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Sample records for nonparasitized creamy-bellied thrush

  1. Thrush

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Thrush is a yeast infection of the tongue and lining of the ... do not fit well. Candida can also cause yeast infections in the vagina. Thrush in newborns is ...

  2. Oral Thrush

    MedlinePlus

    ... more susceptible to oral thrush infection: HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes AIDS — damages or destroys cells of your immune system, making you more susceptible to opportunistic infections that your body would normally resist. Repeated bouts of oral thrush, ...

  3. Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra; Donovan, Therese M.

    2012-01-01

    With spotted breast and reddish tail, the Hermit Thrush lives up to its name. Although celebrated for its ethereal song, it is mostly a quiet and unobtrusive bird that spends much of its time in the lower branches of the undergrowth or on the forest floor, often seen flicking its wings while perched and quickly raising and slowly lowering its tail. A highly variable species in color and size, the Hermit Thrush's morphological characteristics and plumage have been well studied, with 12-13 subspecies now recognized (see Systematics).This thrush is one of the most widely distributed forest-nesting migratory birds in North America and the only forest thrush whose population has increased or remained stable over the past 20 years. Its extensive breeding range includes the northern hardwood forest, as well as most of the boreal and mountainous coniferous forest areas north of Mexico, with relatively recent expansions into New England and the southern Appalachians. In migration, the species moves to lower elevations and southward, spreading out to winter over much of the southern United States, through Mexico to Guatemala and east to Bermuda. It is the only species of Catharus that winters in North America, switching from a breeding diet of mainly arthropods to a wintering diet heavily supplemented with fruits.Much has been learned about this widely distributed species since the original Birds of North America account of 1996. New information pertaining to its song, migratory behavior, winter territoriality, survival, and diet has been added, as well as many new insights into the potential effects of forest management and other human disturbances. Still lacking are detailed nesting studies, studies of juvenile dispersal, of daily activities and time budgets, and of migratory routes.

  4. Orwell's Thrush Is a Hardy Bird.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, W. Russell

    1984-01-01

    Explores the linkages between Thomas Hardy's poem "The Darkling Thrush" and the thrush scene in George Orwell's novel "1984." Suggests a variety of enrichment projects for students that deal with aspects of these two works. (RBW)

  5. Orwell's Thrush Is a Hardy Bird.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, W. Russell

    1984-01-01

    Explores the linkages between Thomas Hardy's poem "The Darkling Thrush" and the thrush scene in George Orwell's novel "1984." Suggests a variety of enrichment projects for students that deal with aspects of these two works. (RBW)

  6. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is normally found on and in the body ... tract and genital area. Most of the time, Candida does not cause any symptoms. When these organisms ...

  7. Persistent and refractory thrush with unknown cause.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Liu, Dongjuan; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Lanyan; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Qianming; Zeng, Xin; Jin, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Oral thrush is considered as the opportunistic infection, which is caused by fungus Candida albicans. Various kinds of immunodeficiency diseases, such as HIV infection, immunosuppressive therapy, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and invasive surgical procedures such as solid organ or bone marrow transplantation, lead to increased susceptibility to fungal infections, but persistent and refractory thrush, with typical clinical signs of oral fungal infection and without any other sign of immunodeficiencies, has not been reported so far. We describe a case of persistent and refractory thrush with Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) as the unusual cause.

  8. Clinicopathological evaluation of non-parasitic dermatoses in canines.

    PubMed

    Sindha, M J; Trangadia, B J; Vihol, P D; Parmar, R S; Patel, B V

    2015-11-01

    The present study has been carried out to detect non-parasitic dermatoses in canines brought at the Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat. The current investigation was carried out on skin scrapping, skin biopsy specimens, blood, and serum samples of 210 freshly registered cases of dogs with dermatological afflictions. Dogs found healthy on clinical examination were used as control animals (n=15). The incidence of non-parasitic dermatoses has been recorded as per age, breed, and sex of dogs. For bacterial isolation, the pus/exudates samples were collected from 40 cases of pyoderma and streaked onto brain-heart infusion agar while 13 skin scrapping samples were inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol for isolation of fungi. The organisms were identified on the basis of gross and microscopic observation of cultural growth on media. The blood and sera samples were also collected to note alteration in hematology and biochemical parameters, respectively. Tissue samples from lesions were collected and subsequently preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. Out of 210 cases of dermatoses, 60 cases were of non-parasitic dermatoses, i.e., 28.57%. Of these, bacterial skin infections (pyoderma) were found to be the predominant at 80.00%, followed by other non-parasitic dermatological disorders, i.e., 11.67% and fungal skin infection, i.e., 8.33%. The dogs belonging to age group 1-3 years showed greater susceptibility to non-parasitic dermatological conditions. Breed wise incidence of pyoderma was found more in the Pomeranian breed (20.83%), whereas fungal skin affections were found to be higher in mongrel breed (60.00% and 42.86%, respectively). Male dogs showed greater involvement in bacterial, fungal, and other non-parasitic dermatoses. Bacteriological culture examination of 40 pus swabs resulted in the growth of 39 bacterial isolates. Mycological culture of skin scrapings from 13 suspected cases of fungal dermatoses resulted in the

  9. Clinicopathological evaluation of non-parasitic dermatoses in canines

    PubMed Central

    Sindha, M. J.; Trangadia, B. J.; Vihol, P. D.; Parmar, R. S.; Patel, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been carried out to detect non-parasitic dermatoses in canines brought at the Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat. Materials and Methods: The current investigation was carried out on skin scrapping, skin biopsy specimens, blood, and serum samples of 210 freshly registered cases of dogs with dermatological afflictions. Dogs found healthy on clinical examination were used as control animals (n=15). The incidence of non-parasitic dermatoses has been recorded as per age, breed, and sex of dogs. For bacterial isolation, the pus/exudates samples were collected from 40 cases of pyoderma and streaked onto brain-heart infusion agar while 13 skin scrapping samples were inoculated on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar with chloramphenicol for isolation of fungi. The organisms were identified on the basis of gross and microscopic observation of cultural growth on media. The blood and sera samples were also collected to note alteration in hematology and biochemical parameters, respectively. Tissue samples from lesions were collected and subsequently preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. Results: Out of 210 cases of dermatoses, 60 cases were of non-parasitic dermatoses, i.e., 28.57%. Of these, bacterial skin infections (pyoderma) were found to be the predominant at 80.00%, followed by other non-parasitic dermatological disorders, i.e., 11.67% and fungal skin infection, i.e., 8.33%. The dogs belonging to age group 1-3 years showed greater susceptibility to non-parasitic dermatological conditions. Breed wise incidence of pyoderma was found more in the Pomeranian breed (20.83%), whereas fungal skin affections were found to be higher in mongrel breed (60.00% and 42.86%, respectively). Male dogs showed greater involvement in bacterial, fungal, and other non-parasitic dermatoses. Bacteriological culture examination of 40 pus swabs resulted in the growth of 39 bacterial isolates. Mycological culture of skin scrapings from 13 suspected cases

  10. Non-parasitic chyluria: an interesting case of uncertain interpretation.

    PubMed

    Tavolini, Ivan Matteo; Sacco, Emilio; Alemayehu, Hailè Selassiè; Bassi, Pierfrancesco

    2003-12-01

    Chyluria occurs as a result of communication between the lymphatics and the urinary system. It is a common problem in developing countries. Since its original description by Hippocrates, chyluria has been mentioned frequently in the literature and has remained puzzling in many reports. As a rare occurrence, chyluria may present many diagnostic and therapeutic problems. A man with an interesting history of non-parasitic chyluria and an unusual radiological finding is described herein. The etiology and various treatments of chyluria are discussed.

  11. Laparoscopic stapled excision of non-parasitic splenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Gregory; Gundara, Justin S; Samra, Jaswinder S; Hugh, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A laparoscopic spleen preserving surgical approach is preferred for the management of symptomatic non-parasitic splenic cysts. The aim of this study was to review our experience with managing this rare presentation. A retrospective review of all cases of splenic cysts was performed over a 10-year period (2001-2011). Demographic data, clinical history, investigations, operative details and the outcome of each case were reviewed with an emphasis on patients who underwent laparoscopic stapled cyst excision. Eleven cases were identified. Seven patients were managed surgically; six by laparoscopic stapled cyst excision and one by open excision of remnant splenic tissue. Laparoscopic management was successful in all six cases and radiological and clinical follow-up (median: 28 months) revealed no evidence of cyst recurrence in five of six cases. One patient developed an asymptomatic, non-progressing and small recurrent anterior cyst and she continues to be observed. Laparoscopic stapled splenic cyst excision can be performed safely and is particularly effective for large superficial non-parasitic cysts. This technique allows spleen preservation with a low cyst recurrence rate. However, it may not be suitable for deeper intraparenchymal splenic cysts. Further studies are required to refine the management of specific subtypes of non-parasitic splenic cysts. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Open and laparoscopic treatment of nonparasitic splenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Gianom, Duri; Wildisen, Alessandro; Hotz, Thomas; Goti, Federico; Decurtins, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Nonparasitic splenic cysts are rare. Therefore, there is no 'evidence-based' information regarding their optimal surgical management. In the last years the laparoscopic approach has gained increasing acceptance in splenic surgery. The aim of this study is to present our experience with the laparoscopic management of splenic cysts. The medical records of 7 patients with splenic cysts were reviewed retrospectively. One patient had an open partial splenic resection. Five patients, 3 of them with a posttraumatic and 2 with an epidermoid splenic cyst, underwent laparoscopic unroofing of the cyst. In 4 of these cases the postoperative course was uneventful, whereas in 1 case the patient developed a cyst relapse soon postoperatively. Later on this patient successfully underwent an open partial splenic resection. The 7th patient had an explorative laparoscopy. The cyst was located intrasplenically, entirely covered with unaffected splenic parenchyma, and reached the splenic hilus. Therefore, a conversion to open partial splenectomy was performed. Open partial splenectomy and laparoscopic cyst wall unroofing are both effective tools in the management of splenic nonparasitic cysts. Surgeons must master both techniques as nowadays spleen-preserving techniques should be attempted in every case of splenic nonparasitic cyst. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Two cases of spontaneous remission of non-parasitic chyluria.

    PubMed

    Mendu, Damodara Rao; Sternlicht, Hillel; Ramanathan, Lakshmi V; Pessin, Melissa S; Fleisher, Martin; Dalbagni, Guido; Jaimes, Edgar A; Kaltsas, Anna; Glezerman, Ilya G

    2017-10-01

    Chyluria is a medical condition with presence of chyle in urine. The disease is most prevalent in South East Asian countries mostly caused by parasitic (Wuchereria bancrofti) infections. Our objective was to investigate the spontaneous remission of non-parasitic chyluria. The spontaneous remission of non-parasitic chyluria cases were worked up with diagnostic investigations, clinical assessment and studied in detail with respect to their natural evolution. We present two patients who were evaluated in the nephrology clinic with symptoms of milky urine and painless hematuria. Midnight blood smear was negative for filarial parasites. Urine culture was without mycobacteria. Urine cytology and IgG western blot for cysticercus were negative. Imaging for a lymphatic leak by lymphoscintigraphy was unrevealing. Chyluria resolved spontaneously in both patients. In our cases, radiologic visualization via lymphoscintigraphy was unrevealing. The patients were managed conservatively and fortunately underwent spontaneous remission marked by the disappearance of chyluria within several months of her initial diagnosis. In our opinion this spontaneous remission could be due to unrevealed lymphatico-renal fistula collapse or sclerosis of lymphatics caused by contrast media. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The New Zealand Thrush: an extinct oriole.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ulf S; Pasquet, Eric; Irestedt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The New Zealand Thrush, or Piopio, is an extinct passerine that was endemic to New Zealand. It has often been placed in its own family (Turnagridae), unresolved relative to other passerines, but affinities with thrushes, Australaian magpies, manucodes, whistlers, birds-of-paradise and bowerbirds has been suggested based on morphological data. An affinity with the bowerbirds was also indicated in an early molecular study, but low statistical support make this association uncertain. In this study we use sequence data from three nuclear introns to examine the phylogenetic relationships of the piopios. All three genes independently indicate an oriole (Oriolidae) affinity of the piopios, and the monophyly of the typical orioles (Oriolus), figbirds (Sphecotheres), and the piopios is strongly supported in the Bayesian analysis of the concatenated data set (posterior probability = 1.0). The exact placement of the piopios within Oriolidae is, however, more uncertain but in the combined analysis and in two of the gene trees the piopios are placed basal to the typical orioles while the third gene suggest a sister relationship with the figbirds. This is the first time an oriole affinity has been proposed for the piopios. Divergence time estimates for the orioles suggest that the clade originated ca 20 million years ago, and based on these estimates it is evident that the piopios must have arrived on New Zealand by dispersal across the Tasman Sea and not as a result of vicariance when New Zealand separated from Gondwana in the late Cretaceous.

  15. The New Zealand Thrush: An Extinct Oriole

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ulf S.; Pasquet, Eric; Irestedt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The New Zealand Thrush, or Piopio, is an extinct passerine that was endemic to New Zealand. It has often been placed in its own family (Turnagridae), unresolved relative to other passerines, but affinities with thrushes, Australaian magpies, manucodes, whistlers, birds-of-paradise and bowerbirds has been suggested based on morphological data. An affinity with the bowerbirds was also indicated in an early molecular study, but low statistical support make this association uncertain. In this study we use sequence data from three nuclear introns to examine the phylogenetic relationships of the piopios. All three genes independently indicate an oriole (Oriolidae) affinity of the piopios, and the monophyly of the typical orioles (Oriolus), figbirds (Sphecotheres), and the piopios is strongly supported in the Bayesian analysis of the concatenated data set (posterior probability = 1.0). The exact placement of the piopios within Oriolidae is, however, more uncertain but in the combined analysis and in two of the gene trees the piopios are placed basal to the typical orioles while the third gene suggest a sister relationship with the figbirds. This is the first time an oriole affinity has been proposed for the piopios. Divergence time estimates for the orioles suggest that the clade originated ca 20 million years ago, and based on these estimates it is evident that the piopios must have arrived on New Zealand by dispersal across the Tasman Sea and not as a result of vicariance when New Zealand separated from Gondwana in the late Cretaceous. PMID:21931679

  16. Effects of radio transmitters on migrating wood thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Lang, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    We quantified the effects of radio transmitters on Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using 4 yr of banding and telemetry data from Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia. Flight performance models suggest that the 1.6-g transmitter shortens the migratory range of Wood Thrushes by only 60 km, and the estimated migratory range is adequate to accomplish migration even with limited fat stores. We used two strengths of line, 5- and 9-kg test-strength braided Dacron, to attach the transmitters using the thigh-harness method. We recaptured 13 returning radio-marked Wood Thrushes, seven of which were still marked. Six of the seven birds marked with the 5-kg test harnesses lost their transmitters within 1 yr while all six of the 9-kg test harnesses were still attached up to 21 mo later. Radio-marking did not reduce the return rates of adults and immatures, and the transmitters did not cause radio-marked birds to lose more mass than banded-only birds. Wood Thrushes can successfully carry a transmitter during migration with no detectable negative effects. We recommend continued use of the thigh-harness method, but we encourage the use of 5-kg cotton line.

  17. Experimental analysis and simulation modeling of forest management impacts on wood thrushes, Hylocichla mustelina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population

  18. [Robotic-assisted and laparoscopic hepatic resections for nonparasitic cysts of posterior liver segments].

    PubMed

    Berelavichus, S V; Kriger, A G; Starkov, Iu G; Shishin, K V; Gorin, D S; Poliakov, I S

    2013-01-01

    Results of 36 robotic-assisted and laparoscopic hepatic resections for nonparasitic cysts of posterior liver segments were demonstrated. Technical aspects of the procedure, advantages and drawbacks of each method were discussed. Important intra- and postoperative indexes were compared. The study allows to state, that the use of the da Vinci robotic surgical system has certain technical advantages over the standard laparoscopic technique in case of the posterior location of liver cysts.

  19. Hermit thrush breeding range expansion and habitat preferences in the southern Appalachian high-elevation forests

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Laughlin

    2010-01-01

    The hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) is a wide-ranging migratory songbird that is found throughout much of North America. In eastern North America, the hermit thrush spends the winter months in the southeastern states. During the summer breeding season, it migrates north and breeds across much of Canada, New England, and down the ridge of the...

  20. [Population dynamics of thrushes and seasonal resource partition].

    PubMed

    Burskiĭ, O V; Demidova, E Iu; Morkovin, A A

    2014-01-01

    We studied seasonal population dynamics in birds using four thrush species from the Yenisei middle taiga region as an example. Long-term data on bird route censuses, capture-mark-recapture, and nest observa- tions were incorporated in the analysis. Particularly, methodological problems that complicate a direct comparison between assessed numbers at different phases of the annual cycle are considered. The integrated analysis of the results allowed comparing changes in numbers, energy expenditure, age structure, migrating status, and density distribution of selected populations during the snowless period and relating them to seasonal changes in food resource abundance. Thrush population numbers within the breeding range, and their energy consumption in the Yenisei middle taiga proportionately reflect the seasonal change in abundance of food resources. The compliance between resource intake and carrying capacity of the environment is attained by: timing of arrival and departure regarding to the species' range of tolerance; change in numbers as a result of reproduction and mortality; change in numbers due to habitat changes and long-distance movements; increasing energetic expenditures during reproduction and molt; timing, intensity and replication of nesting attempts; timing of molt and proportion of molting individuals in a population; individual variations of the annual cycle. Reproductive growth of local bird populations is not fast enough to catch up with seasonal growth of ecosystems productivity. Superabundance of invertebrates at the peak of the season offers a temporal niche which, on the one hand, is suitable for species capable of diet switching, while, on the other hand, may be used by specialized consumers, namely tropical migrants for whom, at high resource level, a shortened breeding period suffices.

  1. Laparoscopic fenestration of non-parasitic liver cysts and health-related quality of life assessment.

    PubMed

    Kamphues, C; Rather, M; Engel, S; Schmidt, S C; Neuhaus, P; Seehofer, D

    2011-12-01

    Although laparoscopic fenestration has become an established treatment in symptomatic liver cyst patients in the recent years, the success of surgical treatment cannot only be evaluated by post-operative morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the safety of laparoscopic fenestration of non-parasitic liver cysts and to assess the impact of this therapy on patients' quality of life. A total of 43 patients who underwent laparoscopic fenestration of non-parasitic liver cysts at our center were included in this study. Post-operative course was assessed and patients' quality of life was evaluated before surgery and at present time using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ C-30). The results were that, post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 0%. After a median follow-up of 49 months (19-97 months) the recurrence rate was 11.1% for simple liver cysts (SLC) and 42.9% for polycystic liver disease (PCLD). Thirty-one out of 43 patients (72.1%) completed the EORTC C-30 questionnaire. There was highly significant post-operative improvement in global health status (p < 0.001) as well as in physical (p = 0.002), role (p = 0.004), emotional (p = 0.003) and social (p = 0.001) functioning. Furthermore, a significant reduction of symptoms could be shown for pain (p < 0.001), nausea and vomiting (p = 0.001), appetite loss (p = 0.006), insomnia (p = 0.04) and fatigue (p = 0.025). To conclude, laparoscopic fenestration of symptomatic non-parasitic liver cysts is a safe procedure with good long-term results and the patients' benefit of this intervention is excellent as shown by highly significant improvement in patients' quality of life.

  2. Intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic fenestration of nonparasitic huge liver cysts.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Hatano, Etsuro; Mitsunori, Yusuke; Tomiyama, Koji; Taura, Kojiro; Mizumoto, Masaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Bile duct injury is one of the known serious complications of laparoscopic fenestration for nonparasitic liver cysts. Herein, we report the case of a huge liver cyst for which we performed laparoscopic fenestration using intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography with indocyanine green. A 71-year-old woman with abdominal distention was referred to our hospital. CT demonstrated a 17 × 11.5-cm simple cyst replacing the right lobe of the liver, so laparoscopic fenestration was performed. Although the biliary duct could not be detected because of compression by the huge cyst, fluorescent cholangiography with indocyanine green through endoscopic naso-biliary drainage tube clearly delineated the intrahepatic bile duct in the remaining cystic wall. The patient had no complications at 3 months after surgery. Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green is a safe and effective procedure to avoid bile duct injury during laparoscopic fenestration, especially in patients with a huge liver cyst.

  3. Occurrence and nest survival of four thrush species on a managed central Appalachian forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dellinger, R.L.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina Gmelin) is a species of concern in the central Appalachians, and is sympatric there with three related species, the American robin (Turdus migratorius Linnaeus), hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus Pallas), and veery (Catharus fuscescens Stephens). Our objectives were to quantify use of mature forests and areas subjected to even-aged harvesting and partial harvesting by these four species by measuring their frequency of occurrence, nest survival, and nest site characteristics. We also compared microhabitat characteristics among the landcover types. During 2001-2003 we conducted point count surveys, monitored nests, and collected nest habitat data on a managed forest in West Virginia. Land cover was digitized into five categories: deciduous and mixed mature forest, deciduous and mixed partial harvest, and even-aged regeneration harvest. Chi-square goodness-of-fit analysis with Bonferroni 95% confidence intervals indicated that deciduous partial harvests were more likely to be inhabited by wood thrushes. The other three species were less likely to occur in deciduous partial harvests, and veery had lower nest survival in partial harvests than in mature forest. Contrary to many published descriptions that suggest thrushes will not nest in even-aged harvests, a small number of all species but hermit thrushes did nest in this cover type, often near a residual canopy tree. Hermit thrushes were less likely to inhabit mature deciduous forest, even-aged harvests, and harvested edges but chose nesting areas in mature mixed forest that was disturbed by road building and the seeding of landings and skid trails >10 years ago. Microhabitat characteristics of landcovers did not differ overall. Our results suggest a relationship with partial harvesting that is positive for wood thrush but negative for the other three species. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Huge epithelial nonparasitic splenic cyst: A case report and a review of treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, Bahman; Farhangi, Arezo; Firouzjahi, Alireza; Jahed, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Splenic cysts are rare in all age groups and there are a few reports in the world literature. Primary cysts occur most frequently in children and young adults, comprising around 25% of all nonparasitic splenic cysts. Various techniques are suggested for the treatment of splenic cysts. In this case report, a huge epithelial splenic cyst in a 17-year-old female is presented and different treatment methods of splenic cysts are evaluated. A 17-year-old female presented with progressive abdominal mass in left upper quadrant associated with abdominal pain and food intolerance of duration of several months. There was no history of trauma. On physical examination, there was a huge mass located in the upper left side of abdomen. Computerized tomography scan revealed that a large cystic lesion had occupied the spleen with dimensions of 32x21xI5.6 cm. After patient preparation laparotomy was performed and complete cyst excision was done with splenectomy, patient was discharged after 2 days. This is a report of a case of epithelial splenic cyst of the spleen in a 17-year old female. The management of splenic cysts continues to evolve and the optimum treatment of patients with nonparasitic splenic cysts is controversial, as a principle preservation technique of the spleen with minimally invasive methods such as laparoscopy is preferred to splenectomy with the exception of very large cysts and when splenic hilum is involved in cyst wall. However, significant cyst recurrences were encountered with these techniques. Recently open partial splenectomy has been proposed as a safe and effective method in the management of NPSCs it ensures complete cyst removal, lack of cyst recurrence, and preservation of the spleen functions.

  5. Observations on distribution, diet, and breeding of the Hawaiian thrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, C.; Scott, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Distribution, breeding habits, and diet of the Hawaiian Thrush were recorded over seven years on the island of Hawaii. The range has been much reduced, with the result that today the species occupies approximately 30% of its former range, no longer being found in the Kohala Mountains or in the Kona area....Data on food preferences indicate the species subsists chiefly on fruits of native trees, when in season, and various insects. Comparison of present feeding habits with observations of earlier workers indicates that the diet has changed. This probably has been a consequence of the loss of suitable habitat at lower elevations....One of the earliest and latest daily singers in Hawaii, the Omao has a repertoire of at least three songs and a number of calls. The species exhibits courtship feeding. Five nests averaged 6.4 m from the ground; nesting materials include small twigs, leaves, grasses mosses, and fern pieces. For the first time the species was found to nest either in cavities or on protected platforms. One or two eggs, each marked with large lavender splotches, compose the clutch. Nestlings have flesh-colored skin, black down, and a bright yellow gape pattern. Time from building of the nest to fledging of the young is about 30 days, and the overall breeding season of the species extends at least from February to October.

  6. Blackbirds and Song Thrushes Constitute a Key Reservoir of Borrelia garinii, the Causative Agent of Borreliosis in Central Europe▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Taragel'ová, Veronika; Koči, Juraj; Hanincová, Klára; Kurtenbach, Klaus; Derdáková, Markéta; Ogden, Nick H.; Literák, Ivan; Kocianová, Elena; Labuda, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were found to carry 95% of all spirochete-infected tick larvae among 40 bird species captured in Central Europe. More than 90% of the infections were typed as Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana. We conclude that thrushes are key players in the maintenance of these spirochete species in this region of Central Europe. PMID:18156328

  7. Blackbirds and song thrushes constitute a key reservoir of Borrelia garinii, the causative agent of borreliosis in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Taragel'ová, Veronika; Koci, Juraj; Hanincová, Klára; Kurtenbach, Klaus; Derdáková, Markéta; Ogden, Nick H; Literák, Ivan; Kocianová, Elena; Labuda, Milan

    2008-02-01

    Blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were found to carry 95% of all spirochete-infected tick larvae among 40 bird species captured in Central Europe. More than 90% of the infections were typed as Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana. We conclude that thrushes are key players in the maintenance of these spirochete species in this region of Central Europe.

  8. Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Hessarek in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Roser; Porrero, M Concepción; Serrano, Emmanuel; Marco, Ignasi; García, María; Téllez, Sonia; Domínguez, Lucas; Aymí, Raül; Lavín, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We investigated two mortality events in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Catalonia, northeastern Spain in 2009 and 2010. Both episodes occurred in late February to mid-March during the spring migration. Salmonellosis produced by the serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Hessarek (S. Hessarek) was identified as the cause of death in both episodes. Poor body condition, marked splenomegaly, and microscopic disseminated intravascular coagulation with numerous intravascular and tissular bacteria were the most consistent findings. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for epidemiologic typing of the S. Hessarek isolates. Two clusters were discernible, that are possibly related, with a similarity of 82.8%. Analysis comparing pectoral muscle and subcutaneous fat scores from the Song Thrushes that died from S. Hessarek with those from healthy Song Thrushes from nearby areas during 2009 and 2010 suggest that poor body condition was associated with the S. Hessarek infection.

  9. Mercury concentrations in Bicknell's thrush and other insectivorous passerines in Montane forests of northeastern North America.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Christopher C; Mcfarland, Kent P; Evers, David C; Miller, Eric K; Aubry, Yves; Busby, Daniel; Taylor, Robert J

    2005-03-01

    Anthropogenic input of mercury (Hg) into the environment has elevated risk to fish and wildlife, particularly in northeastern North America. Investigations into the transfer and fate of Hg have focused on inhabitants of freshwater aquatic ecosystems, as these are the habitats at greatest risk for methylmercury (MeHg) biomagnification. Deviating from such an approach, we documented MeHg availability in a terrestrial montane ecosystem using a suite of insectivorous passerines. Intensive and extensive sampling of Bicknell's thrush (Catharus bicknelli) indicated significant heterogeneity in MeHg availability across 21 mountaintops in northeastern North America. Southern parts of the breeding range tended to be at greater risk than northern parts. Mean blood Hg concentrations for Bicknell's thrush at 21 distinct breeding sites ranged from 0.08 to 0.38 ug/g (ww) and at seven Greater Antillean wintering sites ranged from 0.03 to 0.42 ug/g (ww). Overall concentrations were significantly greater in wintering than in breeding areas. Mercury exposure profiles for four passerine species on Mt. Mansfield, Vermont indicated greatest MeHg uptake in Bicknell's thrush and yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and lowest in blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata) and white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). The MeHg and total Hg ratio in blood in these four species was nearly 1:1. There was no correlation between blood and feather Hg concentrations in breeding Bicknell's thrush, in part because of apparent retention of winter Hg body burdens, within-season variation of MeHg availability, and confounding factors such as influences from age. Adult thrushes had significantly higher concentrations of feather Hg than did young-of-the-year. Although individual patterns of inter-year feather Hg concentrations were disordered, some individuals exhibited bioaccumulation of MeHg. Female blood Hg concentrations were significantly lower than males', in part because females have

  10. Management of nonparasitic splenic cysts in children: A French multicenter review of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Delforge, Xavier; Chaussy, Yann; Borrego, Paula; Abbo, Olivier; Sauvat, Frédérique; Ballouhey, Quentin; Irtan, Sabine; Arnaud, Alexis; Ibtissam, Kassite; Panait, Nicoleta; Rodesch, Gregory; Steyaert, Henri; Schneider, Anne; Dubois, Rémi; Mesureur, Sebastien; Haraux, Elodie; Buisson, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The management of nonparasitic splenic cysts (NPSC) remains controversial. Surgical resection is indicated for symptomatic or complicated forms, but no guidelines are available for asymptomatic NPSC. The aims of this study were to evaluate the management of NPSC in French hospitals and to analyze the results of management. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study from January 2004 to December 2014 in 16 university hospitals in France. Patients with a follow-up less than 6months were excluded. Data were extracted from the medical reports. One hundred patients were included. Median follow-up was 12.8months. No complications were observed for NPSC smaller than 5cm. The size of NPSC increased significantly between the ages of 10 and 12years. Fifteen patients were under observation; 58.3% of cysts decreased in size and 41.7% remained stable. Among the 85 operated patients, no recurrence occurred in the splenectomy group, while 11 recurrences were observed in the cystectomy group (57.9%), 3 of which required redo surgery. Observation is a safe treatment option for asymptomatic NPSC smaller than 5cm. Surgery is indicated for symptomatic patients, and can be proposed for asymptomatic NPSC larger than 5cm. Laparoscopic partial splenectomy is the technique of choice. Follow-up must be continued until the end of puberty. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Estimating survival of thrushes: modeling capture-recapture probabilities].

    PubMed

    Burskiî, O V

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic modeling technique serves as a way to correctly separate "return rate" of marked animals into survival rate (phi) and capture probability (p). The method can readily be used with the program MARK freely distributed through Internet (Cooch, White, 2009). Input data for the program consist of "capture histories" of marked animals--strings of units and zeros indicating presence or absence of the individual among captures (or sightings) along the set of consequent recapture occasions (e.g., years). Probability of any history is a product of binomial probabilities phi, p or their complements (1 - phi) and (1 - p) for each year of observation over the individual. Assigning certain values to parameters phi and p, one can predict the composition of all individual histories in the sample and assess the likelihood of the prediction. The survival parameters for different occasions and cohorts of individuals can be set either equal or different, as well as recapture parameters can be set in different ways. There is a possibility to constraint the parameters, according to the hypothesis being tested, in the form of a specific model. Within the specified constraints, the program searches for parameter values that describe the observed composition of histories with the maximum likelihood. It computes the parameter estimates along with confidence limits and the overall model likelihood. There is a set of tools for testing the model goodness-of-fit under assumption of equality of survival rates among individuals and independence of their fates. Other tools offer a proper selection among a possible variety of models, providing the best parity between details and precision in describing reality. The method was applied to 20-yr recapture and resighting data series on 4 thrush species (genera Turdus, Zoothera) breeding in the Yenisei River floodplain within the middle taiga subzone. The capture probabilities were quite independent of observational efforts fluctuations

  12. Identification of Candida albicans genes induced during thrush offers insight into pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J; Checkley, Mary Ann; Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey D; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Lewin, Alfred S; Fidel, Paul L; Nguyen, M Hong

    2003-06-01

    Candida albicans causes a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from mucocutaneous infections like oral thrush to disseminated candidiasis. Screening for C. albicans genes expressed within infected hosts might advance understanding of candidal pathogenesis, but is impractical using existing techniques. In this study, we used an antibody-based strategy to identify C. albicans genes expressed during thrush. We adsorbed sera from HIV-infected patients with thrush against candidal cells grown in vitro and screened a C. albicans genomic expression library. We identified 10 genes encoding immunogenic antigens and used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to verify that they were induced within thrush pseudomembranes recovered from a patient. The in vivo induced genes are involved in diverse functions, including regulation of yeast-hyphal morphogenesis, adhesion to host cells, nutrient uptake, phospholipid biosynthesis and amino acid catabolism. Four genes encode known virulence determinants (HWP1, CST20, CPP1 and RBF1). Another gene, LPD1, for which a role in candidal pathogenesis is unknown, encodes a protein homologous to a bacterial virulence determinant. Most importantly, disruption of CaNOT5, a newly identified gene, conferred defects in morphogenesis, decreased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells and attenuated mortality during murine disseminated candidiasis, proving that our strategy can identify genes encoding novel virulence determinants.

  13. Impacts of cowbird parasitism on wood thrushes and other neotropical migrants in suburban Maryland forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowell, B.A.; Fallon, J.E.; Robbins, C.S.; Dawson, D.K.; Fallon, F.W.; Smith, James N.M.; Cook, Terry L.; Rothstein, Stephen I.; Robinson, Scott K.; Sealy, Spencer G.

    2000-01-01

    During 1988-1993, we monitored nests of neotropical migrant birds in seven suburban Maryland forests to compare parasitism and predation rates in forests of different areas. Of 1,122 nests monitored, 672 were of Wood Thrush, the most commonly found nesting species. Study sites were forests that ranged in size from 21 ha to more than 1,300 ha in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of Maryland within 50 km of Washington, D.C. Parasitism rates of Wood Thrush nests varied greatly among sites, ranging from 0% (29 nests in 1990-1992) in a site in extensive forest to 68% (31 nests 1992-1993) in a 21-ha, selectively logged old-growth forest. A sudden increase in parasitism from 9% (102 nests 1990-1991) to 35% (125 nests 1992-1993) in a 23-ha old-growth forest was noteworthy. The surrounding environment at this site is changing from rural to residential. Wood Thrush parasitism rates dropped as the breeding season progressed, but peaks of parasitism coincided with peaks of nesting activity. Parasitism rates for Hooded Warblers (88% of 17 nests-all sites) were most alarming. High predation rates were a much greater factor in low productivity for Wood Thrushes than parasitism.

  14. Nesting Ecology of Wood Thrush (Turdidae: Passeriformes) in Hardwood Forests of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Sargent; John C. Kilgo; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2003-01-01

    We studied nesting success of the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) in bottomland and upland hardwood forests in South Carolina. Twenty-one of 26 nests (80.8%) were located in bottomland sites, and 76.2% of these nests were in narrow (

  15. Biotelemetry of New World thrushes during migration: Physiology, energetics and orientation in the wild.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, Melissa S; Cochran, William W; Wikelski, Martin C

    2005-04-01

    Billions of songbirds migrate between continents each year, but we have yet to obtain enough information on in-flight physiology and energetics to fully understand the migratory behavior of any one species. New World Catharus thrushes are common nocturnal migrants amenable to biotelemetry, allowing us to measure physiological parameters during migratory flight in the wild. Here, we review work by the authors on Catharus thrush in-flight physiology during spring migration in continental North America and present new data on individual variation in energy use during migratory flight. Previous work demonstrated that (1) a number of simple behavioral rules are sufficient to explain the initiation of individual migratory flights made by Catharus thrushes, (2) the thrushes used a magnetic compass to orient during the night rather than celestial cues and that they calibrated this magnetic compass each day using cues associated with the setting sun, (3) in total, Catharus thrushes used approximately twice as much energy during stopovers than they used during migratory flight, and (4) thrushes may use more energy when thermoregulating on cold days than on days when they make short migratory flights. Recently, we built upon this work and used newly-developed transmitters to measure heart rate, wingbeat frequency and respiration rate of free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (C. ustulatus). We found a large amount of between-individual variation in average heart rate after ascent (range 12.06-14.81 Hz, mean ± SD, 13.48 ± 0.75, n = 10), average wingbeat frequency after ascent (10.25-11.75 Hz, 10.82 ± 0.49, n = 10), and the difference between the two variables (1.5-3.84 Hz, 2.53 ± 0.76, n = 8). Both heart rate and wingbeat frequency were significantly higher during ascent than later in the flight. We propose biotelemetry as a means to understand energetic trade-offs and decisions during natural migratory flight in songbirds. To further our knowledge of intercontinental songbird

  16. How migratory thrushes conquered northern North America: a comparative phylogeography approach

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Carrie M.; Pruett, Christin L.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Five species of migratory thrushes (Turdidae) occupy a transcontinental distribution across northern North America. They have largely overlapping breeding ranges, relatively similar ecological niches, and mutualistic relationships with northern woodland communities as insectivores and seed-dispersing frugivores. As an assemblage of ecologically similar species, and given other vertebrate studies, we predicted a shared pattern of genetic divergence among these species between their eastern and western populations, and also that the timing of the coalescent events might be similar and coincident with historical glacial events. To determine how these five lineages effectively established transcontinental distributions, we used mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences to assess genetic structure and lineage coalescence from populations on each side of the continent. Two general patterns occur. Hermit and Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus guttatus and C. ustulatus) have relatively deep divergences between eastern and western phylogroups, probably reflecting shared historic vicariance. The Veery (C. fuscescens), Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus), and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) have relatively shallow divergences between eastern and western populations. However, coalescent and approximate Bayesian computational analyses indicated that among all species as many as five transcontinental divergence events occurred. Divergence within both Hermit and Swainson’s thrushes resembled the divergence between Gray-cheeked Thrushes and Veeries and probably occurred during a similar time period. Despite these species’ ecological similarities, the assemblage exhibits heterogeneity at the species level in how they came to occupy transcontinental northern North America but two general continental patterns at an among-species organizational level, likely related to lineage age. PMID:24255819

  17. The assembly and annotation of the complete Rufous-bellied thrush mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Gomes de Sá, Pablo; Veras, Adonney; Fontana, Carla Suertegaray; Aleixo, Alexandre; Burlamaqui, Tibério; Mello, Claudio Vianna; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Ramos, Rommel; Schneider, Maria; Silva, Artur

    2017-03-01

    Among known bird species, oscines are one of the few groups that produce complex vocalizations due to vocal learning. One of the most conspicuous oscine passerines in southeastern South America is the Rufous-bellied Thrush, Turdus rufiventris. The complete mitochondrial genome of this species was sequenced with the Illumina HiSeq platform (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), assembled using MITObim software and annotated by MITOS web server and Artemis software. This mitogenome contained 16 669 bases, organized as 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs, and a control region (d-loop). The sequencing of the Rufous-bellied Thrush mitochondrial genome is of particular interest for better understanding of population genetics and phylogeography of the Turdidae family.

  18. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Y ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (0 = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood?pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  19. Determinants of wood thrush nest success: A multi-scale, model selection approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, M.J.L.; Donovan, T.; Mickey, R.; Howard, A.; Fleming, K.K.

    2005-01-01

    We collected data on 212 wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests in central New York from 1998 to 2000 to determine the factors that most strongly influence nest success. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess and rank 9 models that examined the relationship between nest success (i.e., the probability that a nest would successfully fledge at least 1 wood thrush offspring) and habitat conditions at different spatial scales. We found that 4 variables were significant predictors of nesting success for wood thrushes: (1) total core habitat within 5 km of a study site, (2) distance to forest-field edge, (3) total forest cover within 5 km of the study site, and (4) density and variation in diameter of trees and shrubs surrounding the nest. The coefficients of these predictors were all positive. Of the 9 models evaluated, amount of core habitat in the 5-km landscape was the best-fit model, but the vegetation structure model (i.e., the density of trees and stems surrounding a nest) was also supported by the data. Based on AIC weights, enhancement of core area is likely to be a more effective management option than any other habitat-management options explored in this study. Bootstrap analysis generally confirmed these results; core and vegetation structure models were ranked 1, 2, or 3 in over 50% of 1,000 bootstrap trials. However, bootstrap results did not point to a decisive model, which suggests that multiple habitat factors are influencing wood thrush nesting success. Due to model uncertainty, we used a model averaging approach to predict the success or failure of each nest in our dataset. This averaged model was able to correctly predict 61.1% of nest outcomes.

  20. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: Effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding-season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Ψ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (x̄ = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood–pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  1. Effects of forest management on density, survival, and population growth of wood thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Lang, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Loss and alteration of breeding habitat have been proposed as causes of declines in several Neotropical migrant bird populations. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of winter prescribed burning and forest thinning on breeding wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge (PNWR) in Georgia. We estimated density, adult and juvenile survival rates, and apparent annual survival using transect surveys, radiotelemetry, and mist netting. Burning and thinning did not cause lower densities (P = 0.25); wood thrush density ranged from 0.15 to 1.30 pairs/10 ha. No radiomarked male wood thrushes (n = 68) died during the 4 years, but female (n = 63) weekly survival was 0.981 ? 0.014 (SE) for females (n = 63) and 0.976 ? 0.010 for juveniles (n = 38). Apparent annual adult survival was 0.579 (SE = 0.173). Thinning and prescribed burning did not reduce adult or juvenile survival during the breeding season or apparent annual adult survival. Annual population growth (lambda) at PNWR was 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.32--1.63), and the considerable uncertainty in this prediction underscores the need for long term monitoring to effectively manage Neotropical migrants. Population growth increased on experimental compartments after the burn and thin (95% CI before = 0.91--0.97, after = 0.98--1.05), while control compartment declined (before = 0.98--1.05, after = 0.87--0.92). We found no evidence that the current management regime at PNWR, designed to improve red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) habitat, negatively affected wood thrushes.

  2. Connectivity of wood thrush breeding, wintering, and migration sites based on range-wide tracking.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Calandra Q; McKinnon, Emily A; Fraser, Kevin C; Macpherson, Maggie P; Casbourn, Garth; Friesen, Lyle; Marra, Peter P; Studds, Colin; Ryder, T Brandt; Diggs, Nora E; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-02-01

    Many migratory animals are experiencing rapid population declines, but migration data with the geographic scope and resolution to quantify the complex network of movements between breeding and nonbreeding regions are often lacking. Determining the most frequently used migration routes and nonbreeding regions for a species is critical for understanding population dynamics and making effective conservation decisions. We tracked the migration of individual Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) (n = 102) from across their range with light-level geolocators and, for the first time, quantified migration routes and wintering regions for distinct breeding populations. We identified regional and species-level migratory connectivity networks for this declining songbird by combining our tracking results with range-wide breeding abundance estimates and forest cover data. More than 50% of the species occupied the eastern wintering range (Honduras to Costa Rica), a region that includes only one-third of all wintering habitat and that is undergoing intensive deforestation. We estimated that half of all Wood Thrushes in North America migrate south through Florida in fall, whereas in spring approximately 73% funnel northward through a narrow span along the central U.S. Gulf Coast (88-93°W). Identifying migratory networks is a critical step for conservation of songbirds and we demonstrated with Wood Thrushes how it can highlight conservation hotspots for regional populations and species as a whole. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Characterization and distribution of Isospora sabiai n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from thrushes Turdus spp. (Passeriformes: Turdidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Irlane Fde; Rodrigues, Mariana B; Silva, Lidiane M; Lopes, Brunodo B; Oliveira, Mariana S; Ferreira, Matheus A; Cardozo, Sergian V; Luz, Hermes R; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G; Berto, Bruno Pereira

    2017-03-20

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Isospora) is described parasitizing white-necked thrushes Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818, rufous-bellied thrushes Turdus rufiventris Vieillot, 1818, pale-breasted thrushes Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 and yellow-legged thrushes Turdus flavipes Vieillot, 1818 from 3 different localities in Brazil. Isospora sabiai n. sp. has oocysts that are sub-spherical to ellipsoidal, 20.9 × 18.6 µm, with smooth, delicate, bilayered wall, ~1.1 μm thick. Micropyle inconspicuous or imperceptible. Oocyst residuum absent, but small polar granules rounded or comma-shaped are present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal to reniform, 16.5 × 9.2 µm. The Stieda body is knob-like. Sub-Stieda body rounded to conical, sometimes homogeneous with the Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum is present, usually as a cluster of numerous granules. Sporozoites are vermiform with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts and sporocysts of I. sabiai n. sp. are uniform in the proportionality of width on length, but exhibited different patterns of size associated with each host species; therefore, an ecological discussion is introduced aimed at associating these morphometrical patterns of the oocysts with the habits of the different species of thrushes. This is the seventh isosporoid coccidian reported from New World turdids.

  4. Habitat partitioning of four sympatric thrush species at three spatial scales on a managed forest in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dellinger, R.L.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.; Seidel, G.

    2007-01-01

    Four thrush species are sympatric in the central Appalachians: Veery (Catharus fuscescens), Hermit Thrush (C. guttatus), Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and American Robin (Turdus migratorius). The four species often nest near one another, which suggests that habitat partitioning may have developed to minimize past interspecific competition. Our objectives were to determine which specific characteristics of nesting habitat were partitioned among the species and to evaluate the relationship of these characteristics to nest survival. We monitored nests and sampled habitat variables at three spatial scales: nest substrate, nest site, and territory. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a difference (P < 0.01) in the nest sites of all species and in each pairwise species contrast. An analysis of variance and Fisher’s exact tests detected differences (P < 0.05) among species in 21 of 36 variables measured. Classification tree analysis correctly classified nests by species at a rate better than would be expected at random. Habitat partitioning among the four thrush species occurred at all three scales sampled, with the most important partitioning variables being nest height, distance-to-edge, sapling density, and elevation. Mayfield logistic regression found a positive relationship (P < 0.05) between decreasing nest height and American Robin nest survival. Overall, nest survival was similar among the four thrush species examined, and most of the variables that we measured were unrelated to survival.

  5. Non-parasitic life cycle of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Panicum maximum pastures in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this work was to study the non-parasitic phase of the Rhipicephalus microplus life cycle in Panicum maximum grasses from northern Argentina, in order to provide ecological information for designing methods of tick control. Four localities were chosen as replicates. The biological parameters measured were proportion of females ovipositing, the pre-oviposition period, the proportion of egg clusters hatching, the incubation period of eggs, larval longevity, and the total non-parasitic period (time from the exposure of the female to the date of death of the last larva) (TNPP)). The following general trends were observed: I) a longer TNPP occurred when female ticks were exposed in mid- and late summer and early spring; II) the shortest TNPP occurred when female ticks were exposed from late winter to late spring; III) larvae that were active in early and mid-summer had the shortest longevity; IV) incubation periods of eggs, which originated from females exposed in late summer, early autumn and mid-spring, were longer than the incubation period of eggs produced by females exposed in late spring and early summer; V) eggs did not hatch when the engorged females were exposed in the pastures in mid- and late autumn and winter. The spelling period of the P. maximum grasses that is needed to ensure total control of R. microplus consists of 19-20weeks if the spelling starts in late spring and early summer, and 27-28weeks if the spelling begins in mid- and late summer or in autumn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene expression during ovarian differentiation in parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys: implications for fecundity and life history types.

    PubMed

    Spice, Erin K; Whyard, Steven; Docker, Margaret F

    2014-11-01

    Lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrate lineage approximately 500million years ago. Lampreys undergo sex differentiation much later than most other vertebrates, and ovarian differentiation occurs several years before testicular differentiation. The genetic basis of lamprey sex differentiation is of particular interest both because of the phylogenetic importance of lampreys and because of their unusual pattern of sex differentiation. As well, differences between parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys may first become evident at ovarian differentiation. However, nothing is known about the genetic basis of ovarian differentiation in lampreys. This study examined potential differences in gene expression before, during, and after ovarian differentiation in parasitic chestnut lamprey Ichthyomyzon castaneus and non-parasitic northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzonfossor. Eight target genes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, germ cell-less, estrogen receptor β, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, daz-associated protein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, and dehydrocholesterol reductase 7) were examined. Northern brook lamprey displayed higher expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, whereas chestnut lamprey displayed higher expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; these genes may be involved in apoptosis and oocyte growth, respectively. Presumptive male larvae had higher expression of Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, which may be involved in the undifferentiated gonad and/or later testicular development. Differentiated females had higher expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and daz-associated protein 1, which may be involved in female development. This study is the first to identify genes that may be involved in ovarian differentiation and fecundity in lampreys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  8. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  9. Divergence in mating signals correlates with ecological variation in the migratory songbird, Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus).

    PubMed

    Ruegg, K; Slabbekoorn, H; Clegg, S; Smith, T B

    2006-10-01

    Song divergence among populations of passerine birds is recognized as a potentially important premating isolation mechanism and may represent the first step in speciation. Because song divergence may be influenced by an array of acoustic, ecological, and genetic factors, the study of its origin requires a multifaceted approach. Here we describe the relationship between acoustic, neutral genetic and ecological variation in five populations of the Swainson's thrush: two from coastal temperate rainforest habitat representing the 'russet-backed' subspecies group, two from inland coniferous forest habitat representing the 'olive-backed' subspecies group, and one mixed locality that resides within a contact zone between the two groups. Song in the five populations is analysed using a multivariate analysis of spectral and temporal measurements, population genetic structure is assessed using an analysis of five microsatellite loci and ecological differences between populations are quantified using an analysis of climatic parameters. Matrix correspondence tests are used to distinguish between the potential for drift and selection in driving song divergence. No significant correlation was found between acoustic and genetic distance suggesting that song divergence cannot be explained by drift alone. A significant correlation between ecological and acoustic distance after accounting for genetic distance, suggests a potential role for ecological selection on divergence in spectral and temporal components of Swainson's thrush song.

  10. Eggshell colour does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of Turdus thrushes.

    PubMed

    Cassey, Phillip; Ewen, John G; Blackburn, Tim M; Hauber, Mark E; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N Justin

    2008-08-01

    The striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that maternally deposited yolk carotenoids may be the specific aspect of reproductive quality that the female is signalling via eggshell colour. We use the known properties of the thrush visual system (Turdus sp.) to calculate photon capture for the four single cone photoreceptors, and the principal member of the double cone class for eggs in clutches of two introduced European thrush species (Turdus merula and Turdus philomelos) in New Zealand. We show that differences in the avian-perceived colours of individual eggs are not consistently correlated with different measures of maternal investment in the egg. Given the growing extent of the knowledge between maternal quality, parental investment and eggshell pigmentation across avian taxa, we encourage the use of avian perceptual modelling for testing alternative non-signalling explanations for the structural and physiological basis of these relationships.

  11. Eggshell colour does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of Turdus thrushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassey, Phillip; Ewen, John G.; Blackburn, Tim M.; Hauber, Mark E.; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N. Justin

    2008-08-01

    The striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that maternally deposited yolk carotenoids may be the specific aspect of reproductive quality that the female is signalling via eggshell colour. We use the known properties of the thrush visual system ( Turdus sp.) to calculate photon capture for the four single cone photoreceptors, and the principal member of the double cone class for eggs in clutches of two introduced European thrush species ( Turdus merula and Turdus philomelos) in New Zealand. We show that differences in the avian-perceived colours of individual eggs are not consistently correlated with different measures of maternal investment in the egg. Given the growing extent of the knowledge between maternal quality, parental investment and eggshell pigmentation across avian taxa, we encourage the use of avian perceptual modelling for testing alternative non-signalling explanations for the structural and physiological basis of these relationships.

  12. Not as the crow flies: a historical explanation for circuitous migration in Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus).

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Kristen C; Smith, Thomas B

    2002-07-07

    Many migratory songbirds follow circuitous migratory routes instead of taking the shortest path between overwintering and breeding areas. Here, we study the migration patterns in Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), a neartic-neotropical migrant songbird, using molecular genetic approaches. This species is presently separated into genetically distinct coastal and continental populations that diverged during the Late Pleistocene (as indicated by molecular dating), yet appear to have retained ancestral patterns of migration. Low nucleotide diversity, a star-like haplotype phylogeny and unimodal mismatch distributions all support the hypothesis that both the coastal and the continental populations have undergone recent demographic expansions. Nearctic-neotropical banding and genetic data show nearly complete segregation of migratory routes and of overwintering locations: coastal populations migrate along the Pacific Coast to overwintering sites in Central America and Mexico, whereas continental populations migrate along an eastern route to overwintering sites in Panama and South America. Nearctic-neotropical banding data also show that continental birds north, northwest and east of this migratory divide fly thousands of miles east before turning south. We conclude that circuitous migration in the Swainson's thrush is an artefact of a Late Pleistocene range expansion.

