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Sample records for nonpalpable breast cancer

  1. Pathologic findings in nonpalpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McKinney, C D; Frierson, H F; Fechner, R E; Wilhelm, M C; Edge, S B

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with nonpalpable invasive breast cancer have a favorable prognosis. These studies, however, have not analyzed pathologic features of mammographically detected tumors according to tumor size. We describe the histopathologic features of 77 nonpalpable invasive breast cancers, comparing neoplasms less than or equal to 1 cm with larger clinically occult tumors. Forty-seven lesions (61%) were less than or equal to 1 cm (group A) and 30 (39%) were greater than 1 cm (group B). In group A, there were 30 infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDC); seven infiltrating lobular carcinomas (ILC); and two cases each of mixed ILC and IDC, mixed tubular carcinoma and ILC, and infiltrating cribriform carcinoma. There was one case each of mucinous carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and mixed mucinous and IDC. In group B, there were 23 (77%) IDC, five (17%) ILC, and two mixed IDC and ILC. Tumors in group B were more frequently grade 3 (22% versus 7%), but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.21). There were no important differences in the frequency, subtypes and location of carcinoma in situ, or other histopathologic parameters evaluated in the biopsy specimens. Mastectomy specimens with axillary lymph node dissections were available for review in 64 cases (83%). Group B patients had a higher rate of residual invasive carcinoma (31% versus 13%) and lymph node metastases (31% versus 16%), but these differences were not statistically significant. Residual carcinoma in situ was more frequent in group B (54%) compared with group A (26%) (p = .036). Of seven group B cases with negative biopsy margins, residual invasive carcinoma was present in five (71%). We conclude that small nonpalpable invasive breast cancers differ from larger nonpalpable tumors primarily in size. The finding of negative biopsy margins should not be construed as conclusive evidence for the absence of residual infiltrating disease.

  2. Tracking Nonpalpable Breast Cancer for Breast-conserving Surgery With Carbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Chongping; Jin, Na; Zhang, Zaizhong; Ke, Jun; Yu, Yinghao; Zhu, Jianping; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To examine the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to track nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery. During breast-conserving surgery, it is often very challenging to determine the boundary of tumor and identify involved lymph nodes. Currently used methods are useful in identifying tumor location, but do not provide direct visual guidance for resection margin during surgery. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Fuzhou General Hospital (Fuzhou, China). The current retrospective analysis included 16 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer receiving breast-conserving surgery under the guidance of preoperative marking using a carbon nanoparticle, as well as 3 patients receiving carbon nanoparticle marking followed by neoadjuvant treatment and then breast-conserving surgery. The Tumor Node Metastasis stage in the 16 cases included: T1N0M0 in 7, T1N1M0 in 2, T2N0M0 in 4, and T2N1M0 in the remaining 3 cases. The nanoparticle was injected at 12 sites at 0.5 cm away from the apparent edge under colored ultrasonography along 6 tracks separated by 60 degrees (2 sites every track). Lymph node status was also examined. The resection edge was free from cancer cells in all 16 cases (and the 3 cases with neoadjuvant treatment). Cancer cells were identified in majority of stained lymph nodes, but not in any of the unstained lymph nodes. No recurrence or metastasis was noticed after the surgery (2 to 22-month follow-up; median: 6 months). Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer with carbon nanoparticle could guide breast-conserving surgery. PMID:25761181

  3. Excision of Nonpalpable Breast Cancer with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence-Guided Occult Lesion Localization (IFOLL).

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Fatih; Ozben, Volkan; Aytac, Erman; Yilmaz, Halit; Cercel, Ali; Celik, Varol

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently employed techniques for the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions suffer from various limitations. In this paper, we report on 2 patients in order to introduce an alternative technique, indocyanine green fluorescence-guided occult lesion localization (IFOLL), and determine its applicability for the surgical removal of this type of breast lesions. CASE REPORTS: Preoperatively, one of the patients had a needle biopsy-proven diagnosis of breast cancer, and the other one had suspicious findings for malignancy. Lesion localization was performed within 1 h before surgery under ultrasonography control by injecting 2 ml and 0.2 ml of indocyanine green into the lesion and its subcutaneous tissue projection, respectively. During surgery, the site of skin incision and the resection margins were identified by observing the area of indocyanine-derived fluorescence under the guidance of a near-infrared-sensitive camera. In both cases, the breast lesion was correctly localized, and the area of fluorescence corresponded well to the site of the lesions. Subsequent surgical excision was successful with no complications. On histopathologic examination, the surgical margins were found to be clear. CONCLUSION: IFOLL seems to be a technically applicable and clinically acceptable procedure for the removal of nonpalpable breast cancer.

  4. Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery with carbon nanoparticles: implication in tumor location and lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Chongping; Jin, Na; Zhang, Zaizhong; Ke, Jun; Yu, Yinghao; Zhu, Jianping; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    To examine the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to track nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery. During breast-conserving surgery, it is often very challenging to determine the boundary of tumor and identify involved lymph nodes. Currently used methods are useful in identifying tumor location, but do not provide direct visual guidance for resection margin during surgery. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Fuzhou General Hospital (Fuzhou, China). The current retrospective analysis included 16 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer receiving breast-conserving surgery under the guidance of preoperative marking using a carbon nanoparticle, as well as 3 patients receiving carbon nanoparticle marking followed by neoadjuvant treatment and then breast-conserving surgery. The Tumor Node Metastasis stage in the 16 cases included: T1N0M0 in 7, T1N1M0 in 2, T2N0M0 in 4, and T2N1M0 in the remaining 3 cases. The nanoparticle was injected at 12 sites at 0.5 cm away from the apparent edge under colored ultrasonography along 6 tracks separated by 60 degrees (2 sites every track). Lymph node status was also examined. The resection edge was free from cancer cells in all 16 cases (and the 3 cases with neoadjuvant treatment). Cancer cells were identified in majority of stained lymph nodes, but not in any of the unstained lymph nodes. No recurrence or metastasis was noticed after the surgery (2 to 22-month follow-up; median: 6 months). Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer with carbon nanoparticle could guide breast-conserving surgery.

  5. Diagnostic mammography and ultrasonography for palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer in women aged 30 to 39 years.

    PubMed

    Osako, Tomo; Iwase, Takuji; Takahashi, Kaoru; Iijima, Kotaro; Miyagi, Yumi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Tada, Keiichiro; Makita, Masujiro; Akiyama, Futoshi; Sakamoto, Goi; Kasumi, Fujio

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the tumor size of breast cancer by palpation and the sensitivity of mammography (MMG) and ultrasonography (US), and which modality can detect nonpalpable breast cancer in women aged 30 to 39 years. We retrospectively evaluated the tumor size by palpation, breast density, and the sensitivity of MMG and US in 165 patients aged 30 to 39 years. Palpation, US, and MMG were performed with prior knowledge of the results of other modalities. The tumor size on palpation were classified into Tnp; nonpalpable, T1p; 2 cm or less, T2p; more than 2 cm, but not more than 5 cm, and T3p; more than 5 cm. Of 165 patients, 147 patients (89%) showed mammographically dense breasts. Of 165 cancers, 14 (8%) were Tnp, 40 (24%) were T1p, 82 (50%) were T2p, and 29 (18%) were T3p. The sensitivity of MMG was 57% (8 of 14) for Tnp, 78% (31 of 40) for T1p, 90% (74 of 82) for T2p, and 97% (28 of 29) for T3p. The sensitivity of US was 43% (6 of 14) for Tnp and 100% for palpable cancers. Of 14 nonpalpable cancers, 4 (29%), 4 (29%), and 2 (14%) could be detected by only MMG, bloody nipple discharge, and US. The sensitivity of MMG depends on the tumor size on palpation in this age range. MMG fails to detect relatively large palpable cancers. On the other hand, US can detect all palpable cancers. However, the sensitivity of US declines for nonpalpable cancers. For the detection of nonpalpable cancers, MMG, US, and nipple discharge are complementary modalities.

  6. What is the predictor for invasion in non-palpable breast cancer with microcalcifications?

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Gomi, Naoya; Tada, Keiichiro; Makita, Masujiro; Tada, Takashi; Iwase, Takuji; Yoshimoto, Masataka; Akiyama, Futoshi; Sakamoto, Goi; Kasumi, Fujio

    2004-01-01

    To assess the presence of invasion in non-palpable breast cancer with microcalcifications. We investigated 157 patients with non-palpable breast cancer with microcalcifications, who had undergone stereotactic core biopsy or vacuum-assisted breast biopsy and operation at the Cancer Institute Hospital between 1995 and 2001. We investigated the correlation between the area of calcification (maximum range of microcalcifications measured in mm by direct mammography), morphology of calcification on mammography, histological subtype of intraductal carcinoma (comedo or non-comedo) and frequency of invasion, and lymph node metastasis. The chi-square test was used in the statistical analysis and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Invasion was observed in 33 of 157 pts (21%), of whom 23 showed minimal invasion, which is less than 0.5 cm in greatest diameter. The risk of invasion was 13% within 10 mm of the microcalcifications (n =70), 25% from 11 to 30 mm (n =59), and 32% more than 31 mm from the microcalcifications (n =28). The risk of invasion was 16% for punctate-round and amorphous type (n =87) microcalcifications, and 27% for pleomorphic and linear-branching types (n =70)(p =0.092). In addition, invasion was found 10% of the time within 10 mm of punctate-round and amorphous type microcalcifications, and 20% of the time at 11 mm or more. On the other hand, invasion was found 15% of the time within 10 mm of pleomorphic and linear-branching type microcalcifications, and 37% of the time at 11 mm or more. In 72 cases of intraductal carcinoma diagnosed by pathological examination, invasion was found in 10 of 31 (32%) comedo type intraductal carcinomas and in 5 of 41 (12%) non-comedo types (p =0.0379). There were 5 cases (3.2%) with axillary lymph node metastasis, all of which widely extended more than 21 mm from the microcalcifications. The risk of invasion was 10% within 10 mm of punctate-round and amorphous type microcalcifications, and 37% at

  7. Radio-guided surgery improves outcome of therapeutic excision in non-palpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallegos Hernandez, J F; Tanis, P J; Deurloo, E E; Nieweg, O E; Th Rutgers, E J; Kroon, B B R; Valdés Olmos, R A

    2004-03-01

    Intratumoral injection of a radiocolloid for lymphatic mapping enables the therapeutic excision of clinically occult breast cancer with the aid of a gamma-ray detection probe. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate of radio-guided tumour excision in addition to a guide wire and to identify factors predicting clear margins. Sixty-five consecutive patients underwent radio-guided tumour excision after intratumoral injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid guided by ultrasound or stereotaxis. A localization wire was inserted after scintigraphy had been performed (group 1). The results were compared with retrospective data from 67 consecutive patients who underwent therapeutic wire-directed excision alone (group 2). Factors predicting clear margins (> or = 1 mm) were determined in a logistic regression model. Adequate margins were obtained in 83% of group 1 and in 64% of group 2 (P = 0.014). The invasive component was incompletely excised in two patients in group 1 and in 14 patients in group 2. Further surgery was performed in four patients in group 1 and in 14 patients in group 2. Factors predictive of clear margins were decreasing pathological tumour diameter (P = 0.035), increasing weight of the specimen (P = 0.046), absence of microcalcifications (P = 0.004) and absence of carcinoma in situ component (P = 0.024). Radio-guided excision was an independent predictor of complete excision of the invasive component (P = 0.012). The application of radio-guided surgery combined with wire localization seems to improve the outcome of therapeutic excision of non-palpable invasive breast cancer compared with wire-directed excision alone.

  8. [Mamography and core biopsy value in diagnosis of nonpalpable breast tumors].

    PubMed

    Ostapenko, Valerijus; Mikalauskas, Tadas; Bruzas, Saulius; Mudenas, Algimantas; Sabonis, Jonas; Tutkus, Jonas; Meskauskas, Raimundas; Miliauskas, Povilas; Jackevicius, Algirdas; Grinyte, Laima

    2004-01-01

    Nonpalpable breast tumors are of great importance in order to achieve early diagnosis and improve the treatment results of breast cancer. Three hundred and sixty six patients with such pathology were investigated at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. The core biopsy was performed for all patients. Benign breast tumors were diagnosed to 260 patients and conservative treatment was administered to patients with benign breast disease. One hundred and six patients with diagnosed or suspected nonpalpable breast carcinoma underwent surgery. In 64 patients (63.7%) invasive or non-invasive breast carcinoma (0 and 1(st) stage - 71.9%) was diagnosed. The diagnostic algorithm of nonpalpable breast tumor was described. The techniques of surgery for nonpalpable breast tumors and the results of treatment are discussed.

  9. [Non-palpable breast cancer malignant on needle core biopsy and no malignancy in surgical excision: how to manage?].

    PubMed

    Cheurfa, N; Giard, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the standard management of non-palpable breast cancer (needle core biopsy diagnostic, accurate preoperative localization), there are differences in some cases between the malignant histo-pathological finding in diagnostic biopsy results and negative histo-pathological finding after surgical excision. The aim of this study is to evaluate this incidence and classifying them under three category: failure of surgical excision after preoperative identification; removal of the tumor was already completed by percutaneous biopsy; percutaneous biopsy true false positive. We conducted a study based on prospective database, all patients included in this study had partial mastectomy for ductal carcinoma in-situ or invasive cancer which was diagnosed by needle core biopsy and normal/benign after surgery. Regarding the partial mastectomy, 1863 was performed in the last three years in our center. Thirty-seven patients (2%) correspond our study criteria. After discussion of cases in our multidisciplinary reunion, 6 patients (16%) were considered as failure of surgical excision, 26 patients (70%) as true removal of the whole lesion in the core, and 5 patients (13%) as true false-positive cores. This is the first study witch investigate all factors that influence the results of negative final histo-pathological finding of surgical excision of the tumor after malignant diagnostic needle core biopsy. This rare situation need a multidisciplinary meeting to analyse all the steps of management and to determine causes of those false results and try to find adequate management to solve this problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of 'radioguided occult lesion localisation' (ROLL) versus 'wire-guided localisation' (WGL) in breast conserving surgery for non-palpable breast cancer: a randomised controlled multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Postma, E L; Verkooijen, H M; van Esser, S; Hobbelink, M G; van der Schelling, G P; Koelemij, R; Witkamp, A J; Contant, C; van Diest, P J; Willems, S M; Borel Rinkes, I H M; van den Bosch, M A A J; Mali, W P; van Hillegersberg, R

    2012-11-01

    For the management of non-palpable breast cancer, accurate pre-operative localisation is essential to achieve complete resection with optimal cosmetic results. Radioguided occult lesions localisation (ROLL) uses the radiotracer, injected intra-tumourally for sentinel lymph node identification to guide surgical excision of the primary tumour. In a multicentre randomised controlled trial, we determined if ROLL is superior to the standard of care (i.e. wire-guided localisation, WGL) for preoperative tumour localisation. Women (>18 years.) with histologically proven non-palpable breast cancer and eligible for breast conserving treatment with sentinel node procedure were randomised to ROLL or WGL. Patients allocated to ROLL received an intra-tumoural dose of 120 Mbq technetium-99 m nanocolloid. The tumour was surgically removed, guided by gamma probe detection. In the WGL group, ultrasound- or mammography-guided insertion of a hooked wire provided surgical guidance for excision of the primary tumour. Primary outcome measures were the proportion of complete tumour excisions (i.e. with negative margins), the proportion of patients requiring re-excision and the volume of tissue removed. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat principle. This study is registered at ClinincalTrials.gov, number NCT00539474. In total, 314 patients with 316 invasive breast cancers were enrolled. Complete tumour removal with negative margins was achieved in 140/162 (86 %) patients in the ROLL group versus 134/152 (88 %) patients in the WGL group (P = 0.644). Re-excision was required in 19/162 (12 %) patients in the ROLL group versus 15/152 (10 %) (P = 0.587) in the WGL group. Specimen volumes in the ROLL arm were significantly larger than those in the WGL arm (71 vs. 64 cm(3), P = 0.017). No significant differences were seen in the duration and difficulty of the radiological and surgical procedures, the success rate of the sentinel node procedure, and cosmetic outcomes. In this first

  11. Diagnostic Value of Frozen Section in Patients with Non-Palpable Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Abuoglu, Hacı Hasan; Günay, Emre; Sunamak, Oğuzhan; Yiğitbaşı, M Rafet

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed wire-marking, frozen section (FS) and surgical approach in malignancy-suspicious non-palpable lesions detected on mammography (MG) and ultrasonography (US) as breast mass, microcalcifications and distorsions. Material and Methods: A hundred patients in whom wiremarking and frozen section analysis was performed because of non-palpable, malignancy-suspected breast lesions at General Surgery Department, Goztepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Seventy-six % of the cases was in BIRADS 4, 21% in BIRADS 3 and 3% BIRADS 5, according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification. There was a statistically significant correlation between paraffin block (PB) and frozen section analyses (kappa statistics: 0.872; p 0.01). In BIRADS 4 group of the patients, there was a significant correlation between PB and FS results (Correlation ratio was 85.3% and kappa statistics: 0.853; p 0.01). In early stage breast cancer wire-marking and resection method is an important diagnostic tool. In BIRADS 4 patients with non-palpable breast lesions, wire marking, resection under general anesthesia and FS can be used trustfully. In patients with early breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymphnode biopsy may avoid unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection. Celsius.

  12. Diagnostic Value of Hook Wire Localization Technique for Non-Palpable Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Demiral, Gokhan; Senol, Metin; Bayraktar, Baris; Ozturk, Hasan; Celik, Yahya; Boluk, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of hook wire localization biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions which were detected by ultrasonography (USG) or mammography (MMG). Methods In this retrospective study, USG or MMG-guided hook wire localization technique was performed on 83 patients who had non-palpable breast lesions. Then histopathological examination was performed on surgically removed specimens. All patients’ mammograms or ultrasonograms were categorized using Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. Results Radiologically, 27 (32.53%) patients were classified as BI-RADS 3, 49 (59.04%) BI-RADS 4, one (1.2%) BIRADS 5 and six (7.23%) BI-RADS 0. Histopathological results were benign in 68 (81.9%) and malignant in 15 (18.1%) patients. Twenty-seven patients were classified as BI-RADS 3 and definitive diagnoses for all were benign. Besides, 49 patients were classified as BI-RADS 4 and histopathologically 14 of them were reported as malignant, and 35 as benign. Sensitivity of MMG was 93% and specificity was 55%. For USG, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 73%. Conclusion In early diagnosis of breast cancer, the validity of the imaging-guided hook wire localization biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions has been proved. The cooperation of surgeon, radiologist and pathologist increases the successfull results of hook wire localization technique. PMID:27081425

  13. Clinicopathological characteristics and long-term prognosis of screening detected non-palpable breast cancer by ultrasound in hospital-based Chinese population (2001-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang-Jun; You, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Qian-Qian; Cai, Feng; Shi, Jie; Zhou, Yi-Dong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jing-Hong; Shen, Song-Jie; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Sun, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The mainstay modality of breast cancer screening in China is the hospital-based opportunistic screening among asymptomatic self-referred women. There is little data about the ultrasound (US) detected non-palpable breast cancer (NPBC) in Chinese population. Methods We analyzed 699 consecutive NPBC from 1.8-2.3 million asymptomatic women from 2001 to 2014, including 572 US-detected NPBC from 3,786 US-positive women and 127 mammography (MG) detected NPBC from 788 MG-positive women. The clinicopathological features, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between the US- and MG-detected NPBC. Prognostic factors of NPBC were identified. Results Compared to MG, US could detect more invasive NPBC (83.6% vs 54.3%, p<0.001), lymph node positive NPBC (19.1% vs 10.2%, p=0.018), lower grade (24.8% vs 16.5%, p<0.001), multifocal (19.2% vs 6.3%, p<0.001), PR positive (71.4% vs 66.9%, p=0.041), Her2 negative (74.3% vs 54.3%, p<0.001), Ki67 high (defined as >14%, 46.3% vs 37.0%, p=0.031) cancers and more NPBC who received chemotherapy (40.7% vs 21.3%, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in 10-year DFS and OS between US-detected vs MG-detected NPBC, DCIS and invasive NPBC. For all NPBC and the US-detected NPBC, the common DFS-predictors included pT, pN, p53 and bilateral cancers. Conclusion US could detect more invasive, node-positive, multifocal NPBC in hospital-based asymptomatic Chinese female, who could achieve comparable 10-year DFS and OS as MG-detected NPBC. US would not delay early detection of NPBC with improved cost-effectiveness, thus could serve as the feasible initial imaging modality in hospital-based opportunistic screening among Chinese women. PMID:27689334

  14. Breast MRI in nonpalpable breast lesions: a randomized trial with diagnostic and therapeutic outcome – MONET – study

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nicky HGM; Borel Rinkes, Inne HM; Mali, Willem PTM; van den Bosch, Maurice AAJ; Storm, Remmert K; Plaisier, Peter W; de Boer, Erwin; van Overbeeke, Adriaan J; Peeters, Petra HM

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an increasing interest in MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. The additional value of Breast MRI lies mainly in its capacity to detect multicentric and multifocal disease, to detect invasive components in ductal carcinoma in situ lesions and to depict the tumor in a 3-dimensional image. Breast MRI therefore has the potential to improve the diagnosis and provide better preoperative staging and possibly surgical care in patients with breast cancer. The aim of our study is to assess whether performing contrast enhanced Breast MRI can reduce the number of surgical procedures due to better preoperative staging and whether a subgroup of women with suspicious nonpalpable breast lesions can be identified in which the combination of mammography, ultrasound and state-of-the-art contrast-enhanced Breast MRI can provide a definite diagnosis. Methods/Design The MONET – study (MR mammography Of Nonpalpable BrEast Tumors) is a randomized controlled trial with diagnostic and therapeutic endpoints. We aim to include 500 patients with nonpalpable suspicious breast lesions who are referred for biopsy. With this number of patients, the expected 12% reduction in surgical procedures due to more accurate preoperative staging with Breast MRI can be detected with a high power (90%). The secondary outcome is the positive and negative predictive value of contrast enhanced Breast MRI. If the predictive values are deemed sufficiently close to those for large core biopsy then the latter, invasive, procedure could possibly be avoided in some women. The rationale, study design and the baseline characteristics of the first 100 included patients are described. Trial registration Study protocol number NCT00302120 PMID:18045470

  15. Dual modality surgical guidance of non-palpable breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judy, Patricia Goodale

    Although breast conserving therapy has some advantages over the traditional mastectomy procedure, the biggest disadvantage is the chance of local re-occurrence in which a second surgery is often required. Adequate surgical removal of breast tumors requires accurate tumor localization in order to ensure a balance between optimal cosmetic results and minimization of the risk for local re-occurrence. These challenges have motivated the search for alternative, more accurate methods for intraoperative localization of non-palpable breast lesions. The overall goal of this project was to develop an innovative technique for radioguided localization of non-palpable breast lesions that is more accurate, easier for the breast surgeon, and more comfortable for the patient than the current practice of wire localization. The technique uses a dual modality breast imaging system to place a marker composed of radiolabeled albumin (99mTc-MAA or 111ln-MAA) into the lesion. Preliminary studies were made to evaluate the localization accuracy of the system, which showed that the dual modality breast scanner is capable of accurate 3-dimensional localization using either X-ray or gamma ray imaging. A 3-axis needle positioning system was built and integrated into the dual modality breast scanner and its accuracy tested. A pilot clinical trial to evaluate the dual-modality surgical guidance technique was designed and preliminary clinical data collected. Detailed results were presented on the first three subjects; although a total of seven subjects have been recruited to the study to date. So far, it has been demonstrated that the radioguided surgery technique can be performed with approximately 10 times less radiomarker activity than is currently being used by other researchers employing 99mTc-MAA as a radiomarker, while maintaining comparable localization accuracy. Although the DMSG technique has not been tested in a large cohort of subjects, the preliminary data on the first few are

  16. Stereotactic vacuum-assisted core biopsy results for non-palpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Agacayak, Filiz; Ozturk, Alper; Bozdogan, Atilla; Selamoglu, Derya; Alco, Gul; Ordu, Cetin; Pilanci, Kezban Nur; Killi, Refik; Ozmen, Vahit

    2014-01-01

    The increase in breast cancer awareness and widespread use of mammographic screening has led to an increased detection of (non-palpable) breast cancers that cannot be discovered through physical examination. One of the methods used in the diagnosis of these cancers is vacuum-assisted core biopsy, which prevents a considerable number of patients from undergoing surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to present the results of stereotactic vacuum-assisted core biopsy for suspicious breast lesions. Files were retrospectively scanned and data on demographic, radiological and pathological findings were recorded for patients who underwent stereotactic vacuum-assisted core biopsy due to suspicious mammographic findings at the Interventional Radiology Centre of the Florence Nightingale Hospital between January 2010, and April 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using Pearson's Chi-square, continuity correction, and Fisher's exact tests. The mean age of the patients was 47 years (range: 36-70). Biopsies were performed due to BIRADS 3 lesions in 8 patients, BIRADS 4 lesions in 77 patients, and BIRADS 5 lesions in 3 patients. Mammography elucidated clusters of microcalcifications in 73 patients (83%) and focal lesions (asymmetrical density, distortion) in 15 patients (17%). In terms of complications, 1 patient had a hematoma, and 2 patients had ecchymoses (3/88; 3.3%). The histopathologic results revealed benign lesions in 63 patients (71.6%) and malignant lesions in 25 patients (28.4%). The mean duration of the procedure was 37 minutes (range: 18-55). Although all of the BIRADS 3 lesions were benign, 22 (28.6%) of the BIRADS 4 lesions and all of the BIRADS 5 lesions were malignant. Among the malignant cases, 80% were in situ, and 20% were invasive carcinomas. These patients underwent surgery. In cases where non-palpable breast lesions are considered to be suspicious in mammography scans, the vacuum-assisted core biopsy method provides an accurate

  17. Application of Localization and Needle Placement Guided by Mammographic, Ultrasound and Fiberoptic Ductoscopy for Resection of Non-palpable Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhu; Qu, Xiang; Zhang, Zhong-Tao; Jiang, Wen G

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of localization needles under mammographic, ultrasound or fiberoptic ductoscopy guidance for non-palpable breast lesions. Eighty-three patients undergoing needle localization and biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions under mammographic, ultrasound or fiberoptic ductoscopy guidance from June 2013 to December 2014 in Beijing Friendship Hospital were included in the study. The preoperative imaging assessment, application of localization needles, surgical operation and pathological examination were recorded and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 83 localization and biopsies were carried out, of which 27 were performed under mammographic guidance, 32 under ultrasound guidance and 24 under fiberoptic ductoscopy guidance. Twenty-seven cases of breast microcalcifications were localized under mammographic guidance and surgically removed, of which eight cases were pathologically diagnosed as malignant. Thirty-two cases of non-palpable breast lesions were localized under ultrasound guidance and 30 pathologically diagnosed, of these, four cases were pathologically diagnosed as malignant. Twenty-four cases of intraductal space-occupying lesions were localized under ductoscopy guidance and surgically removed, of which five cases were pathologically diagnosed as malignant. Utilization of localization needles under mammographic, ultrasound or fiberoptic ductoscopy guidance for non-palpable breast lesions is a safe and effective procedure, and is helpful in the diagnosis of breast cancer. With the help of this procedure, more malignant lesions can be localized and surgically removed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. The Added Diagnostic Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI at 3.0 T in Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Merckel, Laura G.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Peters, Nicky H. G. M.; Mann, Ritse M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Storm, Remmert K.; Weits, Teun; Duvivier, Katya M.; van Dalen, Thijs; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the added diagnostic value of 3.0 Tesla breast MRI over conventional breast imaging in the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer and to explore the role of routine versus expert reading. Materials and Methods We evaluated MRI scans of patients with nonpalpable BI-RADS 3–5 lesions who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced 3.0 Tesla breast MRI. Initially, MRI scans were read by radiologists in a routine clinical setting. All histologically confirmed index lesions were re-evaluated by two dedicated breast radiologists. Sensitivity and specificity for the three MRI readings were determined, and the diagnostic value of breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging was assessed. Interobserver reliability between the three readings was evaluated. Results MRI examinations of 207 patients were analyzed. Seventy-eight of 207 (37.7%) patients had a malignant lesion, of which 33 (42.3%) patients had pure DCIS and 45 (57.7%) invasive breast cancer. Sensitivity of breast MRI was 66.7% during routine, and 89.3% and 94.7% during expert reading. Specificity was 77.5% in the routine setting, and 61.0% and 33.3% during expert reading. In the routine setting, MRI provided additional diagnostic information over clinical information and conventional imaging, as the Area Under the ROC Curve increased from 0.76 to 0.81. Expert MRI reading was associated with a stronger improvement of the AUC to 0.87. Interobserver reliability between the three MRI readings was fair and moderate. Conclusions 3.0 T breast MRI of nonpalpable breast lesions is of added diagnostic value for the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer. PMID:24713637

  19. The added diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 3.0 T in nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Merckel, Laura G; Verkooijen, Helena M; Peters, Nicky H G M; Mann, Ritse M; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Storm, Remmert K; Weits, Teun; Duvivier, Katya M; van Dalen, Thijs; Mali, Willem P Th M; Peeters, Petra H M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the added diagnostic value of 3.0 Tesla breast MRI over conventional breast imaging in the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer and to explore the role of routine versus expert reading. We evaluated MRI scans of patients with nonpalpable BI-RADS 3-5 lesions who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced 3.0 Tesla breast MRI. Initially, MRI scans were read by radiologists in a routine clinical setting. All histologically confirmed index lesions were re-evaluated by two dedicated breast radiologists. Sensitivity and specificity for the three MRI readings were determined, and the diagnostic value of breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging was assessed. Interobserver reliability between the three readings was evaluated. MRI examinations of 207 patients were analyzed. Seventy-eight of 207 (37.7%) patients had a malignant lesion, of which 33 (42.3%) patients had pure DCIS and 45 (57.7%) invasive breast cancer. Sensitivity of breast MRI was 66.7% during routine, and 89.3% and 94.7% during expert reading. Specificity was 77.5% in the routine setting, and 61.0% and 33.3% during expert reading. In the routine setting, MRI provided additional diagnostic information over clinical information and conventional imaging, as the Area Under the ROC Curve increased from 0.76 to 0.81. Expert MRI reading was associated with a stronger improvement of the AUC to 0.87. Interobserver reliability between the three MRI readings was fair and moderate. 3.0 T breast MRI of nonpalpable breast lesions is of added diagnostic value for the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer.

