth, or the design of multi-band components, both of interest in modern wireless communication systems. Thanks to the small electrical size of the unit cell of such lines, the resulting metamaterial-based components are also very small and fully compatible with planar technology (that is, no lumped elements are used). Different examples are provided to illustrate the possibilities of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines. This includes hybrid couplers, power dividers and phase shifters, among others. The paper includes also the theoretical foundations of the approach.

  16. Energy and Transmissibility in Nonlinear Viscous Base Isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markou, Athanasios A.; Manolis, George D.

    2016-09-01

    High damping rubber bearings (HDRB) are the most commonly used base isolators in buildings and are often combined with other systems, such as sliding bearings. Their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. At first, a physical process is suggested here to explain the empirical formula introduced by J.M. Kelly in 1991, where the dissipated energy of a HDRB under cyclic testing, at constant frequency, is proportional to the amplitude of the shear strain, raised to a power of approximately 1.50. This physical process is best described by non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, originally developed by F.H. Norton in 1929 to describe creep in steel at high-temperatures. The constitutive model used includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity, raised to a non-integer power. The identification of a three parameter Kelvin model, the simplest possible system with nonlinear viscosity, is also suggested here. Furthermore, a more advanced model with variable damping coefficient is implemented to better model in this complex mechanical process. Next, the assumption of strain-rate dependence in their rubber layers under cyclic loading is examined in order to best interpret experimental results on the transmission of motion between the upper and lower surfaces of HDRB. More specifically, the stress-relaxation phenomenon observed with time in HRDB can be reproduced numerically, only if the constitutive model includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity raised to a non-integer power, i. e., the Norton fluid previously mentioned. Thus, it becomes possible to compute the displacement transmissibility function between the top and bottom surfaces of HDRB base isolator systems and to draw engineering-type conclusions, relevant to their design under time-harmonic loads.

  17. Stand-off transmission lines and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-05-21

    Standoff transmission lines in an integrated circuit structure are formed by etching away or removing the portion of the dielectric layer separating the microstrip metal lines and the ground plane from the regions that are not under the lines. The microstrip lines can be fabricated by a subtractive process of etching a metal layer, an additive process of direct laser writing fine lines followed by plating up the lines or a subtractive/additive process in which a trench is etched over a nucleation layer and the wire is electrolytically deposited. Microstrip lines supported on freestanding posts of dielectric material surrounded by air gaps are produced. The average dielectric constant between the lines and ground plane is reduced, resulting in higher characteristic impedance, less crosstalk between lines, increased signal propagation velocities, and reduced wafer stress. 16 figures.

  18. Stand-off transmission lines and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Standoff transmission lines in an integrated circuit structure are formed by etching away or removing the portion of the dielectric layer separating the microstrip metal lines and the ground plane from the regions that are not under the lines. The microstrip lines can be fabricated by a subtractive process of etching a metal layer, an additive process of direct laser writing fine lines followed by plating up the lines or a subtractive/additive process in which a trench is etched over a nucleation layer and the wire is electrolytically deposited. Microstrip lines supported on freestanding posts of dielectric material surrounded by air gaps are produced. The average dielectric constant between the lines and ground plane is reduced, resulting in higher characteristic impedance, less crosstalk between lines, increased signal propagation velocities, and reduced wafer stress.

  19. Transmission line icing prediction based on DWT feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T. N.; Niu, D. X.; Huang, Y. L.

    2016-08-01

    Transmission line icing prediction is the premise of ensuring the safe operation of the network as well as the very important basis for the prevention of freezing disasters. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of icing, a transmission line icing prediction model based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) feature extraction was built. In this method, a group of high and low frequency signals were obtained by DWT decomposition, and were fitted and predicted by using partial least squares regression model (PLS) and wavelet least square support vector model (w-LSSVM). Finally, the final result of the icing prediction was obtained by adding the predicted values of the high and low frequency signals. The results showed that the method is effective and feasible in the prediction of transmission line icing.

  20. Quasi-Optical Transmission Line for 94-GHz Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul M.; Veruttipong, Watt

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-optical transmission line (QOTL) has been developed as a low-loss transmission line for a spaceborne cloudobserving radar instrument that operates at a nominal frequency of 94 GHz. This QOTL could also readily be redesigned for use in terrestrial millimeter-wave radar systems and millimeter-wave imaging systems. In the absence of this or another lowloss transmission line, it would be necessary to use a waveguide transmission line in the original radar application. Unfortunately, transmission losses increase and power-handling capacities of waveguides generally decrease with frequency, such that at 94 GHz, the limitation on transmitting power and the combined transmission and reception losses (greater than 5 dB) in a waveguide transmission line previously considered for the original application would be unacceptable. The QOTL functions as a very-lowloss, three-port circulator. The QOTL includes a shaped input mirror that can be rotated to accept 94-GHz transmitter power from either of two high-power amplifiers. Inside the QOTL, the transmitter power takes the form of a linearly polarized beam radiated from a feed horn. This beam propagates through a system of mirrors, each of which refocuses the beam to minimize diffraction losses. A magnetically biased ferrite disc is placed at one of the foci to utilize the Faraday effect to rotate the polarization of the beam by 45 degrees. The beam is then transmitted via an antenna system. The radar return (scatter from clouds, and/or reflections from other objects) is collected by the same antenna and propagates through the Faraday rotator in the reverse of the direction of propagation of the transmitted beam. In the Faraday rotator, the polarization of the received signal is rotated a further 45 degrees, so that upon emerging from the Faraday rotator, the received beam is polarized at 90 with respect to the transmitted beam. The transmitted and received signals are then separated by a wire-grid polarizer.

  1. Conductor design for the VLHC transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.W.; Kashikhin, V.; McAshan, M.; Mazur, P.O.; Piekarz, H.; Volk, J.T.; Walker, R.

    1999-03-01

    The transmission line magnet [1] is under development for the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) at Fermilab with the expectation that it’s cost will be several times less (per Tesla-meter) than conventional superconducting magnets. It is a dual-aperture warm-iron superferric magnet built around an 80kA superconducting transmission line. The superconductor consists of 8 Rutherford (SSC Outer) cables in an Invar pipe jacket. The conductor design requirements and development program is described. A 100kA conductor test facility based on inductive coupling is described.

  2. Gates to Gregg High Voltage Transmission Line Study. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergis, V.; Maw, K.; Newland, W.; Sinnott, D.; Thornbury, G.; Easterwood, P.; Bonderud, J.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of LANDSAT data in the planning of transmission line routes was assessed. LANDSAT digital data and image processing techniques, specifically a multi-date supervised classification aproach, were used to develop a land cover map for an agricultural area near Fresno, California. Twenty-six land cover classes were identified, of which twenty classes were agricultural crops. High classification accuracies (greater than 80%) were attained for several classes, including cotton, grain, and vineyards. The primary products generated were 1:24,000, 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 scale maps of the classification and acreage summaries for all land cover classes within four alternate transmission line routes.

  3. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOEpatents

    Stemler, Gary E.; Scott, Donald N.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  4. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  5. Investigation of Transmission Line Models for Switching Overvoltages Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghkhani, Iman; Ketabi, Abbas; Feuillet, Rene

    2013-06-01

    Overvoltages caused by switching operation of power system equipments might damage some equipment and delay power system restoration. This paper presents a comparison between transmission line (TL) models for overvoltages study and investigates which TL model is most proper for every case study. Both simulation time and accuracy factors of TL models are considered for selecting best TL model. Various cases of switching of transformer, shunt reactor, capacitor bank, and transmission line are investigated and simulation results for a partial of 39-bus New England test system, show that the proposed TL model evaluation increase accuracy and reduce simulation time (accelerate power system restoration) properly.

  6. Effects of electromagnetic fields produced by high voltage transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, T.

    1984-06-01

    The potential impacts of higher transmission line voltages on people, animals, and plants were determined. The differences among various studies are reviewed. Although there are some obvious dangers posed by transmission line operation, construction, and maintenance, most of these concerns are addressed by safety measures taken by utility companies. The indirect effects of power transission is reported. Three major categories of field effects are covered: (1) corona effects due to the electric field at the conductor's surface; (2) indirect coupling effects, arising from induced currents in nearby conducting objects; and (3) direct coupling effects, caused by induced currents in organisms.

  7. Role of superconductivity in superconducting transmission line resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiao-Ke

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the role of superconductivity in superconducting transmission line resonator, we derive the mode equations using the macroscopic wavefunction of the Cooper pairs. We make an appropriate scaling to obtain the dimensionless form of equations and establish the validity of good conductor approximation under most circumstances. Quantization of superconducting transmission line resonator is realized by the black-box principle. We also briefly discuss that the deviation from good conductor behavior would result in the observable effects, such as the considerable decrease of phase velocity and the soliton.

  8. Study of the cavity-magnon-polariton transmission line shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, Michael; Bai, LiHui; Match, Christophe; Sirker, Jesko; Hu, CanMing

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigate the microwave transmission line shape of the cavity-magnon-polariton (CMP) created by inserting a low damping magnetic insulator into a high quality 3D microwave cavity. While fixed field measurements are found to have the expected Lorentzian characteristic, at fixed frequencies the field swept line shape is in general asymmetric. Such fixed frequency measurements demonstrate that microwave transmission can be used to access magnetic characteristics of the CMP, such as the field line width Δ H. By developing an effective oscillator model of the microwave transmission we show that these line shape features are general characteristics of harmonic coupling. At the same time, at the classical level the underlying physical mechanism of the CMP is electrodynamic phase correlation and a second model based on this principle also accurately reproduces the experimental line shape features. In order to understand the microscopic origin of the effective coupled oscillator model and to allow for future studies of CMP phenomena to extend into the quantum regime, we develop a third, microscopic description, based on a Green's function formalism. Using this method we calculate the transmission spectra and find good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method.

  10. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance... buried main and transmission line: (1) At each crossing of a public road and railroad; and (2)...

  11. Soliton excitation in the pass band of the transmission line based on modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoying, Zhao; Feng, Tao; Weizhong, Chen

    2016-04-01

    We numerically investigate the excitation of soliton waves in the nonlinear electrical transmission line formed by many cells. When the periodic driving voltage with frequency in the pass band closing to the cutoff frequency is applied to the endpoint of the whole line, the soliton wave can be generated. The numerical results show that the soliton wave generation mainly depends on the self modulation associated with the nonlinear effect. In this study, the lower subharmonic component is also observed in the frequency spectrum. To further understand this phenomenon, we study the dependence of the subharmonic power spectrum and frequency on the forcing amplitude and frequency numerically, and find that the subharmonic frequency increases with the gradual growth of the driving amplitude. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174145 and 11334005) and the Research Foundation for Young Scientists of Anhui University of Technology (Grant No. QZ201318).

  12. Transmission Lines: An Overview of Electrical Properties and Environmental Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Biological Studies Task Team.

    1982-03-01

    A brief overview is provided of environmental and biological effects of high-voltage power transmission lines. Paragraph length descriptions of electric fields, induced voltage and currents, biological effects, magnetic fields, corona, radio and television interference, and ozone are given. 13 figs.

  13. High voltage gas insulated transmission line with continuous particle trapping

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Dale, Steinar J.

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a novel high voltage gas insulated transmission line utilizing insulating supports spaced at intervals with snap-in means for supporting a continuous trapping apparatus and said trapping apparatus having perforations and cutouts to facilitate trapping of contaminating particles and system flexibility.

  14. HIGH FREQUENCY POWER TRANSMISSION LINE FOR CYCLOTRONS AND THE LIKE

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, W.J.

    1954-04-20

    High-frequency power transmission systems, particularly a stacked capacitance alternating power current transmission line wherein maximum utilization of the effective conductios skin of the line conductors is achieved while enabling a low impedance to be obtained are reported. The transmission line consists of a number of flat metal strips with interleaved dielectric strips. The metal dielectric strips are coiled spirally with the axis of the spiral extending along the length of the strips, and the alternating metal strips at the output end have outwardly extending aligned lugs which are directly strapped together and connected to the respective terminals on the load. At the input end of the transmission line, similarly, the alternate metal strips are directly strapped together and connected to an altereating current source. With the arrangement described each metal strip conducts on both sides, so that the metal strips are designed to have a thickness corresponding to twice the depth of the "skin effect" conducting lamina of each conductor at the source frequency.

  15. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record of Decision (ROD..., based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE/EIS-0457, March 2012). BPA has decided... will continue to operate at 115 kV. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and EIS may be obtained by calling...

  16. 34. DETAIL OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAIL OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON TOP OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTHWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Flow Impedance in a Uniform Magnetically-Insulated Transmission Line

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W.

    1999-03-23

    In two recent publications relativistic electron flow in cylindrical magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITL) was analyzed and modeled under the assumption of negligible electron pressure. Cylindrical MITLs were used because of their common occurrence, and because they are the simplest case of finite width. The authors show in this report that the models apply equally to MITLs of any cross section.

  18. Integrated micromachined transmission lines and endfire slotline antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Steven S.; Willke, Theodore L.; Onggosanusi, Eko N.

    1997-09-01

    An entirely new class of micromachined 3D microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits and antennas are being developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison using a subset o the LIGA micromachining process. The deep x-ray lithography and metal plating portions of the LIGA process are used to precisely form tall metal structures on semiconductor and dielectric substrates. This micromachining process allows metal height to be included as a parameter in the design of integrated circuits, which will permit several important advancements in high frequency waveguiding circuits and integrated antennas. With appropriate thick- metal cross-sectional geometry, transmission line losses and dispersion may both be reduced on a given substrate. Vertical-walled metal structures allow increased control over element-to-element coupling for integrated coupled-line filters and couplers and result in very significant reductions in ohmic loss. It will be demonstrated that the first single-level coupled-line 3dB coupler can be fabricated using the LIGA process. In addition, the mechanical properties of the thick metal structures will be utilized in the fabrication of integrated antennas and transmission lines that are unsupported by a dielectric substrate. The elimination of the substrate beneath antennas reduces losses to substrate modes, and the elimination o the substrate beneath transmission line filters is necessary for extremely high Q integrated filters. This paper will present simulated loss results that demonstrate the advantages of thick metal transmission lines, measured results of a coupled-line bandpass filter, and a recently fabricated thick-metal tapered slotline antenna which extends nearly a centimeter off of the edge of a GaAs wafer.

  19. Airplane Ice Detector Based on a Microwave Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. Dickey; Carl, James R.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic instrument that could detect the potentially dangerous buildup of ice on an airplane wing is undergoing development. The instrument is based on a microwave transmission line configured as a capacitance probe: at selected spots, the transmission-line conductors are partly exposed to allow any ice and/or liquid water present at those spots to act as predominantly capacitive electrical loads on the transmission line. These loads change the input impedance of the transmission line, as measured at a suitable excitation frequency. Thus, it should be possible to infer the presence of ice and/or liquid water from measurements of the input impedance and/or electrical parameters related to the input impedance. The sensory transmission line is of the microstrip type and thus thin enough to be placed on an airplane wing without unduly disturbing airflow in flight. The sensory spots are small areas from which the upper layer of the microstrip has been removed to allow any liquid water or ice on the surface to reach the transmission line. The sensory spots are spaced at nominal open-circuit points, which are at intervals of a half wavelength (in the transmission line, not in air) at the excitation frequency. The excitation frequency used in the experiments has been 1 GHz, for which a half wavelength in the transmission line is .4 in. (.10 cm). The figure depicts a laboratory prototype of the instrument. The impedance-related quantities chosen for use in this version of the instrument are the magnitude and phase of the scattering parameter S11 as manifested in the in-phase (I ) and quadrature (Q) outputs of the phase detector. By careful layout of the transmission line (including the half-wavelength sensor spacing), one can ensure that the amplitude and phase of the input to the phase detector keep shifting in the same direction as ice forms on one or more of the sensor areas. Although only one transmission-line sensor strip is used in the laboratory version, in a

  20. Multivariable time series prediction for the icing process on overhead power transmission line.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters. PMID:25136653

  1. Multivariable Time Series Prediction for the Icing Process on Overhead Power Transmission Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters. PMID:25136653

  2. Optical transmission measurements for in-line monitoring of turbid oil-water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Philipp; Dopf, Katja; Aichholz, Markus; Riedel, Boris; Lemmer, Uli; Freudig, Barbara; Zimmermann, Clifton; Gerken, Martina

    2014-05-01

    For absorbing media the concentration may be calculated directly from the optical transmission following the logarithmic dependence given in the Lambert-Beer law. Due to multiple scattering events in oil-water emulsions (e.g. milk, cream, etc.), these exhibit a nonlinear relationship between the attenuation and the oil concentration. We demonstrate that for increasing oil content in oil-water emulsions the attenuation first increases, then levels out, and finally even decreases for a fat content of 60%. Single-wavelength optical transmission measurements are found to be well suited for the in-line monitoring of oil-water emulsions of fat contents below 20%, e.g., for the in-line fat content monitoring of milk. Using experiments and ray-tracing simulations we evaluate system optimization.

  3. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications. On such a platform

  4. Transmission capability of asymmetric digital subscriber lines in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shyue-Win; Leu, Shyue-Tzong; Wei, Che-Ho

    1995-04-01

    The transmission capacity of discrete multitone (DMT) modulation system for Taiwan's subscriber loops is evaluated in this study. Based on the characteristics of Taiwan's local loops, the transmission capacity is estimated to be 1.544 Mb/s and 6 Mb/s in Taiwan. Simulation results also show how many percents of users in Taiwan may have 1.544 Mb/s or 6 Mb/s of asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL) services. Self far-end crosstalk (FEXT) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are considered to be the dominant noise sources in the work.

  5. Low-power digital communication with unterminated transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, Michael; Sieber, Richard W.; Moolenbeek, Rob

    1988-06-01

    Conventional telecommunication techniques are optimized to communicate over long distances (greater than 1 mi), subject to high attenuation, high crosstalk, and other deteriorations in transmission. A trend in telecommunication system architectures is to disperse the previously centralized switching centers, thereby providing switching within a few hundred feet of the subscriber. This creates an opportunity for great improvements in cost and performance for short distance communication links. A technique for low-power digital communication over short transmission lines that exploits this possibility is described. The typical power is more than an order of magnitude lower than the power required with conventional circuits. Associated with this technique are a tenfold reduction in the chip area occupied by the transmission line drivers and the elimination of coupling transformers. The power and chip-area reductions result from terminating the line at the transmitter and maintaining an open circuit at the receiver. These advantages make this line-driving technique particularly suitable for single-chip VLSI systems.

  6. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications.

  7. A comparison of digital subscriber line transmission systems employing different line codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosio, A.; Dejulio, U.; Lazzari, V.; Ravaglia, R.; Tofanelli, A.

    1981-12-01

    The main characteristics and the performance of two systems implemented for two wire digital transmission on subscriber lines are presented. Both systems utilize different time intervals to transit bursts of bits in the two directions with an information bit rate of 80 kbit/s and a line bit rate in the bursts of 256 kbit/s. One system employing WAL2 as the line code, exhibits extreme circuitry simplicity and low power consumption. The other system, which employs CMI as the line code, shows better performance in the presence of line disturbances.

  8. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, J.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rowland, J. H.; Bartolini, R.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of "smart sextupole knobs" attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  9. Tunable Transmission-Line Metamaterials Mimicking Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T. H.; Han, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Tunable transmission-line (TL) metamaterials mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been studied. Firstly, two types of tunable TL EIT-like metamaterial, based on the double split-ring resonator (DSRR) and single split-ring resonator (SSRR), were fabricated and their transmission properties carefully compared. The results showed that the transmittance maximum was almost invariable with shift of the transparency window for the tunable DSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, but for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, the transmittance maximum gradually diminished with shift of the transparency window toward the center of the absorption band. Moreover, the reason for these different transmission properties was explored, revealing that the reduction of the transmittance maximum of the transparency window for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial is mainly due to energy loss caused by the resistance of the loaded varactor diodes.

  10. Tunable Transmission-Line Metamaterials Mimicking Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T. H.; Han, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Tunable transmission-line (TL) metamaterials mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been studied. Firstly, two types of tunable TL EIT-like metamaterial, based on the double split-ring resonator (DSRR) and single split-ring resonator (SSRR), were fabricated and their transmission properties carefully compared. The results showed that the transmittance maximum was almost invariable with shift of the transparency window for the tunable DSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, but for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, the transmittance maximum gradually diminished with shift of the transparency window toward the center of the absorption band. Moreover, the reason for these different transmission properties was explored, revealing that the reduction of the transmittance maximum of the transparency window for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial is mainly due to energy loss caused by the resistance of the loaded varactor diodes.

  11. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  12. Beam coupling impedances of fast transmission-line kickers.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fast transmission-line kickers contain no ferrite and consist of two long metallic parallel plates supported by insulators inside a beam pipe. A beam is deflected by both the electric and magnetic fields of a TEM wave created by a pulse propagating along the strips in the direction opposite to the beam. Computations of the beam coupling impedances for such structures are difficult because of their length. In the paper, the beam coupling impedances of transmission-line kickers are calculated by combining analytical and numerical methods: the wake potentials computed in short models are extended analytically to obtain the wakes for the long kickers, and then the corresponding beam impedances are derived. At very low frequencies the results are compared with simple analytical expressions for the coupling impedances of striplines in beam position monitors.

  13. HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

    2014-05-01

    Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

  14. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nicholas Keith; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discussed a novel phased array with an emphasis to simplify the array feed. Specifically, we will demonstrate a simple, low cost feeding approach by mechanically controlling the substrate thickness. The array feed lines are constructed from parallel plate transmission lines whose thickness are adjusted to control their effective dielectric constant (Epsilon_eff). As a result the phase delay/excitation at each array element will be adjusted per desired beam direction. The proposed antenna elements will be overlapping dipoles operating over a 2:1 bandwidth in the Ku-Band spectrum. Preliminary simulation and experimental demonstration of such an array will be presented.

  15. Transmission Line for 258 GHz Gyrotron DNP Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdashov, Alexandr A.; Belousov, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexey V.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Korchagin, Vyacheslav V.; Kornishin, Sergey Yu.; Tai, Evgeny M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design and test results of the transmission line for liquid-state (LS) and solid-state (SS) DNP spectrometers with the second-harmonic 258.6 GHz gyrotron at the Institute of the Biophysical Chemistry Center of Goethe University (Frankfurt). The 13-meter line includes a mode converter, HE11 waveguides, 4 mitre bends, a variable polarizer-attenuator, directional couplers, a water-flow calorimeter and a mechanical switch. A microwave power of about 15 W was obtained in the pure HE11 mode at the spectrometer inputs.

  16. Flow impedance in a uniform magnetically insulated transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Seidel, D.B.

    1999-12-01

    In two recent publications [C. W. Mendel, Jr. and S. E. Rosenthal, Phys. of Plasmas {bold 2}, 1332 (1995), C. W. Mendel, Jr. and S. E. Rosenthal, Phys. of Plasmas {bold 3}, 4207 (1996)] relativistic electron flow in cylindrical magnetically insulated transmission lines was analyzed and modeled under the assumption of negligible electron pressure. The model allows power flow in these lines to be accurately calculated under most conditions. The model was developed for coaxial right circular cylindrical electrodes. It is shown here that the model applies equally well to arbitrary cylindrical systems, i.e., systems consisting of electrodes of arbitrary cross section. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Flow impedance in a uniform magnetically insulated transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, C. W.; Seidel, D. B.

    1999-12-01

    In two recent publications [C. W. Mendel, Jr. and S. E. Rosenthal, Phys. of Plasmas 2, 1332 (1995), C. W. Mendel, Jr. and S. E. Rosenthal, Phys. of Plasmas 3, 4207 (1996)] relativistic electron flow in cylindrical magnetically insulated transmission lines was analyzed and modeled under the assumption of negligible electron pressure. The model allows power flow in these lines to be accurately calculated under most conditions. The model was developed for coaxial right circular cylindrical electrodes. It is shown here that the model applies equally well to arbitrary cylindrical systems, i.e., systems consisting of electrodes of arbitrary cross section.

  18. Gas insulated transmission line with insulators having field controlling recesses

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Pederson, Bjorn O.

    1984-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having a novel insulator for supporting an inner conductor concentrically within an outer sheath. The insulator has a recess contiguous with the periphery of one of the outer and inner conductors. The recess is disposed to a depth equal to an optimum gap for the dielectric insulating fluid used for the high voltage insulation or alternately disposed to a large depth so as to reduce the field at the critical conductor/insulator interface.

  19. Ringing in the pulse response of long and wideband coaxial transmission lines due to group delay dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzian,G.; de Maria,R.; Caspers, F.; Federmann, S.; Hofle, W.

    2009-05-04

    In particle accelerators coaxial cables are commonly used to transmit wideband beam signals covering many decades of frequencies over long distances. Those transmission lines often have a corrugated outer and/or inner conductor. This particular construction exhibits a significant amount of frequency dependent group delay variation. A comparison of simulations based on theoretical models, numerical simulations and S{sub 21} network analyzer measurements up to 2.5 GHz is presented. It is shown how the non-linear phase response and varying group delay leads to ringing in the pulse response and subsequent distortion of signal s transmitted through such coaxial transmission lines.

  20. Barrier transmission map of one-dimensional nonlinear split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials: Bright, dark, and gray soliton resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGurn, Arthur R.

    2013-10-01

    The barrier transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional chain of optically linear split-ring resonators (SRRs) containing a barrier composed of optically nonlinear split-ring resonators are studied. (This is an analogy to the quantum mechanical problem of the resonant transmission of a particle through a finite barrier potential.) The SRRs are idealized as inductor-resistor-capacitor-equivalent resonator circuits where the capacitance is either from a linear dielectric medium (optically linear SRRs) or from a Kerr-type nonlinear dielectric medium (optically nonlinear SRRs). The SRRs are arrayed in a one-dimensional chain and interact with one another through weak nearest-neighbor mutually inductive couplings. The transmission maxima of the SRR barrier problem are studied as they are located in a two-dimensional parameter space characterizing the linear mutually inductive coupling and the nonlinear Kerr dielectric of the SRRs of the barrier. The result is a two-dimensional map giving the conditions for the existence of the resonant-barrier modes that are excited in the transmission process. The various lines of transmission maxima in the two-dimensional plot are associated with different types of resonant excitations in the barrier. The map is similar to one recently made in McGurn [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.77.115105 77, 115105 (2008)] for the resonant-transmission modes of a nonlinear barrier in a photonic crystal waveguide. The SRR problem, however, is quite different from the photonic crystal problem as the nonlinear difference equations of the two systems are different in the nature of their nonlinear interactions. Consequently, the results for the two systems are briefly compared. The transmission maxima of the SRR system occur along lines in the two-dimensional plot, which are associated with modes resonantly excited in the barrier. These lines of resonant modes either originate as a simple evolution from the resonant modes of the

  1. NONLINEAR SIMULATION OF TURBULENT FIELD LINES: DISPERSAL STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Ragot, B. R.

    2010-11-10

    A new method for the full nonlinear computation of sets of turbulent field lines is introduced that extends the sums of random numbers distribution method previously applied to the computation of individual field lines. With a multiscale variation of the phases consistent with in situ observations of intermittent solar wind (SW) turbulence, the new method allows inclusion of the equivalent of more than four decades of turbulent scales with a fully three-dimensional distribution of wavevectors. As a first application, pairs of magnetic field lines are computed in independent realizations of the turbulence, for spectra typical of the quiet slow SW near 1 AU. The statistics of field-line dispersal are then studied from the simulated pairs of magnetic field lines and compared to earlier theoretical predictions. It appears that while the earlier theoretical picture remains relatively accurate as long as the mean variation of separation logarithm {Lambda} is less than one, the qualitative picture is quickly altered as {Lambda} grows past one.