  13. Isospora albicollis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in thrushes Turdus spp. (Passeriformes: Turdidae), in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Irlane Faria de; Silva, Lidiane Maria da; Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; Oliveira, Mariana de Souza; Lopes, Bruno do Bomfim; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Berto, Bruno Pereira

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report and describe Isospora albicollis Lainson and Shaw, 1989 parasitizing a white-necked thrush Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818 and a pale-breasted thrush Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 in two different localities: the Itatiaia National Park and Cacaria, in southeastern Brazil. The oocysts identified were ovoidal, 24.4 × 19.7 μm, with a smooth, bilayered wall, around 1.4 μm thick. Oocyst residuum was absent, but a micropyle and a polar granule were present. The sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 15.4 × 10.1 μm. The Stieda body was knob-like to rounded and the sub-Stieda body was prominent and wide. Sporocyst residuum was present, usually as a cluster of granules that appear to be membrane-bounded. The sporozoites were vermiform with one posterior refractile body and a centrally located nucleus. Besides recording the new host T. leucomelas, the identification of I. albicollis in the Itatiaia National Park and Cacaria, in southeastern Brazil, provide records of new localities for its parasitism, and reveals the wide distribution and dispersion of this coccidium in Brazil.

  14. A winter distribution model for Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a conservation tool for a threatened migratory songbird

    Treesearch

    K. P. McFarland; C. C. Rimmer; J. E. Goetz; Y. Aubry; J. M. Wunderle Jr.; A. Hayes-Sutton; J. M. Townsend; A. Llanes Sosa; A. Kirkconnell

    2013-01-01

    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to...

  15. Oral Thrush

    MedlinePlus

    ... sis) — is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth. Candida is a normal organism in your mouth, but ... the back of your mouth to your stomach (Candida esophagitis). If this occurs, you may experience difficulty ...

  16. Long-term decline in the thickness of eggshells of thrushes, Turdus spp., in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Green, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    The thickness of eggshells of four species of thrush, Turdus spp., was estimated by an index based on the mass and linear dimensions of blown eggs in museum collections from Britain. Shell thickness was also measured directly for two species and was highly correlated with the index. Widespread declines in eggshell thickness since the nineteenth century were found in all species. There have been no previous reports of trends in eggshell thickness of this long duration and large spatial scale. The cause of the declines is unknown, but, for three of the four species, eggshell thinning began before the introduction of the organochlorine pesticide DDT, which caused eggshell thinning in predatory and fish-eating birds from 1947 onwards. The effect of acid deposition on the availability of calcium-rich prey is a plausible explanation.

  17. Treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients with lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and gentian violet.

    PubMed

    Wright, S C; Maree, J E; Sibanyoni, M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) in the treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients when compared with the control group using gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5%. Oral thrush is a frequent complication of HIV infection. In the Moretele Hospice, due to financial constraints, the treatment routinely given to patients with oral thrush is either lemon juice directly into the mouth or a lemon grass infusion made from lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown and dried at the hospice. These two remedies have been found to be very efficacious therefore are used extensively. Gentian violet, the first line medication for oral thrush in South Africa, is not preferred by the primary health clinic patients due to the visible purple stain which leads them to being stigmatized as HIV-positive. Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus limon have known antifungal properties. The study design was a randomised controlled trial. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: gentian violet, lemon juice or lemon grass. Inclusion criteria included being HIV-positive with a diagnosis of oral thrush. The study period was 11 days and patients were followed up every second day. International ethical principles were adhered to during the study. Of the 90 patients, 83 completed the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, none of the p-values were significant therefore the null hypothesis could not be rejected. In the analysis of the participants who actually completed the trial, the lemon juice showed better results than the gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5% in the treatment of oral thrush in an HIV-positive population (p<0.02). The null hypothesis in terms of the lemon grass and gentian violet could also be rejected on the basis of the Chi-square test and the likelihood ratio test (p<0.05). Though the patient population was small, the use of lemon juice and lemon grass for the treatment of

  18. Retinal temporal resolution and contrast sensitivity in the parasitic lamprey Mordacia mordax and its non-parasitic derivative Mordacia praecox.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Rachael E; Hart, Nathan S; Potter, Ian C; Collin, Shaun P; Hemmi, Jan M

    2017-04-01

    Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole extant representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) vertebrates. We compared retinal function of fully metamorphosed, immature Mordacia mordax (which are about to commence parasitic feeding) with those of sexually mature individuals of its non-parasitic derivative Mpraecox We focused on elucidating the retinal adaptations to dim-light environments in these nocturnally active lampreys, using electroretinography to determine the temporal resolution (flicker fusion frequency, FFF) and temporal contrast sensitivity of enucleated eyecups at different temperatures and light intensities. FFF was significantly affected by temperature and light intensity. Critical flicker fusion frequency (cFFF, the highest FFF recorded) of M. praecox and M. mordax increased from 15.1 and 21.8 Hz at 9°C to 31.1 and 36.9 Hz at 24°C, respectively. Contrast sensitivity of both species increased by an order of magnitude between 9 and 24°C, but remained comparatively constant across all light intensities. Although FFF values for Mordacia spp. are relatively low, retinal responses showed a particularly high contrast sensitivity of 625 in M. praecox and 710 in M. mordax at 24°C. This suggests selective pressures favour low temporal resolution and high contrast sensitivity in both species, thereby enhancing the capture of photons and increasing sensitivity in their light-limited environments. FFF indicated all retinal photoreceptors exhibit the same temporal response. Although the slow response kinetics (i.e. low FFF) and saturation of the response at bright light intensities characterise the photoreceptors of both species as rod-like, it is unusual for such a photoreceptor to be functional under scotopic and photopic conditions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Habitat selection by juvenile Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) in headwater riparian areas, northwestern Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Stephanie R.; Betts, Matthew G.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hagar, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Lower order, non-fish-bearing streams, often termed “headwater streams”, have received minimal research effort and protection priority, especially in mesic forests where distinction between riparian and upland vegetation can be subtle. Though it is generally thought that breeding bird abundance is higher in riparian zones, little is known about species distributions when birds are in their juvenile stage – a critical period in terms of population viability. Using radio telemetry, we examined factors affecting habitat selection by juvenile Swainson’s thrushes during the post-breeding period in headwater basins in the Coast Range of Oregon, USA. We tested models containing variables expected to influence the amount of food and cover (i.e., deciduous cover, coarse wood volume, and proximity to stream) as well as models containing variables that are frequently measured and manipulated in forest management (i.e., deciduous and coniferous trees separated into size classes). Juvenile Swainson’s thrushes were more likely to select locations with at least 25% cover of deciduous, mid-story vegetation and more than 2.0 m3/ha of coarse wood within 40 m of headwater streams. We conclude that despite their small and intermittent nature, headwater streams and adjacent riparian areas are selected over upland areas by Swainson’s thrush during the postfledging period in the Oregon Coast Range.

  20. The relationship between wingbeat kinematics and vortex wake of a thrush nightingale.

    PubMed

    Rosén, M; Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A

    2004-11-01

    The wingbeat kinematics of a thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia were measured for steady flight in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (5-10 m s(-1)), and the results are interpreted and discussed in the context of a detailed, previously published, wake analysis of the same bird. Neither the wingbeat frequency nor wingbeat amplitude change significantly over the investigated speed range and consequently dimensionless measures that compare timescales of flapping vs. timescales due to the mean flow vary in direct proportion to the mean flow itself, with no constant or slowly varying intervals. The only significant kinematic variations come from changes in the upstroke timing (downstroke fraction) and the upstroke wing folding (span ratio), consistent with the gradual variations, primarily in the upstroke wake, previously reported. The relationship between measured wake geometry and wingbeat kinematics can be qualitatively explained by presumed self-induced convection and deformation of the wake between its initial formation and later measurement, and varies in a predictable way with flight speed. Although coarse details of the wake geometry accord well with the kinematic measurements, there is no simple explanation based on these observed kinematics alone that accounts for the measured asymmetries of circulation magnitude in starting and stopping vortex structures. More complex interactions between the wake and wings and/or body are implied.

  1. Life‐history variation of a neotropical thrush challenges food limitation theory

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Valentina; Llambías, Paulo E; Martin, Thomas E

    2005-01-01

    Since David Lack first proposed that birds rear as many young as they can nourish, food limitation has been accepted as the primary explanation for variation in clutch size and other life‐history traits in birds. The importance of food limitation in life-history variation, however, was recently questioned on theoretical grounds. Here, we show that clutch size differences between two populations of a neotropical thrush were contrary to expectations under Lack's food limitation hypothesis. Larger clutch sizes were found in a population with higher nestling starvation rate (i.e. greater food limitation). We experimentally equalized clutches between populations to verify this difference in food limitation. Our experiment confirmed greater food limitation in the population with larger mean clutch size. In addition, incubation bout length and nestling growth rate were also contrary to predictions of food limitation theory. Our results demonstrate the inability of food limitation to explain differences in several life-history traits: clutch size, incubation behaviour, parental feeding rate and nestling growth rate. These life-history traits were better explained by inter‐population differences in nest predation rates. Food limitation may be less important to life history evolution in birds than suggested by traditional theory. PMID:15870039

  2. Life-history variation of a neotropical thrush challenges food limitation theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferretti, V.; Llambias, P.E.; Martin, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since David Lack first proposed that birds rear as many young as they can nourish, food limitation has been accepted as the primary explanation for variation in clutch size and other life-history traits in birds. The importance of food limitation in life-history variation, however, was recently questioned on theoretical grounds. Here, we show that clutch size differences between two populations of a neotropical thrush were contrary to expectations under Lack's food limitation hypothesis. Larger clutch sizes were found in a population with higher nestling starvation rate (i.e. greater food limitation). We experimentally equalized clutches between populations to verify this difference in food limitation. Our experiment confirmed greater food limitation in the population with larger mean clutch size. In addition, incubation bout length and nestling growth rate were also contrary to predictions of food limitation theory. Our results demonstrate the inability of food limitation to explain differences in several life-history traits: clutch size, incubation behaviour, parental feeding rate and nestling growth rate. These life-history traits were better explained by inter-population differences in nest predation rates. Food limitation may be less important to life history evolution in birds than suggested by traditional theory. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  3. Landscape context moderates edge effects: Nesting success of wood thrushes in Central New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, M.J.L.; Donovan, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite two decades of research into the effects of habitat fragmentation and edges on nesting birds, critical information about how edges affect the success of natural nests of Neotropical migratory songbirds breeding in heterogeneous landscapes is still missing. We studied abundance and nesting success in Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) breeding across a heterogeneous landscape in central New York from 1998 to 2000 to test the hypothesis that edge effects on nesting passerines are stronger in fragmented than contiguous landscapes. We monitored nests to estimate nesting success in edge and interior habitats in both fragmented and contiguously forested landscapes. In contiguous landscapes, daily survival rate did not differ between edge nests (0.963) and interior nests (0.968) (??2 = 0.19, p = 0.66). In contrast, in fragmented landscapes, daily survival estimates were higher in interior (0.971) than edge (0.953) nests (??2 = 3.1, p = 0.08). Our study supports the hypothesis that landscape composition moderates edge effects on actual nests of birds but does not determine the mechanisms causing these patterns.

  4. Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia).

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Lind, Johan; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Vallin, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long-distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long-distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First-year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight-muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme. PMID:12639316

  5. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  6. Survival estimates of wild and captive-bred released Puaiohi, an endangered Hawaiian thrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderWerf, Eric; Crampton, Lisa H.; Diegmann, Julia; Atkinson, Carter T.; Leonard, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating and monitoring adult and juvenile survival are vital to understanding population status, informing recovery planning for endangered species, and quantifying the success of management. We used mark–recapture models to estimate apparent annual survival of the Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), an endangered thrush endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, from 2005 to 2011. Our sample included 87 wild birds and 123 captive-bred birds that were released at various ages. Survival was higher for wild adult males (0.71 ± 0.09) than for wild adult females (0.46 ± 0.12). Survival of wild juveniles (0.23 ± 0.06) was lower than that of wild adults of both sexes, indicating that recruitment may limit population growth. Captive-bred birds released when <1 yr old had survival (0.26 ± 0.21) comparable with that of wild juveniles, but captive-bred birds released at 1–3 yr old had very low survival (0.05 ± 0.06). Only 8 of 123 (7%) captive birds were seen again after release. Two wild birds resighted five years after marking are the oldest known individuals, being at least six years of age. Malarial infection did not affect survival of wild Puaiohi, unlike many Hawaiian forest birds. The difference between adult male and adult female survival is consistent with rat (Rattusspp.) predation of females on the nest as a major source of mortality. As such, attempting to reduce nest predation by controlling rats may be the best available management option. Releasing captive-bred birds has had little effect on the wild population in recent years.

  7. Song plasticity over time and vocal learning in clay-colored thrushes.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Castro, Luis E; Sánchez, Natalie V; Barrantes, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Songbirds have been traditionally classified into close-ended or open-ended learning species according to the length of the sensitive period during which birds are able to memorize new vocalizations. Closed-ended learners are generally not capable of changing their song after the first year of life, while open-ended learners show song plasticity as adults. A few Turdus species have been suggested to be open-ended learners, but no long-term study has been conducted to investigate their song plasticity over time. We analyzed the songs of clay-colored thrushes, T. grayi, over four successive breeding seasons to assess song plasticity in their syllable repertoires within and between breeding seasons. A total of 16,262 syllables were classified through visual inspection of spectrograms and multidimensional scaling analysis based on spectrogram correlations. On average, 563 ± 153 (SD) syllables per male per breeding season were analyzed. Male repertoire size was 9-20 syllable types. Males were capable of modifying their syllable repertoire between the initial and final periods of the breeding season. Song plasticity within breeding seasons may be associated with imitation between neighboring males, suggesting song learning in males that were ≥2 years old. This short-term plasticity is not enough, however, to explain the high proportion of change (mean = 65 % syllable types) in repertoire composition between breeding seasons in adult males. Song plasticity resulting from annual changes in repertoire composition could be explained by open-ended learning, but another mechanism, extended memory and re-expression, could also explain long-term plasticity. Experimental studies controlling the acoustic environment are needed to determine which mechanism is responsible for such a high level of song plasticity.

  8. The skeleton flight apparatus of North American bluebirds (Sialia): phylogenetic thrushes or functional flycatchers?

    PubMed

    Corbin, Clay E; Lowenberger, Lauren K; Dorkoski, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    To better understand ecological traits of organisms, one can study them from two, not necessarily mutually exclusive perspectives: how the traits evolved, and their current adaptive utility. In birds, foraging behavior and associated morphological traits generally are explained by a combination of adaptive and phylogenetic predictors. The avian skeleton and more specifically, the skeletal flight apparatus is under well-known functional and phylogenetic constraints. This is an interesting area to partition the relative contributions of adaptive correlated evolution and phylogenetic constraint to species clustering in morphological space. A prediction of convergent evolution is that nonphylogenetic morphological clustering is a characteristic of ecological similarity. We tested this using representatives of North American birds from two clades, one with a mixture of foraging modes (Turdid thrushes, solitaires, and bluebirds) and one with more canalized foraging behaviors (Tyrannid flycatchers). Nine characters on the skeletal flight apparatus from 19 species were used to characterize the morphological space and test for ecomorphological clustering. When body size and phylogeny are considered, the three bluebird species and Townsend's solitaire cluster with the ecologically similar flycatchers rather than with their phylogenetic close relatives. Furthermore, sit-and-wait foragers tend to exhibit relatively long distal elements and a long keel while active ground foragers have deeper keels and a longer humerus. Distal elements, expected to be relatively shorter and more bowed in the flycatchers and bluebirds, were actually longer and narrower. A reduction of distal element mass may be more important for facilitating maneuverability than surface area for insertion of wing-rotational musculature. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Winter Distribution Model for Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a Conservation Tool for a Threatened Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Kent P.; Rimmer, Christopher C.; Goetz, James E.; Aubry, Yves; Wunderle, Joseph M.; Sutton, Anne; Townsend, Jason M.; Sosa, Alejandro Llanes; Kirkconnell, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to 2009 to quantitatively evaluate winter distribution and habitat selection. Additionally, we conducted targeted surveys in Jamaica (n = 433), Cuba (n = 363), Dominican Republic (n = 1,000), Haiti (n = 131) and Puerto Rico (n = 242) yielding 179 sites with thrush presence. We modeled Bicknell’s Thrush winter habitat selection and distribution in the Greater Antilles in Maxent version 3.3.1. using environmental predictors represented in 30 arc second study area rasters. These included nine landform, land cover and climatic variables that were thought a priori to have potentially high predictive power. We used the average training gain from ten model runs to select the best subset of predictors. Total winter precipitation, aspect and land cover, particularly broadleaf forests, emerged as important variables. A five-variable model that contained land cover, winter precipitation, aspect, slope, and elevation was the most parsimonious and not significantly different than the models with more variables. We used the best fitting model to depict potential winter habitat. Using the 10 percentile threshold (>0.25), we estimated winter habitat to cover 33,170 km2, nearly 10% of the study area. The Dominican Republic contained half of all potential habitat (51%), followed by Cuba (15.1%), Jamaica (13.5%), Haiti (10.6%), and Puerto Rico (9.9%). Nearly one-third of the range was found to be in protected areas. By providing the first detailed predictive map of Bicknell’s Thrush winter distribution, our study provides a useful tool to prioritize and direct conservation planning for this and

  10. Evidence of large-scale source-sink dynamics and long-distance dispersal among Wood Thrush populations.

    PubMed

    Tittler, Rebecca; Fahrig, Lenore; Villard, Marc-André

    2006-12-01

    Source-sink dynamics are commonly thought to occur among Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and other songbird populations, allowing for the persistence of populations with negative growth rates ("sinks") through immigration from populations with positive growth rates ("sources"). Knowledge of source-sink dynamics is important for management and conservation because the removal of source habitat should result in the extinction of dependent sinks. However, since research has focused on identifying individual sources/sink populations, not source-sink pairs, we cannot predict these effects or the scale over which they occur. We posit that, when dispersal occurs from a source to a sink year after year, there will be a one-year time-lagged correlation in abundance between the two populations. This should occur for populations separated by distances over which juveniles disperse. Using the North American Breeding Bird Survey data, we tested for such time-lagged correlations between paired Wood Thrush populations from 10 to 200 km apart. Populations were linked with a one-year time lag over distances from 60 to 80 km, indicating that dispersal and source-sink dynamics may occur over these long distances. There was also a declining trend in forest cover from sources to sinks. Conservation and management strategies should therefore be designed at large scales, with consideration for source-sink dynamics and forest cover.

  11. Percutaneous treatment of symptomatic non-parasitic benign liver cysts: single-session alcohol sclerotherapy versus prolonged catheter drainage with negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Zerem, Enver; Imamović, Goran; Omerović, Safet

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate whether prolonged catheter drainage with negative pressure yields better results than single-session alcohol sclerotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic non-parasitic benign liver cysts. Forty patients were randomly assigned to two groups in a 24-month prospective controlled trial. One group was treated with ultrasound-guided prolonged catheter drainage with negative pressure (20 patients with 24 cysts) and the other group with single-session alcohol sclerotherapy (20 patients with 23 cysts). Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, and complications were analyzed. The median volumes and 95% CI (confidence interval) for the medians and interquartile ranges of all 47 cysts before treatment and on last follow-up were: 389 ml, 143-1,127 ml, 136-1,300 ml, and 0 ml, 0-10 ml, and 0-23 ml, respectively (P<0.0001). The average volume reduction was 92.4% (range, 74.9-100%), 94.2 % (range, 74.9-100%) in the drainage and 90.2% (range, 76.9-100%) in the sclerotherapy group. Twenty-seven cysts (57.4%) disappeared completely, 16 (66.7%) in the drainage and 11 (47.8%) in the sclerotherapy group. No differences in average volume reduction, final volume and disappearance of the cysts between the groups were noted. The hospital stay was 1 day for all patients. Percutaneous treatment is safe and effective for hepatic non-parasitic cysts. Prolonged catheter drainage with negative pressure and single-session alcohol sclerotherapy had similar results.

  12. Fruit abundance and local distribution of wintering hermit thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata) in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Charles Kwit; Douglas J. Level; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Scott F. Pearson; John P. McCarty; Sarah Sargent; Ronald L. Mumme

    2004-01-01

    We conducted winter dcensuses of two short-distance migrants, Hermit thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata), over seven years in five different habitats to determien whether their local abundance could be predicted by fruit pulp biomass. Sampled habitats were stands of upland and bottomland...

  13. Wood thrush nest success and post-fledging survival across a temporal pulse of small mammal abundance in an oak forest.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kenneth A; Rush, Scott A; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2008-07-01

    1. Synchronized mass production of seed crops, such as acorns, produces a resource pulse that may have far-reaching consequences for songbird populations through its effects on avian predators. Seed production in these forests represents only the first of several pulsed events. Secondary pulses emerge as mast-consuming rodents numerically respond to seed production and tertiary pulses emerge as generalist predators, such as raptors, numerically respond to rodents. In turn, these two groups reduce nest productivity and juvenile survivorship 1 and 2 years, respectively, after the initial pulse in seed production. 2. At our study site in south-eastern New York, USA, autumn acorn abundance (primary pulse) largely determines rodent abundance (secondary pulse) the following spring. We tested the hypotheses that the population dynamics of a shrub-nesting passerine (wood thrush Hylocichla mustelina), is influenced by rodents through the: (a) direct effect of predation by rodents; (b) indirect effect of rodents on the abundance of raptors (tertiary pulse); and (c) indirect effect of rodent abundance on raptor diet. The latter specifically hypothesizes that a crash in the rodent population in the wake of region-wide failure of acorn production leads to an extreme diet shift in raptors that increases post-fledging mortality in birds. 3. We conducted a 3-year study to examine variation in wood thrush nest success and fledgling survival, using radio telemetry, across a pulse of rodent abundance (i.e. low, medium and high). We also updated and reanalysed regional wood thrush population growth rates as a function of the annual variation in rodent abundance. 4. Fledgling survivorship, but not nest success, varied in relation to annual rodent abundance. Raptors and eastern chipmunks Tamias striatus were the most commonly identified predators on fledglings. Fledgling survivorship was greatest at intermediate rodent abundance consistent with a shift in raptor diet. Regional rate of

  14. Isospora massardi sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the white-necked thrush Turdus albicollis (Passeriformes: Turdidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruno do Bomfim; Berto, Bruno P; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Galvão, Gideão da Silva; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2014-06-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are reported from the white-necked thrush Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818, a very common species in South America. Isospora massardi sp. nov. oocysts are subspherical, 18.6 × 17.7 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall, ~0.9 μm. Micropyle, oocyst residuum are absent, but two polar granules are frequently present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 14.8 × 9.3 μm. Stieda body is knob-like to rounded and substieda body is rounded. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with posterior and anterior refractile bodies and a nucleus. This is the sixth description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting a New World turdid bird.

  15. Frugivore Behavioural Details Matter for Seed Dispersal: A Multi-Species Model for Cantabrian Thrushes and Trees

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel; García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pérez, Javier; Herrera, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Animal movement and behaviour is fundamental for ecosystem functioning. The process of seed dispersal by frugivorous animals is a showcase for this paradigm since their behaviour shapes the spatial patterns of the earliest stage of plant regeneration. However, we still lack a general understanding of how intrinsic (frugivore and plant species traits) and extrinsic (landscape features) factors interact to determine how seeds of a given species are more likely to be deposited in some places more than in others. We develop a multi-species mechanistic model of seed dispersal based on frugivore behavioural responses to landscape heterogeneity. The model was fitted to data from three-years of spatially-explicit field observations on the behaviour of six frugivorous thrushes and the fruiting patterns of three fleshy-fruited trees in a secondary forest of the Cantabrian range (N Spain). With such model we explore how seed rain patterns arise from the interaction between animal behaviour and landscape heterogeneity. We show that different species of thrushes respond differently to landscape heterogeneity even though they belong to the same genus, and that provide complementary seed dispersal functions. Simulated seed rain patterns are only realistic when at least some landscape heterogeneity (forest cover and fruit abundance) is taken into account. The common and simple approach of re-sampling movement data to quantify seed dispersal produces biases in both the distance and the habitat at which seeds arrive. Movement behaviour not only affects dispersal distance and seed rain patterns but also can affect frugivore diet composition even if there is no built-in preference for fruiting species. In summary, the fate of seeds produced by a given plant species is strongly affected by both the composition of the frugivore assemblage and the landscape-scale context of the plant location, including the presence of fruits from other plants (from the same or different species). PMID

  16. Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol toxin interacts with the membrane of non-parasitized red blood cells: a putative mechanism contributing to malaria anemia.

    PubMed

    Brattig, Norbert W; Kowalsky, Katharina; Liu, Xinyu; Burchard, Gerd D; Kamena, Faustin; Seeberger, Peter H

    2008-07-01

    Following exposure to synthetic Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol (P.f.-GPI), red blood cells (RBCs) reacted with antibodies in the serum of a patient with severe acute P. falciparum malaria. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the patient's serum confirmed the presence of both, IgM and IgG antibodies against P.f.-GPI. The antibodies failed to bind to RBCs when P.f.-GPI lacking the lipid portion was applied. Addition of the detergent Triton X-100 during preincubation with P.f.-GPI resulted in increased recognition. Recognition of P.f.-GPI was dependent on the concentrations of synthetic P.f.-GPI, the serum and the numbers of RBCs. IgM antibodies dominated P.f.-GPI-sensitized RBCs recognition. Recognition by IgM antibodies proved highest during the 1st week of acute malaria and decreased during the following 2 weeks as assessed by flow cytometry and carbohydrate microarray analysis. These results strongly support the notion that released P.f.-GPI can insert into non-parasitized RBC membranes and results in recognition by circulating anti-GPI antibodies and possibly subsequent elimination. This process may contribute to malaria-associated anemia.

  17. FRUIT ABUNDANCE AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF WINTERING HERMIT THRUSHES (CATHARUS GUTTATUS) AND YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA CORONATA) IN SOUTH CAROLINA.

    SciTech Connect

    KWIT, CHARLES; LEVEY, DOUGLAS, J.; GREENBERG, CATHRYN, H.; PEARSON, SCOTT, F.; MCCARTY, JOHN, P.; SARGENT, SARAH; MUMME, RONALD, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Auk 121(1):46-57, 2004 We conducted winter censuses of two short-distance migrants, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata), over seven years in five different habitats to determine whether their local abundances could be predicted by fruit pulp biomass. Sampled habitats were stands of upland and bottomland hardwood, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), longleaf pine (P. palustris), and young «10 years) longleaf pine. Hermit Thrush abundance, which was highest in bottomland hardwood habitats, was positively related to total dry mass of fruit pulp. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that resource availability affects the local distribution of migrant passerines on their wintering grounds. Our results also indicate that bottomland hardwood habitats in the southeastern United States may be especially important to wintering Hermit Thrushes. Yellow-rumped Warbler abundance was correlated with ripe-fruit pulp dry mass of Myrica cerifera, a major source of winter food for that species. However, because M. cerifera pulp dry mass was confounded with habitat type, we could not distinguish the relative importance of fruit resources and habitat for Yellow- rumped Warblers. Our results underscore the importance of fruit to wintering birds. However, the overall percentage of variation in winter bird abundance explained by differences in ripe-fruit biomass was modest, indicating that other factors are also important.

  18. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Emily L; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-11-18

    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal "song" may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal "song cultures." Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics.

  19. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: Unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, Emily L.; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal “song” may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal “song cultures.” Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics. PMID:25368163

  20. Patterns of proopiomelanotropin and proopiocortin gene expression and of immunohistochemistry for gonadotropin-releasing hormones (lGnRH-I and III) during the life cycle of a nonparasitic lamprey: relationship to this adult life history type.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H; Heinig, J A; Khanam, S F; Sower, S A; Kawauchi, H; Keeley, F W

    2006-08-01

    There are two adult life history types among lamprey species, nonparasitic and parasitic, with the former commencing the final interval of sexual maturation immediately after metamorphosis. There are no extensive studies that directly compare hormone profiles during the life cycles of nonparasitic and parasitic lamprey species, yet such data may explain differences in development, reproductive maturation, and feeding status. The present study uses immunohistochemistry to show the life cycle profiles for gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH-I and -III) in the brain of the nonparasitic species, the American brook lamprey, Lampetra appendix, for comparison with the extensive, published, immunohistochemical data on these hormones in the parasitic species, the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The complete cDNAs for the two lamprey prohormones, proopiocortin (POC), and proopiomelanotropin (POM), were cloned for L. appendix and both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those previously published for P. marinus. The POC and POM cDNAs for both species were used in expression studies, with Northern blotting, throughout their life cycles. Although GnRH-I and -III immunohistochemistry revealed a similar distribution of immunoreactive cells and fibers in the two species during the life cycles, a qualitative evaluation of staining intensity in L. appendix, implied early activity in the brains of metamorphosis of this species, particularly in GnRH-I. GnRH-III seems to be important in larval life and early metamorphosis in both species. A novel feature of this immunohistochemical study is the monthly observations of the distribution and relative intensity of the two GnRHs during the critical period of final sexual maturation that lead to spawning and then the spent animal. L. appendix POC and POM nucleotide sequences had 92.9 and 94.6% identity, respectively, with P. marinus POC and POM and there was an earlier increase in their expression during

  1. Localization of fluconazole in oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for treatment of oral thrush

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Kamla; Sharma, Vijay; Akhtar, Nida; Rastogi, Pragya

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present research work was aimed at localization of fluconazole in the oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for the treatment of oral thrush. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the aim, buccoadhesive tablets were optimized using 32 full factorial design to study the influence of varying content of chitosan and carbopol 934P (input variables) on the responses. Results: Perturbation plots revealed high sensitivity of the input variables to ex vivo mucoadhesion force and percent cumulative drug release (CDR) whereas the ex vivo mucoadhesion time was less sensitive to the input variables. Based on the highest desirability factor of 0.693 the formulation F9 was identified as the optimized formulation and was preferentially coated with ethyl cellulose (3% w/v) on one tablet face to get F9C. In reference to F9, F9C showed superior mucoadhesive features (P < 0.05) but the % CDR was comparable (f2 = 50.80). The preferential coating (F9C, Jss = 0.812 μg/cm2/h) limited the permeation of fluconazole across goat buccal mucosa by almost half the value of F9 (Jss = 1.34 μg/cm2/h) that could serve as an advantage in establishing high local concentration of drug in the oral cavity, thereby facilitating faster attainment of minimum inhibitory concentration. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis established nonirritant potential. The developed formulation was stable and demonstrated antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that preferentially coated buccoadhesive tablets of fluconazole might be considered as a precise approach to localize the drug delivery in oral cavity. PMID:27051630

  2. Adverse effects of acid rain on the distribution of the Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina in North America.

    PubMed

    Hames, Ralph S; Rosenberg, Kenneth V; Lowe, James D; Barker, Sara E; Dhondt, Andre A

    2002-08-20

    Research into population declines of North American bird species has mainly focused on the fragmentation of habitat on the breeding or wintering grounds [Robinson, S. K., Thompson, F. R., Donovan, T. M., Whitehead, D. R. & Faaborg, J. (1995) Science 267, 1987-1990]. In contrast, research into declines of European species has mainly focused on intensification of agriculture [Donald, P. F., Green, R. E. & Heath, M. F. (2001) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 268, 25-29] and the role played by the atmospheric deposition of pollutants, in particular, acid rain [Graveland, J. (1998) Environ. Rev. 6, 41-54]. However, despite widespread unexplained declines of bird populations in regions of heavy wet acid ion deposition [Sauer, J. R., Hines, J. E. & Fallon, J. (2001) The North American Breeding Bird Survey Results and Analysis 1966-2000 (Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD)], no North American studies have presented evidence linking such widespread terrestrial bird declines to acid rain. To address the question of the role played by acid rain in population declines of eastern North American songbird species, we combine data from several sources. We use a multiple logistic regression model to test for adverse effects of acid rain on the Wood Thrush, while controlling for regional abundance, landscape-level habitat fragmentation, elevation, soil pH, and vegetation. We show a strong, highly significant, negative effect of acid rain on the predicted probability of breeding by this species, and interactions with elevation, low pH soils, and habitat fragmentation that worsen these negative effects. Our results suggest an important role for acid rain in recent declines of some birds breeding in the eastern United States, particularly in high elevation zones with low pH soils, and show the need to consider other large-scale influences, in addition to habitat fragmentation, when addressing bird population declines.

  3. Adverse effects of acid rain on the distribution of the Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina in North America

    PubMed Central

    Hames, Ralph S.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Lowe, James D.; Barker, Sara E.; Dhondt, André A.

    2002-01-01

    Research into population declines of North American bird species has mainly focused on the fragmentation of habitat on the breeding or wintering grounds [Robinson, S. K., Thompson, F. R., Donovan, T. M., Whitehead, D. R. & Faaborg, J. (1995) Science 267, 1987–1990]. In contrast, research into declines of European species has mainly focused on intensification of agriculture [Donald, P. F., Green, R. E. & Heath, M. F. (2001) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 268, 25–29] and the role played by the atmospheric deposition of pollutants, in particular, acid rain [Graveland, J. (1998) Environ. Rev. 6, 41–54]. However, despite widespread unexplained declines of bird populations in regions of heavy wet acid ion deposition [Sauer, J. R., Hines, J. E. & Fallon, J. (2001) The North American Breeding Bird Survey Results and Analysis 1966–2000 (Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD)], no North American studies have presented evidence linking such widespread terrestrial bird declines to acid rain. To address the question of the role played by acid rain in population declines of eastern North American songbird species, we combine data from several sources. We use a multiple logistic regression model to test for adverse effects of acid rain on the Wood Thrush, while controlling for regional abundance, landscape-level habitat fragmentation, elevation, soil pH, and vegetation. We show a strong, highly significant, negative effect of acid rain on the predicted probability of breeding by this species, and interactions with elevation, low pH soils, and habitat fragmentation that worsen these negative effects. Our results suggest an important role for acid rain in recent declines of some birds breeding in the eastern United States, particularly in high elevation zones with low pH soils, and show the need to consider other large-scale influences, in addition to habitat fragmentation, when addressing bird population declines. PMID:12177451

  4. Urbanization Breaks Up Host-Parasite Interactions: A Case Study on Parasite Community Ecology of Rufous-Bellied Thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a Rural-Urban Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites. PMID:25068271

  5. Urbanization breaks up host-parasite interactions: a case study on parasite community ecology of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient.

    PubMed

    Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites.

  6. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cottage cheese but can't be wiped away. Scraping the white patches off can cause some bleeding. ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  7. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... baby is being treated with the antifungal solution. Changing diapers often also prevents fungal diaper rashes . Treatment ...

  8. Thrush in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lee GE, Kaufman DA, Zaoutis TE. Candidiasis. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Are traditional methods of determining nest predators and nest fates reliable? An experiment with Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using miniature video cameras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Gary E.; Wood, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    We used miniature infrared video cameras to monitor Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests during 1998–2000. We documented nest predators and examined whether evidence at nests can be used to predict predator identities and nest fates. Fifty-six nests were monitored; 26 failed, with 3 abandoned and 23 depredated. We predicted predator class (avian, mammalian, snake) prior to review of video footage and were incorrect 57% of the time. Birds and mammals were underrepresented whereas snakes were over-represented in our predictions. We documented ≥9 nest-predator species, with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) taking the most nests (n = 8). During 2000, we predicted fate (fledge or fail) of 27 nests; 23 were classified correctly. Traditional methods of monitoring nests appear to be effective for classifying success or failure of nests, but ineffective at classifying nest predators.

  10. Geographic isolation drives divergence of uncorrelated genetic and song variation in the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii; Aves: Turdidae).

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Marco F; Andersen, Michael J; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2016-01-01

    Montane barriers influence the evolutionary history of lineages by promoting isolation of populations. The effects of these historical processes are evident in patterns of differentiation among extant populations, which are often expressed as genetic and behavioral variation between populations. We investigated the effects of geographic barriers on the evolutionary history of a Mesoamerican bird by studying patterns of genetic and vocal variation in the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Turdidae: Catharus frantzii), a non-migratory oscine bird that inhabits montane forests from central Mexico to Panama. We reconstructed the phylogeographic history and estimated divergence times between populations using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. We found strong support for the existence of four mitochondrial lineages of C. frantzii corresponding to isolated mountain ranges: Sierra Madre Oriental; Sierra Madre del Sur; the highlands of Chiapas, Guatemala, and El Salvador; and the Talamanca Cordillera. Vocal features in C. frantzii were highly variable among the four observed clades, but vocal variation and genetic variation were uncorrelated. Song variation in C. frantzii suggests that sexual selection and cultural drift could be important factors driving song differentiation in C. frantzii.

  11. Morphology and genetics reveal an intriguing pattern of differentiation at a very small geographic scale in a bird species, the forest thrush Turdus lherminieri

    PubMed Central

    Arnoux, E; Eraud, C; Navarro, N; Tougard, C; Thomas, A; Cavallo, F; Vetter, N; Faivre, B; Garnier, S

    2014-01-01

    Mobile organisms are expected to show population differentiation only over fairly large geographical distances. However, there is growing evidence of discrepancy between dispersal potential and realized gene flow. Here we report an intriguing pattern of differentiation at a very small spatial scale in the forest thrush (Turdus lherminieri), a bird species endemic to the Lesser Antilles. Analysis of 331 individuals from 17 sampling sites distributed over three islands revealed a clear morphological and genetic differentiation between these islands isolated by 40–50 km. More surprisingly, we found that the phenotypic divergence between the two geographic zones of the island of Guadeloupe was associated with a very strong genetic differentiation (Fst from 0.073–0.153), making this pattern a remarkable case in birds given the very small spatial scale considered. Molecular data (mitochondrial control region sequences and microsatellite genotypes) suggest that this strong differentiation could have occurred in situ, although alternative hypotheses cannot be fully discarded. This study suggests that the ongoing habitat fragmentation, especially in tropical forests, may have a deeper impact than previously thought on avian populations. PMID:24984605

  12. A family of vortex wakes generated by a thrush nightingale in free flight in a wind tunnel over its entire natural range of flight speeds.

    PubMed

    Spedding, G R; Rosén, M; Hedenström, A

    2003-07-01

    In view of the complexity of the wing-beat kinematics and geometry, an important class of theoretical models for analysis and prediction of bird flight performance entirely, or almost entirely, ignores the action of the wing itself and considers only the resulting motions in the air behind the bird. These motions can also be complicated, but some success has previously been recorded in detecting and measuring relatively simple wake structures that can sometimes account for required quantities used to estimate aerodynamic power consumption. To date, all bird wakes, measured or presumed, seem to fall into one of two classes: the closed-loop, discrete vortex model at low flight speeds, and the constant-circulation, continuous vortex model at moderate to high speeds. Here, novel and accurate quantitative measurements of velocity fields in vertical planes aligned with the freestream are used to investigate the wake structure of a thrush nightingale over its entire range of natural flight speeds. At most flight speeds, the wake cannot be categorised as one of the two standard types, but has an intermediate structure, with approximations to the closed-loop and constant-circulation models at the extremes. A careful accounting for all vortical structures revealed with the high-resolution technique permits resolution of the previously unexplained wake momentum paradox. All the measured wake structures have sufficient momentum to provide weight support over the wingbeat. A simple model is formulated and explained that mimics the correct, measured balance of forces in the downstroke- and upstroke-generated wake over the entire range of flight speeds. Pending further work on different bird species, this might form the basis for a generalisable flight model.

  13. On the importance of geographic and taxonomic sampling in phylogeography: A reevaluation of diversification and species limits in a Neotropical thrush (Aves, Turdidae).

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Phylogeographic studies seeking to describe biogeographic patterns, infer evolutionary processes, and revise species-level classification should properly characterize the distribution ranges of study species, and thoroughly sample genetic variation across taxa and geography. This is particularly necessary for widely distributed organisms occurring in complex landscapes, such as the Neotropical region. Here, we clarify the geographic range and revisit the phylogeography of the Black-billed Thrush (Turdus ignobilis), a common passerine bird from lowland tropical South America, whose evolutionary relationships and species limits were recently evaluated employing phylogeographic analyses based on partial knowledge of its distribution and incomplete sampling of populations. Our work employing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences sampled all named subspecies and multiple populations across northern South America, and uncovered patterns not apparent in earlier work, including a biogeographic interplay between the Amazon and Orinoco basins and the occurrence of distinct lineages with seemingly different habitat affinities in regional sympatry in the Colombian Amazon. In addition, we found that previous inferences about the affinities and taxonomic status of Andean populations assumed to be allied to populations from the Pantepui region were incorrect, implying that inferred biogeographic and taxonomic scenarios need re-evaluation. We propose a new taxonomic treatment, which recognizes two distinct biological species in the group. Our findings illustrate the importance of sufficient taxon and geographic sampling to reconstruct evolutionary history and to evaluate species limits among Neotropical organisms. Considering the scope of the questions asked, advances in Neotropical phylogeography will often require substantial cross-country scientific collaboration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of wind conditions in Europe on the advance in timing of the spring migration of the song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the south-east Baltic region.

    PubMed

    Sinelschikova, Alexandra; Kosarev, Vladislav; Panov, Ilya; Baushev, Alexey N

    2007-05-01

    Some of the factors that could influence changes in phenology of the song thrush (Turdus philomelos) during spring migration have been analyzed in relation to the timing of their return to the south-east Baltic region over the last 40 years. These include wind direction and velocity, temperature and precipitation in the wintering areas and along the migratory route. In March, a significant correlation was found between the timing of passage in the Baltic region and both the air temperatures in wintering area and winds over the migratory route. In April, when mass migration of thrushes occurs, the timing of passage was correlated with temperature, winds and, partly, precipitation over the route of migration. In this month, the frequency of tailwinds increased significantly along the route of migration from south-west France to the Baltic region over the last 40 years. The tailwind frequency was correlated with the beginning, middle and end of spring passage, accounting for 51% of the variance of median dates of the passage. The higher ambient temperatures over the migratory route explain nearly 20% of the variance in the timing of passage. Our results suggest that the advance in the timing of spring migration is primarily due to (1) the increased frequency of tailwinds favorable for migratory flights over the migratory route, and (2) the earlier emergence of the conditions enhancing migration due to higher spring temperatures in the winter quarters and on the migratory route.

  15. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Recommend ... by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida . Candida normally lives in the digestive tract and ...

  16. The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010.

  17. The Complete Sequence of a West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain Detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Tick Collected from a Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) in Eastern Romania in 2013 Revealed Closest Genetic Relationship to Strain Volgograd 2007

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J.; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

  18. Nutritional status in parasitized and nonparasitized children from two districts of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orden, Alicia B; Apezteguía, María C; Ciarmela, María L; Molina, Nora B; Pezzani, Betina C; Rosa, Diana; Minvielle, Marta C

    2014-01-01

    The Program for the Control of Intestinal Parasites and Nutrition was designed to intervene in small communities to prevent and control the effects of parasitic infections on children's health. To analyze the association between nutritional status and parasitic infection in suburban and rural children from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric (weight, height, BMI, skinfolds, upper arm circumference, muscle, and fat upper arm areas) and biochemical (Hb, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu) indicators. Parasitological analysis were made on both serial stool and perianal swab samples. A total of 708 children aged 3-11 were measured. The biochemical analysis included 217 blood samples and the parasitological study included 284 samples. Anthropometric status was similar in both settings with low rates of underweight and stunting (<6%), and high rates of overweight (~17%) and obesity (~12%). Ca deficiency was significantly higher in suburban children where 80% of them were hypocalcemic. Around 70% of fecal samples contained parasites. Among infected children, the most prevalent species were Blastocystis hominis and Enterobius vermicularis (~43%) followed by Giardia lamblia (~17%). Differences in parasitological status between districts were not significant. In the suburban district parasitized children were lighter, shorter, and had a lower upper arm circumference than their non-infected peers. No differences in anthropometric status were seen among infected and uninfected rural children. The results suggest an association between intestinal parasites and physical growth in suburban children. Rural children seem to be protected against the effects of parasitic infection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nonparasitic solitary giant hepatic cyst causing obstructive jaundice was successfully treated with monoethanolamine oleate.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Masahiko; Oka, Masashi; Izumiya, Takashi; Nagaoka, Tsunehiro; Ishihara, Yasuhito; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Arii, Kenji; Tamai, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yasuhito; Ichinose, Masao

    2006-01-01

    A 77-year-old man hospitalized for epigastric pain showed jaundice of the skin and conjunctivae. Laboratory tests revealed elevated hepatobiliary enzymes and inflammatory markers, and imaging studies demonstrated a 12 cm hepatic cyst compressing the common bile duct. The diagnosis was a giant hepatic cyst causing obstructive jaundice. Cyst drainage and sclerotherapy with 5% monoethanolamine oleate was performed twice, resulting in almost complete disappearance of the cyst. Obstructive jaundice due to a hepatic cyst, as seen in this case, is relatively rare and this report includes a review of other similar cases in Japan.

  20. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    PubMed

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonparasitic Nematoda provide evidence for a linear response of functionally important soil biota to increasing livestock density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Christian; Dijkstra, Jan B.; Setälä, Heikki

    2005-07-01

    Soil acidity, nutrient availability and livestock density have a major influence on the belowground ecological community. As fast decomposition rates are due mostly to bacterial-based pathways and slower decomposition rates mostly to fungal-based pathways, it is helpful to condense empirical information in the so-called Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR). The NCR is shown to be a good indicator of efficiency in soil decomposition processes. We argue that in intensive agroecosystems, other fungivore members of the decomposer food web may outcompete the hyphal-feeding nematodes. We demonstrate how the NCR can be used to set ecological standards for sustainable use of the soil in agroecosystems. To summarize the interactions between the microbial resources and the decomposer nematofauna according to increasing land management, we propose the use of the fifth percentile as proxy for a sustainable environmental quality of grasslands on sandy soils, and the NCR mean as the upper threshold for low-stocked farms.

  2. Hermit Thrush is the First Observed Dispersal Agent for Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia)

    Treesearch

    Carl G. Smith; Paul B. Hamel; Margaret S. Devall; Natan M. Schiff

    2004-01-01

    We investigated dispersal opportunities for the endangered pondberry, Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae). In 199 hours of observation at 5 fruiting colonies in the Delta National Forest, Sharkey County, Mississippi, we recorded 82 bird species in the vicinity of a colony. Of these, 12 were observed on pondberry plants, and two consumed ripe pondberry...

  3. Treatment of atoxoplasmosis in the Blue-crowned Laughing Thrush (Dryonastes courtoisi).

    PubMed

    Jamriška, Ján; Lavilla, Lourdes A; Thomasson, Ann; Barbon, Alberto R; Lopéz, Javier F; Modrý, David

    2013-12-01

    Passerines are frequently parasitized by coccidia, especially species of the genus Isospora, with extra-intestinal stages that can be highly pathogenic causing serious clinical damage in young birds. Whilst there is still no effective treatment to completely clear isosporoid coccidia with extra-intestinal stages from a host species, our results showed that prolonged treatment with toltrazuril (BAYER AG, Leverkusen, Germany) can decrease the oocysts in faeces and thus reduce the extra-intestinal phase of the infection. The toltrazuril treatment is therefore probably indirectly effective against the systemic form of atoxoplasmosis.

  4. Early Impacts of Residential Development on Wood Thrushes in an Urbanizing Forest

    Treesearch

    L. E. Friesen; E. D. Cheskey; M. D. Cadman; V. E. Martin; R. J. MacKay

    2005-01-01

    Environmental protection policies sometimes protect forests along an advancing suburban front although many of the forests may be brought into close proximity to residential housing. Research suggests that even when forests are physically preserved, their bird communities are simplified as the surroundings become urbanized. However, little is known of the time required...

  5. Shiny cowbird parasitism in two avian communities in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently expanded its range from South America to Puerto Rico via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and, on reaching Puerto Rico, encounteed avian species with no history of social parasitism. In mangrove habitat study areas, 42% of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized. Some species were heavily parasitized; e.g., yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), 76% of nests parasitized black-whiskered vireo (Vireo altiloquus), 82%, Puerto Rican flycatcher (Myiarchus antillarum), 85%, yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus), 95%, troupial (Icterus icterus), 100%, black-cowled oriole (I. dominicensis), 100%. Others suffered low rates of parasitism (2-17% of nests examined); e.g., gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis), red-legged thrush (Turdus plumbeus), bronze mannikin (Lonchura cucullata), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), greater antillean grackle (Quiscalus niger). Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by depressing nest success an average of 41% below non-parasitized nests and reducing host productivity. Parasitized host nests hatched 12% fewer eggs an fledged 67% fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs.

  6. Unifying view of stem-loop hairpin RNA as origin of current and ancient parasitic and non-parasitic RNAs, including in giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

    2016-06-01

    Putatively, stem-loop RNA hairpins explain networks of selfish elements and RNA world remnants. Their genomic density increases with intracellular lifestyle, especially when comparing giant viruses and their virophages. RNA protogenomes presumably templated for mRNAs and self-replicating stem-loops, ancestors of modern genes and parasitic sequences, including tRNAs and rRNAs. Primary and secondary structure analyses suggest common ancestry for t/rRNAs and parasitic RNAs, parsimoniously link diverse RNA metabolites (replication origins, tRNAs, ribozymes, riboswitches, miRNAs and rRNAs) to parasitic RNAs (ribosomal viroids, Rickettsia repeated palindromic elements (RPE), stem-loop hairpins in giant viruses, their virophages, and transposable retrovirus-derived elements). Results indicate ongoing genesis of small RNA metabolites, and common ancestry or similar genesis for rRNA and retroviral sequences. Assuming functional integration of modular duplicated RNA hairpins evolutionarily unifies diverse molecules, postulating stem-loop hairpin RNAs as origins of genetic innovation, ancestors of rRNAs, retro- and Mimivirus sequences, and cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal study of parasite-induced mortality of a long-lived host: the importance of exposure to non-parasitic stressors.

    PubMed

    Chin, Hilary M-H; Luong, Lien T; Shostak, Allen W

    2017-07-11

    Hosts face mortality from parasitic and environmental stressors, but interactions of parasitism with other stressors are not well understood, particularly for long-lived hosts. We monitored survival of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) in a longitudinal design incorporating cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection, starvation and exposure to the pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). We found that cestode cysticercoids exhibit increasing morphological damage and decreasing ability to excyst over time, but were never eliminated from the host. In the presence of even mild environmental stressors, host lifespan was reduced sufficiently that extensive degradation of cysticercoids was never realized. Median host lifespan was 200 days in the absence of stressors, and 3-197 days with parasitism, starvation and/or DE. Early survival of parasitized hosts was higher relative to controls in the presence of intermediate concentrations of DE, but reduced under all other conditions tested. Parasitism increased host mortality in the presence of other stressors at times when parasitism alone did not cause mortality, consistent with an interpretation of synergy. Environmental stressors modified the parasite numbers needed to reveal intensity-dependent host mortality, but only rarely masked intensity dependence. The longitudinal approach produced observations that would have been overlooked or misinterpreted if survival had only been monitored at a single time point.

  8. CD5+ B lymphocytes are the main source of antibodies reactive with non-parasite antigens in Trypanosoma congolense-infected cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Buza, J; Sileghem, M; Gwakisa, P; Naessens, J

    1997-01-01

    Mice infected with African trypanosomes produce exceptionally large amounts of serum IgM, a major part of which binds to non-trypanosome antigens such as trinitrophenol and single-strand DNA. In this paper, we describe that in cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense and T. vivax, similar antibodies are found, although they bind mainly to protein antigens, such as beta-galactosidase, ovalbumin and ferritin. The parasite non-specific IgM antibodies appear around the same time as the parasite-specific antibodies, but their origin and function are not clear. We tested the hypothesis that CD5+ B cells (or B-1 cells), which increase during trypanosome infections in cattle, are responsible for production of antibodies to non-trypanosome antigens. Splenic CD5+ and CD5- B cells from infected cattle were sorted and tested in a single cell blot assay. The numbers of immunoglobulin-secreting cells were similar in both B-cell populations. However, antibodies with reactivity for non-trypanosome antigens were significantly more prevalent in the CD5+ B-cell fraction and were exclusively IgM. The preference for production of these antibodies by CD5+ B cells and the expansion of this subpopulation during infections in cattle, strongly suggest that CD5+ B cells are the main source of trypanosome non-specific antibodies. We propose that these antibodies are natural, polyreactive antibodies that are predominantly secreted by CD5+ B cells. Since B-1 cells are up-regulated in many states of immune insufficiency, the immunosuppression associated with trypanosome infections may be responsible for the increase of this subset and the concomitant increase in trypanosome non-specific antibodies. PMID:9415031

  9. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds suffer greater rates of nest predation and nest parasitism in smaller forest patches and in fragmented landscapes. To compare the performance of different metrics of spatial habitat configuration resulting from defo...

  10. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds, and neotropical migrants in particular, are found in lower abundance in small patches of forest in the Eastern United States compared to similar, but larger patches in the same region. A common hypothesis for the ...