  20. (99)mTc-3PRGD2 scintimammography in palpable and nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Song, Yan; Gao, Shi; Ji, Tiefeng; Zhang, Haishan; Ji, Bin; Chen, Ben; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Xu, Zheli; Ma, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic performance of 99mTc-3(poly-(ethylene glycol),PEG)4-RGD2 (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintimammography (SMM) in patients with either palpable or nonpalpable breast lesions and compare SMM to mammography to assess the possible incremental value of SMM in breast cancer detection. We also investigated the αvβ3 expression in malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety-four patients with 110 lesions were included in this study. Mammograms were evaluated according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) by a specialized imaging radiologist. Prone SMM was performed 1 hour after injection of 99mTc-3PRGD2. Scintigraphic images were interpreted independently by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a three-point system, and the kappa value was calculated to determine the interreader agreement. The McNemar test was used to compare SMM and mammography with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Diagnostic values for breast cancer detection were evaluated for each lesion. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate integrin αvβ3 expression. Histopathology revealed 46 malignant lesions and 64 benign lesions. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SMM were 83%, 73%, 77%, 69%, and 85%, respectively. The kappa value between the two reviewers was 0.63. The diagnostic values of SMM were higher than those of mammography in evaluating overall breast lesions. A sensitivity of 91% was achieved when SMM and mammography results were combined with 60% of all false-negative mammography findings classified as true-positive results by SMM. Integrin αvβ3 expression was positively identified using SMM imaging. SMM is a promising tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies when used in addition to mammography and can be used to image αvβ3 expression in breast cancer with good image quality.

  1. Radio-localization of non-palpable breast lesions under ultrasonographic guidance: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Follacchio, Giulia Anna; Monteleone, Francesco; Meggiorini, Maria Letizia; Nusiner, Maria Paola; De Felice, Carlo; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Liberatore, Mauro

    2017-09-08

    Due to the spread of mammographic screening programs, a constant increase of clinically-occult breast cancer diagnosis has been registered. A correct approach to non-palpable breast lesions requires an accurate intra-operative localization in order to achieve a complete surgical resection. Aim of this paper is to describe the state of the art of the US-guided procedures such as Radio-guided Occult Lesion Localization (ROLL) and Radio-guided Seed Localization (RSL) in comparison to the most widely adopted Wire-Guided Localization (WGL). Links to full text papers and abstracts published in the last 25 years regarding localization of non-palpable breast lesions were researched using PubMed service of US National Library of Medicine. Using the term "non-palpable breast lesions localization", different localization techniques were considered and analyzed. Human studies, published in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish in journals with an impact factor index, were taken into account, independently of the type of article (clinical trial, review, editorial, etc.) or radiopharmaceutical used. Since the aim was to assess the clinical value of the procedures, a higher relevance was assigned to studies with significantly high number of patients and to those comparing at least two localization techniques. The reliability of each technique was evaluated taking into account several parameters such as correlation index between two localization procedures, risk of complications, lesion margin involvement, rate re-operation. Since their introduction in clinical practice, several randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses showed the accuracy and reliability of radio-guided procedures performed under ultrasonographic guidance. ROLL and RSL offer a practical approach to the management of clinically-occult breast lesions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Nonpalpable Breast Carcinomas: Long-Term Evaluation of 1,258 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Luini, Alberto; Botteri, Edoardo; Zurrida, Stefano; Monti, Simonetta; Galimberti, Viviana; Cassano, Enrico; Latronico, Antuono; Pizzamiglio, Maria; Viale, Giuseppe; Vezzoli, Dario; Rotmensz, Nicole; Musmeci, Simona; Bassi, Fabio; Burgoa, Loredana; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Paganelli, Giovanni; Veronesi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. In recent decades, a steady improvement in imaging diagnostics has been observed together with a rising adherence to regular clinical breast examinations. As a result, the detection of small clinically occult (nonpalpable) lesions has progressively increased. At present in our institution some 20% of the cases are treated when nonpalpable. The aim of the present study is to analyze the characteristics and prognosis of such tumors treated in a single institution. Methods. The analysis focused on 1,258 women who presented at the European Institute of Oncology with a primary clinically occult carcinoma between 2000 and 2006. All patients underwent radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL), axillary dissection when appropriate, whole breast radiotherapy, or partial breast intraoperative irradiation and received tailored adjuvant systemic treatment. Results. Median age was 56 years. Imaging showed a breast nodule in half of the cases and a breast nodule accompanied by microcalcifications in 9%. Microcalcifications alone were present in 17.1% of the cases, whereas suspicious opacity, distortion, or thickening represented the remaining 24.6%. Most tumors were characterized by low proliferative rates (68.9%), positive estrogen receptors (92.3%), and non-overexpressed Her2/neu (91.3%). After a median follow-up of 60 months, we observed 19 local events (1.5%), 12 regional events (1%), and 20 distant metastases (1.6%). Five-year overall survival was 98.6%. Conclusions. Clinically occult (nonpalpable) carcinomas show very favorable prognostic features and high survival rates, showing the important role of modern imaging techniques. PMID:21147866

  3. A Retrospective Comparative Study of Image-Guided Excisional Biopsy in High-Risk Non-Palpable Breast Lesions: Predictive Factors for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    İflazoğlu, Nidal; Üreyen, Orhan; Atahan, Murat Kemal; Meral, Ulvi Mehmet; Sezgin, Gülten; Tarcan, Ercüment

    2015-01-01

    Objective The use of mammography (MM) in breast cancer screening programs has been increasing in recent years. Thus, increasing the number of detected nonpalpable breast cancer patients, through early diagnosis and treatment also increased survival rates. In our study, we wanted to share the factors about imaging-guided exicional biopsies for non-palpable breast lesions in postoperative proven breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods The surgical data were reviewed for 83 patients with non-palpabl high-risk breast lesions undergoing imaging-guided surgery in our department between January, 2006 and May, 2011. Histopathologic results and age, ultrasound(US) results, MM image results, BI-RADS categorization, localization of lesion(quadrant) were assessed and factors for predicting malignity were detected. Results Median age was 52 (age range 32–80 years). 29 (34,9%) of patients were malign in histopathologic results. In four patient, re-excision performed because of positive surgical margins. Axillary examination results were normal in 24 (82,7%) of malignant patients. In MM examination; microcalcifications and nodular opasity were diagnosed in 74,6% of patients before surgery. There were no differance about malignity in these groups after surgery (p:0,428). 59% and 32,7% of patients were BI-RADS 4 and 3, respectively. Postoperative diagnosed malignancies in BI-RADS 4 group were significantly higher than BI-RADS 3 group (p:<0,001). Conclusion In our study; we concluded that, preoperative BI-RADS categorization (US and MM) is correlated with histopathologic findings after surgery and imaging-guided breast surgery is effective for diagnosis of early-stage breast carcinoma.

  4. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  5. The management of screen-detected breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muneer; Douek, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of mammography and introduction of breast screening programmes have resulted in a rise in clinically-occult breast cancer, with one-third of all breast carcinomata diagnosed being non-palpable. These types of cancer have a unique natural history and biology compared to symptomatic breast cancer and this needs to be taken into account when considering surgery and adjuvant treatment. The majority of studies demonstrating efficacy of adjuvant treatments are largely based on patients with symptomatic breast cancer. The current evidence for the role of surgery and adjuvant therapy for screen-detected breast cancer was reviewed in light of their improved prognosis, compared to symptomatic breast cancer.

  6. Radioguided localisation of non-palpable lesions of the breast in Costa Rica: review of results of our first 800 patients in private practice.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Marisel; Alfaro, Sabrina; Aguilar, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Surgical treatment of non-palpable breast lesions is controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology in Milan, Italy, Prof Umberto Veronesi introduced a new technique called the radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) in 1996 to replace conventional methods and their disadvantages (Zurrida S, Galimberti V, and Monti S et al (1998) Radioguided localization of occult breast lesionsBreast7 11-13 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9776(98)90044-3). Given the success experienced in that institution, the method became the technique of choice for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we will examine the technical aspects of ROLL and the results from a large series of patients treated in our private practice in Costa Rica. We analysed the first 816 patients with different non-palpable breast lesions detected by ultrasound or mammography within our private practice in Costa Rica. In 774 patients, technetium 99m labelled with human serum albumin (7-10 MBq) in 0.2 ml of saline solution was injected into the lesion under mammographic or ultrasound guidance. The excisional biopsy was done by means of a gamma-probe and complete excision of the lesion was verified by X-ray on the specimen in lesions that were visible by mammography and ultrasound 4 months after surgery. In the remaining 42 patients, the localisation of the lesion was carried out by wire. The tracer was correctly positioned in the first attempt in 772/816 (94.6%) of cases and in the second attempt in two other cases. In 42/816 (5.1%) cases, the localisation of the lesion had to be performed with the traditional method. X-rays showed that the lesion was entirely removed in 770/772 (99.74%) of cases. The ROLL is a simple and excellent option for the removal of hidden breast lesions in clinical practice. It offers the advantage of making resections safer and with tumour-free margins, in addition to reducing the number of reinterventions. Since it makes it possible to specify to the pathologist

  7. Detection and diagnosis of nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes in lung cancer at CT and US.

    PubMed

    Fultz, Patrick J; Feins, Richard H; Strang, John G; Wandtke, John C; Johnstone, David W; Watson, Thomas J; Gottlieb, Ronald H; Voci, Susan L; Rubens, Deborah J

    2002-01-01

    To assess frequency and significance of enlarged nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes by using chest computed tomography (CT) and supraclavicular ultrasonography (US) in patients at initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Fifty-five patients with no prior malignancy who presented with suspected and subsequently proven lung cancer of any stage or a proven but potentially resectable lung cancer were prospectively selected after chest CT. Chest CT and other radiologic findings were reviewed and tabulated. Standardized US technique was used to identify and guide needle biopsy of enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes (> or =0.5 cm short axis). Twenty-two (40%) of 55 patients had supraclavicular abnormalities detected at CT and/or US. In 18 (82%) of the 22 patients, supraclavicular abnormalities were recognizable at CT. Seventeen of 22 patients had malignant nodes, and five patients had benign nodes (n = 3), a cyst (n = 1), or an indeterminate lesion (n = 1) at US-guided supraclavicular needle sampling. There were no complications. Supraclavicular metastases (31% of patients) were about as common as the combined number of patients with indeterminate (n = 13) and probably or proven malignant (n = 6) adrenal nodules (35% of patients). Supraclavicular metastases were often associated with mediastinal adenopathy or suspected extrapulmonary nonnodal metastases (P <.05). In many patients with lung cancer, chest CT that includes the neck base followed by US-guided sampling of enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes is a simple and safe method for simultaneously establishing a tissue diagnosis and tumor nonresectability.

  8. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  9. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... age 35, and having dense breasts. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a ...

  10. A Nonpalpable Nodule in Ectopic Axillary Breast Tissue: Consider Phyllodes Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Ramírez-Bollas, Julio; Espejo-Fonseca, Ruby; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Benign and malignant pathology can develop in ectopic axillary breast tissue, such as fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, and breast cancer. We present a rare case of an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman with an axillary nodule which was identified during screening mammography within ectopic axillary breast tissue, initially considered as a suspicious lymph node. Radiologic studies were considered as Breast Imaging-Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) 4. A hyperdense, lobular, and well-circumscribed nodule was identified in mammogram while the nodule by ultrasound (US) was hypoechoic with indistinct microlobular margins, without vascularity by Doppler, and measuring 1.26 × 1 cm. Core-needle biopsy reported a fibroepithelial neoplasm. The patient was submitted to local wide-needle excision located in intraoperative radiography of the surgical specimen and margin evaluation. Final histopathological study reported a 1.8 × 1.2 cm benign phyllodes tumor, with irregular, pushing, and clear wide margins within normal ectopic breast tissue. The patient without surgical complications continued annual screening without recurrence during a follow-up that took place 24 months later. PMID:28105378

  11. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... idea of what to expect in the future. Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV. The higher the ... is based on many factors, including: Type of breast cancer Stage of the cancer (staging is a tool your ...

  12. Value of cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration as a screening test for ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy in nonpalpable breast masses.

    PubMed

    Lieu, David

    2009-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of breast masses in the United States has been on the decline for the last decade and has been largely replaced by ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy (UG-CNB). Some studies show core-needle biopsy (CNB) is superior to FNA in terms of absolute sensitivity, specificity, and inadequate rate. However, the importance of a skilled aspirator, experienced cytopathologist, and immediate cytological evaluation (ICE) in FNA is often not considered. CNB is more expensive, invasive, risky, and painful than FNA. This prospective study examines the value of cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided FNA (UG-FNA) with ICE as a screening test for cytopathologist-performed UG-CNB on nonpalpable or difficult-to-palpate solid breast masses visible on ultrasound. One hundred twenty consecutive nonpalpable or difficult-to-palpate presumably solid breast masses in 109 female patients from January2, 2008 to June 30, 2008 underwent cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA with ICE. Twenty cases were converted to cytopathologist-performed UG-CNB because ICE was inadequate, hypocellular, atypical, suspicious, or malignant. Patients with clearly benign cytology did not undergo UG-CNB. UG-FNA with ICE reduced the percentage of patients undergoing UG-CNB by 87%. A new role for cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA of nonpalpable breast masses has been identified.

  13. Randomized controlled clinical trial comparing radioguided occult lesion localization with wire-guided lesion localization to evaluate their efficacy and accuracy in the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carlos; Bastidas, Faustino; de los Reyes, Amelia; Martínez, María Cristina; Hurtado, Gloria; Gómez, María Constanza; Sánchez, Ricardo; Manrique, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) technique with the wire-guided lesion localization (WGLL) technique to assess their efficacy and accuracy in the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions in patients at a unique reference medical center. These patients' reports were negative for malignancy but included highly suspicious imaging findings. A controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the WGLL and ROLL techniques in women presenting with breast lesions diagnosed by mammography or ultrasonography at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Bogotá, Colombia, from March 2006 to June 2011. This study examined 129 patients; 64 (49.6%) patients were treated with ROLL, and 65 (51.4%) were treated with WGLL. The ROLL technique achieved better median lesion centricity (ROLL = 11.7 and WGLL = 15.4; P = .038). No significant differences were found regarding demographic variables, operative specimen characteristics, the need to extend margins, operative complications, the degree of difficulty, or patient or surgeon satisfaction. The ROLL technique is as effective as WGLL for the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions. In our study, ROLL achieved better lesion centricity. Therefore, we propose that this technique could be used as a standard procedure in the detection of nonpalpable breast lesions at experienced centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect on biopsy technique of the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) for nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.; Butchart, Michael; MacFarlane, John K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine if the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) defines a group of patients with mammographic abnormalities in whom stereotactic core needle biopsy (SCNB) is appropriate. Design A blinded retrospective validation sample. Setting A university-affiliated hospital. Patients One hundred and nine consecutive patients who underwent fine-wire localization breast biopsy (FWLB) between Jan. 1, 1994, and June 1, 1999, with a known final pathological diagnosis. Intervention Blinded mammographic review and classification using the BI-RADS; review of corresponding pathological findings from FWLBs. Outcome measures Correlation of pathological findings with each BI-RADS category and analysis of the predictive value of clinical and radiologic features. Results BI-RADS findings were as follows: 0 malignant lesions in 10 category 3 cases, 18 malignant lesions (3 in situ, 15 invasive) in 68 category 4 cases and 24 malignant lesions (8 in situ and 16 invasive) in 31 category 5 cases. There was 1 malignant lesion in 22 category 4 cases in women younger than 50 years. Conclusions SCNB should be applied to BI-RADS categories 3 and 4 (< 50 yr of age). FWLB should be reserved for category 4 (> 50 yr of age) and category 5 cases. This algorithm will reduce the morbidity and cost of breast biopsies in patients with nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities. PMID:12174979

  15. Outcomes of Preoperative MRI-Guided Needle Localization of Nonpalpable Mammographically Occult Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yiming; Bagadiya, Neeti R; Jardon, Meghan L; Heller, Samantha L; Melsaether, Amy N; Toth, Hildegard B; Moy, Linda

    2016-09-01

    MRI-guided needle localization allows access to MRI-detected mammographically occult breast lesions that are not amenable to MRI-guided biopsy. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and outcomes of MRI-guided needle localization. Ninety-nine consecutive breast lesions that underwent preoperative MRI-guided needle localization were identified. Clinical indications for breast MRI, reasons for performing MRI-guided needle localization, and surgical pathology results were recorded. Lesion characteristics, procedure time, and complications were assessed. Of 99 lesions, 60 (60.6%) were in a location inaccessible for MRI biopsy, necessitating MRI-guided needle localization. Histologic evaluation revealed 38 (38.4%) carcinomas, 31 (31.3%) high-risk lesions, and 30 (30.3%) benign lesions. Carcinoma was more likely to be found in women with known cancer (31/61 [50.8%]; p = 0.003) than in women undergoing imaging for high-risk screening (2/18 [11.1%]) or problem solving (6/20 [30%]). Masses (p = 0.013) and foci (p < 0.001) were more likely to be malignant than were lesions with nonmass enhancement. Foci were significantly more often malignant compared with all other lesion types (9/10 [90%]; p < 0.001). The mean (± SD) procedure time was 32.9 ± 9.39 minutes. All lesions were occult on specimen radiographs. There were no procedure-related complications. The positive predictive value of MRI-guided needle localization (38.4%) is comparable to that of mammography- and tomosynthesis-guided localizations and is highest in women with a known diagnosis of cancer. It is highly accurate in targeting small enhancing lesions, thereby improving surgical management. MRI-guided needle localization is a safe, accurate, and time-efficient procedure.

  16. Ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of metastases in nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kendirlinan, Resat; Ozkan, Gülcihan; Bayram, Mehmet; Bakan, Nur Dilek; Tutar, Mehmet; Gür, Aygün; Camsari, Güngör

    2011-08-31

    To assess frequency and significance of enlarged nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes with routine ultrasound (US) evaluation and US-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for the diagnosis and staging of patients with lung cancer. 106 consecutive patients with lung cancer and nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes were evaluated with cervical US for the presence of pathological lymph nodes. FNAB was performed in patients with nodes with short-axis > 5 mm, rounded shape and missing echogenic hilum. 27 (25.5%) patients had enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes on US. Fourteen patients (13.2%) had cytologically proven lymph node involvement. Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was more frequent in patients with mediastinal invasion (p = 0.0001) and patients with enlarged lymph nodes on upper paratracheal stations on thorax CT (p = 0.0001). No relation was found between supraclavicular lymph node involvement and T stage (p = 0.27), distant metastasis (p = 0.50) or histological type (p = 0.80). Three patients were upstaged from IIIA to IIIB status. US-guided FNAB was the only diagnostic method in 2 patients. US-guided FNAB is a simple and safe procedure which can document N3 stage of disease in lung cancer patients. Thereby more invasive and expensive diagnostic procedures can be avoided in selected lung cancer patients.

  17. Ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of metastases in nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes in lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives To assess frequency and significance of enlarged nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes with routine ultrasound (US) evaluation and US-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for the diagnosis and staging of patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods 106 consecutive patients with lung cancer and nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes were evaluated with cervical US for the presence of pathological lymph nodes. FNAB was performed in patients with nodes with short-axis > 5 mm, rounded shape and missing echogenic hilum. Results 27 (25.5%) patients had enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes on US. Fourteen patients (13.2%) had cytologically proven lymph node involvement. Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was more frequent in patients with mediastinal invasion (p = 0.0001) and patients with enlarged lymph nodes on upper paratracheal stations on thorax CT (p = 0.0001). No relation was found between supraclavicular lymph node involvement and T stage (p = 0.27), distant metastasis (p = 0.50) or histological type (p = 0.80). Three patients were upstaged from IIIA to IIIB status. US-guided FNAB was the only diagnostic method in 2 patients. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a simple and safe procedure which can document N3 stage of disease in lung cancer patients. Thereby more invasive and expensive diagnostic procedures can be avoided in selected lung cancer patients. PMID:22958429

  18. Breast Cancer Detection: Mammography and other methods in breast imaging, second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The text addresses mammography and the advantages and limitations of other breast imaging methods presently available. The establishment of X-ray mammography as the safest and most accurate noninvasive method of early, nonpalpable breast cancer detection is addressed in the first section of the book. The second section emphasizes the signs of early cancer, the complete mammographic examination, and the team approach to diagnosis. The advantages and limitations of film-screen mammography, zero mammography, breast ultrasound, thermography, light scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, and ductography are highlighted as alternate methods of detection. The benefits of mammography, and its unmatched value in screeening for breast cancer, are presented in the final section.

  19. Radioactive seed localization with 125I for nonpalpable lesions prior to breast lumpectomy and/or excisional biopsy: methodology, safety, and experience of initial year.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Thornton, Cynthia; Miodownik, Daniel; Boylan, Daniel; Holahan, Brian; King, Valencia; Brogi, Edi; Morrow, Monica; Morris, Elizabeth A; St Germain, Jean

    2013-10-01

    The use of radioactive seed localization (RSL) as an alternative to wire localizations (WL) for nonpalpable breast lesions is rapidly gaining acceptance because of its advantages for both the patient and the surgical staff. This paper examines the initial experience with over 1,200 patients seen at a comprehensive cancer center. Radiation safety procedures for radiology, surgery, and pathology were implemented, and radioactive material inventory control was maintained using an intranet-based program. Surgical probes allowed for discrimination between 125I seed photon energies from 99mTc administered for sentinel node testing. A total of 1,127 patients (median age of 57.2 y) underwent RSL procedures with 1,223 seeds implanted. Implanted seed depth ranged from 10.3-107.8 mm. The median length of time from RSL implant to surgical excision was 2 d. The median 125I activity at time of implant was 3.1 MBq (1.9 to 4.6). The median dose rate from patients with a single seed was 9.5 µSv h-1 and 0.5 µSv h-1 at contact and 1 m, respectively. The maximum contact dose rate was 187 µSv h-1 from a superficially placed seed. RSL performed greater than 1 d before surgery is a viable alternative to WL, allowing flexibility in scheduling, minimizing day of surgery procedures, and improving workflow in breast imaging and surgery. RSL has been shown to be a safe and effective procedure for preoperative localization under mammographic and ultrasound guidance, which can be managed with the use of customized radiation protection controls.

  20. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-17

    Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it.

  2. The relationship of obesity, mammographic breast density, and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Jennifer; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Schnabel, Freya; Moy, Linda

    The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), mammographic breast density, magnetic resonance (MR) background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and MR fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer. Our institutional database was queried for patients with preoperative mammography and breast MR imaging. There were 573 women eligible for analysis. Elevated BMI was associated with advanced stage of disease (P=.01), lower mammographic density (P<.0001), lower FGT (P<.0001), higher BPE (P=.005), and nonpalpable lesions (P=.04). Higher BMI was associated with decreased breast density and FGT. Higher BMI was also associated with advanced stage disease and nonpalpable tumors on clinical exam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radionuclide-guided stereotactic prebiopsy localization of nonpalpable breast lesions with normal mammograms.

    PubMed

    Khalkhali, I; Mishkin, F S; Diggles, L E; Klein, S R

    1997-07-01

    Scintimammography with 99mTc-sestamibi can be used as a complementary technique to improve the mammogram's sensitivity and specificity for detection of breast carcinoma. We have observed in some patients focal areas of increased 99mTc-sestamibi uptake with no corresponding abnormalities on physical examination or mammogram. A phantom device and a special needle were designed to stereotactically localize these lesions before biopsy. After intravenous injection of 30 mCI (1110 MBq) of 99m Tc-sestamibi, a prone lateral image of the abnormal breast was obtained. With the patient in the prone position, the breast was compressed with two fenestrated plates in the prone position. The x and y coordinates of the abnormal hot spot of the breast were determined. The z coordinate of focal 99mTc-sestamibi uptake was determined by advancing a localizer needle through a selected predetermined hole of the fenestrated plate using real-time visualization on the persistence monitor. The tip of the opturator inside the needle is welded with 57Co to determine the depth of the hot spot in the breast. Three women, all of whom had normal mammogram and breast physical examinations, were studied using 99mTc-sestamibi prone breast imaging. Pre-excisional biopsy needle localization of abnormal focal uptake was performed. Two women demonstrated infiltrative ductal carcinoma, and the third had proliferative fibrocystic disease of the breast. Our initial experience demonstrates that nuclear medicine guided stereotactic needle biopsy of the breast in patients with positive scintimammograms is technically feasible. In the future, this technology will enable us to detect breast carcinoma in the absence of clear-cut clinical and mammographic findings.