  2. Mitigation of bird collisions with transmission lines: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulaurier, D.L.

    1981-09-11

    In this study removal of overhead groundwires was evaluated as a technique for mitigating bird collisions with transmission lines. Groundwires were removed by BPA from a 500 kV double circuit line at Bybee Lake in Portland, Oregon. Earlier studies at these sites had documented small but measurable collision rates (i.e., No. collisions/No. flights) attributed primarily to collisions with groundwires. Observations of bird flights and searches for dead birds in the vicinity of the lines constituted the primary methods of data collection during pre- and post-removal studies. Field work was conducted from October 1980 through March 1981. A total of seven dead birds and eight feather spots were found after groundwire removal. Species found were green-winged teal, pintail, greater scaup, American wigeon, glaucous-winged gull, starling, red-winged blackbird and song sparrow. No collisions with transmission lines were observed. During pre-removal studies at these two sites, a total of 53 dead birds and 22 feather spots were found over two years of study. It was necessary to document flight intensity (No. flights/day) during pre- and post-removal studies, in order to determine if the number of dead birds found changed because of groundwire removal or simply because of changes in flight intensity. 41 refs., 18 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Dynamic modeling of magnetically insulated transmission line systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Rosenthal, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    Negative conductors in vacuum transmission lines used in multiterrawatt applications emit electrons freely. These lines are efficient only because the self-magnetic field of the power flow forces the electrons to flow parallel to the electrodes. Excepting numerical simulations, dynamic modeling of systems of these transmission lines has generally either ignored electron flow, or has included only those electrons that cross immediately to the anode at the front of the forward wave. In this paper we describe an analytic model that includes flowing electrons and the effects of these flows on line voltage and on the reduction of magnetic flux. Axial electron currents are modeled using simple, measurable, and calculable parameters. Transverse electron currents are modeled using general patterns found empirically from simulation data. These currents are in turn related by an expanded set of Telegrapher equations. An example of the use of the model is compared to two-dimensional, time-dependent particle-in-cell simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  5. Modeling field emitter arrays using nonlinear line charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Debabrata; Singh, Gaurav; Kumar, Raghwendra

    2016-09-01

    Modeling high aspect ratio field emitter arrays is a computational challenge due to the enormity of the resources involved. The line charge model (LCM) provides an alternate semi-analytical tool that has been used to model both infinite as well as finite sized arrays. It is shown that the linearly varying charge density used in the LCM generically mimics ellipsoidal emitters rather than a Cylindrical-Post-with-an-Ellipsoidal-Tip (CPET) that is typical of nanowires. Furthermore, generalizing the charge density beyond the linear regime allows for modeling shapes that are closer to a CPET. Emitters with a fixed base radius and a fixed apex radius are studied with a view to understanding the effect of nonlinearity on the tip enhancement factor and the emitter current in each case. Furthermore, an infinite square array of the CPET emitters is studied using the nonlinear line charge model, each having a height h =1500 μm and a base radius b =1.5 μm . It is found that for moderate external field strengths ( 0.3 -0.4 V /μm ), the array current density falls sharply for lattice spacings smaller than 4/3 h . Beyond this value, the maximal array current density can be observed over a range of lattice spacings and falls gradually thereafter.

  6. Radiofrequency transmission line for bioluminescent Vibrio sp. irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassisi, V.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Velardi, L.

    2012-07-01

    We present the study and the analyses of a transmission line for radiofrequency (RF) irradiation of bacteria belonging to Vibrio harveyi-related strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with many marine organisms. The bioluminescence represents a new biologic indicator which is useful for studying the behaviour of living samples in the presence of RF waves due to the modern communication systems. A suitable transmission line, used as an irradiating cell and tested up to the maximum frequency used by the global system for mobile communications and universal mobile telecommunications system transmissions, was characterized. In this experiment, the RF voltage applied to the transmission line was 1 V. Due to short dimensions of the line and the applied high frequencies, standing waves were produced in addition to progressing waves and the electric field strength varies particularly along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic field map was not strongly linked to the electric one due to the presence of standing waves and of the outgoing irradiation. RF fields were measured by two homemade suitable probes able to diagnostic fields of high frequency. The field measurements were performed without any specimens inside the line. Being our sample made of living matter, the real field was modified and its value was estimated by a simulation code. The bioluminescence experiments were performed only at 900 MHz for two different measured electric fields, 53 and 140 V/m. The light emission was measured right from the beginning and after 7 and 25 h. Under RF irradiation, we found that the bioluminescence activity decreased. Compared with the control sample, the diminution was 6.8% and 44% after 7 and 25 h of irradiation, respectively, both with the low or high field. No changes of the survival factor for all the samples were observed. Besides, to understand the emission processes, we operated the deconvolution of the spectra by two Gaussian curves. The Gaussian

  7. Potential of viscous dampers for vibration mitigation of transmission overhead lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassam, A.; Soltani, Amir

    2015-04-01

    One of the important parameters in the design of transmission lines is the evaluation of the susceptibility of these cables to vibrations and if necessary, providing proper means to mitigate these vibrations. Transmission lines are especially susceptible to vibrations as a result of their light weight. Viscous dampers are one of the tools that can be applied to mitigate cable vibrations. However, the damping ratio obtained by these dampers is very limited. The present study provides a finite element formulation for an isoparametric cable element. A comparison is made between the results of presented approach with finite series method to validate the model. Additionally, a comparison is made between linear and non-linear behavior of a cable under sweep sinusoidal excitations with different amplitudes. Finally, a case study is conducted to investigate the potential of additional damping provided by a third viscous damper for the case in which two rubber bushings are already attached to the cable near the anchorages. Based on this case study, the dependency between the third damper location and optimum viscosity for maximum vibration mitigation that can be given to a cable with rubber bushings is investigated. The results of the present study show that although rubber bushings may help mitigating vibrations, they reduce the effect of additional damping devices. Additionally, for non-sagged cables, the nonlinearity is negligible in moderate vibrations. Lastly, if the third damper viscosity is selected properly, it can be very effective in further mitigating the vibrations amplitudes.

  8. Large predispersion for reduction of intrachannel nonlinear impairments in strongly dispersion-managed transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhua

    2016-05-01

    Predispersion for reduction of intrachannel nonlinear impairments in quasi-linear strongly dispersion-managed transmission system is analyzed in detail by numerical simulations. We show that for moderate amount of predispersion there is an optimal value at which reduction of the nonlinear impairments can be obtained, which is consistent with previous well-known predictions. However, we found that much better transmission performance than that of the previous predictions can be obtained if predispersion is increased to some extent. For large predispersion, the nonlinear impairments reduce monotonically with increasing predispersion and then they tend to be stabilized when predispersion is further increased. Thus, transmission performance can be efficiently improved by inserting a high-dispersive element, such as a chirped fiber bragg grating (CFBG), at the input end of the transmission link to broaden the signal pulses while, at the output end, using another CFBG with the opposite dispersion to recompress the signal.

  9. View facing north (30°) of Transmission Line entering Teton River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing north (30°) of Transmission Line entering Teton River Valley, near Structure 40-7 - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  10. View facing south (210°) of Transmission Line going over hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing south (210°) of Transmission Line going over hill, Structure 46-12 in foreground, near Collins School - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. View facing northeast (60°) of Structure 259, other transmission lines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing northeast (60°) of Structure 25-9, other transmission lines and small farmstead visible in background - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. HendersonMead Transmission Line 2 southwest of Boulder City Substation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henderson-Mead Transmission Line 2 southwest of Boulder City Substation, view southwest - Hoover Dam, Henderson-Mead Transmission Line 2, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  13. Field quality measurements of a 2-Tesla transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Foster, W.; Kashikhin, V.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Wake, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    A prototype 2-Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet for future hadron colliders was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, combined-function gradient-dipole magnet has a vertical pole aperture of 20 mm. To measure the magnetic field quality in such a small magnet aperture, a specialized rotating coil of 15.2 mm diameter, 0.69 m long was fabricated. Using this probe, a program of magnetic field quality measurements was successfully performed. Results of the measurements are presented and discussed.

  14. A novel exact solution to transmission problem of electron wave in a nonlinear Kronig-Penney superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Chao; Hai, Kuo; Tan, Jintao; Chen, Hao; Hai, Wenhua

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear Kronig-Penney model has been frequently employed to study transmission problem of electron wave in a doped semiconductor superlattice or in a nonlinear electrified chain. Here from an integral equation we derive a novel exact solution of the problem, which contains a simple nonlinear map connecting transmission coefficient with system parameters. Consequently, we propose a scheme to manipulate electronic distribution and transmission by adjusting the system parameters. A new quantum coherence effect is evidenced by the strict expression of transmission coefficient, which results in the aperiodic electronic distributions and different transmission coefficients including the approximate zero transmission and total transmission, and the multiple transmissions. The method based on the concise exact solution can be applied directly to some nonlinear cold atomic systems and a lot of linear Kronig-Penney systems, and also can be extended to investigate electronic transport in different discrete nonlinear systems.

  15. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  16. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  17. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  18. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  19. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  20. 49 CFR 192.713 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance § 192.713 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of pipe in a steel transmission line operating at or... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair...

  1. Estimating Magnetic Fields of Homes Near Transmission Lines in the California Power Line Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Ximena P.; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M.; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J. Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-01-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk. PMID:26005950

  2. Q-factor analysis of nonlinear impairments in ultrahigh-speed Nyquist pulse transmission.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2015-12-28

    We present detailed analytical and numerical results of the dispersion and nonlinear tolerances of RZ and Nyquist optical pulses in ultrahigh-speed TDM transmissions. From a Q-map analysis, i.e. by numerically calculating the Q-factor distribution as a function of transmission power and fiber dispersion, we found that Nyquist TDM transmission has a substantially larger Q margin as regards both dispersion and optical power thanks to ISI-free overlapped TDM. We also show that the optimum transmission power for Nyquist pulses is 2 dB lower than for RZ pulses. An analytical model is provided to explain the overlap-induced nonlinear impairments in Nyquist TDM transmission in a high power regime, which agrees well with numerical results.

  3. Single-wire radio frequency transmission lines in biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnoff, Jordan S.; Reynolds, Matthew S.

    2015-05-01

    We present an approach for implanting radio frequency transmission lines in biological tissue, using a single insulated wire surrounded by tissue as a variant of the Goubau single-wire transmission line (SWTL) in air. We extend the Goubau SWTL model to include SWTLs surrounded by lossy dielectrics such as tissue by assuming a propagating mode component in the tissue. We show that a thin wire of radius 63.5 μ m , coated with biocompatible fluorinated ethylene propylene dielectric, exhibits a measured loss of only 1 dB/cm at a frequency of 915 MHz. The model fit to the measured insertion loss is within ±0.3 dB/cm across the 100 MHz to 3 GHz band. This SWTL presents excellent impedance matching to 50 Ω as evidenced by a measured median return loss better than 10 dB across the 100 MHz to 3 GHz range. This approach represents an alternative to near-field magnetic coupling for implanted systems where tissue displacement by a single, thin wire can be tolerated.

  4. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  5. Free spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keyed demodulation in 40 Gbit/s nonlinear transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Dechao; Chen, Zhangyuan; Xu, Anshi

    2008-02-01

    For differential decoding, direct detection of DPSK signal needs a delay line interferometer with a free spectral range normally equal to the transmitted bit-rate. We numerically demonstrate that free spectral range optimization can increase tolerance to fiber Kerr nonlinearities for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK transmission, especially for multi-format (RZ-DPSK and RZ-OOK) systems, in which Kerr nonlinearities is quite serious mainly due to cross-phase modulation. The optimal delay time of the delay line interferometer in DPSK signal demodulation is shorter than one bit-period. Joint optimization of free spectral range and optical filter bandwidth will further enhance system tolerance to nonlinear transmission.

  6. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems. PMID:26983911

  7. Full frequency-dependent phase-domain modelling of transmission lines and corona phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Fernando

    This thesis presents two main developments in the modelling of power transmission lines for the simulation of electric networks. The first one is wide bandwidth circuit corona model and the second a phase-domain multiphase full frequency-dependent line model. The latter can be easily used in connection with the former. Both models have been developed for implementation in time domain simulation computer programs, such as the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). Corona in overhead transmission lines is a highly nonlinear and non deterministic phenomenon. Circuit models have been developed in the past to represent its behaviour, but the response of these models is usually limited to a narrow band of frequencies. The corona model presented in this thesis overcomes this problem by: (1) matching closely the topology of the circuit to the topology of the physical system, and (2) duplicating the high-order dynamic response of the phenomenon with a high-order transient circuit response. The resulting model is valid for a wide range of frequencies and is able to represent waveshapes from switching to lightning surges. A unique set of model parameters can be obtained directly from test-cage measurements, and the same set can be used directly for an arbitrary overhead line configuration. The model uses only standard EMTP circuit elements and requires no iterations. Simulations of corona charge-voltage (q-v) curves and of travelling surges were performed and compared to existing field test measurements. The proposed new transmission line model (z-line) can be used for the representation of multicircuit transmission lines in time-domain transient solutions. The model includes a full representation of the frequency-dependent line parameters and is formulated directly in phase coordinates. The solution in phase coordinates, as opposed to modal coordinates, avoids the problems associated with the representation of the frequency-dependent transformation matrices that relate

  8. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline`s pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE`s review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest.

  9. A User''s Guide to the Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line Code (ZKTL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. J.; Abu-Khajeel, H.

    1997-01-01

    This user's guide documents updates to the Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line Code (ZKTL). This code was developed for analyzing new liner concepts developed to provide increased sound absorption. Contiguous arrays of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) liner elements serve as the model for these liner configurations, and Zwikker and Kosten's theory of sound propagation in channels is used to predict the surface impedance. Transmission matrices for the various liner elements incorporate both analytical and semi-empirical methods. This allows standard matrix techniques to be employed in the code to systematically calculate the composite impedance due to the individual liner elements. The ZKTL code consists of four independent subroutines: 1. Single channel impedance calculation - linear version (SCIC) 2. Single channel impedance calculation - nonlinear version (SCICNL) 3. Multi-channel, multi-segment, multi-layer impedance calculation - linear version (MCMSML) 4. Multi-channel, multi-segment, multi-layer impedance calculation - nonlinear version (MCMSMLNL) Detailed examples, comments, and explanations for each liner impedance computation module are included. Also contained in the guide are depictions of the interactive execution, input files and output files.

  10. Fuzzy logic based on-line fault detection and classification in transmission line.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Shuma; Sinha, Nidul; Dorendrajit, Thingam

    2016-01-01

    This study presents fuzzy logic based online fault detection and classification of transmission line using Programmable Automation and Control technology based National Instrument Compact Reconfigurable i/o (CRIO) devices. The LabVIEW software combined with CRIO can perform real time data acquisition of transmission line. When fault occurs in the system current waveforms are distorted due to transients and their pattern changes according to the type of fault in the system. The three phase alternating current, zero sequence and positive sequence current data generated by LabVIEW through CRIO-9067 are processed directly for relaying. The result shows that proposed technique is capable of right tripping action and classification of type of fault at high speed therefore can be employed in practical application. PMID:27398278

  11. Fuzzy logic based on-line fault detection and classification in transmission line.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Shuma; Sinha, Nidul; Dorendrajit, Thingam

    2016-01-01

    This study presents fuzzy logic based online fault detection and classification of transmission line using Programmable Automation and Control technology based National Instrument Compact Reconfigurable i/o (CRIO) devices. The LabVIEW software combined with CRIO can perform real time data acquisition of transmission line. When fault occurs in the system current waveforms are distorted due to transients and their pattern changes according to the type of fault in the system. The three phase alternating current, zero sequence and positive sequence current data generated by LabVIEW through CRIO-9067 are processed directly for relaying. The result shows that proposed technique is capable of right tripping action and classification of type of fault at high speed therefore can be employed in practical application.

  12. A computer code to calculate line by line atmospheric transmission spectra on a microcomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safren, H. G.

    1987-07-01

    A computer program is described which calculates line by line atmospheric transmission spectra on a microcomputer. Radiance calculations are not included. The program is written in FORTRAN and could be modified to run on a microcomputer other than the one on which it was implemented, except that the plotting routine would have to be replaced. The program is based on the 1978 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory LASER routine, and uses absorption line data from the 1982 update of the AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation; segments of needed line data are taken from the tape, preprocessed into the form used by the program and stored on floppy disks. The program calculates transmission spectra over a variety of paths and spanning an arbitrarily chosen wavelength or frequency range; the path may be chosen to be horizontal, vertical or slanted at any zenith angle, and may extend between any two altitudes between 0 and 15 km. Aerosol effects are included, presently based on the 1976 Shettle and Fenn models, plus some molecular continuum effects and Rayleigh scattering.

  13. Gas insulated transmission line having low inductance intercalated sheath

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1978-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line including an outer sheath, an inner conductor disposed within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. The outer sheath comprises an insulating tube having first and second ends, and having interior and exterior surfaces. A first electrically conducting foil is secured to the interior surface of the insulating tube, is spirally wound from one tube end to the second tube end, and has a plurality of overlapping turns. A second electrically conducting foil is secured to the exterior surface of the insulating tube, and is spirally wound in the opposite direction from the first electrically conducting foil. By winding the foils in opposite directions, the inductances within the intercalated sheath will cancel each other out.

  14. Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallaee, Amir Ali

    Terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) lasers operating at 0.6 - 5 THz (λ ˜ 60 - 500 µm) are poised to become the dominant solid-state sources of continuous-wave (cw) far-infrared radiation enabling applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and sensing. QC-lasers are the longest wavelength semiconductor laser sources in which terahertz gain is obtained from electronic intersubband radiative transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure quantum wells. Since their invention in 2001, rapid development has enabled demonstration of cw powers greater than 100 mW. However, challenges still remain in the areas of operating temperature, laser efficiency and power, and beam quality to name a few. The highest-temperature operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (200 K pulsed, 117 K cw) depends on the use of a low-loss "metal-metal" waveguide where the active gain material is sandwiched between two metal cladding layers; a technique similar, in concept, to microstrip transmission line technology at microwave frequencies. Due to the subwavelength transverse dimensions of the metal-metal waveguide, however, obtaining a directive beam pattern and efficient out-coupling of THz power is non-trivial. This thesis reports the demonstration of a one-dimensional waveguide for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers that acts as a leaky-wave antenna and tailors laser radiation in one dimension to a directional beam. This scheme adapts microwave transmission-line metamaterial concepts to a planar structure realized in terahertz metal-metal waveguide technology and is fundamentally different from distributed feedback/photonic crystal structures that work based on Bragg scattering of propagating modes. The leaky-wave metamaterial antenna operates based on a propagating mode with an effective phase index smaller than unity such that it radiates in the surface direction via a leaky-wave mechanism. Surface emission (˜ 40° from broadside) with a single directive beam (FWHM ˜ 15°) at 2.74 THz

  15. Microwave transmission line dielectric probe to detect biomolecular surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; McMurdie, Joey; Roitman, Daniel; Knoesen, Andre

    2004-01-01

    A probe was developed to detect biomolecular binding events at a liquid-solid interface in the microwave regime in real time and without using fluorescence labels. The probe consists of a coplanar transmission line (CTL) fabricated on a glass slide that can detect dielectric changes in close proximity of the interface. The CTL geometry concentrates the electric flux density in the gap region between the signal and ground electrodes and makes it very sensitive to permittivity changes at the liquid-solid interface. The probe operation was demonstrated by immobilizing protein A on the glass surface and detecting rabbit IgG molecules in a flow channel. The sensitivity was conservatively estimated to be 100 pg/mm(2).

  16. Transmission line corona losses under hoar frost conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lahti, K.; Nousiainen, K.; Lahtinen, M.

    1997-04-01

    Transmission line corona losses under hoar frost conditions were studied in the climate room of the high voltage laboratory of Tampere University of Technology. The measurements were performed using a coaxial measurement arrangement with different bundle and conductor types. The effects of conductor and bundle type, temperature, applied voltage and hoar frost thickness on corona losses were investigated. A two-conductor bundle had corona losses about 2.5--5 times higher than a three-conductor bundle. Relatively thin hoar frosts were used in the tests. Even the thinnest hoar frost resulted in remarkable corona losses and the losses were very sensitive to changes in the hoar frost thickness. The ambient temperature had a strong influence on the measured losses.

  17. Tailoring of electron flow current in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. P.; Savage, M. E.; Pointon, T. D.; Gilmore, M. A.

    2009-03-01

    It is desirable to optimize (minimizing both the inductance and electron flow) the magnetically insulated vacuum sections of low impedance pulsed-power drivers. The goal of low inductance is understandable from basic efficiency arguments. The goal of low electron flow results from two observations: (1) flowing electrons generally do not deliver energy to (or even reach) most loads, and thus constitute a loss mechanism; (2) energetic electrons deposited in a small area can cause anode damage and anode plasma formation. Low inductance and low electron flow are competing goals; an optimized system requires a balance of the two. While magnetically insulated systems are generally forgiving, there are times when optimization is crucial. For example, in large pulsed-power drivers used to energize high energy density physics loads, the electron flow as a fraction of total current is small, but that flow often reaches the anode in relatively small regions. If the anode temperature becomes high enough to desorb gas, the resulting plasma initiates a gap closure process that can impact system performance. Magnetic-pressure driven (z pinches and material equation of state) loads behave like a fixed inductor for much of the drive pulse. It is clear that neither fixed gap nor constant-impedance transmission lines are optimal for driving inductive loads. This work shows a technique for developing the optimal impedance profile for the magnetically insulated section of a high-current driver. Particle-in-cell calculations are used to validate the impedance profiles developed in a radial disk magnetically insulated transmission line geometry. The input parameters are the spacing and location of the minimum gap, the effective load inductance, and the desired electron flow profile. The radial electron flow profiles from these simulations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions when driven at relatively high voltage (i.e., V≥2MV).

  18. Modeling graphite anodes with serial and transmission line models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, J.; Ender, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2015-05-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an indispensable technique for the investigation of polarization processes in Lithium-ion Batteries. These cause performance limitation or degradation. A physically meaningful impedance model is key when drawing conclusions on further cell improvement. This study introduces an in-depth impedance analysis of a commercial high-power graphite anode. The impedance spectra measured between 0 °C and 30 °C and 0%-100% SOC were analyzed by the distribution of relaxation times (DRT-method), enabling a separation of loss processes by their individual time constants. Using this method, we separated charge transfer resistance and solid electrolyte interface resistance at medium frequencies (10 Hz-200 Hz) and the contact resistance anode/current collector in the at high frequency range (5 kHz-100 kHz). Two fundamentally different model structures were set up, either (i) two modifications of a serial model connecting RQ-elements and a Warburg element for solid state diffusion, or (ii) three modifications of a transmission line model with one-path or two-path design. The suitability of all serial and TLM model structures was tested, and the fitting procedure was supported using microstructure parameters gained from x-ray tomography. The favored one-path transmission line model reveals that the lithium-ion transport in the electrolyte contributes more to polarization than expected. Impediment of lithium-ion transport is caused by the pore structure and the tortuosity of the high-power graphite anode, and has to be considered for meaningful interpretation of impedance spectra.

  19. All-optical diode action in asymmetric nonlinear photonic multilayers with perfect transmission resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Smirnov, Andrey G.

    2011-02-15

    Light propagation in asymmetric Kerr-nonlinear multilayers with perfect transmission resonances is theoretically investigated. It is found that hybrid Fabry-Perot-resonator-photonic-crystal structures of the type (BA){sup k}(AB){sup k}(AABB){sup m} exhibit both pronounced unidirectionality (due to strong spatial asymmetry of the resonant mode) and high transmission (due to the existence of a perfect transmission resonance). This results in nonlinear optical diode action with low reflection losses without need for a pumping beam or input pulse modulation. By slightly perturbing the perfect transmission resonance condition, the operating regime of the optical diode can be tuned, with a tradeoff between minimizing the reflection losses and maximizing the frequency bandwidth where unidirectional transmission exists. Optical diode action is demonstrated in direct numerical simulation, showing >92% transmittance in one direction and about 22% in the other. The effect of perfect transmission resonance restoration induced by nonlinearity was observed analytically and numerically. The proposed geometry is shown to have advantages over previously reported designs based on photonic quasicrystals.

  20. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable under § 192.241(c) must be repaired as follows: (a) If it is feasible to take the segment of transmission...

  1. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance § 192.711 Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. (a) Temporary repairs... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: General requirements for..., imperfection, or damage that impairs its serviceability is found in a segment of steel transmission...

  2. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: General requirements for... Maintenance § 192.711 Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. (a) Temporary repairs..., imperfection, or damage that impairs its serviceability is found in a segment of steel transmission...

  3. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable under § 192.241(c) must be repaired as follows: (a) If it is feasible to take the segment of transmission...

  4. A compact very wideband amplifying filter based on RTD loaded composite right/left-handed transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Abu-Marasa, Mahmoud O Mahmoud; El-Khozondar, Hala Jarallah

    2015-01-01

    The composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) is presented as a general TL possessing both left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) natures. RH materials have both positive permittivity and positive permeability, and LH materials have both negative permittivity and negative permeability. This paper aims to design and analyze nonlinear CRLH-TL transmission line loaded with resonant tunneling diode (RTD). The main application of this design is a very wideband and compact filter that amplifies the travelling signal. We used OrCAD and ADS software to analyze the proposed circuit. CRLH-TL consists of a microstrip line which is loaded with complementary split-rings resonators (CSRRs), series gaps, and shunt inductor connected parallel to the RTD. The designed structure possess a wide band that ranges from 5 to 10.5 GHz and amplifies signal up to 50 %. The proposed design is of interest to microwave compact component designers. PMID:26636021

  5. A compact very wideband amplifying filter based on RTD loaded composite right/left-handed transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Abu-Marasa, Mahmoud O Mahmoud; El-Khozondar, Hala Jarallah

    2015-01-01

    The composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) is presented as a general TL possessing both left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) natures. RH materials have both positive permittivity and positive permeability, and LH materials have both negative permittivity and negative permeability. This paper aims to design and analyze nonlinear CRLH-TL transmission line loaded with resonant tunneling diode (RTD). The main application of this design is a very wideband and compact filter that amplifies the travelling signal. We used OrCAD and ADS software to analyze the proposed circuit. CRLH-TL consists of a microstrip line which is loaded with complementary split-rings resonators (CSRRs), series gaps, and shunt inductor connected parallel to the RTD. The designed structure possess a wide band that ranges from 5 to 10.5 GHz and amplifies signal up to 50 %. The proposed design is of interest to microwave compact component designers.

  6. Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay and Transmission System (POLARATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.

    2004-07-15

    POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.

  7. Nonlinear optical transmission of cyanobacteria-derived optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Edward H.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Zhao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Cyanobacteria-derived optical materials for optical limiting applications have been studied in this work. Six samples have been prepared from cyanobacteria including cyanobacteria suspension in water, extracts in water, methanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and pyrolyzed cyanobacteria (PCYB) dispersed in dsDNA (sodium salt from salmon testes) solution and sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, respectively. The extracts contain phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carotenoids as measured by optical absorption spectroscopy, while the PCYB is a nanostructural composite composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoringes, and multilayer graphenes, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The optical limiting responses of the samples have been measured at 532 and 756 nm. The PCYB in dsDNA solution has the best limiting performance out of all the cyanobacteria-derived samples. It outperforms carbon black suspension standard at 532 nm and is a broadband limiter, which makes it attractive for optical limiting applications.