  11. 75 FR 3127 - Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft, Inc. Model 600 S2D and S2R Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...; There have only been a few cracks found, i.e., that there is not enough service history to support... inspection intervals for magnetic particle and eddy current inspections, and add a visual inspection every... visual inspection, the remaining strength in the wing spar joint is not enough to carry all of the...

  12. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds, and neotropical migrants in particular, are found in lower abundance in small patches of forest in the Eastern United States compared to similar, but larger patches in the same region. A common hypothesis for the ...

  13. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds suffer greater rates of nest predation and nest parasitism in smaller forest patches and in fragmented landscapes. To compare the performance of different metrics of spatial habitat configuration resulting from defo...

  14. Hierarchical temporal structure in music, speech and animal vocalizations: jazz is like a conversation, humpbacks sing like hermit thrushes.

    PubMed

    Kello, Christopher T; Bella, Simone Dalla; Médé, Butovens; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance. AF variances were analysed and compared for over 200 different recordings from more than 16 different categories of signals, including recordings of speech in different contexts and languages, musical compositions and performances from different genres. Non-human vocalizations from two bird species and two types of marine mammals were also analysed for comparison. The resulting patterns of AF variance across timescales were distinct to each of four natural categories of complex sound: speech, popular music, classical music and complex animal vocalizations. Comparisons within and across categories indicated that nested clustering in longer timescales was more prominent when prosodic variation was greater, and when sounds came from interactions among individuals, including interactions between speakers, musicians, and even killer whales. Nested clustering also was more prominent for music compared with speech, and reflected beat structure for popular music and self-similarity across timescales for classical music. In summary, hierarchical temporal structures reflect the behavioural and social processes underlying complex vocalizations and musical performances. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Evaluating effective swath width and droplet distribution of aerial spraying systems on M-18B and Thrush 510G airplanes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerial spraying plays an important role in promoting agricultural production and protecting the biological environment due to its flexibility, high effectiveness, and large operational area per unit of time. In order to evaluate the performance parameters of the spraying systems on two fixed wing ai...

  16. Comparison of selected lift and sideslip characteristics of the Ayres Thrush S2R-800, winglets off and winglets on, to full-scale wind-tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Williams, M.

    1981-01-01

    All calculations were done in the stability axes system. The winglets used were constructed of modified GA(w)-2 airfoils. Aerodynamic characteristics discussed include: angle of attack; lift-curve slope; side force; yawing moments; rolling moments.

  17. Generalist birds govern the seed dispersal of a parasitic plant with strong recruitment constraints.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Ana; Zamora, Regino

    2014-09-01

    Mistletoes constitute instructive study cases with which to address the role of generalist consumers in the study of plant-animal interactions. Their ranges of safe sites for recruitment are among the most restricted of any plant; therefore, frugivores specializing in mistletoe have been considered almost indispensable for the seed dispersal of these parasitic plants. However, the absence of such specialists in numerous regions inhabited by many mistletoe species raises the question of whether unspecialized vectors may successfully disperse mistletoe seeds to narrowly defined safe sites. Using the European mistletoe Viscum album subsp. austriacum as a study case, we recorded a broad range of 11 bird species that disperse mistletoe seeds. For these species, we studied the mistletoe-visitation rate and feeding behavior to estimate the quantity component of dispersal effectiveness, and the post-foraging microhabitat use, seed handling, and recruitment probabilities of different microhabitats as a measure of the quality component of effectiveness. Both endozoochory and ectozoochory are valid dispersal mechanisms, as the seeds do not need to be ingested to germinate, increasing seed-dispersal versatility. Thrushes were the most effective dispersers, although they were rather inefficient, whereas small birds (both frugivores and non-frugivores) offered low-quantity but high-quality services for depositing seeds directly upon safe sites. As birds behave similarly on parasitized and non-parasitized hosts, and vectors have broad home ranges, reinfection within patches and the colonization of new patches are ensured by an ample assemblage of generalist birds. Thus, a parasitic plant requiring precision in seed dispersal can rely on unspecialized dispersers.

  18. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may ... mouth Images Oral thrush Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Mouth sores References Daniels TE, Jordan RC. ...

  19. [Life Forms of Lampreys (Petromyzontidae) as a Manifestation of Intraspecific Diversity of Ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Makhrova, A A; Popov, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    Some lamprey genera include the forms that have significantly different life cycles (the most well-known are the "anadromous" and "resident," or the "parasitic" and "nonparasitic" forms). The analysis of data on the genetic characteristics of these forms shows that, in some cases, the nonparasitic lampreys independently derived from the parasitic ones in different aqueous systems. These data, together with the results of morphological analysis as well as data on the distribution, ecology, hybridization, and observations ofjoint spawning of parasitic and nonparasitic forms show that these forms belong to the same species (except the resident forms that were isolated long ago).

  20. [Hemi-splenectomy in epidermoid cyst of the spleen. Presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Meca Garrido, J; Ruiz Jiménez, J I; Guitiérrez Cantó, M A; Zambudio, G A

    1993-04-01

    We report a case of non-parasitic splenic cyst, diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound scan. These were treated by partial splenectomy. The anatomopathological study indicated the existence of epithelial coating.

  1. Yeast Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... For You Children Teenagers Men Patient Handouts Summary Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  2. Inert Reassessment Document for Copper Naphthenate - CAS No. 1338-02-9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Copper naphthenate is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an indirect food additive, and for use in veterinary topical applications to the surface of horse and pony hooves that have Thrush.

  3. Fungal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis is needed, as in cases of persistent, deep, or systemic infections, more extensive testing may be ... mouth (thrush) Vaginal itching and discharge (yeast infection) Deep and systemic fungal infections may cause a variety ...

  4. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects with inhaled steroids are thrush (a yeast infection of the mouth or throat that causes ... There have been concerns regarding the possibility of growth suppression in children. Recent studies have not shown ...

  5. How Is Kaposi Sarcoma Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs is a particularly bad sign. I (immune system) status The immune status is assessed using a ... in healthy people but affect people with suppressed immune systems) or thrush (a fungal infection in the mouth). ...

  6. ESTIMATING REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on the statistical issues surrounding estimation of avian nest-survival. I first describe the natural history and breeding ecology of two North American songbirds, the Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)....

  7. Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Colaptes auratus American crow Corvus brachyrhynchos blue jay Cyanocitta cristata yellow warbler Dendroica petechia wood thrush Hylocichla...22192-5073 Attn: Sandra Oliver Central Rappahannock Regional Library 1201 Caroline Street Fredericksburg,VA 22401 Attn: Ann Haley

  8. 21 CFR 524.463 - Copper naphthenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and ponies for thrush caused by organisms susceptible to copper naphthenate. (3) Limitations. Use on horses and ponies only. Avoid contact around eyes. Do not contaminate feed. Do not use in horses...

  9. Variations in the presence of chloride cells in the gills of lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Bartels, H; Docker, M F; Krappe, M; White, M M; Wrede, C; Potter, I C

    2015-04-01

    Although confined to fresh water, non-parasitic species of lampreys and the landlocked parasitic sea lamprey, all of which were derived relatively recently from an adromous ancestors, still develop chloride cells, whose function in their ancestors was for osmoregulation in marine waters during the adult parasitic phase. In contrast, such cells are not developed by the non-parasitic least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera, which has been separated from its ancestor for >2 million years, nor by the freshwater parasitic species of the genus Ichthyomyzon. The length of time that a non-parasitic species or landlocked parasitic form or species has spent in fresh water is thus considered the overriding factor determining whether chloride cells are developed by those lampreys.

  10. A productivity model for parasitized, multibrooded songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Knutson, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    We present an enhancement of a simulation model to predict annual productivity for Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla); the model includes effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism. We used species-specific data from the Driftless Area Ecoregion of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa to parameterize the model as a case study. The simulation model predicted annual productivity of 2.03 ?? 1.60 SD for Wood Thrushes and 1.56 ?? 1.31 SD for American Redstarts. Our sensitivity analysis showed that high parasitism lowered Wood Thrush annual productivity more than American Redstart productivity, even though parasitism affected individual nests of redstarts more severely. Annual productivity predictions are valuable for habitat managers, but productivity is not easily obtained from field studies. Our model provides a useful means of integrating complex life history parameters to predict productivity for songbirds that experience nest parasitism. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  11. Radioactivity measurements on migrating birds (Turdus philomelos) captured in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro, E; Roldán, C; Cervera, J; Ferrero, J L

    1998-01-19

    The radionuclides 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated.

  12. Population dynamics of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a subtropical subhumid region of Argentina for use in the design of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Canevari, J T; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A; Nava, S

    2017-03-01

    The population dynamics of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in northwest Argentina was analysed to support the design of strategic methods for its control. Both parasitic and non-parasitic phases were studied. The seasonal activity of R. microplus in its parasitic phase was characterized by three peaks in abundance: the first in mid-late spring; the second in summer, and the third in autumn. The non-parasitic phase of R. microplus was characterized by a long total non-parasitic period observed after exposures of females from mid-summer to early autumn, a short total non-parasitic period observed after exposures of females from late winter to late spring, a short period of larval longevity in early and mid-summer, and no hatch of the eggs produced by females exposed in mid- and late autumn and winter. Treatments of cattle administered during the period from late winter to late spring will act on small cohorts of R. microplus, preventing the emergence of larger generations in summer and autumn. A 17-week spelling period starting in late spring and early summer will be necessary to achieve optimal control of R. microplus free-living larvae. If spelling begins in mid- or late summer or in autumn, the required period will be 26-27 weeks. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Pathological and ecological host consequences of infection by an introduced fish parasite.

    PubMed

    Britton, J Robert; Pegg, Josephine; Williams, Chris F

    2011-01-01

    The infection consequences of the introduced cestode fish parasite Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were studied in a cohort of wild, young-of-the-year common carp Cyprinus carpio that lacked co-evolution with the parasite. Within the cohort, parasite prevalence was 42% and parasite burdens were up to 12% body weight. Pathological changes within the intestinal tract of parasitized carp included distension of the gut wall, epithelial compression and degeneration, pressure necrosis and varied inflammatory changes. These were most pronounced in regions containing the largest proportion of mature proglottids. Although the body lengths of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were not significantly different, parasitized fish were of lower body condition and reduced weight compared to non-parasitized conspecifics. Stable isotope analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) revealed trophic impacts associated with infection, particularly for δ(15)N where values for parasitized fish were significantly reduced as their parasite burden increased. In a controlled aquarium environment where the fish were fed ad libitum on an identical food source, there was no significant difference in values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. The growth consequences remained, however, with parasitized fish growing significantly slower than non-parasitized fish, with their feeding rate (items s(-1)) also significantly lower. Thus, infection by an introduced parasite had multiple pathological, ecological and trophic impacts on a host with no experience of the parasite.

  14. [Effect of agrochemicals and bio-control productions on soil nematode community dynamics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanmin; Duan, Yuxi; Chen, Lijie; Liang, Chen

    2002-05-01

    Dynamics of soil nematode communities amended with agrochemicals and bio-control preparations were investigated in a soybean field. The results showed that the frequency of plant non-parasitic nematodes were obviously higher in soil amended with bio-control preparations (Doufeng 1) than with urea and herbicide, however, that of plant parasitic nematodes exhibited an inverse trend.

  15. DYNAMICS OF NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN CACAO GROWN UNDER TRADIONALLY SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT IN PERUVIAN AMAZON

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nature of crops and management systems greatly influences population dynamics of parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes in soil. An experiment was undertaken at Tropical Crop Research institute (ICT), Tarapoto, Peru to assess the population dynamics of nematodes in a Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)-Banana ...

  16. Pathological and Ecological Host Consequences of Infection by an Introduced Fish Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Britton, J. Robert; Pegg, Josephine; Williams, Chris F.

    2011-01-01

    The infection consequences of the introduced cestode fish parasite Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were studied in a cohort of wild, young-of-the-year common carp Cyprinus carpio that lacked co-evolution with the parasite. Within the cohort, parasite prevalence was 42% and parasite burdens were up to 12% body weight. Pathological changes within the intestinal tract of parasitized carp included distension of the gut wall, epithelial compression and degeneration, pressure necrosis and varied inflammatory changes. These were most pronounced in regions containing the largest proportion of mature proglottids. Although the body lengths of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were not significantly different, parasitized fish were of lower body condition and reduced weight compared to non-parasitized conspecifics. Stable isotope analysis (δ15N and δ13C) revealed trophic impacts associated with infection, particularly for δ15N where values for parasitized fish were significantly reduced as their parasite burden increased. In a controlled aquarium environment where the fish were fed ad libitum on an identical food source, there was no significant difference in values of δ15N and δ13C between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. The growth consequences remained, however, with parasitized fish growing significantly slower than non-parasitized fish, with their feeding rate (items s−1) also significantly lower. Thus, infection by an introduced parasite had multiple pathological, ecological and trophic impacts on a host with no experience of the parasite. PMID:22022606

  17. Travel-associated diseases, Indian Ocean Islands, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Savini, Hélène; Gautret, Philippe; Gaudart, Jean; Field, Vanessa; Castelli, Francesco; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Lim, Poh Lian; Shaw, Marc; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Loutan, Louis; Simon, Fabrice

    2013-08-01

    Data collected by the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network for 1,415 ill travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands during 1997-2010 were analyzed. Malaria (from Comoros and Madagascar), acute nonparasitic diarrhea, and parasitoses were the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases. An increase in arboviral diseases reflected the 2005 outbreak of chikungunya fever.

  18. Travel-associated Diseases, Indian Ocean Islands, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gautret, Philippe; Gaudart, Jean; Field, Vanessa; Castelli, Francesco; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Lim, Poh Lian; Shaw, Marc; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Loutan, Louis; Simon, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Data collected by the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network for 1,415 ill travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands during 1997–2010 were analyzed. Malaria (from Comoros and Madagascar), acute nonparasitic diarrhea, and parasitoses were the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases. An increase in arboviral diseases reflected the 2005 outbreak of chikungunya fever. PMID:23876977

  19. Evaluation of habitat suitability models for forest passerines using demographic data

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Frank R., III Thompson; William D. Dijak; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Richard L. Clawson

    2010-01-01

    Habitat suitability is often used as a surrogate for demographic responses (i.e., abundance, survival, fecundity, or population viability) in the application of habitat suitability index (HSI) models. Whether habitat suitability actually relates to demographics, however, has rarely been evaluated. We validated HSI models of breeding habitat suitability for wood thrush...

  20. Candida in mouth or on dummy?

    PubMed Central

    Manning, D J; Coughlin, R P; Poskitt, E M

    1985-01-01

    Mouth and dummy swabs for Candida spp. were obtained from 100 children under 18 months old admitted with acute medical conditions. Forty four per cent of dummies were colonised by Candida spp. Children who sucked dummies had clinical thrush and positive mouth swabs for candida more frequently than those who did not. PMID:4004318

  1. Lucibufagins: Defensive steroids from the fireflies Photinus ignitus and P. marginellus (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)*

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Wiemer, David F.; Haynes, LeRoy W.; Meinwald, Jerrold

    1978-01-01

    Feeding tests with thrushes (Hylocichla spp.) led to the isolation of three novel steroid pyrones from fireflies (Photinus ignitus and P. marginellus) responsible, in part at least, for the unpalatability of these insects to the birds. The term lucibufagin is coined for these steroidal pyrones. The closest known relatives of lucibufagins are the familiar cardiotonic bufadienolides, found in certain toads and plants. PMID:16592501

  2. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

    Treesearch

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  3. Development of landscape-level habitat suitability models for ten wildlife species in the central hardwoods region

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; William D. Dijak; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2007-01-01

    Reports landscape-level habitat suitability models for 10 species in the Central Hardwoods Region of the Midwestern United States: American woodcock, cerulean warbler, Henslow's sparrow, Indiana bat, northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, timber rattlesnake, wood thrush, worm-eating warbler, and yellow-breasted chat. All models included spatially explicit variables and...

  4. YVUN Celebrates Its 4th Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonka, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the formation of the Youth Visits the United Nations (YVUN) program. The program began in 2003 with funds provided by the Ursula Thrush Peace Seed Grant. Its purpose is to bring middle school students to New York to attend sessions of the United Nations, allowing these adolescents the opportunity to learn about global issues…

  5. Predicting Metapopulation Responses to Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes

    Treesearch

    Zachary S. Ladin; Vincent D' Amico; Jan M. Baetens; Roland R. Roth; W. Gregory Shriver

    2016-01-01

    Loss of habitat to urbanization is a primary cause of population declines as human-dominated landscapes expand at increasing rates. Understanding how the relative effects of different conservation strategies is important to slow population declines for species in urban landscapes. We studied the wood thrush Hylocichla mustelina, a declining forest-...

  6. YVUN Celebrates Its 4th Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonka, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the formation of the Youth Visits the United Nations (YVUN) program. The program began in 2003 with funds provided by the Ursula Thrush Peace Seed Grant. Its purpose is to bring middle school students to New York to attend sessions of the United Nations, allowing these adolescents the opportunity to learn about global issues…

  7. Edgewood Arsenal: An Installation Environmental Impact Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    Brown thrasher 123. Tw-dus migratorius Robin 124. Hylocichla mustelina Wood thrush 125. Hylocichia guttata Hermit thiush 126. Hylociclzla ustulata...Eastern garter snake Common 29. Kinosternon s. subrubrum Eastern mud turtle Abundant 30. Chelydra s. serpentina Snapping turtle Abundant 31. Clemmys ... guttata Spotted turtle Abundant 32. Clemmnys muhlenbergi Bog turtle Unknown 33. Terrapene c. carolina Eastern box turtle Abundant 34. Malaclemys t

  8. Reproductive success of migratory birds in habitat sources and sinks

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Donovan; Frank R. , III Thompson; John Faaborg; John R. Probst

    1995-01-01

    Fragmentation of breeding habitat in North America has been implicated in the decline of forest-nesting, Neotropical migrant birds. We used a comparative approach to examine the effects of fragmentation on three forest-nesting migrants: Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo ofivaceus), and Wood Thrush (...

  9. Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirds.

    PubMed Central

    Lovette, Irby J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a dramatic example of adaptive radiation but contrast with the four other songbird lineages that successfully colonized the Hawaiian archipelago and failed to undergo similar diversification. To explore the processes that produced the diversity dichotomy in this insular fauna, we compared clade age and morphological diversity between the speciose honeycreepers and the comparatively depauperate Hawaiian thrushes. Mitochondrial-DNA-based genetic distances between these Hawaiian clades and their continental sister taxa indicate that the ancestral thrush colonized the Hawaiian Islands as early as the common ancestor of the honeycreepers. This similar timing of colonization indicates that the marked difference in diversity between the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush clades is unlikely to result from differences in these clades' tenures within the archipelago. If time cannot explain the contrasting diversities of these taxa, then an intrinsic, clade-specific trait may have fostered the honeycreeper radiation. As the honeycreepers have diversified most dramatically in morphological characters related to resource utilization, we used principal components analyses of bill characters to compare the magnitudes of morphological variation in the ancestral clades from which the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush lineages are derived, the Carduelini and Turdinae respectively. Although the Carduelini share a more recent common ancestor and have a lower species diversity than the Turdinae, these finch-like relatives of the honeycreepers exhibit significantly greater variation in bill morphology than do the continental relatives of the Hawaiian thrushes. The higher magnitude of morphological variation in the non-Hawaiian Carduelini suggests that the honeycreepers fall within a clade exhibiting a generally high evolutionary flexibility in bill morphology. Accordingly, although the magnitude of bill variation among the honeycreepers is similar to that of

  10. Effects of Land Cover on the Movement of Frugivorous Birds in a Heterogeneous Landscape.

    PubMed

    Da Silveira, Natalia Stefanini; Niebuhr, Bernardo Brandão S; Muylaert, Renata de Lara; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    Movement is a key spatiotemporal process that enables interactions between animals and other elements of nature. The understanding of animal trajectories and the mechanisms that influence them at the landscape level can yield insight into ecological processes and potential solutions to specific ecological problems. Based upon optimal foraging models and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that movement by thrushes is highly tortuous (low average movement speeds and homogeneous distribution of turning angles) inside forests, moderately tortuous in urban areas, which present intermediary levels of resources, and minimally tortuous (high movement speeds and turning angles next to 0 radians) in open matrix types (e.g., crops and pasture). We used data on the trajectories of two common thrush species (Turdus rufiventris and Turdus leucomelas) collected by radio telemetry in a fragmented region in Brazil. Using a maximum likelihood model selection approach we fit four probability distribution models to average speed data, considering short-tailed, long-tailed, and scale-free distributions (to represent different regimes of movement variation), and one distribution to relative angle data. Models included land cover type and distance from forest-matrix edges as explanatory variables. Speed was greater farther away from forest edges and increased faster inside forest habitat compared to urban and open matrices. However, turning angle was not influenced by land cover. Thrushes presented a very tortuous trajectory, with many displacements followed by turns near 180 degrees. Thrush trajectories resembled habitat and edge dependent, tortuous random walks, with a well-defined movement scale inside each land cover type. Although thrushes are habitat generalists, they showed a greater preference for forest edges, and thus may be considered edge specialists. Our results reinforce the importance of studying animal movement patterns in order to understand ecological processes such as

  11. Effects of Land Cover on the Movement of Frugivorous Birds in a Heterogeneous Landscape

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Movement is a key spatiotemporal process that enables interactions between animals and other elements of nature. The understanding of animal trajectories and the mechanisms that influence them at the landscape level can yield insight into ecological processes and potential solutions to specific ecological problems. Based upon optimal foraging models and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that movement by thrushes is highly tortuous (low average movement speeds and homogeneous distribution of turning angles) inside forests, moderately tortuous in urban areas, which present intermediary levels of resources, and minimally tortuous (high movement speeds and turning angles next to 0 radians) in open matrix types (e.g., crops and pasture). We used data on the trajectories of two common thrush species (Turdus rufiventris and Turdus leucomelas) collected by radio telemetry in a fragmented region in Brazil. Using a maximum likelihood model selection approach we fit four probability distribution models to average speed data, considering short-tailed, long-tailed, and scale-free distributions (to represent different regimes of movement variation), and one distribution to relative angle data. Models included land cover type and distance from forest-matrix edges as explanatory variables. Speed was greater farther away from forest edges and increased faster inside forest habitat compared to urban and open matrices. However, turning angle was not influenced by land cover. Thrushes presented a very tortuous trajectory, with many displacements followed by turns near 180 degrees. Thrush trajectories resembled habitat and edge dependent, tortuous random walks, with a well-defined movement scale inside each land cover type. Although thrushes are habitat generalists, they showed a greater preference for forest edges, and thus may be considered edge specialists. Our results reinforce the importance of studying animal movement patterns in order to understand ecological processes such as

  12. Genomics of Loa loa, a Wolbachia-free filarial parasite of humans

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Christopher A.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Hotopp, Julie C. Dunning; Haas, Brian J.; Zucker, Jeremy; Ribeiro, Jose’ M.C.; Saif, Sakina; Levin, Joshua Z.; Fan, Lin; Zeng, Qiandong; Russ, Carsten; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Fink, Doran L.; Birren, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    Loa loa, the African eyeworm, is a major filarial pathogen of humans. Unlike most filariae, Loa loa does not contain the obligate intracellular Wolbachia endosymbiont. We describe the 91.4 Mb genome of Loa loa, and the genome of the related filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti, and predict 14,907 Loa loa genes based on microfilarial RNA sequencing. By comparing these genomes to that of another filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, and to several other nematode genomes, we demonstrate synteny among filariae but not with non-parasitic nematodes. The Loa loa genome encodes many immunologically relevant genes, as well as protein kinases targeted by drugs currently approved for humans. Despite lacking Wolbachia, Loa loa shows no new metabolic synthesis or transport capabilities compared to other filariae. These results suggest that the role played by Wolbachia in filarial biology is more subtle than previously thought and reveal marked differences between parasitic and non-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23525074

  13. Effects of aerially applied mexacarbate on western spruce budworm larvae and their parasites in Montana

    Treesearch

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea; Mark D. McGregor

    1979-01-01

    In tests on the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, in 1965 and 1966, mexacarbate, aerially applied at the rate of 0.15 lb a.i./gal/acre (68.04 g a.iJ3.785 1/0.404 ha), killed about 90 percent of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) populations. More parasitized budworm larvae survived treatments than nonparasitized.

  14. Sneak male mating tactics between lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) exhibiting alternative life-history strategies.

    PubMed

    Hume, J B; Adams, C E; Mable, B; Bean, C W

    2013-03-01

    Interspecific sneak male mating tactics between paired lamprey species are described for the first time. Although alternative mating tactics among petromyzontids have been described previously, including intraspecific sneak males, the presence of sneak male tactics between parasitic and non-parasitic forms suggests that high levels of gene flow between putative lamprey species could remain high, despite large body size discrepancies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. The Central Nervous System of Jawless Vertebrates: Encephalization in Lampreys and Hagfishes.

    PubMed

    Salas, Carlos A; Yopak, Kara E; Lisney, Thomas J; Potter, Ian C; Collin, Shaun P

    2017-01-01

    Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole surviving representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) stage in vertebrate evolution, which has previously been regarded as the least encephalized group of all vertebrates. Very little is known, however, about the extent of interspecific variation in relative brain size in these fishes, as previous studies have focused on only a few species, even though lampreys exhibit a variety of life history traits. While some species are parasitic as adults, with varying feeding behaviors, others (nonparasitic species) do not feed after completing their macrophagous freshwater larval phase. In addition, some parasitic species remain in freshwater, while others undergo an anadromous migration. On the basis of data for postmetamorphic individuals representing approximately 40% of all lamprey species, with representatives from each of the three families, the aforementioned differences in life history traits are reflected in variations in relative brain size. Across all lampreys, brain mass increases with body mass with a scaling factor or slope (α) of 0.35, which is less than those calculated for different groups of gnathostomatous (jawed) vertebrates (α = 0.43-0.62). When parasitic and nonparasitic species are analyzed separately, with phylogeny taken into account, the scaling factors of both groups (parasitic α = 0.43, nonparasitic α = 0.45) approach those of gnathostomes. The relative brain size in fully grown adults of parasitic species is, however, less than that of the adults of nonparasitic species, paralleling differences between fully grown adults and recently metamorphosed individuals of anadromous species. The average degree of encephalization is found in anadromous parasitic lampreys and might thus represent the ancestral condition for extant lampreys. These results suggest that the degree of encephalization in lampreys varies according to both life history traits and phylogenetic relationships. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Parasites modify sub-cellular partitioning of metals in the gut of fish.

    PubMed

    Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Kraak, Michiel H S; Gichuki, John; Ogwai, Caleb

    2012-01-15

    Infestation of fish by parasites may influence metal accumulation patterns in the host. However, the subcellular mechanisms of these processes have rarely been studied. Therefore, this study determined how a cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) partitioned four metals (Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) in the subcellular fractions of the gut in presence of an endoparasite (Ligula intestinalis). The fish were sampled along four sites in Lake Victoria, Kenya differing in metal contamination. Accumulation of Cd, Cr and Zn was higher in the whole body and in the gut of parasitized fish compared to non-parasitized fish, while Cu was depleted in parasitized fish. Generally, for both non-parasitized and parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn partitioned in the cytosolic fractions and Cu in the particulate fraction. Metal concentrations in organelles within the particulate fractions of the non-parasitized fish were statistically similar except for Cd in the lysosome, while in the parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn were accumulated more by the lysosome and microsomes. In the cytosolic fractions, the non-parasitized fish accumulated Cd, Cr and Zn in the heat stable proteins (HSP), while in the parasitized fish the metals were accumulated in the heat denatured proteins (HDP). On the contrary, Cu accumulated in the HSP in parasitized fish. The present study revealed specific binding of metals to potentially sensitive sub-cellular fractions in fish in the presence of parasites, suggesting interference with metal detoxification, and potentially affecting the health status of fish hosts in Lake Victoria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing the phylogenetic position of a parasitic plant (Cuscuta, Convolvulaceae, asteridae): Bayesian inference and the parametric bootstrap on data drawn from three genomes.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Sasa; Olmstead, Richard G

    2004-06-01

    Previous findings on structural rearrangements in the chloroplast genome of Cuscuta (dodder), the only parasitic genus in the morning-glory family, Convolvulaceae, were attributed to its parasitic life style, but without proper comparison to related nonparasitic members of the family. Before molecular evolutionary questions regarding genome evolution can be answered, the phylogenetic problems within the family need to be resolved. However, the phylogenetic position of parasitic angiosperms and their precise relationship to nonparasitic relatives are difficult to infer. Problems are encountered with both morphological and molecular evidence. Molecular data have been used in numerous studies to elucidate relationships of parasitic taxa, despite accelerated rates of sequence evolution. To address the question of the position of the genus Cuscuta within Convolvulaceae, we generated a new molecular data set consisting of mitochondrial (atpA) and nuclear (RPB2) genes, and analyzed these data together with an existing chloroplast data matrix (rbcL, atpB, trnL-F, and psbE-J), to which an additional chloroplast gene (rpl2) was added. This data set was analyzed with an array of phylogenetic methods, including Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony. Further exploration of data was done by using methods of phylogeny hypothesis testing. At least two nonparasitic lineages are shown to diverge within the Convolvulaceae before Cuscuta. However, the exact sister group of Cuscuta could not be ascertained, even though many alternatives were rejected with confidence. Caution is therefore warranted when interpreting the causes of molecular evolution in Cuscuta. Detailed comparisons with nonparasitic Convolvulaceae are necessary before firm conclusions can be reached regarding the effects of the parasitic mode of life on patterns of molecular evolution in Cuscuta.

  18. Evaluation and differential diagnosis of marked, persistent eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Nutman, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis: Hyperosinophilic syndromes (HES) are a group of heterogeneous disorders many of which remain ill-defined. By definition, the HES must be distinguished from other disorders with persistently elevated eosinophilia with a defined cause. Although marked eosinophilia worldwide is most commonly caused by helminth (worm) infections, the diagnostic approach must include non-infectious (non-parasitic) causes of marked eosinophilia as well. PMID:17868863

  19. Can Interactions Between an Omnivorous Hemipteran and an Egg Parasitoid Limit the Level of Biological Control for the Tomato Pinworm?

    PubMed

    Cabello, Tomas; Bonfil, Francisco; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Garay, Jozsef

    2015-02-01

    Relationships between the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) and the egg parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti were studied in the laboratory (no-choice and choice assays, and functional responses) and in a greenhouse experiment. Both natural enemies are utilized in the biological control of tomato pinworm on greenhouse-grown tomato crops. Three different food items were offered to the predator: nonparasitized prey, prey parasitized for less than 4 d by T. achaeae, and prey parasitized for more than 4 d by the parasitoid. There were significant differences in consumption of food types, with highest consumption for nonparasitized prey, followed by parasitized (<4 d) and then parasitized (>4 d), both in no-choice and choice trials. At the same time, the predator causes a significant mortality in the prey (over 80%) regardless of previous parasitism, resulting in a very coincidental intraguild predation detrimental to the parasitoid. It has also been observed that there was a change in the functional response by the predator from Type II in presence of nonparasitized prey to Type I when there was a combination of parasitized and nonparasitized prey. This represents an increase of instantaneous search rate (a') and a decrease of handling time (Th), which indicates a change in feeding behavior on the two prey types. Under greenhouse conditions, the intraguild predation reduced the percentage of parasitism by T. achaeae in just over 20%. However, when both natural enemies were present, a better control of pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was achieved than in the case of application of any of them alone. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds may persist in the post fledging period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) typically decreases the number of host juveniles that fledge: however, little information exists regarding the effect of cowbird parasitism during the post-fledging period. We monitored 115 Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) nests in 2006–2008 in northcentral Minnesota, six of which were parasitized. We used radiotelemetry to monitor movements of 36 Ovenbird fledglings (nine additional fledglings depredated <24 hrs after fledging were excluded from the movement analysis) from non-parasitized nests and one fledgling from a parasitized nest. Clutch sizes and productivity were lower in parasitized Ovenbird nests than non-parasitized nests, similar to populations at other locations. The fledgling we tracked from a parasitized nest (in 2008) died after 26 days. It was the only fledgling in our study that died (n  =  20) with no sign of predation and an empty stomach. That fledgling took 12 days to travel >50 m from its nest and 25 days to travel >100 m from its nest. Fledglings from non-parasitized broods tracked for ≥25 days during 2008 (n  =  16) took 4.1 ± 0.71 and 9.5 ± 1.14 days to travel the same distances. Our observations suggest that negative effects of brood parasitism may persist into the post-fledging period, possibly confirming observations of cowbird-only survival compiled from the literature.

  1. Potential Host Manipulation by the Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius avenae to Enhance Cold Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Alford, Lucy; Androdias, Annabelle; Franco, Thomas; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Burel, Françoise; van Baaren, Joan

    2016-01-01

    During parasitoid development, the immature parasitoid is confined to the host species. As a result, any potential to modify the physiology or behaviour of the host could play an important role in parasitoid fitness. The potential for host manipulation by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius avenae to increase cold thermotolerance was investigated using the aphid host species Metopolophium dirhodum and Sitobion avenae. Aphids were parasitized at L3/L4 instar stage (5 d old) and allowed to develop into pre-reproductive adults (10 d old) containing a 5 d old parasitoid larva. A control group was created of non-parasitized pre-reproductive adults (10 d old). The inherent physiological thermotolerance (LT50) and potential behavioural thermoregulation (behaviour in a declining temperature regime) of parasitized and non-parasitized aphids were investigated. Results revealed no effect of parasitism on the physiological thermotolerance of S. avenae and M. dirhodum. Significant differences in the behaviour of parasitized and non-parasitized aphids were observed, in addition to differences between host species, and such behaviours are discussed in view of the potential for host manipulation.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analyses reveal core parasitism genes and suggest gene duplication and repurposing as sources of structural novelty.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Wafula, Eric K; Honaas, Loren A; Zhang, Huiting; Das, Malay; Fernandez-Aparicio, Monica; Huang, Kan; Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C G; Wu, Biao; Der, Joshua P; Clarke, Christopher R; Ralph, Paula E; Landherr, Lena; Altman, Naomi S; Timko, Michael P; Yoder, John I; Westwood, James H; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2015-03-01

    The origin of novel traits is recognized as an important process underlying many major evolutionary radiations. We studied the genetic basis for the evolution of haustoria, the novel feeding organs of parasitic flowering plants, using comparative transcriptome sequencing in three species of Orobanchaceae. Around 180 genes are upregulated during haustorial development following host attachment in at least two species, and these are enriched in proteases, cell wall modifying enzymes, and extracellular secretion proteins. Additionally, about 100 shared genes are upregulated in response to haustorium inducing factors prior to host attachment. Collectively, we refer to these newly identified genes as putative "parasitism genes." Most of these parasitism genes are derived from gene duplications in a common ancestor of Orobanchaceae and Mimulus guttatus, a related nonparasitic plant. Additionally, the signature of relaxed purifying selection and/or adaptive evolution at specific sites was detected in many haustorial genes, and may play an important role in parasite evolution. Comparative analysis of gene expression patterns in parasitic and nonparasitic angiosperms suggests that parasitism genes are derived primarily from root and floral tissues, but with some genes co-opted from other tissues. Gene duplication, often taking place in a nonparasitic ancestor of Orobanchaceae, followed by regulatory neofunctionalization, was an important process in the origin of parasitic haustoria.

  3. Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2015-12-22

    Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counteradaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show changes in rates of phenotypic diversity and speciation relative to non-parasitic lineages. Our results challenge the accepted paradigm, and show that there is little consistent evidence that lineages of brood parasites have higher speciation or extinction rates than non-parasitic species. However, we provide the first evidence that the evolution of brood parasitic behaviour may affect rates of evolution in morphological traits associated with parasitism. Specifically, egg size and the colour and pattern of plumage have evolved up to nine times faster in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Moreover, cuckoo clades of parasitic species that are sympatric (and share similar host genera) exhibit higher rates of phenotypic evolution. This supports the idea that competition for hosts may be linked to the high phenotypic diversity found in parasitic cuckoos. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Venom of Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) induced endocrine changes in the hemolymph of its host, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ye, Gong-Yin; Dong, Sheng-Zhang; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2009-05-01

    Pteromalus puparum is a predominant endoparasitoid wasp of Pieris rapae. Its venom is the only active factor injected into host associated with oviposition. In this report, we explored whether the venom alone from this wasp affects the endocrine system of its host or not. We monitored the changes of hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH; only JH III detected), ecdysteroid, and juvenile hormone esterase activity (JHE) over 72 h in parasitized and venom-microinjected P. rapae pupae. Non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected P. rapae served as controls. Results showed that JH titers were significantly higher in parasitized and venom-microinjected pupae than that in control pupae during 24 to 72 h. After 12 h, JH titers were significantly promoted by parasitization and venom microinjection. JHE activities of non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected pupae were significantly higher than that of parasitized and venom-microinjected pupae, which was with a peak at 12 h (parasitized pupae) or 24 h (venom-microinjected pupae) during 6 to 48 and 12 to 36 h, respectively. The hemolymph titers of ecdysteroid in non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected pupae increased rapidly during 12 to 36 h with a peak at 36 h, and were higher than treatments before 48 h, while presenting a significant difference at 24 to 48 h between the treatments and controls. The results demonstrate that venom alone of this parasitoid wasp can disrupt its host's endocrine system.

  5. Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counteradaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show changes in rates of phenotypic diversity and speciation relative to non-parasitic lineages. Our results challenge the accepted paradigm, and show that there is little consistent evidence that lineages of brood parasites have higher speciation or extinction rates than non-parasitic species. However, we provide the first evidence that the evolution of brood parasitic behaviour may affect rates of evolution in morphological traits associated with parasitism. Specifically, egg size and the colour and pattern of plumage have evolved up to nine times faster in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Moreover, cuckoo clades of parasitic species that are sympatric (and share similar host genera) exhibit higher rates of phenotypic evolution. This supports the idea that competition for hosts may be linked to the high phenotypic diversity found in parasitic cuckoos. PMID:26702044

  6. Potential Host Manipulation by the Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius avenae to Enhance Cold Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Lucy; Androdias, Annabelle; Franco, Thomas; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Burel, Françoise; van Baaren, Joan

    2016-01-01

    During parasitoid development, the immature parasitoid is confined to the host species. As a result, any potential to modify the physiology or behaviour of the host could play an important role in parasitoid fitness. The potential for host manipulation by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius avenae to increase cold thermotolerance was investigated using the aphid host species Metopolophium dirhodum and Sitobion avenae. Aphids were parasitized at L3/L4 instar stage (5 d old) and allowed to develop into pre-reproductive adults (10 d old) containing a 5 d old parasitoid larva. A control group was created of non-parasitized pre-reproductive adults (10 d old). The inherent physiological thermotolerance (LT50) and potential behavioural thermoregulation (behaviour in a declining temperature regime) of parasitized and non-parasitized aphids were investigated. Results revealed no effect of parasitism on the physiological thermotolerance of S. avenae and M. dirhodum. Significant differences in the behaviour of parasitized and non-parasitized aphids were observed, in addition to differences between host species, and such behaviours are discussed in view of the potential for host manipulation. PMID:28006018

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Core Parasitism Genes and Suggest Gene Duplication and Repurposing as Sources of Structural Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Wafula, Eric K.; Honaas, Loren A.; Zhang, Huiting; Das, Malay; Fernandez-Aparicio, Monica; Huang, Kan; Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Wu, Biao; Der, Joshua P.; Clarke, Christopher R.; Ralph, Paula E.; Landherr, Lena; Altman, Naomi S.; Timko, Michael P.; Yoder, John I.; Westwood, James H.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of novel traits is recognized as an important process underlying many major evolutionary radiations. We studied the genetic basis for the evolution of haustoria, the novel feeding organs of parasitic flowering plants, using comparative transcriptome sequencing in three species of Orobanchaceae. Around 180 genes are upregulated during haustorial development following host attachment in at least two species, and these are enriched in proteases, cell wall modifying enzymes, and extracellular secretion proteins. Additionally, about 100 shared genes are upregulated in response to haustorium inducing factors prior to host attachment. Collectively, we refer to these newly identified genes as putative “parasitism genes.” Most of these parasitism genes are derived from gene duplications in a common ancestor of Orobanchaceae and Mimulus guttatus, a related nonparasitic plant. Additionally, the signature of relaxed purifying selection and/or adaptive evolution at specific sites was detected in many haustorial genes, and may play an important role in parasite evolution. Comparative analysis of gene expression patterns in parasitic and nonparasitic angiosperms suggests that parasitism genes are derived primarily from root and floral tissues, but with some genes co-opted from other tissues. Gene duplication, often taking place in a nonparasitic ancestor of Orobanchaceae, followed by regulatory neofunctionalization, was an important process in the origin of parasitic haustoria. PMID:25534030

  8. Comparative Study of Lead Concentration in Feathers of Urban and Rural Passerines in Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava-Diaz, Remedios; Hoogesteijn, Almira L; Erosa, Mercy Dzul; Febles, Jose L; Mendez-Gonzalez, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Lead is a commonly monitored heavy metal because of potential health effects on exposed organisms. We quantified lead in secondary feathers of two passerine bird species, clay-colored thrushes (Turdus grayi) and great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), from an urban and a rural site in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan. Urban lead concentration was significantly higher than its rural counterpart for both species (p < 0.05). In the urban site, lead concentration was similar in both species (p = 0.14). However, data from the rural site showed that lead concentration was significantly higher in thrush feathers (p < 0.05). Lead levels herein presented are among the lowest ever reported suggesting that either lead accumulation or absorption is limited. Finally, our data seem to support the hypothesis that species feeding ecology plays a major role in lead accumulation.

  9. Not all songbirds calibrate their magnetic compass from twilight cues: a telemetry study.

    PubMed

    Chernetsov, Nikita; Kishkinev, Dmitry; Kosarev, Vladislav; Bolshakov, Casimir V

    2011-08-01

    Migratory birds are able to use the sun and associated polarised light patterns, stellar cues and the geomagnetic field for orientation. No general agreement has been reached regarding the hierarchy of orientation cues. Recent data from naturally migrating North American Catharus thrushes suggests that they calibrate geomagnetic information daily from twilight cues. Similar results have been shown in caged birds in a few studies but not confirmed in others. We report that free-flying European migrants, song thrushes Turdus philomelos, released after pre-exposure to a horizontally rotated magnetic field, do not recalibrate their magnetic compass from solar cues, but rather show a simple domination of either the magnetic or the stellar compass. We suggest that different songbird species possess different hierarchies of orientation cues, depending on the geographic and ecological challenges met by the migrants.

  10. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C; Kramer, Laura D; Komar, Nicholas; Estrada-Franco, José Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006-2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  11. The (3000), (4000) and (5000) stretching overtone bands of silane—I. The effect of local-mode vibration on rotational constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qingshi; Zhang, Baoshu; Ma, Yueren; Qian, Haibo

    The (4000) stretching overtone band of SiH 4 has been observed near 8347 cm -1. A symmetric top rotational structure, similar to that observed in the (3000) band of GeH 4: Q.-S. Zhu, B. A. Thrush and A. G. Robiette, Chem. Phys. Lett. 150, 181 (1988); Q.-S. Zhu and B. A. Thrush, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2691 (1990) [1], and the (3000) and (5000) bands of SiH 4: Q.-S. Zhu, B.-S. Zhang, Y.-R. Ma and H.-B. Qian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 164, 596 (1989) [2], are clearly demonstrated. Three local-mode bands of SiH 4, (3000), (4000) and (5000) are analysed in the symmetric top model. A striking effect of local-mode vibration on rotational constants is observed and accounted for in a classical picture of vibrational localization.

  12. Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in the terrestrial food web of a montane forest.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Christopher C; Miller, Eric K; McFarland, Kent P; Taylor, Robert J; Faccio, Steven D

    2010-04-01

    We investigated mercury (Hg) concentrations in a terrestrial food web in high elevation forests in Vermont. Hg concentrations increased from autotrophic organisms to herbivores < detritivores < omnivores < carnivores. Within the carnivores studied, raptors had higher blood Hg concentrations than their songbird prey. The Hg concentration in the blood of the focal study species, Bicknell's thrush (Catharus bicknelli), varied over the course of the summer in response to a diet shift related to changing availability of arthropod prey. The Bicknell's thrush food web is more detrital-based (with higher Hg concentrations) in early summer and more foliage-based (with lower Hg concentrations) during late summer. There were significant year effects in different ecosystem compartments indicating a possible connection between atmospheric Hg deposition, detrital-layer Hg concentrations, arthropod Hg concentrations, and passerine blood Hg concentrations.

  13. Major Rehabilitation Effort, Mississippi River, Locks and Dams 2-22: Illinois Waterway from LA Grange to Lockport Locks and Dams: Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Minnesota and Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    mussels occur in this study reach, with the most abundant species being three- ridge, maple- leaf , pimple-back, and floater (Starrett, 1971). 3.117...including ruffed grouse, cardinals, tanagers, thrushes, and several types of warblers . Other birds include hawks and other broad-winged species, falcons...and pigtoe (7.2 percent), as determined by brailing (Thiel, 1981). Species ccllected by diving including maple leaf ; threehorn, pocketbook, and giant

  14. Fournier's gangrene in a man on empagliflozin for treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Costello, A J; Colman, P G

    2017-09-08

    Use of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SLGT2) inhibitors has been associated with an increased risk of genital infections secondary to increased glycosuria [1]. Our report highlights a case of Fournier's gangrene, the most severe and potentially fatal type of genital infection, which was preceded by multiple episodes of thrush in a man treated with empagliflozin for Type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical and behavioral effects within a pulse-driven system: consequences for shared prey.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kenneth A; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2008-03-01

    Some of the clearest examples of the ramifying effects of resource pulses exist in deciduous forests dominated by mast-producing trees, such as oaks, beech, and hornbeam. Seed production in these forests represents only the first of several pulsed events. Secondary pulses emerge as mast-consuming small rodents numerically respond to seed production and tertiary pulses emerge as generalist predators numerically respond to rodents. Raptors may also respond behaviorally (i.e., diet shifts) to subsequent crashes in small rodents following the crash phase in seed production. In oak-dominated forest in the Hudson Valley, New York, these various pulse and crash phases act synergistically, although not simultaneously, to influence thrush population dynamics through predation on nests, juveniles, and adults. As a consequence, factors limiting population growth rate and their age-specific action vary as a function of past acorn production. We highlight these interactions based on our eight-year study of thrush demography, acorn production, and small mammal abundance coupled with information on regional adult thrush population trends from the Breeding Bird Survey. We use these data sets to demonstrate the sequence of primary to tertiary pulses and how they influence breeding thrush populations. To extend our discussion beyond masting phenomena in the eastern United States, we briefly review the literature of alternative avian prey within pulsed systems to show (1) numerical and behavioral responses by generalist predators are ubiquitous in pulsed systems, and this contributes to (2) variability in reproduction and survivorship of avian prey linked to the underlying dynamics of the pulse. We conclude by exploring the broad consequences of cascading resource pulses for alternative prey based upon the indirect interaction of apparent competition among shared prey and the nature of temporal variability on populations.

  16. Lead exposure and poisoning of songbirds using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Audet, Daniel; Spears, Brian L; Healy, Kate A; Brazzle, Roy E; Hoffman, David J; Dailey, Anne; Beyer, W Nelson

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have found widespread Pb poisoning of waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho, USA, which has been contaminated by mining and smelting activities. We studied the exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb, sampling 204 American robins (Turdus migratorius), song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) throughout the basin. These songbirds had mean blood Pb concentrations (mg/kg, dry weight) of less than 0.19 at a reference area (25 mg Pb/kg soil), 1.09 at moderately contaminated sites (170 to 1300 mg Pb/kg soil), and 2.06 at highly contaminated sites (2000 to 5000 mg Pb/kg soil). Based on guidelines for evaluating blood Pb in birds, 6% of robins from the highly contaminated sites had background concentrations, 24% were subclinically poisoned, 52% were clinically poisoned, and 18% were severely clinically poisoned with Pb. Blood Pb concentrations were lower in song sparrows than in robins and lowest in Swainson's thrushes. More than half of the robins and song sparrows from all contaminated sites and more than half of the Swainson's thrushes from highly contaminated sites showed at least 50% inhibition of the activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), commonly used as a measure of exposure to Pb. The highest hepatic Pb concentration of 61 mg/kg (dry weight) was detected in a song sparrow. Using Al as a marker for soil in songbird ingesta, we estimated average soil ingestion rates as 20% in robins, 17% in song sparrows, and 0.7% in Swainson's thrushes. Soil Pb in ingesta accounted for almost all of the songbirds' exposure to Pb. Based on these results, it is recommended that ecological risk assessments of ground-feeding songbirds at contaminated sites include soil ingestion as a pathway of exposure to Pb.

  17. Meeting of the southeast management working group (4th) abstracts. Held in Memphis, Tennessee on November 12-14, 1992. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Contents: hurricane effects on neotropical migrants at a South Carolina bottomland hardwood site; point count results from 9 bottomland hardwood sites in South Carolina; bird banding at hilton pond: monitoring and managing for neotropical migrants in South Carolina's piedmont region; effects of forest management on population parameters and habitat use of wood thrushes; and influence of red-cockaded woodpecker habitat management on the abundance of neotropical migrant breeding birds in two loblolly pine forests of Mississippi: study design and preliminary results.

  18. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds' departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R; Benson, Thomas J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Schofield, Lynn N; Enstrom, David A; Paxton, Eben H; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W

    2015-11-17

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  19. Annual Report on Electronics Research at The University of Texas at Austin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-15

    Kathleen A. Thrush, Chemistry David Grant, Physics *Jim Weidner, EE Jessy Grizzle, EE *Evan Westwood, Physics Jim Higdon John E. White, AerospaceJae...Metal Oxide Particles," P eterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry, David R. Schryer, ed., American Creophysical Union (Washington, D.C.) p. 122 (1982...Professor H.J. Kimble (471-1668) Dr. A. T. Rosenberger Graduate Students: David Grant, Luis !rozco, Murray Wolinsky, L.A. Wu A. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: The

  20. Lead exposure and poisoning of songbirds using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, James A.; Audet, Daniel; Spears, Brian L.; Healy, Kate A.; Brazzle, Roy E.; Hoffman, David J.; Dailey, Anne; Beyer, W. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found widespread Pb poisoning of waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho, USA, which has been contaminated by mining and smelting activities. We studied the exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb, sampling 204 American robins (Turdus migratorius), song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) throughout the basin. These songbirds had mean blood Pb concentrations (mg/kg, dry weight) of less than 0.19 at a reference area (25 mg Pb/kg soil), 1.09 at moderately contaminated sites (170 to 1300 mg Pb/kg soil), and 2.06 at highly contaminated sites (2000 to 5000 mg Pb/kg soil). Based on guidelines for evaluating blood Pb in birds, 6% of robins from the highly contaminated sites had background concentrations, 24% were subclinically poisoned, 52% were clinically poisoned, and 18% were severely clinically poisoned with Pb. Blood Pb concentrations were lower in song sparrows than in robins and lowest in Swainson's thrushes. More than half of the robins and song sparrows from all contaminated sites and more than half of the Swainson's thrushes from highly contaminated sites showed at least 50% inhibition of the activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), commonly used as a measure of exposure to Pb. The highest hepatic Pb concentration of 61 mg/kg (dry weight) was detected in a song sparrow. Using Al as a marker for soil in songbird ingesta, we estimated average soil ingestion rates as 20% in robins, 17% in song sparrows, and 0.7% in Swainson's thrushes. Soil Pb in ingesta accounted for almost all of the songbirds' exposure to Pb. Based on these results, it is recommended that ecological risk assessments of ground-feeding songbirds at contaminated sites include soil ingestion as a pathway of exposure to Pb.