  4. Breast cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  5. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy on digital stereotaxic table of nonpalpable lesions non-recognisable by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Apesteguía, L; Mellado, M; Sáenz, J; Cordero, J L; Repáraz, B; De Miguel, C

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy of 11 G vacuum-assisted percutaneous biopsy (VAPB) carried out on digital stereotaxic table, on breast non-palpable lesions (NPLs), non-visible by US. Prospective study on 132 consecutive NPLs (126 patients) not reliably found by US; 82% showed microcalcifications. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all malignant cases and when VAPB reported atypical lesion (ductal or lobular), radial scar or atypical papillary lesion. All patients with benign results were included in a mammographic follow-up programme. Two cases could not be dealt with due to technical difficulties. One to 26 cylinders were obtained from the remaining 130 NPLs. Sixty-four lesions were surgically confirmed. Forty-six of the 47 malignancies were correctly diagnosed. In one case of a malignant tumour, an atypical lesion was classified with VAPB. All cases of histologically verified lobular carcinoma in situ, atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia, radial scar or atypical papillary lesion were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. The remaining lesions were benign in VAPB, and after 1 year of follow-up, no false negative has been found. Based on this short-term follow-up, absolute sensitivity was 97.9%, absolute specificity 84.3% and accuracy was 99.2%. For predicting invasion, accuracy was 89.1%. Vacuum-assisted percutaneous biopsy is a very accurate technique for NPLs which are not detectable by US. It can replace approximately 90% of DSB with no important complications, avoiding scars and providing a higher level of comfort.

  6. Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. A prospective clinical study to evaluate the safety and performance of wireless localization of nonpalpable breast lesions using radiofrequency identification technology.

    PubMed

    Dauphine, Christine; Reicher, Joshua J; Reicher, Murray A; Gondusky, Christina; Khalkhali, Iraj; Kim, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and performance of localizing nonpalpable breast lesions using radiofrequency identification technology. Twenty consecutive women requiring preoperative localization of a breast lesion were recruited. Subjects underwent placement of both a hook wire and a radiofrequency identification tag immediately before surgery. The radiofrequency identification tag was the primary method used by the operating surgeon to localize each lesion during excision, with the hook wire serving as backup in case of tag migration or failed localization. Successful localization with removal of the intended lesion was the primary outcome measured. Tag migration and postoperative infection were also noted to assess safety. Twenty patients underwent placement of a radiofrequency identification tag, 12 under ultrasound guidance and eight with stereotactic guidance. In all cases, the radiofrequency identification tag was successfully localized by the reader at the level of the skin before incision, and the intended lesion was removed along with the radiofrequency identification tag. There were no localization failures and no postoperative infections. Tag migration did not occur before incision, but in three cases, occurred as the lesion was being retracted with fingers to make the final cut along the deep surface of the specimen. In this initial clinical study, radiofrequency tags were safe and able to successfully localize nonpalpable breast lesions. Radiofrequency identification technology may represent an alternative method to hook wire localization.

  8. Nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes in lung cancer patients: preoperative characterization with 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Byung-Tae; Kim, Seonwoo; Kwon, O Jung; Choi, Joon Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of integrated 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection and characterization of nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in patients with the initial diagnosis of lung cancer. This study was conducted from May 2005 to May 2006 and included 32 consecutively registered lung cancer patients in whom supraclavicular lymph nodes were not palpable but were identified on contrast-enhanced CT or exhibited increased FDG uptake on integrated PET/CT. Three patients had bilateral nodes, for a total of 35 nodes in the 32 patients. Results of cytologic analysis of a specimen obtained with sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration (n = 27), normal initial and follow-up sonographic findings (n = 3), and no change in the size of supraclavicular lymph nodes on follow-up sonography (n = 2) were the reference standards. The presence of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was determined with integrated PET/CT (uptake greater than that of surrounding tissue) and contrast-enhanced CT (node short-axis diameter of 5 mm or more). The diagnostic efficacies of these methods in the detection of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis were compared. Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was diagnosed cytologically in 12 (34%) of 35 lesions. The diagnostic accuracies of integrated PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT in the detection of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis were 71% and 66%, respectively; the difference was not statistically significant. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the sensitivity (92%) and negative predictive value (93%) of integrated PET/CT were higher than those of contrast-enhanced CT. Because of its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, integrated PET/CT is useful in the detection and characterization of nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes in lung cancer patients.

  9. [Fine-needle biopsy under echographic control in nonpalpable breast lesions. Technical aspects].

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1998-01-01

    Fine-needle biopsy under ultrasound guidance is widely used in the diagnosis of subclinical breast lesions seen on mammograms. This minimally invasive procedure requires little time and is reliable for the diagnosis of lesions in a central or peripheral (axillary extension, upper part of the superomedial quadrant, mammary fold) location, or in small-sized breasts. The procedure is done in real time, allowing reliable verification of the specimen. The cytologic results are available almost immediately. Close collaboration between the radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  10. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  11. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... how early the cancer was diagnosed. Left untreated, breast cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including internal organs. This could cause serious health problems or be fatal. It is very important to get treatment as soon as possible.Living with cancer during ...

  12. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  13. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier; 2014. Last Medical Review: June 1, 2016 Last Revised: August 18, 2016 Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Radiation for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Hormone ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  15. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may have received after your first breast cancer diagnosis was intended to kill any cancer cells that ... 35 at the time of their original breast cancer diagnosis, face a higher risk of recurrent breast cancer. ...

  17. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast ... cancer or how fast it’s growing. Types of Breast Cancer There are several types of breast cancer. The ...

  18. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  19. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  20. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  1. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  2. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Risk by Age Trends What CDC Is Doing Research African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Print ...

  3. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  4. Does adjuvant radiation therapy benefit women with small mammography-detected breast cancers?

    PubMed Central

    Jerzak, K.; Dudalski, N.; Pritchard, K.; Sun, P.; Narod, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Women with small nonpalpable breast tumours have an excellent prognosis. The benefit of radiotherapy in this group of low-risk women is unknown. Methods A cohort of 1595 women with stages i–iii invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery were followed for local recurrence. Using t-tests, baseline demographic data and tumour characteristics were compared for the women who had palpable (n = 1023) and mammography-detected (n = 572) breast cancers. The 15-year actuarial risk of local recurrence was estimated using a Kaplan–Meier method, stratified for adjuvant radiation therapy (yes or no), tumour palpability (palpable or not), and tumour size (≤1 cm or >1 cm). Hazard ratios (hrs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% cis) were calculated using a multivariate Cox regression model. Results were considered statistically significant if 2-tailed p values were less than 0.05. Results Among women with a nonpalpable tumour, the 15-year actuarial rates of local recurrence were, respectively, 13.9% and 18.3% for those treated and not treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (hr: 0.65; 95%ci: 0.40 to 1.06; p = 0.08). Among women with small nonpalpable breast cancers (≤1.0 cm), the rates were 14.6% and 13.4% respectively (p = 0.67). The absolute reduction in 15-year local recurrence was 11.0% for women with palpable tumours. Conclusions Our results suggest that women with small (<1 cm) screen-detected nonpalpable breast cancers likely derive little benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy; however, an adequately powered randomized trial would be required to make definitive conclusions. PMID:28270722

  5. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  6. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  7. Histologic work-up of non-palpable breast lesions classified as probably benign at initial mammography and/or ultrasound (BI-RADS category 3).

    PubMed

    Gruber, R; Jaromi, S; Rudas, M; Pfarl, G; Riedl, C C; Flöry, D; Graf, O; Sickles, E A; Helbich, T H

    2013-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of a probably benign assessment of non-palpable breast lesions (BI-RADS category 3) at mammography and/or ultrasound with immediate histological work-up. Stereotactic or ultrasound guided core needle breast biopsy (NBB) was performed to evaluate 288 lesions, which were prospectively assessed as BI-RADS category 3. Imaging findings included 195 masses, 73 calcification cases, 16 focal asymmetries, and four architectural distortion cases. After NBB, patients underwent either open surgical biopsy (OSB) (n=204) or mammographic follow-up (n=84) for at least 24 months. Histological results of NBB were compared with those of OSB. Three of the 288 lesions (1.0%) proved to be malignant at histological work-up, two of them were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and one of them was an invasive carcinoma. NBB revealed invasive carcinoma in 1/288 (0.35%) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) in 13/288 (4.5%) lesions. OSB revealed DCIS in 2/204 (1%) and invasive carcinoma in 1/204 (0.5%) lesions. The two DCIS were underestimated as ADH by NBB. The remaining 285 (99%) lesions proved to be benign at OSB or remained stable during follow-up. Confirmed by tissue diagnosis, the low likelihood of malignancy of prospectively assessed probably benign lesions is below the 2% threshold established for BI-RADS category 3. Imaging follow-up is a safe and effective alternative to immediate histological work-up for such lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Staging and treatment of clinically occult breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G F; Feig, S A; Rosenberg, A L; Patchefsky, A S; Schwartz, A B

    1984-03-15

    Five hundred fifty-seven biopsies were performed for clinically occult mammary lesions, detected by mammography as clustered calcifications or nonpalpable masses within the breast. One hundred seventy-five cancers were demonstrated within this group, including 106 invasive carcinomas, 10 microinvasive carcinomas, 45 in situ ductal carcinomas, and 14 lobular carcinomas in situ (lobular neoplasia). No patient with in situ or microinvasive carcinoma had evidence of axillary node metastases in 33 specimens studied. However, a disturbingly high proportion of those patients with invasive carcinomas, approximately 35%, had histologically confirmed axillary node metastases, despite the small size of the primary tumors. These observations suggest that the use of the term "minimal" cancer is misleading when applied to invasive carcinoma. Staging systems for breast cancer have been imprecise when referring to nonpalpable lesions. Cancers detected as clustered calcifications only or as areas of parenchymal distortion without an accompanying mass are properly considered as T-0 cancers, with a suggested T-0(m) to indicate that the lesion was detected by mammography. However, when the mammogram indicates the presence of a mass that proves to be malignant, although the clinical examination may have been negative, the cancer should be staged according to the size of the mass on the mammogram, with the notation that it was detected by mammography, e.g., T-1(m), T-2(m), etc. The incidence of axillary node metastases even in these so-called occult cancers is significant, so that recommendations for treatment for any invasive cancer, regardless of its size, must take these observations into account. Similarly, the incidence of multifocal sites of cancer within the breast, even in the noninvasive cancers encountered, must be remembered when treatment is suggested.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers . A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary ... will develop breast cancer . Some breast cancers that cluster in families are associated with inherited mutations in ...

  10. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... or to other parts of the body. Where breast cancer begins in men Everyone is born with a ... skin around the nipple. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from ...

  11. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  12. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  13. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  14. Intraoperative Ultrasound Guidance Is Associated with Clear Lumpectomy Margins for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qiang; Dai, Juncheng; Ling, Lijun; Chen, Lin; Zha, Xiaoming; Liu, Xiaoan; Zhou, Wenbin; Wang, Shui

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Margin status is one of the most important predictors of local recurrence after breast conserving surgery (BCS). Intraoperative ultrasound guidance (IOUS) has the potential to improve surgical accuracy for breast cancer. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of IOUS in breast cancer surgery and to compare the margin status to that of the more traditional Guide wire localization (GWL) or palpation-guidance. Methods We searched the database of PubMed for prospective and retrospective studies about the impact of IOUS on margin status of breast cancer, and a meta-analysis was conducted. Results Of the 13 studies included, 8 were eligible for the impact of IOUS on margin status of non-palpable breast cancers, 4 were eligible for palpable breast cancers, and 1 was for both non-palpable and palpable breast cancers. The rate of negative margins of breast cancers in IOUS group was significantly higher than that in control group without IOUS (risk ratio (RR)  = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)  = 1.18–1.59 from 7 prospective studies, odds ratio (OR)  = 2.75, 95% CI  = 1.66–4.55 from 4 retrospective studies). For non-palpable breast cancers, IOUS-guidance enabled a significantly higher rate of negative margins than that of GWL-guidance (RR  = 1.26, 95% CI  = 1.09–1.46 from 6 prospective studies; OR  = 1.45, 95% CI  = 0.86–2.43 from 2 retrospective studies). For palpable breast cancers, relative to control group without IOUS, the RR for IOUS associated negative margins was 2.36 (95% CI  = 1.26–4.43) from 2 prospective studies, the OR was 2.71 (95% CI  = 1.25–5.87) from 2 retrospective studies. Conclusion This study strongly suggests that IOUS is an accurate method for localization of non-palpable and palpable breast cancers. It is an efficient method of obtaining high proportion of negative margins and optimum resection volumes in patients undergoing BCS. PMID:24073200

  15. [Axillary lymph node dissection in clinically occult breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Le Bouëdec, G; Pomel, C; Chamussy, E; Feillel, V; de Latour, M; Dauplat, J

    1996-07-01

    The study concerns 265 patients with axillary lymph node dissection for non-palpable breast cancer. The mammographically detected breast tumors were: 36 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), 23 microinvasive carcinomas, 206 invasive carcinomas of which 179 were invasive ductal cancers (IDC), 25 invasive lobular cancers (ILC) and 2 mucinous invasive carcinomas. The histologic size of the invasive component was < or = 5 mm in 38 cases, 6-10 mm in 84 cases, 11-15 mm in 53 cases, 16-20 mm in 16 cases, > 20 mm in 15 cases. Axillary dissection was performed immediately during the initial surgical procedure in 209 patients (79%) or secondarily in 56 (21%) according to the results of intraoperative examination of surgical specimens on frozen sections. Axillary lymph node involvement was not found in DCIS, microinvasive carcinomas or invasive carcinomas < or = 5 mm in size. Among all 206 invasive breast carcinomas, lymph node involvement was found in 7.8% (16/206) of cases. There were 9/84 (10.7%) in tumors > 10 mm, 7/122 (5.8%) in tumors < or = 10 mm. Thus, it is concluded that lymph node involvement is unlikely to be found in patients with non palpable breast cancers, specially those with carcinoma in situ, microinvasive breast tumors and invasive breast cancer with less than 5 mm maximum diameter size. Axillary dissection may be avoided in these patients. However, the use of new prognostic factors of lymph node involvement may help in the definition of patient group.

  16. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  17. Detectability of Hygroscopic Clips Used in Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Carmon, Moshe; Olsha, Oded; Gekhtman, David; Nikitin, Irena; Cohen, Yamin; Messing, Michael; Lioubashevsky, Natali; Abu Dalo, Ribhi; Hadar, Tal; Golomb, Eliahu

    2017-02-01

    Sonographically detectable clips were introduced over the last decade. We retrospectively studied the rate and duration of sonographically detectable clip detectability in patients with breast cancer who had sonographically detectable clips inserted over a 2-year period. Nine of 26 patients had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with all clips remaining detectable 140 to 187 days after insertion. Six of the 9 had intraoperative sonographic localization, with 1 reoperation (17%). Eleven additional patients with nonpalpable tumors and sonographically detectable clips had intraoperative sonographic localization with 1 reoperation (9%). In 1 patient, a sonographically detectable clip enabled intraoperative identification of a suspicious lymph node. There were no complications or clip migration. Sonographically detectable clips are helpful in breast cancer surgery with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy, remaining detectable for many months and often averting preoperative localization and scheduling difficulties.

  18. Surgeon performed continuous intraoperative ultrasound guidance decreases re-excisions and mastectomy rates in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz Cakmak, Guldeniz; Emre, Ali U; Tascilar, Oge; Bahadir, Burak; Ozkan, Selcuk

    2017-06-01

    Intraoperative ultrasound guided (IUG) breast conserving surgery (BCS) is being increasingly embraced by breast surgeons worldwide. We aimed to compare the efficacy of IUG-BCS for palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer with respect to margin status, re-excision rate, tissue sacrifice and cost-time analysis. Intraoperative localization protocol includes intraoperative ultrasound prior to excision to localize the lesion and guide the initial resection. The excised specimen was then examined visually and by palpation and the specimen and cavity was examined with ultrasound. Frozen sections were obtained routinely from a portion of all six faces of the resected specimen, and shaved cavity margins were sent for permanent histology. Of the 208 patients, 57.2% had nonpalpable tumors. The sensitivity of ultrasound localization was 100%. Negative margins were achieved in 92.43% of nonpalpable and 91.01% of palpable lesions at initial procedure. The involved margins were correctly identified by the surgeon via specimen sonography in 95.4% of cases. Final positive margin rate was 2.4%. Calculated resection ratio and time analysis revealed nothing significant. IUG-BCS is an invaluable and effective modality for obtaining clear surgical margins with optimum resection volumes and reducing re-operations. Furthermore, by means of this algorithm, in case of shaving cavity margins of the tumor bed for permanent analysis, frozen section evaluation might be omitted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-12

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  20. Breast cancer detection: radiologists' performance using mammography with and without automated whole-breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin M; Dean, Judy; Lee, Sung-Jae; Comulada, W Scott

    2010-11-01

    Radiologist reader performance for breast cancer detection using mammography plus automated whole-breast ultrasound (AWBU) was compared with mammography alone. Screenings for non-palpable breast malignancies in women with radiographically dense breasts with contemporaneous mammograms and AWBU were reviewed by 12 radiologists blinded to the diagnoses; half the studies were abnormal. Readers first reviewed the 102 mammograms. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) and Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) likelihood ratings were recorded with location information for identified abnormalities. Readers then reviewed the mammograms and AWBU with knowledge of previous mammogram-only evaluation. We compared reader performance across screening techniques using absolute callback, areas under the curve (AUC), and figure of merit (FOM). True positivity of cancer detection increased 63%, with only a 4% decrease in true negativity. Reader-averaged AUC was higher for mammography plus AWBU compared with mammography alone by BIRADS (0.808 versus 0.701) and likelihood scores (0.810 versus 0.703). Similarly, FOM was higher for mammography plus AWBU compared with mammography alone by BIRADS (0.786 versus 0.613) and likelihood scores (0.791 versus 0.614). Adding AWBU to mammography improved callback rates, accuracy of breast cancer detection, and confidence in callbacks for dense-breasted women.

  1. Male Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yalaza, Metin; İnan, Aydın; Bozer, Mikdat

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Although breast carcinomas share certain characteristics in both genders, there are notable differences. Most studies on men with breast cancer are very small. Thus, most data on male breast cancer are derived from studies on females. However, when a number of these small studies are grouped together, we can learn more from them. This review emphasizes the incidence, etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, pathology, survival, and prognostic factors related to MBC.

  2. High-Resolution Speckle-Free Ultrasound Imaging System - A Potential Solution for Detecting Missed Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    piezo-electric material from the detector array. In this area there is no energy added to the pixel cells from ultrasound detection. Figure 8 shows a... Sickles , "Mammographic features of 300 consecutive nonpalpable breast cancers," AJR, vol. 146, p. 661, 1986. 3. F. M. Hall, J. M. Storella, D. Z...353, 1988. 4. S. D. Frankel, E. A. Sickle , B. N. Curpen, R. A. Sollitto, S. H. Ominsky, and H. B. Galvin, "Initial versus subsequent screening

  3. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red, or inflamed. Inflammatory breast cancer is rare, accounting for 1 to 5 percent of all breast ... Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & ...

  4. Innovation in early breast cancer surgery: radio-guided occult lesion localization and sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, G; Veronesi, U

    2002-07-01

    The surgical management of non-palpable breast lesions remains controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology we have introduced a new technique, radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL) to replace standard methods and overcome their disadvantages. Regarding axillary dissection, probe-guided biopsy of the sentinel node (SN) is easy to apply, and the whole procedure is associated to a low risk of false negatives. We suggest that the SN technique should be widely adopted to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes. Large-scale implementation of the sentinel node technique will reduce the cost of treatment as a result of shorter hospitalization times.

  5. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Breast Cancer Survivor Follow up Care After Breast Cancer Treatment Many women are relieved or excited to ... Menopausal Hormone Therapy After Breast Cancer More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  6. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Treating Breast Cancer in Men Treatment of Breast Cancer in Men, by Stage Because there have been ... Doctor About Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  7. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  8. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... please see our Content Usage Policy . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  9. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Treating Breast Cancer in Men Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men The thought of surgery can be ... Doctor About Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  10. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  11. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  12. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  13. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Brussel, Aram S A; van der Groep, Petra; Morsink, Folkert H M; Bult, Peter; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-06-13

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  14. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  15. Global breast cancer seasonality.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Nawaz, Hamayun; Yang, Chul-Ho; Wood, Patricia A; Hrushesky, William J M

    2010-08-01

    Human breast cancer incidence has seasonal patterns that seem to vary among global populations. The aggregate monthly frequency of breast cancer diagnosis was collected and examined for 2,921,714 breast cancer cases diagnosed across 64 global regions over spans from 2 to 53 years. Breast cancer is consistently diagnosed more often in spring and fall, both in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, regardless of presumable menopausal status (50). This seasonality is increasingly more prominent as population distance from the equator increases and this latitude dependence is most pronounced among women living in rural areas. Moreover, the overall annual incidence (2005-2006), per 100,000 population, of breast cancer increased as the latitude of population residence increased. These data make it clear that human breast cancer discovery occurs non-randomly throughout each year with peaks near both equinoxes and valleys near both solstices. This stable global breast cancer seasonality has implications for better prevention, more accurate screening, earlier diagnosis, and more effective treatment. This complex latitude-dependent breast cancer seasonality is clearly related to predictable local day/night length changes which occur seasonally. Its mechanism may depend upon seasonal sunlight mediation of vitamin D and seasonal mediation of nocturnal melatonin peak level and duration.

  16. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  18. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  19. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    the Witness model will be tailored for breast cancer survivors and the peer interventionists (breast cancer survivors and lay health advisors) will be...by a lay health advisor; 4) discussion of concerns and myths about breast cancer and screening /surveillance that are prevalent among AAW; 5) review...Breast cancer screening surveillance Breast cancer screening Treatment/Time of Treatment intention /adherence & physician recommendation

  20. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  1. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In February 2003, the National ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  2. Breast cancer and depression.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Wendy; Stout, Steven C; Miller, Andrew H; Musselman, Dominique

    2004-07-01

    Major depression and depressive symptoms, although commonly encountered in patients with medical illnesses, are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in women with breast cancer. Depression and its associated symptoms diminish quality of life, adversely affect compliance with medical therapies, and reduce survival. Treatment of depression in women with breast cancer improves their dysphoria and other depressive symptoms, enhances quality of life, and may increase longevity. In this review, studies that investigate pathophysiologic alterations in patients with cancer and comorbid depression are discussed, and the few studies on treatment of depression and related symptoms in women with breast cancer are examined.

  3. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  4. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  5. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    which is a study of 3131 human tumor samples and cancer cell lines including 243 breast samples. Tumorscape showed that PAK1 is located in an...chromosome 11q of human tumor samples and cancer cell lines that exhibit highest level of PAK1 amplification divided according to cancer type...breast, non-small cell (NSC) lung, ovarian (Ov), small cell lung (SCL), melanoma (Mel) and esophageal squamous (Esq). PAK1 and CCND1 1oci are marked . B

  6. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  7. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  9. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  10. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-14

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  11. Breast Cancer In Women

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  12. Breast size, handedness and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, C C; Trichopoulos, D

    1991-01-01

    Bra cup size and handedness were studied as possible risk factors for breast cancer. Data for 3918 cases and 11,712 controls from 7 centres were used to examine the association of handedness with laterality of breast cancer; data for 2325 cases and 7008 controls from 4 centres were used to assess the relation of bra cup size to breast cancer risk. There was a suggestive (P about 0.10) association of handedness with breast cancer laterality: odds ratio of a left-handed (or ambidextrous) woman having a left-sided cancer 1.22 (95% CI 0.96-1.56). Handedness may affect the lateral occurrence of breast cancer, although this tumour is in general more common in the left breast, possibly because this breast is usually slightly larger. Premenopausal women who do not wear bras had half the risk of breast cancer compared with bra users (P about 0.09), possibly because they are thinner and likely to have smaller breasts. Among bra users, larger cup size was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (P about 0.026), although the association was found only among postmenopausal women and was accounted for, in part, by obesity. These data suggest that bra cup size (and conceivably mammary gland size) may be a risk factor for breast cancer.

  13. Quiz: How much do you know about breast cancer? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer late stage breast cancer locally advanced breast cancer Stage III breast cancer is early stage breast cancer late stage breast cancer locally advanced breast cancer Stage IV breast cancer is early stage breast cancer ...

  14. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  15. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Antoinette R

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer may present with cutaneous symptoms. The skin manifestations of breast cancer are varied. Some of the more common clinical presentations of metastatic cutaneous lesions from breast cancer will be described. Paraneoplastic cutaneous dermatoses have been reported as markers of breast malignancy and include erythema gyratum repens, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita. Mammary Paget's disease, often associated with an underlying breast cancer, and Cowden syndrome, which has an increased risk of breast malignancy, each have specific dermatologic findings. Recognition of these distinct cutaneous signs is important in the investigation of either newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer.

  16. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  17. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  18. Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... men may have radiation after surgery. Since most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy (with tamoxifen) is often used depending on the stage. Chemotherapy may be given before tamoxifen. For men ...

  19. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  20. The breast cancer conundrum.

    PubMed

    Adams, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  1. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  2. The Canadian National Breast Screening Study-1: breast cancer mortality after 11 to 16 years of follow-up. A randomized screening trial of mammography in women age 40 to 49 years.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anthony B; To, Teresa; Baines, Cornelia J; Wall, Claus

    2002-09-03

    The efficacy of breast cancer screening in women age 40 to 49 years remains controversial. To compare breast cancer mortality in 40- to 49-year-old women who received either 1) screening with annual mammography, breast physical examination, and instruction on breast self-examination on 4 or 5 occasions or 2) community care after a single breast physical examination and instruction on breast self-examination. Individually randomized, controlled trial. 15 Canadian centers. 50 430 volunteers age 40 to 49 years, recruited from January 1980 to March 1985, who were not pregnant, had no previous breast cancer diagnosis, and had not had mammography in the preceding 12 months. Breast physical examination and instruction on breast self-examination preceded random assignment of 25 214 women to receive mammography and annual mammography, breast physical examination, and breast self-examination and 25 216 women to receive usual community care with annual follow-up. Verified breast cancer incidence and cohort mortality through 31 December 1993 and deaths from breast cancer through 30 June 1996. The 105 breast cancer deaths in the mammography group and 108 breast cancer deaths in the usual care group yielded a cumulative rate ratio, adjusted for mammography done outside the study, of 1.06 (95% CI, 0.80 to 1.40). A total of 592 cases of invasive breast cancer and 71 cases of in situ breast cancer were diagnosed by 31 December 1993 in the mammography group compared with 552 and 29 cases, respectively, in the usual care group. The expected proportions of nonpalpable and small invasive tumors were detected on mammography. After 11 to 16 years of follow-up, four or five annual screenings with mammography, breast physical examination, and breast self-examination had not reduced breast cancer mortality compared with usual community care after a single breast physical examination and instruction on breast self-examination. The study data show that true effects of 20% or greater are

  3. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  4. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  5. Preinvasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sgroi, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    Preinvasive breast cancer accounts for approximately one-third of all newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in the United States and constitutes a spectrum of neoplastic lesions with varying degrees of differentiation and clinical behavior. High-throughput genetic, epigenetic, and gene-expression analyses have enhanced our understanding of the relationship of these early neoplastic lesions to normal breast tissue, and they strongly suggest that preinvasive breast cancer develops and evolves along two distinct molecular genetic and biological pathways that correlate with tumor grade. Although unique epigenetic and gene-expression changes are not observed in the tumor epithelial compartment during the transition from preinvasive to invasive disease, distinct molecular alterations are observed in the tumor-stromal and myoepithelial cells. This suggests that the stromal and myoepithelial microenvironment of preinvasive breast cancer actively participates in the transition from preinvasive to invasive disease. An improved understanding of the transition from preinvasive to invasive breast cancer will pave the way for novel preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19824828

  6. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  7. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  8. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K H; Millard, P S

    1996-10-01

    The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a meta-analysis of data from 10 cohort and 44 case-control studies of the association between combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer. 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women with no breast cancer from 25 countries worldwide were studied. Current OC users faced a 24% increased risk of developing breast cancer (confidence interval = 1.15-1.33). This risk fell steadily after cessation and reached 0 at 10 years and thereafter. Use of OCs with higher doses were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer than medium or low-dose OCs. The number of excess cancers in women while using OCs and up to 10 years after OC cessation stood at 0.5/10,000 women 16-19 years old, 1.5/10,000 women 20-24 years old, and 4.7/10,000 women 25-29 years old. The elevated risk of developing breast cancer did not differ by country of origin, ethnic background, reproductive history, or family history of breast cancer. OC users had less clinically advanced breast cancer than never-users who had breast cancer. This finding plus the moderate reduced risk of breast cancer more than 10 years after OC cessation suggest that OCs may effect earlier diagnosis of existing breast cancer instead of causing new breast cancers. The findings of this meta-analysis along with a plausible biologic mechanism (estrogen stimulates breast cancer cells) suggest a causal relationship between OC use and breast cancer. They also indicate that the risk is small, decreases with time, and is lower among low-dose OC users. It is reassuring that the breast cancers found among OC users is less clinically advanced than those found in never-users.