  8. Channel Capacity of Non-Linear Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Andrew D.; Zhao, Jian

    Since their introduction in the late 1970s, the capacity of optical communication links has grown exponentially, fuelled by a series of key innovations including movement between the three telecommunication windows of 850 nm, 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm, distributed feedback laser, erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs), dispersion-shifted and dispersion-managed fibre links, external modulation, wavelength division multiplexing, optical switching, forward error correction (FEC), Raman amplification, and most recently, coherent detection, electronic signal processing and optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Throughout this evolution, one constant factor has been the use of single-mode optical fibre, whose fundamental principles dated back to the 1800s, when Irish scientist, John Tyndall demonstrated in a lecture to the Royal Society in London that light could be guided through a curved stream of water [1]. Following many developments, including the proposal for waveguides by J.J. Thompson [2], the presentation of detailed calculations for dielectric waveguides by Snitzer [3], the proposal [4] and fabrication [5] of ultra low loss fibres, single-mode fibres were first adopted for non-experimental use in Dorset, UK in 1975, and are still in use today, despite the evolving designs to control chromatic dispersion and non-linearity.

  9. Comparing Longitudinal Coupling and Temporal Delay in a Transmission-Line Model of the Cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, Martin; Szalai, Robert; Champneys, Alan; Epp, Bastian

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we compare and contrast the effects of longitudinal coupling and temporal delay on a fluid-structure transmission-line model of the mammalian cochlea. This work is based on recent reports that, in order to qualitatively explain experimental data, models of the basilar membrane impedance must include an exponential term that represents a time-delayed feedback. There are also models that include, e.g., a spatial feed-forward mechanism, whose solution is often approximated by replacing the feed-forward coupling by an exponential term. We show that there is no direct equivalence between the time-delay and the longitudinal coupling mechanisms, although qualitatively similar results can be achieved, albeit in very different regions of parameter space. An investigation of the steady-state outputs shows that both models can display sharp tuning, but that the time-delay model requires negative damping for such an effect to occur. Conversely, the longitudinal coupling model provides the most promising results with small positive damping. These results are extended by a careful stability analysis. We find that, whereas a small time delay can stabilize an unstable transmission-line model (with negative damping), that the longitudinal coupling model is stable when the damping is positive. The techniques developed in the paper are directed towards a more comprehensive analysis of nonlinear models.

  10. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other... line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or... THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS,...

  11. Capacity estimates for optical transmission based on the nonlinear Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevyanko, Stanislav A.; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-09-01

    What is the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted error-free in fibre-optic communication systems? For linear channels, this was established in classic works of Nyquist and Shannon. However, despite the immense practical importance of fibre-optic communications providing for >99% of global data traffic, the channel capacity of optical links remains unknown due to the complexity introduced by fibre nonlinearity. Recently, there has been a flurry of studies examining an expected cap that nonlinearity puts on the information-carrying capacity of fibre-optic systems. Mastering the nonlinear channels requires paradigm shift from current modulation, coding and transmission techniques originally developed for linear communication systems. Here we demonstrate that using the integrability of the master model and the nonlinear Fourier transform, the lower bound on the capacity per symbol can be estimated as 10.7 bits per symbol with 500 GHz bandwidth over 2,000 km.

  12. Nonlinearly PT-symmetric systems: Spontaneous symmetry breaking and transmission resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-07-15

    We consider a class of PT-symmetric systems which include mutually matched nonlinear loss and gain (in other words, a class of PT-invariant Hamiltonians in which both the harmonic and anharmonic parts are non-Hermitian). For a basic system in the form of a dimer, symmetric and asymmetric eigenstates, including multistable ones, are found analytically. We demonstrate that, if coupled to a linear chain, such a nonlinear PT-symmetric dimer generates previously unexplored types of nonlinear Fano resonances, with completely suppressed or greatly amplified transmission, as well as a regime similar to the electromagnetically induced transparency. The implementation of the systems is possible in various media admitting controllable linear and nonlinear amplification of waves.

  13. Effect of second order signal-noise interactions in nonlinearity compensated optical transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Mohammad A Z; McCarthy, Mary; Sánchez, Christian; Ellis, Andrew

    2016-04-15

    In this Letter, we theoretically and numerically analyze the performance of coherent optical transmission systems that deploy inline or transceiver based nonlinearity compensation techniques. For systems where signal-signal nonlinear interactions are fully compensated, we find that beyond the performance peak the signal-to-noise ratio degradation has a slope of 3 dBSNR/dBPower suggesting a quartic rather than quadratic dependence on signal power. This is directly related to the fact that signals in a given span will interact not only with linear amplified spontaneous emission noise, but also with the nonlinear four-wave mixing products generated from signal-noise interaction in previous (hitherto) uncompensated spans. The performance of optical systems employing different nonlinearity compensation schemes were numerically simulated and compared against analytical predictions, showing a good agreement within a 0.4 dB margin of error. PMID:27082361

  14. Effects of high-voltage transmission lines on honeybees

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.; Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    When shielded and exposed colonies were placed at incremental distances at a right angle from a 760-kV transmission line different thresholds for biologic effects were obtained. Hive exposures were controlled (E-field: 7, 5.5, 4.1, 1.8, and 0.65 to 0.85 kV/m) by variable height current collectors; shielded hives under the line behave normally. Exposure to 7 kV/m can produce the following sequence of events: (1) increased motor activity and transient hive temperature increase; (2) abnormal propolization; (3) retarded hive weight gain; (4) excess queen cell production with queen loss; (5) reduction of sealed brood area; and (6) poor winter survival. No biological effects were detected below 4.1 kV/m, thus the ''biological effects corridor'' is limited to approximately 23 m beyond a ground projection of each outer phase wire. Hive architecture enhances E-fields and creates shock hazards for bees. Intra-hive E-fields (15 to 100+ kV/m) were measured with a displacement current sensor and fiber optic telemetry link. Step-potential-induced currents up to 0.5 uA were measured with a bee model in hives at 7 kV/m. To investigate further the role of shock versus electric field exposure the study was continued to develop hive entrance extensions (porches), which produce controlled bee exposure to E-field or shock, and to test the feasibility of using these porches in such a study. Biological effects (e.g., abnormal propolization, retarded hive weight, queen loss) found in colonies with total-hive exposure were produced by entrance-only exposure of adult bees. We now have an exposure system in which E-field and shock can be separately controlled to reproduce the biological effects. 10 refs.

  15. Finite time-Lyapunov based approach for robust adaptive control of wind-induced oscillations in power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Large amplitude oscillation of the power transmission lines, which is also known as galloping phenomenon, has hazardous consequences such as short circuiting and failure of transmission line. In this article, to suppress the undesirable vibrations of the transmission lines, first the governing equations of transmission line are derived via mode summation technique. Then, due to the occurrence of large amplitude vibrations, nonlinear quadratic and cubic terms are included in the derived linear equations. To suppress the vibrations, arbitrary number of the piezoelectric actuators is assumed to exert the actuation forces. Afterwards, a Lyapunov based approach is proposed for the robust adaptive suppression of the undesirable vibrations in the finite time. To compensate the supposed parametric uncertainties with unknown bands, proper adaption laws are introduced. To avoid the vibration devastating consequences as quickly as possible, appropriate control laws are designed. The vibration suppression in the finite time with supposed adaption and control laws is mathematically proved via Lyapunov finite time stability theory. Finally, to illustrate and validate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed finite time control scheme, a parametric case study with three piezoelectric actuators is performed. It is observed that the proposed active control strategy is more efficient and robust than the passive control methods.

  16. An increase in the transmission efficiency of an RF fiber-optic line using the working point of an external modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. N.; Tronev, A. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Il'ichev, I. V.; Velichko, E. N.; Shamrai, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    A method to increase the transmission efficiency of an analog fiber-optic line using a shift of the working point of an external modulator toward minimum transmission is proposed. The method is based on an increase in the signal contrast owing to the suppression of the constant component and the application of an erbium-fiber amplifier in the near-saturation mode. An increase in the transmission (up to 5 dB) in comparison with the transmission corresponding to the quadrature working point is demonstrated. An increase in the nonlinear distortion factor due to the shift of the modulator from the quadrature working point is analyzed. An increase in the nonlinear distortions under the conditions for the maximum transmission is no greater than 0.5%. A theoretical model is developed to describe the experimental effects. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... encirclement welded split sleeve of appropriate design, unless the transmission line is joined by mechanical... method that reliable engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability...

  18. Requirements for self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    VanDevender, J. Pace; Pointon, Timothy D.; Seidel, David B.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Jennings, Christopher; Oliver, Bryan V.; Schneider, Larry X.

    2015-03-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) connect pulsed-power drivers with a load. Although the technology was originally developed in the 1970s and is widely used today in super power generators, failure of the technology is the principal limitation on the power that can be delivered to an experiment. We address issues that are often overlooked, rejected after inadequate simulations, or covered by overly conservative assumptions: (i) electron retrapping in coupling MITLs to loads, (ii) the applicability of collisionless versus collisional electron flow, (iii) power transport efficiency as a function of the geometry at the beginning of the MITL, (iv) gap closure and when gap closure can be neglected, and (v) the role of negative ions in causing anode plasmas and enhancing current losses. We suggest a practical set of conservative design requirements for self-magnetically insulated electron flow based on the results discussed in this paper and on previously published results. The requirements are not necessarily severe constraints in all MITL applications; however, each of the 18 suggested requirements should be examined in the design of a MITL and in the investigation of excessive losses.

  19. Precision electron flow measurements in a disk transmission line.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Waylon T.; Pelock, Michael D.; Martin, Jeremy Paul; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David

    2008-01-01

    An analytic model for electron flow in a system driving a fixed inductive load is described and evaluated with particle in cell simulations. The simple model allows determining the impedance profile for a magnetically insulated transmission line given the minimum gap desired, and the lumped inductance inside the transition to the minimum gap. The model allows specifying the relative electron flow along the power flow direction, including cases where the fractional electron flow decreases in the power flow direction. The electrons are able to return to the cathode because they gain energy from the temporally rising magnetic field. The simulations were done with small cell size to reduce numerical heating. An experiment to compare electron flow to the simulations was done. The measured electron flow is {approx}33% of the value from the simulations. The discrepancy is assumed to be due to a reversed electric field at the cathode because of the inductive load and falling electron drift velocity in the power flow direction. The simulations constrain the cathode electric field to zero, which gives the highest possible electron flow.

  20. INSTRUMENTATION FOR SURVEYING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-09-01

    In the U.S. natural gas is distributed through more than one million miles of high-pressure transmission pipelines. If all leaks and infringements could be detected quickly, it would enhance safety and U.S. energy security. Only low frequency acoustic waves appear to be detectable over distances up to 60 km where pipeline shut-off valves provide access to the inside of the pipeline. This paper describes a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) developed to record and identify acoustic signals characteristic of: leaks, pump noise, valve and flow metering noise, third party infringement, manual pipeline water and gas blow-off, etc. This PAMP consists of a stainless steel 1/2 inch NPT plumbing tree rated for use on 1000 psi pipelines. Its instrumentation is designed to measure acoustic waves over the entire frequency range from zero to 16,000 Hz by means of four instruments: (1) microphone, (2) 3-inch water full range differential pressure transducer with 0.1% of range sensitivity, (3) a novel 3 inch to 100 inch water range amplifier, using an accumulator with needle valve and (4) a line-pressure transducer. The weight of the PAMP complete with all accessories is 36 pounds. This includes a remote control battery/switch box assembly on a 25-foot extension chord, a laptop data acquisition computer on a field table and a sun shield.

  1. Radial transmission line analysis of multi-layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.

    2011-03-28

    The analysis of multi-layer beam tubes is a standard problem and involves axially propagating waves. This treatment is ill suited to a short multi-layer structure such as the present example of a ferrite covered ceramic break in the beam tube at the ERL photo-cathode electron gun. This paper demonstrates that such structure can better be treated by radial wave propagation. The theoretical method is presented and numerical results are compared with measured network analyser data and Microwave Studio generated simulations. The results confirm the concept of radial transmission lines as a valid analytical method. An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is being constructed at this laboratory for the purpose of research towards an envisioned Electron Ion Collider. One of the pertinent topics is damping of Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this ERL, the damping is provided by ferrite absorbers in the beam tube. A modified version thereof, a ceramic break surrounded by ferrite, is planed for the superconducting electron gun. The damper here is located at room temperature just outside of the gun. If used in a cavity chain, the ceramic break is in the vacuum tube at helium temperature whereas the ferrite is moved into the cryostat insulating vacuum allowing higher temperatures. The general properties of the ferrite HOM dampers have been published but are more detailed in this paper.

  2. Requirements for self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    VanDevender, J. Pace; Pointon, Timothy D.; Seidel, David B.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Jennings, Christopher; Oliver, Bryan V.; Schneider, Larry X.

    2015-03-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) connect pulsed-power drivers with a load. Although the technology was originally developed in the 1970s and is widely used today in super power generators, failure of the technology is the principal limitation on the power that can be delivered to an experiment. We address issues that are often overlooked, rejected after inadequate simulations, or covered by overly conservative assumptions: (i) electron retrapping in coupling MITLs to loads, (ii) the applicability of collisionless versus collisional electron flow, (iii) power transport efficiency as a function of the geometry at the beginning of the MITL, (iv) gap closuremore » and when gap closure can be neglected, and (v) the role of negative ions in causing anode plasmas and enhancing current losses. We suggest a practical set of conservative design requirements for self-magnetically insulated electron flow based on the results discussed in this paper and on previously published results. The requirements are not necessarily severe constraints in all MITL applications; however, each of the 18 suggested requirements should be examined in the design of a MITL and in the investigation of excessive losses.« less

  3. Nonlinear longitudinal oscillations of fuel in rockets feed lines with gas-liquid damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramov, K. V.; Filipkovsky, S.; Tonkonogenko, A. M.; Klimenko, D. V.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical model of the fuel oscillations in the rockets feed lines with gas-liquid dampers is derived. The nonlinear model of the gas-liquid damper is suggested. The vibrations of fuel in the feed lines with the gas-liquid dampers are considered nonlinear. The weighted residual method is applied to obtain the finite degrees of freedom nonlinear model of the fuel oscillations. Shaw-Pierre nonlinear normal modes are applied to analyze free vibrations. The forced oscillations of the fuel at the principle resonances are analyzed. The stability of the forced oscillations is investigated. The results of the forced vibrations analysis are shown on the frequency responses.

  4. Nonlinear Control of Wind Turbines with Hydrostatic Transmission Based on Takagi-Sugeno Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Soren

    2014-06-01

    A nonlinear model-based control concept for wind turbines with hydrostatic transmission is proposed. The complete mathematical model of a wind turbine drive train with variable displacement pump and variable displacement motor is presented. The controller design takes into consideration the nonlinearity of the aerodynamic maps and hydrostatic drive train by an convex combination of state space controller with measurable generator speed and hydraulic motor displacement as scheduling parameters. The objectives are the set point control of generator speed and tracking control of the rotor speed to reach the maximum power according to the power curve in the partial-load region.

  5. L1 adaptive control of uncertain gear transmission servo systems with deadzone nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zongyu; Li, Xiao; Shi, Zhiguang

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with the adaptive control problem of Gear Transmission Servo (GTS) systems in the presence of unknown deadzone nonlinearity and viscous friction. A global differential homeomorphism based on a novel differentiable deadzone model is proposed first. Since there exist both matched and unmatched state-dependent unknown nonlinearities, a full-state feedback L1 adaptive controller is constructed to achieve uniformly bounded transient response in addition to steady-state performance. Finally, simulation results are included to show the elimination of limit cycles, in addition to demonstrating the main results in this paper. PMID:26250588

  6. Choice of transmission line for operation in the millimeter-wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantsev, V. I.; Kharitonov, A. I.

    1989-10-01

    The paper presents requirements for millimeter-wave transmission lines, including low losses, high electrical strength, wide operating band, weak dispersion, good manufacturability, electrohermeticity, low weight and small size, and low cost. Lines that fully satisfy these requirements are described.

  7. 78 FR 44586 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Cross Valley Transmission Line Habitat Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Habitat Conservation Plan, Tulare County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; receipt of permit application, draft environmental assessment, proposed habitat... prepared the draft Cross Valley Transmission Line Habitat Conservation Plan (Cross Valley Line HCP)...

  8. ``Multifractals in Transmission of Off-line & On-line E-Voting Systems''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    An e-voting systems is a voting system in which the election data is recorded, stored & processed primarily as digital information. Those are 2 type of e-voting systems: off-line & on-line systems[Alaguvel & Gnanavel, 2013]. ``Using transfer matrix method & multifractal theory, we studied the transmission properties of 1D generalized Fibonacci structures GF(m.n) in which m & n different intervals are integer according to a substitution rule[Yuannong Zhang, et.al,:Multifractal properties of 1D quasi-period Photonic Crystal''. ``Transmission spectra of 1D fractal multilayer structures are found to exhibit self-similar properties'' says Zhukovsky & Lavrinenko in ``Spectral self-similarity in fractal 1D photonic structures'',Photonics & Nanostructures, 2005 whereas Jacob Trevino, et.al studies `structural properties, photonic density of state & bandedge modes of Vogel spiral arrays of dielectric cylinders in air'. Acknowledgment to HE. Mr. AUGUST PARENGKUAN if accepts 1995-2005 Invoicing & Fulfillments to ``KOMPAS'' cq the Prodi of Physics ITB.

  9. Novel Micromachined Coplanar Waveguide Transmission Lines for Application in Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Baek, Chang-Wook; Jung, Sanghwa; Kim, Hong-Teuk; Kwon, Youngwoo; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, novel micromachined coplanar waveguide(CPW) transmission lines for application in millimeter-wave circuits are proposed. Two types of transmission lines with the length of 1 cm are fabricated and the measured characteristics are compared with those of the conventional CPW transmission line. One is the elevated CPW(ECPW) transmission line and the other is the overlay CPW(OCPW) line. These transmission lines are composed of 3-μm-thick electroplated gold lines with overhanging parts. By elevating the metal lines from the substrate using micromachining technology, the conductor and substrate dielectric loss can be reduced and easily integrated with conventional monolithic microwave integrated circuits. Compared with the conventional CPW line showing 2.65 dB/cm insertion loss at 50 GHz, the loss can be reduced to 1.9 dB/cm and 1.25 dB/cm at 50 GHz in the case of the ECPW and OCPW transmission lines, respectively. Also, the OCPW transmission line shows that the insertion loss does not vary with the change of the characteristic impedance. As shown in the measured and simulated results, the insertion loss is maintained below 1.4 dB/cm over wide impedance ranges.

  10. Analysis of the Transient Response of a Dual-Fed RC Transmission Line

    PubMed Central

    Dorraki, Mohsen; Cambrell, Gregory K.; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The transient analysis of a uniform transmission line of finite length is considered in this paper. For the first time this paper provides an analytical expression for the time-domain response of an RC transmission line, which is stimulated by a step function that is fed into both ends of the transmission line. In particular, we find an analytical expression for the step response at the center of the transmission line, in order to determine the worst-case rise time. This is of interest, for example, in large charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays, where long polysilicon lines are dual-fed in order to mitigate degradation in rise time. The analytical expressions for the RC transmission line are supported by computer-simulated lumped RC models. PMID:25679379

  11. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working

  12. Recent progress of the improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Jian-De; Liu, Jin-Liang; Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Cheng-Wei; Luo, Ling

    2008-03-01

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube driven by a 550 kV, 57 kA, 50 ns electron beam. It has allowed us to generate 2.4 GW pulse of 22 ns duration. The recent progress of the improved MILO is presented in this paper. First, a field shaper cathode is introduced into the improved MILO to avoid the cathode flares in the triple point region. The experimental results show that the cathode flares are avoided, so the lifetime of the velvet cathode is longer than that of the taper cathode. Furthermore, the shot-to-shot reproducibility is better than that of the taper cathode. Second, In order to prolong the pulse duration and increase the radiated microwave power, a self-built 600 kV, 10 Omega, 80 ns pulser: SPARK-03 is employed to drive the improved MILO. Simulation and experimental investigation are performed. In simulation, when the improved MILO is driven by a 600 kV, 57 kA electron beam, high-power microwave is generated with output power of 4.15 GW, frequency of 1.76 GHz, and relevant power conversion efficiency of 12.0%. In experiments, when the diode voltage is 550 kV and current is 54 kA, the measured results are that the radiated microwave power is above 3.1 GW, the pulse duration is above 40 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.755 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 10.4%.

  13. Nonlinear absorption and transmission properties of Ge, Te and InAs using tuneable IR FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Amirmadhi, F.; Becker, K.; Brau, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Nonlinear absorption properties of Ge, Te and InAs are being investigated using the transmission of FEL optical pulses through these semiconductors (z-scan method). Wavelength, intensity and macropulse dependence are used to differentiate between two-photon and free-carrier absorption properties of these materials. Macropulse dependence is resolved by using a Pockles Cell to chop the 4-{mu}s macropulse down to 100 ns. Results of these experiments will be presented and discussed.

  14. Nonlinear response of GaAs gratings in the extraordinary transmission regime.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2011-12-01

    We theoretically describe a way to enhance harmonic generation from subwavelength slits milled on semiconductor substrates in strongly absorptive regimes. The metal-like response typical of semiconductors, like GaAs and GaP, triggers enhanced transmission and nonlinear optical phenomena in the deep UV range. We numerically study correlations between linear and nonlinear responses and their intricacies in infinite arrays, and highlight differences between nonlinear surface and magnetic sources, and intrinsic χ((2)) and χ((3)) contributions to harmonic generation. The results show promising efficiencies at wavelengths below 120 nm, and reveal coupling of TE and TM polarizations for pump and harmonic signals. A downconversion process that can regenerate pump photons with polarization orthogonal to the incident pump is also discussed. PMID:22139280

  15. A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.

  16. 76 FR 21338 - Reopening of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Reopening of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement... (DOE) is reopening the public scoping period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (DOE/EIS-0463). The scoping period now ends on June 14, 2011. DOE...

  17. 76 FR 34969 - Extension of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Extension of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement... Register (76 FR 7828) its intention to prepare an EIS to assess the potential environmental impacts from... (DOE) is reopening the public scoping period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line...

  18. 78 FR 57372 - Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in Public... amended Notice of Intent (NOI) to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (DOE/EIS-0463) and to conduct additional public scoping meetings (78...

  19. A calibration technique for measuring the complex permittivity of materials with planar transmission lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple two-standard calibration procedure for determining the permittivity of a material from the propagation constant measured with planar transmission lines is presented. The suitability of this procedure is demonstrated by using a coplanar waveguide transmission-line sensor to measure the permi...

  20. View facing east (70°) of Transmission Line crossing Marias River, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing east (70°) of Transmission Line crossing Marias River, near Structure 47-9, grain elevators in town of Loma visible in background - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  1. Context view of RyantoRainbow 100kv Transmission Line showing copper wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view of Ryan-to-Rainbow 100kv Transmission Line showing copper wire conductors leaving roof of Ryan Powerhouse. View to east - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  2. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... leaks. 192.717 Section 192.717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.717 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks. Each permanent field repair of a leak on a transmission line must be made by— (a) Removing the leak by cutting out and replacing...

  3. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leaks. 192.717 Section 192.717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.717 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks. Each permanent field repair of a leak on a transmission line must be made by— (a) Removing the leak by cutting out and replacing...

  4. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... leaks. 192.717 Section 192.717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.717 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks. Each permanent field repair of a leak on a transmission line must be made by— (a) Removing the leak by cutting out and replacing...

  5. Some Little-Known Facts about Transmission Lines and Some New Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta Roy, Suhash C.

    2010-01-01

    The study of transmission lines forms an integral part of any curriculum in electrical engineering. This paper presents some little-known but interesting facts about transmission lines, which are generally not found in textbooks, along with some new facts, which arose as extensions of these little-known ones. The facts highlighted in this paper…

  6. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. 192.715 Section 192.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable...

  7. 75 FR 56051 - Bemidji to Grand Rapids Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Bemidji to Grand Rapids Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line... Rapids, Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line Project (``Project'') in Minnesota. The Final EIS was prepared... application of Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc. for RUS financing to construct a 230 kilovolt...

  8. Nonlinear interference noise in 100-Gbit s{sup -1} communication lines with the DP-QPSK modulation format

    SciTech Connect

    Gurkin, N V; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Plaksin, S O; Treshchikov, V N; Ubaydullaev, Rustam R

    2013-06-30

    The nonlinear interference noise power was measured experimentally as a function of the signal power and the length of the fibre coherent 100-Gbit s{sup -1} communication line, in which chromatic dispersion is not optically compensated. An expression was derived for the optimal signal power corresponding to a maximal excess of the measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) over the OSNR required for conditionally error-free operation. The dependence of signal optimal power measured experimentally well agrees with the theoretical formula derived. (optical information transmission)

  9. Millimeter-Gap Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Power Flow Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Stoltzfus, Brian S.; Fowler, William E.; LeChien, Keith R.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Moore, James K.; Mulville, Thomas D.; Savage, Mark E.; Stygar, William A.; McKenney, John L.; Jones, Peter A.; MacRunnels, Diego J.; Long, Finis W.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    An experiment platform has been designed to study vacuum power flow in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The platform was driven by the 400-GW Mykonos-V accelerator. The experiments conducted quantify the current loss in a millimeter-gap MITL with respect to vacuum conditions in the MITL for two different gap distances, 1.0 and 1.3 mm. The current loss for each gap was measured for three different vacuum pump down times. As a ride along experiment, multiple shots were conducted with each set of hardware to determine if there was a conditioning effect to increase current delivery on subsequent shots. The experiment results revealed large differences in performance for the 1.0 and 1.3 mm gaps. The 1.0 mm gap resulted in current loss of 40%-60% of peak current. The 1.3 mm gap resulted in current losses of less than 5% of peak current. Classical MITL models that neglect plasma expansion predict that there should be zero current loss, after magnetic insulation is established, for both of these gaps. The experiments result s indicate that the vacuum pressure or pump down time did not have a significant effect on the measured current loss at vacuum pressures between 1e-4 and 1e-5 Torr. Additionally, there was not repeatable evidence of a conditioning effect that reduced current loss for subsequent full-energy shots on a given set of hardware. It should be noted that the experiments conducted likely did not have large loss contributions due to ion emission from the anode due to the relatively small current densi-ties (25-40 kA/cm) in the MITL that limited the anode temperature rise due to ohmic heating. The results and conclusions from these experiments may have limited applicability to MITLs of high current density (>400 kA/cm) used in the convolute and load region of the Z which experience temperature increases of >400° C and generate ion emission from anode surfaces.

  10. Optical stealth transmission based on super-continuum generation in highly nonlinear fiber over WDM network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Chen, Dalei

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, the optical stealth transmission carried by super-continuum spectrum optical pulses generated in highly nonlinear fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed transmission scheme, super-continuum signals are reshaped in the spectral domain through a wavelength-selective switch and are temporally spread by a chromatic dispersion device to achieve the same noise-like characteristic as the noise in optical networks, so that in both the time domain and the spectral domain, the stealth signals are hidden in public channel. Our experimental results show that compared with existing schemes where stealth channels are carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise, super-continuum signal can increase the transmission performance and robustness.

  11. Optical stealth transmission based on super-continuum generation in highly nonlinear fiber over WDM network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Chen, Dalei

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, the optical stealth transmission carried by super-continuum spectrum optical pulses generated in highly nonlinear fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed transmission scheme, super-continuum signals are reshaped in the spectral domain through a wavelength-selective switch and are temporally spread by a chromatic dispersion device to achieve the same noise-like characteristic as the noise in optical networks, so that in both the time domain and the spectral domain, the stealth signals are hidden in public channel. Our experimental results show that compared with existing schemes where stealth channels are carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise, super-continuum signal can increase the transmission performance and robustness. PMID:26030557

  12. Multiplicity of transmission coefficients in photonic crystal and split ring resonator waveguides with Kerr nonlinear impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Buddhi; McGurn, Arthur R.