  1. The Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Mixed Singing in Two Hybridizing Songbird Species (Luscinia spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Vokurková, Jana; Petrusková, Tereza; Reifová, Radka; Kozman, Alexandra; Mořkovský, Libor; Kipper, Silke; Weiss, Michael; Reif, Jiří; Dolata, Paweł T.; Petrusek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Bird song plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of prezygotic reproductive barriers. When two closely related species come into secondary contact, song convergence caused by acquisition of heterospecific songs into the birds’ repertoires is often observed. The proximate mechanisms responsible for such mixed singing, and its effect on the speciation process, are poorly understood. We used a combination of genetic and bioacoustic analyses to test whether mixed singing observed in the secondary contact zone of two passerine birds, the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) and the Common Nightingale (L. megarhynchos), is caused by introgressive hybridization. We analysed song recordings of both species from allopatric and sympatric populations together with genotype data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci. Semi-automated comparisons of our recordings with an extensive catalogue of Common Nightingale song types confirmed that most of the analysed sympatric Thrush Nightingale males were ‘mixed singers’ that use heterospecific song types in their repertoires. None of these ‘mixed singers’ possessed any alleles introgressed from the Common Nightingale, suggesting that they were not backcross hybrids. We also analysed songs of five individuals with intermediate phenotype, which were identified as F1 hybrids between the Thrush Nightingale female and the Common Nightingale male by genetic analysis. Songs of three of these hybrids corresponded to the paternal species (Common Nightingale) but the remaining two sung a mixed song. Our results suggest that although hybridization might increase the tendency for learning songs from both parental species, interspecific cultural transmission is the major proximate mechanism explaining the occurrence of mixed singers among the sympatric Thrush Nightingales. We also provide evidence that mixed singing does not substantially increase the rate of interspecific hybridization and discuss the

  2. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, A.; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  3. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf. PMID:26578793

  4. The seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the North Island of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ha, H J; Banda, M; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D

    2013-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern North Island of New Zealand. Sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (APV) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for Plasmodium spp. by PCR. Forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to APV. Song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) (96.86%, 31/32), chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) (54.55%, 6/11), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (25%, 3/12), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) (25%, 1/4), and European goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) (0%, 0/2). Plasmodium spp. DNA was detected in 15/55 birds (27.3%), including 11 Eurasian blackbirds, one song thrush, and three starlings. Eight Eurasian blackbird isolates (73%) grouped within the subgenus Novyella. Two Eurasian blackbird isolates and the song thrush isolate clustered within a different group with previously reported lineages LINN1 and AFTRU5. In addition, all three starling isolates clustered within the well-characterized lineage Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06. All Plasmodium-positive Eurasian blackbirds and the song thrush were seropositive to APV, whereas only 67% of Plasmodium-positive starlings showed evidence of previous exposure to APV. A significant relationship between birds seropositive to APV and birds infected by Plasmodium spp. was observed (chi2 = 5.69, df = 1, P = 0.0086). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report describing the seroprevalence of APV and its association with Plasmodium spp. infection in introduced bird species in New Zealand.

  5. Modeling spatial variation in avian survival and residency probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saracco, James F.; Royle, J. Andrew; DeSante, David F.; Gardner, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The importance of understanding spatial variation in processes driving animal population dynamics is widely recognized. Yet little attention has been paid to spatial modeling of vital rates. Here we describe a hierarchical spatial autoregressive model to provide spatially explicit year-specific estimates of apparent survival (phi) and residency (pi) probabilities from capture-recapture data. We apply the model to data collected on a declining bird species, Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), as part of a broad-scale bird-banding network, the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program. The Wood Thrush analysis showed variability in both phi and pi among years and across space. Spatial heterogeneity in residency probability was particularly striking, suggesting the importance of understanding the role of transients in local populations. We found broad-scale spatial patterning in Wood Thrush phi and pi that lend insight into population trends and can direct conservation and research. The spatial model developed here represents a significant advance over approaches to investigating spatial pattern in vital rates that aggregate data at coarse spatial scales and do not explicitly incorporate spatial information in the model. Further development and application of hierarchical capture-recapture models offers the opportunity to more fully investigate spatiotemporal variation in the processes that drive population changes.

  6. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  7. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators

    PubMed Central

    Delmore, Kira E.; Fox, James W.; Irwin, Darren E.

    2012-01-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group. PMID:23015629

  8. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Fox, James W; Irwin, Darren E

    2012-11-22

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group.

  9. The influence of food abundance, food dispersion and habitat structure on territory selection and size of an Afrotropical terrestrial insectivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Newmark, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical insectivorous birds, unlike their temperate counterparts, hold and defend a feeding and breeding territory year-around. However, our understanding of ecological factors influencing territory selection and size in tropical insectivores is limited. Here we examine three prominent hypotheses relating food abundance, food dispersion (spatial arrangement of food items), and habitat structure to territoriality in the Usambara Thrush Turdus roehli. We first compared leaf-litter macro-invertebrate abundance and dispersion, and habitat structure between territories and random sites. We then examined the relation between these same ecological factors and territory size. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion were sparsely and evenly distributed across our study system and did not vary between territories and random sites. In contrast, habitat structure did vary between territories and random sites indicating the Usambara Thrush selects territories with open understorey and closed overstorey habitat. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion within territories of the Usambara Thrush were not associated with habitat structure. We believe the most likely explanation for the Usambara Thrush’s preference for open understorey and closed overstorey habitat relates to foraging behavior. Using information-theoretic model selection we found that invertebrate abundance was the highest-ranked predictor of territory size and was inversely related, consistent with food value theory of territoriality.

  10. Use of radio-telemetry to reduce bias in nest searching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Lang, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We used traditional searching, as well as radio-telemetry, to find 125 Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests during 1994?1996 at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in Georgia, USA. We compared daily nest survival rates for 66 nests of radio-marked birds with 59 nests of birds found through systematic searching. By using radio-telemetry, we found Wood Thrush nests in higher elevation pine habitats, in addition to the more usual hardwood forests with moist soils. We found nests of radio-marked birds farther from streams than nests found by systematic searching. Thirty-two percent of radio-marked birds' nests were found at the tops of slopes, compared to 15% of the nests found by traditional searching. In addition, radio-marked birds generally moved up-slope for re-nesting attempts. Although the distribution of nests found with telemetry and searching varied, daily nest survival did not vary between the two groups. Radio-telemetry provided new information about Wood Thrush nesting habitats. We believe radio-telemetry can be a valuable addition to traditional searching techniques; it has the potential to provide a sample of nests free from a priori habitat biases.

  11. Great spotted cuckoo nestlings have no antipredatory effect on magpie or carrion crow host nests in southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; de Neve, Liesbeth; Roldán, María; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Host defences against cuckoo parasitism and cuckoo trickeries to overcome them are a classic example of antagonistic coevolution. Recently it has been reported that this relationship may turn to be mutualistic in the case of the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and its brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), given that experimentally and naturally parasitized nests were depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests. This result was interpreted as a consequence of the antipredatory properties of a fetid cloacal secretion produced by cuckoo nestlings, which presumably deters predators from parasitized host nests. This potential defensive mechanism would therefore explain the detected higher fledgling success of parasitized nests during breeding seasons with high predation risk. Here, in a different study population, we explored the expected benefits in terms of reduced nest predation in naturally and experimentally parasitized nests of two different host species, carrion crows and magpies (Pica pica). During the incubation phase non-parasitized nests were depredated more frequently than parasitized nests. However, during the nestling phase, parasitized nests were not depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests, neither in magpie nor in carrion crow nests, and experimental translocation of great spotted cuckoo hatchlings did not reveal causal effects between parasitism state and predation rate of host nests. Therefore, our results do not fit expectations and, thus, do not support the fascinating possibility that great spotted cuckoo nestlings could have an antipredatory effect for host nestlings, at least in our study area. We also discuss different possibilities that may conciliate these with previous results, but also several alternative explanations, including the lack of generalizability of the previously documented mutualistic association. PMID:28422953

  12. Great spotted cuckoo nestlings have no antipredatory effect on magpie or carrion crow host nests in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Soler, Manuel; de Neve, Liesbeth; Roldán, María; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Host defences against cuckoo parasitism and cuckoo trickeries to overcome them are a classic example of antagonistic coevolution. Recently it has been reported that this relationship may turn to be mutualistic in the case of the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and its brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), given that experimentally and naturally parasitized nests were depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests. This result was interpreted as a consequence of the antipredatory properties of a fetid cloacal secretion produced by cuckoo nestlings, which presumably deters predators from parasitized host nests. This potential defensive mechanism would therefore explain the detected higher fledgling success of parasitized nests during breeding seasons with high predation risk. Here, in a different study population, we explored the expected benefits in terms of reduced nest predation in naturally and experimentally parasitized nests of two different host species, carrion crows and magpies (Pica pica). During the incubation phase non-parasitized nests were depredated more frequently than parasitized nests. However, during the nestling phase, parasitized nests were not depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests, neither in magpie nor in carrion crow nests, and experimental translocation of great spotted cuckoo hatchlings did not reveal causal effects between parasitism state and predation rate of host nests. Therefore, our results do not fit expectations and, thus, do not support the fascinating possibility that great spotted cuckoo nestlings could have an antipredatory effect for host nestlings, at least in our study area. We also discuss different possibilities that may conciliate these with previous results, but also several alternative explanations, including the lack of generalizability of the previously documented mutualistic association.

  13. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecology of avian brood parasitism at an early interfacing of host and parasite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently spread into the Greater Antilles from South America via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and upon reaching Puerto Rico exploited avian communities with no history of social parasitism. Forty-two percent of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized in mangrove habitat study areas. Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by (1) depressing nest success an average of 41 percent below non-parasitized nests, and (2) reducing host productivity. Parasitized hosts produced 12 percent fewer eggs and fledged 67 percent fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs. Growth rates of chicks of some host species were lower in parasitized nests compared with non-parasitized nests while growth of others was not affected by brood parasitism. Cowbird chick growth varied directly with host size; i.e., cowbird chicks grew faster and attained greater fledging weight and body size in nests of larger hosts. Factors important in shiny cowbird host selection were examined within the mangrove study community. Cowbirds did not parasitize avian species in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with that of its major hosts, which were high quality foster species, and did not extend into other periods even though nests of poor quality species were available. Food habits and egg size of cowbirds were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this alignment. Cowbirds locate nests by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitat. Despite the recency of the cowbird's arrival in Puerto Rico, some nesting species have effective anti-parasite strategies, including alien egg rejection and nest guarding. Behavior effective in avoiding parasitism is similar to that used by certain birds in evading nest predators. It is suggested that anti-predator behavior is preadaptive to countering cowbird

  15. Ecology of avian brood parasitism at an early interfacing of host and parasite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently spread into the Greater Antilles from South America via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and upon reaching Puerto Rico exploited avian communities with no history of social parasitism. Forty-two percent of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized in mangrove habitat study areas. Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by (1) depressing nest success an average of 41 percent below non-parasitized nests, and (2) reducing host productivity. Parasitized hosts produced 12 percent fewer eggs and fledged 67 percent fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs. Growth rates of chicks of some host species were lower in parasitized nests compared with non-parasitized nests while growth of others was not affected by brood parasitism. Cowbird chick growth varied directly with host size; i.e., cowbird chicks grew faster and attained greater fledging weight and body size in nests of larger hosts. Factors important in shiny cowbird host selection were examined within the mangrove study community. Cowbirds did not parasitize avian species in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with that of its major hosts, which were high quality foster species, and did not extend into other periods even though nests of poor quality species were available. Food habits and egg size of cowbirds were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this alignment. Cowbirds locate nests by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitat. Despite the recency of the cowbird's arrival in Puerto Rico, some nesting species have effective anti-parasite strategies, including alien egg rejection and nest guarding. Behavior effective in avoiding parasitism is similar to that used by certain birds in evading nest predators. It is suggested that anti-predator behavior is preadaptive to countering cowbird

  16. Interaction of the Koinobiont Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, with Two Entomopathogenic Rhabditids, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Atwa, Atwa A.; Hegazi, Esmat M.; Khafagi, Wedad E.; El-Aziz, Gehan M. Abd

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are generally considered beneficial organisms. However, they can affect beneficial insects such as parasitoids. The interaction between the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, and the parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated in the laboratory. In non-parasitized hosts, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to H. bacteriophora showed a higher percent mortality than those exposed to S. carpocapsae. Both nematodes were able to invade and propagate in non-parasitized S. littoralis larvae and those parasitized by M. rufiventris. Both nematode species reproduced in Microplitis-parasitized hosts, but there was a higher number of nematodes in non-parasitized larvae. S. carpocapsae yielded higher numbers of infective juveniles than H. bacteriophora. Generally, the number of nematodes harvested increased as their host's size increased. The interaction between the nematodes and parasitoid favored the nematodes when the nematodes were inoculated during the parasitoid egg stage or the young parasitoid larvae, thus giving the nematodes a better chance to grow and reproduce, resulting in the death of the parasitoid larvae. Conversely, when the nematodes were inoculated during the late larval instar of the parasitoid, the competition partially favored the wasp, thus giving approximately 50% of the wasps a better chance to develop, emerge, and reproduce, providing evidence that both nematodes and wasps could reproduce in the same host. Egg maturation of female wasps derived from nematode-infected hosts was not significantly different than those from control hosts. The combined application of nematodes and parasitoids may be beneficial if the detrimental effects of the nematodes on the parasitoid could be avoided by precisely timing the application strategies. It is clear that

  17. Hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria kill subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) by cyanide poisoning under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Kanchana; Seth, Nidhi; Kothamasi, Shalini; Kothamasi, David

    2007-01-01

    The subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus is an important pest of the Indian subcontinent, causing extensive damage to major agricultural crops and forest plantation trees. Control of termites by strategies employing their parasites has limitations because they have evolved a complex social structure, immune responses, and adaptive behavior toward pathogen-infected individuals. Nonparasitic rhizobacteria that produce harmful metabolites might facilitate the biocontrol of termites. In the present investigation, three different species of hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria were tested for their potential to kill O. obesus. The three bacterial species were found to be effective in killing the termites under in vitro conditions.

  18. Non parasitic splenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Showkat, Hakim Irfan; Parray, Fazl Q; Lone, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Primary splenic cyst is a rare entity and majority of the cases are classified as epithelial cysts. They are uncommon, comprising only about 10% of benign non-parasitic cysts. Most of the cysts are asymptomatic, and they are incidental findings during abdominal ultrasonography. We report a case of 20 years old male who presented with 1 year history of mild abdominal pain and left upper quadrant fullness. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) both were suggestive of splenic cyst. Serological tests were negative for parasitic infection. Splenectomy was done. Histopathological findings are consistent with splenic epithelial cyst.

  19. New feather mites of the genera Aniacarus and Aniibius (Acariformes: Pterolichidae) from two cuckoo species (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Sergey V; Hernandes, Fabio A; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A

    2015-03-24

    Five new species of the family Pterolichidae are described from two common non-parasitic cuckoo species of the subfamily Crotophaginae (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: Aniacarus ani sp. n. from the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, A. simplex sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. coronatus sp. n. and Aniibius guirae sp. n. from the Guira Cuckoo, Guira guira (Gmelin). A key to all known species of Aniacarus is provided. All four pterolichid species associated with the G. guira can occur simultaneously on one host individual. A brief review of studies of feather mites associated with Cuculidae is given.

  20. Mitochondria in the midgut epithelial cells of sugarcane borer parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, D O; Silva, M D; Gregório, E A

    2010-02-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been controlled by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); however, very little is known about the effect of the parasitism in the host organs, including the midgut. This work aims to verify mitochondrial alteration in the different midgut epithelial cells of D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes. Midgut fragments (anterior and posterior region) of both non-parasitized and parasitized larvae were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The mitochondria of midgut epithelial cell in the parasitized larvae exhibit morphological alteration, represented by matrix rarefaction and vacuolisation. These mitochondrial alterations are more pronounced in the anterior midgut region during the parasitism process, mainly in the columnar cell.

  1. Parasitic plants have increased rates of molecular evolution across all three genomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theoretical models and experimental evidence suggest that rates of molecular evolution could be raised in parasitic organisms compared to non-parasitic taxa. Parasitic plants provide an ideal test for these predictions, as there are at least a dozen independent origins of the parasitic lifestyle in angiosperms. Studies of a number of parasitic plant lineages have suggested faster rates of molecular evolution, but the results of some studies have been mixed. Comparative analysis of all parasitic plant lineages, including sequences from all three genomes, is needed to examine the generality of the relationship between rates of molecular evolution and parasitism in plants. Results We analysed DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial, nuclear and chloroplast genomes for 12 independent evolutionary origins of parasitism in angiosperms. We demonstrated that parasitic lineages have a faster rate of molecular evolution than their non-parasitic relatives in sequences for all three genomes, for both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Conclusions Our results prove that raised rates of molecular evolution are a general feature of parasitic plants, not confined to a few taxa or specific genes. We discuss possible causes for this relationship, including increased positive selection associated with host-parasite arms races, relaxed selection, reduced population size or repeated bottlenecks, increased mutation rates, and indirect causal links with generation time and body size. We find no evidence that faster rates are due to smaller effective populations sizes or changes in selection pressure. Instead, our results suggest that parasitic plants have a higher mutation rate than their close non-parasitic relatives. This may be due to a direct connection, where some aspect of the parasitic lifestyle drives the evolution of raised mutation rates. Alternatively, this pattern may be driven by an indirect connection between rates and parasitism: for example, parasitic

  2. Carbohydrate Catabolism in Populations of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and in B. mucronatus

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, R. I.; Kozlowski, P.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    Genotypically different host specific pathotypes of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus have been identified. These pathotypes elicit different responses in pines depending on susceptibility, tolerance, or resistance. Continued passage of some of these pathotypes on fungal cultures leads to conversion to nonparasitic populations. These populations metabolize carbon substrates to ethanol by an anaerobic pathway, while operating some level of a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-succinate pathway to excrete succinate-lactate and malate. On the other hand, parasitic populations metabolize glucose to lactate-succinate, mainly by a PEP-succinate pathway, and maintain redox balance through glycerol production. Ethanol and malate are not excreted by parasitic populations. PMID:19290209

  3. Healing in the irradiated wound

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

  4. Genetic dissimilarity of two fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains causing meningitis and oral candidiasis in the same AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Berenguer, J; Diaz-Guerra, T M; Ruiz-Diez, B; Bernaldo de Quiros, J C; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Martinez-Suarez, J V

    1996-01-01

    We describe a patient with AIDS who simultaneously developed Candida meningitis with three positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures and oral candidiasis. This patient also had a history or recurrent episodes of oral candidiasis treated with fluconazole. The patient did not respond to this therapy but was cured with amphotericin B and flucytosine. In vitro susceptibility tests revealed that each infection was caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates. Strain delineation by karyotyping, NotI restriction pattern analysis, hybridization with the specific probe 27A, and PCR fingerprinting with the phage M13 core sequence clearly demonstrated that meningitis and oral thrush were caused by two genetically different isolates. PMID:8735114

  5. Migrating songbirds recalibrate their magnetic compass daily from twilight cues.

    PubMed

    Cochran, William W; Mouritsen, Henrik; Wikelski, Martin

    2004-04-16

    Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100 kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental birds flew westward. On subsequent nights, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest that birds orient with a magnetic compass calibrated daily from twilight cues. This could explain how birds cross the magnetic equator and deal with declination.

  6. Acute sinusitis and sore throat in primary care.

    PubMed

    Del Mar, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Sore throat and acute sinusitis are not straightforward diagnoses. Trying to guess the responsible pathogen may not be the best approach. Being guided by empirical evidence may be more useful. It suggests some, but very few, benefits for antibiotics. This has to be balanced with some, but few, harms from antibiotics, including diarrhoea, rash and thrush. Prescribers should also be aware of the risk of antibiotic resistance for the individual, as well as for the population as a whole. GPs should explain the evidence for the benefits and the harms of antibiotics to patients within a shared decision-making framework.

  7. Molecular characterization and distribution of Haemoproteus minutus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae): a pathogenic avian parasite.

    PubMed

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Križanauskienė, Asta; Markovets, Mikhail Yu; Bensch, Staffan; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2013-08-01

    Recently, the lineage hTURDUS2 of Haemoproteus minutus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) was reported to cause mortality in captive parrots. This parasite lineage is widespread and prevalent in the blackbird Turdus merula throughout its entire distribution range. Species identity of other closely related lineages recently reported in dead parrots remains unclear, but will be important to determine for a better understanding of the epidemiology of haemoproteosis. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based and microscopic methods, we analyzed 265 blood samples collected from 52 species of wild birds in Eurasia (23 samples from Kamchatka Peninsula, 73 from Sakhalin Island, 150 from Ekaterinburg and 19 from Irkutsk regions of Russia). Single infections of the lineages hTURDUS2 (hosts are redwing Turdus iliacus and fieldfare Turdus pilaris), hTUPHI1 (song thrush Turdus philomelos) and hTUCHR01 (fieldfare, redwing, song thrush and brown-headed thrush Turdus chysolaus) were detected. We identified species of these haemoproteids based on morphology of their blood stages and conclude that these lineages belong to H. minutus, a widespread parasite of different species of thrushes (genus Turdus), which serve as reservoir hosts of this haemoproteid infection. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the lineages hTURDUS2, hTUCHR01 and hTUPHI1 of H. minutus are closely related to Haemoproteus pallidus (lineages hPFC1 and hCOLL2), Haemoproteus pallidulus (hSYAT03), and Haemoproteus sp. (hMEUND3); genetic distance among their mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) lineages is small (<1% or<4 nucleotides). All these blood parasites are different in many morphological characters, but are similar due to one feature, which is the pale staining of their macrogametocytes' cytoplasm with Giemsa. Because of the recent publications about mortality caused by the lineages hTUPHI1 and hTURDUS2 of H. minutus in captive parrots in Europe, H. minutus and the closely related H. pallidus and H. pallidulus are

  8. Spanish juniper gain expansion opportunities by counting on a functionally diverse dispersal assemblage community

    PubMed Central

    Escribano-Ávila, Gema; Pías, Beatriz; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Seed dispersal is typically performed by a diverse array of species assemblages with different behavioral and morphological traits which determine dispersal quality (DQ, defined as the probability of recruitment of a dispersed seed). Fate of ecosystems to ongoing environmental changes is critically dependent on dispersal and mainly on DQ in novel scenarios. We assess here the DQ, thus the multiplicative effect of germination and survival probability to the first 3 years of life, for seeds dispersed by several bird species (Turdus spp.) and carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Martes foina) in mature woodland remnants of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) and old fields which are being colonized by this species. Results showed that DQ was similar in mature woodlands and old fields. Germination rate for seeds dispersed by carnivores (11.5%) and thrushes (9.12%) was similar, however, interacted with microhabitat suitability. Seeds dispersed by carnivores reach the maximum germination rate on shrubs (16%), whereas seeds dispersed by thrushes did on female juniper canopies (15.5) indicating that each group of dispersers performed a directed dispersal. This directional effect was diluted when survival probability was considered: thrushes selected smaller seeds which had higher mortality in the seedling stage (70%) in relation to seedlings dispersed by carnivores (40%). Overall, thrushes resulted low-quality dispersers which provided a probability or recruitment of 2.5%, while a seed dispersed by carnivores had a probability of recruitment of 6.5%. Our findings show that generalist dispersers (i.e., carnivores) can provide a higher probability of recruitment than specialized dispersers (i.e., Turdus spp.). However, generalist species are usually opportunistic dispersers as their role as seed dispersers is dependent on the availability of trophic resources and species feeding preferences. As a result, J. thurifera dispersal community is composed by two functional groups of

  9. Avian pox in birds from Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Tikasingh, E S; Worth, C B; Spence, L; Aitken, T H

    1982-04-01

    Over a 7-year period in Trinidad, 9,514 birds were examined for avian pox and four species were found infected: the golden-headed manakin, Pipra erythrocephala (7% infected), the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (5%), the violaceous euphonia Euphonia violacea (1%), and the bare-eyed thrush, Turdus nudigenis (less than 1%). The elaborate courtship displays of manakins may have a bearing on a "common source" type of infection. The apparently abrupt appearance of the disease at three localities in Trinidad in 1964 perhaps indicates introduction of the virus by migratory birds.

  10. Severe sore throat in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zuger, A

    1996-01-01

    A case of a 45-year-old HIV-infected male who developed a severe throat infection with serious complications is reported. Despite a low CD4 count, the patient suffered only one significant illness in ten years since his diagnosed HIV infection. Overly aggressive antibiotic therapy caused fungal and thrush infections, leading to dehydration and extreme weight loss. The patient was treated with rehydration therapy, antifungal agents, and TMP-SMX, after which other complications, including multiple infections and B-cell lymphoma, were diagnosed. He refused chemotherapy after one course of treatment and was sent home with hospice care.

  11. Genes and song: genetic and social connections in fragmented habitat in a woodland bird with limited dispersal.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Alexandra; Amos, J Nevil; Goretskaia, Maria I; Beme, Irina R; Buchanan, Katherine L; Takeuchi, Naoko; Radford, James Q; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the processes leading to population declines in fragmented landscapes is essential for successful conservation management. However, isolating the influence of disparate processes, and dispersal in particular, is challenging. The Grey Shrike-thrush, Colluricincla harmonica, is a sedentary woodland-dependent songbird, with learned vocalizations whose incidence in suitable habitat patches falls disproportionally with decline in tree cover in the landscape. Although it has been suggested that gaps in tree cover might act as barriers to its dispersal, the species remains in many remnants of native vegetation in agricultural landscapes, suggesting that it may have responded to habitat removal and fragmentation by maintaining or even increasing dispersal distances. We quantified population connectivity of the Grey Shrike-thrush in a system fragmented over more than 120 years using genetic (microsatellites) and acoustic (song types) data. First, we tested for population genetic and acoustic structure at regional and local scales in search of barriers to dispersal or gene flow and signals of local spatial structuring indicative of restricted dispersal or localized acoustic similarity. Then we tested for effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on genetic and acoustic connectivity by fitting alternative models of mobility (isolation-by-distance [the null model] and reduced and increased movement models) across treeless vs. treed areas. Birds within -5 km of each other had more similar genotypes and song types than those farther away, suggesting that dispersal and song matching are limited in the region. Despite restricted dispersal detected for females (but not males), populations appeared to be connected by gene flow and displayed some cultural (acoustic) connectivity across the region. Fragmentation did not appear to impact greatly the dispersal of the Grey Shrike-thrush: none of the mobility models fit the genetic distances of males, whereas for females, an

  12. Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, William W.; Mouritsen, Henrik; Wikelski, Martin

    2004-04-01

    Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100 kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental birds flew westward. On subsequent nights, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest that birds orient with a magnetic compass calibrated daily from twilight cues. This could explain how birds cross the magnetic equator and deal with declination.

  13. JPRS Report, Epidemiology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    UNITED KINGDOM Environmental Factors in Cancer Rate Rise Considered ■■■ ••■•••■••.••■;••""Ö™ Jn Ra^on-Caused Cancers [Roger Highfield; London...heterosexual contact with infected people and the male- female ratio is roughly 1:1. The vast majority of cases involve victims aged between 16 and...infection (including tuberculosis), oral thrush, herpes zoster and Karposi’s sarcoma. It is esti- mated that 50 per cent of all overt AIDS patients

  14. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay.

    PubMed

    Dalal, J Pratiba; Kelkar, S S

    1980-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  15. Drought in Africa caused delayed arrival of European songbirds.

    PubMed

    Tøttrup, A P; Klaassen, R H G; Kristensen, M W; Strandberg, R; Vardanis, Y; Lindström, Å; Rahbek, C; Alerstam, T; Thorup, K

    2012-12-07

    Despite an overall advancement in breeding area arrival, one of the latest spring arrivals in northwest Europe since 1950 of several trans-Saharan songbird species occurred in 2011. Year-round tracking of red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales revealed that the cause of the delay was a prolongation of stopover time during spring migration at the Horn of Africa, which was affected by extreme drought. Our results help to establish a direct link at the individual level between changes in local climate during migration and arrival and breeding condition in Europe thousands of kilometers further north.

  16. Influence of parasitism by Chelonus insularis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Zenner, Ingeborg; Alvarez, Alonso; Barreto, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus insularis Cresson is a key parasitoid of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) during the second field generation in the upper Magdalena River Basin, Colombia. In spite of selection pressure, the higher susceptibility of the second generation fall armyworm larvae to insecticides, compared with that of the first generation, suggests that the parasitism may be responsible for the apparent difference in susceptibility. Parasitized and non-parasitized 2nd-instar larvae of the fall armyworm were tested for susceptibility to chlorpyriphos, methomyl, cypermethrin, and Bacillus thuringiensis in the laboratory, using the leaf dip test. Parasitized larvae were up to 3.93 times more susceptible to chlorpyriphos, 3.71 times to methomyl, and 14.11 times to cypermethrin than non-parasitized larvae. The least effect of parasitism on susceptibility was found for B. thuringiensis. We discuss the negative influence of synthetic insecticide on the parasitoid population dynamics and its impact on insecticide resistance.

  17. Limited mitogenomic degradation in response to a parasitic lifestyle in Orobanchaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weishu; Zhu, Andan; Kozaczek, Melisa; Shah, Neethu; Pabón-Mora, Natalia; González, Favio; Mower, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    In parasitic plants, the reduction in plastid genome (plastome) size and content is driven predominantly by the loss of photosynthetic genes. The first completed mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from parasitic mistletoes also exhibit significant degradation, but the generality of this observation for other parasitic plants is unclear. We sequenced the complete mitogenome and plastome of the hemiparasite Castilleja paramensis (Orobanchaceae) and compared them with additional holoparasitic, hemiparasitic and nonparasitic species from Orobanchaceae. Comparative mitogenomic analysis revealed minimal gene loss among the seven Orobanchaceae species, indicating the retention of typical mitochondrial function among Orobanchaceae species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the mobile cox1 intron was acquired vertically from a nonparasitic ancestor, arguing against a role for Orobanchaceae parasites in the horizontal acquisition or distribution of this intron. The C. paramensis plastome has retained nearly all genes except for the recent pseudogenization of four subunits of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, indicating a very early stage of plastome degradation. These results lend support to the notion that loss of ndh gene function is the first step of plastome degradation in the transition to a parasitic lifestyle. PMID:27808159

  18. Potential interactions between metazoan parasites of the Mayan catfish Ariopsis assimilis and chemical pollution in Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Noreña-Barroso, E; Gold-Bouchot, G; Caballero-Pinzón, P I

    2003-06-01

    The effect of pollutants on the intensity of infection of metazoan parasites in the Mayan catfish, Ariopsis assimilis was investigated. Data were collected on pollutants and metazoan parasites from 76 catfish from five localities in Chetumal Bay in October, 1996. Nineteen pollutants (pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were found in the catfish livers. Heavy metal content was not determined. Nineteen metazoan parasite species were recovered. After controlling for fish length and sampling station, there was a significant negative linear relationship between the intensity of the larval digenean Mesostephanus appendiculatoides and 1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) concentrations. This negative relationship may be explained either by the effect of the pesticide on the mortality of (i) free-living larval forms, (ii) metacercariae in the fish, (iii) infected fish or (iv) intermediate host snails. There were significant differences between fish parasitized and not parasitized with M. appendiculatoides with respect to their DDT concentrations. There were also significant differences between the variances of the mean Clark's coefficient of condition values between catfish parasitized and not parasitized by M. appendiculatoides, with the variance of non-parasitized catfish being significantly larger. The results provided statistical evidence that DDT has a detrimental effect on M. appendiculatoides infection intensity. Furthermore, the significantly larger variance value of Clark's coefficient for non-parasitized fish suggested that DDT affects both the parasite and general host condition.

  19. Modulation of leukocytic populations of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea).

    PubMed

    Estensoro, Itziar; Mulero, Iván; Redondo, María J; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Mulero, Victoriano; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY The cellular mucosal and systemic effectors of gilthead sea bream (GSB) (Sparus aurata) involved in the acute immune response to the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei were studied in fish experimentally infected by the anal route. In the intestinal inflammatory infiltrates and in lymphohaematopoietic organs (head kidney and spleen) of parasitized fish, the number of plasma cells, B cells (IgM immunoreactive) and mast cells (histamine immunoreactive) were significantly higher, whereas the number of acidophilic granulocytes (G7 immunoreactive) decreased, compared with non-parasitized and unexposed fish. These differences were stronger at the posterior intestine, the main target of the parasite, and no differences were found in the thymus. In non-parasitized GSB, the percentage of splenic surface occupied by melanomacrophage centres was significantly higher. These results suggest that the cellular response of GSB to E. leei includes proliferation of leukocytes in lymphohaematopoietic organs and recruitment into intestines via blood circulation involving elements of innate and adaptive immunity. Acidophilic granulocytes and mast cells presented opposite patterns of response to the parasite infection, with an overall depletion of the former and an increased amount of the latter. Some differences between both cell types were also detected in regard to their granule density and cell morphology.

  20. Effect of Nanophyetus salmincola and Bacterial Co-Infection on Mortality of Juvenile Chinook Salmon.

    PubMed

    Roon, Sean R; Alexander, Julie D; Jacobson, Kym C; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater trematode Nanophyetus salmincola has been demonstrated to impair salmonid immune function and resistance to the marine pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, potentially resulting in ocean mortality. We examined whether infection by the parasite N. salmincola similarly increases mortality of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha when they are exposed to the freshwater pathogens Flavobacterium columnare or Aeromonas salmonicida, two bacteria that juvenile salmonids might encounter during their migration to the marine environment. We used a two-part experimental design where juvenile Chinook Salmon were first infected with N. salmincola through cohabitation with infected freshwater snails, Juga spp., and then challenged with either F. columnare or A. salmonicida. Cumulative percent mortality from F. columnare infection was higher in N. salmincola-parasitized fish than in nonparasitized fish. In contrast, cumulative percent mortality from A. salmonicida infection did not differ between N. salmincola-parasitized and nonparasitized groups. No mortalities were observed in the N. salmincola-parasitized-only and control groups from either challenge. Our study demonstrates that a relatively high mean intensity (>200 metacercariae per posterior kidney) of encysted N. salmincola metacercariae can alter the outcomes of bacterial infection in juvenile Chinook Salmon, which might have implications for disease in wild fish populations.

  1. Increased host aggression as an induced defense against slave-making ants

    PubMed Central

    Pennings, Pleuni S.; Foitzik, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Slave-making ants reduce the fitness of surrounding host colonies through regular raids, causing the loss of brood and frequently queen and worker death. Consequently, hosts developed defenses against slave raids such as specific recognition and aggression toward social parasites, and indeed, we show that host ants react more aggressively toward slavemakers than toward nonparasitic competitors. Permanent behavioral defenses can be costly, and if social parasite impact varies in time and space, inducible defenses, which are only expressed after slavemaker detection, can be adaptive. We demonstrate for the first time an induced defense against slave-making ants: Cues from the slavemaker Protomognathus americanus caused an unspecific but long-lasting behavioral response in Temnothorax host ants. A 5-min within-nest encounter with a dead slavemaker raised the aggression level in T. longispinosus host colonies. Contrarily, encounters with nonparasitic competitors did not elicit aggressive responses toward non-nestmates. Increased aggression can be adaptive if a slavemaker encounter reliably indicates a forthcoming attack and if aggression increases postraid survival. Host aggression was elevated over 3 days, showing the ability of host ants to remember parasite encounters. The response disappeared after 2 weeks, possibly because by then the benefits of increased aggression counterbalance potential costs associated with it. PMID:22476194

  2. The parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), influences food consumption and utilization by larval Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Guilherme Duarte; Salvador, Gabriela; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis

    2014-10-01

    Parasitoids exploit host insects for food and other resources; they alter host development and physiology to optimize conditions to favor parasitoid development. Parasitoids influence their hosts by injecting eggs, along with a variety of substances, including venoms, polydnaviruses, ovarian fluids, and other maternal factors, into hosts. These factors induce profound changes in hosts, such as behavior, metabolism, endocrine events, and immune defense. Because endoparasitoids develop and consume tissues from within their hosts, it is reasonable to suggest that internal parasitization would also influence host food consumption and metabolism. We report on the effects of parasitism by Cotesia flavipes on the food consumption and utilization of its host, Diatraea saccharalis. Cotesia flavipes reduces the host food consumption, but parasitized larvae considered a unit with their parasitoid's attained the same final weight as the nonparasitized larvae. Nutritional indices, midgut activities of carbohydrases, and trypsin of parasitized and nonparasitized D. saccharalis were assessed. Parasitized larvae had reduced relative food consumption, metabolic and growth rates, coupled with higher efficiency for conversion of the digested, but not ingested, food into body mass. Parasitism also affected food flux through the gut and protein contents in the midgut of parasitized larvae. The activity of α-amylase and trehalase in parasitized host was enhanced in the first day after parasitism relative to control larvae. Saccharase activity remained unchanged during larval development. Trypsin activity was reduced from the fifth to ninth day after parasitism. We argue on the mechanisms involved in host food processing after parasitism.

  3. Bacteria isolated from parasitic nematodes--a potential novel vector of pathogens?

    PubMed

    Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Salisbury, Vyv; Humphrey, Tom J; Stafford, Kathryn; Perkins, Sarah E

    2009-12-21

    Bacterial pathogens are ubiquitous in soil and water - concurrently so are free-living helminths that feed on bacteria. These helminths fall into two categories; the non-parasitic and the parasitic. The former have been the focus of previous work, finding that bacterial pathogens inside helminths are conferred survival advantages over and above bacteria alone in the environment, and that accidental ingestion of non-parasitic helminths can cause systemic infection in vertebrate hosts. Here, we determine the potential for bacteria to be associated with parasitic helminths. After culturing helminths from fecal samples obtained from livestock the external bacteria were removed. Two-hundred parasitic helminths from three different species were homogenised and the bacteria that were internal to the helminths were isolated and cultured. Eleven different bacterial isolates were found; of which eight were indentified. The bacteria identified included known human and cattle pathogens. We concluded that bacteria of livestock can be isolated in parasitic helminths and that this suggests a mechanism by which bacteria, pathogenic or otherwise, can be transmitted between individuals. The potential for helminths to play a role as pathogen vectors poses a potential livestock and human health risk. Further work is required to assess the epidemiological impact of this finding.

  4. Increased host aggression as an induced defense against slave-making ants.

    PubMed

    Pamminger, Tobias; Scharf, Inon; Pennings, Pleuni S; Foitzik, Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Slave-making ants reduce the fitness of surrounding host colonies through regular raids, causing the loss of brood and frequently queen and worker death. Consequently, hosts developed defenses against slave raids such as specific recognition and aggression toward social parasites, and indeed, we show that host ants react more aggressively toward slavemakers than toward nonparasitic competitors. Permanent behavioral defenses can be costly, and if social parasite impact varies in time and space, inducible defenses, which are only expressed after slavemaker detection, can be adaptive. We demonstrate for the first time an induced defense against slave-making ants: Cues from the slavemaker Protomognathus americanus caused an unspecific but long-lasting behavioral response in Temnothorax host ants. A 5-min within-nest encounter with a dead slavemaker raised the aggression level in T. longispinosus host colonies. Contrarily, encounters with nonparasitic competitors did not elicit aggressive responses toward non-nestmates. Increased aggression can be adaptive if a slavemaker encounter reliably indicates a forthcoming attack and if aggression increases postraid survival. Host aggression was elevated over 3 days, showing the ability of host ants to remember parasite encounters. The response disappeared after 2 weeks, possibly because by then the benefits of increased aggression counterbalance potential costs associated with it.

  5. Limited mitogenomic degradation in response to a parasitic lifestyle in Orobanchaceae.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weishu; Zhu, Andan; Kozaczek, Melisa; Shah, Neethu; Pabón-Mora, Natalia; González, Favio; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2016-11-03

    In parasitic plants, the reduction in plastid genome (plastome) size and content is driven predominantly by the loss of photosynthetic genes. The first completed mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from parasitic mistletoes also exhibit significant degradation, but the generality of this observation for other parasitic plants is unclear. We sequenced the complete mitogenome and plastome of the hemiparasite Castilleja paramensis (Orobanchaceae) and compared them with additional holoparasitic, hemiparasitic and nonparasitic species from Orobanchaceae. Comparative mitogenomic analysis revealed minimal gene loss among the seven Orobanchaceae species, indicating the retention of typical mitochondrial function among Orobanchaceae species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the mobile cox1 intron was acquired vertically from a nonparasitic ancestor, arguing against a role for Orobanchaceae parasites in the horizontal acquisition or distribution of this intron. The C. paramensis plastome has retained nearly all genes except for the recent pseudogenization of four subunits of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, indicating a very early stage of plastome degradation. These results lend support to the notion that loss of ndh gene function is the first step of plastome degradation in the transition to a parasitic lifestyle.

  6. Does antibody binding to diverse antigens predict future infection?

    PubMed

    Owen, J P; Waite, J L; Holden, K Z; Clayton, D H

    2014-11-01

    We studied diverse antigen binding in hosts and the outcome of parasitism. We used captive-bred F1 descendants of feral rock pigeons (Columba livia) challenged with blood-feeding flies (Hippoboscidae) and a protozoan parasite (Haemoproteus). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunoblots were used to test (i) whether pre-infection IgY antigen binding predicts parasite fitness and (ii) whether antigen binding changes after infection. Assays used extracts from three pigeon parasites (northern fowl mite, Salmonella bacteria and avian pox virus), as well as nonparasitic molecules from cattle, chicken and keyhole limpet. Binding to hippoboscid and S. enterica extracts were predictive of hippoboscid fly fitness. Binding to extracts from hippoboscids, pox virus and nonparasitic organisms was predictive of Haemoproteus infection levels. Antigen binding to all extracts increased after parasite challenge, despite the fact that birds were only exposed to flies and Haemoproteus. Immunoblots suggested innate Ig binding to parasite-associated molecular markers and revealed that new antigens were bound in extracts after infection. These data suggest that host antibody binding to diverse antigens predicts parasite fitness even when the antigens are not related to the infecting parasite. We discuss the implications of these data for the study of host-parasite immunological interaction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of deforestation and introduction of exotic grasses as livestock forage on the population dynamics of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Mangold, Atilio J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of deforestation and the introduction of exotic grasses on the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northern Argentina was analysed. Biological parameters that were measured included proportion of females ovipositing, pre-oviposition period, incubation period of eggs, proportion of egg clusters hatching, larval longevity and total non-parasitic period. No significant differences were observed in proportion of females ovipositing and in pre-oviposition period between forested and grassland areas. Regarding the other parameters, in the majority of the temporal series there were no significant differences. In the cases where differences with statistical significance were detected, they were not unidirectional. The replacement of native forest by grasses can potentially increase tick abundance not by the modification of microclimatic conditions, but by increasing the tick-host encounter rate due to a higher cattle density. The hypothesis that deforestation and introduction of exotic grasses affects the non-parasitic phase of R. microplus in northern Argentina was not supported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Myocardial changes in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Ultrastructural evidence of immune damage and the role of microangiopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Andrade, S. G.; Correa, R.; Sadigursky, M.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1994-01-01

    Histological and ultrastructural studies of the hearts of dogs sacrificed 18 to 26 days after intraperitoneal inoculation with 4 x 10(5) blood forms of the 12 SF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi/kg of body weight disclosed myocarditis characterized by parasitic invasion of some myocytes, damage and necrosis of nonparasitized myocytes, and interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells. Nonparasitized myocytes showed alterations ranging from mild edema to severe myocytolysis. These changes often were accompanied by contacts of myocytes with lymphocytes (both granular and agranular) and macrophages. These contacts were characterized by focal loss of the myocyte basement membrane and close approximation of the plasma membranes of the two cells. Contacts between lymphocytes and capillary endothelial cells were also frequent. Platelet aggregates and fibrin microthrombi were observed in some capillaries. Our findings suggest that immune effector cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of the myocyte damage and the microangiopathy in acute Chagas' disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8203476

  9. Nestling cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, exploit hosts with begging calls that mimic a brood

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N. B.; Kilner, R. M.; Noble, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    Nestling cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, eject host eggs or young from the nest and are then raised alone by the hosts. Using reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, as hosts, we investigated how the single cuckoo chick can command the same provisioning rate as a whole brood of host young. Large size alone is not sufficient to stimulate adequate provisioning because single blackbird, Turdus merula, or song thrush, T. philomelos, chicks of the same mass as a cuckoo were fed at a lower rate. Our experiments show that the key stimulus is the cuckoo chick's rapid begging call ('si, si, si, si ...'), which sounds remarkably like a whole brood of host chicks, and which it matched in calling rate. When single blackbird or song thrush chicks were accompanied by loudspeakers that broadcast either cuckoo begging calls or calls of a brood of reed warblers, the hosts increased their provisioning rate to that for a cuckoo chick. We suggest that the cuckoo needs vocal trickery to stimulate adequate care to compensate for the fact that it presents a visual stimulus of just one gape.

  10. Polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M A; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2010-05-01

    A PCR assay was developed for the identification of meats and commercial meat products from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), partridge (Alectoris spp.), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), pigeon (Columba spp.), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 96, 100, 104, 106, 147, 127, and 154 bp in length for quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock, and song thrush tissues, respectively. The specificity of each primer pair was tested against DNA from various game and domestic species. In this work, satisfactory amplification was accomplished in the analysis of experimentally pasteurized (72 degrees C for 30 min) and sterilized (121 degrees C for 20 min) meats, as well as in commercial meat products from the target species. The technique was also applied to raw and sterilized muscular binary mixtures, with a detection limit of 0.1% (wt/wt) for each of the targeted species. The proposed PCR assay represents a rapid and straightforward method for the detection of possible mislabeling in game bird meat products.

  11. An evaluation of patients' willingness to trade symptom-free days for asthma-related treatment risks: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    McTaggart-Cowan, Helen M; Shi, Peilin; Fitzgerald, J Mark; Anis, Aslam H; Kopec, Jacek A; Bai, Tony R; Soon, Judith A; Lynd, Larry D

    2008-10-01

    Not taking treatment preferences into account may lead to patients' inappropriate use of asthma treatments. The objective of this study was to quantify these preferences, in terms of risk-benefits trade-offs, for six asthma treatment attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Adult asthma patients (n = 157) participated in the study. The custom-designed DCE measured preferences for treatment effectiveness (symptom-free days), potential risk (oral thrush and tremor/heart palpitation), ease of use (frequency of daily administration and number of inhalers required), and cost. A nested logit model was used to determine the relative preferences of each attribute, from which the marginal rates of substitution were calculated. Segmented models were used to test for interactions between cost and treatment benefit with socioeconomic status and medication use. Relationships between preferences and all attributes were in the hypothesized direction. On average, patients were willing to pay an additional $14 per month to receive one additional symptom-free day, and $26, $79, and $112 monthly to avoid one, two, and three annual episodes of oral thrush, respectively. Income and the magnitude of short-acting beta -agonist use also affected treatment preferences. Overall, asthma patients desired treatments that offered more symptom-free days, but they were willing to trade days without symptoms in exchange for a reduction in adverse events and greater convenience.

  12. Efficacy and safety of miconazole for oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L-W; Fu, J-Y; Hua, H; Yan, Z-M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of miconazole for treating oral candidiasis. Twelve electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating treatments for oral candidiasis and complemented by hand searching. The clinical and mycological outcomes, as well as adverse effects, were set as the primary outcome criteria. Seventeen trials were included in this review. Most studies were considered to have a high or moderate level of bias. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin for thrush. For HIV-infected patients, there was no significant difference in the efficacy between miconazole and other antifungals. For denture wearers, microwave therapy was significantly better than miconazole. No significant difference was found in the safety evaluation between miconazole and other treatments. The relapse rate of miconazole oral gel may be lower than that of other formulations. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that miconazole may be an optional choice for thrush. Microwave therapy could be an effective adjunct treatment for denture stomatitis. Miconazole oral gel may be more effective than other formulations with regard to long-term results. However, future studies that are adequately powered, large-scale, and well-designed are needed to provide higher-quality evidence for the management of oral candidiasis.

  13. [Clotrimazol in the treatment of candida infections in premature and newborn children (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sitka, U; Weingärtner, L

    1976-04-09

    The early infancy is especially affected by moniliasis in pediatrics. The causes are: broad spread of Candida albicans in the environment of these children, a growing immunity, the immaturity of the skin and an insufficient candida-static activity of the serum. The prematures and the newborns with an irregular birth are especially endangered. This danger is increased by simultaneous antibiotic therapy. The arising mycosis can reach from the relative harmless mouth- and diaper-thrush to serious septic diseases. An effective therapy therefore is very much desired. As new efficacious medicaments the derivates of imidazol, Clotrimazol, have proved satisfactory for the treatment of mycoses. It is as Canesten marketed. The drug possesses a strong activity against numerous fungi, some protozoa, and bacteria. In this paper it is reported on own pharmacokinetic and therapeutic investigations with Clotrimazol. The substance has been very useful for the treatment of mouth- and diaper-thrush. Clotrimazol was administered as BAYb 5097 peroral and local as Canesten -solution 1% and -cream 1%. There were 171 treatments carried out. Essential side-effects were not observed.

  14. Effect of edible sesame oil on growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toshiko; Nishio, Junko; Okada, Shinobu

    2014-07-01

    Elderly individuals are at increased risk of oral thrush (oral candidiasis) due to decreased saliva secretion. Due to their antimicrobial properties, edible oils can be effective natural agents for oral care. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil. The ability to inhibit the growth of the mycelial form correlated with sesame oil concentration. Roasting influenced growth inhibition ability and high-roasted sesame oil most effectively inhibited the yeast form. The growth inhibitory effect differed among the five isolates. We hypothesize that the sesamin and fatty acid components of sesame oil are involved in its antifungal activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, James D.; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migratory flights by great snipes, Gallinago media. Relative to the optimal benchmark, we assess the efficiency (travel speed) and reliability (success rate) of three generic orientation strategies: full compensation for lateral drift, vector orientation (single-heading movement) and goal orientation (continually heading towards the goal). Optimal orientation is characterized by detours to regions of high flow support, especially when flow speeds approach and exceed the animal's self-propelled speed. In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. Optimal orientation provides a benchmark for assessing efficiency of responses to complex flow conditions, thereby offering insight into adaptive flow-orientation across taxa in the light of flow strength, predictability and navigation capacity. PMID:25056213

  16. Differential Role of Passerine Birds in Distribution of Borrelia Spirochetes, Based on Data from Ticks Collected from Birds during the Postbreeding Migration Period in Central Europe▿

    PubMed Central

    Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika; Sychra, Oldrich

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia spirochetes in bird-feeding ticks were studied in the Czech Republic. During the postbreeding period (July to September 2005), 1,080 passerine birds infested by 2,240 Ixodes ricinus subadult ticks were examined. Borrelia garinii was detected in 22.2% of the ticks, Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 12.8% of the ticks, Borrelia afzelii was detected in 1.6% of the ticks, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 0.3% of the ticks. After analysis of infections in which the blood meal volume and the stage of the ticks were considered, we concluded that Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula), song thrushes (Turdus philomelos), and great tits (Parus major) are capable of transmitting B. garinii; that juvenile blackbirds and song thrushes are prominent reservoirs for B. garinii spirochetes; that some other passerine birds investigated play minor roles in transmitting B. garinii; and that the presence B. afzelii in ticks results from infection in a former stage. Thus, while B. garinii transmission is associated with only a few passerine bird species, these birds have the potential to distribute millions of Lyme disease spirochetes between urban areas. PMID:19060160

  17. Seasonal change in tropical habitat quality and body condition for a declining migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emily A; Rotenberg, James A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-10-01

    Many migratory songbirds spend their non-breeding season in tropical humid forests, where climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of droughts and decrease rainfall. For conservation of these songbirds, it is critical to understand how resources during the non-breeding season are affected by seasonal patterns of drying, and thereby predict potential long-term effects of climate change. We studied habitat quality for a declining tropical forest-dwelling songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and tested the hypothesis that habitat moisture and arthropod abundance are drivers of body condition during the overwintering period. We examined habitat moisture, abundance of arthropods and fruit, and condition of individual birds (n = 418) in three habitat types--mature forest, mature forest with increased presence of human activity, and riparian scrub--from October to April. We found a strong pattern of habitat drying from October (wet season) to March (prior to spring migration) in all habitats, with concurrent declines in arthropod and fruit abundance. Body condition of birds also declined (estimated ~5 % decline over the wintering period), with no significant difference by habitat. Relatively poor condition (low body condition index, low fat and pectoral muscles scores) was equally apparent in all habitat types in March. Climate change is predicted to increase the severity of dry seasons in Central America, and our results suggest that this could negatively affect the condition of individual wood thrushes.

  18. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies.

    PubMed

    McLaren, James D; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Bouten, Willem

    2014-10-06

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migratory flights by great snipes, Gallinago media. Relative to the optimal benchmark, we assess the efficiency (travel speed) and reliability (success rate) of three generic orientation strategies: full compensation for lateral drift, vector orientation (single-heading movement) and goal orientation (continually heading towards the goal). Optimal orientation is characterized by detours to regions of high flow support, especially when flow speeds approach and exceed the animal's self-propelled speed. In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. Optimal orientation provides a benchmark for assessing efficiency of responses to complex flow conditions, thereby offering insight into adaptive flow-orientation across taxa in the light of flow strength, predictability and navigation capacity.