  9. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  10. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features on this page, ... you can do to help prevent breast cancer. Risk Factors You Cannot Control Risk factors you cannot ...

  11. Computerized Cognitive Retraining in Improving Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-02

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole Ma; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-02-10

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing "blind" surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast

  14. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole MA; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing “blind” surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-13

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    OHE 1 hypothesis are cancer patients and lacto- vegetarians . The evidence is rather clear that certain sparse. Schneider and co-workers used a Both of... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  17. Vasopressin and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    receptors7:on-breast cancer cells represents a way in which these peptides might influence cancer cell pathophysiology. However, the expression of...National Institutes of Health . In the conduct of research utilIzing recombinant DNA, the nvestigator(s) adhered to the NIH G.idelines for Research...possible autocrine/paracrine role for this peptide in cancer cells. In support of this hypothesis vasopressin was shown to have a growth-promoting influence

  18. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Doğer, Emek; Calışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences.

  19. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  20. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p < 0.001). There was a significant relationship between node involvement and income in Whites in 198 USA counties. Income was significantly correlated with 5-year relative survival in Whites with localized breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0

  1. Laparoscopy for the nonpalpable testis.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, G W; Brock, J W; Neblett, W W; Pietsch, J B; Morgan, W M

    1994-02-01

    Between 1988 and 1992, 287 infants and children have been evaluated for an undescended testis. In 35, the testis was not palpable. These 35 patients ranged in age between 10 months and 14 years, with a mean of 44 months and a median of 15 months. Thirteen patients had a nonpalpable right testis, 18 had a nonpalpable left testis, and four had bilateral nonpalpable testes. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed in these 35 boys with a nonpalpable testis to allow a planned approach to management of this condition. In 11 children, a testis was visualized. The testis was in an inguinal hernia sac in seven, and single stage conventional orchiopexy was performed. In four children an intra-abdominal testis was seen, and three infants underwent laparoscopic clip ligation of the testicular vessels. One teenager underwent orchiectomy. In 21 of the remaining 24 boys, small, attenuated testicular vessels were noted to pass into the inguinal canal and inguinal exploration was required. A small testicular remnant was excised in 15 patients, but orchiopexy was possible in six boys. Diagnostic laparoscopy takes 7 to 10 minutes and enables the surgeon to develop a planned approach to this condition. With the information gathered at laparoscopy, the surgeon is best able to decide if an inguinal exploration is necessary or if a single-stage orchiopexy is possible. If a two-stage orchiopexy is required for an intra-abdominal testis, then clip ligation of the testicular vessels can be performed laparoscopically as the first stage, followed by Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy 6 to 9 months later.

  2. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradlow, H Leon; Sepkovic, Daniel W

    2002-06-01

    The preponderance of evidence suggests a role for fat and alcohol as risk factors for breast cancer. The role of milk is more controversial with some studies suggesting that milk is a risk factor and others that consumption of milk is protective against breast cancer. No other major nutrient appears to play a significant role in increasing breast cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that a variety of micronutrients and hormones appear to have significant anticancer activity. These range from steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its analysis to indoles, isothiocyanates, and isoflavone derivatives. These compounds act directly by interfering with cyclins and promoting apoptosis as well as indirectly by altering estrogen metabolism in a favorable direction. These effects are not merely theoretical actions in cell culture and tissue explants; they have been demonstrated in human patients as a range of studies have demonstrated.

  3. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Inflammatory Breast Cancer from Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Achariyapota, Vuthinun; Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from tumors other than breast carcinomas are extremely rare and represent only 0.2–1.3% of all diagnosed malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, while the most common sites for advanced ovarian cancer metastases are the liver, lung, and pleura, metastasis to the breast from a primary ovarian cancer is uncommon and has only been reported in 0.03–0.6% of all breast cancers. Here we describe a case report of a 50-year-old female patient with a rare case of breast metastases from an advanced ovarian cancer, presenting as inflammatory breast cancer. Our observations emphasize the clinical importance of distinguishing between primary and metastatic breast cancer during diagnosis for the purpose of appropriate prognosis and treatment. PMID:27047697

  5. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-21

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  6. Early detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nettles-Carlson, B

    1989-01-01

    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  7. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  8. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  9. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  10. Benign breast disease: when to treat, when to reassure, when to refer.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Lakshmi; Barnard, Karen; Elnicki, D Michael

    2002-05-01

    Many women have breast symptoms-swelling and tenderness, nodularity, pain, palpable lumps, nipple discharge, or breast infections and inflammation. Fortunately, relatively few have breast cancer. Physicians must distinguish benign breast conditions from malignant ones, and know when to refer the patient to a specialist. We have included some of the newer diagnostic techniques and the approach to patients with nonpalpable lesions detected on a screening mammogram.

  11. Surveying Breast Cancer's Genomic Landscape.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    An in-depth analysis has produced the most comprehensive portrait to date of the myriad genomic alterations involved in breast cancer. In sequencing the whole genomes of 560 breast cancers and combining this information with published data from another 772 breast tumors, the research team uncovered several new genes and mutational signatures that potentially influence this disease.

  12. Ultrasound in Detecting Taxane-Induced Neuropathy in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-15

    Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  13. Breast cancer in systemic lupus.

    PubMed

    Bernatsky, S; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Petri, M; Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Fortin, P F; Ginzler, E; Romero-Diaz, J; Peschken, C; Jacobsen, S; Hanly, J G; Gordon, C; Nived, O; Yelin, E H; Isenberg, D; Rahman, A; Bae, S-C; Joseph, L; Witte, T; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Aranow, C; Kamen, D; Sturfeldt, G; Foulkes, W D; Hansen, J E; St Pierre, Y; Raymer, P Chrétien; Tessier-Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E

    2017-03-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug exposures over time. In univariate and multivariate models, the principal factor associated with breast cancers was older age at cohort entry. Conclusions There was little evidence that breast cancer risk in this SLE sample was strongly driven by any of the clinical factors that we studied. Further search for factors that determine the lower risk of breast cancer in SLE may be warranted.

  14. Breast cancer screening and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Mai

    2009-01-01

    Annual screening mammograms have been shown to be cost-effective and are credited for the decline in mortality of breast cancer. New technologies including breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may further improve early breast cancer detection in asymptomatic women. Serum tumor markers such as CA 15-3, carcinoembyonic antigen (CEA), and CA 27-29 are ordered in the clinic mainly for disease surveillance, and not useful for detection of localized cancer. This review will discuss blood-based markers and breast-based markers, such as nipple/ductal fluid, with an emphasis on biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer. In the future, it is likely that a combination approach to simultaneously measure multiple markers would be most successful in detecting early breast cancer. Ideally, such a biomarker panel should be able to detect breast cancer in asymptomatic patients, even in the setting of normal mammogram and physical examination results.

  15. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  16. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  17. Genetic epidemiology of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D

    1994-07-01

    It has been recognized for some time that a family history of breast cancer is associated rather strongly with a woman's own risk of developing the disease. Recent segregation analyses of population-based data on familial patterns provide evidence for a rare autosomal dominant allele that increases a carrier's susceptibility to breast cancer. The estimated proportion of breast cancer patients who carry this allele declines sharply with age at diagnosis. Empirical estimates of the risk associated with particular patterns of family history of breast cancer indicate the following: (1) having any first-degree relative with breast cancer increases a woman's risk of breast cancer 1.5-3-fold, depending on age, (2) having multiple first degree relatives affected is associated with particularly elevated risks, (3) having a second-degree relative affected increases the risk by approximately 50%, (4) affected family members on the maternal side and the paternal side contribute similarly to the risk, (5) a family history of breast cancer is associated with bilateral disease, and (6) breast cancer in males is associated with breast cancer in female relatives in much the same way as is breast cancer in women. Ovarian cancer clearly has been shown to be associated with breast cancer in families, and genetic linkage has provided strong evidence for a breast-ovarian cancer gene located somewhere on chromosome 17q. At the population level, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer may be at least as predictive of a woman's risk for developing breast cancer as is having a second-degree relative with breast cancer. Considerably weaker evidence points to a possible familial relationship between breast and endometrial cancer and between breast cancer in women and prostatic cancer in males. The clinical applications of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer are complicated by uncertainty as to the efficacy of mammographic screening in women under the age of 50. For the vast

  18. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  19. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Heterogeneity in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. There is a high degree of diversity between and within tumors as well as among cancer-bearing individuals, and all of these factors together determine the risk of disease progression and therapeutic resistance. Advances in technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and functional viability screens now allow us to analyze tumors at unprecedented depths. However, translating this increasing knowledge into clinical practice remains a challenge in part due to tumor evolution driven by the diversity of cancer cell populations and their microenvironment. The articles in this Review series discuss recent advances in our understanding of breast tumor heterogeneity, therapies tailored based on this knowledge, and future ways of assessing and treating heterogeneous tumors.

  1. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosed? The most common way to find breast cancer is through a breast exam or mammogram (x-ray). Some women at high risk may need a screening MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan, which is more sensitive than a mammogram. ...

  2. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Dias, Fernando Gf; Castro, Marcos As; Ferreira, Ubirajara

    2011-06-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. However, as global populace ages, there is a trend to MBC increasing. Although aetiology is still unclear, constitutional, environmental, hormonal (abnormalities in estrogen/androgen balance) and genetic (positive family history, Klinefelter syndrome, mutations in BRCA1 and specially BRCA2) risk factors are already known. Clinic manifestation is painless hard and fixed nodule in the subareolar region in 75% of cases, with nipple commitment earlier than in women. Breast cancer has similar prognostic factors in males and females, among which axillary adenopathy (present in 40-55% cases) is the most important one. Although mammography, ultrasonography and scintigraphy can be useful tools in diagnosis; clinical assessment, along with a confirmatory biopsy, remains the main step in the evaluation of men with breast lesions. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The established standard of care is modified radical mastectomy followed by tamoxifen for endocrine-responsive positive disease, although other options are being explored. While similarities between breast cancer in males and females exist, it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from female disease to the treatment of male. There is a need for specific multi-institutional trials to better understanding of clinicopathologic features and establishment of optimal therapy for this disease.

  3. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-09

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  4. [Occult multicentric breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M

    2009-01-01

    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  5. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men? For many men with breast cancer, ... Breast Cancer in Men Stops Working More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  6. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    predictors of surveillance and follow-up care is Baldwin’s Afrocentric model for describing AA women’s participation in breast and cervical cancer screening...African American women’s participation in breast and cervical cancer early detection and screening. Adv Nurs Sci. 1996;19(2):27Y42. 28. Marin G. Subjective...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  7. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0059 TITLE: Educating normal breast mucosa to prevent breast cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keith L Knutson...SUBTITLE Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0059 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0059 5c...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Breast cancer develops from breast mucosa and breast mucosa has intact immune system to

  8. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  9. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  10. How Is Breast Cancer in Men Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Breast Cancer in Men Diagnosed? Medical history and physical exam ... in Men Survival Rates, by Stage More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  11. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  12. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  13. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  14. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  15. Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L. Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient’s primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. PMID:23895915

  16. [Immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Tsubota, Yu; Sueoka, Noriko; Endo, Kayoko; Ogura, Tsunetaka; Nagumo, Yoshinori; Kwon, A-Hon

    2014-11-01

    We performed immediate breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy or skin-sparing mastectomy and evaluated the reconstruction procedure, cosmesis, and complications. Among the 30 patients included in the study, 6 received latissimus dorsi flaps, 1 received a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, 7 received deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps, 1 received an implant, and 15 received tissue expanders. In addition, the results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 3 patients, and poor in 2 patients. As the number of patients with breast cancer is increasing, the demand for breast reconstruction will increase. Therefore, it is essential to choose an appropriate method of breast reconstruction for each case.

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  1. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  4. Genistein Programming Against Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, *GENES, *DIET, *ESTROGENS, *SOY PROTEIN, *BREAST CANCER, RATS , CHEMICALS, MOLECULES, ENZYMES, PROTEINS, SENSITIVITY, WOMEN, SENSE ORGANS, ASIA, MAMMARY GLANDS, METHYLATION, ANDROGENS, TRANSFERASES.

  5. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  6. Amphiphysin and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    condition appears to represent a novel entity within the emerging family of neurological autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes , conditions in which...We have recently identified a new human syndrome characterized by breast cancer, autoimmunity directed against the neuronal protein in amphiphysin...and Stiff-Man syndrome (SMS). SMS is a rare disease of the central nervous system characterized by progressive rigidity of the body musculature. This

  7. Erythropoietin and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position...CONTRACT NUMBER Erythropoietin and Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0737 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER Arthur J. Sytkowski, MD 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING

  8. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  9. Breast-feeding after breast cancer in childbearing women.

    PubMed

    Camune, Barbara; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society in 2007, about 178,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the United States. Of these, 25% have tumors in their childbearing years and may desire future opportunities for pregnancy and lactation. Although there is a multitude of options related to preserving fertility, little is known about the residual effects of breast cancer treatment and the ability to breast-feed afterward. This article describes the epidemiological relationship between breast cancer and pregnancy and lactation. Basic types of treatment for breast cancer including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are reviewed. Practical information on how to support breast-feeding after breast cancer is included.

  10. Rosuvastatin in Treating Women With Cardiovascular Complications Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy For Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-25

    Cardiovascular Complications; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  11. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-20

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Pathways to Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a deadly disease, even with all the recent technological advancements. Early intervention has made an impact, but an overwhelmingly large number of breast cancer patients still live under the fear of “recurrent” disease. Breast cancer recurrence is clinically a huge problem and one that is largely not well understood. Over the years, a number of factors have been studied with an overarching aim of being able to prognose recurrent disease. This paper attempts to provide an overview of our current knowledge of breast cancer recurrence and its associated challenges. Through a survey of the literature on cancer stem cells (CSCs), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), various signaling pathways such as Notch/Wnt/hedgehog, and microRNAs (miRNAs), we also examine the hypotheses that are currently under investigation for the prevention of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23533807

  13. Breast cancer statistics and markers.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Mallika Siva; Kondapalli, Kasturi; Amos, Seelam Jeevan; Venkanteshan, Pavithra

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D), genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc.), and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins) used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  14. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  15. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  16. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P–2 trial. JAMA 2006; 295(23):2727– ... and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer. Cancer Prevention ...

  17. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24−/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-κB, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs. PMID:22249027

  18. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-29

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  20. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    cancer risk in women with radial scars in benign breast biopsies. Breast cancer Research and Treatment . Published online May 22, 2007... scars and involution. We explored the link between centrosome amplification, COX-2 expression and breast cancer outcomes and are currently exploring...5. Radial Scars The significance of radial scars to subsequent risk of breast cancer has been debated. Radial scars (RS) are benign breast

  1. Breast cancer patient stories project.

    PubMed

    Tanna, Nuttan; Buijs, Helene; Pitkin, Joan; Reichert, Robert

    2012-12-01

    It is estimated that there are almost half a million women living with or beyond a breast cancer diagnosis in the UK, often referred to as the breast cancer survivor population. We report on the setting up of a dedicated breast cancer and menopause symptoms service (BCMS), and present results from research undertaken with breast cancer survivors with the aim of obtaining their perspectives on the BCMS service. An action-oriented approach incorporating improvement science methodology has been used to help develop and drive changes to support a high standard of NHS patient care delivery for women with breast cancer within the BCMS setting. Evaluation was undertaken of this innovative service using qualitative methodology, and included discussion within a focus group setting, patient consent to record discussion, followed by thematic analysis of transcription. Women who have survived breast cancer identified a need for specialist support to help improve their quality of life, which is also affected by menopause type symptomology. This support can be provided within the BCMS service setting. Our recommendations are that the BCMS service model is incorporated into any regional or national breast cancer patient pathway and service redesign work in place. Breast cancer survivors would support the setting up of a BCMS service, and would actively help raise awareness and market this service.

  2. Hereditary breast cancer in Jews.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Wendy S

    2004-01-01

    A family history of breast cancer poses higher risks for Jewish versus non-Jewish women, particularly for early-onset breast cancer. This appears to be due in large part to the high prevalence (2.5%) of three BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations in Ashkenazi Jews. About 4 to 8% of non-Jewish male breast cancer cases versus 19% of Jewish male breast cancer cases carry germline BRCA mutations. Jewish women are disproportionately impacted by BRCA mutations throughout life, with a 10% carrier rate for breast cancer diagnosed at any age and a 21 to 30% carrier rate for breast cancer diagnosed by age 40. Comparable rates in non-Jewish populations are 6.1% for breast cancer diagnosed before age 50. Lifetime penetrance estimates based on genotyping of probands have ranged widely in Jewish and non-Jewish populations. However, a study of 1008 Jewish women with breast cancer which extended genotyping to relatives found high penetrance rates with considerably smaller standard errors. This study and studies of early-onset incident breast cancer in non-Jews have found that at least half of high-risk cases would be missed by family history screening alone. While the carrier rate in non-Jewish populations is too low to consider genetic screening, the carrier rate in Ashkenazi Jews is high and genetic screening poses fewer technical barriers. The high genetic attributable cancer risks of Ashkenazi BRCA founder mutations, the sobering lethality of ovarian and early onset breast cancers, and the increasing clarity about effectiveness of medical interventions make imperative further dialogue and research to keep guidelines for genetic screening up to date.

  3. Can Smog Raise Breast Cancer Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_164495.html Can Smog Raise Breast Cancer Risk? Exposure to fine-particle air pollution linked ... have dense breasts, a known risk factor for breast cancer, new research suggests. "It appears that women who ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  5. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  6. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  7. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  8. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-06-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage.

  9. [Can breast cancer be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Vatten, L J

    1991-05-30

    More than six-fold variation in incidence between countries, an increasing incidence among immigrants to high incidence areas, and a general increase in the incidence of breast cancer within countries, are factors which suggest a potential for prevention. Reproductive factors such as early menarche, late age at first full term birth, nulliparity, and late age at menopause increase risk of breast cancer, but manipulation of any one of these factors does not seem to be a realistic preventive tool. Nevertheless, the future possibility of using tamoxifen as a chemopreventive agent against breast cancer is discussed, particularly in relation to women at increased risk due to familial clustering. Alcohol consumption by young women, and overweight among postmenopausal women may also increase the incidence of breast cancer. Consequently, reduced alcohol intake by young women, and weight reduction among overweight women after menopause may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  10. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  11. What Are the Key Statistics about Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Men What Are the Key Statistics About Breast Cancer in Men? The American Cancer Society estimates for ... Treatment in Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  12. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  13. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-10

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  16. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  17. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Curing Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sledge, George W

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is generally considered incurable, and this colors doctor-patient interactions for patients with metastatic disease. Although true for most patients, there appear to be important exceptions, instances where long-term disease-free survival occurs. Although these instances are few in number, they suggest the possibility of cure. How will we move toward cure for a much larger population of patients with metastatic disease? This article outlines a potential research agenda that might move us toward that distant goal. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. [Breast cancer in elderly].

    PubMed

    Diab, Sami G

    2007-10-01

    The question of the breast cancer in elderly is enlightened by two constituted epidemiological data bases in the United-States: the data basis of San Antonio and the SEER (Surveillance Epidemology and End Results) which represent a follow-up of 26% of the American population. The listed data allow an approach of the clinical and biological constituents according to the age of the disease as well as the factors of comorbidity. The informations relative to the therapeutic choices are more fragmentary and must be developed first and foremost during the programs. double dagger.

  1. Breast Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology.

    PubMed

    Tao, ZiQi; Shi, Aimin; Lu, Cuntao; Song, Tao; Zhang, Zhengguo; Zhao, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer, the most frequently occurring cancer in women, is a major public health problem, with 1,384,155 estimated new cases worldwide with nearly 459,000 related deaths. Breast cancer is highly heterogeneous in its pathological characteristics, some cases showing slow growth with excellent prognosis, while others being aggressive tumors. Current predictions and statistics suggest that both worldwide incidence of breast cancer and related mortality are on the rise. According to 2012 GLOBOCAN statistics, nearly 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer with 522,000 related deaths-an increase in breast cancer incidence and related mortality by nearly 18 % from 2008. According to American Cancer Society, one in eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. It has been predicted that the worldwide incidence of female breast cancer will reach approximately 3.2 million new cases per year by 2050. These numbers reflect the magnitude of breast cancer incidence, its effect on society worldwide and the need for urgency for preventive and treatment measures. While technological advances in medical sciences and health care have made it possible to detect the disease early and to start the treatment early on to prevent the progress of the disease into a metastatic state, there are several unanswered questions with regard to the molecular mechanisms that underlie the aggressiveness of certain forms of this disease. Epidemiological studies suggest that addressing socio economical issues is utmost important, so that all women have equal access to medical care from screening to advanced treatment, and only such decisive action can help reduce the worldwide burden of breast cancer.

  2. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. Neo-adjuvant Therapy With Anastrozole Plus Pazopanib in Stage II and III ER+ Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-24

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  4. Features of aggressive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Arpino, Grazia; Milano, Monica; De Placido, Sabino

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive breast cancer is a term commonly used in literature to describe breast cancer with a poor prognosis. Identifying and understanding the factors associated with aggressiveness could be helpful to the management of patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, both clinically and biologically, which may be responsible for the wide range of survival durations for patients with metastatic disease. The goal of this study was to identify the factors most often described in association with aggressive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A systematic review was performed by querying PubMed from January 1, 2012 to June 1, 2014 for "metastatic breast cancer" ("aggressive" or "poor prognosis" or "high risk"). The level of evidence to support each potential prognostic factor of aggressive MBC was also reviewed. The identified factors were grouped into 3 principle categories: clinical, biological, and patient related. Because patient-related factors may not be indicative of inherent cancer aggressiveness, this review focused only on clinical and biological factors. The factors with the highest levels of evidence to support associations with survival in metastatic breast cancer were visceral metastases, number of metastatic sites, disease-free interval, presence of CTCs, triple-negative disease, and tumour grade. Identification of these factors and understanding their contribution to the aggressiveness of MBC and disease progression may lead to more personalized treatment in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Oncolytic virotherapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hartkopf, Andreas D; Fehm, Tanja; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2011-10-01

    The use of replication competent viruses that selectively target and destroy cancer cells has rapidly evolved over the past decade and numerous innovative oncolytic viruses have been created. Many of these promising anti-cancer agents have recently entered into clinical trials (including those on breast cancer) and demonstrated encouraging safety and efficacy. Virotherapeutic strategies are thus of considerable interest to combat breast cancer in both (i) the primary disease situation in which relapse should be avoided as good as possible and (ii) in the metastatic situation which remains incurable to date. Here, we summarize data from preclinical and clinical trials using oncolytic virotherapy to treat breast cancer. This includes strategies to specifically target breast cancer cells, to arm oncolytic viruses with additional therapeutic transgenes and an outlining of future challenges when translating these promising therapeutics "from bench to bedside".

  6. Molecular basis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Mansouri, Layla J; Alokail, Majed S

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women after lung cancer. A common phenotypic abnormality of breast cancer cells is dysregulation of cell cycle control. The transformation of normal cell to a cancer cell appears to depend on mutation in genes that normally control cell cycle progression, thus leading to loss of the regulatory cell growth. We summarize here the molecular regulation of mammary carcinoma with regards to the most prominent oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and their outcome in terms of cellular prognosis, and tumor development.

  7. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  8. Approach to inflammatory breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Molckovsky, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Barbara; Freedman, Orit; Heisey, Ruth; Clemons, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the definition, clinical presentation, and management of inflammatory breast cancer in primary care. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Relevant research and review articles, as well as personal experience of the authors practising in a specialized locally advanced breast cancer program at a comprehensive cancer centre. Evidence is levels II and III. MAIN MESSAGE Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare disease that typically presents with a rapidly enlarging erythematous breast, often with no discernable breast mass. Identification of warning signs and recognition of clinical symptoms are crucial to prompt diagnosis and appropriate referral. Management in the primary care setting includes treatment of symptoms, psychosocial support, regular surveillance and follow-up, as well as palliative care. CONCLUSION Family physicians are usually the entry point to the health care system and are well positioned to assess inflammation of the breast and recognize the warning signs of an underlying inflammatory breast cancer. They are also important members of the team that provides support for breast cancer patients and their families during treatment, follow-up, and end-of-life care. PMID:19155362

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  10. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    may make potential referral candidates more receptive when medical professionals approach them about being tested. Currently, there are barriers to...1985;253:1908-13. (39) Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Tozzi L. Family history of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer and risk of...Raloxifene reduces the risk of breast cancer and may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer in post- menopausal women. Two year findings from the

  11. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  12. The Biology of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases, diagnosed in 10 to 15% of breast cancer patients and found at autopsy in 20 to 30...Relatively little is known about how breast cancer cells metastasize to the brain , and what phenotypes characterize these cells. This is due in...breast cancer brain metastases, using intra-carotid artery injection of breast cancer cells into nude mice.

  13. Copanlisib, Letrozole, and Palbociclib in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor Positive HER2 Negative Stage I-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Multifocal Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  14. Occult Breast Cancer: Scintimammography with High-Resolution Breast-specific Gamma Camera in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Jocelyn A. Rapelyea; , Gilat Zisman; Kevin Mohtashemi; Joyce Raub; Christine B. Teal; Stan Majewski; Benjamin L. Welch

    2005-08-01

    (12%) patients, invasive carcinoma was diagnosed at US-guided biopsy (9 mm each at pathologic examination). CONCLUSION: High-resolution breast-specific scintimammography can depict small (<1-cm), mammographically occult, nonpalpable lesions in women at increased risk for breast cancer not otherwise identified at mammography or physical examination.

  15. Family History of Breast Cancer, Breast Density, and Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Population.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Thomas P; Sprague, Brian L; Bissell, Michael C S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Buist, Diana S M; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-06-01

    Background: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density.Methods: We followed 222,019 participants ages 35 to 74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1(st)-degree female relative) or detailed (first-degree, second-degree, or first- and second-degree female relative) breast cancer family history. We fit log-binomial models to estimate age-specific breast cancer associations for simple and detailed family history, accounting for breast density.Results: Simple first-degree family history was associated with increased breast cancer risk compared with no first-degree history [Risk ratio (RR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.1 at age 40; RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7 at age 50; RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6 at age 60; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 at age 70). Breast cancer associations with detailed family history were strongest for women with first- and second-degree family history compared with no history (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2 at age 40); this association weakened in higher age groups (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.88-1.5 at age 70). Associations did not change substantially when adjusted for breast density.Conclusions: Even with adjustment for breast density, a history of breast cancer in both first- and second-degree relatives is more strongly associated with breast cancer than simple first-degree family history.Impact: Future efforts to improve breast cancer risk prediction models should evaluate detailed family history as a risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 938-44. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer in the next 15 years.