    2015-02-01

    Photonic crystal and split ring resonator (SRR) metamaterial waveguides with Kerr nonlinear dielectric impurities are studied. The transmission coefficients for two guided modes of different frequencies scattering from the Kerr impurities are computed. The systems are shown to exhibit multiple transmission coefficient solutions arising from the Kerr nonlinearity. Multiple transmission coefficients occur when different input intensities into a waveguide result in the same transmitted output intensities past its nonlinear impurities. (In the case of a single incident guided mode the multiplicity of transmission coefficients is known as optical bistability.) The analytical conditions under which the transmission coefficients are single and multiple valued are determined, and specific examples of both single and multiple valued transmission coefficient scattering are presented. Both photonic crystal and split ring resonator systems are studied as the Kerr nonlinearity enters the photonic crystal and SRR systems in different ways. This allows for an interesting comparison of the differences in behaviors of these two types of system which are described by distinctly different mathematical structures. Both the photonic crystal and SRR models used in the calculations are based on a difference equation approach to the system dynamics. The difference equation approach has been extensively employed in previous papers to model the basic properties of these systems. The paper is a continuation of work on the optical bistability of single guided modes interacting with Kerr impurities in photonic crystals originally considered by McGurn [Chaos 13, 754 (2003), 10.1063/1.1568691] and work on the resonant scattering from Kerr impurities in photonic crystal waveguides considered by McGurn [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S5243 (2004), 10.1088/0953-8984/16/44/021]. It generalizes this work making the extension to the more complex interaction of two guided modes at different frequencies

  13. Computation of transient electromagnetic fields radiated by transmission line: An exact model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, R.S.; Darcherif, A.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    A novel time domain analytical method for predicting electromagnetic field transients resulting from power line switching operations is presented in this paper. This method, which is directly derived from electromagnetic field theory of a power transmission line, allows the field transients to be accurately and efficiently calculated. It will be shown that conventional numerical methods for computing transmission line transient electromagnetic fields are in fact degenerative approximate models for this analytical method.

  14. Transmission characteristics and transmission line model of a metal-insulator-metal waveguide with a stub modified by cuts.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinru; Wang, Yueke; Yan, Xin; Yuan, Lin; Sang, Tian

    2016-08-10

    We propose a structure of a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide with a stub modified by cuts. Our simulation results, conducted by the finite element method, show that the wavelengths of transmission dip vary with the position of the cuts and form the zigzag lines. A transmission line model is also presented, and it agrees with simulation results well. It is believed that our findings provide a smart way to design a plasmonic waveguide filter at the communication region based on MIM structures. PMID:27534492

  15. Sensor, method and system of monitoring transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Syracuse, Steven J.; Clark, Roy; Halverson, Peter G.; Tesche, Frederick M.; Barlow, Charles V.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus, method, and system for measuring the magnetic field produced by phase conductors in multi-phase power lines. The magnetic field measurements are used to determine the current load on the conductors. The magnetic fields are sensed by coils placed sufficiently proximate the lines to measure the voltage induced in the coils by the field without touching the lines. The x and y components of the magnetic fields are used to calculate the conductor sag, and then the sag data, along with the field strength data, can be used to calculate the current load on the line and the phase of the current. The sag calculations of this invention are independent of line voltage and line current measurements. The system applies a computerized fitter routine to measured and sampled voltages on the coils to accurately determine the values of parameters associated with the overhead phase conductors.

  16. On-line estimation of nonlinear physical systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.

    1988-01-01

    Recursive algorithms for estimating states of nonlinear physical systems are presented. Orthogonality properties are rediscovered and the associated polynomials are used to linearize state and observation models of the underlying random processes. This requires some key hypotheses regarding the structure of these processes, which may then take account of a wide range of applications. The latter include streamflow forecasting, flood estimation, environmental protection, earthquake engineering, and mine planning. The proposed estimation algorithm may be compared favorably to Taylor series-type filters, nonlinear filters which approximate the probability density by Edgeworth or Gram-Charlier series, as well as to conventional statistical linearization-type estimators. Moreover, the method has several advantages over nonrecursive estimators like disjunctive kriging. To link theory with practice, some numerical results for a simulated system are presented, in which responses from the proposed and extended Kalman algorithms are compared. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. A planar transmission-line sensor for measuring microwave permittivity of liquid and semisolid biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accurate technique for determining the permittivity of biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line is presented. The technique utilizes closed-form approximations that relate the material permittivity to the line propagation constant. A thru-reflect-line calibration procedure i...

  18. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  19. Robust transmission stabilization and dynamic switching in broadband hybrid waveguide systems with nonlinear gain and loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quan M.; Peleg, Avner; Tran, Thinh P.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a method for transmission stabilization and robust dynamic switching for colliding optical soliton sequences in broadband waveguide systems with nonlinear gain and loss. The method is based on employing hybrid waveguides, consisting of spans with linear gain and cubic loss, and spans with linear loss, cubic gain, and quintic loss. We show that the amplitude dynamics is described by a hybrid Lotka-Volterra (LV) model, and use the model to determine the physical parameter values required for enhanced transmission stabilization and switching. Numerical simulations with coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations confirm the predictions of the LV model, and show complete suppression of radiative instability and pulse distortion. This enables stable transmission over distances larger by an order of magnitude compared with uniform waveguides with linear gain and cubic loss. Moreover, multiple on-off and off-on dynamic switching events are demonstrated over a wide range of soliton amplitudes, showing the superiority of hybrid waveguides compared with static switching in uniform waveguides.

  20. Capacity estimates for optical transmission based on the nonlinear Fourier transform

    PubMed Central

    Derevyanko, Stanislav A.; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-01-01

    What is the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted error-free in fibre–optic communication systems? For linear channels, this was established in classic works of Nyquist and Shannon. However, despite the immense practical importance of fibre–optic communications providing for >99% of global data traffic, the channel capacity of optical links remains unknown due to the complexity introduced by fibre nonlinearity. Recently, there has been a flurry of studies examining an expected cap that nonlinearity puts on the information-carrying capacity of fibre–optic systems. Mastering the nonlinear channels requires paradigm shift from current modulation, coding and transmission techniques originally developed for linear communication systems. Here we demonstrate that using the integrability of the master model and the nonlinear Fourier transform, the lower bound on the capacity per symbol can be estimated as 10.7 bits per symbol with 500 GHz bandwidth over 2,000 km. PMID:27611059

  1. Capacity estimates for optical transmission based on the nonlinear Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Derevyanko, Stanislav A; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-01-01

    What is the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted error-free in fibre-optic communication systems? For linear channels, this was established in classic works of Nyquist and Shannon. However, despite the immense practical importance of fibre-optic communications providing for >99% of global data traffic, the channel capacity of optical links remains unknown due to the complexity introduced by fibre nonlinearity. Recently, there has been a flurry of studies examining an expected cap that nonlinearity puts on the information-carrying capacity of fibre-optic systems. Mastering the nonlinear channels requires paradigm shift from current modulation, coding and transmission techniques originally developed for linear communication systems. Here we demonstrate that using the integrability of the master model and the nonlinear Fourier transform, the lower bound on the capacity per symbol can be estimated as 10.7 bits per symbol with 500 GHz bandwidth over 2,000 km. PMID:27611059

  2. Optical Nonlinearities and Enhanced Light Transmission in Soft-Matter Systems with Tunable Polarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Weining; Fardad, Shima; Zhang, Ze; Prakash, Jai; Lau, Michael; Zhang, Peng; Heinrich, Matthias; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Chen, Zhigang

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a new class of synthetic colloidal suspensions capable of exhibiting negative polarizabilities, and observe for the first time robust propagation and enhanced transmission of self-trapped light over long distances that would have been otherwise impossible in conventional suspensions with positive polarizabilities. Such light penetration through the strong scattering environment is attributed to the interplay between optical forces and self-activated transparency effects while no thermal effect is involved. By judiciously mixing colloidal particles of both negative and positive polarizabilities, we show that the resulting nonlinear response of these systems can be fine-tuned. Our experimental observations are in agreement with theoretical analysis based on a thermodynamic model that takes into account particle-particle interactions. These results may open up new opportunities in developing soft-matter systems with engineered optical nonlinearities.

  3. Coupled backward- and forward-propagating solitons in a composite right- and left-handed transmission line.

    PubMed

    Veldes, G P; Cuevas, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2013-07-01

    We study the coupling between backward- and forward-propagating wave modes, with the same group velocity, in a composite right- and left-handed nonlinear transmission line. Using an asymptotic multiscale expansion technique, we derive a system of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations governing the evolution of the envelopes of these modes. We show that this system supports a variety of backward- and forward-propagating vector solitons of the bright-bright, bright-dark, and dark-bright type. Performing systematic numerical simulations in the framework of the original lattice that models the transmission line, we study the propagation properties of the derived vector soliton solutions. We show that all types of the predicted solitons exist, but differ on their robustness: Only bright-bright solitons propagate undistorted for long times, while the other types are less robust, featuring shorter lifetimes. In all cases, our analytical predictions are in very good agreement with the results of the simulations, at least up to times of the order of the solitons' lifetimes.

  4. A planar transmission-line sensor for measuring the microwave permittivity of liquid and semisolid biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A planar transmission-line configuration for rapid, nondestructive, wideband permittivity measurements of liquid and semisolid materials at microwave frequencies is described. The transmission-line propagation constant of the proposed configuration is determined with the multiline technique from sca...

  5. Hayden-Blue River 345-kV transmission line project, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Colorado-Ute Electric Association, Inc., Platte River Power Authority, and Western Area Power Administration propose to construct and operate approximately 90 miles of 345-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between Hayden and the Blue River Valley in Colorado. The project would involve expansion of existing substation facilities at Hayden and construction of two new substations. The line would be operated at 230 kV initially. Estimated cost of the project is $37.8 million. The new line and substation facilities would provide a backup transmission path, satisfy the long-term needs in meeting the energy requirements, improve system reliability, improve system stability for the Craig and Hayden generating stations, and leave the existing 115-kV and 138-kV lines in operation to provide additional transmission capacity that would function as backup transmission during an outage on another line. Minute amounts of lands would be displaced. Construction activities would disturb critical ranges for elk and mule deer, elk calving areas, and the mating and nesting areas of greater sandhill cranes, great blue herons, sage grouse, golden eagles, and prairie falcons. Management of timberland would damage natural vegetation. The line would traverse 3.1 miles of flood-prone area, and as many as three transmission towers would lie within the floodplain of the Colorado River. The visual quality of land crossed by the line would be degraded somewhat.

  6. Analytical expressions for the nonlinear interference in dispersion managed transmission coherent optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yaojun; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiuhong; Xu, Yanfei; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Closed-form expressions of nonlinear interference of dense wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems with dispersion managed transmission (DMT) are derived. We carry out a simulative validation by addressing an ample and significant set of the Nyquist-WDM systems based on polarization multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PM-QPSK) subcarriers at a baud rate of 32 Gbaud per channel. Simulation results show the simple closed-form analytical expressions can provide an effective tool for the quick and accurate prediction of system performance in DMT coherent optical systems.

  7. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  8. Protection relay of phase-shifting device with thyristor switch for high voltage power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachugin, V. F.; Panfilov, D. I.; Akhmetov, I. M.; Astashev, M. G.; Shevelev, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Problems of functioning of differential current protection systems of phase shifting devices (PSD) with mechanically changed coefficient of transformation of shunt transformer are analyzed. Requirements for devices of protection of PSD with thyristor switch are formulated. Based on use of nonlinear models of series-wound and shunt transformers of PSD modes of operation of major protection during PSD, switching to zero load operation and to operation under load and during short circuit operation were studied for testing PSD with failures. Use of the principle of duplicating by devices of differential current protection (with realization of functions of breaking) of failures of separate pares of PSD with thyristor switch was substantiated. To ensure protection sensitivity to the shunt transformer winding short circuit, in particular, to a short circuit that is not implemented in the current differential protection for PSD with mechanical switch, the differential current protection reacting to the amount of primary ampere-turns of high-voltage and low-voltage winding of this transformer was designed. Studies have shown that the use of differential current cutoff instead of overcurrent protection for the shunt transformer wndings allows one to provide the sensitivity during thyristor failure with the formation of a short circuit. The results of simulation mode for the PSD with switch thyristor designed to be installed as switching point of Voskhod-Tatarskaya-Barabinsk 220 kV transmission line point out the efficiency of the developed solutions that ensure reliable functioning of the PSD.

  9. Coyote Pumping Plant 115-kV transmission line project, Santa Clara County, California: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Environmental impacts expected from the design and siting of transmission lines and the associated pumping plant station are addressed with alternative routes and actions considered, in compliance with environmental laws. (PSB)

  10. PennsylvaniaNew Jersey Interconnection Bushkill to Roseland Transmission Line, From Roseland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pennsylvania-New Jersey Interconnection Bushkill to Roseland Transmission Line, From Roseland Borough, Essex County, through Morris County and Sussex County to Hardwick Township, Warren County, Roseland, Essex County, NJ

  11. First structure on MoronytoRainbow 100kV Transmission Line below Morony Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First structure on Morony-to-Rainbow 100kV Transmission Line below Morony Dam and Power House. Three-pole H-frame structure with historic porcelain suspension insulators, jumper supports insulators, overhead ground wires, and pole stubs. View to east-northeast - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. Optimized Minimal Inductance Transmission Line Configuration for Z-Pinch Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O

    2003-10-16

    Successful dynamic Z-pinch experiments generally require good current delivery to the target load. Power flow losses through highly inductive transmission line configurations reduce the current available to the load. In this Brief Report, a variational calculus technique is used to determine the transmission line configuration that produces the least possible inductance and therefore the best possible current delivery for Z-pinch experiments.

  13. Finite-difference, time-domain analysis of a folded acoustic transmission line.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Charles M

    2005-03-01

    Recently designed, modern versions of renais sance woodwind instruments such as the recorder and serpent use square cross sections and a folded acoustic transmission line. Conventional microwave techniques would expect that this bend would cause unwanted reflections and impedance discontinuities. This paper analyses the folded acoustic transmission line using finite-difference, time-domain techniques and shows that the discontinuity can be compensated with by the use of a manufacturable method. PMID:15857045

  14. TE sub r azimuthal modes for a biconic transmission line in the small-gap limit

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.A.; Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Seidel, D.B. )

    1992-04-15

    Azimuthally asymmetric modes in a biconic transmission line with a small-gap angle may be approximated by transmission-line-like'' modes. It is shown that the errors in these approximations are second order in the gap angle and approximate error bounds are provided. As an example demonstrating the application of this analysis in biconic structures, an analysis to characterize of the electromagnetic waves in the vacuum feed of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II is provided.

  15. Multisection transmission line scatter function theory for measurements of soil dielectric properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vector network analyzers measure both reflection (S11) and transmission (S21) functions, but S21 has not been used to estimate soil dielectric permittivity independently. The objectives of this study were to: (1) derive the mathematical model for S21 of a multisection transmission line, and (2) tes...

  16. 33 CFR 165.T01-0992 - Safety Zone; repair of high voltage transmission lines to Logan International Airport; Saugus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... voltage transmission lines to Logan International Airport; Saugus River, Saugus, MA. 165.T01-0992 Section... high voltage transmission lines to Logan International Airport; Saugus River, Saugus, MA. (a) General... high voltage transmission lines to Logan International Airport; Saugus River, Saugus, MA. (i)...

  17. Analysis of optimum diameter of orbit of transmission line source in positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Amano, M.; Hirose, Y.; Muira, S.; Kanno, I.

    1989-02-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is one of the most important factors to achieve quantitative measurements in positron emission tomography (PET). A transmission scan is most commonly used technique for the attenuation correction in PET. A difficulty in transmission scan is relatively long period to obtain a data with good signal-to-noise ratio. Insufficient signal-to-noise ratio of the transmission data limits that of emission data. Several approaches were reported to improve the transmission data. Those were (1) optimizing of detector threshold, (2) processing delayed coincidence sinogram before subtraction, filtering of transmission sinogram before performing attenuation correction, and (3) rejection of random and scatter coincidence by using rotating line source and information of its position. In some of these methods, additional calculation time or processing hardware is needed. The authors have estimated a relationship between ring diameter of a transmission line source and signal to noise ratio of the transmission dat. This paper aimes to analyze optimum diameter of the orbit of transmission line source in concerning to signal to noise ratio in transmission data.

  18. The physical meaning of transmission-line parameters in a full-wave theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambousky, Ronald; Nitsch, Jürgen; Tkachenko, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    In the potential-current representation, transmission-line parameters in the Transmission-Line Super Theory (TLST) do not have a direct physical meaning - they are gauge dependent, i.e.: they are different in the Lorenz and Coulomb gauge. However, they retain traces of their classical origin: They are constituted of capacitances and inductances for forward and backward running waves along the lines. Therefore their corresponding matrices are not symmetrical as in the case of classical transmission-line theory. In the charge-current representation the parameter matrices have a physical meaning: their elements consist of damping functions due to the non-uniformities of the lines and of the propagation functions along the lines, incorporating conductor and radiation losses. The transmission line parameters also contribute to the total radiated power of the lines. The attempt to quantize radiation locally, fails because radiation describes a long-range (integral) interaction, and therefore affects all conductor parts of all lines. However, it can be stated that at stronger inhomogeneities the local contributions to radiation increase, and are particularly recognizable along the risers.

  19. Millikelvin thermal and electrical performance of lossy transmission line filters

    SciTech Connect

    Slichter, Daniel; Naaman, Ofer; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2009-03-11

    We report on the scattering parameters and Johnson noise emission of low-pass stripline filters employing a magnetically loaded silicone dielectric down to 25 mK. The transmission characteristic of a device with f-3dB=1.3 GHz remains essentially unchanged upon cooling. Another device with f-edB=0.4 GHz, measured in its stopband, exhibits a steady state noise power emission consistent with a temperature difference of a few mK relative to a well-anchored cryogenic microwave attenuator at temperatures down to 25 mK, thus presenting a matched thermal load.

  20. Polarization characteristics of nonlinear transmission in rigidly held saturable-dye molecules with random orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaga, S.; Sato, T.

    2015-04-01

    Polarization-dependent nonlinear transmissions are investigated by a pump-probe method in saturable-dye-doped films in which optically anisotropic saturable dyes are rigidly held with random orientations. The nonlinear transmissions measured by using uranine-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) films are compared with the theoretical predictions that are obtained by considering the effects of pump propagation and molecular orientation on the basis of a rate equation analysis for a four-energy-level model including an excited-state absorption. The measurements were conducted for the two cases of polarization states for which the polarization direction of the probe wave is either parallel or perpendicular to that of the pump wave; the experimental results considerably deviated from the theoretical ones for the probe wave perpendicularly polarized to the pump wave. It is shown that this is explained by modifying the energy level model to include the existence of a nearly-orthogonal component of the transition dipole moment associated with the ground-state absorption in uranine dyes.

  1. On the Robin-Transmission Boundary Value Problems for the Nonlinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman and Navier-Stokes Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohr, Mirela; de Cristoforis, Massimo Lanza; Wendland, Wolfgang L.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study a boundary value problem of Robin-transmission type for the nonlinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman and Navier-Stokes systems in two adjacent bounded Lipschitz domains in {{{R}}n (nin {2,3})}, with linear transmission conditions on the internal Lipschitz interface and a linear Robin condition on the remaining part of the Lipschitz boundary. We also consider a Robin-transmission problem for the same nonlinear systems subject to nonlinear transmission conditions on the internal Lipschitz interface and a nonlinear Robin condition on the remaining part of the boundary. For each of these problems we exploit layer potential theoretic methods combined with fixed point theorems in order to show existence results in Sobolev spaces, when the given data are suitably small in {L^2}-based Sobolev spaces or in some Besov spaces. For the first mentioned problem, which corresponds to linear Robin and transmission conditions, we also show a uniqueness result. Note that the Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy equation is a nonlinear equation that describes saturated porous media fluid flows.

  2. An additional channel for FM signal transmission in standard fiber-optic AM communication lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, V. V.; Anufriev, K. M.; Toguzov, N. V.; Il'ichev, I. V.; Shamray, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    A paradigm has been developed according to which an additional FM signal transfer channel is formed in a standard optical fiber transmission line without violating the main AM channel operation. Using the proposed approach, an RS-232 interface signal has been experimentally transferred via a standard intraobject 100-Mbit Ethernet line based on an SMF-28 single-mode optical fiber.

  3. Measuring the complex permittivity of poultry meat with a planar transmission-line sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A planar transmission-line sensor is used to measure the complex permittivity of chicken breast meat over the frequency range 0.5 – 5 GHz. Results for the permittivity of nine samples of chicken breast meat are compared to results obtained with a commercially available open-ended coaxial-line probe....

  4. Measurement of the Stochastic Electromagnetic Field Coupling into Transmission Lines in a Reverberation Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdowski, M.; Siddiqui, S.; Vick, R.

    2012-05-01

    The coupling of stochastic electromagnetic fields to a straight and uniform transmission line was measured in a reverberation chamber. Such stochastic fields also appear in large and complex overmoded cavities like aircraft fuse- lages and satellite enclosures. The measurements were carried out with different line lengths over a large frequency range. The results are analyzed with respect to the statistical distribution of the characteristics of the coupled voltage and compared to simulated values. The simulation is based on a transmission line model and a plane wave representation of the field.

  5. Political efficacy and familiarity as predictors of attitudes towards electric transmission lines in the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Joe, Jeffrey C.; Hendrickson, Kelsie; Wong, Maria; Kane, Stephanie L.; Solan, David; Carlisle, Juliet E.; Koehler, David; Ames, Daniel P.; Beazer, Robert

    2016-05-18

    Public opposition to the construction (i.e., siting) of new high voltage overhead transmission lines is not a new or isolated phenomenon. Past research has posited a variety of reasons, applied general theories, and has provided empirical evidence to explain public opposition. The existing literature, while clarifying many elements of the issue, does not yet fully explain the complexities underlying this public opposition phenomenon. As a result, the current study demonstrated how two overlooked factors, people’s sense of political efficacy and their familiarity (i.e., prior exposure) with transmission lines, explained attitudes of support and opposition to siting new power lines.

  6. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  7. Terawatt power division and combination using self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, J.T.; Peterson, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines are necessary for the efficient transport of the terawatt pulses used in electron and ion accelerators. For some applications it is desirable to divide one transmission line into two, or to combine outputs of two or more lines into one, by means of self-magnetically insulated convolutes. Tests have been made on a coaxial-to-triaxial convolute in which connections between negative inner and outer lines are made by pins passing through holes in the intermediate positive conductor. Measurements in the 2 MV, 400 kA, 40 ns pulse Mite facility indicate virtually 100% current transport through the convolute and the ability to vary the division of current between the inner and outer lines of the triax by choice of inner line impedance. These measurements, and results obtained with this convolute connected to the ion diode for which it was designed, will be presented.

  8. Fiber Optic Picosecond Laser Pulse Transmission Line for Hydrogen Ion Beam Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for non-intrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multi-killowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large mode area polarization maintaining optical fiber to ensure a high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter and pulse width broadening over a 100-ft fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H- beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. Our experiment is the first demonstration of particle beam profile diagnostics using fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  9. Fiber optic picosecond laser pulse transmission line for hydrogen ion beam longitudinal profile measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunning; Liu, Yun; Aleksandrov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for nonintrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H(-)) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multikilowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large-mode-area polarization-maintaining optical fiber to ensure high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter, and pulse width broadening over a 30 m long fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H(-) beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. The experiment is the first demonstration to our knowledge of particle beam profile diagnostics using a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  10. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, V.J.; Liu, T.K.; Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Kinetic equations for a density matrix describing nonlinear effects in spectral line wings

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A. I. Shalagin, A. M.

    2011-11-15

    Kinetic quantum equations are derived for a density matrix with collision integrals describing nonlinear effects in spectra line wings. These equations take into account the earlier established inequality of the spectral densities of Einstein coefficients for absorption and stimulated radiation emission by a two-level quantum system in the far wing of a spectral line in the case of frequent collisions. The relationship of the absorption and stimulated emission probabilities with the characteristics of radiation and an elementary scattering event is found.

  12. Assessment of Fecundity and Germ Line Transmission in Two Transgenic Pig Lines Produced by Sleeping Beauty Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome. PMID:24705079

  13. Joint mitigation of laser phase noise and fiber nonlinearity for polarization-multiplexed QPSK and 16-QAM coherent transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Zhuge, Qunbi; Chen, Lawrence R; Plant, David V

    2011-12-12

    We propose the use of pilot-aided (PA) transmission, enabled by single-sideband-subcarrier modulation of both quadratures in the DSP-domain, in single-carrier systems to mitigate jointly laser phase noise and fiber nonlinearity. In addition to tolerance against laser phase noise, we show that the proposed scheme also improves the nonlinear tolerance of both polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) QPSK and 16-QAM coherent transmission systems by increasing the maximum allowable launch power by 1 dB and 1.5 dB, respectively. The improved nonlinear performance of both systems also manifests itself as an increase in the maximum reach by 720 km and 480 km, respectively. Finally, when digital-to-analog converters (DACs) with lower bit resolutions are used at the transmitter, PA transmission is shown to preserve the same performance improvement over the non-PA case.

  14. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  15. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of space station transmission line in a ring configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The results of a preliminary evaluation of a space station type transmission line and commercial transmission lines in a ring configuration, are reported. In a ring configuration, each node has two paths for the return current of each wire. The additional path can create an unbalanced condition, where the magnetic fields created by the forward and return currents do not cancel. This evaluation was to quantify the effects of the unbalanced case upon the external fields. The transmission lines evaluated were standard commercial coaxial cables, RG59 and RG213, and a space station designed flat Litz transmission line. Each was evaluated in a balanced and unbalanced mode of operation. Currents and their harmonic content were recorded and compared. As expected, the harmonic content of the different current (I delta) was substantial for the unbalanced case as compared to the balanced case. For the balanced case, very little difference was noted among the various transmission lines evaluated. The evaluation is discussed, and the test circuit, the measurements, and the resulting data are described.

  17. Signal transmission from motor axons to group Ia muscle spindle afferents: frequency responses and second-order non-linearities.

    PubMed

    Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the

  18. Nonlinear gearshifts control of dual-clutch transmissions during inertia phase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunfeng; Tian, Lu; Gao, Bingzhao; Chen, Hong

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a model-based nonlinear gearshift controller is designed by the backstepping method to improve the shift quality of vehicles with a dual-clutch transmission (DCT). Considering easy-implementation, the controller is rearranged into a concise structure which contains a feedforward control and a feedback control. Then, robustness of the closed-loop error system is discussed in the framework of the input to state stability (ISS) theory, where model uncertainties are considered as the additive disturbance inputs. Furthermore, due to the application of the backstepping method, the closed-loop error system is ordered as a linear system. Using the linear system theory, a guideline for selecting the controller parameters is deduced which could reduce the workload of parameters tuning. Finally, simulation results and Hardware in the Loop (HiL) simulation are presented to validate the effectiveness of the designed controller. PMID:24815082

  19. Calculation of transmission line impedances using the ANSYS finite element program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.

    1984-06-29

    This paper describes numerical techniques for calculating the capacitance of an arbitrary two conductor structure. For two dimensional structures the capacitance per unit length can be easily related to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line with the same cross section. Note that this is true for lines operated below their cut off frequency, i.e., TEM mode only. Thus, one can compute the impedance of an arbitrarily shaped line. The method using the ANSYS finite element program is being used to design the high voltage transmission line for the Yale streamer chamber. This line has a transition piece between two different cross sections. It is being modeled by taking several slices throughout the transition region.