  19. Effects of breeding versus winter habitat loss and fragmentation on the population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caz M; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2016-03-01

    Many migratory species are in decline and understanding these declines is challenging because individuals occupy widely divergent and geographically distant habitats during a single year and therefore populations across the range are interconnected in complex ways. Network modeling has been used to show, theoretically, that shifts in migratory connectivity patterns can occur in response to habitat or climate changes and that habitat loss in one region can affect sub-populations in regions that are not directly connected. Here, we use a network model, parameterized by integrating long-term monitoring data with direct tracking of -100 individuals, to explain population trends in the rapidly declining Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and to predict future trends. Our model suggests that species-level declines in Wood Thrush are driven primarily by tropical deforestation in Central America but that protection of breeding habitat in some regions is necessary to prevent shifts in migratory connectivity and to sustain populations in all breeding regions. The model illustrates how shifts in migratory connectivity may lead to unexpected population declines in key regions. We highlight current knowledge gaps that make modeling full life-cycle population demographics in migratory species challenging but also demonstrate that modeling can inform conservation while these gaps are being filled.

  20. Summer inventory of landbirds in Kenai Fjords National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program, we conducted a summer inventory of landbirds within Kenai Fjords National Park. Using a stratified random sampling design of areas accessible by boat or on foot, we selected sites that encompassed the breadth of habitat types within the Park. We detected 101 species across 52 transects, including 62 species of landbirds, which confirmed presence of 87% of landbird species expected to occur in the Park during the summer breeding season. We found evidence of breeding for three Partners in Flight Watch List species, Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi), and Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus), which are of particular conservation concern due to recent population declines. Kenai Fjords National Park supports extremely high densities of Hermit Thrush, Orange-crowned Warbler, and Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) compared with other regions of Alaska. Other commonly observed species included Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca), Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius), Rubycrowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula), and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia). More than half of the landbird species we observed occurred in needleleaf forests, and several of these species were strongly associated with the coastforest interface. Tall shrub habitats, which occurred across all elevations and in recently deglaciated areas, supported high densities and a diverse array of passerines. Two major riparian corridors, with their broadleaf forests, wetlands, and connectivity to interior Alaska, provided unique and important landbird habitats within the region.

  1. Assessing the passerine "Tapestry": phylogenetic relationships of the Muscicapoidea inferred from nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Cibois, Alice; Cracraft, Joel

    2004-07-01

    This study presents new comparative sequence data from the nuclear RAG-1 gene for an increased taxon sample in order to investigate phylogenetic relationships among a diverse songbird superfamily, the Muscicapoidea, which has variously included the waxwings, silky flycatchers, Palm Chat, dippers, starlings, mockingbirds, thrushes, chats, and Old World flycatchers. At the same time, our results provide a test of the often-cited relationships inferred from the phenetic studies of Sibley and Ahlquist [Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1990] using DNA hybridization distances. Nuclear DNA sequences confirm the monophyly of the "core muscicapoid" group, as defined by Barker et al. [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269 (2002) 295] and also support the sister-group relationship of the Sturnidae and Mimidae, on the one hand, and the large-bodied thrushes (Turdini)+the Old World flycatchers and robins, on the other. The results of the phylogenetic analysis allow preliminary inferences about muscicapoid biogeographic history. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effects of post-breeding moult and energetic condition on timing of songbird migration into the tropics.

    PubMed

    Stutchbury, Bridget J M; Gow, Elizabeth A; Done, Tyler; MacPherson, Maggie; Fox, James W; Afanasyev, Vsevolod

    2011-01-07

    Each autumn billions of songbirds migrate between the temperate zone and tropics, but little is known about how events on the breeding grounds affect migration to the tropics. Here, we use light level geolocators to track the autumn migration of wood thrushes Hylocichla mustelina and test for the first time if late moult and poor physiological condition prior to migration delays arrival on the winter territory. Late nesting thrushes postponed feather moult, and birds with less advanced moult in August were significantly farther north on 10 October while en route to the tropics. Individuals in relatively poor energetic condition in August (high β-Hydroxybutyrate, low triglyceride, narrow feather growth bars) passed into the tropics significantly later in October. However, late moult and poor pre-migratory condition did not result in late arrival on the winter territory because stopover duration was highly variable late in migration. Although carry-over effects from the winter territory to spring migration may be strong in migratory songbirds, our study suggests that high reproductive effort late in the season does not impose time constraints that delay winter territory acquisition.

  3. Effects of an alien ant invasion on abundance, behavior, and reproductive success of endemic island birds.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Green, Peter T; Nally, Ralph Mac

    2008-10-01

    Biological invaders can reconfigure ecological networks in communities, which changes community structure, composition, and ecosystem function. We investigated whether impacts caused by the introduced yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), a pantropical invader rapidly expanding its range, extend to higher-order consumers by comparing counts, behaviors, and nesting success of endemic forest birds in ant-invaded and uninvaded rainforest on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Point counts and direct behavioral observations showed that ant invasion altered abundances and behaviors of the bird species we examined: the Island Thrush (Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus), Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica natalis), and Christmas Island White-eye (Zosterops natalis). The thrush, which frequents the forest floor, altered its foraging and reproductive behaviors in ant-invaded forest, where nest-site location changed, and nest success and juvenile counts were lower. Counts of the dove, which forages exclusively on the forest floor, were 9-14 times lower in ant-invaded forest. In contrast, counts and foraging success of the white-eye, a generalist feeder in the understory and canopy, were higher in ant-invaded forest, where mutualism between the ant and honeydew-secreting scale insects increased the abundance of scale-insect prey. These complex outcomes involved the interplay of direct interference by ants and altered resource availability and habitat structure caused indirectly by ant invasion. Ecological meltdown, rapidly unleashed by ant invasion, extended to these endemic forest birds and may affect key ecosystem processes, including seed dispersal.

  4. Differential role of passerine birds in distribution of Borrelia spirochetes, based on data from ticks collected from birds during the postbreeding migration period in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika; Sychra, Oldrich

    2009-02-01

    Borrelia spirochetes in bird-feeding ticks were studied in the Czech Republic. During the postbreeding period (July to September 2005), 1,080 passerine birds infested by 2,240 Ixodes ricinus subadult ticks were examined. Borrelia garinii was detected in 22.2% of the ticks, Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 12.8% of the ticks, Borrelia afzelii was detected in 1.6% of the ticks, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 0.3% of the ticks. After analysis of infections in which the blood meal volume and the stage of the ticks were considered, we concluded that Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula), song thrushes (Turdus philomelos), and great tits (Parus major) are capable of transmitting B. garinii; that juvenile blackbirds and song thrushes are prominent reservoirs for B. garinii spirochetes; that some other passerine birds investigated play minor roles in transmitting B. garinii; and that the presence B. afzelii in ticks results from infection in a former stage. Thus, while B. garinii transmission is associated with only a few passerine bird species, these birds have the potential to distribute millions of Lyme disease spirochetes between urban areas.

  5. Autochthonous and migratory birds as a dispersion source for Ixodes ricinus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Alessandro; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Malia, Egidio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-10-01

    The present study was carried out in a protected wooded area, which is part of the Parco Regionale Gallipoli Cognato Piccole Dolomiti Lucane, one of the most important ecological reserves in southern Italy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 212 birds, comprising 22 species from 12 families, were captured and examined for ticks. A total of 75 (35.4 %) birds were found infested by ticks, with 451 ticks being collected. All ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, of which 241 (53.4 %) were larvae and 210 nymphs (46.6 %). The highest intensity of infestation was found in April 2010, when 117 ticks were retrieved on 25 birds. No ticks were found on birds (n = 5) netted in December 2010. High infestation rates were recorded on blackbirds (Turdus merula) (90 %; 29 birds examined) and on mistle thrushes (Turdus viscivorus) (100 %; 2 birds examined). The highest intensity of infestation by larvae was found on wrens (5.6 larvae/bird) and by nymphs on mistle thrushes (11.5 nymphs/bird). Temperature and number of hours of light showed to influence the activity of larvae and nymphs. These data support the notion that birds may be responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of I. ricinus in Europe, thus playing a role in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne pathogens.

  6. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  7. Campylobacter jejuni colonization in wild birds: results from an infection experiment.

    PubMed

    Waldenström, Jonas; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olsen, Björn; Hasselquist, Dennis; Griekspoor, Petra; Jansson, Lena; Teneberg, Susann; Svensson, Lovisa; Ellström, Patrik

    2010-02-05

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations.

  8. Tetrodotoxin does not protect red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, from intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Seitz, Hanns Martin; Arakawa, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogue 6-epiTTX had been detected in the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens. Thirty specimens of a population from Pennsylvania, USA were histologically examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. More than 50% were found to be infected with nematodes (Trichocephalidae), trematodes or cestodes (Pseudophyllidae). The mean values of TTX and 6-epiTTX in parasitized and in non-parasitized newts were not significantly different. Using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique, TTX was localized in the intestinal tissue as well as in the parasites indicating that they accumulate the toxin and suggesting that TTX and 6-epiTTX are not providing protection from parasites to the newts.

  9. Floral Volatiles in Parasitic Plants of the Orobanchaceae. Ecological and Taxonomic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Peter; Undas, Anna K.; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2016-01-01

    The holoparasitic broomrapes, Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (Orobanchaceae), are root parasites that completely depend on a host plant for survival and reproduction. There is considerable controversy on the taxonomy of this biologically and agronomically important family. Flowers of over 25 parasitic Orobanchaceae and a number of close, parasitic and non-parasitic, relatives emitted a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), consisting of over 130 VOCs per species. Floral VOC blend-based phylogeny supported the known taxonomy in internal taxonomic grouping of genus and eliminated the uncertainty in some taxonomical groups. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested separation of the broomrapes into two main groups parasitizing annual and perennial hosts, and for the annual hosts, into weedy and non-weedy broomrapes. We conclude that floral VOCs are a significant tool in species identification and possibly even in defining new species and can help to improve controversial taxonomy in the Orobanchaceae. PMID:27014329

  10. Antimicrobial capacity of the freshwater planarians against S. aureus is under the control of Timeless.

    PubMed

    Tsoumtsa, Landry Laure; Torre, Cedric; Trouplin, Virginie; Coiffard, Benjamin; Gimenez, Gregory; Mege, Jean-Louis; Ghigo, Eric

    2017-01-04

    Planarians, which are non-parasitic flatworms, are highly resistant to bacterial infections. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this resistance, we investigated the role of the circadian machinery in the anti-bacterial response of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We identified Smed-Tim from S. mediterranea as a homolog of the mammalian clock gene Tim. We showed via RNA interference that Smed-Tim is required for the anti-microbial activities of Schmidtea mediterranea against Staphylococcus aureus infection during the light/dark cycle. Indeed, S. aureus infection leads to the expression of Smed-Tim, which in turn promotes Smed-Traf6 and Smed-morn2, but not Smed-p38 MAPK expression, 2 master regulators of planarian anti-microbial responses.

  11. Mitochondrial genome evolution in Alismatales: Size reduction and extensive loss of ribosomal protein genes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Gitte; Cuenca, Argelia; Zervas, Athanasios; Ross, Gregory T; Graham, Sean W; Barrett, Craig F; Davis, Jerrold I; Seberg, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The order Alismatales is a hotspot for evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes characterized by remarkable differences in genome size, substitution rates, RNA editing, retrotranscription, gene loss and intron loss. Here we have sequenced the complete mitogenomes of Zostera marina and Stratiotes aloides, which together with previously sequenced mitogenomes from Butomus and Spirodela, provide new evolutionary evidence of genome size reduction, gene loss and transfer to the nucleus. The Zostera mitogenome includes a large portion of DNA transferred from the plastome, yet it is the smallest known mitogenome from a non-parasitic plant. Using a broad sample of the Alismatales, the evolutionary history of ribosomal protein gene loss is analyzed. In Zostera almost all ribosomal protein genes are lost from the mitogenome, but only some can be found in the nucleus.

  12. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modem pressurized water reactors.

  13. Macroscopic lesions of the ventriculus of Rhea americana , Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Rheidae) naturally infected by Sicarius uncinipenis (Molin, 1860) (Nematoda: Habronematidae).

    PubMed

    Ederli, N B; de Oliveira, F C R

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies concerning the parasites of rheas. However, parasitism is the major cause of the limited success in captive breeding of these birds. Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi, Paradeletrocephalus minor, and Sicarius uncinipenis are the most prevalent nematode species affecting these birds, but the lesions caused by these parasites have not been previously reported. Four adult rheas were necropsied to determine the presence or absence of gross lesions within the gastrointestinal tract, associated with parasitic infection. Two rheas parasitized by S. uncinipenis had ulcers on the koilin layer or had parasites penetrating this layer, resulting in widespread necrosis and hemorrhagic areas, whereas the 2 nonparasitized birds did not present lesions. The degree of injury was proportional to the parasitic load found in the birds. Thus, high parasitic loads can result in necrosis of the ventriculus, which may contribute to the death of birds, resulting in economic losses in the rural production of these birds.

  14. Robotic surgery for treatment of chyluria.

    PubMed

    Barman, Naman; Palese, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Chyle is a milky lymphatic fluid that is normally formed in the small intestine to aid in the absorption of dietary fats. Occasionally, chyle leaks into the kidney, ureter, or bladder, which results in chyluria. Chyluria is most commonly caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and is therefore extremely rare in the USA. The use of robotic surgery for treatment has been suggested as a viable option, but has not been thoroughly reported in the literature. This article reviews the literature on the various treatment options for chyluria and presents the case of a 75-year-old Indian female from the USA who was diagnosed with non-parasitic, persistent chyluria and treated with right robotic ureterolysis, renal hilar dissection and intraperitonealization of the ureter.

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis L. increases Caenorhabditis elegans stress resistance and longevity in a DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zamberlan, D C; Amaral, G P; Arantes, L P; Machado, M L; Mizdal, C R; Campos, M M A; Soares, F A A

    2016-08-01

    Improving overall health and quality of life, preventing diseases and increasing life expectancy are key concerns in the field of public health. The search for antioxidants that can inhibit oxidative damage in cells has received a lot of attention. Rosmarinus officinalis L. represents an exceptionally rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmacological properties. In the present study, we explored the effects of the ethanolic extract of R. officinalis (eeRo) on stress resistance and longevity using the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. We report for the first time that eeRo increased resistance against oxidative and thermal stress and extended C. elegans longevity in an insulin/IGF signaling pathway-dependent manner. These data emphasize the eeRo beneficial effects on C. elegans under stress.

  16. A mallophaga, Trinoton anserinum, as a cyclodevelopmental vector for a heartworm parasite of waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Seegar, W S; Schiller, E L; Sladen, W J; Trpis, M

    1976-11-12

    The biting louse Trinoton anserinum serves as the intermediate host in the life cycle of the filarial heartworm, Sarconema eurycerca. Microfilariae, second-, and third-stage larvae were dissected from 39 of 89 lice infesting whistling swans, Cygnus columbianus columbianus, in North America and mute swans, Cygnus olor, in the Black Sea, U.S.S.R. Infective third-stage larvae obtained from lice collected from heartworm-parasitized whistling swans were injected subcutaneously into each of two hand-reared, nonparasitized mute swan cygnets. Both of these birds developed heartworm infections, one becoming microfilaremic at 14 weeks. The results of this study provide conclusive evidence that a mallophagan serves as a natural cyclodevelopmental vector of a filarial parasite.

  17. The draft genome of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis

    PubMed Central

    Mitreva, Makedonka; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Zarlenga, Dante S.; Wang, Zhengyuan; Abubucker, Sahar; Martin, John; Taylor, Christina M.; Yin, Yong; Fulton, Lucinda; Minx, Pat; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Warren, Wesley C.; Fulton, Robert S.; Bhonagiri, Veena; Zhang, Xu; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Clifton, Sandra W.; McCarter, James P.; Appleton, Judith; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-based studies of metazoan evolution are most informative when phylogenetically diverse species are incorporated in the analysis. As such, evolutionary trends within and outside the phylum Nematoda have been less revealing by focusing only on comparisons involving Caenorhabditis elegans. Herein, we present a draft of the 64 megabase nuclear genome of Trichinella spiralis, containing 15,808 protein coding genes. This parasitic nematode is an extant member of a clade that diverged early in the evolution of the phylum enabling identification of archetypical genes and molecular signatures exclusive to nematodes. Comparative analyses support intrachromosomal rearrangements across the phylum, disproportionate numbers of protein family deaths over births in parasitic vs. a non-parasitic nematode, and a preponderance of gene loss and gain events in nematodes relative to Drosophila melanogaster. This sequence and the panphylum characteristics identified herein will advance evolutionary studies and strategies to combat global parasites of humans, food animals and crops. PMID:21336279

  18. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:637577

  19. Metals, Parasites, and Environmental Conditions Affecting Breeding Populations of Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in Northern Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    DeMali, Heather M; Trauth, Stanley E; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) is indigenous to northern Arkansas, and several breeding sites are known to exist in the region. Spotted salamanders (n = 17) were collected and examined for parasites and only three females harbored nematodes (Physaloptera spp.). Chronic aquatic bioassays were conducted using water collected from eight breeding ponds during different hydroperiod events. No lethal or sublethal effects were measured in Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, decreased growth and survival were seen in Pimephales promelas. Aqueous, sediment, and salamander hepatic samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Metal analysis revealed possible increased metal exposure following precipitation, with greatest metal concentrations measured in sediment samples. Hepatic metal concentrations were similar in parasitized and non-parasitized individuals, and greatest Pb concentrations were measured following normal precipitation events. Determining environmental stressors of amphibians, especially during their breeding and subsequent larval life stage, is imperative to improve species conservation.

  20. Maternally invested carotenoids compensate costly ectoparasitism in the hihi

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G.; Thorogood, Rose; Brekke, Patricia; Cassey, Phillip; Karadas, Filiz; Armstrong, Doug P.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary ingested carotenoid biomolecules have been linked to both improved health and immunity in nestling birds. Here, we test whether maternally invested egg carotenoids can offset the cost of parasitism in developing nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta) from the bloodsucking mite (Ornithonyssus bursa). Our results reveal clear negative effects of parasitism on nestlings, and that maternally derived carotenoids compensate this cost, resulting in growth parameters and ultimate mass achieved being similar to nonparasitized young. Our results offer an unique example of a direct positive relationship between enhanced maternal investment of carotenoids and an ability to cope with a specific and costly parasite in young birds. As O. bursa infestations reduce population viability in hihi, our findings also highlight the importance of key nutritional resources for endangered bird populations to better cope with common parasite infestations. PMID:19620733

  1. Natural efficiency of parasitism by Billaea rhynchophorae (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) for the control of Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Moura, José Inacio L; Toma, Ronaldo; Sgrillo, Ricardo B; Delabie, Jacques H C

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of the tachinid parasitoid Billaea rhynchophorae (Blanchard) on larvae of the palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) was evaluated in plantations of piassava palm (Attalea funifera Mart.) and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin), in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. The monthly percentages of parasitism were evaluated during 13 months, from November 2000 to November 2001, based on the comparison between the number of parasitized and non-parasitized cocoons of R. palmarum. Mean parasitism was 40% and ranged from 50% in November 2000 to 18% in July 2001. While there is no method of mass reproduction of the parasitoid, a simple management practice is recommended, in order to preserve its beneficial effects in palm plantations.

  2. Infection of larval herring by helminth parasites in the North Sea and the effect on feeding incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, M.; Nicoll, N.

    1991-12-01

    Specimens of larval herring ( Clupea harengus L.) collected during the Autumn Circulation Experiment in the North Sea were found to be infected with two species of helminth parasites—a trematode Hemiurus sp. and a cestode Scolex pleuronectis. The prevalence of both parasites was significantly dependent on larval length, sampling month and sampling area. Analysis of larval stomach contents indicated that feeding incidence was significantly lower in larvae which were infected with S. pleuronectis. The difference in feeding incidence between parasitized and non-parasitized larvae represented up to 50% reduction in prey uptake rate. Up to 40% of larvae were infected with S. pleuronectis and the consequences of infection for the mean growth rate in the population could therefore be significant. The geographical variation in the distribution of S. pleuronectis infection suggests the possibility of an interaction between larval advection routes and growth rate, which could influence recruitment.

  3. A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections. PMID:4042057

  4. Comparison of carbon and nitrogen content of infected and uninfected snails, Succinea ovalis, and the trematode Leucochloridium variae.

    PubMed

    Burky, A J; Hornbach, D J

    1979-06-01

    In June, 6.7% of adult Succinea ovalis collected near Urbana, Ohio, were infected with the trematode, Leucochloridium variae. The effects of parasitism were assessed as total organic carbon (equivalent to calorific values) and as total nitrogen. The parasite represents 23.8% of total (parasite + snail tissue) dry tissue weight, 21.4% of total carbon and 19.8% of total nitrogen of infected snails. The higher C : N ratio for parasite tissue indicates a higher proportion of nonproteinaceous compounds (e.g., fats and/or carbohydrates) as compared to host tissue. There is less snail tissue in parasited S. ovalis. The C : N ratios for parasitized and nonparasitized snail tissue suggest identical percentage compositions of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

  5. Pseudoneoplasms in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Harshbarger, J C

    1984-05-01

    Gross and cytologic similarities between certain non-neoplastic conditions and neoplasms in lower animals including fish, amphibians, and reptiles have invited misinterpretations and contested interpretations. Major categories of pseudo-neoplasms, illustrated by specific examples from material accessioned into the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals, include infections by foreign organisms which resemble host cells (algal protothecosis and amebic pseudotumors); unusual normal conditions [giant islets of endocrine pancreas (Brockmann bodies) in liver, atypical sites of hematopoietic tissue]; nonparasitic hyperplasia (goiter, ectopic thyroid, erythroblastic proliferation suggestive of pernicious anemia, adenofibrosis); parasite-induced hyperplasia (trematode-induced fibrosis, ciliate-induced monocytic leukocytosis, trematode-induced melanosis, glochidiosis); dysmorphogenesis (teratoid anomalies); virus-induced hypertrophy (lymphocystis); and reactive lesions (metaplasia, regeneration, inflammation).

  6. Giant benign true cyst of the spleen with high serum level of CA 19-9.

    PubMed

    Trompetas, Vassilis; Panagopoulos, Emmanuel; Priovolou-Papaevangelou, Maria; Ramantanis, George

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old woman with a giant (20 cm) benign mesothelial splenic cyst and a high CA 19-9 serum level (1240 U/ml). The patient underwent resection of the cyst and splenectomy. True non-parasitic splenic cysts are very rare. Only 10 cases of benign true splenic cysts, with a high CA 19-9 serum level, have ever been published in the medical literature written in English. These are reviewed in this paper. We believe that the inner cellular lining of the cyst wall produces CA 19-9, which causes the high CA 19-9 serum level. This is supported by the facts that (1) the inner cellular lining is strongly positive for immunohistochemistry with CA 19-9, and (2) the CA 19-9 serum level returned to normal after resection of the cyst.

  7. Rosmarinus officinalis L. increases Caenorhabditis elegans stress resistance and longevity in a DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Zamberlan, D.C.; Amaral, G.P.; Arantes, L.P.; Machado, M.L.; Mizdal, C.R.; Campos, M.M.A.; Soares, F.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Improving overall health and quality of life, preventing diseases and increasing life expectancy are key concerns in the field of public health. The search for antioxidants that can inhibit oxidative damage in cells has received a lot of attention. Rosmarinus officinalis L. represents an exceptionally rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmacological properties. In the present study, we explored the effects of the ethanolic extract of R. officinalis (eeRo) on stress resistance and longevity using the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. We report for the first time that eeRo increased resistance against oxidative and thermal stress and extended C. elegans longevity in an insulin/IGF signaling pathway-dependent manner. These data emphasize the eeRo beneficial effects on C. elegans under stress. PMID:27533765

  8. Parasitic mites of honey bees: life history, implications, and impact.

    PubMed

    Sammataro, D; Gerson, U; Needham, G

    2000-01-01

    The hive of the honey bee is a suitable habitat for diverse mites (Acari), including nonparasitic, omnivorous, and pollen-feeding species, and parasites. The biology and damage of the three main pest species Acarapis woodi, Varroa jacobsoni, and Tropilaelaps clareae is reviewed, along with detection and control methods. The hypothesis that Acarapis woodi is a recently evolved species is rejected. Mite-associated bee pathologies (mostly viral) also cause increasing losses to apiaries. Future studies on bee mites are beset by three main problems: (a) The recent discovery of several new honey bee species and new bee-parasitizing mite species (along with the probability that several species are masquerading under the name Varroa jacobsoni) may bring about new bee-mite associations and increase damage to beekeeping; (b) methods for studying bee pathologies caused by viruses are still largely lacking; (c) few bee- and consumer-friendly methods for controlling bee mites in large apiaries are available.

  9. Host-parasite relationships of monogeneans in gills of Astyanax altiparanae and Rhamdia quelen of the São Francisco Verdadeiro River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Hoeinghaus, A P; Takemoto, R M; Oliveira, L C; Makrakis, M C; Baumgartner, G

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the ecology of monogenean gill parasites of Aslyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 and Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) in a stretch of the Sao Francisco Verdadeiro River, Parana, Brazil. Statistical and ecological indices were used to examine observed levels of parasitism in relation to host and environmental characteristics. A. altiparance and R. quelen had infestation intensities of 2.8 and 23.1 parasites per fish, respectively. The only significant environmental influence was observed at the upstream station for R. quelen. For both host species, parasitized and non-parasitized individuals presented similar weight-ength relationships. Parasitized individuals had dispersed K,, values indicating abnormal conditions. The low levels of parasitism observed in this study suggest that the environment is relatively undisturbed. Additional studies should compare these two species and their respective parasites following completion of the hydroelectric headquarters planned for construction in this stretch of the Sao Francisco Verdoadeiro River.

  10. PLANT EVOLUTION. Convergent evolution of strigolactone perception enabled host detection in parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Conn, Caitlin E; Bythell-Douglas, Rohan; Neumann, Drexel; Yoshida, Satoko; Whittington, Bryan; Westwood, James H; Shirasu, Ken; Bond, Charles S; Dyer, Kelly A; Nelson, David C

    2015-07-31

    Obligate parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae germinate after sensing plant hormones, strigolactones, exuded from host roots. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the α/β-hydrolase D14 acts as a strigolactone receptor that controls shoot branching, whereas its ancestral paralog, KAI2, mediates karrikin-specific germination responses. We observed that KAI2, but not D14, is present at higher copy numbers in parasitic species than in nonparasitic relatives. KAI2 paralogs in parasites are distributed into three phylogenetic clades. The fastest-evolving clade, KAI2d, contains the majority of KAI2 paralogs. Homology models predict that the ligand-binding pockets of KAI2d resemble D14. KAI2d transgenes confer strigolactone-specific germination responses to Arabidopsis thaliana. Thus, the KAI2 paralogs D14 and KAI2d underwent convergent evolution of strigolactone recognition, respectively enabling developmental responses to strigolactones in angiosperms and host detection in parasites.

  11. Investigation of the in vitro gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in malarial infected red blood cells and plasma.

    PubMed

    Seethorn, Nongluk; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Noedl, Harald; Karbwang, Juntra; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-10-01

    The investigation of gender-specific partitioning of the antimalarial drug mefloquine to cellular and fluid blood compartments was performed using blood collected from a female and male healthy subject that were infected with Plasmodium falciparum PCM2 clone and spiked with mefloquine (0.25, 1, and 5 μM). Mefloquine concentrations in red cells of both female and male subjects were significantly higher than plasma, which suggests an intensive uptake by red cells. This was supported by a high ratio of mefloquine concentrations in the parasitized and non-parasitized red cells of about 4-fold. Gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in parasitized blood was seen only in plasma where significantly higher concentrations were observed in female compared with male plasma. Down-adjusting the therapeutic dose of mefloquine in female patients with malaria is not advisable because mefloquine concentrations in the target cellular compartment are similar in both genders.

  12. Mitochondrial genome evolution in Alismatales: Size reduction and extensive loss of ribosomal protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, Argelia; Zervas, Athanasios; Ross, Gregory T.; Graham, Sean W.; Barrett, Craig F.; Davis, Jerrold I.; Seberg, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The order Alismatales is a hotspot for evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes characterized by remarkable differences in genome size, substitution rates, RNA editing, retrotranscription, gene loss and intron loss. Here we have sequenced the complete mitogenomes of Zostera marina and Stratiotes aloides, which together with previously sequenced mitogenomes from Butomus and Spirodela, provide new evolutionary evidence of genome size reduction, gene loss and transfer to the nucleus. The Zostera mitogenome includes a large portion of DNA transferred from the plastome, yet it is the smallest known mitogenome from a non-parasitic plant. Using a broad sample of the Alismatales, the evolutionary history of ribosomal protein gene loss is analyzed. In Zostera almost all ribosomal protein genes are lost from the mitogenome, but only some can be found in the nucleus. PMID:28545148

  13. Intraguild Predation on the Whitefly Parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus by the Generalist Predator Geocoris punctipes: A Behavioral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Hernández, María Concepción; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Cicero, Lizette; Michel-Rios, Claudia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP) takes place when natural enemies that use similar resources attack each other. The impact of IGP on biological control can be significant if the survival of natural enemy species is disrupted. In the present study, we assessed whether Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) engages in IGP on Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) while developing on whitefly nymphs of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). In choice and non-choice tests, we exposed G. punctipes to parasitized and non-parasitized whitefly nymphs. We found that G. punctipes does practice IGP on E. eremicus. However, choice tests assessing G. punctipes consumption revealed a significant preference for non-parasitized T. vaporariorum nymphs. Subsequently, we investigated whether E. eremicus females modify their foraging behavior when exposed to conditions involving IGP risk. To assess this, we analyzed wasp foraging behavior under the following treatments: i) whitefly nymphs only (control = C), ii) whitefly nymphs previously exposed to a predator ( = PEP) and, iii) whitefly nymphs and presence of a predator ( = PP). In non-choice tests we found that E. eremicus did not significantly modify its number of attacks, attack duration, oviposition duration, or behavior sequences. However, E. eremicus oviposited significantly more eggs in the PEP treatment. In the PP treatment, G. punctipes also preyed upon adult E. eremicus wasps, significantly reducing their number of ovipositions and residence time. When the wasps were studied under choice tests, in which they were exposed simultaneously to all three treatments, the number of attacks and frequency of selection were similar under all treatments. These results indicate that under IGP risk, E. eremicus maintains several behavioral traits, but can also increase its number of ovipositions in the presence of IG-predator cues. We discuss these findings in the context of population dynamics and

  14. Differential responses of Helicoverpa armigera C-type immunlectin genes to the endoparasitoid Campoletis chlorideae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong-Ya; Bai, Su-Fen; Li, Xin; An, Shi-Heng; Yin, Xin-Ming; Li, Xian-Chun

    2017-03-01

    The C-type lectins mediate nonself recognition in insects. The previous studies focused on host immunlectin response to bacterial infection; however, the molecular basis of immunlectin reactions to endoparasitoids has not been elucidated. The present study investigated the effect of parasitization by Campoletis chlorideae on hemagglutination activity (HA; defined as the ability of lectin to agglutinate erythrocytes or other cells), and transcriptional expression of C-type immunlectin genes in the larval host, Helicoverpa armigera. Parasitization induced four- to eightfold higher HA in the parasitized larvae, compared to nonparasitized larvae at days 2 and 6 postparasitization (PP), however inhibited HA at other days PP. Eight C-type lectins were differentially expressed in different host developmental stages, from feeding to wandering stage. The mRNA levels of HaCTL1, HaCTL3, HaCTL4, and HaCTL5 were upregulated and HaCTL2 and HaCTL7 were downregulated. Tissue analysis showed that HaCTLs were mainly expressed in fat body or hemocytes, while HaCTL5 was highly expressed in testes. The effects of parasitization on the lectin expression patterns differed. Lectins except HaCTL6 or HaCTL5 were significantly down- or upregulated in parasitized larvae at day 4 or 6 PP compared with that of nonparasitized larvae. We infer from our results that C-type immunlectins are involved in host-parasitoid interactions, and parasitization alter host immunlectin levels both in inhibiting and promoting host immune defenses to endoparasitoids. These immunlectin genes indicated an altered physiological status of the host insect, depending on developmental stage, tissue, and parasitization.

  15. Intraguild predation on the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus by the generalist predator Geocoris punctipes: a behavioral approach.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Hernández, María Concepción; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Cicero, Lizette; Michel-Rios, Claudia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP) takes place when natural enemies that use similar resources attack each other. The impact of IGP on biological control can be significant if the survival of natural enemy species is disrupted. In the present study, we assessed whether Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) engages in IGP on Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) while developing on whitefly nymphs of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). In choice and non-choice tests, we exposed G. punctipes to parasitized and non-parasitized whitefly nymphs. We found that G. punctipes does practice IGP on E. eremicus. However, choice tests assessing G. punctipes consumption revealed a significant preference for non-parasitized T. vaporariorum nymphs. Subsequently, we investigated whether E. eremicus females modify their foraging behavior when exposed to conditions involving IGP risk. To assess this, we analyzed wasp foraging behavior under the following treatments: i) whitefly nymphs only (control = C), ii) whitefly nymphs previously exposed to a predator ( = PEP) and, iii) whitefly nymphs and presence of a predator ( = PP). In non-choice tests we found that E. eremicus did not significantly modify its number of attacks, attack duration, oviposition duration, or behavior sequences. However, E. eremicus oviposited significantly more eggs in the PEP treatment. In the PP treatment, G. punctipes also preyed upon adult E. eremicus wasps, significantly reducing their number of ovipositions and residence time. When the wasps were studied under choice tests, in which they were exposed simultaneously to all three treatments, the number of attacks and frequency of selection were similar under all treatments. These results indicate that under IGP risk, E. eremicus maintains several behavioral traits, but can also increase its number of ovipositions in the presence of IG-predator cues. We discuss these findings in the context of population dynamics and

  16. Evidence of long-term structured cuckoo parasitism on individual magpie hosts.

    PubMed

    Molina-Morales, Mercedes; Gabriel Martínez, Juan; Martín-Gálvez, David; A Dawson, Deborah; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Juan; Burke, Terry; Avilés, Jesús M

    2013-03-01

    Brood parasites usually reduce their host's breeding success, resulting in strong selection for the evolution of host defences. Intriguingly, some host individuals/populations show no defence against parasitism, which has been explained within the frame of three different evolutionary hypotheses. One of these hypotheses posits that intermediate levels of defence at the population level may result from nonrandom distribution of parasitism among host individuals (i.e. structured parasitism). Empirical evidence for structured brood parasitism is, however, lacking for hosts of European cuckoos due to the absence of long-term studies. Here, we seek to identify the patterns of structured parasitism by studying great spotted cuckoo parasitism on individual magpie hosts over five breeding seasons. We also aim to identify whether individual characteristics of female magpies and/or their territories were related to the status of repeated parasitism. We found that 28·3% of the females in our population consistently escaped from cuckoo parasitism. Only 11·3% of females were always parasitized, and the remaining 60·4% changed their parasitism status. The percentage of females that maintained their status of parasitism (i.e. either parasitized or nonparasitized) between consecutive years varied over the study. Females that never suffered cuckoo parasitism built bigger nests than parasitized females at the beginning of the breeding season and smaller nests than those of parasitized females later in the season. Nonparasitized females also moved little from year to year and preferred areas with different characteristics over the course of the breeding season than parasitized females. Overall, females escaping from cuckoo parasitism reared twice as many chicks per year than those that were parasitized. In conclusion, our study reveals for first time the existence of a structured pattern of cuckoo parasitism based on phenotypic characteristics of individual hosts and of their

  17. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  18. Host resistance and tolerance of parasitic gut worms depend on resource availability.

    PubMed

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Wu, Qiu Chang; Ortega, C Nicole; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-04-01

    Resource availability can significantly alter host-parasite dynamics. Abundant food can provide more resources for hosts to resist infections, but also increase host tolerance of infections by reducing competition between hosts and parasites for food. Whether abundant food favors host resistance or tolerance (or both) might depend on the type of resource that the parasite exploits (e.g., host tissue vs. food), which can vary based on the stage of infection. In our study, we evaluated how low and high resource diets affect Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) resistance and tolerance of a skin-penetrating, gut nematode Aplectana sp. at each stage of the infection. Compared to a low resource diet, a high resource diet enhanced frog resistance to worm penetration and tolerance while worms traveled to the gut. In contrast, a low resource diet increased resistance to establishment of the infection. After the infection established and worms could access food resources in the gut, a high resource diet enhanced host tolerance of parasites. On a high resource diet, parasitized frogs consumed significantly more food than non-parasitized frogs; when food was then restricted, mass of non-parasitized frogs did not change, whereas mass of parasitized frogs decreased significantly. Thus, a high resource diet increased frog tolerance of established worms because frogs could fully compensate for energy lost to the parasites. Our study shows that host-parasite dynamics are influenced by the effect of resource availability on host resistance and tolerance, which depends on when parasites have access to food and the stage of infection.

  19. Parasite Manipulation of Its Host's Physiological Reaction to Acute Stress: Experimental Results from a Natural Beetle-Nematode System.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew K; Vasquez, David; LeFeuvre, Jake; Sims, Stuart; Craft, Meghan; Vizurraga, Anna

    All animals, whether vertebrate or invertebrate, must be capable of reacting to acute stressors, such as escaping from predators, and most do so with a suite of transient physiological changes that temporarily enhance survival. Some of these changes include mobilization of immune cells and increased cardiac output. A small but growing number of studies have begun to show that certain parasites appear capable of modifying such responses. We addressed this topic using a natural host and parasite system, that is, a nematode (Chondronema passali) that parasitizes horned passalus beetles, Odontotaenius disjunctus (family Passalidae), of the eastern United States. With a series of experiments, we sought to determine whether this parasite affects (1) the immune reaction to stress, (2) the output of stress-induced alarm calls, or (3) the increase in heart rate that occurs in response to acute stressors, with the stressors being mechanical or thermal. Results showed that hemocyte density increased after both stressors in nonparasitized beetles but did not increase in parasitized beetles. While mobilization of immune cells would enhance host immunity during stress, this would also be damaging to the nematode, so this scenario appears to benefit the parasite. We found no evidence that the nematode suppresses the overall reaction to stress (or prevents stress from occurring), since parasitized beetles did not differ from nonparasitized ones in alarm call rates or in heart beat frequency after exposure to mechanical stressors. Suppression of the host's normal immune reaction to stressful stimuli could translate to delayed or even reduced wound healing or pathogen resistance during these events. This project is a rare demonstration of parasite manipulation of host immune response to acute stress and should stimulate further investigations into the interactive nature of stress and parasites.

  20. Characterization of joining sites of a viral histone H4 on host insect chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Jung, Jin-Kyo

    2017-01-01

    A viral histone H4 (CpBV-H4) is encoded in a polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV). It plays a crucial role in parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, C. plutellae, against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, by altering host gene expression in an epigenetic mode by its N-terminal tail after joining host nucleosomes. Comparative transcriptomic analysis between parasitized and nonparasitized P. xylostella by RNA-Seq indicated that 1,858 genes were altered at more than two folds in expression levels at late parasitic stage, including 877 up-regulated genes and 981 down-regulated genes. Among parasitic factors altering host gene expression, CpBV-H4 alone explained 16.3% of these expressional changes. To characterize the joining sites of CpBV-H4 on host chromosomes, ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing) was applied to chromatins extracted from parasitized larvae. It identified specific 538 ChIP targets. Joining sites were rich (60.2%) in AT sequence. Almost 40% of ChIP targets included short nucleotide repeat sequences presumably recognizable by transcriptional factors and chromatin remodeling factors. To further validate these CpBV-H4 targets, CpBV-H4 was transiently expressed in nonparasitized host at late larval stage and subjected to ChIP-Seq. Two kinds of ChIP-Seqs shared 51 core joining sites. Common targets were close (within 1 kb) to genes regulated at expression levels by CpBV-H4. However, other host genes not close to CpBV-H4 joining sites were also regulated by CpBV-H4. These results indicate that CpBV-H4 joins specific chromatin regions of P. xylostella and controls about one sixth of the total host genes that were regulated by C. plutellae parasitism in an epigenetic mode. PMID:28486493

  1. Parasitic Cowbirds have increased immunity to West Nile and other mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile Virus [WNV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus] across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies of avian species to delineate competent reservoir hosts critical for viral amplification. Striking taxonomic differences in avian susceptibility have been noted, offering the opportunity to strategically select species on the basis of life history traits to examine aspects of pathogen virulence or host immunity. We hypothesized that avian brood parasites would show increased resistance to pathogens compared to related taxa, because they have been exposed in their evolutionary history to a wide array of infectious organisms from their different parenting species. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a generalist brood parasite that parasitizes 200+ North American species. Elevated exposure to other species? parasites may have created an unusual degree of pathogen resistance. We compared the relative susceptibility of adult cowbirds to three closely-related non-parasitic species, Red-winged blackbirds, Tricolored blackbirds and Brewer?s blackbirds, to invading NY99 strain of WNV that is highly virulent for many passeriform birds. Previously we had experimentally infected these species with two North American mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus [WEEV, Togaviridae, Alphavirus] and St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus]. Our results showed that cowbirds exhibited significantly lower viremia responses against all three viruses as well as after co-infection with both WEEV and WNV than did the three related, non-parasitic species. These data supported our hypothesis and indicated that cowbirds were more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses.

  2. Kinetoplastid Phylogenomics Reveals the Evolutionary Innovations Associated with the Origins of Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Otto, Thomas D.; Aslett, Martin; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Bringaud, Frederic; Schlacht, Alexander; Hartley, Catherine; Sanders, Mandy; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Dacks, Joel B.; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Field, Mark C.; Ginger, Michael L.; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Summary The evolution of parasitism is a recurrent event in the history of life and a core problem in evolutionary biology. Trypanosomatids are important parasites and include the human pathogens Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania spp., which in humans cause African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis, respectively. Genome comparison between trypanosomatids reveals that these parasites have evolved specialized cell-surface protein families, overlaid on a well-conserved cell template. Understanding how these features evolved and which ones are specifically associated with parasitism requires comparison with related non-parasites. We have produced genome sequences for Bodo saltans, the closest known non-parasitic relative of trypanosomatids, and a second bodonid, Trypanoplasma borreli. Here we show how genomic reduction and innovation contributed to the character of trypanosomatid genomes. We show that gene loss has “streamlined” trypanosomatid genomes, particularly with respect to macromolecular degradation and ion transport, but consistent with a widespread loss of functional redundancy, while adaptive radiations of gene families involved in membrane function provide the principal innovations in trypanosomatid evolution. Gene gain and loss continued during trypanosomatid diversification, resulting in the asymmetric assortment of ancestral characters such as peptidases between Trypanosoma and Leishmania, genomic differences that were subsequently amplified by lineage-specific innovations after divergence. Finally, we show how species-specific, cell-surface gene families (DGF-1 and PSA) with no apparent structural similarity are independent derivations of a common ancestral form, which we call “bodonin.” This new evidence defines the parasitic innovations of trypanosomatid genomes, revealing how a free-living phagotroph became adapted to exploiting hostile host environments. PMID:26725202

  3. The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The CASTLE (Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission: Longitudinal Evaluation) study will investigate the micro-organisms involved in the development of mastitis and "breast thrush" among breastfeeding women. To date, the organism(s) associated with the development of breast thrush have not been identified. The CASTLE study will also investigate the impact of physical health problems and breastfeeding problems on maternal psychological health in the early postpartum period. Methods/Design The CASTLE study is a longitudinal descriptive study designed to investigate the role of Staphylococcus spp (species) and Candida spp in breast pain and infection among lactating women, and to describe the transmission dynamics of S. aureus and Candida spp between mother and infant. The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum health problems as well as maternal psychological well-being is also being investigated. A prospective cohort of four hundred nulliparous women who are at least thirty six weeks gestation pregnant are being recruited from two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (November 2009 to June 2011). At recruitment, nasal, nipple (both breasts) and vaginal swabs are taken and participants complete a questionnaire asking about previous known staphylococcal and candidal infections. Following the birth, participants are followed-up six times: in hospital and then at home weekly until four weeks postpartum. Participants complete a questionnaire at each time points to collect information about breastfeeding problems and postpartum health problems. Nasal and nipple swabs and breast milk samples are collected from the mother. Oral and nasal swabs are collected from the baby. A telephone interview is conducted at eight weeks postpartum to collect information about postpartum health problems and breastfeeding problems, such as mastitis and nipple and breast pain. Discussion This study is the first longitudinal study of the role of both staphylococcal and

  4. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  5. Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds.

    PubMed

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Pegels, Nicolette; Lago, Adriana; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds, including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons <150 base pairs) of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, and an endogenous control primer pair that amplifies a 141-bp fragment of the nuclear 18S rRNA gene from eukaryotic DNA. Analysis of experimental raw and heat-treated binary mixtures as well as of commercial meat products from the target species demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the target DNAs.

  6. Nursing considerations in patients with vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Debra

    Vaginitis is defined as an inflammation of the vagina. It can result in symptoms of any or all of the following: discharge, itching and pain, and often irritation or infection of the vulva. There is no specific cause for vaginitis, and many other conditions can cause the symptoms. Vaginitis is a distressing condition that affects many women of reproductive age and beyond, and encompasses candidiasis (also known as thrush), bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. It can occur in a single episode, or recur throughout a woman's lifetime. Some women will seek medical help, but many more self-treat with over-the-counter medications, suspecting the recurrence of Candida in particular. This article aims to explore the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments of vaginitis to provide nurses with the necessary background information to feel more confident in dealing with women's health issues.

  7. Hybrid songbirds employ intermediate routes in a migratory divide.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-10-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between populations that use different routes to navigate around unsuitable areas on seasonal migration. Hybrids in divides have been predicted to employ intermediate and potentially inferior routes. We provide the first direct test of this hypothesis, using light-level geolocators to track birds breeding in a hybrid zone between Swainson's thrushes in western Canada. Compared to parental forms, hybrids exhibited increased variability in their migratory routes, with some using intermediate routes that crossed arid and mountainous regions, and some using the same routes as one parental group on fall migration and the other on spring migration. Hybrids also tended to use geographically intermediate wintering sites. Analysis of genetic variation across the hybrid zone suggests moderately strong selection against hybrids. These results indicate that seasonal migratory behaviour might be a source of selection against hybrids, supporting a possible role for migration in speciation.

  8. Forest fragmentation and its effects on birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Johnson, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Fragmentation of forest land, whether by suburban development, highways, transmission lines, or poorly planned cutting regimes, seriously affects reproduction by the large numbers of obligate forest interior birds. Many of our warblers, vireos, thrushes, tanagers, and flycatchers are highly migratory insectivorous birds that spend more than half the year in the neotropics, but migrate north to the United States and Canada to rear their young. These tropical visitors are especially vulnerable to predation and cowbird parasitism and are unable to maintain their populations within 100-200 m of forest edge. Habitats for these declining species can be provided by managing forest lands in large blocks so as to maintain at all times extensive contiguous areas of successional stages as well as of mature forest. Avoiding scattered small cuts will also help by reducing edge, road construction, and other disturbance.

  9. Chewing lice of genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from Turdidae (Passeriformes) of Costa Rica, with descriptions of seven new species.

    PubMed

    Kounek, Filip; Sychra, Oldrich; Capek, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    A total of 166 individuals from 10 bird species belonging to the family Turdidae were examined for chewing lice in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009 and 2010. A total of 12 species of the louse genus Myrsidea were collected from 54 birds, including four previously named, seven new undescribed species, and one identified as Myrsidea sp. Names, descriptions and illustrations are given for the seven new species of Myrsidea. They and their type hosts are: Myrsidea assimilis sp. nov. ex Turdus assimilis (Cabanis, 1850), M. cerrodelamuertensis sp. nov. ex Catharus gracilirostris (Salvin, 1865). M. hrabaki sp. nov. ex Myadestes melanops (Salvin, 1865), M. obsoleti sp. nov. ex Turdus obsoletus (Lawrence, 1862), M. quinchoi sp. nov. ex Catharus frantzii (Cabanis, 1861), M. tapanti sp. nov. ex Catharus fuscater (Lafresnaye, 1845), and M. tapetapersi sp. nov. ex Turdus nigrescens (Cabanis, 1861). Records of four named and one unidentified species of Myrsidea from other Costa Rican thrushes are also given and discussed.

  10. Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, A; Rosén, M; Spedding, G R

    2006-04-22

    The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and its gradual variation with flight speed were exactly as previously measured for the thrush nightingale. A procedure that accounts for the disparate sources of circulation spread over the complex wake structure nevertheless can account for the vertical momentum flux required to support the weight, and an example calculation is given for estimating drag from the components of horizontal momentum flux (whose net value is zero). The measured circulations of the largest structures in the wake can be predicted quite well by simple models, and expressions are given to predict these and other measurable quantities in future bird flight experiments.

  11. Robins gather in a tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In a wooded area of Kennedy Space Center, robins gather on a tree branch just beginning to show new Spring growth. A member of the thrush family, robins inhabit towns, gardens, open woodlands and agricultural lands. They range through most of North America, spending winters in large roosts mostly in the United States but also Newfoundland, southern Ontario and British Columbia. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a haven and habitat for more than 331 species of birds. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are also a habitat for 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  12. Candidiasis: a fungal infection--current challenges and progress in prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hani, Umme; Shivakumar, Hosakote G; Vaghela, Rudra; Osmani, Riyaz Ali M; Shrivastava, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Despite therapeutic advances candidiasis remains a common fungal infection most frequently caused by C. albicans and may occur as vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush, a mucocutaneous candidiasis. Candidiasis frequently occurs in newborns, in immune-deficient people like AIDS patients, and in people being treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. It is mainly due to C. albicans while other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei are increasingly isolated. OTC antifungal dosage forms such as creams and gels can be used for effective treatment of local candidiasis. Whereas, for preventing spread of the disease to deeper vital organs, candidiasis antifungal chemotherapy is preferred. Use of probiotics and development of novel vaccines is an advanced approach for the prevention of candidiasis. Present review summarizes the diagnosis, current status and challenges in the treatment and prevention of candidiasis with prime focus on host defense against candidiasis, advancements in diagnosis, probiotics role and recent progress in the development of vaccines against candidiasis.

  13. Post-Chernobyl accident radioactivity measurements in the Comunidad Autonoma de Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J; Ballesteros, L; Serradell, V

    1992-03-01

    Increased atmospheric radioactivity after the accident in Chernobyl was first detected on air filters. Measurements were begun in Valencia on May 2, 1986, with the maximum activity being observed around May 3-4, 1986. As a consequence of this accident, annual campaigns of measurements on migrating birds (several species of aquatic birds and song-thrushes) were started. The data corresponding to the campaign immediately after the accident (1986/87) show a generalized contamination (approximately 50% of the measured specimens). Significant levels of 134Cs, 137Cs and 110Agm were found. It is important to note that 110Agm is only present in Aythya ferina. In the successive campaigns in 1988/89 and 1989/91 few samples were found to be contaminated and only 137Cs was identified. Strontium-90 was measured and identified in some specimens, mainly in their bones.

  14. [Oropharyngeal candidiasis in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Laurent, Marie; Gogly, Bruno; Tahmasebi, Farzad; Paillaud, Elena

    2011-03-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The prevalence in the hospital or institution varies from 13 to 47% of elderly persons. The main clinical types are denture stomatitis, acute atrophic glossitis, thrush and angular cheilitis. Diagnosis is usually made on clinical ground. Culture and sensitivity testing should be undertaken if initial therapy is unsuccessful. Predisposing factors of oral candidiasis could be local and/or systemic. Local factors include wearing dentures, impaired salivary gland function and poor oral health. Systemic factors include antibiotics and some other drugs, malnutrition, diabetes, immunosuppression and malignancies. Management involves an appropriate antifungal treatment and oral hygiene. Predisposing factors should be treated or eliminated where feasible. Oral hygiene involves cleaning the teeth and dentures. Dentures should be disinfected daily and left out overnight.

  15. KSC-00pp0304

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In a wooded area of Kennedy Space Center, robins gather on a tree branch just beginning to show new Spring growth. A member of the thrush family, robins inhabit towns, gardens, open woodlands and agricultural lands. They range through most of North America, spending winters in large roosts mostly in the United States but also Newfoundland, southern Ontario and British Columbia. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a haven and habitat for more than 331 species of birds. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are also a habitat for 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects

  16. KSC00pp0304

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-29

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In a wooded area of Kennedy Space Center, robins gather on a tree branch just beginning to show new Spring growth. A member of the thrush family, robins inhabit towns, gardens, open woodlands and agricultural lands. They range through most of North America, spending winters in large roosts mostly in the United States but also Newfoundland, southern Ontario and British Columbia. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a haven and habitat for more than 331 species of birds. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are also a habitat for 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects

  17. Demography and movements of the omao (Myadestes obscurus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, C.J.; Fancy, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    Density, age-specific survival, timing of breeding and molting, and movements of the Omao or Hawaiian Thrush (Myadestes obscurus) were studied at four sites on the island of Hawaii. Mean monthly density (birds/ha) was 3.23 +- 0.57, 1.07 +- 0.33, 3.23 +- 0. 16, and 3.74 +- 0.36 at Kau Forest, Hamakua. Keauhou Ranch, and Kilauea Forest study areas, respectively. Annual survival of juvenile Omao (0.40 +- 0.09) was lower than that of adults (0.66 +- 0.08). Emigration and mortality was greatest during November through May. Breeding and molting occurred throughout the year, with peak breeding in May through July. Omao showed strong site fidelity and were highly sedentary. Mean home range size (n = 39) was 2.20 t 0.26 ha and did not differ between sexes or study sites.