    PubMed

    Socolov, Demetra; Anghelache, Ivona; Ilea, C; Socolov, R; Carauleanu, A

    2015-01-01

    Fibrocystic mastosis (FCM) is defined by the totality of dystrophic changes of the mammary tissue, the grouping in the form of fibrosis of epithelial, cystic, metaplastic and hyperplastic alterations. A very good estimation of the cancer risk is related specifically to the microscopic aspect. Other factors, the family history as well as the presence of an inherited gene determining the increase in the risk of breast cancer are also considered. But, if a woman known with fibrocystic mastosis has not undergone any biopsy, then it is impossible to calculate the specific individual risk of developing cancer. The data collected as a study material and considered refer to: the total num- ber of cases investigated and diagnosed with fibrocystic mastosis, the annual distribution of this disease cases, the distribution of the cases according to age groups, admission reasons, clinical examination, personal pathologic history clinically significant for the basic disease (the main diagnosis), the family medical history significant for the basic disease, the anatomopathological diagnosis. Between 2004 and 2006, at "Cuza Vodă" Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Iaşi, a maximum number of cases is noticed in 2006, when there were 147 cases, and the lowest number of cases was in 2005. There was high frequency of the anatomopathological examinations that highlighted the presence of fibrocystic lesions (both proliferative and non-proliferative), and the second most often diagnosis is fibroadenoma. Though fibrocystic mastosis is not clearly defined, it is still admitted that in order to support this diagnosis it is first compulsory to exclude malignant tumours. Only in 5% of the women with fibrocystic mastosis cellular changes can be revealed in the form of atypical hyperplasia, which are a risk factor for cancer. The lesion that delimits cancer from non-cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ. An incidence of over 20% is present in the countries that use mammographic screening

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  1. Adjuvant therapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Davidson, N E; Abeloff, M D

    1994-01-01

    About 180,000 American women will be diagnosed with early stage breast cancer during 1993. In many of these patients breast cancer is a systemic disease at diagnosis and thus not curable by local treatment alone. The development of optimal forms of systemic adjuvant therapy has been a major area of research for more than 30 years. The two most widely employed types of adjuvant therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy and tamoxifen, have been shown to improve relapse-free and overall survival in certain patient subsets. This review highlights recent advances in adjuvant therapy of early stage breast cancer and discusses current treatment guidelines.

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  4. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer On This Page Is there a link between antiperspirants or deodorants and breast cancer? What is known about the ingredients in antiperspirants ...

  6. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  7. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  8. Targeting Breast Cancer Stem Cells In Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    breast cancer (TNBC) and drug resistance. We hypothesize that obesity effects on TNBC occur via leptin -signaling stimulation of breast cancer stem...human TNBC cell lines treated with leptin , and novel leptin receptor inhibitor bound to nanoparticles (IONPs-LPrA) alone, and combined with cisplatin...a chemotherapeutic) and Sunitinib (an inhibitor of VEGFR-2 kinase). Our data show that leptin increased cell proliferation and expression of BCSC

  9. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  10. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-15

    Sadler M, Vollmer RT, Lobaugh B, Drezner MK, Vogelman JH, Orentreich N. Vitamin D and prostate cancer: a prediagnostic study with stored sera. Cancer ... Epidemiology , Biomarkers & Prevention 2:467-472,1993. 6. Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF, Stone BJ. Geographic patterns of breast cancer in the United States. J

  11. Aromatase and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brodie, A; Sabnis, G; Jelovac, D

    2006-12-01

    Several aromatase inhibitors and also new antiestrogens are now available for treating breast cancer. We have developed a model to compare the antitumor efficacy of these agents and to explore strategies for their optimal use. Results from the model have been predictive of clinical outcome. In this model, tumors are grown in ovariectomized, immunodeficient mice from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with the aromatase gene (MCF-7Ca). The possibility that blockade of estrogen action and estrogen synthesis may be synergistic was explored by treating mice with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and the antiestrogen tamoxifen alone and in combination. The results indicated that letrozole alone was better than all other treatments. In addition, when tamoxifen treatment was no longer effective, tumor growth was significantly reduced in mice switched to letrozole treatment. However, tumors ultimately began to grow during continued treatment. To investigate the mechanisms by which tumors eventually adapt and grow during letrozole treatment, we determined the expression of signaling proteins in tumors during the course of letrozole treatment compared to the tumors of control mice. Tumors initially up-regulated the ER while responding to treatment, but subsequently receptor levels decreased in tumors unresponsive to letrozole. Also, Her-2 and adapter proteins (p-Shc and Grb-2) as well as all of the signaling proteins in the MAPK cascade (p-Raf, p-Mekl/2, and p-MAPK), but not in the Pl3/Akt pathway, were increased in tumors no longer responsive to letrozole. To investigate whether sensitivity to letrozole could be regained, cells were isolated from the letrozole resistant tumors (LTLT) and treated with inhibitors of the MAPKinase pathway (PD98059 and UO126). These compounds reduced MAPK activity and increased ER expression. EGFR/Her-2 inhibitors, gefitinib and AEE78S although not effective in the parental MCF-70a cells, restored the sensitivity of LTLT cells to

  12. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer in Men? Although certain risk factors may increase ... Breast Cancer in Men Be Prevented? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  13. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-08

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  14. Onalespib and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-02

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  15. Pembrolizumab and Binimetinib in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-27

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  16. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  17. Triiodothyronine and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; de Oliveira, Miriane; Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Luvizon, Aline Carbonera; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are essential for survival; they are involved in the processes of development, growth, and metabolism. In addition to hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, THs are involved in other diseases. The role of THs in the development and differentiation of mammary epithelium is well established; however, their specific role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC) is controversial. Steroid hormones affect many human cancers and the abnormal responsiveness of the mammary epithelial cells to estradiol (E2) in particular is known to be an important cause for the development and progression of BC. The proliferative effect of T3 has been demonstrated in various types of cancer. In BC cell lines, T3 may foster the conditions for tumor proliferation and increase the effect of cell proliferation by E2; thus, T3 may play a role in the development and progression of BC. Studies show that T3 has effects similar to E2 in BC cell lines. Despite controversy regarding the relationship between thyroid disturbances and the incidence of BC, studies show that thyroid status may influence the development of tumor, proliferation and metastasis. PMID:25114863

  18. Triiodothyronine and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; de Oliveira, Miriane; Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Luvizon, Aline Carbonera; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2014-08-10

    The thyroid hormones (THs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are essential for survival; they are involved in the processes of development, growth, and metabolism. In addition to hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, THs are involved in other diseases. The role of THs in the development and differentiation of mammary epithelium is well established; however, their specific role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC) is controversial. Steroid hormones affect many human cancers and the abnormal responsiveness of the mammary epithelial cells to estradiol (E2) in particular is known to be an important cause for the development and progression of BC. The proliferative effect of T3 has been demonstrated in various types of cancer. In BC cell lines, T3 may foster the conditions for tumor proliferation and increase the effect of cell proliferation by E2; thus, T3 may play a role in the development and progression of BC. Studies show that T3 has effects similar to E2 in BC cell lines. Despite controversy regarding the relationship between thyroid disturbances and the incidence of BC, studies show that thyroid status may influence the development of tumor, proliferation and metastasis.

  19. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-01

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  20. Association of Breast Cancer Risk loci with Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele=0.70; 95% CI: 0.58–0.85; Ptrend=2.84×10−4; HRheterozygotes=0.71; 95% CI: 0.55–0.92; HRhomozygotes=0.48; 95% CI: 0.31–0.76; P2DF=1.45×10−3). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04–1.15; Ptrend=6.6×10−4; HRheterozygotes=0.96 95% CI: 0.90–1.03; HRhomozygotes= 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35; P2DF=1.25×10−4). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  2. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  3. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  4. Fostering early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Judy A; Weyhenmeyer, Diana P; Mabus, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how faith community nurses (FCNs) fostered early breast cancer detection for those at risk in rural and African American populations throughout nine counties in midwestern Illinois to decrease breast cancer disparities. Flexible methods for breast cancer awareness education through FCNs, effective strategies for maximizing participation, and implications for practice were identified. In addition, networking within faith communities, connecting with complementary activities scheduled in those communities, and offering refreshments and gift items that support educational efforts were identified as effective ways of maximizing outcomes and reinforcing learning. Flexible educational programming that could be adapted to situational and learning needs was important to alleviate barriers in the project. As a result, the number of participants in the breast cancer awareness education program exceeded the grant goal, and the large number of African American participants and an unexpected number of Hispanic and Latino participants exceeded the target.

  5. Tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cove, D. H.; Woods, K. L.; Smith, S. C.; Burnett, D.; Leonard, J.; Grieve, R. J.; Howell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of 8 potential tumour markers has been evaluated in 69 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and 57 patients with Stage III and IV. Serum CEA concentrations were raised in 13% of patients with local and 65% of those with advanced breast cancer. In patients with clinical evidence of progression or regression of tumour, serum CEA levels changed appropriately in 83% of cases. Taking 4 of the markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactalbumin, alpha subunit and haptoglobin) serum concentrations of one or more were raised in 33% of patients with local disease and 81% of those with advanced breast cancer. However, marker concentrations were often only marginally raised, and are unlikely to provide sensitive guide to tumour burden. CEA, lactalbumin and alpha subunit were detectable in 68%, 43% and 40% respectively of extracts of primary breast cancers. PMID:92331

  6. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  7. Metals and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

  8. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    obtained breast specimens from breast cancer patients treated with endocrine therapy (or not, i.e., surgery and radiation only in selected...motility in vitro (Hiscox et al., 2006). In models of lung cancer and CML, Dasatinib can reduce AKT activity and expression of the prosurvival protein...measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferse-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining (Wedam et al., 2006). In an in vitro model of lung

  9. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    breast cancers is whether an aromatase inhibitor, e.g., letrozole (LET) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy . Unfortunately...response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies , e.g., -40% of tumors...effective treatment for hormone receptor positive invasive breast cancer. Such therapy includes antiestrogens (tamoxifen, fulvestrant ) and aromatase

  10. BILATERAL BREAST CANCER: DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS.

    PubMed

    Ursaru, Manuela; Jari, Irma; Gheorghe, Liliana; Naum, A G; Scripcariu, V; Negru, D

    2016-01-01

    To assess bilateral breast cancer patients, initially diagnosed with stage II unilateral breast cancer. 113 patients with stage 0-II breast cancer diagnosed between 1983 and 2011 were assessed. Of these, 8 patients had bilateral breast cancer: 7 patients with metachronous bilateral breast cancer and 1 patient with synchronous breast cancer. Breast ultrasound, mammography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to diagnose recurrence, loco regional and distant metastasis. Age at diagnosis ranged from 37 to 59 years, with a maximum age incidence in the 4th decade (age between: 31-40 years). The average time interval between the two breast cancers was 8.125 years. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma. All eight patients with bilateral breast cancer had at least one type of recurrence/metastasis, mostly in the liver, and statistically the pleuropulmonary and liver metastases were the most frequent causes of death. Patients in the 4th decade diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer are at risk of developing bilateral breast cancer. In metachronous breast cancer, the time interval between the detection of the second breast cancer and death is directly proportional to the time interval between the two breast cancers. TASTASES, DEATH.

  11. [Radiotherapy of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Barillot, I; Azria, D; Belkacémi, Y; Bollet, M; Chauvet, B; Cowen, D; Cutuli, B; Fourquet, A; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Leblanc, M; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    In breast cancer, radiotherapy is an essential component of the treatment. After conservative surgery for an infiltrating carcinoma, radiotherapy must be systematically performed, regardless of the characteristics of the disease, because it decreases the rate of local recurrence and by this way, specific mortality. Partial breast irradiation could not be proposed routinely but only in very selected and informed patients. For ductal carcinoma in situ, adjuvant radiotherapy must be also systematically performed after lumpectomy. After mastectomy, chest wall irradiation is required for pT3-T4 tumours and if there is an axillary nodal involvement, whatever the number of involved lymph nodes. After neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, in case of pN0 disease, chest wall irradiation is recommended if there is a clinically or radiologically T3-T4 or node positive disease before chemotherapy. Axillary irradiation is recommended only if there is no axillary surgical dissection and a positive sentinel lymph node. Supra and infra-clavicular irradiation is advised in case of positive axillary nodes. Internal mammary irradiation must be discussed case by case, according to the benefit/risk ratio (cardiac toxicity). Dose to the chest wall or the breast must be between 45-50Gy with a conventional fractionation. A boost dose over the tumour bed is required if the patient is younger than 60 years old. Hypofractionation (42.5 Gy in 16 fractions, or 41.6 Gy en 13 or 40 Gy en 15) is possible after tumorectomy and if a nodal irradiation is not mandatory. Delineation of the breast, the chest wall and the nodal areas are based on clinical and radiological evaluations. 3D-conformal irradiation is the recommended technique, intensity-modulated radiotherapy must be proposed only in case of specific clinical situations. Respiratory gating could be useful to decrease the cardiac dose. Concomitant administration of chemotherapy in unadvised, but hormonal treatment could be start with

  12. Breast cancer: origins and evolution.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-11-01

    Breast cancer is not a single disease, but rather is composed of distinct subtypes associated with different clinical outcomes. Understanding this heterogeneity is key for the development of targeted cancer-preventative and -therapeutic interventions. Current models explaining inter- and intratumoral diversity are the cancer stem cell and the clonal evolution hypotheses. Although tumor initiation and progression are predominantly driven by acquired genetic alterations, recent data implicate a role for microenvironmental and epigenetic changes as well. Comprehensive unbiased studies of tumors and patient populations have significantly advanced our molecular understanding of breast cancer, but translating these findings into clinical practice remains a challenge.

  13. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baron, J A; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Mittendorf, R; Storer, B E; Clapp, R W; Bogdan, G; Yuen, J

    1996-05-01

    A priori hypotheses suggest that cigarette smoking could either increase or decrease breast cancer incidence. To clarify these competing hypotheses, we used data from a very large population-based breast cancer case-control study to investigate the impact of smoking on breast cancer risk. Breast cancer patients less than 75 years old were identified from statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire; controls were randomly selected from driver's license lists (age less than 65) or lists of Medicare beneficiaries (age 65-74). Information on reproductive history, medical history, and personal habits including cigarette smoking was obtained by telephone interview. A total of 6,888 cases and 9,529 controls were interviewed. There was virtually no relationship between current smoking and breast cancer risk (multivariate odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.09), and former smokers had a barely increased risk (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.19). Similar results were observed among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no suggestion that heavy or long-term smoking increased or decreased risk, nor were there indications that women who began smoking at an early age were at increased risk, as has been hypothesized. The results of this large population-based study indicate that smoking does not influence the risk of breast cancer, even among heavy smokers who began smoking at an early age.

  14. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    PubMed Central

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer. PMID:20049264

  15. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. PMID:27822082

  16. Urinary rubidium in breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Chen, Li-Juan; He, Jian-Rong; Yuan, Xue-Jiao; Cen, Yu-Ling; Su, Feng-Xi; Tang, Lu-Ying; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Lin, Ying; Wang, Shen-Ming; Ren, Ze-Fang

    2011-11-20

    Rubidium is a putative anticancer agent, but no studies have been performed on the association of rubidium levels in biospecimen with breast cancer risk and the potential as a biomarker of the risk assessment. Survey data and urine specimens were collected from 240 women with incident invasive breast cancer before their treatments and 246 age-matched female controls between October 2009 and July 2010. Urinary concentrations of rubidium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) ug/g] of rubidium in cases [2253.01(1606.81, 3110.46)] were significantly lower than that in the controls [2921.85 (2367.94, 4142.04)]. After adjustment for potential risk factors of breast cancer, women in the second and highest tertile decreased risk of breast cancer in a dose-dependent manner as compared with those in the lowest tertile [ORs and 95% CIs were 0.45 (0.27-0.73) and 0.22 (0.13-0.38), respectively]. The area under the receive-operating-characteristic curve for urinary rubidium level was 0.697 (95% CI: 0.650-0.743). The urinary levels of rubidium were significantly and inversely associated with risk of breast cancer and had potential to be a biomarker for breast cancer risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  18. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  19. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  1. New Immunotherapy Strategies in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lin-Yu; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Cong-Min; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Yan, Han; Li, Mu-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Therapeutic treatments for breast cancer generally include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrinotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. With the development of molecular biology, immunology and pharmacogenomics, immunotherapy becomes a promising new field in breast cancer therapies. In this review, we discussed recent progress in breast cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, bispecific antibodies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Several additional immunotherapy modalities in early stages of development are also highlighted. It is believed that these new immunotherapeutic strategies will ultimately change the current status of breast cancer therapies. PMID:28085094

  2. New Immunotherapy Strategies in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Yu; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Cong-Min; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Yan, Han; Li, Mu-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-12

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Therapeutic treatments for breast cancer generally include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrinotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. With the development of molecular biology, immunology and pharmacogenomics, immunotherapy becomes a promising new field in breast cancer therapies. In this review, we discussed recent progress in breast cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, bispecific antibodies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Several additional immunotherapy modalities in early stages of development are also highlighted. It is believed that these new immunotherapeutic strategies will ultimately change the current status of breast cancer therapies.

  3. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and nipple-sparing mastectomy If you are having breast reconstruction at the same time as a mastectomy, the ... a few surgeons (and if you are getting breast reconstruction, a few plastic surgeons). Choose one who does ...

  4. Genomic profiling of breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Christina

    2015-02-01

    To describe recent advances in the application of advanced genomic technologies towards the identification of biomarkers of prognosis and treatment response in breast cancer. Advances in high-throughput genomic profiling such as massively parallel sequencing have enabled researchers to catalogue the spectrum of somatic alterations in breast cancers. These tools also hold promise for precision medicine through accurate patient prognostication, stratification, and the dynamic monitoring of treatment response. For example, recent efforts have defined robust molecular subgroups of breast cancer and novel subtype-specific oncogenes. In addition, previously unappreciated activating mutations in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have been reported, suggesting new therapeutic opportunities. Genomic profiling of cell-free tumor DNA and circulating tumor cells has been used to monitor disease burden and the emergence of resistance, and such 'liquid biopsy' approaches may facilitate the early, noninvasive detection of aggressive disease. Finally, single-cell genomics is coming of age and will contribute to an understanding of breast cancer evolutionary dynamics. Here, we highlight recent studies that employ high-throughput genomic technologies in an effort to elucidate breast cancer biology, discover new therapeutic targets, improve prognostication and stratification, and discuss the implications for precision cancer medicine.

  5. AR Signaling in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Bilal; O’Regan, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR, a member of the steroid hormone receptor family) status has become increasingly important as both a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. AR is expressed in up to 90% of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, and to a lesser degree, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) amplified tumors. In the former, AR signaling has been correlated with a better prognosis given its inhibitory activity in estrogen dependent disease, though conversely has also been shown to increase resistance to anti-estrogen therapies such as tamoxifen. AR blockade can mitigate this resistance, and thus serves as a potential target in ER-positive breast cancer. In HER2 amplified breast cancer, studies are somewhat conflicting, though most show either no effect or are associated with poorer survival. Much of the available data on AR signaling is in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is an aggressive disease with inferior outcomes comparative to other breast cancer subtypes. At present, there are no approved targeted therapies in TNBC, making study of the AR signaling pathway compelling. Gene expression profiling studies have also identified a luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype that is dependent on AR signaling in TNBC. Regardless, there seems to be an association between AR expression and improved outcomes in TNBC. Despite lower pathologic complete response (pCR) rates with neoadjuvant therapy, patients with AR-expressing TNBC have been shown to have a better prognosis than those that are AR-negative. Clinical studies targeting AR have shown somewhat promising results. In this paper we review the literature on the biology of AR in breast cancer and its prognostic and predictive roles. We also present our thoughts on therapeutic strategies. PMID:28245550

  6. AR Signaling in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Bilal; O'Regan, Ruth

    2017-02-24

    Androgen receptor (AR, a member of the steroid hormone receptor family) status has become increasingly important as both a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. AR is expressed in up to 90% of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, and to a lesser degree, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) amplified tumors. In the former, AR signaling has been correlated with a better prognosis given its inhibitory activity in estrogen dependent disease, though conversely has also been shown to increase resistance to anti-estrogen therapies such as tamoxifen. AR blockade can mitigate this resistance, and thus serves as a potential target in ER-positive breast cancer. In HER2 amplified breast cancer, studies are somewhat conflicting, though most show either no effect or are associated with poorer survival. Much of the available data on AR signaling is in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is an aggressive disease with inferior outcomes comparative to other breast cancer subtypes. At present, there are no approved targeted therapies in TNBC, making study of the AR signaling pathway compelling. Gene expression profiling studies have also identified a luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype that is dependent on AR signaling in TNBC. Regardless, there seems to be an association between AR expression and improved outcomes in TNBC. Despite lower pathologic complete response (pCR) rates with neoadjuvant therapy, patients with AR-expressing TNBC have been shown to have a better prognosis than those that are AR-negative. Clinical studies targeting AR have shown somewhat promising results. In this paper we review the literature on the biology of AR in breast cancer and its prognostic and predictive roles. We also present our thoughts on therapeutic strategies.

  7. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... States Preventive Services Task Force updated recommendations on breast cancer screening, suggesting that women ages 50 to 74 ...

  9. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Staging The extent (stage) of breast cancer needs to be determined to help choose the ...

  10. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  11. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  12. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Cells in nearly any part of the body can ... if any lobules. Like all cells of the body, a man's breast duct cells can undergo cancerous changes. But breast cancer is ...

  13. Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162498.html Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study Weak social ties linked to higher ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Loneliness may impede long-term breast cancer survival, a new study suggests. In the years ...

  14. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... this is largely based on how well they work in women with breast cancer. Tamoxifen and toremifene (Fareston ® ) These anti-estrogen drugs work by temporarily blocking estrogen receptors on breast cancer ...

  15. Contralateral Breast Cancers: Independent Cancers or Metastases?

    PubMed

    Begg, Colin B; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Geyer, Felipe C; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Sakr, Rita; Bernstein, Jonine L; Burke, Kathleen A; King, Tari A; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Mauguen, Audrey; Orlow, Irene; Weigelt, Britta; Seshan, Venkatraman E; Morrow, Monica; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2017-09-16

    A cancer in the contralateral breast in a woman with a previous or synchronous breast cancer is typically considered to be an independent primary tumor. Emerging evidence suggests that in a small subset of these cases the second tumor represents a metastasis. We sought to investigate the issue using massively parallel sequencing targeting 254 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer. We examined the tumor archives at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center for the period 1995-2006 to identify cases of contralateral breast cancer where surgery for both tumors was performed at the Center. We report results from 49 patients successfully analyzed by a targeted massively parallel sequencing assay. Somatic mutations and copy number alterations were defined by state-of-the-art algorithms. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by statistical tests specifically designed for this purpose. We found evidence that the tumors in contralateral breasts were clonally related in 3 cases (6%) on the basis of matching mutations at codons where somatic mutations are rare. Clinical data and the presence of similar patterns of gene copy number alterations were consistent with metastasis for all 3 cases. In 3 additional cases there was a solitary matching mutation at a common PIK3CA locus. The results suggest that a subset of contralateral breast cancers represent metastases rather than independent primary tumors. Massively parallel sequencing analysis can provide important evidence to clarify the diagnosis. However, given the inter-tumor mutational heterogeneity in breast cancer, sufficiently large gene panels need to be employed to define clonality convincingly in all cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Vinorelbine Ditartrate in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-27

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA1; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA2; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  18. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-21

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Saracatinib in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-02

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  8. The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferzoco, Raina M; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for only 1% of breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. The current literature suggests that genetic factors including BRCA2 mutations, family history, age, androgen/estrogen imbalance, and environmental exposures may predispose to male breast cancer. In this manuscript, we will review known and possible risk factors for male breast cancer, as well as describe the clinical patterns of the disease.

  9. Pro-Apoptotic Breast Cancer Nanotherapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    basal-like breast cancer using a novel nanotechnology platform pioneered by my mentor Prof. Stupp. Our original plan was to combine nanoparticles ...Fellowship has supported my training in translational breast cancer research as part of an interdisciplinary team of scientists using nanotechnology to...basal-like breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nanotechnology ; Peptide Amphiphile; Drug Delivery; Breast Cancer ; Cell Death 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  10. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  11. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0091 TITLE: Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer : Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic PRINCIPAL...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer : Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic 5b...activity in breast cancer as a single agent and in combination with exemestane. Activity is seen in both triple negative AR+ BC and also ER+AR+ BC

  12. Targeting of CD151 in Breast Cancer and in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    role in the progression of breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS CD151 protein, breast cancer progression, ErbB2 amplification, breast carcinoma invasion... malignancy in breast cancer and other types of cancer . Others had found that CD151 knockout mice show normal development, but deficiencies in wound...antagonists can disrupt mammary carcinoma functions. BODY: a. Establishing a mouse model for breast cancer - We attempted to cross our CD151 null

  13. Multicenter Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A.; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  14. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-30

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  15. Sentinel node detection and radioguided occult lesion localization in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Trifirò, Guiseppe; Lavinia Travaini, Laura; De Cicco, Concetta; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 breast cancer patients and represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. In our Institute, Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization is the standard method to locate non-palpable breast lesions and the gamma probes is very effective in assisting intra-operative localization and removal, as in sentinel node biopsy. The rapid spread of sentinel lymph node biopsy has led to its use in clinical settings previously considered contraindications to sentinel lymph node biopsy. In this contest, we evaluated in a large group of patients possible factors affecting sentinel node detection and the reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy carried out after large excisional breast biopsy. Our data confirm that a previous breast surgery does not prohibit efficient sentinel lymph node localization and sentinel lymph node biopsy can correctly stage the axialla in these patients.

  16. Breast Cancer and Posttraumatic Growth

    PubMed Central

    İnan, Figen Şengün; Üstün, Besti

    2014-01-01

    The current methods for early diagnosis and increased treatment options have improved survival rates in breast cancer. Breast cancer diagnosis effects individuals in physical, psychological and social dimensions either positively or negatively. In the literature, usually the negative effects encountered in the period after the diagnosis of breast cancer are mostly described, with limited data on the positive effects. Nevertheless, the identification of positive changes and defining its determinants is important in supporting and strengthening posttraumatic growth in this group. The objective of this review is to explain posttraumatic growth and its determinants in breast cancer during the post-treatment period in accordance with the relevant literature. In our evaluation, it was noticed that breast cancer survivors experience posttraumatic growth in the post-treatment period, but the literature is limited in explaining the nature of posttraumatic growth and its determinants. Both qualitative and quantitative research that will provide in-depth information on the subject, explaining culture-specific posttraumatic growth and related factors, are required. PMID:28331647

  17. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  18. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue.

  19. Breast cancer in young women.

    PubMed

    Winchester, D P

    1996-04-01

    Breast cancer is an uncommon disease in women under the age of 40 years, reportedly accounting for 7.5% of reported cases. Delay in diagnosis is attributable to a clinically low index of suspicion, difficulty in examining dense and nodular breasts in younger women, and less frequently performed screening mammography. Genetic mutations should be suspected in women with breast cancer who are under the age of 30 years. In relation to older women, younger women have more adverse pathologic features and have a poorer prognosis. Younger age, per se, is not a contraindication to breast-conserving surgery. In node-negative young women, the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy need to be considered in relation to the short- and long-term risks of treatment. A strong support system should be in place to deal with the adverse psychosocial impact of the disease.