  20. Dynamic responses and vibration control of the transmission tower-line system: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  1. Dynamic Responses and Vibration Control of the Transmission Tower-Line System: A State-of-the-Art Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  2. Lumped-element model of a tapered transmission line for impedance matching in a pulsed power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kun-A.; Ko, Kwang-Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In a pulsed power system, impedance matching is one of the significant factors for increasing the efficiency of the system. One of the most general methods for impedance matching is to use a tapered transmission line. Because the characteristics of a tapered transmission line are changed continuously according to its position, modeling the tapered transmission line by using lumped elements is difficult. In this study, we investigated a tapered transmission line to match the impedance of power supply to that of a load by using lumped elements especially in a pulsed power system. In modeling the tapered transmission line, we used the concept of a transmission, and we introduced an efficient modeling method. We propose a simulation model based on the investigation results. The results of the study will be useful for research on tapered transmission lines.

  3. Dynamic responses and vibration control of the transmission tower-line system: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers.

  4. 75 FR 32940 - Request for Proposals for New or Upgraded Transmission Line Projects Under Section 1222 of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... several states. Southwestern operates and maintains 1,380 miles of high voltage transmission lines in... Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming. Western's 17,000-mile high-voltage transmission system carries... Transmission Line Projects under section 1222 of EPAct (73 FR 70636 and 70638 respectively)....

  5. Effects of high-voltage transmission lines on honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.; Bindokas, V.P.

    1981-04-01

    Data are reported on the effect of hive height and current distribution on honey bees hived under a 765 kV line (E-field ca. 7 kV/m). Hive height was standardized with adjustable collectors to 1 meter (59 ..mu..A total hive current) or 1.5 meter (85 ..mu..A) equivalents; controls were shielded. A 1.5 meter group with completely painted supers was included. After 8 or 16 weeks of exposure there was no effect on honey moisture content or weight of young workers in any group. Worker capped brood was not affected in 1 m hives but declined significantly in 1.5 m hives after 4 weeks of exposure and this was associated with queen loss, abnormal queen cell production, and colony failure. Weight gain was depressed in all hives after 2 weeks of exposure and was dose related, with the taller hives more severely affected. Only the exposed hives propolized entrances but the amount and time of onset were not dose related. The 1.5 m hives with painted interiors behaved like the 1 m hives with unpainted interiors in all respects, although their total hive current approximated the other group of 1.5 m hives. Reversal of treatments at midseason resulted in reversal of colony behavior, manifested most clearly with respect to hive weight, less with respect to brood. When first exposed, colonies exhibit pronounced but transient elevations in hive temperature. Bio-effects were more severe during the first period when hives had fewer bees. Total hive current was greater in wet than in dry periods. All these factors influence observed bioeffects.

  6. On the infinitely many nonperturbative solutions in a transmission eigenvalue problem for Maxwell's equations with cubic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Yu. G.; Valovik, D. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper focuses on a transmission eigenvalue problem for Maxwell's equations with cubic nonlinearity that describes the propagation of transverse magnetic waves along the boundaries of a dielectric layer filled with nonlinear (Kerr) medium. Using an original approach, it is proved that even for small values of the nonlinearity coefficient, the nonlinear problem has infinitely many nonperturbative solutions (eigenvalues and eigenwaves), whereas the corresponding linear problem always has a finite number of solutions. This fact implies the theoretical existence of a novel type of eigenwaves that do not reduce to the linear ones in the limit in which the nonlinear coefficient reduces to zero. Asymptotic distribution of the eigenvalues is found, periodicity of the eigenfunctions is proved, the exact formula for the period is found, and the zeros of the eigenfunctions are determined.

  7. Using Nonlinearity and Contact Lines to Control Fluid Flow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlin, M.; Schultz, W. W.; Bian, X.; Agarwal, M.

    2002-01-01

    Slug flows in a tube are affected by surface tension and contact lines, especially under microgravity. Numerical analyses and experiments are conducted of slug flows in small-diameter tubes with horizontal, inclined and vertical orientations. A PID-controlled, meter-long platform capable of following specified motions is used. An improved understanding of the contact line boundary condition for steady and unsteady contact-line motion is expected. Lastly, a direct fluid-handling method using nonlinear oscillatory motion of a tube is presented.

  8. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Williamson, Ian A. D.; Wang, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines.

  9. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Williamson, Ian A. D.; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines. PMID:27137628

  10. Transmission Line Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are freely available, user-friendly tools that estimate the potential economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The Transmission Line JEDI model can be used to field questions about the economic impacts of transmission lines in a given state, region, or local community. This Transmission Line JEDI User Reference Guide was developed to provide basic instruction on operating the model and understanding the results. This guide also provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data contained in the model.

  11. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Williamson, Ian A D; Wang, Zheng

    2016-05-03

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines.

  12. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Williamson, Ian A D; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines. PMID:27137628

  13. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  14. Onset of dispersion in Nb microstrip transmission lines at submillimeter wave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, H. H. S.; Mcgrath, William R.; Bumble, B.; Leduc, Henry G.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the dispersion in phase velocity of a Nb-SiO(x)-Nb microstrip transmission line resonator over a frequency range from 50 GHz to 800 GHz. A submicron Nb/Al-AlO(x)/Nb Josephson junction was used as a voltage-controlled oscillator to excite the high order modes in the resonator. The same junction is used as a direct detector resulting in a series of step-like structures in the DC current-voltage characteristic at the position of each mode frequency. The transmission line is dispersionless up to about 500 GHz where the phase velocity begins to decrease. This is well below the gap frequency f(sub g) approx. equals 700 GHz. Results agree qualitatively with the expected theoretical behavior near f(sub g). This onset of dispersion and loss in Nb transmission lines will have a significant impact on the design of submillimeter wave RF circuits.

  15. A test of a 2 Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; Carcagno, Ruben; Claypool, Brad; Foster, George W.; Hays, Steven L.; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Malamud, Ernest; Mazur, Peter O.; Nehring, Roger; Oleck, Andrew; Rabehl, Roger; Schlabach, Phil; Sylvester, Cosmore; Velev, Gueorgui; Volk, James; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    Superconducting transmission line magnet test system for an injector accelerator of a staged VLHC proton-proton colliding beam accelerator has been built and operated at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, twin-aperture, combined function dipole magnet of 2 Tesla field is excited by a single turn 100 kA transmission line superconductor. The 100 kA dc current is generated using dc-dc switching converters powered by a bulk 240 kW supply. A pair of horizontally placed conventional leads facilitates transfer of this current to the magnet transmission line superconductor operating at liquid helium temperature. Fabrication of magnet components and magnet assembly work are described. The magnet test system and its operation are presented, and the performance is summarized.

  16. Simple Correctors for Elimination of High-Order Modes in Corrugated Waveguide Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Elizabeth J.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    When using overmoded corrugated waveguide transmission lines for high power applications, it is necessary to control the mode content of the system. Ideally, overmoded corrugated transmission lines operate in the fundamental HE11 mode and provide low losses for long distances. Unwanted higher order modes (HOMs), particularly LP11 and HE12, are often excited in the experimental systems due to practical misalignments in the transmission line system. This paper discusses how the unwanted modes propagate along with the fundamental mode in the transmission line system by formulating an equation that relates the center of power offset and angle of propagation of a beam (for the HE11 and LP11 modes) or the waist size and phase front radius of curvature of a beam (for the HE11 and HE12 modes). By introducing two miter bend correctors into the transmission system—miter bends that have slightly angled or ellipsoidal mirrors—the HOMs can be precisely manipulated in the system. This technique can be used to eliminate small quantities of unwanted modes, thereby creating a nearly pure fundamental mode beam with minimal losses. Examples of these applications are calculated and show the theoretical conversion of up to 10% HOM content into the fundamental HE11 mode with minimal losses. PMID:25067859

  17. Measurement of RF Mode Purity in EC Transmission Test Line for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2009-11-26

    The transmission mode purity was measured at the ITER relevant transmission line for 170 GHz ECH and CD system. The measured purity of HE{sub 11} in transmission power was 73% and the other was higher order modes. The dominant higher order mode was LP{sub 11} mode (HE{sub 21}+TE{sub 01}). To improve the mode purity, the RF beam coupling in MOU was aligned because LP{sub 11} mode is generated the offset and the tilt angle of RF beam at the waveguide inlet. After the alignment, HE{sub 11} mode purity was increased to 87%.

  18. Quantum transducers: Integrating transmission lines and nanomechanical resonators via charge qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C. P.; Wei, L. F.; Liu Yuxi; Nori, Franco

    2006-02-15

    We propose a mechanism to interface a transmission line resonator (TLR) with a nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) by commonly coupling them to a charge qubit, a Cooper-pair box with a controllable gate voltage. Integrated in this quantum transducer or simple quantum network, the charge qubit plays the role of a controllable quantum node coherently exchanging quantum information between the TLR and NAMR. With such an interface, a quasiclassical state of the NAMR can be created by controlling a single-mode classical current in the TLR. Alternatively, a 'Cooper pair' coherent output through the transmission line can be driven by a single-mode classical oscillation of the NAMR.

  19. Design Considerations of Fast-cycling Synchrotrons Based on Superconducting Transmission Line Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Huang, Y.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Fast-cycling synchrotrons are key instruments for accelerator based nuclear and high-energy physics programs. We explore a possibility to construct fast-cycling synchrotrons by using super-ferric, {approx}2 Tesla B-field dipole magnets powered with a superconducting transmission line. We outline both the low temperature (LTS) and the high temperature (HTS) superconductor design options and consider dynamic power losses for an accelerator with operation cycle of 0.5 Hz. We also briefly outline possible power supply system for such accelerator, and discuss the quench protection system for the magnet string powered by a transmission line conductor.

  20. Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation on the narrow strontium intercombination line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, K.; Kwong, C. C.; Pramod, M. S.; Wilkowski, D.

    2016-05-01

    In the presence of an external static magnetic field, an atomic gas becomes optically active, showing magneto-optical rotation. In the saturated regime, the coherences among the excited substates give a nonlinear contribution to the rotation of the light polarization. In contrast with the linear magneto-optical rotation, the nonlinear counterpart is insensitive to Doppler broadening. By varying the temperature of a cold strontium gas, we observe both regimes by driving the J =0 →J =1 transition on the intercombination line. For this narrow transition, the sensitivity to the static magnetic field is typically three orders of magnitude larger than for a standard broad alkali-metal transition.

  1. Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO`s circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western`s existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations.

  2. Linearity and Nonlinearity in HIV/STI Transmission: Implications for the Evaluation of Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Chesson, Harrell W.; Crosby, Richard A.; Layde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) transmission was used to examine how linearity or nonlinearity in the relationship between the number of unprotected sex acts (or the number of sex partners) and the risk of acquiring HIV or a highly infectious STI (such as gonorrhea or chlamydia) affects the utility of sexual…

  3. Electrical and mechanical design criteria for EHV and UHV: overhead transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The results are presented of a program devoted to the selection of electrical and mechanical design criteria and parameters for overhead power transmission lines for ac systems rated at from 345 to 1100 kV and for dc systems rated at from 600 to 1200 kV. Information is included on the environmental effects, i.e., audible noise and electric fields, of the lines, mechanical and economic requirements, safety, failures, grounding, and lightning protection. (LCL)

  4. Grand Coulee - Bell 500-kV Transmission Line Project, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-09

    BPA is proposing to construct a 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line that would extend approximately 84 miles between the Grand Coulee 500-kV Switchyard, near Grand Coulee Dam, and the Bell Substation, in Mead just north of Spokane. The new line would cross portions of Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, and Spokane counties. In addition to the transmission line, new equipment would be installed at the substations at each end of the new line and at other facilities. The proposed action would remove an existing 115-kV transmission line and replace it with the new 500-kV line on existing right-of-way for most of its length. Additional right-of-way would be needed in the first 3.5 miles out of the Grand Coulee Switchyard to connect to the existing 115-kV right-of-way. Since the mid-1990s, the transmission path west of Spokane, called the West of Hatwai transmission pathway, has grown increasingly constrained. To date, BPA has been able to manage operation of the path through available operating practices, and customer needed have been met while maintaining the reliability of the path. however, in early 2001, operations showed that the amount of electricity that needs to flow from east to west along this path creates severe transmission congestion. Under these conditions, the system is at risk of overloads and violation of industry safety and reliability standards. The problem is particularly acute in the spring and summer months because of the large amount of power generated by dams east of the path. Large amounts of water cannot be spilled during that time in order for BPA to fulfill its obligation to protect threatened and endangered fish. The amount of power that needs to move through this area during these months at times could exceed the carrying capacity of the existing transmission lines. In additional capacity is not added, BPA will run a significant risk that it will not be able to continue to meet its contractual obligations to deliver power and maintain reliability

  5. Accumulation of nonlinear noise in coherent communication lines without dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyshev, V. A.; Leonov, A. V.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.

    2015-08-01

    The nature of accumulation of nonlinear noise in multi-span communication lines with optical amplifiers without dispersion compensation was investigated experimentally and theoretically. It has been established that the dependence of nonlinear noise power on the number of spans is described by a power function with an exponent greater than 1. It has also been established that the nonlinear noise power generated in one span is practically independent on the amount of dispersion accumulated before this span for the values of accumulated dispersion more than 2 ns/nm. Since the noise power generated in one span does not depend on number of this span, in order to describe the superlinear dependence of total noise on number of spans we can assume that noises generated in different spans are correlated.

  6. Decoding method for T1 line format for ccitt 32K bit per second adpcm clear channel transmission and 64 KBPS clear channel transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Blondeau, E.E. Jr.; Czarnecki, S.J.

    1988-05-24

    In a data transmission system having first and second digital switching systems connected via T1 line transmission facilities for bidirectional data transmissions, a decoding method for T1 line zero bit suppression is described comprising the steps of: receiving an encoded T1 line frame including bundled channels; testing indicator bits of the received T1 line frame to determine whether any channel of the T1 line frame has been altered for the transmission; first transferring the received T1 line frame as received, performed in response to the indicated bits showing that no alteration have been made to the received T1 line frame; decoding mapping bits of the received T1 line frame to determine which channels of the bundle of the received T1 line frame have been altered for the encoded transmission; replacing the contents of each of the altered channel of the bundle with zeroes; iterating the steps of decoding and replacing for each of the bundles of the received T1 line frame; and second transferring the received T1 line frame with the altered channels being replaced with zeroes.

  7. On-chip sub-terahertz surface plasmon polariton transmission lines in CMOS

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Hao Chi; Yang, Chang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    A low-loss and low-crosstalk surface-wave transmission line (T-line) is demonstrated at sub-THz in CMOS. By introducing periodical sub-wavelength structures onto the metal transmission line, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) are excited and propagate signals via a strongly localized surface wave. Two coupled SPP T-lines and two quasi-TEM T-lines are both fabricated on-chip, each with a separation distance of 2.4 μm using standard 65 nm CMOS technology. Measurement results show that the SPP T-lines achieve wideband reflection coefficient lower than −14 dB and crosstalk ratio better than −24 dB, which is 19 dB lower on average than the traditional T-lines from 220 GHz to 325 GHz. The demonstrated compact and wideband SPP T-lines have shown great potential for future realization of highly dense on-chip sub-THz communications in CMOS. PMID:26445889

  8. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  9. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  10. Sound Transmission Through Multi-Panel Structures Lined with Elastic Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, J. S.; Shiau, N.-M.; Kang, Y. J.

    1996-04-01

    Theory and measurements related to sound transmission through double panels lined with elastic porous media are presented. The information has application to the design of noise control barriers and to the optimization of aircraft fuselage transmission loss, for example. The major difference between the work described here and earlier research in this field relates to the treatment of the porous material that is used to line the cavity between the two panels of the double panel structure. Here we have used the porous material theory proposed by Biot since it takes explicit account of all the wave types known to propagate in elastic porous materials. As a result, it is possible to use the theory presented here to calculate the transmission loss of lined double panels at arbitrary angles of incidence; results calculated over a range of incidence angles may then be combined to yield the random incidence transmission loss. In this paper, the equations governing wave propagation in an elastic porous material are first considered briefly and then the general forms for the stresses and displacements within the porous material are given. Those solutions are expressed in terms of a number of constants that can be determined by application of appropriate boundary conditions. The boundary conditions required to model double panels having linings that are either directly attached to the facing panels or separated?!from them by air gaps are presented and discussed. Measurements of the random incidence transmission loss of aluminium double-panel structures lined with polyurethane foam are presented and have been found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Both the theoretical predictions and the measured results have shown that the method by which an elastic porous lining material is attached to the facing panels can have a profound influence on the transmission loss of the panel system. It has been found, for example, that treatments in which the lining material

  11. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  12. Multiwavelet packet entropy and its application in transmission line fault recognition and classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qiaoge

    2014-11-01

    Multiwavelets possess better properties than traditional wavelets. Multiwavelet packet transformation has more high-frequency information. Spectral entropy can be applied as an analysis index to the complexity or uncertainty of a signal. This paper tries to define four multiwavelet packet entropies to extract the features of different transmission line faults, and uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to recognize and classify 10 fault types of power transmission lines. First, the preprocessing and postprocessing problems of multiwavelets are presented. Shannon entropy and Tsallis entropy are introduced, and their difference is discussed. Second, multiwavelet packet energy entropy, time entropy, Shannon singular entropy, and Tsallis singular entropy are defined as the feature extraction methods of transmission line fault signals. Third, the plan of transmission line fault recognition using multiwavelet packet entropies and an RBF neural network is proposed. Finally, the experimental results show that the plan with the four multiwavelet packet energy entropies defined in this paper achieves better performance in fault recognition. The performance with SA4 (symmetric antisymmetric) multiwavelet packet Tsallis singular entropy is the best among the combinations of different multiwavelet packets and the four multiwavelet packet entropies.

  13. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line. 192.476 Section 192.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 76 FR 15970 - Central Ferry to Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability..., and Walla Walla counties, Washington. BPA has decided to implement the Combination A Alternative... single- circuit transmission line from BPA's new Central Ferry Substation near the Port of Central...

  15. Effect of discontinuities on the group delay of a microwave transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, R. W.; Otoshi, T. Y.

    1975-01-01

    The problem is considered of the effect of reflections from discontinuities at each end of a transmission line on the group delay at microwave frequencies. Previous work is briefly reviewed and a general analysis is made. Graphical data are presented based upon the formulas developed. Experimental results are given which confirm the theory.

  16. Efficient design of multituned transmission line NMR probes: the electrical engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Frydel, J A; Krzystyniak, M; Pienkowski, D; Pietrzak, M; de Sousa Amadeu, N; Ratajczyk, T; Idzik, K; Gutmann, T; Tietze, D; Voigt, S; Fenn, A; Limbach, H H; Buntkowsky, G

    2011-01-01

    Transmission line-based multi-channel solid state NMR probes have many advantages regarding the cost of construction, number of RF-channels, and achievable RF-power levels. Nevertheless, these probes are only rarely employed in solid state-NMR-labs, mainly owing to the difficult experimental determination of the necessary RF-parameters. Here, the efficient design of multi-channel solid state MAS-NMR probes employing transmission line theory and modern techniques of electrical engineering is presented. As technical realization a five-channel ((1)H, (31)P, (13)C, (2)H and (15)N) probe for operation at 7 Tesla is described. This very cost efficient design goal is a multi port single coil transmission line probe based on the design developed by Schaefer and McKay. The electrical performance of the probe is determined by measuring of Scattering matrix parameters (S-parameters) in particular input/output ports. These parameters are compared to the calculated parameters of the design employing the S-matrix formalism. It is shown that the S-matrix formalism provides an excellent tool for examination of transmission line probes and thus the tool for a rational design of these probes. On the other hand, the resulting design provides excellent electrical performance. From a point of view of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), calibration spectra of particular ports (channels) are of great importance. The estimation of the π/2 pulses length for all five NMR channels is presented.

  17. Determination of complex permittivity from propagation constant measurement with planar transmission lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new two-standard calibration procedure is outlined for determining the complex permittivity of materials from the propagation constant measured with planar transmission lines. Once calibrated, a closed-form expression for the material permittivity is obtained. The effects of radiation and conducto...

  18. Effect of nonlinear wave collapse on line shapes in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, I.; Stamm, R.; Rosato, J.; Marandet, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of waves can change the structural and radiative properties of plasmas. We describe the main features of a fully ionized unmagnetized plasma affected by strong Langmuir turbulence characterized by nonlinear wave collapse, and propose a simple model for evaluating the changes expected on a hydrogen line shape affected by such conditions. Our model is based on a stochastic renewal model using an exponential waiting time distribution and a half-normal probability density function for the electric-field magnitude of the turbulent wave packet. The first results obtained with a simulation calculation of the hydrogen \\text{L}α line show that strong Langmuir turbulence can provide an additional broadening to a Stark profile.

  19. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Mark F.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2013-12-01

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion.

  20. A new line-of-sight approach to the non-linear Cosmic Microwave Background

    SciTech Connect

    Fidler, Christian; Koyama, Kazuya; Pettinari, Guido W. E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2015-04-01

    We develop the transport operator formalism, a new line-of-sight integration framework to calculate the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at the linear and non-linear level. This formalism utilises a transformation operator that removes all inhomogeneous propagation effects acting on the photon distribution function, thus achieving a split between perturbative collisional effects at recombination and non-perturbative line-of-sight effects at later times. The former can be computed in the framework of standard cosmological perturbation theory with a second-order Boltzmann code such as SONG, while the latter can be treated within a separate perturbative scheme allowing the use of non-linear Newtonian potentials. We thus provide a consistent framework to compute all physical effects contained in the Boltzmann equation and to combine the standard remapping approach with Boltzmann codes at any order in perturbation theory, without assuming that all sources are localised at recombination.

  1. Frequency considerations in evaluation of geomagnetically induced currents in transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Significant impacts of large geomagnetically induced currents on power transmission systems lead to the necessity to properly evaluate the size of these currents. Several simplified assumptions which are used for the modelling of these currents would be clarified in the presentations. The following two classes of possible sources of errors will be discussed: 1. "Geophysical" uncertainties in the evaluation of the earth geoelectric field, such as a) influence of geomagnetic sampling rate on the "true" waveform of the geomagnetic disturbance and b) influence of the uncertainties in the 1-dimensional layered earth models; 2. Assumptions in the power network modelling, such as a) DC-approximation of the response of transmission line and b) not taking into accounts the impacts of the conducting system (transmission lines) on the ambient (geophysical) electric field. The results of presented research will help in proper evaluations of the GIC and, therefore, in preparing the adequate mitigation measures to counteract the space weather impacts on critical infrastructure.

  2. Advances in fibers and transmission line technology for long haul submarine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, David W.; Kim, Jinkee; Sun, Yi; Lingle, Robert L., Jr.; Levring, Ole

    2007-11-01

    The 7.1-magnitude earthquake on December 26, 2006 in the Strait of Luzon resulted in the failure of several submarine cable systems. Seven of the nine cables that pass through the strait were damaged, disrupting communications to China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Singapore. This recent event highlighted the dependence of international communications on submarine fiber optic transmission systems. This paper will review the evolution of optical fiber transmission line technology that has been deployed in the long haul undersea telecommunications network. It will start with a discussion of the chronological evolution of the optical fiber transmission line architecture in section one, then give more detail regarding the technology that is still being deployed today.

  3. Theoretical limit of repeater spacing in an optical transmission line utilizing Raman amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, T.; Seikai, S.; Nakazawa, M.; Negishi, Y.

    1986-08-01

    The limit of repeater spacing is investigated theoretically for optical transmission lines utilizing stimulated Raman scattering to amplify the signal light. Achievable repeater spacing is numerically estimated on the basis of coupled power equations and measured fiber characteristics for various signal wavelengths and relative index differences. Three types of transmission line configurations are considered, i.e., utilization of forward only, backward only, and bidirectional amplification. In the third case, a transmission distance of more than 400 km is predicted for an input signal light power of 100 microW, a signal wavelength of 1.57 microns, and a pump power of 0.5 W using a fiber with a relative index difference of 1 percent for signal light amplification.

  4. Identification and characterization of populations living near high-voltage transmission lines: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Wartenberg, D; Greenberg, M; Lathrop, R

    1993-01-01

    Populations living close to high-voltage transmission lines often have residential magnetic field exposures in excess of 1 microT, and sometimes over 2 microT. Yet, populations studied in most epidemiologic investigations of the association between residential magnetic field exposure and cancer typically have exposures below 1 microT and frequently below 0.5 microT. To improve statistical power and precision, it would be useful to compare high exposure populations with low exposure populations rather than only studying small differences within low exposure populations. Toward this end, we have developed an automated method for identifying populations living near high-voltage transmission lines. These populations likely have more highly exposed individuals than the population at large. The method uses a geographic information system (GIS) to superimpose digitized transmission line locations on U.S. Census block location data and then extract relevant demographic data. Analysis of data from a pilot study of the populations residing within 100 m of a 29-km segment of one 230-kV line in New Jersey shows that when compared to populations in the surrounding census blocks farther than 100 m from this line, those populations close to the line have similar demographics but differ in terms of perceived housing value variables. We believe that the approach we have developed will enable investigators to rapidly identify and characterize populations living near high-voltage transmission lines on a statewide basis for considering the impact of exposures and for public policy and that these populations also can be used for epidemiologic study. Images p626-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8143596

  5. Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of Power Line Transmission Parameters for Power Line Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynek, P.; Misurec, J.; Koutny, M.; Fujdiak, R.; Jedlicka, T.

    2015-04-01

    The article describes a way of evaluating the power line channel frequency response and input impedance by means of the linear time-invariant (LTI) power line generator. Two possible methods are introduced for the calculation of primary parameters: the first method depends on the physical realization and physical dimension of the cable, and the second method is derived from the data provided by typical electrical cable manufacturers. Based on these methods, a comparison of transfer functions was made. This is followed by measurement evaluation and numerical verification on a simple topology

  6. Design and characterization of nonlinear functions for the transmission of a small signal with non-Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Seiya; Tadokoro, Yukihiro; Ichiki, Akihisa

    2013-12-01

    We design nonlinear functions for the transmission of a small signal with non-Gaussian noise and perform experiments to characterize their responses. Using statistical design theory [A. Ichiki and Y. Tadokoro, Phys. Rev. E 87, 012124 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.012124], a static nonlinear function is estimated from the probability density function of the given noise in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the output. Using an electronic system that implements the optimized nonlinear function, we confirm the recovery of a small signal from a signal with non-Gaussian noise. In our experiment, the non-Gaussian noise is a mixture of Gaussian noises. A similar technique is also applied to the optimization of the threshold value of the function. We find that, for non-Gaussian noise, the response of the optimized nonlinear systems is better than that of the linear system.

  7. Results of TLMRC research on x-bracing strength in lattice transmission towers. [Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, D.D. Jr.; Nickerson, R. )

    1993-01-01

    The generally accepted procedures for designing lattice transmission towers in the US are those given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) guide, Guide for Design of Steel Transmission Towers (ASCE Manual 52). When the ASCE Task Committee on updating Manual 52 was active prior to publishing the second edition, a topic of discussion and disagreement was the calculation of the strength of X-bracing members. The primary point of disagreement was the effect of the tension member load on the support offered to the compression member and how this should be accounted for in calculating the capacity of the compression member. To clarify the design of X-bracing, EPRI's Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center (TLMRC) initiated a research program to study the strength of X-bracing, with particular emphasis on the effect of the tension member load on the capacity of the compression member. A two-dimensional test frame was used to test X-braces constructed of equal leg angles, unequal leg angles framed either on the long le or on the short leg.

  8. Theory and simulation of high-power microwave generation in a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Raymond W.; Clark, Collins M.