  18. Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Hedenström, A; Rosén, M; Spedding, G.R

    2005-01-01

    The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and its gradual variation with flight speed were exactly as previously measured for the thrush nightingale. A procedure that accounts for the disparate sources of circulation spread over the complex wake structure nevertheless can account for the vertical momentum flux required to support the weight, and an example calculation is given for estimating drag from the components of horizontal momentum flux (whose net value is zero). The measured circulations of the largest structures in the wake can be predicted quite well by simple models, and expressions are given to predict these and other measurable quantities in future bird flight experiments. PMID:16849236

  19. Flight at low ambient humidity increases protein catabolism in migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Alexander R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2011-09-09

    Although fat is the primary fuel for migratory flight in birds, protein is also used. Catabolism of tissue protein yields five times as much water per kilojoule as fat, and so one proposed function of protein catabolism is to maintain water balance during nonstop flights. To test the protein-for-water hypothesis, we flew Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) in a climatic wind tunnel under high- and low-humidity conditions at 18°C for up to 5 hours. Flight under dry conditions increased the rates of lean mass loss and endogenous water production and also increased plasma uric acid concentration. These data demonstrate that atmospheric humidity influences fuel composition in flight and suggest that protein deposition and catabolism during migration are, in part, a metabolic strategy to maintain osmotic homeostasis during flight.

  20. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in Good syndrome: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Popiela, Magdalena; Varikkara, Mohan; Koshy, Zachariah

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 59-year-old woman diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. The diagnosis was suggested by a typical fundus appearance, and confirmed by a positive PCR for CMV of both serum and vitreous biopsy. HIV status was negative. The patient’s medical history included thymoma followed by a thymectomy, recent multiple oral thrush infections, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections and severe weight loss. She had previously been treated for toxoplasma chorioretinitis and had vitrectomies for retinal detachment in the right eye. Immunological investigations revealed low T cells, almost absent B cells with reduced immunoglobulins consistent with the diagnosis of Good syndrome. The patient received treatment with intravenous ganciclovir, followed by maintenance valganciclovir, resulting in resolution of the ocular pathology. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy to boost the humoral immunity has been commenced. PMID:21691402

  1. Radiocesium concentration in migratory birds wintering in Spain after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Baeza, A.; del Rio, M.; Miro, C.; Paniagua, J.M.; Moreno, A.; Navarro, E.

    1988-12-01

    Levels of TXCs and TUCs resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were studied in 195 birds that winter in two regions of Spain. Only five of the 12 species examined were contaminated. The average values for TXCs vary between 1.6 and 41 Bq kg-1 fresh. In particular, the contamination for song-thrushes (Turdus philomelos) are compared between the regions of Extremadura and Valencia, 350 km east of Extremadura at the same latitude. The results show that the contamination of birds wintering in Spain decreases from east to west. The whole-body dose commitment for humans consuming these contaminated birds was calculated. The values are well below the established ICRP guideline.

  2. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the pectoral muscles of a free-living European robin (Erithacus rubecula).

    PubMed

    Manarolla, G; Radaelli, E; Pisoni, G; Sironi, G; Rampin, T

    2008-06-01

    An adult free-living European robin (Erithacus rubecula) with a large, firm, subcutaneous mass on the pectoral muscle was examined. The bird was unable to fly and died spontaneously. Necropsy revealed a yellowish, bilobate mass almost completely replacing the pectoral muscles with extensive osteolysis of the keel bone. Histopathology revealed a poorly demarcated, highly cellular sarcomatous tumour with metastases to the lungs, pulmonary blood vessels and heart. Immunohistochemistry was negative for neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein and the p-27 major capsid protein of avian leukosis viruses. The homogeneously positive immunolabelling for vimentin and scattered positivity for myoglobin and desmin suggested a diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. A retrospective examination of the records for 194 birds of the thrush family, including 64 robins submitted over a 20-year period, showed no diagnoses of neoplasia.

  3. Blackbirds Turdus merula as competent reservoirs for Borrelia turdi and Borrelia valaisiana in Portugal: evidence from a xenodiagnostic experiment.

    PubMed

    Norte, Ana C; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Maria S; Ramos, Jaime A; Gern, Lise

    2013-08-01

    To confirm that thrushes, such as blackbirds Turdus merula, play a role as reservoir for some Borrelia genospecies, we performed a xenodiagnostic experiment with blackbirds captured in a mixed wood located in Western Portugal where Borrelia turdi, an uncommon genospecies in Europe, was the most prevalent genospecies associated with birds. Two out of five birds harboured B. turdi infected Ixodes frontalis at the time of capture. Four out of five birds transmitted spirochaetes to Ixodes ricinus xenodiagnostic ticks: two birds transmitted Borrelia valaisiana to 25.7% and 10.5% of ticks, and two transmitted B. turdi to 6.4% and 5.4% of ticks. Our results showed that blackbirds transmit B. valaisiana and B. turdi to I. ricinus feeding larvae, acting as reservoir hosts for these genospecies in nature.

  4. Robins gather in a tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In a wooded area of Kennedy Space Center, robins gather on a tree branch just beginning to show new Spring growth. A member of the thrush family, robins inhabit towns, gardens, open woodlands and agricultural lands. They range through most of North America, spending winters in large roosts mostly in the United States but also Newfoundland, southern Ontario and British Columbia. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a haven and habitat for more than 331 species of birds. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are also a habitat for 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  5. New records of acanthocephalans from birds in the Philippines with a description of a new Porrorchis species and identification keys for the genus.

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, Olga I; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bush, Sarah E

    2012-12-01

    Three acanthocephalan species, Sphaerirostris turdi from the island thrush (Turdus poliocephalus), and Porrorchis centropusi and Porrorchis kinsellai n. sp., both from Philippine scops owls (Otus megalotis), are reported from Aurora Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Porrorchis kinsellai n. sp. can be readily differentiated from previously known members of the genus by an almost perfectly spherical proboscis and presence of a characteristic finger-like process at the female posterior end, among other features. Porrorchis centropusi and Porrorchis hylae are regarded as synonyms by some authors, but based on several morphological features, they are considered separate species here. A key to the identification of all known species of Porrorchis (other than insufficiently described Porrorchis brevicanthus) is provided.

  6. Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Powell, G.V.N.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) < 0.85) in overwinter survival between these habitats do not exist for any of these species. Age ratios did not differ between habitats, but males were more common in forest habitats and females more common in successional habitats for Hooded Warblers and Kentucky Warblers. Future research on overwinter survival should address the need for age- and sex-specific survival estimates before we can draw strong conclusions regarding winter habitat suitability. Our estimates of over-winter survival extrapolated to annual survival rates that were generally lower than previous estimates of annual survival of migratory birds. Capture probability differed between habitats for Kentucky Warblers, but our results provide strong evidence against large differences in capture probability between habitats for Wood Thrush, Hooded Warblers, and Ovenbirds. We found no temporal or among site differences in survival or capture probability for any of the four species. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

  7. Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the host’s ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n = 1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Results Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. Conclusions These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts

  8. Colonization of Abandoned Land by Juniperus thurifera Is Mediated by the Interaction of a Diverse Dispersal Assemblage and Environmental Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers’ faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience. PMID:23071692

  9. Molecular identification of blood-meal sources in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in New York.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Goudarz; Oliver, Joanne; Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Howard, John J

    2006-12-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus perpetuates in an enzootic cycle involving ornithophilic mosquito vectors, principally Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and avian amplification hosts. To better understand the role of Cs. melanura and Culiseta morsitans (Theobald) in the epizootiology of EEE virus, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between 31 May and 15 October 2004 at two sites associated with an EEE virus focus in central New York and identified the source of vertebrate blood by nucleotide sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the cytochrome b gene. Analysis of 484 Cs. melanura and 122 Cs. morsitans revealed that 94.2% and 86.9%, respectively, acquired blood solely from avian hosts. Blood meals derived exclusively from mammals were detected in 0.8% of Cs. melanura and 1.6% of Cs. morsitans. Individual mosquitoes containing mixed-blood meals from both avian and mammalian hosts were also detected in 5.0% of Cs. melanura and 11.5% of Cs. morsitans. Wood thrush constituted the most common vertebrate host for Cs. melanura (23.6%) and Cs. morsitans (30.9%), followed by American robin, song sparrow, ovenbird, red-eyed vireo, and common yellowthroat. Mammalian-derived blood meals were identified as white-tailed deer, horse, domestic cat, and eastern pipistrelle bat. There were three isolations of EEE virus from Cs. melanura and one from Cs. morsitans. These results suggest that wood thrush and a few other passerine birds may play key roles in supporting EEE virus transmission in the northeast and possibly throughout the geographic range of EEE in North America. The frequency of mammalian feedings also suggests that Cs. melanura and Cs. morsitans may play a role in the transmission of EEE virus to equines, in addition to maintaining enzootic transmission among avian hosts. We report the first isolation of arboviruses from mosquito vectors concomitant with the identifications of their blood meal sources.

  10. Using bioacoustics to examine shifts in songbird phenology.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Rachel T; Brown, Emma; Sharman, Lewis; Gabriele, Christine M; McKenna, Megan F

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring patterns in biodiversity and phenology have become increasingly important given accelerating levels of anthropogenic change. Long-term monitoring programs have reported earlier occurrence of spring activity, reflecting species response to climate change. Although tracking shifts in spring migration represents a valuable approach to monitoring community-level consequences of climate change, robust long-term observations are challenging and costly. Audio recordings and metrics of bioacoustic activity could provide an effective method for monitoring changes in songbird activity and broader biotic interactions. We used 3 years of spring and fall recordings at six sites in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, an area experiencing rapid warming and glacial retreat, to examine the utility of bioacoustics to detect changes in songbird phenology. We calculated the Acoustic Complexity Index (ACI), an algorithm representing an index of bird community complexity. Abrupt changes in ACI values from winter to spring corresponded to spring transition, suggesting that ACI may be an effective, albeit coarse metric to detect the arrival of migrating songbirds. The first peak in ACI shifted from April 16 to April 11 from 2012 to 2014. Changes in ACI were less abrupt in the fall due to weather events, suggesting spring recordings are better suited to indicate phenology. To ensure changes in ACI values were detecting real changes in songbird activity, we explored the relationship between ACI and song of three species: varied thrush (Ixoreus naevius), Pacific wren (Troglodytes pacificus), and ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula). ACI was positively related to counts of all species, but most markedly with song of the varied thrush, the most common species in our recordings and a known indicator of forest ecosystem health. We conclude that acoustic recordings paired with bioacoustic indices may be a useful method of monitoring shifts in songbird communities due to climate

  11. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  12. Vitamin D status and its association with morbidity including wasting and opportunistic illnesses in HIV-infected women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saurabh; Mugusi, Ferdinand M; Spiegelman, Donna; Villamor, Eduardo; Finkelstein, Julia L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Giovannucci, Edward L; Msamanga, Gernard I; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin D has a potential role in preventing HIV-related complications, based on its extensive involvement in immune and metabolic function, including preventing osteoporosis and premature cardiovascular disease. However, this association has not been examined in large studies or in resource-limited settings. Vitamin D levels were assessed in 884 HIV-infected pregnant women at enrollment in a trial of multivitamin supplementation (excluding vitamin D) in Tanzania. Information on HIV related complications was recorded during follow-up (median, 70 months). Proportional hazards models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of vitamin D status with these outcomes. Women with low vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<32 ng/mL) had 43% higher risk of reaching a body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m(2) during the first 2 years of follow-up, compared to women with adequate vitamin D levels (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.43; 95% confidence intervals: [1.03-1.99]). The relationship between continuous vitamin D levels and risk of BMI less than 18 kg/m(2) during follow-up was inverse and linear (p=0.03). Women with low vitamin D levels had significantly higher incidence of acute upper respiratory infections (HR: 1.27 [1.04-1.54]) and thrush (HR: 2.74 [1.29-5.83]) diagnosed during the first 2 years of follow-up. Low vitamin D status was a significant risk factor for wasting and HIV-related complications such as thrush during follow-up in this prospective cohort in Tanzania. If these protective associations are confirmed in randomized trials, vitamin D supplementation could represent a simple and inexpensive method to improve health and quality of life of HIV-infected patients, particularly in resource-limited settings.

  13. Ticks collected from migratory birds, including a new record of Haemaphysalis formosensis, on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Kang, Chang-Wan; Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sang; Moon, Kyoung-Ha; Oh, Mi-Rae; Yamauchi, Takeo; Yun, Young-Min

    2014-04-01

    Migratory birds may disperse parasites across ecological barriers, and recent climate change may alter the pattern of ectoparasite dispersal via changed patterns of bird migration. In order to document the parasitization of migratory birds by Ixodidae ticks on Jeju Island in Korea, we examined 934 migratory birds comprising 75 species for ticks from 2010 to 2012. In total, 313 ticks were collected from 74 migratory birds across 17 avian species and identified based on morphological keys. These ticks represented six species: Haemaphysalis flava, H. formosensis, H. longicornis, H. concinna, Ixodes turdus and I. nipponensis. Of particular note was the presence of H. formosensis, a species not previously reported to have been found in Korea, and H. concinna, which had not been previously reported on Jeju Island. The dominant tick species found were H. flava (226 ticks, 72.2 %) and I. turdus (54 ticks, 17.3 %), and ground-dwelling thrushes such as Pale thrushes (Turdus pallidus; 39 birds, 52.7 %) were the most important hosts. Although H. longicornis is the most abundant and prevalent terrestrial tick on Jeju Island, the species accounted for only 3.8 % of the total ticks collected in this study, suggesting that ticks on migratory birds may differ from the local tick fauna and that exotic ticks may be introduced via migratory birds. Therefore, long-term programs for tick and tick-borne disease surveillance are recommended to understand the role of migratory animals in the introduction of exotic species and associated pathogens and in life cycles of ticks at different stages in this region.

  14. Oral mycoses in avian scavengers exposed to antibiotics from livestock farming.

    PubMed

    Pitarch, Aida; Gil, Concha; Blanco, Guillermo

    2017-12-15

    The exposure to antimicrobial pharmaceuticals as environmental contaminants can exert direct and indirect detrimental effects on health of wildlife. Fungal infections pose a major threat to domestic, captive-housed wild and free-ranging wild animals worldwide. However, little is known about their role in disease in birds in the wild. Here, we evaluated the incidence of thrush-like lesions in the oral cavity of wild nestling cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus), Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) exposed to veterinary antibiotics via the consumption of medicated livestock carcasses. Lesions, which varied in number, size and location, were more frequent in the cinereous (77.8%, n=9) and griffon vultures (66.7%, n=48) than in the Egyptian vultures (28.6%, n=21) and golden eagles (28.6%, n=7). In all individuals (100%, n=24) of a subsample of the affected nestlings, yeast species were isolated from thrush-like oral lesions and identified using a well-established system based on their carbohydrate assimilation profiles and other complementary tests. Fourteen yeast species from seven genera (Candida, Meyerozyma, Pichia, Yarrowia, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon) were isolated from the lesions of the four host species. We found differential infections and effects depending on host age-related exposure or susceptibility to different yeast species across the development of nestling griffon vultures. This unprecedented outbreak of oral mycoses is alarming because of the delicate conservation status of several of the affected species. The role of livestock antibiotics in the transition of yeast species from commensal to opportunistic pathogens should be evaluated in an attempt to avoid the detrimental effects of contamination and disease on host health, as well as on the transmission of fungal emerging pathogens among wildlife populations and species, and their dissemination across

  15. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Robert S; Hornseth, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina). We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species.

  16. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina). We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species. PMID:28225817

  17. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  18. Do host species evolve a specific response to slave-making ants?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social parasitism is an important selective pressure for social insect species. It is particularly the case for the hosts of dulotic (so called slave-making) ants, which pillage the brood of host colonies to increase the worker force of their own colony. Such raids can have an important impact on the fitness of the host nest. An arms race which can lead to geographic variation in host defenses is thus expected between hosts and parasites. In this study we tested whether the presence of a social parasite (the dulotic ant Myrmoxenus ravouxi) within an ant community correlated with a specific behavioral defense strategy of local host or non-host populations of Temnothorax ants. Social recognition often leads to more or less pronounced agonistic interactions between non-nestmates ants. Here, we monitored agonistic behaviors to assess whether ants discriminate social parasites from other ants. It is now well-known that ants essentially rely on cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate nestmates from aliens. If host species have evolved a specific recognition mechanism for their parasite, we hypothesize that the differences in behavioral responses would not be fully explained simply by quantitative dissimilarity in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, but should also involve a qualitative response due to the detection of particular compounds. We scaled the behavioral results according to the quantitative chemical distance between host and parasite colonies to test this hypothesis. Results Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles were distinct between species, but host species did not show a clearly higher aggression rate towards the parasite than toward non-parasite intruders, unless the degree of response was scaled by the chemical distance between intruders and recipient colonies. By doing so, we show that workers of the host and of a non-host species in the parasitized site displayed more agonistic behaviors (bites and ejections) towards parasite than toward non-parasite

  19. Transient expression of specific Cotesia plutellae bracoviral segments induces prolonged larval development of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bowon; Song, Seongbaeck; Choi, Jae Young; Je, Yeon Ho; Kim, Yonggyun

    2010-06-01

    A polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV), possesses a segmented and dispersed genome that is located on chromosome(s) of its symbiotic endoparasitic wasp, C. plutellae. When the host wasp parasitizes larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, at least 27 viral genome segments are delivered to the parasitized host along with the wasp egg. The parasitized P. xylostella exhibits significant immunosuppression and a prolonged larval development. Parasitized larvae take about 2 days longer than nonparasitized larvae to develop until the wandering stage of the final larval instar, and die after egress of the full grown wasp larvae. Developmental analysis using juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid analogs suggests that altering endocrine signals could induce the retardation of larval developmental rate in P. xylostella. In this study we used a transient expression technique to micro-inject individual CpBV genome segments, and tested their ability to induce delayed larval development of P. xylostella. We demonstrated that a CpBV segment was able to express its own encoded genes when it was injected into nonparasitized larvae, in which the expression patterns of the segment genes were similar to those in the larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. Twenty three CpBV genome segments were individually cloned and injected into the second instar larvae of P. xylostella and their effects assessed by measuring the time taken for host development to the cocooning stage. Three CpBV genome segments markedly interfered with the host larval development. When the putative genes of these segments were analyzed, it was found that they did not share any common genes. Among these segments able to delay host development, segment S27 was predicted to encode seven protein tyrosine phosphatases (CpBV-PTPs), some of which were mutated by insertional inactivation with transposons, while other encoded gene expressions were unaffected. The mutant segments were unable to induce prolonged

  20. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  1. Crematoenones – a novel substance class exhibited by ants functions as appeasement signal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic, commensalistic, and mutualistic guests in social insect colonies often circumvent their hosts’ nestmate recognition system to be accepted. These tolerance strategies include chemical mimicry and chemical insignificance. While tolerance strategies have been studied intensively in social parasites, little is known about these mechanisms in non-parasitic interactions. Here, we describe a strategy used in a parabiotic association, i.e. two mutualistic ant species that regularly share a common nest although they have overlapping food niches. One of them, Crematogaster modiglianii, produces an array of cuticular compounds which represent a substance class undescribed in nature so far. They occur in high abundances, which suggests an important function in the ant’s association with its partner Camponotus rufifemur. Results We elucidated the structure of one of the main compounds from cuticular extracts using gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, chemical derivatizations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The compound consists of two fused six-membered rings with two alkyl groups, one of which carries a keto functionality. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of this substance class in nature. We suggest naming the compound crematoenone. In behavioural assays, crematoenones reduced interspecific aggression. Camponotus showed less aggression to allospecific cuticular hydrocarbons when combined with crematoenones. Thus, they function as appeasement substances. However, although the crematoenone composition was highly colony-specific, interspecific recognition was mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons, and not by crematoenones. Conclusions Crematenones enable Crematogaster to evade Camponotus aggression, and thus reduce potential costs from competition with Camponotus. Hence, they seem to be a key factor in the parabiosis, and help Crematogaster to gain a net benefit from the association and thus maintain a

  2. Dynamics of Vector-Host Interactions in Avian Communities in Four Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Foci in the Northeastern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Goudarz; Thomas, Michael C.; Muller, Tim; Medlock, Jan; Shepard, John J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.

    2016-01-01

    three species. We developed an empirically informed mathematical model for EEE virus transmission using Cs. melanura abundance and preferred and non-preferred avian hosts. To our knowledge this is the first mathematical model for EEE virus, a pathogen with many potential hosts, in the northeastern U.S. We measured strong feeding preferences for a number of avian species based on the proportion of mosquito blood meals identified from these bird species in relation to their observed frequencies. These included: American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Common Grackle, Wood Thrush, Chipping Sparrow, Black-capped Chickadee, Northern Cardinal, and Warbling Vireo. We found that these bird species, most notably Wood Thrush, play a dominant role in supporting EEE virus amplification. It is also noteworthy that the competence of some of the aforementioned avian species for EEE virus has not been established. Our findings indicate that heterogeneity induced by mosquito host preference, is a key mediator of the epizootic transmission of vector-borne pathogens. Conclusion and significance Detailed knowledge of the vector-host interactions of mosquito populations in nature is essential for evaluating their vectorial capacity and for assessing the role of individual vertebrates as reservoir hosts involved in the maintenance and amplification of zoonotic agents of human diseases. Our study clarifies the host associations of Cs. melanura in four EEE virus foci in the northeastern U.S., identifies vector host preferences as the most important transmission parameter, and quantifies the contribution of preference-induced contact heterogeneity to enzootic transmission. Our study identifies Wood Thrush, American Robin and a few avian species that may serve as superspreaders of EEE virus. Our study elucidates spatiotemporal host species utilization by Cs. melanura in relation to avian host community. This research provides a basis to better understand the involvement of Cs. melanura and avian hosts

  3. Widespread dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks collected from songbirds across Canada.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D; Anderson, John F; Durden, Lance A

    2012-02-01

    Millions of Lyme disease vector ticks are dispersed annually by songbirds across Canada, but often overlooked as the source of infection. For clarity on vector distribution, we sampled 481 ticks (12 species and 3 undetermined ticks) from 211 songbirds (42 species/subspecies) nationwide. Using PCR, 52 (29.5%) of 176 Ixodes ticks tested were positive for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Immature blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis , collected from infested songbirds had a B. burgdorferi infection prevalence of 36% (larvae, 48%; nymphs, 31%). Notably, Ixodes affinis is reported in Canada for the first time and, similarly, Ixodes auritulus for the initial time in the Yukon. Firsts for bird-parasitizing ticks include I. scapularis in Quebec and Saskatchewan. We provide the first records of 3 tick species cofeeding on passerines (song sparrow, Swainson's thrush). New host records reveal I. scapularis on the blackpoll warbler and Nashville warbler. We furnish the following first Canadian reports of B. burgdorferi-positive ticks: I. scapularis on chipping sparrow, house wren, indigo bunting; I. auritulus on Bewick's wren; and I. spinipalpis on a Bewick's wren and song sparrow. First records of B. burgdorferi-infected ticks on songbirds include the following: the rabbit-associated tick, Ixodes dentatus, in western Canada; I. scapularis in Quebec, Saskatchewan, northern New Brunswick, northern Ontario; and Ixodes spinipalpis (collected in British Columbia). The presence of B. burgdorferi in Ixodes larvae suggests reservoir competency in 9 passerines (Bewick's wren, common yellowthroat, dark-eyed junco, Oregon junco, red-winged blackbird, song sparrow, Swainson's thrush, swamp sparrow, and white-throated sparrow). We report transstadial transmission (larva to nymph) of B. burgdorferi in I. auritulus. Data suggest a possible 4-tick, i.e., I. angustus, I. auritulus, I. pacificus, and I. spinipalpis, enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi on Vancouver Island

  4. Carry-Over Effects of Nonbreeding Habitat on Start-to-Finish Spring Migration Performance of a Songbird.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emily A; Stanley, Calandra Q; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-01-01

    For migratory animals, conditions during the nonbreeding period may carry-over to influence spring migration performance. Animals in low-quality habitats are predicted to be in poorer condition, show later migration timing, and travel at slower speeds. This can result in subsequent negative effects on fitness. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding season body condition and habitat quality carry-over to affect spring migration performance of a long-distance migratory songbird, the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We tracked individual birds between multiple breeding sites in North America and nonbreeding sites in Central America. First, we compared body condition of nonbreeding birds migrating to the same general region of the breeding range with spring migration performance (timing, speed, and duration) obtained from light-level geolocators. Second, we assessed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for nonbreeding habitat quality, and predicted that birds from wetter habitat or in wetter years (higher NDVI) would show improved migration performance relative to birds from drier sites. We found no evidence of individual-level carry-over effects of nonbreeding season body condition on spring migration performance. Lower NDVI of nonbreeding habitat resulted in delayed spring migration departure, but this effect disappeared by arrival at breeding sites. Birds occupying drier nonbreeding sites migrated faster and for fewer days, compensating for their relatively late departure. We also documented a broader pattern in NDVI and migration timing and distance, in that birds that occupied the wettest areas in the southern part of the nonbreeding range departed significantly later and migrated farther. Our results suggest that individual carry-over effects of nonbreeding habitat quality may be compensated for by a faster and shorter migration strategy. At a broad scale, consistently later spring timing and longer migration distances were

  5. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] <2 %) and confidence interval coverage close to nominal, except for survival estimates of banded birds for the 'off study area' stratum, which were negatively biased (RBIAS -7 to -15%) when sample sizes were small (5-10 banded or radioed animals 'released' per time interval). To provide

  6. Does Candida and/or Staphylococcus play a role in nipple and breast pain in lactation? A cohort study in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H; Donath, Susan M; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bennett, Catherine M; Cullinane, Meabh; Payne, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate Candida species and Staphylococcus aureus and the development of ‘nipple and breast thrush’ among breastfeeding women. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (one public, one private) with follow-up in the community. Participants 360 nulliparous women recruited at ≥36 weeks’ gestation from November 2009 to June 2011. Participants were followed up six times: in hospital, at home weekly until 4 weeks postpartum and by telephone at 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Case definition ‘nipple and breast thrush’: burning nipple pain and breast pain (not related to mastitis); detection of Candida spp (using culture and PCR) in the mother's vagina, nipple or breast milk or in the baby's mouth; detection of S aureus in the mother's nipple or breast milk. Results Women with the case definition of nipple/breast thrush were more likely to have Candida spp in nipple/breast milk/baby oral samples (54%) compared to other women (36%, p=0.014). S aureus was common in nipple/breast milk/baby samples of women with these symptoms as well as women without these symptoms (82% vs 79%) (p=0.597). Time-to-event analysis examined predictors of nipple/breast thrush up to and including the time of data collection. Candida in nipple/breast milk/baby predicted incidence of the case definition (rate ratio (RR) 1.87 (95% CI 1.10 to 3.16, p=0.018). We do not have evidence that S aureus colonisation was a predictor of these symptoms (RR 1.53, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.64, p=0.13). Nipple damage was also a predictor of these symptoms, RR 2.30 (95% CI 1.19 to 4.43, p=0.012). In the multivariate model, with all three predictors, the RRs were very similar to the univariate RRs. This indicates that Candida and nipple damage are independent predictors of our case definition. PMID:23474794

  7. Carry-Over Effects of Nonbreeding Habitat on Start-to-Finish Spring Migration Performance of a Songbird

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Emily A.; Stanley, Calandra Q.; Stutchbury, Bridget J. M.

    2015-01-01

    For migratory animals, conditions during the nonbreeding period may carry-over to influence spring migration performance. Animals in low-quality habitats are predicted to be in poorer condition, show later migration timing, and travel at slower speeds. This can result in subsequent negative effects on fitness. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding season body condition and habitat quality carry-over to affect spring migration performance of a long-distance migratory songbird, the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We tracked individual birds between multiple breeding sites in North America and nonbreeding sites in Central America. First, we compared body condition of nonbreeding birds migrating to the same general region of the breeding range with spring migration performance (timing, speed, and duration) obtained from light-level geolocators. Second, we assessed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for nonbreeding habitat quality, and predicted that birds from wetter habitat or in wetter years (higher NDVI) would show improved migration performance relative to birds from drier sites. We found no evidence of individual-level carry-over effects of nonbreeding season body condition on spring migration performance. Lower NDVI of nonbreeding habitat resulted in delayed spring migration departure, but this effect disappeared by arrival at breeding sites. Birds occupying drier nonbreeding sites migrated faster and for fewer days, compensating for their relatively late departure. We also documented a broader pattern in NDVI and migration timing and distance, in that birds that occupied the wettest areas in the southern part of the nonbreeding range departed significantly later and migrated farther. Our results suggest that individual carry-over effects of nonbreeding habitat quality may be compensated for by a faster and shorter migration strategy. At a broad scale, consistently later spring timing and longer migration distances were

  8. Evaluating the ability of regional models to predict local avian abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Miller, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial modeling over broad scales can potentially direct conservation efforts to areas with high species-specific abundances. We examined the performance of regional models for predicting bird abundance at spatial scales typically addressed in conservation planning. Specifically, we used point count data on wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) from 2 time periods (1995-1998 and 2006-2007) to evaluate the ability of regional models derived via Bayesian hierarchical techniques to predict bird abundance. We developed models for each species within Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 23 in the upper midwestern United States at 800-ha, 8,000-ha, and approximately 80,000-ha scales. We obtained count data from the Breeding Bird Survey and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset (1992). We evaluated predictions from the best models, as defined by an information-theoretic criterion, using point count data collected within an ecological subregion of BCR 23 at 131 count stations in the 1990s and again in 2006-2007. Competing (Deviance Information Criteria rs = 0.57; P = 0.14), the survey period that most closely aligned with the time period of data used for regional model construction. Wood thrush models exhibited positive correlations with point count data for all survey areas and years combined (rs = 0.58, P ≤ 0.001). In comparison, blue-winged warbler models performed worse as time increased between the point count surveys and vintage of the model building data (rs = 0.03, P = 0.92 for Iowa and rs = 0.13, P = 0.51 for all areas, 2006-2007), likely related to the ephemeral nature of their preferred early successional habitat. Species abundance and sensitivity to changing habitat conditions seems to be an important factor in determining the predictive ability of regional models. Hierarchical models can be a useful tool for concentrating efforts at the scale of management units and should be one of many tools used by

  9. Multi-locus sequence data illuminate demographic drivers of Pleistocene speciation in semi-arid southern Australian birds (Cinclosoma spp.).

    PubMed

    Dolman, Gaynor; Joseph, Leo

    2016-10-22

    During the Pleistocene, shifts of species distributions and their isolation in disjunct refugia led to varied outcomes in how taxa diversified. Some species diverged, others did not. Here, we begin to address another facet of the role of the Pleistocene in generating today's diversity. We ask which processes contributed to divergence in semi-arid southern Australian birds. We isolated 11 autosomal nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus from a total of 29 specimens of the sister species pair, Chestnut Quail-thrush Cinclosoma castanotum and Copperback Quail-thrush C. clarum. A population clustering analysis confirmed the location of the current species boundary as a well-known biogeographical barrier in southern Australia, the Eyrean Barrier. Coalescent-based analyses placed the time of species divergence to the Middle Pleistocene. Gene flow between the species since divergence has been low. The analyses suggest the effective population size of the ancestor was 54 to 178 times smaller than populations since divergence. This contrasts with recent multi-locus studies in some other Australian birds (butcherbirds, ducks) where a lack of phenotypic divergence was accompanied by larger historical population sizes. Post-divergence population size histories of C. clarum and C. castanotum were inferred using the extended Bayesian skyline model. The population size of C. clarum increased substantially during the late Pleistocene and continued to increase through the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene. The timing of this expansion across its vast range is broadly concordant with that documented in several other Australian birds. In contrast, effective population size of C. castanotum was much more constrained and may reflect its smaller range and more restricted habitat east of the Eyrean Barrier compared with that available to C. clarum to the west. Our results contribute to awareness of increased population sizes, following significant contractions, as having been important

  10. Females have a larger hippocampus than males in the brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird.

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, D F; Forbes, M R; Khurgel, M; Ivy, G O

    1993-01-01

    Females of the brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) search for host nests in which to lay their eggs. Females normally return to lay a single egg from one to several days after first locating a potential host nest and lay up to 40 eggs in a breeding season. Male brown-headed cowbirds do not assist females in locating nests. We predicted that the spatial abilities required to locate and return accurately to host nests may have produced a sex difference in the size of the hippocampal complex in cowbirds, in favor of females. The size of the hippocampal complex, relative to size of the telencephalon, was found to be greater in female than in male cowbirds. No sex difference was found in two closely related nonparasitic icterines, the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and the common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula). Other differences among these species in parental care, migration, foraging, and diet are unlikely to have produced the sex difference attributed to search for host nests by female cowbirds. This is one of few indications, in any species, of greater specialization for spatial ability in females and confirms that use of space, rather than sex, breeding system, or foraging behavior per se, can influence the relative size of the hippocampus. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8356091

  11. The mitochondrial respiratory chain of the secondary green alga Euglena gracilis shares many additional subunits with parasitic Trypanosomatidae.

    PubMed

    Perez, Emilie; Lapaille, Marie; Degand, Hervé; Cilibrasi, Laura; Villavicencio-Queijeiro, Alexa; Morsomme, Pierre; González-Halphen, Diego; Field, Mark C; Remacle, Claire; Baurain, Denis; Cardol, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The mitochondrion is an essential organelle for the production of cellular ATP in most eukaryotic cells. It is extensively studied, including in parasitic organisms such as trypanosomes, as a potential therapeutic target. Recently, numerous additional subunits of the respiratory-chain complexes have been described in Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. Since these subunits had apparently no counterparts in other organisms, they were interpreted as potentially associated with the parasitic trypanosome lifestyle. Here we used two complementary approaches to characterise the subunit composition of respiratory complexes in Euglena gracilis, a non-parasitic secondary green alga related to trypanosomes. First, we developed a phylogenetic pipeline aimed at mining sequence databases for identifying homologues to known respiratory-complex subunits with high confidence. Second, we used MS/MS proteomics after two-dimensional separation of the respiratory complexes by Blue Native- and SDS-PAGE both to confirm in silico predictions and to identify further additional subunits. Altogether, we identified 41 subunits that are restricted to E. gracilis, T. brucei and T. cruzi, along with 48 classical subunits described in other eukaryotes (i.e. plants, mammals and fungi). This moreover demonstrates that at least half of the subunits recently reported in T. brucei and T. cruzi are actually not specific to Trypanosomatidae, but extend at least to other Euglenozoa, and that their origin and function are thus not specifically associated with the parasitic lifestyle. Furthermore, preliminary biochemical analyses suggest that some of these additional subunits underlie the peculiarities of the respiratory chain observed in Euglenozoa.

  12. An endoparasitoid wasp influences host DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-01-01

    Parasitism by endoparasitoid wasps changes the expression of various host genes, and alters host immune and developmental processes. However, it is not clearly understood how parasitism changes host gene expression in a whole genome scale. This study focused on an epigenetic control of Cotesia plutellae, an endoparasitoid wasp, against its host, Plutella xylostella. Two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1 and DNMT-2) are encoded in the genome of P. xylostella. In addition, methyl-binding domain proteins (MBDs) and DNA demethylation factor, ten-eleven translation protein (TET) are encoded. DNA methylation of P. xylostella genomic DNA was confirmed by restriction digestion with Gla I specific to 5-methylcytosine. DNA methylation intensity in parasitized (P) larvae was decreased compared to that in nonparasitized (NP) larvae, especially at late parasitic stage, at which expression levels of both DNMT-1 and DNMT-2 were also decreased. DNA demethylation of P. xylostella was confirmed in both NP and P larvae by restriction digestion with PvuRts1I recognizing 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine. Parasitism also suppressed expression levels of TET and MBDs. Treatment of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (AZA) reduced DNA methylation intensity of NP larvae, causing suppression of hemocyte-spreading behavior and delay of immature development. RNA interference of DNMT-1 or DNMT-2 mimicked the adverse effects of AZA. PMID:28230192

  13. Duplications and Positive Selection Drive the Evolution of Parasitism-Associated Gene Families in the Nematode Strongyloides papillosus

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Praveen; Jaleta, Tegegn G.; Streit, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplication is a major mechanism playing a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity and in the generation of novel traits. By comparing parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes, a recent study found that the evolution of parasitism in Strongyloididae is associated with a large expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. To gain novel insights into the developmental processes in the sheep parasite Strongyloides papillosus, we sequenced transcriptomes of different developmental stages and sexes. Overall, we found that the majority of genes are developmentally regulated and have one-to-one orthologs in the diverged S. ratti genome. Together with the finding of similar expression profiles between S. papillosus and S. ratti, these results indicate a strong evolutionary constraint acting against change at sequence and expression levels. However, the comparison between parasitic and free-living females demonstrates a quite divergent pattern that is mostly due to the previously mentioned expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. More detailed phylogenetic analysis of both gene families shows that most members date back to single expansion events early in the Strongyloides lineage and have undergone subfunctionalization resulting in clusters that are highly expressed either in infective larvae or in parasitic females. Finally, we found increased evidence for positive selection in both gene families relative to the genome-wide expectation. In summary, our study reveals first insights into the developmental transcriptomes of S. papillosus and provides a detailed analysis of sequence and expression evolution in parasitism-associated gene families. PMID:28338804

  14. Effect of secondary infection on epithelialisation and total healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Lourenço, Maria Cristina da Silva; Fagundes, Aline; Ribeiro, Érica Aparecida Dos Santos; Barreto, Leonardo; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) generally presents with a single or several localised cutaneous ulcers without involvement of mucous membranes. Ulcerated lesions are susceptible to secondary contamination that may slow the healing process. This study verified the influence of non-parasitic wound infection on wound closure (epithelialisation) and total healing. Twenty-five patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CL and ulcerated lesions underwent biopsy of ulcer borders. One direct microbial parameter (germ identification in cultures) and four indirect clinical parameters (secretion, pain, burning sensation, pruritus) were analysed. FINDINGS Biopsies of ten lesions showed secondary infection by one or two microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Candida parapsilosis). "Secretion" and "burning sensation" influenced epithelialisation time but not total healing time. Positive detection of germs in the ulcer border and "pain" and "pruritus" revealed no influence on wound closure. Our borderline proof of clinical CL ulcer infection inhibiting CL wound healing supports the need to follow antimicrobial stewardship in CL ulcer management, which was recently proposed for all chronic wounds.

  15. Effect of secondary infection on epithelialisation and total healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Lourenço, Maria Cristina da Silva; Fagundes, Aline; Ribeiro, Érica Aparecida dos Santos; Barreto, Leonardo; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) generally presents with a single or several localised cutaneous ulcers without involvement of mucous membranes. Ulcerated lesions are susceptible to secondary contamination that may slow the healing process. OBJECTIVE This study verified the influence of non-parasitic wound infection on wound closure (epithelialisation) and total healing. METHODS Twenty-five patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CL and ulcerated lesions underwent biopsy of ulcer borders. One direct microbial parameter (germ identification in cultures) and four indirect clinical parameters (secretion, pain, burning sensation, pruritus) were analysed. FINDINGS Biopsies of ten lesions showed secondary infection by one or two microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Candida parapsilosis). “Secretion” and “burning sensation” influenced epithelialisation time but not total healing time. Positive detection of germs in the ulcer border and “pain” and “pruritus” revealed no influence on wound closure. CONCLUSIONS Our borderline proof of clinical CL ulcer infection inhibiting CL wound healing supports the need to follow antimicrobial stewardship in CL ulcer management, which was recently proposed for all chronic wounds. PMID:28902290

  16. OaMAX2 of Orobanche aegyptiaca and Arabidopsis AtMAX2 share conserved functions in both development and drought responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-09-16

    Previous studies in Arabidopsis reported that the MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) gene is a component of the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of biological processes, from plant growth and development to environmental stress responses. Orobanche aegyptiaca is a harmful parasitic plant for many economically important crops. Seed germination of O. aegyptiaca is very sensitive to SLs, suggesting that O. aegyptiaca may contain components of the SL signaling pathway. To investigate this hypothesis, we identified and cloned a MAX2 ortholog from O. aegyptiaca for complementation analyses using the Arabidopsis Atmax2 mutant. The so-called OaMAX2 gene could rescue phenotypes of the Atmax2 mutant in various tested developmental aspects, including seed germination, shoot branching, leaf senescence and growth and development of hypocotyl, root hair, primary root and lateral root. More importantly, OaMAX2 could enhance the drought tolerance of Atmax2 mutant, suggesting its ability to restore the drought-tolerant phenotype of mutant plants defected in AtMAX2 function. Thus, this study provides genetic evidence that the functions of the MAX2 orthologs, and perhaps the MAX2 signaling pathways, are conserved in parasitic and non-parasitic plants. Furthermore, the results of our study enable us to develop a strategy to fight against parasitic plants by suppressing the MAX signaling, which ultimately leads to enhanced productivity of crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An integrated modeling approach for temperature driven water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack after shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manish; Mench, M. M.

    The concept of using controlled temperature gradients to non-parasitically remove excess water from porous media during PEFC stack shutdown has been numerically investigated. An integrated modeling approach focusing both at stack and single cell level is presented. The stack thermal model is developed to obtain detailed temperature distribution across the PEFC stack. The two-phase unit fuel cell model is developed to investigate the detailed water and thermal transport in the PEFC components after shutdown, which for the first time includes thermo-osmotic flow in the membrane. The model accounts for capillary and phase-change induced flow in the porous media, and thermo-osmotic and diffusive flow in the polymer membrane. The single cell model is used to estimate the local water distribution with land or channel boundary condition, and the experimentally validated stack thermal model provided the transient temperature boundary conditions. Two different stack designs are compared to quantify the residual water in the stack. Model results indicate that a favorable temperature gradient can be formed in the stack to enhance the water drainage rate, esp. at anode end cell locations, where freeze/thaw damage has been observed to occur.

  18. The inverse niche model for food webs with parasites.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher P; Pascual, Mercedes; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2010-01-01

    Although parasites represent an important component of ecosystems, few field and theoretical studies have addressed the structure of parasites in food webs. We evaluate the structure of parasitic links in an extensive salt marsh food web, with a new model distinguishing parasitic links from non-parasitic links among free-living species. The proposed model is an extension of the niche model for food web structure, motivated by the potential role of size (and related metabolic rates) in structuring food webs. The proposed extension captures several properties observed in the data, including patterns of clustering and nestedness, better than does a random model. By relaxing specific assumptions, we demonstrate that two essential elements of the proposed model are the similarity of a parasite's hosts and the increasing degree of parasite specialization, along a one-dimensional niche axis. Thus, inverting one of the basic rules of the original model, the one determining consumers' generality appears critical. Our results support the role of size as one of the organizing principles underlying niche space and food web topology. They also strengthen the evidence for the non-random structure of parasitic links in food webs and open the door to addressing questions concerning the consequences and origins of this structure.

  19. Application of Nuclear Techniques to Improve the Mass Production and Management of Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Cancino, Jorge; Ruíz, Lía; Viscarret, Mariana; Sivinski, John; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures. PMID:26466729

  20. Rendering the Intractable More Tractable: Tools from Caenorhabditis elegans Ripe for Import into Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jordan D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent and rapid advances in genetic and molecular tools have brought spectacular tractability to Caenorhabditis elegans, a model that was initially prized because of its simple design and ease of imaging. C. elegans has long been a powerful model in biomedical research, and tools such as RNAi and the CRISPR/Cas9 system allow facile knockdown of genes and genome editing, respectively. These developments have created an additional opportunity to tackle one of the most debilitating burdens on global health and food security: parasitic nematodes. I review how development of nonparasitic nematodes as genetic models informs efforts to import tools into parasitic nematodes. Current tools in three commonly studied parasites (Strongyloides spp., Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum) are described, as are tools from C. elegans that are ripe for adaptation and the benefits and barriers to doing so. These tools will enable dissection of a huge array of questions that have been all but completely impenetrable to date, allowing investigation into host–parasite and parasite–vector interactions, and the genetic basis of parasitism. PMID:26644478

  1. Evidencing the Role of Erythrocytic Apoptosis in Malarial Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Totino, Paulo R. R.; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio T.; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade it has become clear that, similarly to nucleated cells, enucleated red blood cells (RBCs) are susceptible to programmed apoptotic cell death. Erythrocytic apoptosis seems to play a role in physiological clearance of aged RBCs, but it may also be implicated in anemia of different etiological sources including drug therapy and infectious diseases. In malaria, severe anemia is a common complication leading to death of children and pregnant women living in malaria-endemic regions of Africa. The pathogenesis of malarial anemia is multifactorial and involves both ineffective production of RBCs by the bone marrow and premature elimination of non-parasitized RBCs, phenomena potentially associated with apoptosis. In the present overview, we discuss evidences associating erythrocytic apoptosis with the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia, as well as with regulation of parasite clearance in malaria. Efforts to understand the role of erythrocytic apoptosis in malarial anemia can help to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention based on apoptotic pathways and consequently, mitigate the harmful impact of malaria in global public health. PMID:28018860

  2. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches.

    PubMed

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-07

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition.

  3. The seventy-second Christmas bird count. 302. Southern Dorchester County, Md

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    We located 511 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in bottomland hardwood forest of eastern Arkansas. Microhabitat characteristics were measured and their relationship with nest success evaluated. Fifty-two percent of all nesting attempts resulted in predation. Attributes of nest placement were similar between successful and unsuccessful nests, although successful nests were placed higher. Similarly, nonparasitized nests were typically higher than parasitized nests. Nests initiated late in the breeding season were placed in larger trees with higher canopy bases resulting in increased vegetation around the nest. Fifteen different tree species were used for nesting. Acadian Flycatchers chose nest trees in a nonrandom fashion, selecting Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii) and possumhaw (Ilex decidua) in greater proportions than their availability. However, there was no relationship between tree species used for nesting and nest success. Nest height was positively correlated with concealment at the nest site, supporting the predator-avoidance theory. No other attribute of nest placement differentiated successful nest sites, suggesting that nest predation is likely a function of random events in space and time.

  4. The anesthetic effect of alcohols and alkanes in caenorhabditis elegans (C. E. )

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, A.H.; Berk, A.I.; Nicholls, C.H. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors colleagues reported that the non-parasitic roundworm, C.E., was reversibly immobilized by volatile anesthetics, whose potencies were directly related to their lipid solubilities as in other animals. In further studies on this phenomenon, they tested a homologous series of organic solvents, to determine whether they also had a reversible anesthetic effect in C.E. as in other animals. Synchronized 3-1/2 day-old cultures of about 100 worms each were exposed to increasing concentrations of the alcohols (C{sub 1} - C{sub 14}) and alkanes (C{sub 5} -C{sub 10}) in 15 ml sealed bottles in a volume of 0.5 ml. The dose that reversibly immobilized 50% of the worms was determined and a straight line was plotted against the octanol/water partition coefficient (K) of each series. As with other animals, potency was directly related to the lipid solubility of these agents so that, for example, the ID{sub 50} for methanol was 1,000 mmol (K=0.12) whereas it was 0.17 mmol for heptanol (K=3,000). The alcohols were about 20 times more potent than the alkanes even though the latter were about 10 times more lipid soluble than the alcohols. In spite of these differences, the cut-off point was at C{sub 9} in the two series.

  5. The complete chloroplast genome of Gentiana straminea (Gentianaceae), an endemic species to the Sino-Himalayan subregion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lianghong; Zhao, Zhili; Xu, Hongxi; Chen, Shilin; Dorje, Gaawe

    2016-02-15

    Endemic to the Sino-Himalayan subregion, the medicinal alpine plant Gentiana straminea is a threatened species. The genetic and molecular data about it is deficient. Here we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of G. straminea, as the first sequenced member of the family Gentianaceae. The cp genome is 148,991bp in length, including a large single copy (LSC) region of 81,240bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,085bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,333bp. It contains 112 unique genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and 4 rRNAs. The rps16 gene lacks exon2 between trnK-UUU and trnQ-UUG, which is the first rps16 pseudogene found in the nonparasitic plants of Asterids clade. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 forward repeats, 13 palindrome repeats and 39 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). An entire cp genome comparison study of G. straminea and four other species in Gentianales was carried out. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) were performed based on 69 protein-coding genes from 36 species of Asterids. The results strongly supported the position of Gentianaceae as one member of the order Gentianales. The complete chloroplast genome sequence will provide intragenic information for its conservation and contribute to research on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses of Gentianales and Asterids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification, Mapping, and In Vitro Translation of Campoletis sonorensis Virus mRNAs from Parasitized Heliothis virescens Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Blissard, Gary W.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Summers, Max D.

    1986-01-01

    Expression of Campoletis sonorensis virus (CsV) in parasitized Heliothis virescens larvae was investigated by Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ mRNAs isolated from H. virescens larvae at various times after parasitization by C. sonorensis. At least 12 CsV mRNAs were detected in parasitized H. virescens larvae. Injection of nonparasitized H. virescens larvae with purified CsV resulted in a pattern of viral mRNAs similar to that observed in naturally parasitized larvae. With CsV DNA restriction fragments which contained expressed sequences, individual CsV mRNAs were mapped to the superhelical DNAs of the viral genome. Two gene-specific probes, which consisted of cloned S1 nuclease-protected restriction fragments, each hybridized to several CsV superhelical DNAs, suggesting that some CsV genes may be shared on several superhelical DNAs. Cloned restriction fragments containing sequences which flank the expressed sequences also hybridized to numerous CsV superhelical DNAs. Some CsV proteins were identified by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected CsV mRNAs. Images PMID:16789254

  7. Interleukin 1 (IL-1)- and IL-23-mediated expansion of filarial antigen-specific Th17 and Th22 cells in filarial lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, R; George, P Jovvian; Chandrasekaran, V; Kumaran, P Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2014-07-01

    Lymphatic filarial disease is known to be associated with elevated Th1 responses and normal or diminished Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of Th17 cells and the recently described Th22 cells have not been examined in detail in either filarial infection itself or in filarial disease (e.g., lymphedema and elephantiasis). To explore the roles of Th17 and Th22 cells and their subsets, we examined the frequencies of these cells in individuals with filarial lymphedema (chronic pathology [CP]), in clinically asymptomatic infected (INF) individuals, and in uninfected (UN) individuals ex vivo and in response to parasite and nonparasite antigens. Those with disease (CP) had significantly expanded frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells, compared with either INF or UN individuals, at baseline (ex vivo) and in response to parasite antigens. This antigen-driven expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was dependent on interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-23, and, to lesser extent, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), as blockade of any of these cytokines resulted in significantly diminished frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells. Our findings, therefore, suggest that filarial parasite-driven expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells is associated with the pathogenesis of filarial infections and disease. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Interleukin 1 (IL-1)- and IL-23-Mediated Expansion of Filarial Antigen-Specific Th17 and Th22 Cells in Filarial Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, R.; George, P. Jovvian; Chandrasekaran, V.; Kumaran, P. Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filarial disease is known to be associated with elevated Th1 responses and normal or diminished Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of Th17 cells and the recently described Th22 cells have not been examined in detail in either filarial infection itself or in filarial disease (e.g., lymphedema and elephantiasis). To explore the roles of Th17 and Th22 cells and their subsets, we examined the frequencies of these cells in individuals with filarial lymphedema (chronic pathology [CP]), in clinically asymptomatic infected (INF) individuals, and in uninfected (UN) individuals ex vivo and in response to parasite and nonparasite antigens. Those with disease (CP) had significantly expanded frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells, compared with either INF or UN individuals, at baseline (ex vivo) and in response to parasite antigens. This antigen-driven expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was dependent on interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-23, and, to lesser extent, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), as blockade of any of these cytokines resulted in significantly diminished frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells. Our findings, therefore, suggest that filarial parasite-driven expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells is associated with the pathogenesis of filarial infections and disease. PMID:24807054

  9. Uniqueness of Entamoeba sulfur metabolism: sulfolipid metabolism that plays pleiotropic roles in the parasitic life cycle.