  20. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-18

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  1. Can We Prevent Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer in females accounting to 23% of all cases. Between January 1998 and December 2004–2004, 6,882 cases were reported from all GCC states accounting to 11.8% from all cancers and 22.7% from cancers in females. An ASR/100,000 woman was 46.4 from Bahrain, 44.3 from Kuwait, 35.5 from Qatar, 19.2 from UAE, 14.2 from Oman and 12.9 from KSA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in Arab women constituting 14–42% of all women cancers. Breast cancer in Arab countries presents almost 10 yrs younger than in USA and Europe. Median age at presentation is 48–52 and 50% of all cases are below the age of 50 where as only 25% of cases in industrialized nations are below the age of 50 yrs. What we need to fight this deadly disease is opening of screening centers with trained physicians equipped with ultrasound, x-ray unit, a pathology lab and most of all a system where a patient is seen urgently on referral to a secondary level care. Health education campaigns should be organized, female medical students should be encouraged to be general surgeons in a community where social customs still have value. PMID:21475500

  2. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    which support tumor growth and metastasis. In order to test our hypothesis, we are examining t ie expression of 11-8 antigen in human breast tissue using...Revised 1985). S4 For the protection of human subjects, the investigator(s) adhered to policies of applicable Federal Law 45 CFR 46. In conducting...Contents INTRODUCTION 5 BODY: EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND RESULTS 6 Specific Aim I- To characterize IL-8 expression in human breast cancer 6 Study IA- To

  3. Partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Margot; Hickey, Brigid E; Francis, Daniel P; See, Adrienne M

    2014-06-18

    Breast conserving therapy for women with breast cancer consists of local excision of the tumour (achieving clear margins) followed by radiation therapy (RT). RT is given to sterilize tumour cells that may remain after surgery to decrease the risk of local tumour recurrence. Most true recurrences occur in the same quadrant as the original tumour. Whole breast RT may not protect against the development of a new primary cancer developing in other quadrants of the breast. In this Cochrane Review, we investigated the role of delivering radiation to a limited volume of the breast around the tumour bed (partial breast irradiation: PBI) sometimes with a shortened treatment duration (accelerated partial breast irradiation: APBI). To determine whether PBI/APBI is equivalent to or better than conventional or hypofractionated WBRT after breast conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register (07 November 2013), CENTRAL (2014, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1966 to 11 April 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 11 April 2014), CINAHL (11 April 2014) and Current Contents (11 April 2014). Also we searched the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (07 November 2013) and US clinical trials registry (www.clinicaltrials.gov) (22 April 2014). We searched for grey literature: Open Grey (23 April 2014), reference lists of articles, a number of conference proceedings and published abstracts, and did not apply any language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) without confounding and evaluating conservative surgery plus PBI/APBI versus conservative surgery plus whole breast RT. We included both published and unpublished trials. Three review authors (ML, DF and BH) performed data extraction and resolved any disagreements through discussion. We entered data into Review Manager for analysis. BH and ML assessed trials

  4. Multiparametric Breast MRI of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Breast MRI has increased in popularity over the past two decades due to evidence for its high sensitivity for cancer detection. Current clinical MRI approaches rely on the use of a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI) acquisition that facilitates morphologic and semi-quantitative kinetic assessments of breast lesions. The use of more functional and quantitative parameters, such as pharmacokinetic features from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) on diffusion weighted MRI, and choline concentrations on MR spectroscopy, hold promise to broaden the utility of MRI and improve its specificity. However, due to wide variations in approach among centers for measuring these parameters and the considerable technical challenges, robust multicenter data supporting their routine use is not yet available, limiting current applications of many of these tools to research purposes. PMID:26613883

  5. Multiple primary breast and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ron, E.; Curtis, R.; Hoffman, D. A.; Flannery, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of breast and thyroid multiple primary cancers was evaluated using data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. The study population consisted of 1618 women with primary thyroid cancer and 39,194 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1935 and 1978. Thirty-four thyroid cancer patients subsequently developed breast cancer and 24 breast cancer patients later had thyroid cancer. A significantly elevated risk of thyroid cancer following breast cancer (SIR = 1.68) and breast cancer following thyroid cancer (SIR = 1.89) was demonstrated. The finding was even more notable when compared with the risks obtained for other sites. The elevated risk was particularly evident in women under 40 years of age at time of diagnosis of the first cancer. Analysis by histologic type revealed that the highest risk of second primary breast cancer was found among patients with follicular or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid cancer. Women under age 40 with follicular carcinoma had a 10-fold risk of developing breast cancer (4 observed, 0.4 expected). An enhanced risk of second primary tumours was evident for the entire period after treatment of the first primary, although it was highest within one year after diagnosis of the first primary. This may be due to the close medical surveillance of cancer patients which would increase early diagnosis of second tumours. Our findings suggest that breast and thyroid cancer may share common aetiologic features. PMID:6691901

  6. Multiple primary breast and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ron, E; Curtis, R; Hoffman, D A; Flannery, J T

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of breast and thyroid multiple primary cancers was evaluated using data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. The study population consisted of 1618 women with primary thyroid cancer and 39,194 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1935 and 1978. Thirty-four thyroid cancer patients subsequently developed breast cancer and 24 breast cancer patients later had thyroid cancer. A significantly elevated risk of thyroid cancer following breast cancer (SIR = 1.68) and breast cancer following thyroid cancer (SIR = 1.89) was demonstrated. The finding was even more notable when compared with the risks obtained for other sites. The elevated risk was particularly evident in women under 40 years of age at time of diagnosis of the first cancer. Analysis by histologic type revealed that the highest risk of second primary breast cancer was found among patients with follicular or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid cancer. Women under age 40 with follicular carcinoma had a 10-fold risk of developing breast cancer (4 observed, 0.4 expected). An enhanced risk of second primary tumours was evident for the entire period after treatment of the first primary, although it was highest within one year after diagnosis of the first primary. This may be due to the close medical surveillance of cancer patients which would increase early diagnosis of second tumours. Our findings suggest that breast and thyroid cancer may share common aetiologic features.

  7. DNA damage and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer D; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is intimately related to the accumulation of DNA damage, and repair failures (including mutation prone repair and hyperactive repair systems). This article relates current clinical categories for breast cancer and their common DNA damage repair defects. Information is included on the potential for accumulation of DNA damage in the breast tissue of a woman during her lifetime and the role of DNA damage in breast cancer development. We then cover endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damage, types of DNA damage repair and basic signal transduction pathways for three gene products involved in the DNA damage response system; namely BRCA1, BRIT1 and PARP-1. These genes are often considered tumor suppressors because of their roles in DNA damage response and some are under clinical investigation as likely sources for effective new drugs to treat breast cancers. Finally we discuss some of the problems of DNA damage repair systems in cancer and the conundrum of hyper-active repair systems which can introduce mutations and confer a survival advantage to certain types of cancer cells. PMID:21909479

  8. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  9. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  10. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  11. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  12. Breast cancer risk assessment in primary care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shannon Lynn; Kartoz, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer (when excluding skin cancers) in women and the second most common cause of cancer death in women, with a lifetime prevalence of 12.5% (, ; ). Breast cancer screening reduces risk of cancer death, thereby increasing rate of survival to up to 89% for women with stage 1 and 2 breast cancer (; ). Despite these data, undue harm may occur with unnecessary screening because overidentification of risk, and excessive, costly biopsies may result. Costs and benefits of screening must be weighed. Nurses at all levels can play a pivotal role in promotion of appropriate breast cancer screening and subsequently breast cancer prevention by using accurate screening tools, such as the Tyrer-Cuzick model. Although there are some limitations with this tool, screening at the primary care level has demonstrated improved clinical outcomes (). Its use can help nurses accurately assess a woman's breast cancer risk, by promoting appropriate screening at the primary care level ().

  13. Job Authority and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957–2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women’s job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others’ pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women’s occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions. PMID:25506089

  14. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  15. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  16. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  17. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-11

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  18. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-16

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  19. Radiation-Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    targeting TGF-beta on the activities and numbers of breast cancer stem cells with and without irradiation. 2 Body 2.1 Immune-monitoring Twenty-two...longer than those getting the lower 1mg dose. 2.2 Effects of TGF-beta on breast cancer stem - cells Recent preclinical and clinical data...support that solid cancers including breast cancers are organized hierarchically with a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), capable of re

  20. [Hormonal therapy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Espinós, J; Reyna, C; de la Cruz, S; Oiler, C; Hernández, A; Fernández Hidalgo, O; Santisteban, M; García Foncillas, J

    2008-01-01

    Hormonal therapy has been the first systemic treatment against breast cancer. Up to now Tamoxifen and ovarian supression/ablation were the best optionts we had to treat early breast cancer as advancer disease. The advent of aromatase inhibitors, new SERMS and antistrogen Fulvestrant have supoused a great advance in the treatment of this disease and at the same time have complicated the election of the optimal drug for each patient. This article tries to review the aviable treatment options insiting on its indications.

  1. Partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Brigid E; Lehman, Margot; Francis, Daniel P; See, Adrienne M

    2016-07-18

    Breast-conserving therapy for women with breast cancer consists of local excision of the tumour (achieving clear margins) followed by radiotherapy (RT). RT is given to sterilize tumour cells that may remain after surgery to decrease the risk of local tumour recurrence. Most true recurrences occur in the same quadrant as the original tumour. Whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) may not protect against the development of a new primary cancer developing in other quadrants of the breast. In this Cochrane review, we investigated the delivery of radiation to a limited volume of the breast around the tumour bed (partial breast irradiation (PBI)) sometimes with a shortened treatment duration (accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)). To determine whether PBI/APBI is equivalent to or better than conventional or hypo-fractionated WBRT after breast-conserving therapy for early-stage breast cancer. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialized Register (4 May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (January 1966 to 4 May 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 4 May 2015), CINAHL (4 May 2015) and Current Contents (4 May 2015). We searched the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (5 May 2015), the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (4 May 2015) and ClinicalTrials.gov (17 June 2015). We searched for grey literature: OpenGrey (17 June 2015), reference lists of articles, several conference proceedings and published abstracts, and applied no language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without confounding, that evaluated conservative surgery plus PBI/APBI versus conservative surgery plus WBRT. Published and unpublished trials were eligible. Two review authors (BH and ML) performed data extraction and used Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool, and resolved any disagreements through discussion. We entered data into Review Manager 5 for analysis. We included

  2. Skeletal manifestations of treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choksi, Palak; Williams, Margaret; Clark, Patricia M; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer and osteoporosis are common diagnoses in women. Breast cancer survival has improved due to earlier detection and improved treatments. As most breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, treatment is often aimed at altering the hormonal environment. Both pre and postmenopausal women undergoing these therapies are at risk for bone loss. The patient's health care team ought to have an awareness of the potential for breast cancer treatments to accelerate bone loss. Women with early stage breast cancer are treated with curative intent and, therefore, maintaining bone health is important and is part of the survivorship care to ensure an optimal quality of life.

  3. Genetic epidemiology of breast cancer in Britain.

    PubMed

    Iselius, L; Slack, J; Littler, M; Morton, N E

    1991-05-01

    A complex segregation analysis was conducted on two British series (one consecutive series of probands with breast cancer and one series ascertained through a normal consultand). Altogether there were 1248 nuclear families with breast cancer. A dominant gene with a frequency of 0.003 giving a lifetime penetrance of 0.83 is favoured. Ovarian, endometrial and cancers associated with the SBLA syndrome, as well as benign breast disease, were significantly more common in familial breast cancer than in families of single cases. Probands in families with more than one individual with breast cancer were non-significantly younger than isolated probands.

  4. Skeletal Manifestations of Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Palak; Williams, Margaret; Clark, Patricia M.; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer and osteoporosis are common diagnoses in women. Breast cancer survival has improved due to earlier detection and improved treatments. As most breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, treatment is often aimed at altering the hormonal environment. Both pre and postmenopausal women undergoing these therapies are at risk for bone loss. The patient's health care team ought to have an awareness of the potential for breast cancer treatments to accelerate bone loss. Women with early stage breast cancer are treated with curative intent and, therefore, maintaining bone health is important and is part of the survivorship care to ensure an optimal quality of life. PMID:24132726

  5. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page April 2016 The Impact of Breast Cancer Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the ...

  6. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What’s New in Breast Cancer Research? Researchers around the world ... she considers most important in choosing a treatment. New lab tests Tests for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) ...

  7. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Drosos, Yiannis; Kouloukoussa, Mirsini; Østvold, Anne Carine; Grundt, Kirsten; Goutas, Nikos; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Havaki, Sophia; Kollia, Panagoula; Kittas, Christos; Marinos, Evangelos; Aleporou-Marinou, Vassiliki

    2009-01-01

    Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate) is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR), real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non malignant breast lesions and

  9. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered unusual. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of first-line hormonal treatment? What are the effects of second-line hormonal treatment in women who have not responded to tamoxifen? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy in combination with a monoclonal antibody? What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases? What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases? What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 77 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: first-line hormonal treatment using anti-oestrogens (tamoxifen), ovarian ablation, progestins, selective aromatase inhibitors, or combined gonadorelin analogues plus tamoxifen; second-line hormonal treatment using progestins or selective aromatase inhibitors; first-line non-taxane combination chemotherapy; first-line taxane-based combination chemotherapy; first-line high- versus low-dose standard chemotherapy

  10. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  11. MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0428 TITLE: MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 JUL 2005 - 14 JUL 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression 5b...We hypothesized that certain miRNA species are differentially expressed in the normal breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. Our concept was that

  12. Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Metabolic Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0167 TITLE: Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Metabolic Regulation... Breast Cancer and Metabolic Regulation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0167 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Amy...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents 20-25% of sporadic breast

  13. The menopause specialist and breast cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Jo

    2016-09-15

    Due to improvement in survival rates, breast cancer is the most prevalent female malignancy in Europe and hence the management of breast cancer survivorship is garnering significant attention. Most of the health issues associated with treatment result from iatrogenic estrogen deficiency and recognition of this in the recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) menopause guidance has resulted in the recommendation for referral of breast cancer patients to menopause specialists for appropriate counselling about and management of early menopause, estrogen deficiency symptoms and lifestyle risk modification. The latter has significant implications for both all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Extending the role of health professionals with an interest in menopause to provide such service for breast cancer patients is necessary as this is not within the remit or expertise of specialist breast cancer teams; however it will in turn, require menopause specialists to expand and regularly update their knowledge of breast cancer and its treatment.

  14. Minimal breast cancer: a clinical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, T G; Donegan, W L; Burg, E A

    1977-01-01

    Eighty-five patients with a diagnosis of minimal breast cancer were evaluated. The predominant lesion was intraductal carcinoma, and axillary metastases occurred in association with minimal breast cancer in seven of 96 cases. One death occurred due to minimal breast cancer. Bilateral mammary carcinoma was evident in 24% and bilateral minimal breast cancer in 13% of the patients. The component lesions of minimal breast cancer have varied biologic activity, but prognosis is good with a variety of operations. The multifocal nature of minimal breast cancer and the potential for metastases should be recognized. Therapy should include removal of the entire mammary parenchyma and low axillary nodes. The high incidence of bilateral malignancy supports elective contralateral biopsy at the time of therapy for minimal breast cancer. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:203233

  15. Immunotherapy in breast cancer: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Disis, Mary L; Stanton, Sasha E

    2017-02-03

    The field of breast cancer immunology has progressed tremendously over the last decade. Twenty years ago immunotherapy was not considered for the treatment of breast cancers because breast cancer was not considered immunogenic. Today we know that most patients with breast cancer have some evidence of an adaptive immune response against their tumors, detectable either in the peripheral blood or in the tumor. Moreover, immunity to breast cancer begins at the earliest stages of the disease, in some patients prior to diagnosis. Recent evidence suggests that lymphocytes infiltrating breast cancers and found in the tumor stroma are strong prognostic indicators of a beneficial disease outcome. These observations now pave the way for the integration of immunomodulation into standard of care therapy for the treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Bronsveld, Heleen K.; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L.; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersen, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. Methods and Findings This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000–2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07–5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11–7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03–9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95–6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88–7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. Conclusions We found no

  17. Breast cancer in young women: an overview.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadi, Zoi; Lianos, Georgios D; Ignatiadou, Eleftheria; Harissis, Haralampos V; Mitsis, Michail

    2017-03-04

    Despite dramatic advances in cancer research setting, breast cancer remains a major health problem and represents currently a top biomedical research priority. Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women, and its incidence and mortality rates are expected to increase significantly the next years. Recently the researchers' interest has been attracted by breast cancer arising in young women. Current evidence suggests that in women aged <45 years, breast cancer is unquestionably the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. This type of cancer seems to be highly heterogeneous and has potentially aggressive and complex biological features. However, management strategies, recommendations and options are not age based and the 'complex' biology of this type of cancer remains uncertain and unexplored. In this review, we summarize the latest scientific information on breast cancer arising in young women highlighting the heterogeneity and the complex nature of this type of cancer.

  18. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  19. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria. PMID:21067536

  20. Interdisciplinary Breast Cancer Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    2-Dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteomic identification of mammary gland proteins of rats treated with the soy isoflavone , genistein...Coral A. Lamartiniere. "Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer, Proteomic Discovery of Genistein Action in the Rat Mammary Gland." Accepted in Journal of...biomarker discover of rat mammary tumors using mass-coded abundance tags (MCAT)" 9 5th Annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research

  1. Epigenetic Testing for Breast Cancer Risk Stratification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    unlimited Tumor suppressor gene methylation is an early step-wise change in benign breast epithelium undergoing neoplastic transformation. Preliminary...2. KEYWORDS: Breast Neoplasms, Benign Breast, DNA Methylation, Tumor Suppressor Genes, Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy, Epigenetics. 3...in a small subpopulation of tumor cells in about 40% of breast cancers and 30% of benign samples. b) PECI methylation in a benign sample is highly

  2. [Pregnancy after gynecologic or breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Carbonne, Bruno; Ansquer, Yan

    2010-03-01

    Breast cancer often occurs in women of childbearing age, many of whom go on to have children. Several studies suggest that pregnancy does not worsen the outcome of breast cancer, and that a history of breast cancer does not affect the outcome of pregnancy. The timing of pregnancy after breast cancer should take into account the risk of recurrence and metastasis. Conservative surgical treatment for cervical cancer may increase the risk of late fetal loss or preterm birth. Candidates for conservative treatment of ovarian and endometrial cancer must be carefully selected, as recurrence during or after pregnancy is not uncommon.

  3. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    utilizing mouse intestinal cells and rat fibroblasts suggest that PTK6 may be required for cell death triggered by specific stimuli such as DNA damage [41...Parallel data of 12 normal breast organoids RNA samples and 7 bulk normal breast tissue specimens were used as normal control. Array probe data were...JJ, Tyner AL (2009) Induction of protein tyrosine kinase 6 in mouse intestinal crypt epithelial cells promotes DNA damage-induced apoptosis

  4. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  5. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  6. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    against viruses and bacteria (17, 18). T cells from breast cancer patients are known to have impaired effector functions and are skewed towards TREG...heterogeneous disease with varied presentation, morphology and clinical behavior. Currently, the risk of BC progression is evaluated based on

  7. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Cancer.gov

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  8. The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Randomized. Open-Label. Dose Comparison Study of Recombinant Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Third Line Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in...by the sponsor. Phase I Dose-Escalation Study of Thrice Weekly Recombinant Human Interleukin-2 in Combination with Trastuzumab in Subjects with

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. Aromatase and cyclooxygenases: enzymes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brueggemeier, Robert W; Richards, Jeanette A; Petrel, Trevor A

    2003-09-01

    Aromatase (estrogen synthase) is the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex that converts C19 androgens to C18 estrogens. Aromatase activity has been demonstrated in breast tissue in vitro, and expression of aromatase is highest in or near breast tumor sites. Thus, local regulation of aromatase by both endogenous factors as well as exogenous medicinal agents will influence the levels of estrogen available for breast cancer growth. The prostaglandin PGE2 increases intracellular cAMP levels and stimulates estrogen biosynthesis, and previous studies in our laboratories have shown a strong linear association between aromatase (CYP19) expression and expression of the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) in breast cancer specimens. To further investigate the pathways regulating COX and CYP19 gene expression, studies were performed in normal breast stromal cells, in breast cancer cells from patients, and in breast cancer cell lines using selective pharmacological agents. Enhanced COX enzyme levels results in increased production of prostaglandins, such as PGE2. This prostaglandin increased aromatase activity in breast stromal cells, and studies with selective agonists and antagonists showed that this regulation of signaling pathways occurs through the EP1 and EP2 receptor subtypes. COX-2 gene expression was enhanced in breast cancer cell lines by ligands for the various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and differential regulation was observed between hormone-dependent and -independent breast cancer cells. Thus, the regulation of both enzymes in breast cancer involves complex paracrine interactions, resulting in significant consequences on the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  11. Many with Breast Cancer Unnecessarily Choose Double Mastectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162665.html Many With Breast Cancer Unnecessarily Choose Double Mastectomy: Study Removing healthy breast ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many women with early stage breast cancer choose to have their healthy opposite breast removed, ...

  12. Breast cancer control programme in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, J A; Barros, A C; Hegg, R; Zeferino, L C

    1993-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very important health problem in developing countries, where its incidence has increased in the last decades. Mortality rates due to breast cancer have also increased, and the main reason for this is late diagnosis. The authors demonstrate that organizing programmes for early breast cancer detection is possible by making use of simple resources. A set of tiered interventions is proposed, stratified in levels of complexity: Level 1--Identification of abnormal breast by health professionals; Level 2--Medical assistance to women whose breast is considered abnormal, in order to diagnose and treat benign diseases and recognize suspect cases of cancer; Level 3--Management of the women with suspected or diagnosed breast cancer by a multidisciplinary team. Therefore, a proposal for wide action for breast cancer control in developing countries is presented.

  13. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  14. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention ; nutrition and prevention ; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Asian mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, upon highly invasive breast cancer cells, on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing and treating breast...role in inhibiting or preventing cancer. Epidemiologic evidence strongly links fish oil with low incidences of several cancers.1–4 The anticancer

  15. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  16. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Preventable breast cancer is postmenopausal.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence has markedly increased in Western countries for reasons that are not entirely understood. We characterized periodic and age-specific incidence trends of breast cancer in immigrants who migrated from low incidence areas to Sweden. The incidence in immigrants was compared to that in native Swedes and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated, based on the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Age-specific incidence data for low and high incidence populations were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents IX and NORDCAN. For immigrants from the seven lowest countries/regions 535 breast cancers were identified; the SIRs ranging from 0.45 for Turkish to 0.70 for Greek women. The SIR increased somewhat with the length of stay in Sweden, from 0.55 for stay between 0 and 10 years to 0.59 for a stay of 20+ years. The age-specific incidence curves for these immigrants were superimposable upon the earliest Swedish (year 1960) or Danish (1943) rates. These rates differed from the current Swedish rates by a much lower postmenopausal component. Large incidence differences were also observed between white Californians and immigrants from China and Korea. Our results show that the main difference between high and low incidence areas is in postmenopausal cancer which has increased preferentially during the past century. Immigrants from low risk areas to Sweden show age-specific incidence patterns of Swedes half a century ago. These differences offer opportunities for the identification of factors underlying breast cancer etiology and tools for prevention.

  18. Immunophenotyping of male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kornegoor, Robert; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Buerger, Horst; Hogenes, Marieke C; de Bruin, Peter C; Oudejans, Joost J; Hinrichs, Bernd; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, and knowledge of carcinogenesis is limited. Conflicting results, based on small series, have been reported for clinically relevant biomarkers. One hundred and thirty-four cases of male breast cancer were immunohistochemically stained on tissue microarrays for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), BRST2, cyclin D1, bcl-2, p53, p16, p21, Ki67, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK14, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features and patient outcome. High mitotic count and high grade were correlated with high Ki67, HER2 amplification/overexpression, p53 accumulation, high p21 expression, low PR expression, and low bcl-2 expression. PR negativity (P=0.009) and p53 accumulation (P=0.042) were correlated with decreased 5-year survival and were independent markers for patient outcome in Cox regression. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering, four groups were identified that were correlated with distinctive clinicopathological features. The hormone negative/ER-positive/high-grade cluster was significantly associated with decreased survival (P=0.011) and was an independent prognostic factor in Cox regression. Several tissue biomarkers are associated with an aggressive phenotype in male breast cancer. PR and p53 are the most promising individual prognostic markers. On the basis of immunophenotype, four distinctive and prognostically relevant male breast cancer groups were identified, indicating that protein expression profiling may be clinically useful in male breast cancer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  19. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, Bhaskarapillai; Mathew, Aleyamma

    2005-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern. PMID:16022739

  20. Thyroid function in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ditsch, Nina; Liebhardt, Susanne; Von Koch, Franz; Lenhard, Miriam; Vogeser, Michael; Spitzweg, Christine; Gallwas, Julia; Toth, Bettina

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies indicate a possible relationship between hypothyroidism and breast cancer in vivo. In addition, oestrogen-like effects of thyroid hormones on breast cancer cell growth are seen in vitro. Therefore, this study evaluated thyroid function in breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumour and healthy controls. Breast cancer patients (n=65), women with carcinoma in situ (n=13) or benign breast tumour (n=27), and healthy controls (n=38) were included in the study. Thyroid history was reported. Thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3, TSH) and thyroid antibodies (TPO, TRAK and TG) were determined. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact test (p<0.005 significant). fT3 and fT4 levels were highest in breast cancer patients, and differed significantly from controls (fT3 and fT4: p<0.001) as well as from patients with benign breast tumour (fT3: p=0.021; fT4: p=0.017). TSH was highest in the control group without reaching significance. With regard to TRAK antibodies, breast cancer patients showed the highest levels differing significantly from women with benign breast tumours (p=0.048). Significant differences in fT3/fT4 as well as TRAK levels were observed among breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumours and healthy controls. Further studies using larger patient groups are part of ongoing research.

  1. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    PubMed

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  2. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-02-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms.

  4. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  5. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  6. Reversing breast cancer stem cell into breast somatic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, L; Agustina, D; Lizandi, A O; Kartawinata, M M; Sandra, F

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells have an important role in cell biology, allowing tissues to be renewed by freshly created cells throughout their lifetime. The specific micro-environment of stem cells is called stem cell niche; this environment influences the development of stem cells from quiescence through stages of differentiation. Recent advance researches have improved the understanding of the cellular and molecular components of the micro-environment--or niche--that regulates stem cells. We point out an important trend to the study of niche activity in breast cancers. Breast cancer has long been known to conserve a heterogeneous population of cells. While the majority of cells that make up tumors are destined to differentiate and eventually stop dividing, only minority populations of cells, termed cancer stem cell, possess extensive self renewal capability. These cancer stem cells possess characteristics of both stem cells and cancer cells. Breast cancer stem cells reversal to breast somatic stem cells offer a new therapy, that not only can stop the spread of breast cancer cells, but also can differentiate breast cancer stem cells into normal breast somatic stem cells. These can replace damaged breast tissue. Nevertheless, the complexity of realizing this therapy approach needs further research.