    1987-10-01

    The magnetically insulated transmission line (MITE-LINE) oscillator is an electron beam diode comprised of a field emitting cathode and a corrugated anode. The device is similar to a linear magnetron except that the insulating magnetic field is self-generated. The self-insulating property makes this device a robust high-power microwave tube. Using the thin-beam approximation a dispersion relation for a cylindrical MITE-LINE oscillator is derived. The dispersion relation is used to predict frequency and growth rate of the microwave generating instability. Analytical results are compared with CCUBE particle simulations.

  9. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  10. Space charge drift from a +/- 400-kV direct current transmission line.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, R C

    1986-01-01

    The Minnesota Environmental Quality Board completed a 3-year study of the space charge plume outside the right of way of a bipolar (+/- 400 kV) direct current transmission line in rural west central Minnesota. The purpose of the study was to determine the levels of DC potential gradient and small airs ions in the downwind plume to which humans and animals may be exposed. Potential gradient measurements show that a space charge plume is detectable downwind at least 1600 m from the transmission line. Plume relaxation rates indicate that under certain conditions one could detect the plume at twice that distance or more. Net charge in the plume assumes the polarity of the downwind energized transmission line conductor. The bipolar DC line thus electrically bisects the land through which it passes; on one side of the line there is a net positive space charge, on the other side a net negative space charge. Electric charge in the plume resides on aerosols and small air ions. Polar conductivity data substantiate the fact that small air ions of one polarity in the plume are elevated while those of opposite polarity are suppressed compared to background concentrations found in the rural environment. The resulting charge imbalance persists downwind at least 1600 m, though the median small air ion concentrations of plume polarity have adjusted to within the background range by that time with perpendicular wind speed components between 1 and 6 m/sec.

  11. Data-Mining-Based Intelligent Differential Relaying for Transmission Lines Including UPFC and Wind Farms.

    PubMed

    Jena, Manas Kumar; Samantaray, Subhransu Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a data-mining-based intelligent differential relaying scheme for transmission lines, including flexible ac transmission system device, such as unified power flow controller (UPFC) and wind farms. Initially, the current and voltage signals are processed through extended Kalman filter phasor measurement unit for phasor estimation, and 21 potential features are computed at both ends of the line. Once the features are extracted at both ends, the corresponding differential features are derived. These differential features are fed to a data-mining model known as decision tree (DT) to provide the final relaying decision. The proposed technique has been extensively tested for single-circuit transmission line, including UPFC and wind farms with in-feed, double-circuit line with UPFC on one line and wind farm as one of the substations with wide variations in operating parameters. The test results obtained from simulation as well as in real-time digital simulator testing indicate that the DT-based intelligent differential relaying scheme is highly reliable and accurate with a response time of 2.25 cycles from the fault inception.

  12. Broad frequency-band characterizations of electromagnetic energy propagation in planar thin-film transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongchul; Eo, Yungseon

    2014-04-01

    Thin-film transmission lines are experimentally characterized in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 110 GHz. Scattering (S-) parameters for several test lines are measured. Then, two important transmission line parameters ( i.e., the propagation constant and characteristic impedance) are determined in the measured frequency range. The resonances, which are inevitable in a practical experimental environment, are carefully eliminated by de-embedding parasitic effects and by determining the frequency-variant dielectric permittivity based on the Debye model. Based on the experimental work, we showed that the conventional skin-effect model may not be accurate for high-frequencies. Further, the 3-dimensional (3D) numerical field solver does not reflect the radiation loss at high-frequency. Finally, in the millimeter (mm)-wave region, all the three loss mechanisms due to the skin-effect, dielectric polarization, and electromagnetic radiation have to be taken into account.

  13. Rolled-up transmission line structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2015-04-28

    A rolled-up transmission line structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC) comprises a multilayer sheet in a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis, where the multilayer sheet comprises a conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer. The conductive pattern layer comprises a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, the first conductive film surrounds the longitudinal axis, and the second conductive film surrounds the first conductive film. The first conductive film serves as a signal line and the second conductive film serves as a conductive shield for the rolled-up transmission line structure.

  14. Wave reflection and transmission reduction using a piezoelectric semipassive nonlinear technique.

    PubMed

    Guyomar, D; Faiz, A; Petit, L; Richard, C

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of noise reduction using piezoelements. The nonlinear technique, synchronized switch damping (SSD), is implemented. The device is a pulse-tube termination equipped with piezoelements, which allows performant damping of the vibration resulting from an incident acoustic wave. Due to this damping, both reflected and transmitted wave are reduced. In the semipassive damping approach proposed in this paper, energy degradation is strongly enhanced when the piezoelements are continuously switched from open to short circuit synchronously to the strain. This technique has been developed following two strategies. The first is SSD on a short circuit in which the piezoelement is always in open circuit, except for a very brief period at each strain extremum where it is short-circuited. The second approach is SSD on an inductor. The process is very similar, except that instead of forcing the voltage to zero, the voltage is exactly reversed using a controlled oscillating discharge of the piezoelement capacitor on an inductor during switch drive. Due to this switching mechanism, a phase shift appears between the strain and the resulting voltage, thus creating energy dissipation. Following SSD on an piezoelement, attenuations of 15 dB in reflection and 7 dB in transmission were obtained. PMID:16454284

  15. Lightning Surge Analysis for 500-kV Transmission Lines using Grounding Model with Dynamic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoh; Kondo, Shuhei; Hara, Takehisa; Ikeda, Keiichi; Sonoi, Yasuo; Furuoka, Yoshihiro

    It is well known that grounding resistance under huge lightning current injection has current-dependent characteristics, whose mathematical model was already proposed by Liew and Darveniza in 1974. In this paper, where our final goal is reasonable design for lightning protection of 500-kV transmission tower, we adopt the dynamic grounding-resistance model to MODELS-ATP simulation. The effect of the model for the lightning surge analysis on 500-kV transmission line systems is discussed in detail.

  16. Direct Simulation of Evolution and Control of Nonlinear Instabilities in Attachment-Line Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    2004-01-01

    The unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used for the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of spatially evolving disturbances in a three-dimensional (3-D) attachment-line boundary layer. Two-dimensional (2-D) disturbances are introduced either by forcing at the in ow or by harmonic-source generators at the wall; 3-D disturbances are introduced by harmonic-source generators at the wall. The DNS results are in good agreement with both 2-D non-parallel theory (for small-amplitude disturbances) and weakly nonlinear theory (for finite-amplitude disturbances), which validates the two theories. The 2-D DNS results indicate that nonlinear disturbance growth occurs near branch II of the neutral stability curve; however, steady suction can be used to stabilize this disturbance growth. For 3-D instabilities that are generated o the attachment line, spreading both toward and away from the attachment line causes energy transfer to the attachment-line and downstream instabilities; suction stabilizes these instabilities. Furthermore, 3-D instabilities are more stable than 2-D or quasi-2-D instabilities.

  17. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-01-01

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices. PMID:27213402

  18. Study on galloping behavior of iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Linshu; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Song

    2016-02-01

    Wind tunnel test was carried out to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of an eight bundle conductor accreted with crescent-shaped ice. A user-defined cable element with torsional degree of freedom is developed in ABAQUS software to capture the torsional deformation of the iced conductors during galloping. By means of the user-defined cable element, different damping ratios in in-plane, out-of-plane and torsional directions of the conductors can be defined and the aerodynamic forces varying with their motion status can be exerted on the conductors conveniently when ABAQUS is used to simulate galloping of transmission lines. A wind tunnel test to model galloping of an iced eight bundle conductor segment was carried out, and the validity of the numerical simulation method is demonstrated by the agreement of the galloping orbit of the bundle conductor segment model recorded in the test and that by the numerical simulation. Furthermore, galloping behavior, including dynamic responses, galloping orbits, frequencies, vibration modes and amplitudes, of typical iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines in the cases of different span lengths, initial tensions in sub-conductors, wind velocities, angles of wind attack and damping ratios is studied, and the galloping behavior of the lines with internal resonance conditions is discussed. The obtained results may provide a fundamental tool for the development of anti-galloping techniques of eight bundle conductor transmission lines.

  19. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-05-21

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices.

  20. TRIFL: A design tool for modeling complex magnetically insulated transmission line geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, L.P.; Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Seidel, D.B.; Rosenthal, S.E.

    1996-12-31

    Vacuum power flow in modern high-power pulsed accelerator transmission lines requires field stresses at the conductors that are so high that negative surfaces become space-charge-limited electron emitters. The performance of these lines can be calculated using two- and three-dimensional, time-dependent, particle-in-cell electromagnetic codes such a TWOQUICK and QUICKSILVER. Extensive design of complex systems using these simulation codes would be extremely expensive and, perhaps, impossible for many of the new pulsed power systems being planned. An analytic model has been developed which predicts the behavior of magnetically insulated transmission lines. The model uses flow impedance parameters with an expanded set of Telegrapher`s equations to calculate radial currents in the transmission lines. This model has been implemented in a code, TRIFL (TRIple-equation-FLow model), on workstations and PC`s and allows one to do detailed designed studies on systems far too complex for similar treatment using a PIC code. TRIFL has been used to design hardware for the PBFA-X accelerator and to analyze PBFA-X data.

  1. Simulation of Nonlinear Instabilities in an Attachment-Line Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1996-01-01

    The linear and the nonlinear stability of disturbances that propagate along the attachment line of a three-dimensional boundary layer is considered. The spatially evolving disturbances in the boundary layer are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Disturbances are introduced either by forcing at the in ow or by applying suction and blowing at the wall. Quasi-parallel linear stability theory and a nonparallel theory yield notably different stability characteristics for disturbances near the critical Reynolds number; the DNS results con rm the latter theory. Previously, a weakly nonlinear theory and computations revealed a high wave-number region of subcritical disturbance growth. More recent computations have failed to achieve this subcritical growth. The present computational results indicate the presence of subcritically growing disturbances; the results support the weakly nonlinear theory. Furthermore, an explanation is provided for the previous theoretical and computational discrepancy. In addition, the present results demonstrate that steady suction can be used to stabilize disturbances that otherwise grow subcritically along the attachment line.

  2. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  3. Comprehensive techniques to determine broadband physically-consistent material characteristics using transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen

    Dispersion, attenuation, and crosstalk are several major challenges that both a high-speed digital and a microwave serial link must overcome to achieve their desirable performance. These phenomena are directly related to the frequency dependency of the dielectric property of the material used in package and interconnect. The dielectric property of a material is commonly measured by its manufacturer in a particular direction at a few discrete frequencies using resonator and waveguide methodology. Since the dielectric property may vary during manufacturing processing, the measurements taken by the manufacturer might be not adequate. Moreover, the dielectric property of a material in a bandwidth that covers at least the second harmonics of the fundamental operational frequency is required to accurately predict the link performance. One of the efforts in this research is to investigate the methodology of realizing broadband characteristics of the dielectric property of a material in its "as packaged" configuration using various transmission line topologies, such as microstrip line and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW). Transitions from CPW to other transmission line topologies are mandatory if CPW probes are used to achieve broadband and repeatable measurements. Since microstrip line is one of the transmission line topologies involved in this research, a research effort is dedicated to develop a broadband CPW-to-microstrip line transition. An effort is also expended to creating casual material models that can be used in electromagnetic simulators to appropriately model the link based on the polarization mechanism of the materials. In addition to focusing on the measurement method in frequency domain, Short Pulse Propagation (SPP), a time domain method, is investigated as well. A virtual test bench is created to investigate the correlation between impedance variations in stripline structures due to fabricated tolerance and the attenuation predicted by SPP.

  4. Transmission lines implementation on HDI flex circuits for the CMS tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchot, G.; De Canio, F.; Gadek, T.; Honma, A.; Kovacs, M.; Rose, P.; Traversi, G.

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS tracker at the HL-LHC relies on hybrid modules built on high density interconnecting flexible circuits. They contain several flip chip readout ASICs having high speed digital ports required for configuration and data readout, implemented as customized Scalable Low-Voltage Signalling (SLVS) differential pairs. This paper presents the connectivity requirements on the CMS tracker hybrids; it compares several transmission line implementations in terms of board area, achievable impedances and expected crosstalk. The properties obtained by means of simulations are compared with measurements made on a dedicated test circuit. The different transmission line implementations are also tested using a custom 65nm SLVS driver and receiver prototype ASIC.

  5. Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Steinar J.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.

  6. High strength polymer post insulators enable economical transmission lines with low environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Givens, P.S.; Grisham, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    In today`s operational environment, utility transmission engineers are being challenged with a new set of design parameters. In addition to the traditional objective of system reliability, new issues of paramount importance heave evolved. These include the reduction of construction costs, addressing transmission line aesthetics, and optimizing power delivery within restricted right of way. This document describes a design approach which enables the engineer to maximize these criteria without sacrificing system reliability. A laboratory test method for polymer post insulators is also presented which effectively simulates combined mechanical load conditions expected in application, thus allowing the utility engineer to optimize span lengths, conductor size, and insulator selection. Polymer history and benefits associated with compact line design are also reviewed.

  7. AC and lightning performance of fiberglass crossarms aged in 115 kV transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Grzybowski, S. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Jenkins, E.B. . Generation and Transmission Group)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the electrical performance of 115 kV transmission line fiberglass cross-arm used by Mississippi Power and Light Company. A transmission line fiberglass crossarm removed from service and companion cross-arms outdoors but not in service were examined. The evaluation of electrical performance was based on flashover voltage value at AC voltage and standard lightning impulses as well as under dry and wet conditions. The tests were performed in the Mississippi State University High Voltage Laboratory. The obtained flashover voltages show no large differences in electrical strength of fiberglass crossarms removed from service and those stored outdoors. The Added CFO voltage by fiberglass crossarm to the porcelain suspension insulators is presented versus the length of the fiberglass crossarm for dry and wet conditions.

  8. Application guide for transmission line non-ceramic insulators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.; Childs, D.; Gela, G.

    1998-11-01

    Although there has been a dramatic increase in NCI use over the last decade, there is a wide variation in NCI design procedures, procurement specifications, installation and handling practices, live working techniques, and inspection and maintenance methods. Consequently, practicing utility engineers need a source of relevant information and recommendations on these subjects. EPRI has responded to this need by investing in a major multiyear research program on NCI. This report provides guidelines for electric utilities considering the use of non-ceramic insulators (NCI). It includes information on new installations, the replacement of conventional porcelain or glass (ceramic) insulators with NCI on existing transmission lines, and the assessment of NCI in service on transmission lines.

  9. Transmission line inversion and synthesis from the point of view of transient response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sondhi, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    The transmission line inversion problem is applied to the speech communication process. The problem involves acquiring information necessary for synthesis of speech and for making models of the speech production mechanism. Formulation for the problem is derived from an analysis of the human vocal tract functions. It is known that speech sounds are produced by acoustic excitation of the tract by means of quasi-periodic pulses from the vocal cords during vowel sounds and turbulent air flow at various points along the tract during fricative sounds. By assuming plane wave propagation, differential equations are obtained relating the cross sectional area of the tract, the pressure, and the volume velocity. By replacing the pressure factor with a voltage factor and the volume velocity by current, the problem becomes a transmission line problem.

  10. Overlap amplitude and localization properties in aperiodic diluted and non-diluted direct electric transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, E.; Castro, C. E.; Cortés-Cortés, F.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we study the relationship existing between the localization properties of the diluted and non-diluted direct electrical transmission lines with the overlap amplitude Cijω = 2 | Iiω Ijω | , where Ijω is the amplitude of the electric current function at jth cell of the transmission line for the state with frequency ω. We distribute two values of inductances LA and LB, according to the generalized aperiodic Thue-Morse m-tupling sequence. We find that the behavior of Ci,jω is directly related to the localization properties of the aperiodic sequences measured by the ξ normalized participation number, the Rq Rényi entropies and the μq moments. In addition, we generalize the scaling relationship for the overlap amplitude Ci,jω, i.e., <(Ci,jω) 2 q > =(2/N) 2 q.

  11. Mid-infrared metasurface made of composite right/left-handed transmission-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Ying, Xiangxiao; Pu, Yang; Jiang, Yadong; Xu, Jimmy; Liu, Zhijun

    2016-06-01

    We report on the realization of a mid-infrared metasurface based on the concept of composite right/left-handed transmission-line. The metasurface consists of a three-layer metal-insulator-metal structure patterned into transmission-lines by electron-beam lithography. Angle-variable reflection spectroscopy measurements reveal resonant absorption features corresponding to both right- and left-handed propagations in the leaky-wave guided mode region. Material loss is shown to dominate the quality factor of the left-handed modes, while the radiative loss dominates the right-handed ones. The experimental results are in good agreement with full-wave numerical simulations and are explained with an equivalent circuit model.

  12. Suppression of the skin effect in radio frequency transmission lines via gridded conductor fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Ian A. D.; Nguyen, Thien-An N.; Wang, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Microwave propagation in transmission lines is fundamentally limited in bandwidth and reach by the skin and proximity effects. The resultant current crowding imparts a square-root frequency dependence on attenuation, and ultimately limits the spatial resolution of distributed transmission-line sensors and the data rate of communication systems. In this letter, we numerically analyze the microwave attenuation and impedance in μm-scale gridded fiber structures with currents arranged in a checkered pattern. The checkered lattice of currents significantly mitigates both the skin and proximity effects, and exhibits an unprecedented bandwidth (in excess of 1 GHz) of frequency-flat attenuation in a relatively small physical footprint (˜0.01 mm2).

  13. Effect of asphaltene deposition on the internal corrosion in transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, J.L.; Viloria, A.; Palacios T, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Crude oil from Norte de Monagas field, in Venezuela, contains large amounts of asphaltenes, some of them are very unstable with tendency to precipitate. Because liquid is carried over from the separation process in the flow stations, asphaltenes are also present in the gas gathering and transmission lines, precipitating on inner wall of pipelines. The gas gathering and transmission lines contain gas with high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}, some H{sub 2}S and are water saturated; therefore inhibitors are used to control the internal corrosion. There is uncertainty on how inhibitors perform in the presence of asphaltene deposition. To protect the pipelines from external corrosion, cathodic protection is used. Since asphaltenes have polar properties, there exists an uncertainty on whether it enhances asphaltene precipitation and deposition. The purpose of this paper to describe the causes that enhance asphaltene deposition on gas and some of the preliminary result from an ongoing research project carried out by Intevep and Corpoven.

  14. Coupling mid-infrared light from a photonic crystal waveguide to metallic transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu; Garcia-Adeva, Angel; Zubia, Joseba

    2014-01-06

    We propose and theoretically study a hybrid structure consisting of a photonic crystal waveguide (PhC-wg) and a two-wire metallic transmission line (TL), engineered for efficient transfer of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light between them. An efficiency of 32% is obtained for the coupling from the transverse magnetic (TM) photonic mode to the symmetric mode of the TL, with a predicted intensity enhancement factor of 53 at the transmission line surface. The strong coupling is explained by the small phase velocity mismatch and sufficient spatial overlapping between the modes. This hybrid structure could find applications in highly integrated mid-IR photonic-plasmonic devices for biological and gas sensing, among others.

  15. Transmission competency of single-female Xiphinema index lines for Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    PubMed

    Demangeat, Gérard; Komar, Véronique; Van-Ghelder, Cyril; Voisin, Roger; Lemaire, Olivier; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Fuchs, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is vectored specifically from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Limited information is available on the vector competency of X. index populations from diverse geographical origins. We determined the transmissibility of two GFLV strains showing 4.6% amino acid divergence within their coat protein (e.g., strains F13 and GHu) by seven clonal lines of X. index developed from seven distinct populations from the Mediterranean basin (Cyprus, southern France, Israel, Italy, and Spain), northern France, and California. X. index lines derived from single adult females were produced on fig (Ficus carica) plants to obtain genetically homogenous aviruliferous clones. A comparative reproductive rate analysis on Vitis rupestris du Lot and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon showed significant differences among clones, with the single-female Cyprus line showing the highest rate (30-fold the initial population) and the Spain and California lines showing the lowest rate (10-fold increase), regardless of the grapevine genotype. However, there was no differential vector competency among the seven X. index lines for GFLV strains F13 and GHu. The implications of our findings for the dynamic of GFLV transmission in vineyards and screening of Vitis spp. for resistance to GFLV are discussed.

  16. On-chip sub-terahertz surface plasmon polariton transmission lines with mode converter in CMOS.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Wen, Jincai; Apriyana, Anak Agung Alit; Li, Nan; Luo, Yu; Sun, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    An on-chip low-loss and high conversion efficiency plasmonic waveguide converter is demonstrated at sub-THz in CMOS. By introducing a subwavelength periodic corrugated structure onto the transmission line (T-line) implemented by a top-layer metal, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) are established to propagate signals with strongly localized surface-wave. To match both impedance and momentum of other on-chip components with TEM-wave propagation, a mode converter structure featured by a smooth bridge between the Ground coplanar waveguide (GCPW) with 50 Ω impedance and SPP T-line is proposed. To further reduce area, the converter is ultimately simplified to a gradual increment of groove with smooth gradient. The proposed SPP T-lines with the converter is designed and fabricated in the standard 65 nm CMOS process. Both near-field simulation and measurement results show excellent conversion efficiency from quasi-TEM to SPP modes in a broadband frequency range. The converter achieves wideband impedance matching (<-9 dB) with excellent transmission efficiency (averagely -1.9 dB) from 110 GHz-325 GHz. The demonstrated compact and wideband SPP T-lines with mode converter have shown great potentials to replace existing waveguides as future on-chip THz interconnects. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate the (sub)-THz surface mode conversion on-chip in CMOS technology.

  17. On-chip sub-terahertz surface plasmon polariton transmission lines with mode converter in CMOS.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Wen, Jincai; Apriyana, Anak Agung Alit; Li, Nan; Luo, Yu; Sun, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    An on-chip low-loss and high conversion efficiency plasmonic waveguide converter is demonstrated at sub-THz in CMOS. By introducing a subwavelength periodic corrugated structure onto the transmission line (T-line) implemented by a top-layer metal, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) are established to propagate signals with strongly localized surface-wave. To match both impedance and momentum of other on-chip components with TEM-wave propagation, a mode converter structure featured by a smooth bridge between the Ground coplanar waveguide (GCPW) with 50 Ω impedance and SPP T-line is proposed. To further reduce area, the converter is ultimately simplified to a gradual increment of groove with smooth gradient. The proposed SPP T-lines with the converter is designed and fabricated in the standard 65 nm CMOS process. Both near-field simulation and measurement results show excellent conversion efficiency from quasi-TEM to SPP modes in a broadband frequency range. The converter achieves wideband impedance matching (<-9 dB) with excellent transmission efficiency (averagely -1.9 dB) from 110 GHz-325 GHz. The demonstrated compact and wideband SPP T-lines with mode converter have shown great potentials to replace existing waveguides as future on-chip THz interconnects. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate the (sub)-THz surface mode conversion on-chip in CMOS technology. PMID:27444782

  18. On-chip sub-terahertz surface plasmon polariton transmission lines with mode converter in CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Wen, Jincai; Apriyana, Anak Agung Alit; Li, Nan; Luo, Yu; Sun, Lingling

    2016-07-01

    An on-chip low-loss and high conversion efficiency plasmonic waveguide converter is demonstrated at sub-THz in CMOS. By introducing a subwavelength periodic corrugated structure onto the transmission line (T-line) implemented by a top-layer metal, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) are established to propagate signals with strongly localized surface-wave. To match both impedance and momentum of other on-chip components with TEM-wave propagation, a mode converter structure featured by a smooth bridge between the Ground coplanar waveguide (GCPW) with 50 Ω impedance and SPP T-line is proposed. To further reduce area, the converter is ultimately simplified to a gradual increment of groove with smooth gradient. The proposed SPP T-lines with the converter is designed and fabricated in the standard 65 nm CMOS process. Both near-field simulation and measurement results show excellent conversion efficiency from quasi-TEM to SPP modes in a broadband frequency range. The converter achieves wideband impedance matching (<-9 dB) with excellent transmission efficiency (averagely -1.9 dB) from 110 GHz-325 GHz. The demonstrated compact and wideband SPP T-lines with mode converter have shown great potentials to replace existing waveguides as future on-chip THz interconnects. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate the (sub)-THz surface mode conversion on-chip in CMOS technology.

  19. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such, it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.

  20. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such,more » it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.« less

  1. Mutual design: Overhead transmission lines and railroad facilities: Susceptibility program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.J.; Little, D.R.

    1989-07-01

    The sharing of common corridors by electric power transmission lines and railroad facilities can result in the coupling of unwanted electromagnetic energy from the power lines into nearby railroad systems. The coupling can result in voltage being induced onto the railroad system conductors that may compromise the inherent safety and reliability of the railroad signalling system. This broad-scoped research program, which is co-sponsored by EPRI and the AAR, is addressing the problem from two directions. This two volume report describes a Phase 1 effort to develop the methods and techniques for quantifying the signal system response to interference. 54 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Attenuation of epsilon(sub eff) of coplanar waveguide transmission lines on silicon substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taub, Susan R.; Young, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    Attenuation and epsilon(sub eff) of Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) transmission lines were measured on Silicon substrates with resistivities ranging from 400 to greater than 30,000 ohm-cm, that have a 1000 angstrom coating of SiO2. Both attenuation and epsilon(sub eff) are given over the frequency range 5 to 40 GHz for various strip and slot widths. These measured values are also compared to the theoretical values.

  3. Sound transmission through triple-panel structures lined with poroelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, previous theories on the prediction of sound transmission loss for a double-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials are extended to address the problem of a triple-panel structure. Six typical configurations are considered for a triple-panel structure based on the method of coupling the porous layers to the facing panels which determines critically the sound insulation performance of the system. The transfer matrix method is employed to solve the system by applying appropriate types of boundary conditions for these configurations. The transmission loss of the triple-panel structures in a diffuse sound field is calculated as a function of frequency and compared with that of corresponding double-panel structures. Generally, the triple-panel structure with poroelastic linings has superior acoustic performance to the double-panel counterpart, remarkably in the mid-high frequency range and possibly at low frequencies, by selecting appropriate configurations in which those with two air gaps in the structure exhibit the best overall performance over the entire frequency range. The poroelastic lining significantly lowers the cut-on frequency above which the triple-panel structure exhibits noticeably higher transmission loss. Compared with a double-panel structure, the wider range of system parameters for a triple-panel structure due to the additional partition provides more design space for tuning the sound insulation performance. Despite the increased structural complexity, the triple-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials has the obvious advantages in sound transmission loss while without the penalties in weight and volume, and is hence a promising replacement for the widely used double-panel sandwich structure.

  4. Numerical modeling of geomagnetically induced currents in a Brazilian transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Barbosa, Cleiton; Hartmann, Gelvam André; Pinheiro, Katia Jasbinschek

    2015-02-01

    Rapid changes in the external geomagnetic field induce electric currents in conducting materials at the Earth's surface. These geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) are mostly studied in transmission lines at high-latitude due to their frequent hazards. However, recent studies have shown that low- and middle-latitude regions may also be subject to problems due to GIC occurrences. In this work we apply a numerical model, using plane wave theory and a one-dimensional electrical resistivity model of the region, to calculate the geoelectric field and the GIC measured directly at the Itumbiara-São Simão (IS) transmission line (Southeast Brazil) during a magnetic storm occurred between 7-10th November 2004. We use two electrical resistivity models: (a) one-layer model, in which our results do not reproduce the measured GIC directly in the IS transmission line, and (b) four-layer model, which presents similar patterns of temporal variation and intensities of the measured electric fields and GIC. After validating the four-layer numerical model, we calculate the electric fields and GIC during the “Halloween storm” (29th October-1st November 2003). Our results of the Halloween storm show maximum GIC amplitudes of 25 A, which are higher than registered in other middle latitude countries, such as South Africa and Uruguay. These results indicate that the Brazilian power network might be subjected to the GIC hazards in the future due to strong magnetic storms. In addition, our numerical model might be used as a potential tool for different geological sets, electrical resistivity models, transmission lines with distinct characteristics and for a range of magnetic storms intensities.