    PubMed

    Mi-Ichi, Fumika; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2017-09-07

    Sulfur metabolism is ubiquitous and terminally synthesizes various biomolecules that are crucial for organisms, such as sulfur-containing amino acids and co-factors, sulfolipids and sulfated saccharides. Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis, possesses the unique sulfur metabolism features of atypical localization and its terminal product being limited to sulfolipids. Here, we present an overall scheme of E. histolytica sulfur metabolism by relating all sulfotransferases and sulfatases to their substrates and products. Furthermore, a novel sulfur metabolite, fatty alcohol disulfates, was identified and shown to play an important role in trophozoite proliferation. Cholesteryl sulfate, another synthesized sulfolipid, was previously demonstrated to play an important role in encystation, a differentiation process from proliferative trophozoite to dormant cyst. Entamoeba survives by alternating between these two distinct forms; therefore, Entamoeba sulfur metabolism contributes to the parasitic life cycle via its terminal products. Interestingly, this unique feature of sulfur metabolism is not conserved in the nonparasitic close relative of Entamoeba, Mastigamoeba, because lateral gene transfer-mediated acquisition of sulfatases and sulfotransferases, critical enzymes conferring this feature, has only occurred in the Entamoeba lineage. Hence, our findings suggest that sulfolipid metabolism has a causal relationship with parasitism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Behavior Response of Amphipods Infected by Hedruris suttonae (Nematoda) and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Casalins, Laura M; Brugni, Norma L; Rauque, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are rare, and the majority of these consider only a single parasite species and/or 1 life stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica , whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials did larvae of H. suttonae induce significantly higher levels of photophilia, suggesting that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non-infective), suggesting that infection separated the relationship between these variables.

  11. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Six Rehmannia Species

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shuyun; Zhou, Tao; Han, Kai; Yang, Yanci; Zhao, Jianhua; Liu, Zhan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Rehmannia is a non-parasitic genus in Orobanchaceae including six species mainly distributed in central and north China. Its phylogenetic position and infrageneric relationships remain uncertain due to potential hybridization and polyploidization. In this study, we sequenced and compared the complete chloroplast genomes of six Rehmannia species using Illumina sequencing technology to elucidate the interspecific variations. Rehmannia plastomes exhibited typical quadripartite and circular structures with good synteny of gene order. The complete genomes ranged from 153,622 bp to 154,055 bp in length, including 133 genes encoding 88 proteins, 37 tRNAs, and 8 rRNAs. Three genes (rpoA, rpoC2, accD) have potentially experienced positive selection. Plastome size variation of Rehmannia was mainly ascribed to the expansion and contraction of the border regions between the inverted repeat (IR) region and the single-copy (SC) regions. Despite of the conserved structure in Rehmannia plastomes, sequence variations provide useful phylogenetic information. Phylogenetic trees of 23 Lamiales species reconstructed with the complete plastomes suggested that Rehmannia was monophyletic and sister to the clade of Lindenbergia and the parasitic taxa in Orobanchaceae. The interspecific relationships within Rehmannia were completely different with the previous studies. In future, population phylogenomic works based on plastomes are urgently needed to clarify the evolutionary history of Rehmannia. PMID:28294981

  12. Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Mahaffee, W. F.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.; BOWEN, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations. PMID:19265915

  13. Thermoinhibition uncovers a role for strigolactones in Arabidopsis seed germination.

    PubMed

    Toh, Shigeo; Kamiya, Yuji; Kawakami, Naoto; Nambara, Eiji; McCourt, Peter; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    Strigolactones are host factors that stimulate seed germination of parasitic plant species such as Striga and Orobanche. This hormone is also important in shoot branching architecture and photomorphogenic development. Strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants in model systems, unlike parasitic plants, only show seed germination phenotypes under limited growth condition. To understand the roles of strigolactones in seed germination, it is necessary to develop a tractable experimental system using model plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we report that thermoinhibition, which involves exposing seeds to high temperatures, uncovers a clear role for strigolactones in promoting Arabidopsis seed germination. Both strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants showed increased sensitivity to seed thermoinhibition. The synthetic strigolactone GR24 rescued germination of thermoinbibited biosynthetic mutant seeds but not a signaling mutant. Hormone analysis revealed that strigolactones alleviate thermoinhibition by modulating levels of the two plant hormones, GA and ABA. We also showed that GR24 was able to counteract secondary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde island (Cvi). Systematic hormone analysis of germinating Striga helmonthica seeds suggested a common mechanism between the parasitic and non-parasitic seeds with respect to how hormones regulate germination. Thus, our simple assay system using Arabidopsis thermoinhibition allows comparisons to determine similarities and differences between parasitic plants and model experimental systems for the use of strigolactones.

  14. Parasites flicking the NPY gene on the host's switchboard: why NPY?

    PubMed

    De Jong-Brink, M; Reid, C N; Tensen, C P; Ter Maat, A

    1999-11-01

    It was investigated whether up-regulation of the NPY gene by the schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata in its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis redirects the host's energy flows. We cloned the cDNA encoding Lymnaea NPY (LyNPY), purified and sequenced the peptide, and used synthesized peptide for physiological and morphological studies. Increasing the LyNPY titer in nonparasitized snails (mimicking parasitosis) by 1) implantation of slow-release pellets and 2) injections suppressed reproductive activity and reduced growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner without affecting food intake. When the LyNPY titer was back to normal, reproduction and growth were resumed, coinciding with a transient increase of food intake serving to replenish glycogen stores. Observations on double-immunostained whole mount preparations of brains support these data. A close association was found between LyNPY-positive axons and axons both from ovulation hormone-producing neurons and molluscan insulin-like peptide-producing neurons involved in regulation of growth. As no synaptic(-like) contacts were observed, it is supposed that LyNPY acts nonsynaptically. No morphological interaction was found between LyNPY-positive axons and motoneurons innervating the feeding apparatus. Our data explain why it is an advantageous strategy for endoparasites to up-regulate the highly conserved NPY gene in their host.

  15. [A case of hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus in Puebla, Mexico, that resulted in successful surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Orea-Martínez, J G; Pérez-Corro, M A; Contreras-Vera, R A; Bretón-Márquez, J H

    2013-01-01

    We present herein the case of a 16-year-old female from the southern portion of the State of Puebla, Mexico. When gathering her past medical history, it was revealed that she had grown up with pet dogs and that her family raised sheep. Because the patient presented with few symptoms, a benign lesion was suspected, and after laparoscopic exploration, the possibility of surgical management for a non-parasitic cyst was considered. A dull pain in the right hypochondrium persisted and open surgical exploration was performed in which a 6cm young, active, uncomplicated hydatid cyst was discovered. Its surgical removal was successful and the pathologist provided the definitive diagnosis. The three layers characteristic of a parasitic cyst were present and it was histologically consistent with Echinococcus granulosus. Postoperative progression was unremarkable and the control ultrasound study revealed complete restitution of the hepatic parenchyma. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Acadian flycatcher nest placement: Does placement influence reproductive success?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    We located 511 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in bottomland hardwood forest of eastern Arkansas. Microhabitat characteristics were measured and their relationship with nest success evaluated. Fifty-two percent of all nesting attempts resulted in predation. Attributes of nest placement were similar between successful and unsuccessful nests, although successful nests were placed higher. Similarly, nonparasitized nests were typically higher than parasitized nests. Nests initiated late in the breeding season were placed in larger trees with higher canopy bases resulting in increased vegetation around the nest. Fifteen different tree species were used for nesting. Acadian Flycatchers chose nest trees in a nonrandom fashion, selecting Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii) and possumhaw (Ilex decidua) in greater proportions than their availability. However, there was no relationship between tree species used for nesting and nest success. Nest height was positively correlated with concealment at the nest site, supporting the predator-avoidance theory. No other attribute of nest placement differentiated successful nest sites, suggesting that nest predation is likely a function of random events in space and time.

  17. Cuckoo-hawk mimicry? An experimental test.

    PubMed

    Davies, N B; Welbergen, J A

    2008-08-07

    The similarity between many Old World parasitic cuckoos (Cuculinae) and Accipiter hawks, in size, shape and plumage, has been noted since ancient times. In particular, hawk-like underpart barring is more prevalent in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Cuckoo-hawk resemblance may reflect convergent evolution of cryptic plumage that reduces detection by hosts and prey, or evolved mimicry of hawks by parasitic cuckoos, either for protection against hawk attacks or to facilitate brood parasitism by influencing host behaviour. Here, we provide the first evidence that some small birds respond to common cuckoos Cuculus canorus as if they were sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus. Great tits and blue tits were equally alarmed and reduced attendance at feeders during and after the presentation of mounted specimens of common cuckoos and sparrowhawks, but not in response to control presentations of collared doves or teal. Plumage manipulations revealed that the strong alarm response to cuckoos depended on their resemblance to hawks; cuckoos with barred underparts were treated like hawks, while those with unbarred underparts were treated like doves. However, barring was not the only feature inducing alarm because tits showed similarly strong alarm to barred and unbarred hawks, and little alarm to barred doves. These responses of tits, unsuitable as hosts and hence with no history of cuckoo parasitism, suggest that naive small birds can mistake cuckoos for hawks. Thus, any cuckoo-hawk discrimination by host species is likely to be an evolved response to brood parasitism.

  18. Factors Influencing the Serological Response in Hepatic Echinococcus granulosus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lissandrin, Raffaella; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Piccoli, Luca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Mariconti, Mara; Meroni, Valeria; Genco, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of variables influencing serology is crucial to evaluate serology results for the diagnosis and clinical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE). We analyzed retrospectively a cohort of patients with hepatic CE followed in our clinic in 2000–2012 to evaluate the influence of several variables on the results of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests. Sera from 171 patients with ≥ 1 hepatic CE cyst, and 90 patients with nonparasitic cysts were analyzed. CE cysts were staged according to the WHO-IWGE classification and grouped by activity. A significant difference in ELISA optical density (OD) values and percentage of positivity was found among CE activity groups and with controls (P < 0.001). The serological response was also influenced by age (P < 0.001) and cyst number (P = 0.003). OD values and cyst size were positively correlated in active cysts (P = 0.001). IHA test showed comparable results. When we analyzed the results of 151 patients followed over time, we found that serology results were significantly influenced by cyst activity, size, number, and treatment ≤ 12 months before serum collection. In conclusion, serological responses as assessed by commercial tests depend on CE cyst activity, size and number, and time from treatment. Clinical studies and clinicians in their practice should take this into account. PMID:26503271

  19. Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress towards speciation between European river and brook lampreys.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Q; Gaigher, A; Lasne, E; Côte, J; Coke, M; Besnard, A-L; Launey, S; Evanno, G

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here, we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetic analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000 individuals of the migratory parasitic river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and freshwater-resident nonparasitic brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) distributed in 10 sympatric and parapatric population pairs in France. Mating trials, parentage analyses and artificial fertilizations demonstrated a low level of reproductive isolation between species even though size-assortative mating may contribute to isolation. Most parapatric population pairs were strongly differentiated due to the joint effects of geographic distance and barriers to migration. In contrast, we found variable levels of gene flow between sympatric populations ranging from panmixia to moderate differentiation, which indicates a gradient of divergence with some population pairs that may correspond to alternative morphs or ecotypes of a single species and others that remain partially isolated. Ecologically based divergent selection may explain these variable levels of divergence among sympatric population pairs, but incomplete genome swamping following secondary contact could have also played a role. Overall, this study illustrates how highly differentiated phenotypes can be maintained despite high levels of gene flow that limit the progress towards speciation.

  20. Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jeffrey P; Robinson, Scott K

    2007-03-13

    Why do many hosts accept costly avian brood parasitism even when parasitic eggs and nestlings differ dramatically in appearance from their own? Scientists argue that evolutionary lag or equilibrium can explain this evolutionary enigma. Few, however, consider the potential of parasitic birds to enforce acceptance by destroying eggs or nestlings of hosts that eject parasitic eggs and thereby reject parasitism. This retaliatory "mafia" behavior has been reported in one species of parasitic cuckoo but never in parasitic cowbirds. Here we present experimental evidence of mafia behavior in the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a widely distributed North American brood parasite. We manipulated ejection of cowbird eggs and cowbird access to predator-proof nests in a common host to test experimentally for mafia behavior. When cowbird access was allowed, 56% of "ejector" nests were depredated compared with only 6% of "accepter" nests. No nests were destroyed when cowbird access was always denied or when access was denied after we removed cowbird eggs, indicating that cowbirds were responsible. Nonparasitized nests were depredated at an intermediate rate (20%) when cowbirds were allowed access, suggesting that cowbirds may occasionally "farm" hosts to create additional opportunities for parasitism. Cowbirds parasitized most (85%) renests of the hosts whose nests were depredated. Ejector nests produced 60% fewer host offspring than accepter nests because of the predatory behavior attributed to cowbirds. Widespread predatory behaviors in cowbirds could slow the evolution of rejection behaviors and further threaten populations of some of the >100 species of regular cowbird hosts.

  1. Ectoparasites increase swimming costs in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Binning, Sandra A; Roche, Dominique G; Layton, Cayne

    2013-02-23

    Ectoparasites can reduce individual fitness by negatively affecting behavioural, morphological and physiological traits. In fishes, there are potential costs if ectoparasites decrease streamlining, thereby directly compromising swimming performance. Few studies have examined the effects of ectoparasites on fish swimming performance and none distinguish between energetic costs imposed by changes in streamlining and effects on host physiology. The bridled monocle bream (Scolopsis bilineatus) is parasitized by an isopod (Anilocra nemipteri), which attaches above the eye. We show that parasitized fish have higher standard metabolic rates (SMRs), poorer aerobic capacities and lower maximum swimming speeds than non-parasitized fish. Adding a model parasite did not affect SMR, but reduced maximum swimming speed and elevated oxygen consumption rates at high speeds to levels observed in naturally parasitized fish. This demonstrates that ectoparasites create drag effects that are important at high speeds. The higher SMR of naturally parasitized fish does, however, reveal an effect of parasitism on host physiology. This effect was easily reversed: fish whose parasite was removed 24 h earlier did not differ from unparasitized fish in any performance metrics. In sum, the main cost of this ectoparasite is probably its direct effect on streamlining, reducing swimming performance at high speeds.

  2. Parasites as Drivers and Passengers of Human-Mediated Biological Invasions.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Ewen, John G

    2017-03-01

    We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of parasites in biological invasions by alien species. Parasites have frequently been invoked as drivers of invasions, but have received less attention as invasion passengers. The evidence to date that parasites drive invasions by hosts is weak: while there is abundant evidence that parasites have effects in the context of alien invasions, there is little evidence to suggest that parasites have differential effects on alien species that succeed versus fail in the invasion process. Particular case studies are suggestive but not yet informative about general effects. What evidence there is for parasites as aliens suggests that the same kind of factors determine their success as for non-parasites. Thus, availability is likely to be an important determinant of the probability of translocation. Establishment and spread are likely to depend on propagule pressure and on the environment being suitable (all necessary hosts and vectors are present); the likelihood of both of these dependencies being favourable will be affected by traits relating to parasite life history and demography. The added complication for the success of parasites as aliens is that often this will depend on the success of their hosts. We discuss how these conclusions help us to understand the likely effects of parasites on the success of establishing host populations (alien or native).

  3. Fungi Parasitic on Juveniles and Egg Masses of Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils from New York.

    PubMed

    Viaene, N M; Abawi, G S

    1998-12-01

    Fungi associated with egg masses and juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla were isolated from organic soil samples obtained from five fields planted to lettuce or onion in NewYork. The soil samples were placed in sterilized clay pots, infested with M. hapla, and planted to lettuce. After 4 months, egg masses and juveniles were surface-disinfested, plated on water agar, and examined for fungal infection. Depending on the soil sample, fungal isolates were recovered from 13% to 30%, and from 5% to 24% of the egg masses and juveniles, respectively. A total of 24 and 16 isolates collected from egg masses and juveniles, respectively, were selected for further characterization. Fifteen of the isolates were considered as egg-mass pathogens as they were able to infect healthy assay egg masses and could be succesfully reisolated. These fungi included species of Fusarium, Alternatia, and Verticillium psalliotae. Six of the egg-mass-parasitizing fungi could not be identified. Nine fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic to juveniles of M. hapla; six were identified as Monacrosporium sp., two as Arthrobotrys sp., and one as Hirsutella rhossiliensis. The remaining 16 fungal isolates were unable to infect egg masses or juveniles, and thus were considered nonparasitic to M. hapla.

  4. Reconstructing the demographic history of divergence between European river and brook lampreys using approximate Bayesian computations

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Camille; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jérôme; Launey, Sophie; Evanno, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Inferring the history of isolation and gene flow during species divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. The European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and brook lamprey (L. planeri) show a low reproductive isolation but have highly distinct life histories, the former being parasitic-anadromous and the latter non-parasitic and freshwater resident. Here we used microsatellite data from six replicated population pairs to reconstruct their history of divergence using an approximate Bayesian computation framework combined with a random forest model. In most population pairs, scenarios of divergence with recent isolation were outcompeted by scenarios proposing ongoing gene flow, namely the Secondary Contact (SC) and Isolation with Migration (IM) models. The estimation of demographic parameters under the SC model indicated a time of secondary contact close to the time of speciation, explaining why SC and IM models could not be discriminated. In case of an ancient secondary contact, the historical signal of divergence is lost and neutral markers converge to the same equilibrium as under the less parameterized model allowing ongoing gene flow. Our results imply that models of secondary contacts should be systematically compared to models of divergence with gene flow; given the difficulty to discriminate among these models, we suggest that genome-wide data are needed to adequately reconstruct divergence history. PMID:27077007

  5. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L.; Hanner, Robert H.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required. PMID:21670289

  6. Evolutionary history of lamprey paired species Lampetra fluviatilis (L.) and Lampetra planeri (Bloch) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Espanhol, Rute; Almeida, Pedro R; Alves, M Judite

    2007-05-01

    A remarkable trend in the evolution of lampreys is the occurrence in most genera of 'paired species', in which the parasitic anadromous lampreys are believed to have given rise to nonparasitic freshwater resident populations. The present work examines the phylogeography of the European paired species Lampetra fluviatilis and Lampetra planeri, in an attempt to elucidate species pair evolutionary history. We studied sequence variation in cytochrome b and ATPase 6, 8 mitochondrial genes in 63 individuals from 21 localities of the paired species throughout their distribution range. Results from the phylogenetic and nested clade analyses were largely consistent, suggesting the existence of three major evolutionary lineages: lineage I and possibly lineage II are widespread throughout Europe, while the most ancestral lineage III is apparently restricted to the Iberian Peninsula. The high genetic diversity observed in the Iberian Peninsula is probably the result of refugial persistence and subsequent accumulation of variation over several ice ages, whereas the low levels of genetic diversity observed in central and northern Europe should reflect a rapid postglacial colonization. Results suggest that L. planeri originated within at least two distinct evolutionary lineages, rejecting the single origin hypothesis. The observed lack of taxa monophyly within lineage I may be the result of ongoing gene flow if the two taxa are alternate life-history forms of a single species. However, structure within lineage I is also consistent with the hypothesis of divergence of taxa after postglacial dispersion (around 2000 generations ago) with incomplete lineage sorting. Further testing of the alternative hypotheses is warranted.

  7. Effects of parasitic infection and reproduction on corticosterone plasma levels in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus.

    PubMed

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Cruz, Marilyn; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2017-08-01

    In vertebrates, one main feature of stress response is the release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone in reptiles), steroid hormones whose synthesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In the Galápagos Islands, populations of land iguanas are differentially impacted by a tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasite of genus Hepatozoon, which could cause diseases and ultimately reduce fitness. Using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we examined baseline plasma corticosterone levels of two syntopic and highly parasitized populations of the land iguana species Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus in Wolf volcano (Isabela Island). We also used a poorly parasitized population of C. subcristatus from the same island (Bahia Urbina) as a reference. To better interpret the observed glucocorticoids patterns, we simultaneously performed the count of white blood cells (WBCs) in all individuals and investigated the reproductive status of females. We did not find evidence in support of either a positive or negative relationship between the tick load, hemoparasite infection, and glucocorticoid plasma concentration in C. marthae and C. subcristatus at Wolf volcano. The comparison between parasitized and non-parasitized sites (V. Wolf and Bahia Urbina) would instead suggest an inverse relationship between corticosterone and parasites. Our findings support association between corticosterone plasma levels and reproduction.

  8. Bio-electrospraying the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: studying whole-genome transcriptional responses and key life cycle parameters

    PubMed Central

    Mongkoldhumrongkul, Napachanok; Swain, Suresh C.; Jayasinghe, Suwan N.; Stürzenbaum, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Bio-electrospray, the direct jet-based cell handling approach, is able to handle a wide range of cells (spanning immortalized, primary to stem cells). Studies at the genomic, genetic and the physiological levels have shown that, post-treatment, cellular integrity is unperturbed and a high percentage (more than 70%, compared with control) of cells remain viable. Although, these results are impressive, it may be argued that cell-based systems are oversimplistic. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the bio-electrospray technology using sensitive and dynamically developing multi-cellular organisms that share, at least some, similarities with multi-cell microenviorments encountered with tissues and organs. This study addressed this issue by using a well-characterized model organism, the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematode cultures were subjected to bio-electrospraying and compared with positive (heat shock) and negative controls (appropriate laboratory culture controls). Overall, bio-electrospraying did not modulate the reproductive output or induce significant changes in in vivo stress-responsive biomarkers (heat shock proteins). Likewise, whole-genome transcriptomics could not identify any biological processes, cellular components or molecular functions (gene ontology terms) that were significantly enriched in response to bio-electrospraying. This demonstrates that bio-electrosprays can be safely applied directly to nematodes and underlines its potential future use in the creation of multi-cellular environments within clinical applications. PMID:19776148

  9. Perceptions and attitudes among milk producers in Minas Gerais regarding cattle tick biology and control.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Maria Alice Zacarias; da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães; Faccini, João Luiz; Furlong, John; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates milk producers' knowledge regarding cattle ticks and practices for controlling them. Ninety-three dairymen in Minas Gerais were interviewed. These producers had no information regarding acaricide efficiency tests. To analyze the information, open responses were categorized through "content analysis", and descriptive analysis consisting of extracting the profile highlighted by the highest frequencies. The association between schooling level and knowledge was tested by means of chi-square trend tests. It was observed that 92.3% had no knowledge of the nonparasitic period. For 96.4%, what determined the time to apply treatment was the degree of tick infestation; 93.3% used spray guns to apply the acaricide. In seeking to cross-correlate the biological and control variables with education, cooperative action, length of experience and herd size, it was found that there was a linear association between schooling level and implementation of acaricide solution preparation. The other factors didn't show any significant association. These data demonstrated the need to instruct the producers in relation to the biology and control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. It was concluded that the majority of milk producers were unaware of cattle tick biology and the factors that influence choosing an acaricide, which makes it difficult to implement strategic control.

  10. Physiology and lipid metabolism of Littorina saxatilis infected with trematodes.

    PubMed

    Arakelova, Katherine S; Chebotareva, Marina A; Zabelinskii, Stanislav A

    2004-09-08

    Physiological and biochemical alterations in Littorina saxatilis infected with larval trematodes were investigated and compared with the metabolism of non-parasitized snails. Oxygen consumption rates of infected snails differed from those of non-infected controls in medium sized individuals (30 to 130 mg) but not in very large infected individuals (> 200 mg). Small snails (0.5 to 8.5 mg) were seldom infected by parasites, and this size-class consisted only of non-infected specimens. The specific oxygen consumption rate of infected snails was not dependent on their mass and remained constant over the size ranges investigated. Alterations in the snail metabolism appeared to be connected to injuries to digestive gland tissues caused by the parasites. The glycogen concentration and fatty acids of neutral lipids and phospholipids in the digestive gland were determined. Infected snails differed from uninfected snails in the complete absence of glycogen in digestive gland and had proportionally higher quantities of eicosenoic (20:1) acid in the total phospholipids. It remains unclear whether infection by trematodes activates enzymes in the snail's digestive gland to synthesize eicosenoic (20:1) acid, or whether the sporocysts themselves possess these enzymes. The role of phospholipid fatty acids in the regulation and maintenance of the parasite's metabolism is briefly considered. Biochemical alterations observed in the fatty acid composition may have an adaptive significance, by helping to stabilize the host-parasite system.

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model for anthelmintic discovery

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Andrew R.; Luciani, Genna M.; Musso, Gabriel; Bagg, Rachel; Yeo, May; Zhang, Yuqian; Rajendran, Luckshika; Glavin, John; Hunter, Robert; Redman, Elizabeth; Stasiuk, Susan; Schertzberg, Michael; Angus McQuibban, G.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Cutler, Sean R.; Tyers, Mike; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Fraser, Andy G.; MacRae, Calum A.; Gilleard, John; Roy, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect one quarter of the world's population and impact all humans through widespread infection of crops and livestock. Resistance to current anthelmintics has prompted the search for new drugs. Traditional screens that rely on parasitic worms are costly and labour intensive and target-based approaches have failed to yield novel anthelmintics. Here, we present our screen of 67,012 compounds to identify those that kill the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We then rescreen our hits in two parasitic nematode species and two vertebrate models (HEK293 cells and zebrafish), and identify 30 structurally distinct anthelmintic lead molecules. Genetic screens of 19 million C. elegans mutants reveal those nematicides for which the generation of resistance is and is not likely. We identify the target of one lead with nematode specificity and nanomolar potency as complex II of the electron transport chain. This work establishes C. elegans as an effective and cost-efficient model system for anthelmintic discovery. PMID:26108372

  12. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32↑- and 9↓-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microscopic features of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos: Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima e Silva, M F; Szabó, M P J; Bechara, G H

    2004-10-01

    The naturally occurring wildlife host associations between ticks and tick-borne pathogens found in the neotropics are poorly described. Understanding tick-bite lesions is important as these are the site of host reaction to and pathogen delivery by ticks. As part of a comprehensive study concerning established and emerging tick-host relationships. the present work describes some aspects of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos captured at the Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil. Biopsies were of skin were taken and examine. Tick feeding sites of all animals displayed an eosinophilic homogeneous mass, the cement cone, and, occasionally, a feeding cavity underneath the tick attachment site. At these locations the epidermis was usually thickened due to keratinocyte hyperplasia. The main dermal changes included tissue infiltration with a varying number of inflammatory cells, edema, hemorrhage. and vascular dilatation. Cellular infiltration of the dermis was predominantly composed of mononuclear cells, neutrophils. and eosinophils. Mast cells were also seen in both non-parasitized and parasitized skin but were found in higher numbers at perivascular sites and in parasitized skin. Basophils were not seen at tick attachment sites of anteaters or armadillos.

  14. Parasite-specific anergy in human filariasis. Insights after analysis of parasite antigen-driven lymphokine production.

    PubMed Central

    Nutman, T B; Kumaraswami, V; Ottesen, E A

    1987-01-01

    The antigen-specific immune unresponsiveness seen in bancroftian filariasis was studied by examining lymphokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or PBMC subpopulations from 10 patients with asymptomatic microfilaremia, 13 patients with elephantiasis and 6 normal North Americans. In each group of patients, the kinetics of the lymphokine response and the response to mitogens and nonparasite antigens did not differ significantly. In marked contrast, when antigen-induced lymphokine production was examined, most patients with microfilaremia were unable to produce either interleukin 2 (IL-2) or gamma-interferon (i.e., were nonresponders), and the few who could (hyporesponders, generally with quite low microfilaremia levels) did so at levels significantly less than those of patients with elephantiasis, all of whom showed strong responses to parasite antigen. Removal of neither adherent cells or T8+ cells affected the parasite-specific anergy seen in those with microfilaremia, suggesting a state of T cell tolerance to the parasite in patients with this most common clinical manifestation of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:3553242

  15. Competition, virulence, host body mass and the diversification of macro-parasites.

    PubMed

    Rascalou, Guilhem; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2014-04-06

    Adaptive speciation has been much debated in recent years, with a strong emphasis on how competition can lead to the diversification of ecological and sexual traits. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to this evolutionary process to explain intrahost diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to look at the effect of key features of the parasite lifestyle, namely fragmentation, aggregation and virulence, on the conditions and rate of sympatric speciation under the standard 'pleiotropic scenario'. The conditions for competitive speciation were found similar to those for non-parasite species, but not the rate of diversification. Adaptive evolution proceeds faster in highly fragmented parasite populations and for weakly aggregated and virulent parasites. Combining these theoretical results with standard empirical allometric relationships, we showed that parasite diversification can be faster in host species of intermediate body mass. The increase in parasite load with body mass, indeed, fuels evolution by increasing mutants production, but because of the deleterious effect of virulence, it simultaneously weakens selection for resource specialization. Those two antagonistic effects lead to optimal parasite burden and host body mass for diversification. Data on the diversity of fishes' gills parasites were found consistent with the existence of such optimum.

  16. Duplications and positive selection drive the evolution of parasitism associated gene families in the nematode Strongyloides papillosus.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Praveen; Jaleta, Tegegn G; Streit, Adrian; Rödelsperger, Christian

    2017-03-02

    Gene duplication is one major mechanism playing a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity and in the generation of novel traits. By comparing parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes, a recent study found that the evolution of parasitism in Strongyloididae is associated with a large expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families.To gain novel insights into the developmental processes in the sheep parasite Strongyloides papillosus, we sequenced transcriptomes of different developmental stages and sexes. Overall, we found that the majority of genes are developmentally regulated and have one-to-one orthologs in the diverged S. ratti genome. Together with the finding of similar expression profiles between S. papillosus and S. ratti, these results indicate a strong evolutionary constraint acting against change at sequence and expression levels. However, the comparison between parasitic and free-living females demonstrates a quite divergent pattern that is mostly due to the previously mentioned expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. More detailed phylogenetic analysis of both gene families shows that most members date back to single expansion events early in the Strongyloides lineage and have undergone subfunctionalization resulting in clusters that are highly expressed either in infective larvae or in parasitic females. Finally, we found increased evidence for positive selection in both gene families relative to the genome-wide expectation.In summary, our study reveals first insights into the developmental transcriptomes of S. papillosus and provides a detailed analysis of sequence and expression evolution in parasitism associated gene families.

  17. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-09-25

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.

  18. Effect of a hemiuroid trematode on the hemocyte immune parameters of the cockle Anadara trapezia.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Cribb, Thomas H; Osborne, Geoffrey; Kawasaki, Minami; Bedin, Anne-Sophie; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    When a trematode parasite penetrates a potential molluscan host, it has to circumvent the host's internal defense system. In molluscs, the primary effector cells of this system are the hemocytes which orchestrate many of the cellular and humoral immune functions. Survival of the parasite can occur only in the absence of a successful immune response, and continued development only if the host is physiologically suitable. This study investigated hemocytic response against asexual stages of a hemiuroid trematode by its host, the marine bivalve Anadara trapezia. Hemocyte characteristic (type, morphology) and function (mortality, phagocytosis and oxidative activity) were analyzed by flow cytometry in parasitized and non-parasitized cockles. A. trapezia possesses two types of hemocytes: amebocytes and erythrocytes. Analysis of histological section showed that there was no host hemocytic response around hemiuroid sporocysts. The infection induced a significant increase of the total circulating hemocytes with a higher proportion of erythrocytes relative to amebocytes, coupled with a lower phagocytosis rate and a statistically non-significant decrease of the intracellular oxidative activity. No significant differences were observed in hemocyte size and complexity, mortality, or phagocytic capacity. Our results indicate that in A. trapezia, hemiuroids modulate the immune response by increasing the number of circulating hemocytes and decreasing phagocytosis.

  19. Scabies masquerading as bullous pemphigoid: scabies surrepticius.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-01-01

    Scabies, a parasitic infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is diagnosed by observing either the mite, its ova, or its excrement. The mite tracts, known as burrows and a characteristic presentation of the pruritic condition, are typically found on the web spaces between the fingers. Other cutaneous lesions include excoriated papules, pustules, and vesicles. However, atypical clinical variants of scabies, such as bullous, crusted, hidden, incognito, nodular, and scalp forms of the parasitic infestation, mimic the morphologic features of other non-parasitic dermatoses. A 76-year-old man presented with pruritic blisters and urticarial plaques that demonstrated not only pathology changes, but direct immunofluorescence also showed findings of bullous pemphigoid. His condition improved, but did not resolve, with topical corticosteroid cream for the management of the primary autoimmune blistering disorder. When other family members subsequently developed scabies, the correct diagnosis for his condition, bullous scabies, was established by demonstrating mites, ova, and scybala on a mineral oil preparation from a skin scraping of a newly appearing burrow. Bullous scabies can masquerade not only clinically, but also both pathologically and immunologically as bullous pemphigoid. Scabies serrupticius is introduced as a unifying term to designate all of the non-classic presentations of S. scabiei mite infestation.

  20. Stunting of the penis in Heleobia parchappii (Mollusca: Cochliopidae) and its relationship with parasitism.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Matías J; Parietti, Manuela; Etchegoin, Jorge A

    2017-02-08

    Penis anatomy is used to discriminate species of gastropods belonging to the family Cochliopidae; however, this characteristic may be affected by the presence of parasites. To evaluate the possible effect of parasites on penis length and number of papillae in Heleobia parchappii, 195 males were collected from the Nahuel Rucá Lagoon, Argentina. Male snails were only infected by trematode digeneans (total prevalence 45.13%). Three out of 9 species of digeneans registered showed prevalence values higher than 10%: Microphallus szidati, M. simillimus, and Notocotylidae sp. 1. The penis length of non-parasitized males and those parasitized by M. szidati and M. similimus increased with increased snail length; however, this increase was lower in infected snails. In the case of snails infected with Notocotylidae sp. 1, no relationship between shell length and penis length was apparent. Differences in the life cycles of these 3 digeneans could explain the null or lower penis growth rate in relation to host body growth. In contrast, no change was observed in the number of penial papillae of H. parchappii when these snails were infected by larval digeneans compared to those that were not infected. This indicates that penial papillae may be a more stable characteristic than penis length to discriminate between species within the Cochliopidae. The study of penial papillae should be central in the taxonomy and identification of new species within the Cochliopidae, as well as in previously described species.

  1. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) HP88 for biological control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae): the effect of different exposure times of engorged females to the nematodes.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Faza, Aline; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Dolinski, Cláudia; Furlong, John

    2012-04-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different exposure times of engorged female the Rhipicephalus microplus to infective juveniles of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora isolate HP88. The engorged females were divided into seven groups (six treatments and one control) of 20 ticks each with statistically similar average weights (p>0.05) and exposed to concentrations of 300 nematodes/tick for periods of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The following biological parameters were monitored: pre-oviposition period; egg mass weight; hatching percentage; and efficacy of treatment. There was no influence of the exposure time on the pre-oviposition period (p>0.05), while there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the groups exposed for 24, 48 and 72 h and the control group with respect to the egg mass weight, and 24h for hatching percentage. Treatment efficacy reached 100% after exposure for 48 and 72 h. These results demonstrate that infective juveniles of H. bacteriophora HP88, under laboratory conditions, interfere in the majority of the biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase of engorged R. microplus females when the exposure time is greater than or equal to 24h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of Functional and Physical Genome Reduction in Photosynthetic and Nonphotosynthetic Parasitic Plants of the Broomrape Family[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wicke, Susann; Müller, Kai F.; de Pamphilis, Claude W.; Quandt, Dietmar; Wickett, Norman J.; Zhang, Yan; Renner, Susanne S.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    Nonphotosynthetic plants possess strongly reconfigured plastomes attributable to convergent losses of photosynthesis and housekeeping genes, making them excellent systems for studying genome evolution under relaxed selective pressures. We report the complete plastomes of 10 photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic parasites plus their nonparasitic sister from the broomrape family (Orobanchaceae). By reconstructing the history of gene losses and genome reconfigurations, we find that the establishment of obligate parasitism triggers the relaxation of selective constraints. Partly because of independent losses of one inverted repeat region, Orobanchaceae plastomes vary 3.5-fold in size, with 45 kb in American squawroot (Conopholis americana) representing the smallest plastome reported from land plants. Of the 42 to 74 retained unique genes, only 16 protein genes, 15 tRNAs, and four rRNAs are commonly found. Several holoparasites retain ATP synthase genes with intact open reading frames, suggesting a prolonged function in these plants. The loss of photosynthesis alters the chromosomal architecture in that recombinogenic factors accumulate, fostering large-scale chromosomal rearrangements as functional reduction proceeds. The retention of DNA fragments is strongly influenced by both their proximity to genes under selection and the co-occurrence with those in operons, indicating complex constraints beyond gene function that determine the evolutionary survival time of plastid regions in nonphotosynthetic plants. PMID:24143802

  3. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  4. Scabies masquerading as bullous pemphigoid: scabies surrepticius

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-01-01

    Scabies, a parasitic infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is diagnosed by observing either the mite, its ova, or its excrement. The mite tracts, known as burrows and a characteristic presentation of the pruritic condition, are typically found on the web spaces between the fingers. Other cutaneous lesions include excoriated papules, pustules, and vesicles. However, atypical clinical variants of scabies, such as bullous, crusted, hidden, incognito, nodular, and scalp forms of the parasitic infestation, mimic the morphologic features of other non-parasitic dermatoses. A 76-year-old man presented with pruritic blisters and urticarial plaques that demonstrated not only pathology changes, but direct immunofluorescence also showed findings of bullous pemphigoid. His condition improved, but did not resolve, with topical corticosteroid cream for the management of the primary autoimmune blistering disorder. When other family members subsequently developed scabies, the correct diagnosis for his condition, bullous scabies, was established by demonstrating mites, ova, and scybala on a mineral oil preparation from a skin scraping of a newly appearing burrow. Bullous scabies can masquerade not only clinically, but also both pathologically and immunologically as bullous pemphigoid. Scabies serrupticius is introduced as a unifying term to designate all of the non-classic presentations of S. scabiei mite infestation. PMID:28883737

  5. The status of RNAi-based transgenic research in plant nematology

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tushar K.; Banakar, Prakash; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    With the understanding of nematode-plant interactions at the molecular level, new avenues for engineering resistance have opened up, with RNA interference being one of them. Induction of RNAi by delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been very successful in the model non-parasitic nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, while in plant nematodes, dsRNA delivery has been accomplished by soaking nematodes with dsRNA solution mixed with synthetic neurostimulants. The success of in vitro RNAi of target genes has inspired the use of in planta delivery of dsRNA to feeding nematodes. The most convincing success of host-delivered RNAi has been achieved against root-knot nematodes. Plant-mediated RNAi has been shown to lead to the specific down-regulation of target genes in invading nematodes, which had a profound effect on nematode development. RNAi-based transgenics are advantageous as they do not produce any functional foreign proteins and target organisms in a sequence-specific manner. Although the development of RNAi-based transgenics against plant nematodes is still in the preliminary stage, they offer novel management strategy for the future. PMID:25628609

  6. Chromerid genomes reveal the evolutionary path from photosynthetic algae to obligate intracellular parasites

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yong H; Ansari, Hifzur; Otto, Thomas D; Klinger, Christen M; Kolisko, Martin; Michálek, Jan; Saxena, Alka; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Tayyrov, Annageldi; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Ali, Shahjahan; Bernal, Axel; del Campo, Javier; Cihlář, Jaromír; Flegontov, Pavel; Gornik, Sebastian G; Hajdušková, Eva; Horák, Aleš; Janouškovec, Jan; Katris, Nicholas J; Mast, Fred D; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mourier, Tobias; Naeem, Raeece; Nair, Mridul; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Rawlings, Neil D; Padron-Regalado, Eriko; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Samad, Nadira; Tomčala, Aleš; Wilkes, Jon; Neafsey, Daniel E; Doerig, Christian; Bowler, Chris; Keeling, Patrick J; Roos, David S; Dacks, Joel B; Templeton, Thomas J; Waller, Ross F; Lukeš, Julius; Oborník, Miroslav; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa encompasses thousands of obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals with immense socio-economic and health impacts. We sequenced nuclear genomes of Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, free-living non-parasitic photosynthetic algae closely related to apicomplexans. Proteins from key metabolic pathways and from the endomembrane trafficking systems associated with a free-living lifestyle have been progressively and non-randomly lost during adaptation to parasitism. The free-living ancestor contained a broad repertoire of genes many of which were repurposed for parasitic processes, such as extracellular proteins, components of a motility apparatus, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein families. Based on transcriptome analyses across 36 environmental conditions, Chromera orthologs of apicomplexan invasion-related motility genes were co-regulated with genes encoding the flagellar apparatus, supporting the functional contribution of flagella to the evolution of invasion machinery. This study provides insights into how obligate parasites with diverse life strategies arose from a once free-living phototrophic marine alga. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06974.001 PMID:26175406

  7. Laparoscopic resection of a benign true cyst of the spleen with the harmonic scalpel producing high levels of CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Sardi, A; Ojeda, H F; King, D

    1998-12-01

    Primary true cysts of the spleen constitute 10 per cent of all nonparasitic cysts of the spleen. These cysts have been managed with total or partial splenectomy or marsupialization. Previous series reported elevated serum levels of CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A 16-year-old male presented with left upper quadrant pain and was found to have a mass on palpation. An ultrasound and a CT scan of the abdomen showed a 20-cm cystic lesion in the spleen. The CA 19-9 and CEA serum levels were 1264 units/ml (nl <33 units/ml) and 7.5 ng/ml (nl <3.1 ng/ml), respectively. Laparoscopic resection of the cyst using the harmonic scalpel was performed. The pathology showed a benign true epithelial cyst of the spleen, with strongly immunoperoxidase stains for keratin, CA 19-9, and CEA. Levels of CA 19-9 and CEA in the cystic fluid were 48,275 units/ml and 96.6 ng/ml, respectively. This is the first case reported in the literature of a true benign splenic cyst producing high levels of CEA and CA 19-9 in serum and cystic fluid. The patient was discharged home on the 1st postoperative day without problems and returned to his normal daily activities with the 1st week after surgery. The CA 19-9 and CEA serum levels returned to normal levels.

  8. Laboratory Investigations Reveal that Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Is a Poor Host for Dinocampus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro-Guedes, CamilaFediuk; de Almeida, LúciaMassutti

    2016-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) is an Asian coccinellid released in several places to act as a biological control agent of aphids. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) is an endoparasite that uses more than 40 coccinellid species as hosts. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between D. coccinellae and H. axyridis and to determine the impact of the parasitoid on the establishment capacity of H. axyridis It was also investigate the influence of host on the development of D. coccinellae using other Coccinellidae species as hosts: Cycloneda sanguinea, (L., 1763) Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829), Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866) In no-choice tests, pupa was the least attacked stage, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. In choice tests, the pupa was less attacked when combined with all the other stages, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. There was statistical difference only for fecundity, fertility, and number of eggs/day, with higher values found in the non-parasitized control group. Due to the low rate of parasitism it is believed that D. coccinellae has little impact on the populations of this coccinellid in Brazil. However, it is noteworthy that an increase in H. axyridis coverage areas can affect the populations of D. coccinellae, as in some places of occurrence, H. axyridis has become the predominant species of Coccinellidae. The result can be a decrease in populations of this species of parasitoid or its better adaptation to the new host.

  9. The inverse niche model for food webs with parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Christopher P.; Pascual, Mercedes; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2010-01-01

    Although parasites represent an important component of ecosystems, few field and theoretical studies have addressed the structure of parasites in food webs. We evaluate the structure of parasitic links in an extensive salt marsh food web, with a new model distinguishing parasitic links from non-parasitic links among free-living species. The proposed model is an extension of the niche model for food web structure, motivated by the potential role of size (and related metabolic rates) in structuring food webs. The proposed extension captures several properties observed in the data, including patterns of clustering and nestedness, better than does a random model. By relaxing specific assumptions, we demonstrate that two essential elements of the proposed model are the similarity of a parasite's hosts and the increasing degree of parasite specialization, along a one-dimensional niche axis. Thus, inverting one of the basic rules of the original model, the one determining consumers' generality appears critical. Our results support the role of size as one of the organizing principles underlying niche space and food web topology. They also strengthen the evidence for the non-random structure of parasitic links in food webs and open the door to addressing questions concerning the consequences and origins of this structure.

  10. Biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction While biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma involving the liver are not uncommon, biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is an extremely rare lesion and can be very difficult to diagnose. Case presentation A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with pain and swelling in the right hypochondrium. An ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion arising from the gallbladder fossa. This lesion was initially managed with aspiration and antibiotics by the treating physician. The patient was referred for surgical management because the abscess was not resolved through conservative treatment. A diagnosis of an infected nonparasitic cyst was made and deroofing of the cyst was performed. A histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a successful surgical excision of the lesion. Conclusion Infective lesions of the liver are common in developing countries and are usually managed through aspiration and antibiotics. Cystadenocarcinoma of the gallbladder needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions arising from the gallbladder fossa. A high index of suspicion and cytological examination from the wall of such complex lesions will help in the timely management of such lesions. PMID:19946551

  11. Biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Sankar, Gomati; Basu, Debadutta; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari

    2009-10-15

    While biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma involving the liver are not uncommon, biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is an extremely rare lesion and can be very difficult to diagnose. A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with pain and swelling in the right hypochondrium. An ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion arising from the gallbladder fossa. This lesion was initially managed with aspiration and antibiotics by the treating physician. The patient was referred for surgical management because the abscess was not resolved through conservative treatment. A diagnosis of an infected nonparasitic cyst was made and deroofing of the cyst was performed. A histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a successful surgical excision of the lesion. Infective lesions of the liver are common in developing countries and are usually managed through aspiration and antibiotics. Cystadenocarcinoma of the gallbladder needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions arising from the gallbladder fossa. A high index of suspicion and cytological examination from the wall of such complex lesions will help in the timely management of such lesions.

  12. Profiling mRNAs of Two Cuscuta Species Reveals Possible Candidate Transcripts Shared by Parasitic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wijeratne, Saranga; Fraga, Martina; Meulia, Tea; Doohan, Doug; Li, Zhaohu; Qu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs) for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions. PMID:24312295

  13. Lutein epoxide cycle, more than just a forest tale

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Two xanthophyll cycles have been described in higher plants: the ubiquitous violaxanthin (V) cycle and the taxonomically restricted lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle. Both involve the light induced de-epoxidation of an epoxidated xanthophyll (V or Lx) and the epoxidation back in the dark. Evolutionary trends and function of the Lx cycle are still not clear. Up to nowadays, significant amounts of Lx have been found in several unrelated taxa, but it is a character almost exclusive from woody plants (except in the case of the parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa). We have found an exception to this pattern in Cucumis sativus L., which showed high concentrations of Lx. Since Lx cycle was operative in leaves and cotyledons of this species and Lx concentration were much higher in cotyledons than in leaves, we speculate a role for the early stages of development. To date, this species is the first herbaceous non-parasitic species with operative Lx cycle. Since this species can be much more easily and rapidly grown and investigated than woody plants, these data can open new horizons and new lines of investigation for Lx cycle. PMID:19794858

  14. Characterization of Constituents and Anthelmintic Properties of Hagenia abyssinica

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Henrieke; Reider, Katrin; Franke, Katrin; Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Keiser, Jennifer; Dagne, Ermias; Arnold, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The dried female flowers of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel. (Rosaceae) are traditionally used as an anthelmintic remedy in Ethiopia and formerly were incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia. One-, two- and tricyclic phloroglucinol derivatives (kosins) were suggested to be the active principles. However, polar constituents may also contribute to the activity. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the polar constituents. We isolated typical Rosaceae constituents such as quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside and rutin. Polar kosin glycosides or derivatives could not be detected. The anthelmintic activity of fractions of different polarity were tested against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica and the intestinal fluke Echinostoma caproni. The anthelmintic activity decreased with increasing polarity of the tested fractions. ESI-MS investigations indicated the predominant occurrence of kosins in the active fractions. Using the anthelmintic active extracts of Hagenia abyssinica we developed a simple, inexpensive bioassay against the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which can be used as an initial screening procedure for anthelmintic properties of crude extracts of plants or fungi. The anthelmintic activity of test extracts against the model organism was determined in a microtiter plate assay by enumeration of living and dead nematodes under a microscope. PMID:22896828

  15. Genome sequence of Picrophilus torridus and its implications for life around pH 0

    PubMed Central

    Fütterer, O.; Angelov, A.; Liesegang, H.; Gottschalk, G.; Schleper, C.; Schepers, B.; Dock, C.; Antranikian, G.; Liebl, W.

    2004-01-01

    The euryarchaea Picrophilus torridus and Picrophilus oshimae are able to grow around pH 0 at up to 65°C, thus they represent the most thermoacidophilic organisms known. Several features that may contribute to the thermoacidophilic survival strategy of P. torridus were deduced from analysis of its 1.55-megabase genome. P. torridus has the smallest genome among nonparasitic aerobic microorganisms growing on organic substrates and simultaneously the highest coding density among thermoacidophiles. An exceptionally high ratio of secondary over ATP-consuming primary transport systems demonstrates that the high proton concentration in the surrounding medium is extensively used for transport processes. Certain genes that may be particularly supportive for the extreme lifestyle of P. torridus appear to have been internalized into the genome of the Picrophilus lineage by horizontal gene transfer from crenarchaea and bacteria. Finally, it is noteworthy that the thermoacidophiles from phylogenetically distant branches of the Archaea apparently share an unexpectedly large pool of genes. PMID:15184674

  16. Rare-cell enrichment by a rapid, label-free, ultrasonic isopycnic technique for medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Syed, Abeer; Reboud, Julien; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C; Barrett, Michael P; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2014-05-26

    One significant challenge in medical diagnostics lies in the development of label-free methods to separate different cells within complex biological samples. Here we demonstrate a generic, low-power ultrasonic separation technique, able to enrich different cell types based upon their physical properties. For malaria, we differentiate between infected and non-infected red blood cells in a fingerprick-sized drop of blood. We are able to achieve an enrichment of circulating cells infected by the ring stage of the parasite over nonparasitized red blood cells by between two and three orders of magnitude in less than 3 seconds (enabling detection at parasitemia levels as low as 0.0005%). In a second example, we also show that our methods can be used to enrich different cell types, concentrating Trypanosoma in blood at very low levels of infection, on disposable, low-cost chips. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-10-01

    Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming.