  7. Over surgery in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Fiona; Karakatsanis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Breast surgery remains the original and most effective 'targeted' therapy: excision of early cancer is curative and for more advanced disease surgery improves local disease control. However in well intentioned pursuit of cure and local disease control, some cancers are over-treated resulting in major physical and emotional morbidity. Less breast surgery is safe, as evidenced by steady reductions in mortality and local recurrence; earlier diagnosis and widespread use of systemic therapies and radiotherapy have allowed more conservative surgery. As tumour biology dictates cancer outcomes not surgery extent, surgery can safely be 'minimum required' rather than 'more is better' with the focus on removal of disease rather than healthy tissue. Surgeons can reduce the burden of surgery further but it is important that less surgery is not over-compensated by more radical or unnecessary systemic therapies and/or radiotherapy with their own toxicities and morbidity. We all need to be alert to the potential drivers of over treatment and over surgery such as failure to work within a multidisciplinary team, failure to design a multimodality treatment plan at diagnosis or overuse of novel assessment technologies of uncertain clinical utility. Pursuit of wide margins and the removal of the contra-lateral healthy breast for marginal risk-reduction gains are also to be discouraged as is routine local/regional surgery in stage 4 disease. The surgeon has a pivotal role in minimizing breast surgery to what is required to achieve the best oncological, functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  8. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  9. Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Kristin; Stuckey, Ashley

    2016-12-01

    Between the years 2010 and 2012, the lifetime probability of developing female breast cancer was 12.3%, or approximately 1 in 8. Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Survival is increasing. Between 2005 and 2011, the 5-year relative survival was found to be 89%. This is thought to be due to both the increase in utilization of population-wide screening, as well as advances in treatment. Less than 10% of breast cancers can be attributed to an inherited genetic mutation. Breast cancer is more commonly associated with environmental, reproductive, and lifestyle factors, some of which are potentially modifiable.

  10. The Role of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery in Breast Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Emiroğlu, Mustafa; Sert, İsmail; İnal, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss indications, advantages, disadvantages, oncologic and aesthetic results of Oncoplastic Surgery (OBS). Pubmed and Medline database were searched for articles published between 1998 and 2014 for keywords: oncoplastic breast surgery, therapeutic mammoplasty, oncoplastic breast reduction, synchrenous reconstructions. Role of OBS in breast cancer surgery, its aspects to be considered, its value and results have been interpreted. This technique has advantages by providing more extensive tumourectomy, yielding better aesthetic results compared with breast conserving surgery, allowing oncoplastic reduction in breast cancer patients with macromastia, with higher patient satisfaction and quality of life and by being inexpensive due to single session practice. As for its disadvantages are: re-excision is more difficult, risk for mastectomy is higher, it is depent on the Surgeron’s experience, it has a risk for delay in adjuvant therapies and its requirement for additional imaging studies during management. Main indications are patients with small tumour/breast volume, macromastia, multifocality, procedures which can disrupt breast cosmesis such as surgeries for upper inner breas tquadrient tumours. Contraindications are positive margin problems after wide excision, diffuse malign microcalsifications, inflammatory breast cancer, history of radiotherapy and patients’ preferences. Despite low evidence level, Oncoplastic Breast Surgery seems to be both reliable and acceptable in terms of oncologic and aesthetic aspects. Oncoplastic Breast Surgery increase the application rate of breast conserving surgery by obviating practical limitations and improve the results of breast conserving surgery. Correct patient and technique choice in OBS is vital for optimization of post surgical

  11. Breast Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data...adhesion molecules expressed on tumor-associated endothelial cells. Through in vitro experiments, Dr. Serda found that endothelial cell morphology

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  13. HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: What Is It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it? A friend of mine has HER2-positive breast cancer. Can you tell me what this means? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. HER2-positive breast cancer is a breast cancer that tests positive for ...

  14. Breast Cancer Research Update | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National ... sheet Extended Drug Therapy Benefits Some Women with Breast Cancer Results from a recent clinical trial showed that ...

  15. Most Breast Cancer Patients Have Help Choosing Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167104.html Most Breast Cancer Patients Have Help Choosing Treatments Support system can ... News) -- Most women who've been diagnosed with breast cancer don't go it alone. Many breast cancer ...

  16. tRNAs as Biomarkers and Regulators for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    transduction pathways. These results demonstrate that studies of tRNA and breast cancer biology will be useful in understanding breast cancer type and progression and may lead to new drug targets for breast cancer treatment.

  17. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  18. Breast cancer following ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Alexandra; Cass, Ilana; Paik, Daniel; Barmparas, Galinos; Karlan, Beth; Dang, Catherine; Li, Andrew; Walsh, Christine; Rimel, Bobbie J; Amersi, Farin F

    2014-12-01

    BRCA mutation carriers are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, the incidence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), one of the tubal/peritoneal cancers collectively referred to as pelvic serous carcinomas, is not well known. Optimal breast cancer surveillance and detection for these patients have also not been well characterized. To determine the incidence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of EOC and to evaluate the need for breast cancer surveillance for these patients. A retrospective database review of 364 patients who underwent BRCA mutation testing for EOC (stages I-IV) between 1998 and 2012 at an academic medical center with gynecologic and breast cancer centers. Incidence of breast cancer and methods of surveillance. Of 364 patients, 135 (37.1%) were found to carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The mean age of patients at diagnosis of EOC was 49.5 years (range, 28-89 years). Of the 135 patients, 12 (8.9%) developed breast cancer. The median time from diagnosis of EOC to diagnosis of breast cancer was 50.5 months. Annual mammography was performed for 80 patients (59.3%), with annual magnetic resonance imaging of the breasts performed for 60 patients (44.4%). Thirteen patients (9.6%) underwent a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy at a median of 23 months following EOC diagnosis. Breast cancer was most commonly diagnosed by mammography for 7 of the 12 patients (58.3%), 3 (25.0%) of whom had a palpable mass and 2 (16.7%) of whom had incidental breast cancer detected during a prophylactic mastectomy. Seven patients with breast cancer (58.3%) underwent a bilateral mastectomy. All patients had early-stage breast cancer (stages 0-II). Four patients (33.3%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years, 4 of the 12 patients (33.3%) died of recurrent EOC after a diagnosis of breast cancer. The overall 10-year survival rate for the entire cohort of 135 patients was 17.0%. The risk of

  19. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  20. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  1. Intracellular Protein Delivery for Treating Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Nanocapsules, Nanoparticles , Apoptin, Breast Cancer , Targeted Delivery, Nanomedicine, Nanogel, Redox-responsive, Apoptosis, p53... Nanoparticles , Apoptin, Breast Cancer , Targeted Delivery, Nanomedicine, Nanogel, Redox-responsive, Apoptosis, p53 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS... Cancer Cell Targeting Ligands iRGD-conjugated Nanoparticles As we are working on the design of targeting strategies for nanocapsules, new

  2. Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

  3. Oestrogen exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence implicates oestrogens in the aetiology of breast cancer. Most established risk factors for breast cancer in humans probably act through hormone-related pathways, and increased concentrations of circulating oestrogens have been found to be strongly associated with increased risk for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. This article explores the evidence for the hypothesis that oestrogen exposure is a major determinant of risk for breast cancer. We review recent data on oestrogens and breast cancer risk, consider oestrogen-related risk factors and examine possible mechanisms that might account for the effects of oestrogen. Finally, we discuss how these advances might influence strategies for reducing the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:12927032

  4. Obesity and the breast cancer methylome.

    PubMed

    Coleman, William B

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is associated with risk factors such as advancing age and obesity. However, the linkages between these risk factors for breast cancer development and initiation of the disease are not yet clear. Obesity may drive breast cancer development through increases in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Mammary cell susceptibility to neoplastic transformation requires both genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation. Obesity is also subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, the nature of epigenetic changes, specifically changes to the methylome, are discussed in the context of obesity and breast cancer, and a potential mechanism for the interaction of obesity and breast cancer is proposed. This proposed mechanism identifies opportunities for intervention (using drugs or biologic therapies) to prevent breast cancer development in the obese patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Competing risks to breast cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Marjorie A

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models analyzing the impact of treatment interventions and screening on the level of breast cancer mortality require an input of mortality from causes other than breast cancer, or competing risks. This chapter presents an actuarial method of creating cohort life tables using published data that removes breast cancer as a cause of death. Mortality from causes other than breast cancer as a percentage of all-cause mortality is smallest for women in their forties and fifties, as small as 85% of the all-cause rate, although the level and percentage of the impact varies by birth cohort. This method produces life tables by birth cohort and by age that are easily included as a common input by the various CISNET modeling groups to predict mortality from other causes. Attention to removing breast cancer mortality from all-cause mortality is worthwhile, because breast cancer mortality can be as high as 15% at some ages.

  6. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  7. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21071816

  8. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Ja; Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5-9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0-58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6-90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by mammography plus US was 8.3 per 1000 patients. Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast with high positive biopsy rate and low category 3 rate in patients with a previous history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-10

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  11. Breast cancer and autism.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  12. Skp2 is over-expressed in breast cancer and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenwen; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Xu, Jing; Tang, Lin; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Jiayan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Yucai; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The F box protein Skp2 is oncogenic. Skp2 and Skp2B, an isoform of Skp2 are overexpressed in breast cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Skp2B promotes the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Here, we determined the expression and clinical outcomes of Skp2 in breast cancer samples and cell lines using breast cancer database, and investigated the role of Skp2 and Skp2B in breast cancer cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We obtained Skp2 is significantly overexpressed in breast cancer samples and cell lines, and high Skp2 expression positively correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. Both Skp2 and Skp2B could promote breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit cell apoptosis, change the cell cycle distribution and induce the increased S phase cells and therefore induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the 2 isoforms could both suppress PIG3 expression via independent pathways in the breast cancer cells. Skp2 suppressed p53 and inhibited PIG3-induced apoptosis, while Skp2B attenuated the function of PIG3 by inhibiting PHB. Our results indicate that Skp2 and Skp2B induce breast cancer cell development and progression, making Skp2 and Skp2B potential molecular targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27111245

  13. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-18

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  14. Computer Simulation of Breast Cancer Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    of Breast Cancer Screening PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Boone, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Davis Davis, California 95616...Final (01 Jul 98 - 30 Jun 01) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Computer Simulation of Breast Cancer Screening DAMD17- 98 - 1-8176 6. AUTHOR(S...Woirds) (abstract should contain no proprietary or confidential information) A breast cancer screening computer model was developed. Simulations of

  15. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    birth weight and of growth during childhood and adolescence on risk of breast cancer. We used a unique material of school charts with information on...childhood and adolescence influence breast cancer risk. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Epidemiology, Etiology, Risk Factors, Weight, Growth 132 16...childhood and adolescence on risk of breast cancer in a cohort of more than 150,000 girls on whom information on birth weight and between 6 and 8

  16. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  17. Heparanase Mechanisms in Brain - Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    by 74%. These findings introduce a new concept that links microRNA mechanisms with brain metastatic breast cancer by downregulating HPSE, providing...the groundwork for heparanase-based therapeutics in patients with brain metastases, BMBC in particular. MicroRNA , Breast Cancer , Brain...by 74% (Figs. 4B-D). These findings introduce new concepts that links microRNA mechanisms with brain metastatic breast cancer by downregulating

  18. Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    TITLE: Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Clark W. Distelhorst, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Case Western Reserve...Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J-4451 6. AUTHOR(S) Clark W. Distelhorst, M.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...cell death , apoptosis, in breast cancer cells has been developed. This model is based on induction of apoptosis by the selective endoplasmic reticulum

  19. The breast cancer epidemic: 10 facts.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A Patrick; Zainer, Christine M; Kubat, Christopher Kevin; Mullen, Nancy K; Windisch, Amberly K

    2014-08-01

    Breast cancer, affecting one in eight American women, is a modern epidemic. The increasing frequency of breast cancer is widely recognized. However, the wealth of compelling epidemiological data on its prevention is generally not available, and as a consequence, is largely unknown to the public. The purpose of this report is to review the epidemiological evidence of preventable causes of breast cancer. [Table: see text].

  20. Phytoestrogens oestrogen synthesis and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rice, Suman; Whitehead, Saffron A

    2008-02-01

    Phytoestrogens are used as 'natural' alternatives to HRT and, although epidemiological evidence implies that diets rich in phytoestrogens reduce the incidence of breast cancer, their weak oestrogenicity is also known to stimulate growth in experimental models of breast cancer. This review addresses the question as to how phytoestrogens may protect against breast cancer through their ability to bind preferentially to oestrogen receptor beta, inhibit enzymes that convert circulating steroid precursors into oestradiol and inhibit cell signalling pathways of growth factors.

  1. Male breast cancer: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment.

    PubMed

    Hotko, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Despite male breast cancer is rare in occurrence, it is a serious problem. In 2012, 130 men in Ukraine got breast cancer that constituted 0.74% from all patients with mentioned pathology detected in the course of year. Every year in Ukraine approximately 100 men die from breast cancer. Still many aspects of male breast cancer remain unstudied. It occurs since information about mentioned disease is mainly based on retrospective analysis of small groups. Treatment of men, who got breast cancer, is based on knowledge, which has been obtained in treatment of women with this pathology. This article is based on the results of analysis of 168 cases of breast cancer in men, who have been examined and treated in the period from 1956 to 2012. In paper the peculiarities of clinical manifestations of male breast cancer have been determined, the optimal volume of diagnostic procedures in men with suspicion of breast cancer has been established, the mammographic signs have been detected and the possible histological variants of disease have been determined, clinical course peculiarities of male breast cancer have been defined, the most essential factors of prognosis of the disease have been fixed. Furthermore, in article optimal volume of surgical treatment of male breast cancer has been substantiated, the role and place of radiotherapy in treatment of this pathology has been determined. It has been proved that adjuvant polychemotherapy should be applied to the patients with male breast cancer independently from stage of process. Also optimal schemes of this kind of treatment have been determined. The efficacy of hormonal therapy with antiestrogen in patients with positive receptors of steroid hormones and at presence of unfavorable prognostic factors of disease has been demonstrated. The inefficiency of orchiectomy as one of the widespread kinds of hormonal therapy of male breast cancer has been defined.

  2. Vitamin D, Breast Cancer, and Bone Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-07-1-0694 TITLE: Vitamin D, Breast Cancer, and Bone...COVERED 15 Sep 2007 – 13 May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Vitamin D, Breast Cancer, and Bone Health 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07... vitamin D in aromatase inhibitor-induced osteoporosis in breast cancer, supporting studies in basic science, clinical research and epidemiology

  3. Clinically and mammographically occult breast lesions: detection and classification with high-resolution sonography.

    PubMed

    Buchberger, W; Niehoff, A; Obrist, P; DeKoekkoek-Doll, P; Dünser, M

    2000-08-01

    With recent significant advances in ultrasound technology, the potential of high-resolution sonography to improve the sensitivity of cancer diagnosis in women with dense breasts has become a matter of interest for breast imagers. To determine how often physician-performed high-resolution sonography can detect nonpalpable breast cancers that are not revealed by mammography, 8,970 women with breast density grades 2 through 4 underwent high-resolution sonography as an adjunct to mammography. All sonographically detected, clinically and mammographically occult breast lesions that were not simple cysts were prospectively classified into benign, indeterminate, or malignant categories. Diagnoses were confirmed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, core-needle biopsy, or surgical biopsy. In 8,103 women with normal findings at mammography and physical examination, 32 cancers and 330 benign lesions were detected in 273 patients with sonography only. Eight additional cancers were found in 867 patients with a malignant (n = 5) or a benign (n = 3) palpable or mammographically detected index lesion. The overall prevalence of cancers detected with screening sonography was 0.41%, and the proportion of sonographically detected cancers to the total number of nonpalpable cancers was 22%. The mean size of invasive cancers detected only by sonography was 9.1 mm, and was not statistically different from the mean size of invasive cancers detected by mammography. The sensitivity of prospective sonographic classification for malignancy was 100%, and the specificity was 31%. In conclusion, the use of high-resolution sonography as an adjunct to mammography in women with dense breasts may lead to detection of a significant number of otherwise occult cancers that are no different in size from nonpalpable mammographically detected cancers. Prospective classification of these lesions based on sonographic characteristics resulted in an acceptable benign-to-malignant biopsy rate of 6.3:1.

  4. Milestones in breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Zurrida, Stefano; Veronesi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Modern treatment started in the 1880s with Halsted's mastectomy. The next milestone-a century later-was breast-conserving surgery, with equivalent survival but better esthetic outcomes than mastectomy. Sentinel node biopsy, introduced in the 1990s, was a milestone that permitted avoidance of axillary dissection if the sentinel node was disease-free. Chemotherapy was established for early breast cancer in the 1980s and its efficacy continues to improve; however side effects remain a concern, particularly since chemotherapy does not benefit most patients. External whole breast irradiation was introduced with conservative surgery, as it reduces recurrences. By the 2000s, 3-week regimens had been shown equivalent to standard 6-week regimens-easing pressure on patients and radiation centers. Intraoperative partial breast irradiation is potentially more beneficial as it permits complete local treatment in a single session; however, trials show that patients must be very carefully selected. From the 1990s irradiation technology was combined with imaging and computer technologies to produce equipment that directs radiation to more precisely defined target volumes, allowing increased dose to the target and markedly reduced dose to nearby tissues. Irradiation systems are evolving rapidly but are being implemented without data on long-term morbidity or efficacy, while costs rise steeply. The first targeted treatment was tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor inhibitor. Since its widespread use starting in the 1980s, tamoxifen has saved the lives or prolonged the survival of millions with estrogen-positive disease; it is cheap and has limited (but not negligible) side effects. The same cannot be said of newer targeted treatments like trastuzumab and pertuzumab, which, although effective against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancer, come with important side effects and huge costs. Breast cancer mortality is declining in rich countries, but treatments have

  5. Targeting Breast Cancer Vasculature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Marra, M.A., Prange, C., Morin, P.J., Polyak , K., et al. (1999). A publicAmer, M.H. (1982). Chemotherapy and pattern of metastases in breast can...8217n8 Ftts tm. 492, 7177 3 Abdel-Ghant M. ?l dl. (1993) Trun@ted dip+lidyi peptidaa lv is a prteni dti-adhesion md anti-mebslasis pcptide for rat hread

  6. Breast cancer in young women.

    PubMed

    Radecka, Barbara; Litwiniuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) in young women is rare, affecting only 4-6% of women under the age of 40. Regardless, BC remains the most common malignancy among younger patients. Recently, a significant increase in BC rates has been observed among pre-menopausal subjects. Breast cancer in young women requires special attention due to its specific morphologic and prognostic characteristics and unique aspects, including fertility preservation and psychosocial issues (e.g. its impact on family life and career). Young women are more likely to have tumors with higher incidence of negative clinicopathologic features (higher histological grade, more lymph node positivity, lower estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, higher rates of Her2/neu overexpression). Also, they tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages of the disease. That, in turn, contributes to less favorable prognosis as compared to older women. Young women are generally treated similarly to older patients. Surgical management includes mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, followed by radiation therapy (younger women have higher local recurrence rates than older women, especially after breast-conserving therapy). Although the basics of chemotherapy are the same for patients of all ages, younger women have some special considerations. It is important to consider options for fertility preservation before starting systemic treatment. Patients should have access to genetic testing as their results may affect the choice of therapy. Younger women and their families should receive adequate psychological support and counselling.

  7. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  8. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli, F.

    1986-01-01

    This book results from a meeting of the ESO (European School of Oncology) Task Force on endocrine aspects of breast cancer. The contributions stem from some of the most outstanding researchers in Europe and highlight mainly methodological issues and new avenues for future research. The chapters on basic research deal primarily with experimental strategies for studying the relationship between steroid hormones, growth factors, and oncongenes. The clinically oriented chapters treat the methodology of clinical trials. Provocative questions are raised, such as: What are the pitfalls in endocrine trials. What does statistical proof mean. How can we consider a quality of life endpoint in the adjuvant setting. Two special reports deal with the controversial issues of chemoprevention in high-risk normal women and the optimization of the hormonal contribution to the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Topics considered included oncogenic transformations, radiotherapy, steroid hormones, cell proliferation, tamoxifen, and preventive medicine.

  9. Jewish religion and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Egan, K M; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Trentham-Dietz, A; Baron, J A; Trichopoulos, D; Stampfer, M J; Willett, W C

    1996-06-15

    The excess risk of breast cancer among Jewish women has been attributed to the effects of difference in lifestyle and reproductive patterns, but there is now evidence that Jewish women may be more likely than other women to inherit mutations in breast-cancer genes. We investigated whether any excessive risk among Jewish women is confined to those with a family history of breast cancer. We assessed the effect of Jewish religion on breast cancer in a large population-based case-control study (6611 women with breast cancer and 9026 controls) in USA. Participants were given telephone interviews and asked about known and suspected risk factors for breast cancer. Overall, Jewish women had only a slightly raised relative risk of breast cancer (1.10 [95% CI 0.84-1.44]; p=0.49). However, the relative risk was much higher for Jewish women with a first-degree relative who had breast cancer (3.78 [1.74-8.16]; p<0.001). The effect of family history was greater in Jewish women than in women of other religions (p interaction = 0.05). These results are consistent with data suggesting that certain groups of Jewish women have a higher than expected rate of mutation in the breast-cancer gene BRCA1.

  10. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  11. [Male Breast Cancer: What is Different?].

    PubMed

    Niederberger, Philipp; Bucher, Susanne; Aebi, Stefan

    2016-02-03

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease. Symptoms and signs resemble breast cancer in women: A palpable mass, enlarged lymph nodes or skin changes (ulceration, secretion, peau d'orange) mandate mammography, ultrasound to assess the regional lymph nodes. The definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy. Men with breast cancer are treated along the same principles as women: resection followed by systemic and radiation therapy. Tamoxifen, not aromatase inhibitors, is the adjuvant therapy of choice for estrogen receptor positive tumors. Therapy of men with metastatic breast cancer follows the same principles as therapy of women.

  12. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  13. California Cancer Registry Enhancement for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    programs to correlate screening status with subsequent diagnostic status. In collaboration with the California Breast and Cervical Cancer Control...screened for breast and cervical cancer with a CCR file of all female cancer cases diagnosed between 1988 and 1997 that were available to the CCR as of...BC, April 22, 1998. 5. Schulman J, Richardson L, Sever L, Wolters C. Follow-Up and Treatment Issues in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early

  14. Insulin and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    responses that are related to growth, including synthesis of DNA, RNA, and cellular proteins (11). There is epidemiological evidence of a close association...Markers of Insulin resistance and sex steroid activity in relation to breast cancer: a prospective analysis of abdominal adiposity, sebum production...highly regulated by . growth hormone (GH) (10). IGF-I stimulates multiple cellular responses that are related to growth, including synthesis of DNA, RNA

  15. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    common to all samples. Figure 2. Intrachromosomal Interactions of IGFBP3 A) Spider plot showing the significant long-range interactions of...investigate the molecular basis of disrupted long-range interactions among breast cancer gene loci. (Months 12-24) We have no data to report from this Task...which is scheduled to be undertaken this year. Task 3: Use the high-resolution molecular assay Associated Chromatin Trap (ACT) to

  16. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy . Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than...when these agents are given as first line therapies , e.g., ~40% of tumors show cross resistance to TAM or an aromatase inhibitor on crossover. Only...effective treatment for hormone receptor positive invasive breast cancer. Such therapy includes antiestrogens (tamoxifen, fulvestrant ) and aromatase

  17. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  18. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A. Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-01-01

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of adolescent total red meat was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintiles, RR, 1.42; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend=0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent poultry intake was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.59-0.96; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 16% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 24% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). Higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  19. [Breast cancer in Mexican women under 40].

    PubMed

    Robles-Castillo, Javier; Ruvalcaba-Limón, Eva; Maffuz, Antonio; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death from malignancy in women. The incidence increases with age, but the relationship between age and survival of breast cancer patients is not well defined. It is observed that young women with breast cancer have patterns more aggressive biological. To determine the frequency, sociodemographic, clinical and histopathological features of breast cancer in women under 40 years attending a specialist breast unit in Mexico City. Transversal, descriptive and retrospective study of patients under 40 years of age with breast cancer treated between 2005 and 2010. 1430 cases were diagnosed with breast cancer five years with a mean age of 53.64 +/- 11.87 years (range 23 to 93 years), 142 cases were women under 40 years of age (10%). The auto-detection of a breast lump was the most frequent clinical manifestation (50%). The prevalence of clinical stage III in this age group suggests the difficulty of diagnosis, the high breast density, which is one factor limiting studies of screening with mammography, it diminishes their effectiveness in early detection of breast cancer.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Aguilar, VM; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adanm; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Tovar-Rodriguez, JM

    2013-01-01

    Breast Cancer is a heterogeneous disease, progressive, currently, are classified according to in pattern of gene expression luminal A, luminal B, basal and HER-2neu + and Triple-negative, 75% to 80% have receptors positive hormonal and 15% to 20% are positive for hER-2neu and 10% to 20% are triple negative, with hormone receptor negative and HER2-neu and their diagnostic is made by exclusion, the Metabolic Syndrome is related to a higher incidence of these cancers where the insulin-leptin axis-adiponectin are implicated in carcinogenesis. PMID:25083463

  1. Intractable pain with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C. P.; Evans, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    This study examines retrospectively the cause, clinical features, natural history and results of treatment of intractable pain associated with breast cancer in 210 patients. The three chief types of pain were that due to skeletal metastases or brachial plexus neuropathy and pain of psychogenic origin. Onset at the time of cancer diagnosis characterized the psychogenic pain, whereas pain from metastases first occurred after a median latency of 3.7 years. Treatment was custom-tailored to the specific patient and pain problem, with several factors taken into account. The onset of intractable pain due to metastatic disease indicated a short survival (median, 9 months). PMID:6277445

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  3. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Breast cancer awareness among Turkish nursing students.

    PubMed

    Celik, Sevim; Tasdemir, Nurten; Sancak, Hulya; Demirel, Merve; Akman, Ozlem; Kara, Merve

    2014-01-01

    This study conducted to determine breast cancer awareness and influencing factors among nursing students in the West Black Sea Region in Turkey. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April-May, 2014. The sample was 270 female nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). The students' mean age was 21.6±2.09 and 81.1% had knowledge about breast cancer from their academic education. It is found that 63.7% of the students performed Breast Self-Examination (BSE) and 11.1% had a family member diagnosed with breast cancer. The CHBMS mean score of the students was 117.7±14.5. Breast cancer awareness of nursing students is on a good level and was affected by family history of breast cancer and health beliefs.

  6. Coping with breast cancer: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Kelley, Jane H; El Saghir, Nagi; Nassar, Nada

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. In Lebanon, a country of 4 million people, breast cancer is also the most prevalent type of cancer among Lebanese women. The purpose of this study was to gain a more in-depth understanding of the coping strategies espoused by Lebanese women with breast cancer. The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 10 female participants diagnosed as having breast cancer were interviewed. Data were analyzed following a hermeneutical process as described by Diekelmann and Ironside (Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 1998:50-68). Seven main themes and 1 constitutive pattern emerged from the study describing the Lebanese women's coping strategies with breast cancer. The negative stigma of cancer in the Lebanese culture, the role of women in the Lebanese families, and the embedded role of religion in Lebanese society are bases of the differences in the coping strategies of Lebanese women with breast cancer as compared to women with breast cancer from other cultures. These findings cannot be directly generalized, but they could act as a basis for further research on which to base a development of a framework for an approach to care that promotes coping processes in Lebanese women living with breast cancer. Nursing and medical staff need to have a better understanding of the individual coping strategies of each woman and its impact on the woman's well being; the creation of informal support group is indispensable in helping these women cope with their conditions.

  7. MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Alexia L; Kugel, Jennifer L; Rossman, Phillip J; Manduca, Armando; Hartmann, Lynn C; Ehman, Richard L

    2002-06-01

    Motivated by the long-recognized value of palpation in detecting breast cancer, we tested the feasibility of a technique for quantitatively evaluating the mechanical properties of breast tissues on the basis of direct MR imaging visualization of acoustic waves. The prototypic elasticity imaging technique consists of a device for generating acoustic shear waves in tissue, an MR imaging-based method for imaging the propagation of these waves, and an algorithm for processing the wave images to generate quantitative images depicting tissue stiffness. After tests with tissue-simulating phantom materials and breast cancer specimens, we used the prototypic breast MR elastography technique to image six healthy women and six patients with known breast cancer. Acoustic shear waves were clearly visualized in phantoms, breast cancer specimens, healthy volunteers, and patients with breast cancer. The elastograms of the tumor specimens showed focal areas of high shear stiffness. MR elastograms of healthy volunteers revealed moderately heterogeneous mechanical properties, with the shear stiffness of fibroglandular tissue measuring slightly higher than that of adipose tissue. The elastograms of patients with breast cancer showed focal areas of high shear stiffness corresponding to the locations of the known tumors. The mean shear stiffness of breast carcinoma was 418% higher than the mean value of surrounding breast tissues. The results confirm the hypothesis that the prototypic breast MR elastographic technique can quantitatively depict the elastic properties of breast tissues in vivo and reveal high shear elasticity in known breast tumors. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential applications of MR elastography, such as detecting breast carcinoma and characterizing suspicious breast lesions.