  5. Horizontal cryogenic bushing for the termination of a superconducting power-transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Minati, K.F.; Morgan, G.H.; McNerney, A.J.; Schauer, F.

    1982-07-29

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminated the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  6. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    DOEpatents

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  7. Particle trap with dielectric barrier for use in gas insulated transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping electrode is disposed within the outer sheath, and the electrode has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the apertured electrode.

  8. Particle trap with dielectric barrier for use in gas insulated transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Dale, S.J.

    1982-06-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping electrode is disposed within the outer sheath, and the electrode has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the apertured electrode. 7 figs.

  9. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. 29.21-8 Section 29.21-8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT Rights-of-Way General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric...

  10. Parallel-plate transmission line type of EMP simulators: Systematic review and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, D. V.; Liu, T. K.; Tesche, F. M.; King, R. W. P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents various aspects of the two-parallel-plate transmission line type of EMP simulator. Much of the work is the result of research efforts conducted during the last two decades at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, and in industries/universities as well. The principal features of individual simulator components are discussed. The report also emphasizes that it is imperative to hybridize our understanding of individual components so that we can draw meaningful conclusions of simulator performance as a whole.

  11. Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a system for isolating ground interference from a transmission line, e.g., a ground isolation circuit for isolating a wideband transmission signal (such as a video signal) from ground by modulating the base signal on a carrier signal to permit the transmission signal to be isolated. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a pair of matched mixer circuits, each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input, after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In a preferred embodiment the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which can comprise an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer connects to an isolation transformer to ensure isolation from ground interference. The circuit is considered to be of commercial value in that it can provide isolation between transmitting and receiving circuits, e.g., ground isolation for television circuits or high frequency transmitters, without the need for video transformers or optical isolators, thereby reducing the complexity, power consumption, and weight of the system.

  12. Discrete breathers in a nonlinear electric line: Modeling, computation, and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmero, F.; English, L. Q.; Cuevas, J.; Carretero-González, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2011-08-01

    We study experimentally and numerically the existence and stability properties of discrete breathers in a periodic nonlinear electric line. The electric line is composed of single cell nodes, containing a varactor diode and an inductor, coupled together in a periodic ring configuration through inductors and driven uniformly by a harmonic external voltage source. A simple model for each cell is proposed by using a nonlinear form for the varactor characteristics through the current and capacitance dependence on the voltage. For an electrical line composed of 32 elements, we find the regions, in driver voltage and frequency, where n-peaked breather solutions exist and characterize their stability. The results are compared to experimental measurements with good quantitative agreement. We also examine the spontaneous formation of n-peaked breathers through modulational instability of the homogeneous steady state. The competition between different discrete breathers seeded by the modulational instability eventually leads to stationary n-peaked solutions whose precise locations is seen to sensitively depend on the initial conditions.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of a friction-limited drive: Application to a chain continuously variable transmission (CVT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Nilabh; Haque, Imtiaz

    2009-03-01

    Over the past two decades, extensive research has been conducted on developing vehicle transmissions that meet the goals of reduced exhaust emissions and increased vehicle efficiency. A continuously variable transmission is an emerging automotive transmission technology that offers a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. A chain CVT is a friction-limited drive whose dynamic performance and torque capacity rely significantly on the friction characteristic of the contact patch between the chain and the pulley. Although a CVT helps to maximize the vehicle fuel economy, its complete potential has not been accomplished in a mass-production vehicle. The present research focuses on developing models to analyze friction-induced nonlinear dynamics of a chain CVT drive and identify possible mechanisms that cause degradation of the overall dynamic performance by inducing chaos and self-sustained vibrations in the system. Two different mathematical models of friction, which characterize different operating or loading conditions, are embedded into a detailed planar multibody model of chain CVT in order to capture the various friction-induced effects in the system. Tools such as stick-slip oscillator dynamics, Lyapunov exponents, phase-space reconstruction, and recurrence plotting are incorporated to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of such a friction-limited system. The mathematical models, the computational scheme, and the results corresponding to different loading scenarios are discussed. The results discuss the influence of friction characteristics on the nonlinear dynamics and torque transmitting capacity of a chain CVT drive.

  14. Accurate characterization and modeling of transmission lines for GaAs MMIC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Hugh J.; Jansen, Rolf H.; Jenkins, John A.; Eddison, Ian G.

    1988-06-01

    The authors discuss computer-aided design (CAD) tools together with high-accuracy microwave measurements to realize improved design data for GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). In particular, a combined theoretical and experimental approach to the generation of an accurate design database for transmission lines on GaAs MMICs is presented. The theoretical approach is based on an improved transmission-line theory which is part of the spectral-domain hybrid-mode computer program MCLINE. The benefit of this approach in the design of multidielectric-media transmission lines is described. The program was designed to include loss mechanisms in all dielectric layers and to include conductor and surface roughness loss contributions. As an example, using GaAs ring resonator techniques covering 2 to 24 GHz, accuracies in effective dielectric constant and loss of 1 percent and 15 percent respectively, are presented. By combining theoretical and experimental techniques, a generalized MMIC microstrip design database is outlined.

  15. Extra-high voltage transmission lines: mechanisms of biological effects on honeybees. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.; Bindokas, V.

    1985-08-01

    The authors confirmed that bee exposure to E fields, including 100 kV/m, under the dry conditions cause no detectable effect on colony behavior. If, however, exposure occurs when moisture is present, or if bees are on a conductive surface, they become visibly disturbed, mortality is increased, abnormal propolization occurs, and colony development may be impaired. It seems plausible that bees on conductive surfaces within a hive under a 765-kV/m transmission line can perceive shocks from body currents induced by enhanced intra-hive E fields. Hives exposed under a 765-kV/m transmission line to an ambient E field of 7 kV/m have internal step-potential-induced currents and interchamber chort-circuit currents which range from one-half to several microamperes. Total hive currents can exceed 100 ..mu..A. Thus, induced hive currents exceed the empirical sting threshold by up to a factor of 100 and the E-field-induced body current by up to a factor of 1000. The degree of disturbance which could be produced by these intra-hive currents will eclipse that produced by perception of E-field-induced body currents. The authors therefore attribute the disturbance of colonies under a transmission line primarily to electric shock from induced hive currents. 10 refs., 51 figs., 18 tabs. (DT)

  16. Fiber Bragg grating sensor for fault detection in high voltage overhead transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadas, Amin

    2011-12-01

    A fiber optic based sensor capable of fault detection in both radial and network overhead transmission power line systems is investigated. Bragg wavelength shift is used to measure the fault current and detect fault in power systems. Magnetic fields generated by currents in the overhead transmission lines cause a strain in magnetostrictive material which is then detected by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The Fiber Bragg interrogator senses the reflected FBG signals, and the Bragg wavelength shift is calculated and the signals are processed. A broadband light source in the control room scans the shift in the reflected signals. Any surge in the magnetic field relates to an increased fault current at a certain location. Also, fault location can be precisely defined with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. This algorithm can be easily coordinated with other protective devices. It is shown that the faults in the overhead transmission line cause a detectable wavelength shift on the reflected signal of FBG sensors and can be used to detect and classify different kind of faults. The proposed method has been extensively tested by simulation and results confirm that the proposed scheme is able to detect different kinds of fault in both radial and network system.

  17. New transmission line analogy applied to single and multilayered piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Dion, J L

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that a piezoelectric element vibrating in an extensional or shear mode can be modeled rigorously by systematic use of the transmission line analogy and the superposition theorem. A schematic representation of such an element which is in a way more intuitive than others representations is introduced. The stresses on the electroded faces are considered as sources of stress applied at the two ends of an acoustic transmission line, since the acoustical perturbations may be considered as originating on these faces. Using transmission line theory, a complete set of expressions is found for electrical impedance, acoustic stresses, and velocities. Computed results are exactly the same as those given by the classical method, even if the computation sequence is almost entirely different. An intuitive graphical model for a piezoelectric element is proposed. It is also shown that the acoustic velocities on opposite faces of an asymmetrical loaded piezoelectric plate are exactly equal at the antiresonance frequency when internal losses are neglected. The programs developed can be used efficiently for practical multilayered transducer design. PMID:18263222

  18. [Study on effects of bioelectric parameters of rats in electromagnetic radiation of HV transmission line].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anying; Pang, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With the development of economy and coming of information era, the chance of exposure to electromagnetic fields with various frequencies has been increased for every human. The effects of electromagnetic radiattion on human being's health are versatile. To study the effects of bioelctronic parameters of rats in the electromagnetic radiations of HV transmission line, EEG, ECG and CMAP were measured in rats exposed to simulating high-voltage transmission line electromagnetic radiation for over one year. Brain tissues were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that no significant difference between exposed group and control group in EEG; however the FT-infrared spectra of brain tissues were different; the ECG of the exposed animals was considerably altered. Significant slowing of heart rate was observed in those rates exposed to EMFs; the latent period of CMAP in exposed group were not different compared with those of control group however there was a significant difference in wave amplitude of CMAP between the exposed group and control group. All results indicated that there must be some effects on bioelectric parameters of rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation of high-voltage transmission line for a long time.

  19. Application of Goubau Surface Wave Transmission Line for Improved Bench Testing of Diagnostic Beamline Elements

    SciTech Connect

    John Musson, Keith Cole, Sheldon Rubin

    2009-05-01

    In-air test fixtures for beamline elements typically utilize an X-Y positioning stage, and a wire antenna excited by an RF source. In most cases, the antenna contains a standing wave, and is useful only for coarse alignment measurements in CW mode. A surface-wave (SW) based transmission line permits RF energy to be launched on the wire, travel through the beamline component, and then be absorbed in a load. Since SW transmission lines employ travelling waves, the RF energy can be made to resemble the electron beam, limited only by ohmic losses and dispersion. Although lossy coaxial systems are also a consideration, the diameter of the coax introduces large uncertainties in centroid location. A SW wire is easily constructed out of 200 micron magnet wire, which more accurately approximates the physical profile of the electron beam. Benefits of this test fixture include accurate field mapping, absolute calibration for given beam currents, Z-axis independence, and temporal response measurements of sub-nanosecond pulse structures. Descriptions of the surface wave launching technique, transmission line, and instrumentation are presented, along with measurement data.

  20. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Fault Detection in Radial and Network Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Moghadas, Amin A.; Shadaram, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a fiber optic based sensor capable of fault detection in both radial and network overhead transmission power line systems is investigated. Bragg wavelength shift is used to measure the fault current and detect fault in power systems. Magnetic fields generated by currents in the overhead transmission lines cause a strain in magnetostrictive material which is then detected by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). The Fiber Bragg interrogator senses the reflected FBG signals, and the Bragg wavelength shift is calculated and the signals are processed. A broadband light source in the control room scans the shift in the reflected signal. Any surge in the magnetic field relates to an increased fault current at a certain location. Also, fault location can be precisely defined with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. This algorithm can be easily coordinated with other protective devices. It is shown that the faults in the overhead transmission line cause a detectable wavelength shift on the reflected signal of FBG and can be used to detect and classify different kind of faults. The proposed method has been extensively tested by simulation and results confirm that the proposed scheme is able to detect different kinds of fault in both radial and network system. PMID:22163416

  1. Improved Fault Classification in Series Compensated Transmission Line: Comparative Evaluation of Chebyshev Neural Network Training Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Bhargav Y; Das, Biswarup; Maheshwari, Rudra Prakash

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the Chebyshev neural network (ChNN) as an improved artificial intelligence technique for power system protection studies and examines the performances of two ChNN learning algorithms for fault classification of series compensated transmission line. The training algorithms are least-square Levenberg-Marquardt (LSLM) and recursive least-square algorithm with forgetting factor (RLSFF). The performances of these algorithms are assessed based on their generalization capability in relating the fault current parameters with an event of fault in the transmission line. The proposed algorithm is fast in response as it utilizes postfault samples of three phase currents measured at the relaying end corresponding to half-cycle duration only. After being trained with only a small part of the generated fault data, the algorithms have been tested over a large number of fault cases with wide variation of system and fault parameters. Based on the studies carried out in this paper, it has been found that although the RLSFF algorithm is faster for training the ChNN in the fault classification application for series compensated transmission lines, the LSLM algorithm has the best accuracy in testing. The results prove that the proposed ChNN-based method is accurate, fast, easy to design, and immune to the level of compensations. Thus, it is suitable for digital relaying applications.

  2. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Pointon, T.D.; Savage, M.E.; Seidel, D.B.; Magne, I.; Vezinet, R.

    2006-04-15

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds.

  3. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Magne, I.; Savage, Mark Edward; Seidel, David Bruce; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David; Vezinet, R.

    2004-08-01

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds.

  4. Design and Control of a 1-DOF MRI Compatible Pneumatically Actuated Robot with Long Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Tan, U-Xuan; McMillan, Alan; Gullapalli, Rao; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control of an MRI-compatible 1-DOF needle driver robot and its precise position control using pneumatic actuation with long transmission lines. MRI provides superior image quality compared to other imaging modalities such as CT or ultrasound, but imposes severe limitations on the material and actuator choice (to prevent image distortion) due to its strong magnetic field. We are primarily interested in developing a pneumatically actuated breast biopsy robot with a large force bandwidth and precise targeting capability during radio-frequency ablation (RFA) of breast tumor, and exploring the possibility of using long pneumatic transmission lines from outside the MRI room to the device in the magnet to prevent any image distortion whatsoever. This paper presents a model of the entire pneumatic system. The pneumatic lines are approximated by a first order system with time delay, because its dynamics are governed by the telegraph equation with varying coefficients and boundary conditions, which cannot be solved precisely. The slow response of long pneumatic lines and valve subsystems make position control challenging. This is further compounded by the presence of non-uniform friction in the device. Sliding mode control (SMC) was adopted, where friction was treated as an uncertainty term to drive the system onto the sliding surface. Three different controllers were designed, developed, and evaluated to achieve precise position control of the RFA probe. Experimental results revealed that all SMCs gave satisfactory performance with long transmission lines. We also performed several experiments with a 3-DOF fiber-optic force sensor attached to the needle driver to evaluate the performance of the device in the MRI under continuous imaging. PMID:22058649

  5. HEMP-induced transients in transmission and distribution (T and D) lines

    SciTech Connect

    Engheta, N.; Lee, K.S.H.; Yang, F.C.; Aguero, R.

    1985-09-01

    The corona effects on the early-time induced transients on the transmission and distribution (T and D) lines are calculated based on two different corona models. Three different sources of excitation of the lines are considered, which include a HEMP plane wave, a localized voltage source, and a current injected at a point on the wire. The induced current and charge are calculated and compared with some available experimental data and with the results of Baum's model. The results illustrate that the corona generally reduces the peak value of the induced current as much as 30% of the value and decreases the rate of rise by about 40%. The HEMP-induced stresses across dielectric insulators in some typical electric power systems are also calculated. The insulators that are considered are line supports in T and D line poles, and transformer bushings in distribution and power transformers. Different elevation and azimuthal angles of HEMP incidence with two different values of ground conductivity are considered. The HEMP-induced ''potential difference'' across the line support and air gap in the transmission lines and the HEMP-induced open-circuit voltage across transformer bushings are calculated. The ''potential difference'' across the line support and across the air gap can be as high as 7 MV. The rise time of the ''potential difference'' is about 110 ns, and the fall time is about 2 to 3 ..mu..s. The open-circuit voltage across transformer bushings can be as large as few tens of MVs and the rise time is in the order of 100 ns and the fall time 800 ns.

  6. Nonlinear femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy using a power-encoded soliton delay line.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jalm, Sarah; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Bendahmane, Abdelkrim; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    We show femtosecond time-resolved nonlinear pump-probe spectroscopy using a fiber soliton as the probe pulse. Furthermore, we exploit soliton dynamics to record an entire transient trace with a power-encoded delay sweep. The power-encoded delay line takes advantage of the dependency of the soliton trajectory in the (λ,z) space upon input power; the difference in accumulated group delay between trajectories converts a fast power sweep into a fast delay sweep. We demonstrate the concept by performing transient absorption spectroscopy in a test sample and validate it against a conventional pump-probe setup.

  7. Temperature sensing in high voltage transmission lines using fiber Bragg grating and free-space-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridia, Claudio; Rosolem, Joao B.; Leonardi, Ariovaldo A.; Hortencio, Claudio A.; Fonseca, Romeu F.; Moreira, Rodrigo O. C.; Souza, Giovani C. L.; Melo, Altair L.; Nascimento, Carlos A. M.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we proposed the use of free-space-optics (FSO) to transmit and receive the optical signals from optical fiber placed in ground potential to the FBG fiber optics at high voltage potential, using a pair of optical collimators. The technique evaluation was performed in a prototype for the study of sensitivity to optical alignment and in an external environment using emulated sensing systems for both bus bar and overhead transmission line with real isolator chain. It has been shown that the FSO system allows collimators operate at distances of 500 mm to 2.000 mm. This range of distances is similar to the length of insulator's chain up to 230 kV. It was also shown that the proposed system can be used in real external environment for bus bar temperature monitoring in substations, where, even if the time out of the system is of 45%, with major interruption time of almost 15 hours, the majority of the interruption time was less than 18 minutes long. On the other hand, system has to be improved in order to be used in overhead transmission line. As tested for a real isolator chain the system shown a time out of 80.3%, with significant number of events of interruption acquisition time greater than 150 minutes. It is believed that for overhead power lines, system must be installed in rigid surge arresters or in a line post where it is expected to have similar results as in substation bus bars monitoring.

  8. New circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines resulting from a new practice of noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    TOKI, Hiroshi; SATO, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    In modern life, we are surrounded by and filled with electromagnetic noise caused by the dominant use of energy in the form of electricity. This situation is brought about by the fact that the noise is not understood theoretically. A new practice of noise reduction was introduced for the construction of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The key concept is a symmetric three-line circuit that arranges power supplies, noise filters and magnets around a third central ground line. A continuous theoretical effort forced us to find a new circuit theory involving a multiconductor transmission-line system starting from Maxwell’s equations without any approximation. We discuss the essence of all of these experimental and theoretical developments with the hope to remove unnecessary electromagnetic noise not only from power supplies, but also from all electric devices. The newly derived circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines is universal, and establishes the validity of the practice of noise reduction. PMID:24522153

  9. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  10. Association between Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from High Voltage Transmission Lines and Neurobehavioral Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiongli; Tang, Tiantong; Hu, Guocheng; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yuyu; Wang, Qiang; Su, Jing; Zou, Yunfeng; Peng, Xiaowu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT) lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. Methods Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old) was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. Conclusions The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children. PMID:23843999

  11. Transmit and receive transmission line arrays for 7 Tesla parallel imaging.

    PubMed

    Adriany, Gregor; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Wiesinger, Florian; Moeller, Steen; Strupp, John P; Andersen, Peter; Snyder, Carl; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Wei; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Boesiger, Peter; Vaughan, Tommy; Uğurbil, Kāmil

    2005-02-01

    Transceive array coils, capable of RF transmission and independent signal reception, were developed for parallel, 1H imaging applications in the human head at 7 T (300 MHz). The coils combine the advantages of high-frequency properties of transmission lines with classic MR coil design. Because of the short wavelength at the 1H frequency at 300 MHz, these coils were straightforward to build and decouple. The sensitivity profiles of individual coils were highly asymmetric, as expected at this high frequency; however, the summed images from all coils were relatively uniform over the whole brain. Data were obtained with four- and eight-channel transceive arrays built using a loop configuration and compared to arrays built from straight stripline transmission lines. With both the four- and the eight-channel arrays, parallel imaging with sensitivity encoding with high reduction numbers was feasible at 7 T in the human head. A one-dimensional reduction factor of 4 was robustly achieved with an average g value of 1.25 with the eight-channel transmit/receive coils.

  12. Stability of pressure-driven creeping flows in channels lined with a nonlinear elastic solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkanis, Vasileios; Kumar, Satish

    2005-02-01

    The effect of pressure gradients on the stability of creeping flows of Newtonian fluids in channels lined with an incompressible and impermeable neo-Hookean material is examined in this work. Three different configurations are considered: (i) pressure-driven flow between a rigid wall and a wall lined with a neo-Hookean material; (ii) pressure-driven flow between neo-Hookean-lined walls; and (iii) combined Couette-Poiseuille flow between a rigid wall and a neo-Hookean-lined wall. In each case, a first normal stress difference whose magnitude depends on depth arises in the base state for the solid, and linear stability analysis reveals that this leads to a short-wave instability which is removed by the presence of interfacial tension. For sufficiently thick solids, low-wavenumber modes become unstable first as the applied strain increases above a critical value, whereas for sufficiently thin solids, high-wavenumber modes becomes unstable first. Comparison of the dimensionless critical strains shows that configurations (i) and (ii) are more difficult to destabilize than Couette flow past a neo-Hookean solid. For configuration (iii), the nonlinear elasticity of the solid leads to two physically distinct critical conditions, in contrast to what happens when a linear elastic material is used. The mechanisms underlying the behaviour of the critical strains are explained through an analysis of the interfacial boundary conditions.

  13. Mode Conversion Losses in Expansion Units for ITER ECH Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, S. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Hanson, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The ITER electron cyclotron heating transmission lines will consist of 63.5-mm-diameter corrugated waveguides, each carrying 1 MW of 170 GHz microwaves. These transmission lines must include expansion units to accommodate expansion and contraction along the path from the gyrotron microwave sources to the tokamak. A numerical mode matching code has been developed to calculate power losses due to mode conversion of the operating mode, HE11, to higher order modes as a result of the radial discontinuities in a sliding joint. Two expansion unit designs were evaluated, a simple gap expansion unit and a more complex tapered expansion unit. The gap expansion unit demonstrated loss that oscillated rapidly with expansion length, due to trapped modes within the unit. The tapered expansion unit has been shown to effectively suppress these trapped modes at the expense of increased fabrication complexity. In a gap expansion unit, for a waveguide step size of 2.5 mm, loss can be kept below 0.1 % to a maximum expansion length of 17 mm. Expansion units without corrugation on interior walls were also evaluated. Expansion units that lack corrugations are found to increase mode trapping within the units, though not beyond useful application. The mode matching code developed in this paper was also used to estimate mode conversion loss in vacuum pumpouts for the ECH lines; the estimated loss was found to be negligibly small.

  14. A birdcage model for the Chinese Meridian System: part I. A channel as a transmission line.

    PubMed

    Yung, Kaung-Ti

    2004-01-01

    The concept of Qi and the concept of channel are so closely related that they must be defined and comprehended simultaneously in a coordinated fashion. Once the nature of Qi is established in terms of physics, we may be able to explain the functional role that the channels play, as well as explain other Chinese medical terminology with a language of modem science. Based on the low electrical impedance characteristics of acupoints, we propose that the meridian channel is equivalent to an electromagnetic transmission line and the Qi is the electromagnetic (EM) standing wave riding on the line, with acupoints as its nodes. The standing wave within each segment of the channel separated by acupoints is in natural oscillation thus the segment may be analyzed as a lambda/4 open circuit that behaves like a series RLC resonator. Acupuncture until De Qi is effectively equivalent to charging the capacitor Ceq of the RLC resonator in the transmission line. The mechanism of bu and xie are charging or discharging the capacitor to bring the capacititive (or inductive) behavior of the segment back to that of the resonant state. Kirlian photograph may serve as a visual observation of the EM waves on channels. PMID:15633816

  15. Laser patterning of nonlinear optical Bi2ZnB2O7 crystal lines in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Inoue, Taisuke; Gao, Xuyi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Honma, Tsuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    Bi2O3-based glasses are very attractive from the viewpoints of low-melting, high refractive index and crystallization, and the research on their glasses and glass-ceramics is at the frontiers of glass science and technology. Nonlinear optical Bi2ZnB2O7 crystal lines with a high orientation were patterned in 3Sm2O3-30.3Bi2O3-33.3ZnO-33.3B2O3 glass by using a laser-induced crystallization technique. It was confirmed from transmission electron microscope observations that crystals were formed in the inside of the glass, i.e., at the beneath of 4 micro-meter from the surface, although lasers (Yb:YVO4 laser with a wavelength of 1080 nm) were focused at the glass surface. A new potential for optical device applications was added in Bi2O3-based glasses from the present study.

  16. On-chip sub-terahertz surface plasmon polariton transmission lines with mode converter in CMOS

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Wen, Jincai; Apriyana, Anak Agung Alit; Li, Nan; Luo, Yu; Sun, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    An on-chip low-loss and high conversion efficiency plasmonic waveguide converter is demonstrated at sub-THz in CMOS. By introducing a subwavelength periodic corrugated structure onto the transmission line (T-line) implemented by a top-layer metal, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) are established to propagate signals with strongly localized surface-wave. To match both impedance and momentum of other on-chip components with TEM-wave propagation, a mode converter structure featured by a smooth bridge between the Ground coplanar waveguide (GCPW) with 50 Ω impedance and SPP T-line is proposed. To further reduce area, the converter is ultimately simplified to a gradual increment of groove with smooth gradient. The proposed SPP T-lines with the converter is designed and fabricated in the standard 65 nm CMOS process. Both near-field simulation and measurement results show excellent conversion efficiency from quasi-TEM to SPP modes in a broadband frequency range. The converter achieves wideband impedance matching (<−9 dB) with excellent transmission efficiency (averagely −1.9 dB) from 110 GHz–325 GHz. The demonstrated compact and wideband SPP T-lines with mode converter have shown great potentials to replace existing waveguides as future on-chip THz interconnects. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate the (sub)-THz surface mode conversion on-chip in CMOS technology. PMID:27444782

  17. On-chip sub-terahertz surface plasmon polariton transmission lines with mode converter in CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Wen, Jincai; Apriyana, Anak Agung Alit; Li, Nan; Luo, Yu; Sun, Lingling

    2016-07-01

    An on-chip low-loss and high conversion efficiency plasmonic waveguide converter is demonstrated at sub-THz in CMOS. By introducing a subwavelength periodic corrugated structure onto the transmission line (T-line) implemented by a top-layer metal, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) are established to propagate signals with strongly localized surface-wave. To match both impedance and momentum of other on-chip components with TEM-wave propagation, a mode converter structure featured by a smooth bridge between the Ground coplanar waveguide (GCPW) with 50 Ω impedance and SPP T-line is proposed. To further reduce area, the converter is ultimately simplified to a gradual increment of groove with smooth gradient. The proposed SPP T-lines with the converter is designed and fabricated in the standard 65 nm CMOS process. Both near-field simulation and measurement results show excellent conversion efficiency from quasi-TEM to SPP modes in a broadband frequency range. The converter achieves wideband impedance matching (<‑9 dB) with excellent transmission efficiency (averagely ‑1.9 dB) from 110 GHz–325 GHz. The demonstrated compact and wideband SPP T-lines with mode converter have shown great potentials to replace existing waveguides as future on-chip THz interconnects. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate the (sub)-THz surface mode conversion on-chip in CMOS technology.

  18. Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An isolation circuit is disclosed for isolating ground interference from a wideband transmission signal. The ground isolation circuit of the present invention is constructed using a pair of matched mixer circuits. each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In the preferred embodiment, the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which preferably comprises an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer circuits connects to an isolation transformer to insure isolation from ground interference.

  19. Sound transmission through double panel constructions lined with elastic porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, J. S.; Green, E. R.

    1986-07-01

    Attention is given to a theory governing one-dimensional wave motion in elastic porous materials which is capable of reproducing experimental transmission measurements for unfaced polyurethane foam layers. Calculations of the transmission loss of fuselage-like foam-lined double panels are presented and it is shown that the foam/panel boundary conditions have a large effect on the panel performance; a hybrid arrangement whereby the foam is bonded directly to one panel and separated from the other by a thin air gap appears to be the most advantageous under practical circumstances. With this configuratiom, the mass-air-mass resonance is minimized and increased low-frequency performance is offered.