  8. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  9. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    PubMed Central

    Chicheł, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT) and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy. PMID:26327829

  10. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-13

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  11. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, I H; Zurmi, I B

    2012-01-01

    This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. Tamoxifen is used in hormonal treatment of breast cancer for up to five years, depending on the presentation. However, there have been recent developments in hormonal therapy of breast cancer in the last ten years, with the introduction of many different alternative therapies for this condition. A critical review of published articles in Pubmed/Medline, Athens, AJOL, NHS Evidence, Science Direct and Google, relating to hormonal treatment of breast cancer, was undertaken, in order to evaluate the mechanisms of estrogen receptor-ligand interactions, their involvement in the etio-pathogenesis of breast cancer, resistance of breast cancer cells to anti-hormonal agents, as well as ways of treating breast cancer using anti-hormone drugs like tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and suggest other novel alternative hormonal therapies that can be tried, which may overtake tamoxifen in the future. We also seek to emphasize that hormonal therapy has a definite place in the treatment of breast cancer along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as the disease is often considered to be multi-systemic even from the beginning.

  12. The cancer genetics and pathology of male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Deb, Siddhartha; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ottini, Laura; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and poorly understood disease. Recent molecular studies have shown important differences from female breast cancer which are likely to influence treatment strategies from the current female-based management towards a more tailored approach. Significantly more MBCs than female breast cancers arise with an underlying germline cancer predisposition, and display a vastly different penetrance compared with females. Furthermore, the genophenotypical association of basal-like cancer with BRCA1 present in female breast cancer is not observed in male breast cancer. Differences in somatic changes between male and female breast cancer have also been reported, with particular enrichment of PIK3CA mutations and a paucity of TP53 mutations. In general, chromosomal-based changes, in particular regions of gains, are seen more frequently in male than female breast cancer and methylation is seen less frequently. Clinically, several molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance have been described, including chromosomal complex high and methylation high groups, and subgroups with profiling signatures pertaining to epithelial mesenchymal transition and hormonal therapy insensitivity. As with female breast cancer, attention to male specific multicentre trials based on the individual characteristics are needed, together with establishment of reliable preclinical models to understand more clearly the pathogenesis of male breast cancer and improve the general poor outcome of this disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Brinton, L A; Potischman, N A; Swanson, C A; Schoenberg, J B; Coates, R J; Gammon, M D; Malone, K E; Stanford, J L; Daling, J R

    1995-05-01

    A population-based case-control study of breast cancer with a focus on premenopausal women under 45 years of age, conducted in three geographic regions of the United States, enabled the evaluation of risk in relation to varying breastfeeding practices. Among premenopausal parous women (1,211 cases, 1,120 random-digit-dialing controls), a history of breastfeeding for two or more weeks was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 0.87 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-1.0). This relationship was not altered substantially by removing from the reference group women who had problems with breastfeeding in the first two weeks, including those with insufficient milk production. Risk was not related substantially to number of children breastfed or length of breastfeeding, although a relatively low risk was observed among those breastfeeding for the longest duration examined (RR = 0.67, CI = 0.4-1.1 for an average period per child of 72 or more weeks). Women who began to breastfeed at a young age (< 22 years) experienced the greatest reduction in risk, but other timing parameters (e.g., interval since first or last breastfeeding) were not predictive of risk. Risks were not modified substantially by age or menopause status, although the number of menopausal subjects examined was limited. Use of medications to stop breast milk was unrelated to risk (RR = 1.04). The results of this study do not support the notion that breastfeeding substantially reduces breast cancer risk; however, this may reflect the fact that most of our study subjects breastfed only for limited periods of time (average breastfeeding per child of 30 weeks). Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship of breastfeeding to breast cancer risk, and to determine possible etiologic mechanisms underlying any observed associations.

  14. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  15. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most different looking and considered the most aggressive. Some breast cancers are sensitive to your body's ... which cancers will spread and which may need aggressive treatments. That way, women with relatively low-risk ...

  16. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  17. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting spirit and support. Many people also ... is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even ...

  18. Etiology of breast cancer I. Genetic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Damodar V.; Morgan, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    The subject of breast cancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on the genetic aspect of its etiology. A number of studies using various approaches gave the same results: the familial form occurs earlier and there is a higher risk in female members of the breast-cancer families. An association between breast cancer and cancer of certain other sites among women is reported. Cytogenetic studies of “cancer families” revealed increased frequency of aneuploidy in some members. However, the role of chromosome abnormalities in carcinogenesis is still not clear. PMID:4577599

  19. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  20. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique.

  1. Caveolin-1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bouras, Toula; Lisanti, Michael P; Pestell, Richard G

    2004-10-01

    Caveolin-1 is the principal structural protein of caveolae, sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich invaginations of the plasma membrane involved in vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. During caveolae-dependent signaling, caveolin-1 acts as a scaffold protein to sequester and organize multi-molecular signaling complexes involved in diverse cellular activities and, as such serves as a paradigm by which numerous disease processes may be affected by ablation or mutation of caveolin-1. The hypothesis that caveolin-1 conveys a tumor/transformation suppressor function in the mammary gland is derived from several independent lines of evidence accumulated by genetic, molecular and clinical approaches. The human caveolin-1 gene maps to a suspected tumor suppressor locus (D7S522/7q31.1) frequently deleted in human breast carcinomas. In addition, up to 16% of human breast carcinomas harbor a dominant-negative mutation, P132L, in the caveolin-1 gene. Caveolin-1 RNA and protein levels are also downregulated in human primary breast carcinomas and cell lines, with reintroduction of caveolin-1 in vitro sufficient to inhibit numerous tumorigenic properties, including anchorage independent growth and invasiveness. Most recently caveolin-1 knockout mice have provided breakthroughs in understanding the dynamic role of caveolin-1 in the pathogenesis of mammary epithelial cell hyperplasia, tumorigenesis and metastasis in a vivo setting. This review concentrates on recent advances implicating caveolin-1 in breast cancer pathogenesis, with emphasis on the signaling pathways regulated during these processes.

  2. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has come up with a technique to decrease exposure to harmful x-rays in mammographies or breast radiography. Usually, physicians make more than one exposure to arrive at an x-ray film of acceptable density. Now the same solar cells used to convert sunlight into electricity on space satellites can make a single exposure sufficient. When solar cell sensor is positioned directly beneath x-ray film, it can determine exactly when film has received sufficient radiation and has been exposed to optimum density. At that point associated electronic equipment sends signal to cut off x-ray source. Reduction of mammography to single exposures not only reduced x-ray hazard significantly, but doubled the number of patient examinations handled by one machine. The NASA laboratory used this control system at the Huntington Memorial Hospital with overwhelming success.

  3. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    strategies to populate mucosa with immune effectors in order to prevent breast cancer. Data obtained from our studies suggest that T cells constitute...the majority of immune cells in breast mucosa and this includes conventional CD4 T cells , CD8+ αβ T cells and significant fraction of unconventional...double positive (DP) CD4+CD8+ αβ T cells . We also observed that intramammary immunization induces antigen- specific immune responses in breast

  4. Breast Cancer Detection Using Optical Vascular Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    growing characteristics in order to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the current non- invasive imaging technique . As a model for breast cancer...cells, to help improve technique detection and validation of the imaging system and protocols. In this work we used two human breast cancer models...brain cancer, and DLD-1 colon cancer). Our imaging technique examines the vasculature of the tumor through its response to inhalation of carbon

  5. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N

    2014-09-28

    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  6. Flax and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Flower, Gillian; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G; Verma, Shailendra; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Fergusson, Dean; Seely, Dugald

    2014-05-01

    Flax is a food and dietary supplement commonly used for menopausal symptoms. Flax is known for its lignan, α-linolenic acid, and fiber content, components that may possess phytogestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hormone modulating effects, respectively. We conducted a systematic review of flax for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women living with breast cancer and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to January 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to flax and breast cancer. Of 1892 records, we included a total of 10 studies: 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 1 biomarker study, and 5 observational studies. Nonsignificant (NS) decreases in hot flash symptomatology were seen with flax ingestion (7.5 g/d). Flax (25 g/d) increased tumor apoptotic index (P< .05) and decreased HER2 expression (P< .05) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 index; NS) among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients when compared with placebo. Uncontrolled and biomarker studies suggest beneficial effects on hot flashes, cell proliferation, atypical cytomorphology, and mammographic density, as well as possible anti-angiogenic activity at doses of 25 g ground flax or 50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglycoside daily. Observational data suggests associations between flax and decreased risk of primary breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.97), better mental health (AOR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.05-2.94), and lower mortality (multivariate hazard ratio = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.95) among breast cancer patients. Current evidence suggests that flax may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Flax demonstrates antiproliferative effects in breast tissue of women at risk of breast cancer and may protect against primary breast cancer. Mortality risk may also be reduced among those living with breast

  7. Are diet quality scores after breast cancer diagnosis associated with improved breast cancer survival?

    PubMed Central

    Izano, Monika A.; Fung, Teresa T.; Chiuve, Stephanie S; Hu, Frank B.; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality. However, these eating patterns do not necessarily reflect overall diet quality. The association of breast cancer mortality with a priori defined dietary scores, which are based on recommended dietary guidelines and reflect diet quality, has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that diet quality indices based on recommended guidelines are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer and non-breast cancer mortality in breast cancer survivors. Methods We examined the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and the risk of breast cancer mortality and total mortality among women from the Nurses’ Health Study diagnosed with breast cancer. Results Adherence to DASH-style and AHEI-2010 diets were associated with reduced risk of non-breast cancer mortality (comparing the fifth quintile with the first quintile RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53–0.99, p-trend = 0.03 for DASH, and RR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42–0.77, p-trend <0.0001 for AHEI-2010). Diet scores were not significantly associated with breast cancer mortality. Conclusions Our findings suggest that adherence to a higher quality diet after breast cancer diagnosis does not considerably change the risk of breast cancer death and recurrence. However, healthy dietary choices after breast cancer were associated with reduced risk of non-breast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer. PMID:23909725

  8. Bilateral breast cancer associated with diffuse scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Pineda, V; Salvador, R; Soriano, J

    2003-06-01

    There is a strong evidence to suggest the association between breast cancer and diffuse scleroderma, though it is an infrequent occurrence. We describe the clinical and radiological findings in a patient who, over a period of 2 years, was diagnosed initially of diffuse scleroderma, next with right breast cancer and finally with left breast cancer. A review of the literature evidencing the relation between these two pathologies is provided. We suggest that special vigilance for tumoral pathology of the breast should be performed in patients with systemic scleroderma.

  9. Male breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, IS

    2009-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare, with the peak age of onset at 71 years. BRCA2 mutations are more frequent than BRCA1 with 20% of cases giving a family history. Risk factors for MBC are poorly understood and include working in high-ambient temperatures and exhaust fume exposure. MBC is associated with hyperoestrogenic states found in liver disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, gonadal dysfunction or obesity. Most information on treatment of MBC is derived from large randomized trials carried out in female patients. The small numbers of MBC seen in any unit annually has precluded significant trials being carried out. Diagnosis and treatment of MBC is similar to that of female patients, but men tend to be treated with mastectomy rather than breast-conserving surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment for advanced disease is endocrine, mostly tamoxifen. Prognosis of male patients is equal to that of stage-matched women, but men tend to fare worse because of delay in presentation, leading to a large proportion of patients presenting with stage III or IV disease. Increased input is needed for psychological support for male breast cancer patients. Specific therapeutic questions about MBC need international trials to obtain meaningful answers. PMID:22276005

  10. Alisertib With or Without Fulvestrant in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic, Endocrine-Resistant Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-24

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  11. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  12. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-03

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  14. The Third International Inflammatory Breast Cancer Conference.

    PubMed

    van Golen, Kenneth L; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2013-11-05

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive and deadly form of breast cancer. Disease-specific research and conferences have been organized since 2008 with the intent to bring together experts in various disciplines. This report focus on the Third International IBC Conference held in Philadelphia on December 2012.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  17. Interactions Between Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    insufficient patients to sufficient patients to determine whether vitamin D intervention normalized the gene profile. 10. To analyze the data Body ... Vitamin D and Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Feldman, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Stanford...Interactions Between Vitamin D and Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0637 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  18. Sorafenib for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Giuseppe; Andreis, Daniele; Bravaccini, Sara; Maltoni, Roberta; Cecconetto, Lorenzo; Schirone, Alessio; Farolfi, Alberto; Fedeli, Anna; Serra, Patrizia; Donati, Caterina; Amadori, Dino; Rocca, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer treatment includes many options depending on the tumor clinicopathological profile, which groups breast cancer into various subtypes. Bevacizumab is currently the only drug capable of targeting angiogenesis in breast cancer. Sorafenib has also been studied in combination with other agents. Areas covered: Pharmacological aspects of sorafenib, including results from preclinical studies on breast cancer cells; findings about clinical efficacy and safety in both single-arm and randomized clinical trials; ongoing trials. Expert opinion: Since sorafenib as a single agent has shown limited efficacy in breast cancer, its combination with other drugs is under investigation. Dose reduction is the main challenge when sorafenib is combined with chemotherapy or endocrine therapy. Although randomized phase-II trials on sorafenib plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone have shown potential benefits in progression-free survival, preliminary results from a phase-III study in combination with capecitabine are negative. The definitive results of this trial and results from other ongoing phase-II trials will determine further developments of sorafenib in breast cancer. Although these additional data could help determine the most appropriate dose, drug combination and patient settings, a confirmation of the preliminary negative results reported in the phase-III trial are likely to discourage further use of sorafenib in breast cancer, given its non-negligible toxicity, lack of predicting markers, and the number of more promising drugs for breast cancer.

  19. Novel Oncogenes in Breast Cancer Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    determinants that contribute to the development of breast cancer remain unknown We have developed and applied a novel retrovirus-based library ... screening strategy coupled to a biological assay for growth transformation, to identify novel oncogenes in breast cancer development The approach involves the

  20. Breast self examination and survival from breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Le Geyte, M.; Mant, D.; Vessey, M. P.; Jones, L.; Yudkin, P.

    1992-01-01

    The survival of 616 women aged 15-59 with breast cancer, 226 of whom had been taught and practised breast self examination (BSE) prior to diagnosis and 390 of whom had not, is reported. Six year survival rates were 73.1% in the BSE taught group and 66.1% in other women (P = 0.07). PMID:1419636

  1. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    eicosanoid balance, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid ...Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Eicosanoids, and Breast Cancer Risk”, is a dietary intervention aimed at evaluating the effects of total fat intake and omega -3 fatty acids on breast

  2. Depression in older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among U.S. women .The 5-year survival rate for this tumour is nowadays 85%, and the 61% of these women are still alive at 15 years. When depression symptoms are present as a consequence of breast cancer treatments, they may interfere negatively with patients’ quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breast cancer treatment on the quality of life and the impact of depression on the health-related life. Methods We enrolled 173 women aged 65-75 years with early stage breast cancer diagnosed over the last 10 years, initially recruited to participate in a study examining heath-related quality of life in the first 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were divided into four groups: 1) 46 breast cancer survivors (aged 65-70); 2) 62 women diagnosed with breast cancer (aged 65-69); 3) 32 women with recurrent breast cancer after 10 years (aged 66-75); 4) 30 women in good health status (aged 60-70). The Geriatric Depression Scale was used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Collection of data for the application of instruments, such as sociodemographic variables (age, educational level, social state) and clinical date (stage and time of the disease and treatment), was carried out by trained researcher assistants. Results Our results demonstrated the correlation between depression and previous cancer experiences. In fact, in patients with cancer experience, the grade of depression was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the patients with recurrent breast cancer were severely depressed compared to other groups. Conclusions A high percentage of participants were identified as having emotional and/or well being problems. Further investigations on the cause of depression problems cancer-related are needed. PMID:23173836

  3. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    their personal stories of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up care, and 2) lay health educators, non -affected AA individuals who play a more didactic...Circulation problems in your legs or feet i= Yes 0l No g. Asthma, emphysema , breathing problems 0 Yes 0l No h. Stomach ulcer, irritable bowel El Yes 0 No...D Yes E No n. Current or past cigarette smoker El Yes 0 No. e’Setion 2 ’.- 1. Since you completed breast cancer treatent, has your doctor .recommended

  4. Early breast cancer in the older woman

    PubMed Central

    VanderWalde, Ari; Hurria, Arti

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Breast cancer is a disease associated with aging; there is a rise in both breast cancer incidence and mortality with increasing age. With the aging of the US population, the number of older adults diagnosed with breast cancer and the number of breast cancer survivors is on the rise. The majority of cases of breast cancer are diagnosed with early stage (non-metastatic) potentially curable disease. This article will review the treatment of early stage breast cancer in older adults including a focus on the risks and benefits of surgery, radiation therapy, endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and trastuzumab. Although the majority of studies to date demonstrate that older adults experience similar benefits from most multimodality treatments for breast cancer as compared to younger adults, these studies have primarily been performed in healthy and fit older adults. There are limited data at the extremes of age or in those patients with significant comorbidity or functional decline. A primary question facing the doctor and patient is whether the breast cancer is likely to impact the patient’s life expectancy or quality of life. If so, then the risks and benefits of treatment must be considered with a final decision regarding therapy made in the context of the patient’s preferences. This article will review the toxicities (both short- and long-term) from common cancer therapies in early breast cancer. Finally, the decision as to type of secondary screening and prevention of future breast cancers must also be weighed against the life expectancy of the older adult. PMID:22326036

  5. Expressive writing in early breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Craft, Melissa A; Davis, Gail C; Paulson, René M

    2013-02-01

    This article is the report of a study aimed at determining whether or not expressive writing improves the quality-of-life of early breast cancer survivors. An additional aim is the investigation of whether or not the type of writing prompt makes a difference in results. The risk of distress can extend well beyond the time of a breast cancer diagnosis. Emotional expression may assist in dealing with this. Randomized controlled study. Participants (n = 120) were randomized into one of four groups: a control group (no writing) or one of three expressive writing groups: breast cancer trauma, any self-selected trauma and facts related to breast cancer. Participants wrote 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Their quality-of-life was measured, using the 'Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer Version', at baseline and at 1 month and 6 months after writing. Paired t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression were used to analyse the data of the 97 participants who completed the journaling assignment and at least the first assessment, collected in 2006. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Expressive writing about one's breast cancer, breast cancer trauma and facts related to breast cancer, significantly improved the quality-of-life outcome. Expressive writing, focusing the instructions on writing about one's living and dealing with a diagnosis of breast cancer, is recommended for early breast cancer survivors as a feasible and easily implemented treatment approach to improve quality-of-life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The Changing World of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Christiane K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  7. The potential role of breast ductoscopy in breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Sarakbi, W Al; Escobar, Pedro F; Mokbel, Kefah

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy among women in the Western world. Mammography, which is currently the main screening modality for early detection, has a low positive predictive value of only 25%, especially in young women with very dense breasts. Therefore, new screening approaches are needed for the early detection of breast cancer in all age groups. Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualization and biopsy of the mammary ductal epithelium where most cancers originate. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting. At present, MD is used as a diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge and to guide duct excision surgery. This article focuses on the potential of this technique in breast cancer screening and highlights its limitations in this context.

  8. Use of a panel of novel genes for differentiating breast cancer from non-breast tissues.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Neil; O'Donovan, Norma; Foley, Deirdre; Hill, Arnold D K; McDermott, Enda; O'Higgins, Niall; Duffy, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Existing serum markers for breast cancer such as CA 15-3, BR 27.29 and CEA lack sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of new putative breast-specific markers for differentiating breast cancer from non-breast tissues. Expression of mammaglobin A (MGA), B726P, small breast epithelial mucin (SBEM) and MUC1 was measured by RT-PCR. MGA mRNA was detected in 86/162 (60%) breast cancers but in only 1/32 (3%) non-breast tissues; B726P was detected in 44/108 (41%) breast cancers but in none of 20 non-breast tissues, while SBEM was present in 52/103 (51%) breast cancers but in only 1/26 non-breast cancer tissues. In contrast to these novel markers, the established breast cancer marker MUC1 was detected in 72/99 (73%) breast cancers and in 22/32 (59%) of non-breast tissues. Combining MGA with B726P separated breast cancer from non-breast tissue with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 95% while combining MGA with SBEM differentiated breast cancer from non-breast tissues with a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 89%. Genes such as MGA, B726P and SBEM that are expressed relatively exclusively in breast tissue are potential new markers for breast cancer.

  9. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  10. Effects of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness among Nursing Students in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kulakci, Hulya; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Yildirim, Nuriye; Ozturk, Ozlem; Topan, Aysel Kose; Tasdemir, Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and leading cause of death worldwide, including in Turkey. High perceptions of cancer fatalism are associated with lower rates of participation in screening for breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among nursing students in Turkey. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at three universities in the Western Black Sea region. The sample was composed of 838 nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory (PFI) and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Breast cancer fatalism perception of the students was at a low level. It was determined that students' seriousness perception was moderate, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions were high, and BSE barriers and sensitivity perceptions were low. In addition, it was determined that students awareness of breast cancer was affected by breast cancer fatalism, class level, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having breast examination by a healthcare professional within the last year and their health beliefs. In promoting breast cancer early diagnosis behaviour, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the students and to arrange training programs for this purpose.

  11. Claudin 1 in Breast Cancer: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bowen; Moodie, Amanda; Blanchard, Anne A. A.; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Claudin 1 is a small transmembrane protein responsible for maintaining the barrier function that exists between epithelial cells. A tight junction protein that regulates the paracellular transport of small ions across adjacent cells, claudin 1 maintains cellular polarity and plays a major role in cell-cell communication and epithelial cell homeostasis. Long considered to be a putative tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, new studies suggest a role much more complex. While most invasive breast cancers exhibit a down regulation or absence of claudin 1, some aggressive subtypes that exhibit high claudin 1 levels have now been described. Furthermore, a causal role for claudin 1 in breast cancer progression has recently been demonstrated in some breast cancer cell lines. In this review we highlight new insights into the role of claudin 1 in breast cancer, including its involvement in collective migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:26633531

  12. Diet and breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mourouti, Niki; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Papavagelis, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer occurs as a result between genes-diet interactions. Concerning diet, only alcohol is widely recognized for being most consistently associated with breast cancer risk. The purpose of this review is to report through a systematic way the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and diet, through original-research studies published in English language during the last decade, assessing the consumption of specific foodstuffs/food-nutrients in relation to the disease. The available literature suggests that soy food intake seems to be inversely associated with the disease, while no association seems to be reported for dietary carbohydrates and dietary fiber intake. The consumption of dietary fat, is probably suggestive of an increase in breast cancer risk, while studies evaluating the role of fruit/vegetable, meat as well as dietary patterns and breast cancer risk, provide inconsistent results. Diet seems to be modestly associated with the disease, highlighting the need for more studies to be conducted.

  13. Breast cancer detection using time reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.

  14. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-11

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  15. Breast cancer after chest radiation therapy for childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Wolden, Suzanne L; Bernstein, Jonine L; Malhotra, Jyoti; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; Mubdi, Nidha Z; Leisenring, Wendy M; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Smith, Susan A; Henderson, Tara O; Boice, John D; Hudson, Melissa M; Diller, Lisa R; Bhatia, Smita; Kenney, Lisa B; Neglia, Joseph P; Begg, Colin B; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2014-07-20

    The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancer-specific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    alternative approach to primary prevention of breast cancer is to train the mammary gland mucosal immune system to recognize and destroy...immune system of the mammary gland can be modified to detect and eliminate potentially malignant cancer precursor cells. A thorough understanding of the...immunity in breast mucosa will enable the design of appropriate vaccination strategies aimed at generating persistent mammary gland homing anti

  17. Mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk driven by breast anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Oustimov, Andrew; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    Image-derived features of breast parenchymal texture patterns have emerged as promising risk factors for breast cancer, paving the way towards personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation and screening. The main steps to extract texture features of the breast parenchyma are the selection of regions of interest (ROIs) where texture analysis is performed, the texture feature calculation and the texture feature summarization in case of multiple ROIs. In this study, we incorporate breast anatomy in these three key steps by (a) introducing breast anatomical sampling for the definition of ROIs, (b) texture feature calculation aligned with the structure of the breast and (c) weighted texture feature summarization considering the spatial position and the underlying tissue composition of each ROI. We systematically optimize this novel framework for parenchymal tissue characterization in a case-control study with digital mammograms from 424 women. We also compare the proposed approach with a conventional methodology, not considering breast anatomy, recently shown to enhance the case-control discriminatory capacity of parenchymal texture analysis. The case-control classification performance is assessed using elastic-net regression with 5-fold cross validation, where the evaluation measure is the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. Upon optimization, the proposed breast-anatomy-driven approach demonstrated a promising case-control classification performance (AUC=0.87). In the same dataset, the performance of conventional texture characterization was found to be significantly lower (AUC=0.80, DeLong's test p-value<0.05). Our results suggest that breast anatomy may further leverage the associations of parenchymal texture features with breast cancer, and may therefore be a valuable addition in pipelines aiming to elucidate quantitative mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk.

  18. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk.

  19. Electromagnetic fields and male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tynes, T

    1993-01-01

    The aetiology of male breast cancer is still considered to be rather unclear. Epidemiological studies have recently shown an excess risk of male breast cancer in "electrical workers" with potential exposure to electromagnetic (EM) fields. Interest on the possible association between pineal function and breast cancer has come into focus. The pineal hormone melatonin has been shown to reduce the incidence of experimentally-induced breast cancer in rats, the hormone is oncostatic and cytotoxic to breast, ovarian, and bladder cancer cell lines in vitro. Treatment of cancer patients with orally administered melatonin has been tried. Pineal function in humans is suppressed by light-at-night (LAN). Animal studies have shown that exposure to 60-Hz electric fields may also suppress the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin production in adult rats. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in industrialised world. No good explanation has so far been provided for the increased incidence of this site during the last decades, although changes in fertility factors have had some effect. If new epidemiological and experimental data give support to the hypothesis that exposure to LAN and EM fields may increase breast cancer risk, this may have regulatory and political consequences for future use of electric power.

  20. The genetics of breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, D.; Easton, D. F.

    1995-01-01

    A number of genes are known to be involved in inherited susceptibility to breast and/or ovarian cancer. In the context of high-risk families the most important genes are BRCA1 on chromosome 17q, which is associated with a high penetrance of both breast and ovarian cancer, and BRCA2 on chromosome 13q, which causes a high risk of breast cancer but a lower risk of ovarian cancer. Other high-risk cancer genes that confer increased risks of breast or ovarian cancer in addition to other cancers include the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer genes and the TP53 gene, which causes breast cancer as part of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The predisposing mutations in these genes are relatively rare in the population. More common genes which are associated with an increased, but lower, risk of breast cancer are the ataxiatelangiectasia gene and the HRAS1 gene. This paper reviews recent progress in mapping and cloning of these susceptibility genes, and provides estimates of the cancer risks associated with each gene and the frequency of predisposing mutations. PMID:7547224