  20. Regional analysis assessment of landslide hazard and zoning map for transmission line route selection using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Omar, R. C.; Usman, F.; Mejan, M. A.; Abd Halim, M. K.; Zainol, M. A.; Zulkarnain, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    The stability of ground as foundation for infrastructure development is always associated with geology and geomorphology aspects. Failure to carefully analyze these aspects may induce ground instability such subsidence and landslide which eventually can cause catastrophe to the infrastructure i.e. instability of transmission tower. However, in some cases such as the study area this is unavoidable. A GIS system for analysis of route was favoured to perform optimal route predictions based selection by incorporating multiple influence factors into its analysis by incorporating the Landslide Hazard Map (LHM) that was produced on basis of slope map, aspect map, land use map and geological map with the help of ArcGIS using weighted overlay method. Based on LHM it is safe to conclude that the proposed route for Ulu Jelai- Neggiri-Lebir-LILO transmission line has very low risk in term of landslides.

  1. A NON-ISOTHERMAL THEORY FOR INTERPRETING SODIUM LINES IN TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste; Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe; Sing, David K.

    2015-04-10

    We present a theory for interpreting the sodium lines detected in transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. Previous analyses employed the isothermal approximation and dealt only with the transit radius. By recognizing the absorption depth and the transit radius as being independent observables, we develop a theory for jointly interpreting both quantities, which allows us to infer the temperatures and number densities associated with the sodium lines. We are able to treat a non-isothermal situation with a constant temperature gradient. Our novel diagnostics take the form of simple-to-use algebraic formulae and require measurements of the transit radii (and their corresponding absorption depths) at line center and in the line wing for both sodium lines. We apply our diagnostics to the HARPS data of HD 189733b, confirm the upper atmospheric heating reported by Huitson et al., derive a temperature gradient of 0.4376 ± 0.0154 K km{sup −1}, and find densities ∼1–10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}.

  2. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  3. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-28) - Port Angeles - Sappo No.1 Transmission Line ROW

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Mark A.

    2001-09-05

    Vegetation Management along the Port Angeles - Sappo No.1 Transmission Line ROW, from structure 1/1 to structure 42/10. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation. All work will be executed in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards.

  4. Simulating Entanglement Dynamics of Singlet-Triplet Qubits Coupled to a Classical Transmission Line Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael; Kestner, Jason

    Electrons confined in lateral quantum dots are promising candidates for scalable quantum bits. Particularly, singlet-triplet qubits can entangle electrostatically and offer long coherence times due to their weak interactions with the environment. However, fast two-qubit operations are challenging. We examine the dynamics of singlet triplet qubits capacitively coupled to a classical transmission line resonator driven near resonance. We numerically simulate the dynamics of the von Neumann entanglement entropy and investigate parameters of the coupling element that optimizes the operation time for the qubit.

  5. Impacts of transmission lines on birds in flight: proceedings of a workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Michael L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress to alleviate the national and world energy problem will come as individual issues are identified and acceptable solutions implemented. One of the specific issues to emerge in the last few years in the United States is the impact of electric power transmission lines on birds in flight. Therefore, the National Power Plant Team, Office of Biological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, requested Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) to organized and convene a workshop of knowledgeable experts to examine this issue and options for dealing with it. The participants are listed at the end of this report.

  6. Experimental hybrid power transmission line with liquid hydrogen and MgB2-based superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, V. V.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Blagov, E. V.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Firsov, V. P.

    2012-03-01

    Results of developing and testing an experimental hybrid power transmission line with liquid hydrogen and superconducting power (SCP) cable based on magnesium diboride (MgB2) are presented. Critical currents of the MgB2 based prototype SCP cable have been determined for the first time at the forced flow of liquid hydrogen in a temperature interval of 20-26 K. Various regimes of SCP cable cryostatting with both subcooled saturated liquid hydrogen have been tested in a broad range of supply rates (7-220 g/s) and pressures (0.15-0.4 MPa).

  7. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-02-15

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO{sub 2} substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected.

  8. Multi-scale modelling of supercapacitors: From molecular simulations to a transmission line model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pean, C.; Rotenberg, B.; Simon, P.; Salanne, M.

    2016-09-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of a typical nanoporous-carbon based supercapacitor. The organic electrolyte consists in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and hexafluorophosphate ions dissolved in acetonitrile. We simulate systems at equilibrium, for various applied voltages. This allows us to determine the relevant thermodynamic (capacitance) and transport (in-pore resistivities) properties. These quantities are then injected in a transmission line model for testing its ability to predict the charging properties of the device. The results from this macroscopic model are in good agreement with non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, which validates its use for interpreting electrochemical impedance experiments.

  9. Flexible gas insulated transmission line having regions of reduced electric field

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Fischer, William H.; Yoon, Kue H.; Meyer, Jeffry R.

    1983-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having radially flexible field control means for reducing the electric field along the periphery of the inner conductor at predetermined locations wherein the support insulators are located. The radially flexible field control means of the invention includes several structural variations of the inner conductor, wherein careful controlling of the length to depth of surface depressions produces regions of reduced electric field. Several embodiments of the invention dispose a flexible connector at the predetermined location along the inner conductor where the surface depressions that control the reduced electric field are located.

  10. Quantum switch for single-photon transport in a coupled superconducting transmission-line-resonator array

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Jieqiao; Sun, C. P.; Huang Jinfeng; Kuang Leman; Liu Yuxi

    2009-07-15

    We propose and study an approach to realize quantum switch for single-photon transport in a coupled superconducting transmission-line-resonator (TLR) array with one controllable hopping interaction. We find that the single photon with arbitrary wave vector can transport in a controllable way in this system. We also study how to realize controllable hopping interaction between two TLRs via a Cooper-pair box (CPB). When the frequency of the CPB is largely detuned from those of the two TLRs, the variables of the CPB can be adiabatically eliminated and thus a controllable interaction between two TLRs can be obtained.

  11. Analysis of the ITER low field side reflectometer transmission line system.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G R; Wilgen, J B; Bigelow, T S; Diem, S J; Biewer, T M

    2010-10-01

    A critical issue in the design of the ITER low field side reflectometer is the transmission line (TL) system. A TL connects each launcher to a diagnostic instrument. Each TL will typically consist of ∼42 m of corrugated waveguide and up to ten miter bends. Important issues for the performance of the TL system are mode conversion and reflections. Minimizing these issues are critical to minimizing standing waves and phase errors. The performance of TL system is analyzed and recommendations are given.

  12. Modeling of the wave transmission properties of large arteries using nonlinear elastic tubes.

    PubMed

    Pythoud, F; Stergiopulos, N; Meister, J J

    1994-11-01

    We propose a new, simple way of constructing elastic tubes which can be used to model the nonlinear elastic properties of large arteries. The tube models are constructed from a silicon elastomer (Sylgard 184, Dow Corning), which exhibits a nonlinear behavior with increased stiffness at high strains. Tests conducted on different tube models showed that, with the proper choice of geometric parameters, the elastic properties, in terms of area-pressure relation and compliance, can be similar to that of real arteries.

  13. Mutual design of overhead transmission lines and railroad communications and signal systems. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taflove, A.; Umashankar, K.R.

    1983-10-01

    Objective was to develop mutual design methods and criteria for overhead ac transmission lines and adjacent railroad systems. This project has addressed basic engineering issues which govern the operation of railroad communications and signal (C and S) systems under conditions of interference from nearby transmission lines. Data and techniques have been compiled and developed to contribute to the achievement of electromagnetic compatibility in a manner that is acceptable to both the power and railroad industries.

  14. Particle trap to sheath contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, William H.; Cookson, Alan H.; Yoon, Kue H.

    1984-04-10

    A particle trap to outer elongated conductor or sheath contact for gas-insulated transmission lines. The particle trap to outer sheath contact of the invention is applicable to gas-insulated transmission lines having either corrugated or non-corrugated outer sheaths. The contact of the invention includes an electrical contact disposed on a lever arm which in turn is rotatably disposed on the particle trap and biased in a direction to maintain contact between the electrical contact and the outer sheath.

  15. Fabrication and testing of the flexible transmission line to the TFTR neutral beam ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Haughian, J.; Lou, K.; Byrns, R.; Fong, E.; Carrieri, J.

    1983-12-01

    The four Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) on the TFTR Tokamak Test Cell (TTC) floor require twelve transmission lines to carry arc and filament power to the twelve ion sources from the basement. Also, the Neutral Beam Test Cell (NBTC) requires three lines but on the same floor through a wall. The same basic specifications apply: (1) center bundle operates at 120 kV with respect to the outer cables, (2) filament circuits at 6000 A, (3) arc circuits at 3000 A, (4) gradient grid, (5) accel grids in a quadrupole configuration, (6) multi wire control cable, (7) SF/sub 6/ environment, (7) flexible, (8) 36'' centerline bend radius and (9) hi-pot to 200 kV.

  16. Modeling of electromagnetic environment of transmission lines for studying effect of ELF-EMF.

    PubMed

    Duyan, Geng; Xu, Guizhi; Yu, Hongli; Yang, Shuo; Yang, Qingxin; Yan, Weili

    2008-01-01

    By combining two groups of three-phase power lines, a modeling that can induce power frequency electromagnetic fields has been presented. Charge simulation method and Biot-Savart law have respectively been adopted to compute the three-dimensional electric and magnetic fields in exposed environment of the modeling. Simulations indicate that the intensity of electric field can reach up to 5 kil-volt per meter (kV/m) at ground level, and the magnetic flux density can amount to 15 microtesla (microT). A comparison has been conducted between the environments that mice and human bodies are exposed to. The paper concluded that the modeling can be utilized in studying white mice simultaneous exposure to power frequency electric field and magnetic field emitted from transmission lines. PMID:19162913

  17. Summit-Watertown transmission line project, South Dakota. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to rebuild the existing Summit-Watertown 115-kV transmission line, located in northeastern South Dakota, and western Minnesota. Nearly 60 percent of the existing facility was replaced in 1965 after severe ice-loading broke structures and wires. Because of the extensive loss of the line, surplus poles had to be used to replace the damaged H-frame structures. These were of varying sizes, causing improper structure loading. Additionally, the conductors and overhead shield wires have been spliced in numerous places. This provides additional space on these wires for icing and wind resistance, which in turn create problems for reliability. Finally, a progressive fungal condition has weakened the poles and, along with the improper loading, has created an unsafe condition for maintenance personnel and the general public.

  18. Intensity modulated optical transmission in a non-linear dielectric environment with an embedded mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    We study the optical behavior of an arrangement in which the interface between a linear and non-linear dielectric media is covered by an embedded mono-layer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC). The optical behavior is qualitatively obtained through transmission and reflection coefficients which are a function of the third order non-linear susceptibility of the Kerr-type dielectric and the inter-band optical conductivity of the TMDC mono-layer. The inter-band optical conductivity of the TMDC mono-layer is calculated using the Kubo formalism from the linear response theory. In particular, we theoretically demonstrate that the optical response of this structure can be switched between the total internal reflection and a normal transmission regime by controlling the intensity of the incident radiation. The reflection and transmission functions are shown to be amenable to further control by altering the inter-band optical conductivity of the embedded TMDC mono-layer. The optical conductivity is directly related to its energy dispersion. We specifically choose two TMDC mono-layers, MoS2 and WSe2, which have nearly identical dispersion parameters apart from a much stronger spin-orbit coupling in the latter. The stronger spin-orbit coupling in WSe2 does not significantly alter the inter-band optical conductivity to manifest as an enhanced reflection spectrum. However, we find that application of an external perturbation such as strain could be effectively used to modulate the overall optical response. We conclude by discussing briefly the phenomenon of optical bistability which arises in materials exhibiting optical non-linearity via an intensity-dependent refractive index.

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-25) - Ostrander-Pearl Transmission Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Elaine S.

    2001-09-05

    Vegetation Management along selected ROW sections of the Ostrander-Pearl transmission line. The ROWs include sections of the Ostrander-Pearl 500 kV line; the Ostrander-McLoughlin 500 kV line; the Big Eddy-Chemawa 230 kV line and the Big Eddy-McLoughlin 230 kV line. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-way and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. The project also includes clearing approximately 3 miles of access road and cutting of some danger trees. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA Standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall-growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission lines and to promote low-growing plant communities in the right-of-way and to clear vegetation from new rights-of-way corridors.

  20. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  1. Method for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Neely, Robert H

    1947-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data. Material from various sources is combined with some original work into the single complete method described. Multhopp's systems of multipliers are employed to obtain the induced angle of attack directly from the spanwise lift distribution. Equations are developed for obtaining these multipliers for any even number of spanwise stations, and values are tabulated for 10 stations along the semispan for asymmetrical, symmetrical, and antisymmetrical lift distributions. In order to minimize the computing time and to illustrate the procedures involved, simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for symmetrical lift distributions. Similar forms for asymmetrical and antisymmetrical lift distributions, although not shown, can be readily constructed in the same manner as those given. The adaptation of the method for use with linear section lift data is also illustrated. The adaptation has been found to require less computing time than most existing methods.

  2. RF Pulse Signal Integrity Analysis for Nonlinear Ended Microstrip Line Atom-Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Delamare, A.; Normand, A.; Delaroche, F.; Latry, O.; Vurpillot, F.; Ravelo, B.

    2016-03-01

    A signal integrity (SI) analysis of high voltage rectangular short pulses for the atom- probe system is explored in this paper. The operated RF transient pulse is considered for exciting on material sample inside an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) cryogenic chamber. The ns- duration pulse signal is injected into the cryogenic analysis chamber through the transmitting system mainly constituted by a microstrip interconnect line ended by optical controlled nonlinear load. The whole system frequency characterization is performed based on the S- parameter measurements. As expected, a challenging ultra-short rectangular shape pulse is exhibited by the pulser. Promising experimental results with the improvement of ion mass spectrum is demonstrated with the designed RF pulser.

  3. A novel structure of transmission line pulse transformer with mutually coupled windings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binxiong; Su, Jiancang; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xibo; Wang, Junjie

    2014-03-01

    A novel structure of transmission line transformer (TLT) with mutually coupled windings is described in this paper. All transmission lines except the first stage of the transformer are wound on a common ferrite core for the TLT with this structure. A referral method was introduced to analyze the TLT with this structure, and an analytic expression of the step response was derived. It is shown that a TLT with this structure has a significantly slower droop rate than a TLT with other winding structures and the number of ferrite cores needed is largely reduced. A four-stage TLT with this structure was developed, whose input and output impedance were 4.2 Ω and 67.7 Ω, respectively. A frequency response test of the TLT was carried out. The test results showed that pulse response time of the TLT is several nanoseconds. The TLT described in this paper has the potential to be used as a rectangle pulse transformer with very fast response time.

  4. A transmission line model for propagation in elliptical core optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Georgantzos, E.; Boucouvalas, A. C.; Papageorgiou, C.

    2015-12-31

    The calculation of mode propagation constants of elliptical core fibers has been the purpose of extended research leading to many notable methods, with the classic step index solution based on Mathieu functions. This paper seeks to derive a new innovative method for the determination of mode propagation constants in single mode fibers with elliptic core by modeling the elliptical fiber as a series of connected coupled transmission line elements. We develop a matrix formulation of the transmission line and the resonance of the circuits is used to calculate the mode propagation constants. The technique, used with success in the case of cylindrical fibers, is now being extended for the case of fibers with elliptical cross section. The advantage of this approach is that it is very well suited to be able to calculate the mode dispersion of arbitrary refractive index profile elliptical waveguides. The analysis begins with the deployment Maxwell’s equations adjusted for elliptical coordinates. Further algebraic analysis leads to a set of equations where we are faced with the appearance of harmonics. Taking into consideration predefined fixed number of harmonics simplifies the problem and enables the use of the resonant circuits approach. According to each case, programs have been created in Matlab, providing with a series of results (mode propagation constants) that are further compared with corresponding results from the ready known Mathieu functions method.

  5. Preliminary investigation of an improved metal-dielectric cathode for magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoping Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-15

    In order to explore the cathode with good repetition quality for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, an improved metal-dielectric cathode is proposed and investigated experimentally. The cathode is designed to be step-like shape, and thin copper plated boards are periodically and compactly arrayed on the surface of the cathode base, which ensures the uniformity of the electrons emitted from the cusps of the copper plated boards. According to the numerical simulation results, the step-like shape is beneficial to convert the kinetic energy of the magnetic insulating current partially and enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency. Finally, a preliminary experiment of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with the improved metal-dielectric cathode is carried out. A high power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 1.95 GW is generated from the MILO, with an efficiency of 13.5%. Under the same experiment condition, the output power and main frequency with the presented cathode are almost the same to those with the velvet cathode. Apart from that, metal-dielectric cathode has the merits of small outgassing and long lifetime, and all of these make the improved metal-dielectric cathode significantly promising for the MILO repetition operation.

  6. Overhead electric power transmission line jumpering system for bundles of five or more subconductors

    DOEpatents

    Winkelman, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Jumpering of electric power transmission lines at a dead end tower. Two transmission line conductor bundles each contain five or more spaced apart subconductors (5) arranged in the shape of a cylinder having a circular cross section. The ends of each bundle of subconductors are attached with insulators to a dead end tower (1). Jumpering allows the electric current to flow between the two bundles of subconductors using jumper buses, internal jumper conductors, and external jumper conductors. One or more current collecting jumper buses (37) are located inside each bundle of subconductors with each jumper bus being attached to the end of a subconductor. Small-diameter internal jumper conductors (33) are located in the inherently electrically shielded area inside each bundle of subconductors with each subconductor (except ones having an attached jumper bus) having one internal jumper conductor connected between that subconductor's end and a jumper bus. Large-diameter external jumper conductors (9) are located outside each bundle of subconductors with one or more external jumper conductors being connected between the jumper buses in one bundle of subconductors and the jumper buses in the other bundle.

  7. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  8. Two methods for transmission line simulation model creation based on time domain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinas, D.; Frei, S.

    2011-07-01

    The emission from transmission lines plays an important role in the electromagnetic compatibility of automotive electronic systems. In a frequency range below 200 MHz radiation from cables is often the dominant emission factor. In higher frequency ranges radiation from PCBs and their housing becomes more relevant. Main sources for this emission are the conducting traces. The established field measurement methods according CISPR 25 for evaluation of emissions suffer from the need to use large anechoic chambers. Furthermore measurement data can not be used for simulation model creation in order to compute the overall fields radiated from a car. In this paper a method to determine the far-fields and a simulation model of radiating transmission lines, esp. cable bundles and conducting traces on planar structures, is proposed. The method measures the electromagnetic near-field above the test object. Measurements are done in time domain in order to get phase information and to reduce measurement time. On the basis of near-field data equivalent source identification can be done. Considering correlations between sources along each conductive structure in model creation process, the model accuracy increases and computational costs can be reduced.

  9. Plasma evolution and dynamics in high-power vacuum-transmission-line post-hole convolutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Hughes, T. P.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2008-06-01

    Vacuum-post-hole convolutes are used in pulsed high-power generators to join several magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) in parallel. Such convolutes add the output currents of the MITLs, and deliver the combined current to a single MITL that, in turn, delivers the current to a load. Magnetic insulation of electron flow, established upstream of the convolute region, is lost at the convolute due to symmetry breaking and the formation of magnetic nulls, resulting in some current losses. At very high-power operating levels and long pulse durations, the expansion of electrode plasmas into the MITL of such devices is considered likely. This work examines the evolution and dynamics of cathode plasmas in the double-post-hole convolutes used on the Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman , Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.872881]. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations that model the entire radial extent of the Z accelerator convolute—from the parallel-plate transmission-line power feeds to the z-pinch load region—are used to determine electron losses in the convolute. The results of the simulations demonstrate that significant current losses (1.5 MA out of a total system current of 18.5 MA), which are comparable to the losses observed experimentally, could be caused by the expansion of cathode plasmas in the convolute regions.

  10. Preliminary investigation of an improved metal-dielectric cathode for magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the cathode with good repetition quality for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, an improved metal-dielectric cathode is proposed and investigated experimentally. The cathode is designed to be step-like shape, and thin copper plated boards are periodically and compactly arrayed on the surface of the cathode base, which ensures the uniformity of the electrons emitted from the cusps of the copper plated boards. According to the numerical simulation results, the step-like shape is beneficial to convert the kinetic energy of the magnetic insulating current partially and enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency. Finally, a preliminary experiment of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with the improved metal-dielectric cathode is carried out. A high power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 1.95 GW is generated from the MILO, with an efficiency of 13.5%. Under the same experiment condition, the output power and main frequency with the presented cathode are almost the same to those with the velvet cathode. Apart from that, metal-dielectric cathode has the merits of small outgassing and long lifetime, and all of these make the improved metal-dielectric cathode significantly promising for the MILO repetition operation.

  11. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-12-30

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid.

  12. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-01-01

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid. PMID:26729119

  13. 75 FR 3486 - Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line, Environmental Impact Statement, Delaware Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Pennsylvania Power and Light Electric Utilities (PPL) and Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G), and... expand the width of the transmission line right-of-way beyond the Applicant's current holdings. The... need to expand its current right-of-way to construct new and taller power lines and add an...

  14. Linearity and Nonlinearity in HIV/STI Transmission: Implications for the Evaluation of Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Chesson, Harrell W.; Crosby, Richard A.; Layde, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) transmission was used to examine how linearity or nonlinearity in the relationship between the number of unprotected sex acts (or the number of sex partners) and the risk of acquiring HIV or a highly infectious STI (such as gonorrhea or chlamydia) affects the utility of sexual behavior change measures as indicators of the effectiveness of HIV/STI risk-reduction interventions. Findings indicate that the risk of acquiring HIV through vaginal intercourse is essentially a linear function of the number of unprotected sex acts and is nearly independent of the number of sex partners. Consequently, the number of unprotected sex acts is an excellent marker for the risk of acquiring HIV through vaginal intercourse, whereas the number of sex partners is largely uninformative. In general, the number of unprotected sex acts is not an adequate marker for the risk of acquiring a highly infectious STI due to the highly nonlinear per act transmission dynamics of these STIs. The number of sex partners is a reasonable indicator of STI risk only under highly circumscribed conditions. A theoretical explanation for this pattern of results is provided. The contrasting extent to which HIV and highly infectious STIs deviate from the linearity assumption that underlies sexual behavior outcome measures has important implications for the use of these measures to assess the effectiveness of HIV/STI risk-reduction interventions. PMID:22201639

  15. A nonlinear programming approach for estimation of transmission parameters in childhood infectious disease using a continuous time model.

    PubMed

    Word, Daniel P; Cummings, Derek A T; Burke, Donald S; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Laird, Carl D

    2012-08-01

    Mathematical models can enhance our understanding of childhood infectious disease dynamics, but these models depend on appropriate parameter values that are often unknown and must be estimated from disease case data. In this paper, we develop a framework for efficient estimation of childhood infectious disease models with seasonal transmission parameters using continuous differential equations containing model and measurement noise. The problem is formulated using the simultaneous approach where all state variables are discretized, and the discretized differential equations are included as constraints, giving a large-scale algebraic nonlinear programming problem that is solved using a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point solver. The technique is demonstrated using measles case data from three different locations having different school holiday schedules, and our estimates of the seasonality of the transmission parameter show strong correlation to school term holidays. Our approach gives dramatic efficiency gains, showing a 40-400-fold reduction in solution time over other published methods. While our approach has an increased susceptibility to bias over techniques that integrate over the entire unknown state-space, a detailed simulation study shows no evidence of bias. Furthermore, the computational efficiency of our approach allows for investigation of a large model space compared with more computationally intensive approaches.

  16. A nonlinear programming approach for estimation of transmission parameters in childhood infectious disease using a continuous time model

    PubMed Central

    Word, Daniel P.; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Burke, Donald S.; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Laird, Carl D.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models can enhance our understanding of childhood infectious disease dynamics, but these models depend on appropriate parameter values that are often unknown and must be estimated from disease case data. In this paper, we develop a framework for efficient estimation of childhood infectious disease models with seasonal transmission parameters using continuous differential equations containing model and measurement noise. The problem is formulated using the simultaneous approach where all state variables are discretized, and the discretized differential equations are included as constraints, giving a large-scale algebraic nonlinear programming problem that is solved using a nonlinear primal–dual interior-point solver. The technique is demonstrated using measles case data from three different locations having different school holiday schedules, and our estimates of the seasonality of the transmission parameter show strong correlation to school term holidays. Our approach gives dramatic efficiency gains, showing a 40–400-fold reduction in solution time over other published methods. While our approach has an increased susceptibility to bias over techniques that integrate over the entire unknown state-space, a detailed simulation study shows no evidence of bias. Furthermore, the computational efficiency of our approach allows for investigation of a large model space compared with more computationally intensive approaches. PMID:22337634

  17. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-40) - Allston-Keeler 500 kV Transmission Line

    SciTech Connect

    Hermeston, Mark W.

    2002-02-19

    Vegetation Management along the Allston-Keeler 500 kV Transmission Line ROW exclusive to BLM lands between 8/4 through 27/4. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor with an average corridor width of 150 feet. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines and access roads, including Reclaim and Danger Trees. The lands in this SA are administered by BLM. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation. All work will be executed in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. Work is to begin in March 2002. In accordance with a court injunction, no chemical treatment is planned on BLM lands.

  18. Multipactor threshold calculation of coaxial transmission lines in microwave applications with nonstationary statistical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Wang, H.; Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Zhang, N.; Cui, W.; Neuber, A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a statistical theory for the initial onset of multipactor breakdown in coaxial transmission lines, taking both the nonuniform electric field and random electron emission velocity into account. A general numerical method is first developed to construct the joint probability density function based on the approximate equation of the electron trajectory. The nonstationary dynamics of the multipactor process on both surfaces of coaxial lines are modelled based on the probability of various impacts and their corresponding secondary emission. The resonant assumption of the classical theory on the independent double-sided and single-sided impacts is replaced by the consideration of their interaction. As a result, the time evolutions of the electron population for exponential growth and absorption on both inner and outer conductor, in response to the applied voltage above and below the multipactor breakdown level, are obtained to investigate the exact mechanism of multipactor discharge in coaxial lines. Furthermore, the multipactor threshold predictions of the presented model are compared with experimental results using measured secondary emission yield of the tested samples which shows reasonable agreement. Finally, the detailed impact scenario reveals that single-surface multipactor is more likely to occur with a higher outer to inner conductor radius ratio.

  19. Multipactor threshold calculation of coaxial transmission lines in microwave applications with nonstationary statistical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Zhang, N.; Cui, W.; Neuber, A.

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents a statistical theory for the initial onset of multipactor breakdown in coaxial transmission lines, taking both the nonuniform electric field and random electron emission velocity into account. A general numerical method is first developed to construct the joint probability density function based on the approximate equation of the electron trajectory. The nonstationary dynamics of the multipactor process on both surfaces of coaxial lines are modelled based on the probability of various impacts and their corresponding secondary emission. The resonant assumption of the classical theory on the independent double-sided and single-sided impacts is replaced by the consideration of their interaction. As a result, the time evolutions of the electron population for exponential growth and absorption on both inner and outer conductor, in response to the applied voltage above and below the multipactor breakdown level, are obtained to investigate the exact mechanism of multipactor discharge in coaxial lines. Furthermore, the multipactor threshold predictions of the presented model are compared with experimental results using measured secondary emission yield of the tested samples which shows reasonable agreement. Finally, the detailed impact scenario reveals that single-surface multipactor is more likely to occur with a higher outer to inner conductor radius ratio.

  20. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott Robert

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.