  18. The 3D Structure of the Apical Complex and Association with the Flagellar Apparatus Revealed by Serial TEM Tomography in Psammosa pacifica, a Distant Relative of the Apicomplexa

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The apical complex is one of the defining features of apicomplexan parasites, including the malaria parasite Plasmodium, where it mediates host penetration and invasion. The apical complex is also known in a few related lineages, including several non-parasitic heterotrophs, where it mediates feeding behaviour. The origin of the apical complex is unclear, and one reason for this is that in apicomplexans it exists in only part of the life cycle, and never simultaneously with other major cytoskeletal structures like flagella and basal bodies. Here, we used conventional TEM and serial TEM tomography to reconstruct the three dimensional structure of the apical complex in Psammosa pacifica, a predatory relative of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates that retains the archetype apical complex and the flagellar apparatus simultaneously. The P. pacifica apical complex is associated with the gullet and consists of the pseudoconoid, micronemes, and electron dense vesicles. The pseudoconoid is a convex sheet consisting of eight short microtubules, plus a band made up of microtubules that originate from the flagellar apparatus. The flagellar apparatus consists of three microtubular roots. One of the microtubular roots attached to the posterior basal body is connected to bypassing microtubular strands, which are themselves connected to the extension of the pseudoconoid. These complex connections where the apical complex is an extension of the flagellar apparatus, reflect the ancestral state of both, dating back to the common ancestor of apicaomplexans and dinoflagellates. PMID:24392150

  19. Cuckoo–hawk mimicry? An experimental test

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N.B; Welbergen, J.A

    2008-01-01

    The similarity between many Old World parasitic cuckoos (Cuculinae) and Accipiter hawks, in size, shape and plumage, has been noted since ancient times. In particular, hawk-like underpart barring is more prevalent in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Cuckoo–hawk resemblance may reflect convergent evolution of cryptic plumage that reduces detection by hosts and prey, or evolved mimicry of hawks by parasitic cuckoos, either for protection against hawk attacks or to facilitate brood parasitism by influencing host behaviour. Here, we provide the first evidence that some small birds respond to common cuckoos Cuculus canorus as if they were sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus. Great tits and blue tits were equally alarmed and reduced attendance at feeders during and after the presentation of mounted specimens of common cuckoos and sparrowhawks, but not in response to control presentations of collared doves or teal. Plumage manipulations revealed that the strong alarm response to cuckoos depended on their resemblance to hawks; cuckoos with barred underparts were treated like hawks, while those with unbarred underparts were treated like doves. However, barring was not the only feature inducing alarm because tits showed similarly strong alarm to barred and unbarred hawks, and little alarm to barred doves. These responses of tits, unsuitable as hosts and hence with no history of cuckoo parasitism, suggest that naive small birds can mistake cuckoos for hawks. Thus, any cuckoo–hawk discrimination by host species is likely to be an evolved response to brood parasitism. PMID:18467298

  20. Shared neural substrates for song discrimination in parental and parasitic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Louder, Matthew I M; Voss, Henning U; Manna, Thomas J; Carryl, Sophia S; London, Sarah E; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-05-27

    In many social animals, early exposure to conspecific stimuli is critical for the development of accurate species recognition. Obligate brood parasitic songbirds, however, forego parental care and young are raised by heterospecific hosts in the absence of conspecific stimuli. Having evolved from non-parasitic, parental ancestors, how brood parasites recognize their own species remains unclear. In parental songbirds (e.g. zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata), the primary and secondary auditory forebrain areas are known to be critical in the differential processing of conspecific vs. heterospecific songs. Here we demonstrate that the same auditory brain regions underlie song discrimination in adult brood parasitic pin-tailed whydahs (Vidua macroura), a close relative of the zebra finch lineage. Similar to zebra finches, whydahs showed stronger behavioral responses during conspecific vs. heterospecific song and tone pips as well as increased neural responses within the auditory forebrain, as measured by both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and immediate early gene (IEG) expression. Given parallel behavioral and neuroanatomical patterns of song discrimination, our results suggest that the evolutionary transition to brood parasitism from parental songbirds likely involved an "evolutionary tinkering" of existing proximate mechanisms, rather than the wholesale reworking of the neural substrates of species recognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ectoparasites increase swimming costs in a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Binning, Sandra A.; Roche, Dominique G.; Layton, Cayne

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites can reduce individual fitness by negatively affecting behavioural, morphological and physiological traits. In fishes, there are potential costs if ectoparasites decrease streamlining, thereby directly compromising swimming performance. Few studies have examined the effects of ectoparasites on fish swimming performance and none distinguish between energetic costs imposed by changes in streamlining and effects on host physiology. The bridled monocle bream (Scolopsis bilineatus) is parasitized by an isopod (Anilocra nemipteri), which attaches above the eye. We show that parasitized fish have higher standard metabolic rates (SMRs), poorer aerobic capacities and lower maximum swimming speeds than non-parasitized fish. Adding a model parasite did not affect SMR, but reduced maximum swimming speed and elevated oxygen consumption rates at high speeds to levels observed in naturally parasitized fish. This demonstrates that ectoparasites create drag effects that are important at high speeds. The higher SMR of naturally parasitized fish does, however, reveal an effect of parasitism on host physiology. This effect was easily reversed: fish whose parasite was removed 24 h earlier did not differ from unparasitized fish in any performance metrics. In sum, the main cost of this ectoparasite is probably its direct effect on streamlining, reducing swimming performance at high speeds. PMID:23193046

  2. Effects of Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) venom and parasitism on nutritional content regulation in host Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Xu, Dan-Ping; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which the wasp Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao regulates the physiology and biochemistry of its host, effects of S. sichuanensis venom and parasitism on host the Tenebrio molitor L. pupae were examined. Significant differences in nutritional content were noted between parasitized and non-parasitized pupae and between venom- and phosphate buffered saline-injected pupae. When pupae were injected with venom, the fat body could not be disintegrated into granules; however, when pupae were parasitized, fat-body disintegration occurred. Electrophoresis showed no differences in hemolymph protein content between parasitized pupae and those injected with venom, indicating that the wasp did not have narrow-spectrum peptides. These findings confirmed that S. sichuanensis was a typical idiobiont ectoparasitoid wasp, and that nutrient regulation was similar between idiobiont and koinobiont wasps. The strong similarities between the two treatments suggest that venom injection is a major factor responsible for changes in host nutrient content. The wasp fed mainly on reducing sugars, free amino acids, and fat-body tissues; larval fat bodies were derived from hemolymph and from host tissue. Our findings suggest that lipid catabolism might be accelerated, and that lipid biosynthesis might be inhibited, when host pupae are parasitized or injected with venom. In addition to venom, physiological and biochemical changes that occur during the parasitic process might be caused by venom, ovarian proteins, saliva, or secretions.

  3. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    PubMed Central

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  4. Side-effects of pesticides used in irrigated rice areas on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Pazini, Juliano de Bastos; Pasini, Rafael Antonio; Seidel, Enio Júnior; Rakes, Matheus; Martins, José Francisco da Silva; Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei

    2017-08-01

    Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T. podisi). In the choice tests, sprays were conducted only at pre-parasitism stages. For all tests, we prepared cards with 25 eggs of the alternative host Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) non-parasitized (pre-parasitism) and parasitized (post-parasitism), which were subjected to pesticide sprays. The parasitism and emergence rates of T. podisi were determined classifying the pesticides in terms of the reduction of parasitism or emergence rates compared to the control. The neurotoxic insecticide cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, zeta-cypermethrin, etofenprox, thiamethoxam, thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid + alpha-cypermethrin, and bifenthrin + alpha-cypermethrin + carbosulfan were more harmful to T. podisi and, therefore, are less suitable for the integrated management of insect pests in irrigated rice areas.

  5. Vocal matching and intensity of begging calls are associated with a forebrain song circuit in a generalist brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Rivers, James W; White, David J

    2016-06-01

    Vocalizations produced by developing young early in life have simple acoustic features and are thought to be innate. Complex forms of early vocal learning are less likely to evolve in young altricial songbirds because the forebrain vocal-learning circuit is underdeveloped during the period when early vocalizations are produced. However, selective pressure experienced in early postnatal life may lead to early vocal learning that is likely controlled by a simpler brain circuit. We found the food begging calls produced by fledglings of the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a generalist avian brood parasite, induced the expression of several immediate early genes and early circuit innervation in a forebrain vocal-motor pathway that is later used for vocal imitation. The forebrain neural activity was correlated with vocal intensity and variability of begging calls that appears to allow cowbirds to vocally match host nestmates. The begging-induced forebrain circuits we observed in fledgling cowbirds were not detected in nonparasitic passerines, including species that are close relatives to the cowbird. The involvement of forebrain vocal circuits during fledgling begging and its association with vocal learning plasticity may be an adaptation that provides young generalist brood parasites with a flexible signaling strategy to procure food from a wide range of heterospecific host parents.

  6. Carbamazepine inhibits distinct chemoconvulsant-induced seizure-like activity in Dugesia tigrina.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Latha; Desaer, Cassie

    2011-10-01

    Planaria, non-parasitic flatworms, were recently shown to be a simple yet sensitive model for investigating the pharmacology of convulsants and anticonvulsants. The present findings show that three distinct chemoconvulsants, (-)-nicotine, picrotoxin, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), induce dose-dependent seizure-like paroxysms in the planarian Dugesia tigrina. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, iminodibenzyl derivatives, exhibit anticonvulsive effects mediated mainly through the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. Apart from these primary molecular targets, both carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are known to activate γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors and inhibit NMDA activated glutamate receptors and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The present study shows that in D. tigrina both carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine inhibit chemoconvulsant-induced seizure behaviors in a dose-dependent manner. Carbamazepine (100 μM) decreased by ~65% the cumulative mean planarian seizure-like activity (pSLA) observed in the presence of (-)-nicotine (10 μM), picrotoxin (5mM), or NMDA (3mM), whereas oxcarbazepine (1 μM) decreased by 45% the cumulative mean pSLA induced by (-)-nicotine (10μM). The results demonstrate, for the first time, the anti-seizure pharmacology of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in an invertebrate seizure model.

  7. Ammonia excretion in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Chan, Ainsely C; Meyer, Heiko; Döring, Carmen; Sourial, Mary; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-09-15

    In aquatic invertebrates, metabolic nitrogenous waste is excreted predominately as ammonia. Very little is known, however, of the underlying mechanisms of ammonia excretion, particularly in freshwater species. Our results indicate that in the non-parasitic freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, ammonia excretion depends on acidification of the apical unstirred layer of the body surface and consequent ammonia trapping. Buffering of the environment to a pH of 7 or higher decreased the excretion rate. Inhibitor experiments suggested further that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase and possibly also the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Alkalinization (pH 8.5, 2 days) of the environment led to a 1.9-fold increase in body ammonia levels and to a downregulation of V-ATPase (subunit A) and Rh-protein mRNA. Further, a 2 day exposure to non-lethal ammonia concentrations (1 mmol l(-1)) caused a doubling of body ammonia levels and led to an increase in Rh-protein and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (α-subunit) mRNA expression levels. In situ hybridization studies indicated a strong mRNA expression of the Rh-protein in the epidermal epithelium. The ammonia excretion mechanism proposed for S. mediterranea reveals striking similarities to the current model suggested to function in the gills of freshwater fish.

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals the Impact of Repetitive DNA Across Phylogenetically Closely Related Genomes of Orobanchaceae

    PubMed Central

    Piednoël, Mathieu; Aberer, Andre J.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Macas, Jiri; Novak, Petr; Gundlach, Heidrun; Temsch, Eva M.; Renner, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the genomes of nine species of Orobanchaceae of known phylogenetic relationships, different life forms, and including a polyploid species. The study species are the autotrophic, nonparasitic Lindenbergia philippensis, the hemiparasitic Schwalbea americana, and seven nonphotosynthetic parasitic species of Orobanche (Orobanche crenata, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche gracilis (tetraploid), and Orobanche pancicii) and Phelipanche (Phelipanche lavandulacea, Phelipanche purpurea, and Phelipanche ramosa). Ty3/Gypsy elements comprise 1.93%–28.34% of the nine genomes and Ty1/Copia elements comprise 8.09%–22.83%. When compared with L. philippensis and S. americana, the nonphotosynthetic species contain higher proportions of repetitive DNA sequences, perhaps reflecting relaxed selection on genome size in parasitic organisms. Among the parasitic species, those in the genus Orobanche have smaller genomes but higher proportions of repetitive DNA than those in Phelipanche, mostly due to a diversification of repeats and an accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy elements. Genome downsizing in the tetraploid O. gracilis probably led to sequence loss across most repeat types. PMID:22723303

  9. Disparate gain and loss of parasitic abilities among nematode lineages.

    PubMed

    Holterman, Martijn; Karegar, Akbar; Mooijman, Paul; van Megen, Hanny; van den Elsen, Sven; Vervoort, Mariette T W; Quist, Casper W; Karssen, Gerrit; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Opperman, Charles H; Bird, David M; Kammenga, Jan; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert; Helder, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitism has arisen time and again in multiple phyla, including bacteria, fungi, insects and nematodes. In most of these organismal groups, the overwhelming diversity hampers a robust reconstruction of the origins and diversification patterns of this trophic lifestyle. Being a moderately diversified phylum with ≈ 4,100 plant parasites (15% of total biodiversity) subdivided over four independent lineages, nematodes constitute a major organismal group for which the genesis of plant parasitism could be mapped. Since substantial crop losses worldwide have been attributed to less than 1% of these plant parasites, research efforts are severely biased towards this minority. With the first molecular characterisation of numerous basal and supposedly harmless plant parasites as well as their non-parasitic relatives, we were able to generate a comprehensive molecular framework that allows for the reconstruction of trophic diversification for a complete phylum. In each lineage plant parasites reside in a single taxonomic grouping (family or order), and by taking the coverage of the next lower taxonomic level as a measure for representation, 50, 67, 100 and 85% of the known diversity was included. We revealed distinct gain and loss patterns with regard to plant parasitism per se as well as host exploitation strategies between these lineages. Our map of parasitic nematode biodiversity also revealed an unanticipated time reversal in which the two most ancient lineages showed the lowest level of ecological diversification and vice versa.

  10. Evaluation of Clonostachys rosea for control of plant-parasitic nematodes in soil and in roots of carrot and wheat.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mudassir; Dubey, Mukesh; McEwan, Kerstin; Menzel, Uwe; Andersson Franko, Mikael; Viketoft, Maria; Funck Jensen, Dan; Karlsson, Magnus

    2017-09-12

    Biological control is a promising approach to reduce plant diseases caused by nematodes. We tested the effect of the fungus Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 inoculation on nematode community composition in a naturally nematode infested soil in a pot experiment, and the effect of C. rosea on plant health. The numbers of plant-parasitic nematode genera extracted from soil and plant roots decreased by 40 to 73 % when C. rosea was applied, while genera of non-parasitic nematodes were not affected. Soil inoculation of C. rosea increased fresh shoot weight and shoot length of wheat plants by 20 and 24 %, respectively, while only shoot dry weight increased by 48 % in carrots. Light microscopy of in vitro C. rosea - nematode interactions did not reveal evidence of direct parasitism. However, culture filtrates of C. rosea growing in potato dextrose broth, malt extract broth and synthetic nutrient broth exhibited toxicity towards nematodes and immobilised 57, 62 and 100 % of the nematodes, respectively, within 48 h. This study demonstrates that C. rosea can control plant-parasitic nematodes and thereby improve plant growth. The most likely mechanism responsible for the antagonism is antibiosis through production of nematicidal compounds, rather than direct parasitism.

  11. The status of RNAi-based transgenic research in plant nematology.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tushar K; Banakar, Prakash; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    With the understanding of nematode-plant interactions at the molecular level, new avenues for engineering resistance have opened up, with RNA interference being one of them. Induction of RNAi by delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been very successful in the model non-parasitic nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, while in plant nematodes, dsRNA delivery has been accomplished by soaking nematodes with dsRNA solution mixed with synthetic neurostimulants. The success of in vitro RNAi of target genes has inspired the use of in planta delivery of dsRNA to feeding nematodes. The most convincing success of host-delivered RNAi has been achieved against root-knot nematodes. Plant-mediated RNAi has been shown to lead to the specific down-regulation of target genes in invading nematodes, which had a profound effect on nematode development. RNAi-based transgenics are advantageous as they do not produce any functional foreign proteins and target organisms in a sequence-specific manner. Although the development of RNAi-based transgenics against plant nematodes is still in the preliminary stage, they offer novel management strategy for the future.

  12. Within-host competition and diversification of macro-parasites

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Rascalou; Šimková, Andrea; Morand, Serge; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Although competitive speciation is more and more regarded as a plausible mechanism for sympatric speciation of non-parasite species, virtually no empirical or theoretical study has considered this evolutionary process to explain intra-host diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to parasite species looking at the effect of macro-parasite life history on the conditions for sympatric speciation under the so-called pleiotropic scenario. We included within-host competition in the classical Anderson and May framework assuming that individuals exploit within-host resources according to a quantitative trait. We derived the invasion fitness function of mutants considering different distributions of individuals among hosts. Although the mutant fitness depends on parameters describing the key features of macro-parasite life history, and on the relative distributions of mutant and residents in hosts, the conditions for competitive speciation of macro-parasites are exactly the same as those previously established for free-living species. As an interesting by-product, within-host competitive speciation is expected not to depend on the aggregation level of the parasites. This theoretical pattern is confirmed by comparing the speciation rate of weakly and strongly aggregated monogenean parasites. PMID:22696483

  13. Competition, virulence, host body mass and the diversification of macro-parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rascalou, Guilhem; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive speciation has been much debated in recent years, with a strong emphasis on how competition can lead to the diversification of ecological and sexual traits. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to this evolutionary process to explain intrahost diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to look at the effect of key features of the parasite lifestyle, namely fragmentation, aggregation and virulence, on the conditions and rate of sympatric speciation under the standard ‘pleiotropic scenario’. The conditions for competitive speciation were found similar to those for non-parasite species, but not the rate of diversification. Adaptive evolution proceeds faster in highly fragmented parasite populations and for weakly aggregated and virulent parasites. Combining these theoretical results with standard empirical allometric relationships, we showed that parasite diversification can be faster in host species of intermediate body mass. The increase in parasite load with body mass, indeed, fuels evolution by increasing mutants production, but because of the deleterious effect of virulence, it simultaneously weakens selection for resource specialization. Those two antagonistic effects lead to optimal parasite burden and host body mass for diversification. Data on the diversity of fishes' gills parasites were found consistent with the existence of such optimum. PMID:24522783

  14. Down the slippery slope: plastid genome evolution in Convolvulaceae.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Sasa; Olmstead, Richard G

    2005-09-01

    Cuscuta (dodder) is the only parasitic genus found in Convolvulaceae (morning-glory family). We used long PCR approach to obtain large portions of plastid genome sequence from Cuscuta sandwichiana in order to determine the size, structure, gene content, and synteny in the plastid genome of this Cuscuta species belonging to the poorly investigated holoparasitic subgenus Grammica. These new sequences are compared with the tobacco chloroplast genome, and, where data are available, with corresponding regions from taxa in the other Cuscuta subgenera. When all known plastid genome structural rearrangements in parasitic and nonparasitic Convolvulaceae are considered in a molecular phylogenetic framework, three categories of rearrangements in Cuscuta are revealed: plesiomorphic, autapomorphic, and synapomorphic. Many of the changes in Cuscuta, previously attributed to its parasitic mode of life, are better explained either as plesiomorphic conditions within the family, i.e., conditions shared with the rest of the Convolvulaceae, or, in most cases, autapomorphies of particular Cuscuta taxa, not shared with the rest of the species in the genus. The synapomorphic rearrangements are most likely to correlate with the parasitic lifestyle, because they represent changes found in Cuscuta exclusively. However, it appears that most of the affected regions, belonging to all of these three categories, have probably no function (e.g., introns) or are of unknown function (a number of open reading frames, the function of which, if any, has yet to be discovered).

  15. A rapid colorimetric assay for the quantitation of the viability of free-living larvae of nematodes in vitro.

    PubMed

    James, Catherine E; Davey, Mary W

    2007-09-01

    With increasing drug resistance in gastrointestinal parasites, identification of new anthelmintics is essential. The non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used extensively as a model to identify drug targets and potential novel anthelmintics because it can be readily cultured in vitro. Traditionally, the assessment of worm viability has relied on labour-intensive developmental and behavioral assays. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide-formazan (MTT-formazan) colorimetric assay uses metabolic activity as a marker of viability in mammalian cell culture systems and has been applied for use with filarial nematodes. In the present study, this assay has been optimized and validated to rapidly assess the viability of C. elegans after drug treatment. Living, but not dead, C. elegans take up MTT and reduce it to the blue formazan, providing visual, qualitative, and quantitative assessment of viability. MTT at a concentration of 5 mg/ml with 3 h incubation was optimal for detecting changes in viability with drug treatment. We have applied this assay to quantitate the effects of ivermectin and short-chain alcohols on the viability of C. elegans. This assay is also applicable to first-stage larvae of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. The advantage of this assay is the rapid quantitation in screening drugs to identify potential anthelmintics.

  16. The draft genome of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Mitreva, Makedonka; Jasmer, Douglas P; Zarlenga, Dante S; Wang, Zhengyuan; Abubucker, Sahar; Martin, John; Taylor, Christina M; Yin, Yong; Fulton, Lucinda; Minx, Pat; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Warren, Wesley C; Fulton, Robert S; Bhonagiri, Veena; Zhang, Xu; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Clifton, Sandra W; McCarter, James P; Appleton, Judith; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K

    2011-03-01

    Genome evolution studies for the phylum Nematoda have been limited by focusing on comparisons involving Caenorhabditis elegans. We report a draft genome sequence of Trichinella spiralis, a food-borne zoonotic parasite, which is the most common cause of human trichinellosis. This parasitic nematode is an extant member of a clade that diverged early in the evolution of the phylum, enabling identification of archetypical genes and molecular signatures exclusive to nematodes. We sequenced the 64-Mb nuclear genome, which is estimated to contain 15,808 protein-coding genes, at ∼35-fold coverage using whole-genome shotgun and hierarchal map-assisted sequencing. Comparative genome analyses support intrachromosomal rearrangements across the phylum, disproportionate numbers of protein family deaths over births in parasitic compared to a non-parasitic nematode and a preponderance of gene-loss and -gain events in nematodes relative to Drosophila melanogaster. This genome sequence and the identified pan-phylum characteristics will contribute to genome evolution studies of Nematoda as well as strategies to combat global parasites of humans, food animals and crops.

  17. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. PMID:26466718

  18. Redescription of the Far Eastern brook lamprey Lethenteron reissneri (Dybowski, 1869) (Petromyzontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Claude B.; Naseka, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nonparasitic Lethenteron reissneri (Dybowski) is redescribed based on four syntypes (two adults and two ammocoetes) from the Onon and Ingoda rivers, Russia, and 15 topotypic specimens (seven metamorphosing ammocoetes and eight ammocoetes) from the Onon River system, Russia and Mongolia. Posterial teeth were not mentioned in the original description, but Berg (1931) stated that they were sometimes absent, which he later (Berg 1948) changed to usually absent, based on material (some of which we have re-identified as parasitic Lethenteron camtschaticum) from far outside of the type locality. The latter view has been widely accepted by subsequent authors. Unfortunately, the poor condition of the two adult syntypes did not permit verification of this character. However, a row of posterials was clearly visible in six of the seven topotypic metamorphosing ammocoetes and indicates their usual presence in the species. The first full description of the ammocoetes, including pigmentation, is provided. The present study restricts the distribution of Lethenteron reissneri to the Shilka and Songhua river systems within the Amur River basin, until a more geographically comprehensive study is undertaken. Additionally, in this study, feeding versus non-feeding at the adult stage, are considered to be valid taxonomic characters at the species level. PMID:26085795

  19. Disentangling the effects of selection and loss bias on gene dynamics.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Jaime; Cuesta, José A; Manrubia, Susanna; Katsnelson, Mikhail I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-07-11

    We combine mathematical modeling of genome evolution with comparative analysis of prokaryotic genomes to estimate the relative contributions of selection and intrinsic loss bias to the evolution of different functional classes of genes and mobile genetic elements (MGE). An exact solution for the dynamics of gene family size was obtained under a linear duplication-transfer-loss model with selection. With the exception of genes involved in information processing, particularly translation, which are maintained by strong selection, the average selection coefficient for most nonparasitic genes is low albeit positive, compatible with observed positive correlation between genome size and effective population size. Free-living microbes evolve under stronger selection for gene retention than parasites. Different classes of MGE show a broad range of fitness effects, from the nearly neutral transposons to prophages, which are actively eliminated by selection. Genes involved in antiparasite defense, on average, incur a fitness cost to the host that is at least as high as the cost of plasmids. This cost is probably due to the adverse effects of autoimmunity and curtailment of horizontal gene transfer caused by the defense systems and selfish behavior of some of these systems, such as toxin-antitoxin and restriction modification modules. Transposons follow a biphasic dynamics, with bursts of gene proliferation followed by decay in the copy number that is quantitatively captured by the model. The horizontal gene transfer to loss ratio, but not duplication to loss ratio, correlates with genome size, potentially explaining increased abundance of neutral and costly elements in larger genomes.

  20. Crustacean intersexuality is feminization without demasculinization: implications for environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Short, Stephen; Yang, Gongda; Guler, Yasmin; Green Etxabe, Amaia; Kille, Peter; Ford, Alex T

    2014-11-18

    The dysfunction associated with intersexuality in vertebrates and molluscs is often a serious threat to ecosystems. Although poorly understood, crustacean intersexuality is associated with contamination and includes forms linked to increased sex-ratio distorting parasites at polluted sites. Despite the importance of crustaceans for monitoring vulnerable aquatic habitats, little is known about the molecular basis of this abnormal sexual differentiation and any associated sexual dysfunction. To increase the relevance of crustaceans to environmental toxicologists, we comprehensively analyzed gene expression in amphipods presenting parasite- and nonparasite-associated intersexuality. Our findings reveal existing vertebrate biomarkers of feminization should not be applied to crustaceans, as orthologous genes are not induced in feminized amphipods. Furthermore, in contrast to vertebrates, where feminization and intersexuality is often associated with deleterious demasculinization, we find males maintain masculinity even when unambiguously feminized. This reveals a considerable regulatory separation of the gene pathways responsible for male and female characteristics and demonstrates that evidence of feminization (even if detected with appropriate biomarkers) is not a proxy for demasculinization in crustaceans. This study has also produced a comprehensive spectrum of potential molecular biomarkers that, when combined with our new molecular understanding, will greatly facilitate the use of crustaceans to monitor aquatic habitats.

  1. Detailed methodology for high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of murine malaria parasitized-erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Eri H; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful tool used to investigate object surfaces and has been widely applied in both material science and biology. With respect to the study of malaria, SEM revealed that erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a human parasite, display 'knob-like' structures on their surface comprising parasitized proteins. However, detailed methodology for SEM studies of malaria parasites is lacking in the literature making such studies challenging. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide to preparing Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes from two mouse strains for SEM analysis with minimal structural deterioration. We tested three species of murine malaria parasites, P. berghei, P. yoelii, and P. chabaudi, as well as non-parasitized human erythrocytes and P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes for comparisons. Our data demonstrated that the surface structures of parasitized erythrocytes between the three species of murine parasites in the two different strains of mice were indistinguishable and no surface alterations were observed in P. falciparum-erythrocytes. Our SEM observations contribute towards an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasite maturation in the erythrocyte cytoplasm and, along with future studies using our detailed methodology, may help to gain insight into the clinical phenomena of human malaria. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  3. Increased parasitism of limpets by a trematode metacercaria in fisheries management areas of central Chile: effects on host growth and reproduction : management areas and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Marcela; Pulgar, José M; Orellana, Nathalie; Patricio Ojeda, F; García-Huidobro, M Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The rapid increase in body size and abundance of most species inside Management and Exploitations Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs) has led to the proposal of these areas as a good complement for achieving the conservation objectives of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, when evaluating MEABRs and MPAs as conservation and/or management tools, their impact upon parasite populations has rarely been considered, despite the fact that epidemiological theory suggests an increased susceptibility to parasitism under high population abundance. We evaluated the effects of MEABRs on the parasite abundance of Proctoeces lintoni and its impact on the growth of the host limpet Fissurella crassa in central Chile. Parasitic magnitude was higher inside MEABRs than in Open-Access Areas, and parasitized limpets showed a greater shell length, muscular foot biomass, and gonadosomatic index compared to non-parasitized limpets of the same age. Our results suggest that the life cycle of P. lintoni and, consequently, its trophic links have been strengthened inside MEABRs. The increased growth rate could reduce the time required to reach the minimum catch size and increase the reproductive and muscular output of the host population. Thus, parasitism should be considered in the conservation and management of economically important mollusk hosts.

  4. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-17

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives.

  5. Application of Nuclear Techniques to Improve the Mass Production and Management of Fruit Fly Parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cancino, Jorge; Ruíz, Lía; Viscarret, Mariana; Sivinski, John; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2012-10-25

    The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures.

  6. Transcriptomes of the parasitic plant family Orobanchaceae reveal surprising conservation of chlorophyll synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Honaas, Loren A; Wafula, Eric K; Das, Malay; Huang, Kan; Wu, Biao; Landherr, Lena; Timko, Michael P; Yoder, John; Westwood, James H; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2011-12-20

    Parasitism in flowering plants has evolved at least 11 times [1]. Only one family, Orobanchaceae, comprises all major nutritional types of parasites: facultative, hemiparasitic (partially photosynthetic), and holoparasitic (nonphotosynthetic) [2]. Additionally, the family includes Lindenbergia, a nonparasitic genus sister to all parasitic Orobanchaceae [3-6]. Parasitic Orobanchaceae include species with severe economic impacts: Striga (witchweed), for example, affects over 50 million hectares of crops in sub-Saharan Africa, causing more than $3 billion in damage annually [7]. Although gene losses and increased substitution rates have been characterized for parasitic plant plastid genomes [5, 8-11], the nuclear genome and transcriptome remain largely unexplored. The Parasitic Plant Genome Project (PPGP; http://ppgp.huck.psu.edu/) [2] is leveraging the natural variation in Orobanchaceae to explore the evolution and genomic consequences of parasitism in plants through a massive transcriptome and gene discovery project involving Triphysaria versicolor (facultative hemiparasite), Striga hermonthica (obligate hemiparasite), and Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanche [12]; holoparasite). Here we present the first set of large-scale genomic resources for parasitic plant comparative biology. Transcriptomes of above-ground tissues reveal that, in addition to the predictable loss of photosynthesis-related gene expression in P. aegyptiaca, the nonphotosynthetic parasite retains an intact, expressed, and selectively constrained chlorophyll synthesis pathway.

  7. Within-host competition and diversification of macro-parasites.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Rascalou; Simková, Andrea; Morand, Serge; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2012-11-07

    Although competitive speciation is more and more regarded as a plausible mechanism for sympatric speciation of non-parasite species, virtually no empirical or theoretical study has considered this evolutionary process to explain intra-host diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to parasite species looking at the effect of macro-parasite life history on the conditions for sympatric speciation under the so-called pleiotropic scenario. We included within-host competition in the classical Anderson and May framework assuming that individuals exploit within-host resources according to a quantitative trait. We derived the invasion fitness function of mutants considering different distributions of individuals among hosts. Although the mutant fitness depends on parameters describing the key features of macro-parasite life history, and on the relative distributions of mutant and residents in hosts, the conditions for competitive speciation of macro-parasites are exactly the same as those previously established for free-living species. As an interesting by-product, within-host competitive speciation is expected not to depend on the aggregation level of the parasites. This theoretical pattern is confirmed by comparing the speciation rate of weakly and strongly aggregated monogenean parasites.

  8. The parasitic wasp Cotesia congregata uses multiple mechanisms to control host (Manduca sexta) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F; Easy, Russell H; Miles, Carol I

    2016-12-01

    Some parasites alter the behaviour of their hosts. The larvae of the parasitic wasp Cotesia congregata develop within the body of the caterpillar Manduca sexta During the initial phase of wasp development, the host's behaviour remains unchanged. However, once the wasps begin to scrape their way out of the caterpillar, the caterpillar host stops feeding and moving spontaneously. We found that the caterpillar also temporarily lost sensation around the exit hole created by each emerging wasp. However, the caterpillars regained responsiveness to nociception in those areas within 1 day. The temporary reduction in skin sensitivity is probably important for wasp survival because it prevents the caterpillar from attacking the emerging wasp larvae with a defensive strike. We also found that expression of plasmatocyte spreading peptide (PSP) and spätzle genes increased in the fat body of the host during wasp emergence. This result supports the hypothesis that the exiting wasps induce a cytokine storm in their host. Injections of PSP suppressed feeding, suggesting that an augmented immune response may play a role in the suppression of host feeding. Injection of wasp larvae culture media into non-parasitized caterpillars reduced feeding, suggesting that substances secreted by the wasp larvae may help alter host behaviour. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  10. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174

  11. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia--a review.

    PubMed

    Mullerpattan, Jai B; Udwadia, Zarir F; Udwadia, Farokh E

    2013-09-01

    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a syndrome of wheezing, fever and eosiniphilia seen predominantly in the Indian subcontinent and other tropical areas. Its etiological link with Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi has been well established. The pathogenesis is due to an exaggerated immune response to the filarial antigens which includes type I, type III and type IV reactions with eosinophils playing a pivotal role. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is usually striking with levels over 3000/μl being common. High serum levels of IgE and filarial-specific IgE and IgG are also found. The pathology may vary from an acute eosinophilic alveolitis to histiocytic infiltration depending on the stage of the disease. While earlier studies had suggested that the disease runs a benign course, more recent work has shown that untreated TPE could result in a fair degree of respiratory morbidity. Pulmonary function tests may show a mixed restrictive and obstructive abnormality with a reduction in diffusion capacity. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophil count has a negative correlation with the diffusion capacity. Treatment consists of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) for at least three weeks. Despite treatment with DEC, about 20 per cent of patients may relapse. Steroids have shown to have a beneficial effect but the exact dose and duration is yet to be confirmed by randomized controlled trials. A specific and easily available marker is required for TPE in order to distinguish it from other parasitic and non-parasitic causes of pulmonary eosinophilia.

  12. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia - A review

    PubMed Central

    Mullerpattan, Jai B.; Udwadia, Zarir F.; Udwadia, Farokh E.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a syndrome of wheezing, fever and eosiniphilia seen predominantly in the Indian subcontinent and other tropical areas. Its etiological link with Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi has been well established. The pathogenesis is due to an exaggerated immune response to the filarial antigens which includes type I, type III and type IV reactions with eosinophils playing a pivotal role. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is usually striking with levels over 3000/μl being common. High serum levels of IgE and filarial-specific IgE and IgG are also found. The pathology may vary from an acute eosinophilic alveolitis to histiocytic infiltration depending on the stage of the disease. While earlier studies had suggested that the disease runs a benign course, more recent work has shown that untreated TPE could result in a fair degree of respiratory morbidity. Pulmonary function tests may show a mixed restrictive and obstructive abnormality with a reduction in diffusion capacity. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophil count has a negative correlation with the diffusion capacity. Treatment consists of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) for at least three weeks. Despite treatment with DEC, about 20 per cent of patients may relapse. Steroids have shown to have a beneficial effect but the exact dose and duration is yet to be confirmed by randomized controlled trials. A specific and easily available marker is required for TPE in order to distinguish it from other parasitic and non-parasitic causes of pulmonary eosinophilia. PMID:24135173

  13. Evaluation of eosinophilia in immigrants in Southern Spain using tailored screening and treatment protocols: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Cabezas-Fernández, María Teresa; Vázquez-Villegas, José; Soriano-Pérez, Manuel Jesús; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Pérez-Camacho, Inés; Cabeza-Barrera, María Isabel; Cobo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To determine the etiology of eosinophilia in immigrant patients in Southern Spain. Prospective study of immigrant patients with eosinophilia (> 500 Eo/μL) attended in a reference Tropical Medicine Unit and evaluated through the implementation of a specific protocol structured in different levels meant to be accomplished depending on the findings of each previous level. Out of the 549 patients included in the study (89.6% from sub-Saharan countries), a diagnosis of helminthiasis was reached in 417 (75.9%), mainly by Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 190), Schistosoma (n = 33) and Hookworms (n = 126). 30 patients (5.5%) had a non-parasitic disorder (asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, skin conditions and drug-related eosinophilia). Multiple helminthic infections were very common: in 107 patients (19.5%) 2 helminth species were identified, three in 21 patients (3.8%), and four or more in 6 patients (1.1%). Eosinophilia was resolved in 31 of the 33 patients (93.9%) who received empirical treatment with ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel as an etiological diagnosis was not reached after applying the whole protocol. Diagnosis of helminthic infections in immigrant patients with eosinophilia can be improved by using tailored protocols based on geographical exposure. The implementation of these protocols may also save costs by systematizing diagnostic explorations. Empirical treatment with ivermectin, albendazol and praziquantel in sub-Saharan population when an etiologic diagnosis of eosinophilia has not been attained is an effective measure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of laboratory submissions from New World camelids in England and Wales (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Twomey, D F; Wu, G; Nicholson, R; Watson, E N; Foster, A P

    2014-04-01

    Sample submissions to the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) diagnostic laboratory network in England and Wales were reviewed for diseases affecting New World camelids (NWCs). In the years 2000-2011, 6757 submissions were analysed, including 5154/6757 (76.3%) for diagnosing a disease problem and 1603/6757 (23.7%) for monitoring (no clinical disease). Wasting (weight loss, ill-thrift) was the most commonly reported clinical sign across all age groups. A diagnosis was reached for 1765/5154 (34.2%) diagnostic submissions. The proportion of submissions with diagnoses was higher for carcasses than non-carcass samples and multiple diagnoses were more likely to be reached from carcasses. Parasitic diseases were collectively the most common problem, including parasitic gastroenteritis (319/1765, 18.2%), coccidiosis (187/1765, 10.6%), fascioliasis (151/1765, 8.6%), ectoparasitic infestations (86/1765, 4.9%) and cryptosporidiosis (24/1765, 1.4%). The most frequently diagnosed non-parasitic problems included nutritional diseases (182/1765, 10.3%), septicaemia (104/1765, 5.9%, including 45 cases of colisepticaemia), gastric ulceration (79/1765, 4.5%), tumours/neoplastic diseases (65/1765, 3.7%), tuberculosis (57/1765, 3.2%), clostridial diseases (44/1765, 2.5%), congenital anomalies (41/1765, 2.3%), peritonitis (39/1765, 2.2%) and Johne's disease (20/1765, 1.1%).

  15. Flexibility in nest-site choice and nesting success of Turdus rufiventris (Turdidae) in a montane forest in northwestern argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lomascolo, S.B.; Monmany, A.C.; Malizia, A.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the consequences of nest-site choice on nesting success under differing disturbance levels for the Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris). We compared nest-site choice and nest success between a disturbed site and an undisturbed site in a montane subtropical forest in northwestern Argentina. We found no overall difference in daily predation rate (DPR) between the disturbed and undisturbed sites. However, DPR of nests on bromeliads was significantly lower at the microhabitat level than on other types of subtrates at the disturbed site. T. rufiventris used bromeliads for nesting more often than expected by chance at the disturbed site. DPR did not differ between substrates at the undisturbed site and T. rufiventris used all substrates according to their availability. Nests had higher predation at the disturbed site when DPR on non-bromeliad substrates was compared between disturbed and undisturbed sites. Nest fate was independent of nest height. Our results suggest T. rufiventris' flexibility in nest-site choice, as reflected by increased use of the safest sites, i.e., bromeliads, in the disturbed site compared to the undisturbed site, may allow this species to survive in an otherwise much riskier habitat. Our results illustrate how microhabitat-scale effects can mediate landscape scale effects. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  16. [Stomatitis in childhood, not always benign].

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, A M; Ramaker, C

    2000-10-14

    Two boys of 1 and 16 year had painful buccal lesions and were admitted for dehydration. The younger had finger and toe blisters; the older, severely ill, had conjunctivitis, urethritis and skin lesions. Only symptomatic treatment with lidocaine gel and paracetamol gave good recovery. A 5-year-old Turkish girl had recurrent painful buccal ulcers which each time cleared up spontaneously. Stomatitis is common in childhood. Viral infections are the most common causes of stomatitis, in particular infections with herpes simplex virus (herpes gingivostomatitis), Coxsackie virus (herpangina, hand-foot-mouth-disease), chickenpox and infectious mononucleosis. Bacterial infections are rare and mostly secondary to the viral infections. In infants oral candidiasis (thrush) is a common cause of stomatitis. Most infections are self-limiting and reassurance of parents is important. Dehydration is a common complication and admission to hospital can be prevented by analgesics. The most important non-infectious conditions that cause stomatitis in children are recurrent aphthous stomatitis, erythema multiforme major (Stevens-Johnson syndrome), Behçet's disease, malignancy (leukaemia), immune-mediated disorders (agranulocytosis, cyclic neutropenia), traumata, blistering disorders of the skin and lichen planus. A complete history and a thorough physical examination usually give the correct diagnosis and further investigations are seldom necessary.

  17. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  18. Now you see it, now you don't: flushing hosts prior to experimentation can predict their responses to brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Samaš, Peter; Heryán, Josef; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2015-03-12

    Brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in other birds' nests, leaving hosts to raise their offspring. To understand parasite-host coevolutionary arms races, many studies have examined host responses to experimentally introduced eggs. However, attending parents often need to be flushed from their nests to add experimental eggs. If these birds witness parasitism events, they may recognize and reject foreign eggs more readily than parents who did not. We found that, after being flushed, female blackbirds, Turdus merula, remained close to their nests. Flushed females were more likely to eject foreign eggs and did so more quickly than females that were not flushed during experimentation. In contrast, flushing did not predict responses and latency to responses to parasitism by song thrush, Turdus philomelos, which flew farther from their nests and likely did not witness experimental parasitism. When statistically considering flushing, previously published conclusions regarding both species' response to experimental parasitism did not change. Nevertheless, we recommend that researchers record and statistically control for whether hosts were flushed prior to experimental parasitism. Our results have broad implications because more vigilant and/or bolder parents can gain more information about parasitism events and therefore have better chances of successfully defending against brood parasitism.

  19. Use of GC/MS to identify chemical constituents and cytotoxic activity of the leaves of Phoradendron mucronatum and Phoradendron microphyllum (Viscaceae).

    PubMed

    Bastos, Isla V G A; Oliveira, Tatiane B DE; Rodrigues, Maria D; Militão, Gardênia C G; Silva, Teresinha G DA; Turatti, Izabel C C; Lopes, Norberto P; Melo, Sebastião J DE

    2017-01-01

    Phoradendron mucronatum and P. microphyllum are plants that found in tropical and subtropical areas, used in traditional medicine and popularly known as mistle-thrush. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical constituents of different leaf extracts from P. mucronatum and P. microphyllum and assess cytotoxic activity against strains from a human tumour cells. Extracts obtained with hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform and ethyl acetate from the leaves were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT method (bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)). The tested human tumour cells were NCI-H292 (human pulmonar mucoepidermoid carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HEp-2 (epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx). Analysis by GC/MS of the extracts from leaves of P. microphyllum and P. mucronatum detected 51 different compounds, such as alkaloids, diterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids and hydrocarbons. In the cytotoxic evaluation, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves P. microphyllum inhibited cell growth of NCI-H292 strains (72.97%) and HEp-2 (87.53%), respectively. The extracts of P. mucronatum species showed an inhibitory effect towards NCI-H292 (83.19%/hexane), MCF-7 (88.69%/dichloromethane) and HEp-2 (93.40%/hexane). The extracts showed cytotoxic activity against the tested strains, especially the P. mucronatum, which presented the highest percentages of inhibition of cell growth.

  20. Pain and disease according to integral anthroposophical dentistry.

    PubMed

    Galitesi, Célia Regina Lulo; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda de; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches

    2012-01-01

    From an academic standpoint, the university format, in general, has been nurturing a "paradigm of expertise" and, consequently, the relationship between specialties has declined. The upshot is that recent college dental graduates have adopted a clinical performance focusing on system parts and their specificities, in detriment to a more comprehensive view of the mouth and of the patient as a whole, with his/her vital, emotional and individual attributes. An interaction between the several different areas of human knowledge is needed imminently to decrease the dichotomy in professional behavior, because the demand for professionals and dental patients interested in a more comprehensive approach are increasing day by day. Patients want to know: "What, in fact, is behind the etiological extrinsic and intrinsic factors that maintain neuropathic pain, recurrent thrush, or persistent halitosis," among other questions, "even under the care of a dentist?" or "Why is this disease affecting me?" There are several issues composing the paradigm of salutogenesis: What are the essential aspects that constitute a healthy individual, overlapping the usual investigation: How to destroy, avoid and quell the pathological agents? A proposed approach is based on salutogenesis, which examines such issues. According to this approach, anthroposophical dentistry includes determinant factors, determinants of health, basic research and the development of oral health promotion, thus connecting dental academia with integrative thinking, while also complementing and gathering information that subsidizes basic research with the primordial concepts on laws governing the parameters involved in the vital processes of nature.

  1. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism authentication of raw meats from game birds.

    PubMed

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Fajardo, Violeta; Martín, Irene; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis has been applied to the identification of meats from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), woodpigeon (Columba palumbus), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos). PCR amplification was performed using a set of primers flanking a conserved region of approximately 720 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Restriction site analysis based on sequence data from this DNA fragment permitted the selection of AluI and BfaI endonucleases for species identification. The restriction profiles obtained when amplicons were digested with the chosen enzymes allowed the unequivocal identification of all game bird species analyzed. However, the use of the PCR-RFLP technique described is limited to raw meat authentication. It is not suitable for cooked products because thermal treatment strongly accelerates DNA degradation leading to difficulties in amplifying the 720 bp fragment.

  2. Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.E.; Peterson, J.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

  3. Erythematous candidiasis leading to systemic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection with secondary syphilis: A diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Suvirya, Swastika; Gandhi, Rahul; Agarwal, Jyotsana; Patil, Ranjitkumar

    2015-01-01

    The intensification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and rising frequency of immunocompromised individuals have resulted in a resurgence of opportunistic infections. The most common opportunistic oral fungal infection in HIV-positive individuals is oral candidiasis. The classical presentation is as white scrapable form called as thrush, which is easily diagnosed and treated. The clinician is presented with a diagnostic and management dilemma when these lesions appear in new facades such as erythematous candidiasis, the latter's prevalence with HIV and AIDS being well established. In this case report, we present a case of Erythematous Candidiasis, which was associated with type 1 HIV co-infected with syphilis. We highlight the diagnostic importance of a naive looking manifestation of the tongue which was followed by a series of challenging presentations of secondary syphilis. Since the patient had a negative Veneral Disease Research Laboratory and left us with a management dilemma, the article also features the importance of prozone phenomenon (seen in 2% cases of secondary syphilis), and it's higher association with HIV co-infected individuals. With confusing clinical oral manifestations associated with these diseases, the dentist might be the first person to encounter such lesions, who should be able to recognize erythematous candidiasis and correlate them with the underlying pathology. PMID:26430379

  4. Clinical Features and Genetic Analysis of 48 Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease in a Single Center Study from Shanghai, China (2005–2015): New Studies and a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Wei-Fan; Zhang, Yi-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency, which is characterized by recurrent infections due to defective phagocyte NADPH oxidase enzyme. Nowadays, little is known about Chinese CGD patients. Here we report 48 CGD patients in our single center study, which is the largest cohort study from Mainland China. The ratio of male to female was 11 : 1. The mean onset age was 0.29 years old, and 52% patients had an onset within the 1st month of life. The mean diagnosis age was 2.24 years old. 11 patients (23%) had died with an average age of 2.91 years old. 13 patients (28%) had positive family histories. The most prevalent infectious sites were the lungs (77%), followed by gastrointestinal tract (54%), lymph nodes (50%), and skin (46%). In addition, septicopyemia, thrush, and hepatosplenomegaly were also commonly observed, accounting for 23%, 23%, and 40% of the cases. Lesions due to BCG vaccination occurred in more than half of the patients. X-linked CGD due to CYBB gene mutations accounted for 75% of the cases, and 11 of them were novel mutations. Autosomal recessive inheritance accounted for 6% patients, including 1 patient with CYBA, 1 with NCF1, and 1 with NCF2 gene mutations. PMID:28251166

  5. An estimate of the burden of serious fungal diseases in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, M N; Drogari-Apiranthitou, M; Denning, D W; Sipsas, N V

    2016-07-01

    Data on the epidemiology of serious fungal infections in Greece are scarce. Our aim was to calculate the burden of serious fungal diseases in Greece. A thorough literature search for papers reporting epidemiological data on serious fungal diseases in Greece was performed. Where no Greek data existed, we used a structured set of assumptions to estimate fungal disease burden, based on specific high-risk populations. Of the 10.8 million population, 85.5 % are adults and 27 % are over 60 years of age. The annual fungal disease estimates are as follows: 142,337 Greek women get recurrent vaginal thrush (2,632 cases/100,000 females); there are 889 cases of esophageal candidiasis (8.2 cases/100,000); annual incidence of Pneumocystis pneumonia is 112 cases; chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence is 386 cases; there are 20,843 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and 27,744 with severe asthma with fungal sensitization; candidaemia incidence is 541 cases (5.0/100,000); there are 81 cases of Candida peritonitis; invasive aspergillosis occurs in 1,125 patients. According to our calculations, 194,067 individuals (1.79 cases/100,000) in Greece suffer from serious fungal diseases each year. This is the first attempt to determine the burden of fungal diseases in Greece, and provides a crude estimate on its impact on public health.

  6. Impact of forest type and management strategy on avian densities in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Avian territory densities were determined from 20 Breeding Bird Censuses in mature (>30 years) bottomland hardwood stand: and 18 Breeding Bird Censuses in young (6-9 years old) cottonwood (Populas deltoides) plantations in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Avian species richness, diversity, and territory density were greater (p 0.05). Even so, detrended correspondence analysis based on avian territory densities readily segregated forest types and silvicultural treatments. Timber harvest within bottomland hardwood stands resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in cottonwood stands by increasing the densities of early-successional species such as Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens), and Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). Conversely, regenerating cottonwood stands from root sprouts, rather than planting stem cuttings, resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in bottomland hardwood stands by increasing densities of species such as White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) and Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). Tree species diversity, angular canopy cover, and midstory density were positively associated with bird species assemblages in bottomland hardwood stands, whereas vegetation density at ground level was positively associated with bird communities in cottonwood plantations. Conversion of agricultural fields to short-rotation cottonwood plantations results in increased breeding bird populations by adding up to 140 additional territories 40 ha-1. Even so, relative conservation values, derive, from indicator species analysis and Partners in Flight concern scores, suggest that mature bottomland hardwood forests are twice as 'valuable' for bird conservation as are cottonwood plantations.

  7. On the Development of a Magnetically Vectored Variable ISP Plasma Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feliciano, Enectali Figueroa; Diaz, Franklin R. Chang; Squire, Jared P.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a Magnetically Vectored Variable I(sub sp) Plasma Rocket at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) is in progress at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The facility is using a small, 3.2 m tandem mirror device to study the application of RF heated magnetically contained plasmas for space propulsion. The central cell radius is 0.1 m and fields of 0.2 T and 2 T are possible in the central and end-cell mirror sections, respectively. A magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) injector has just been acquired and will be used along with other methods of plasma refueling. A 1 MW magnet power supply upgrade is being developed with full implementation by the Spring of 1997. Two microwave systems for discharge initiation and plasma heating at 2.45 GHz and 14.0 GHz, respectively, are in operation. Additionally, RF systems with 200 kW and 1 MW of power are being modified and conditioned for operation. The concept provides electrode-less operation and variable thrush'specific impulse at constant power (200 -30 N /5000-30,000 seconds at 10 MW with a 60% efficiency). Optimization for speed or payload are possible with the same engine, giving the rocket great flexibility. Missions to Mars in 90 days are described, and missions to Pluto are under study.

  8. Wake structure and wingbeat kinematics of a house-martin Delichon urbica.

    PubMed

    Rosén, M; Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A

    2007-08-22

    The wingbeat kinematics and wake structure of a trained house martin in free, steady flight in a wind tunnel have been studied over a range of flight speeds, and compared and contrasted with similar measurements for a thrush nightingale and a pair of robins. The house martin has a higher aspect ratio (more slender) wing, and is a more obviously agile and aerobatic flyer, catching insects on the wing. The wingbeat is notable for the presence at higher flight speeds of a characteristic pause in the upstroke. The essential characteristics of the wing motions can be reconstructed with a simple two-frequency model derived from Fourier analysis. At slow speeds, the distribution of wake vorticity is more simple than for the other previously measured birds, and the upstroke does not contribute to weight support. The upstroke becomes gradually more significant as the flight speed increases, and although the vortex wake shows a signature of the pause phase, the global circulation measurements are otherwise in good agreement with surprisingly simple aerodynamic models, and with predictions across the different species, implying quite similar aerodynamic performance of the wing sections. The local Reynolds numbers of the wing sections are sufficiently low that the well-known instabilities of attached laminar flows over lifting surfaces, which are known to occur at two to three times this value, may not develop.

  9. A removal model for estimating detection probabilities from point-count surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farnsworth, G.L.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Simons, T.R.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    We adapted a removal model to estimate detection probability during point count surveys. The model assumes one factor influencing detection during point counts is the singing frequency of birds. This may be true for surveys recording forest songbirds when most detections are by sound. The model requires counts to be divided into several time intervals. We used time intervals of 2, 5, and 10 min to develop a maximum-likelihood estimator for the detectability of birds during such surveys. We applied this technique to data from bird surveys conducted in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We used model selection criteria to identify whether detection probabilities varied among species, throughout the morning, throughout the season, and among different observers. The overall detection probability for all birds was 75%. We found differences in detection probability among species. Species that sing frequently such as Winter Wren and Acadian Flycatcher had high detection probabilities (about 90%) and species that call infrequently such as Pileated Woodpecker had low detection probability (36%). We also found detection probabilities varied with the time of day for some species (e.g. thrushes) and between observers for other species. This method of estimating detectability during point count surveys offers a promising new approach to using count data to address questions of the bird abundance, density, and population trends.

  10. Knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus among final year dental students.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, A D; Nuttall, N M

    1994-08-01

    A sound basis of knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS is essential to allow students to develop as dentists who undertake appropriate measures during clinical practice. In addition, it is also likely that possessing appropriate information may instil confidence in their own ability to diagnose and then manage patients infected by HIV. A questionnaire designed to test the knowledge of final year dental students in the UK was completed by 60.5% of students in 15 out of the 16 dental schools in the UK. Generally, the students rated the teaching they had received about cross-infection precautions, virology, sterilization practice and procedures and recognition of blood-borne virus risk groups as adequate or more than adequate. However, there was a lower degree of satisfaction expressed for instruction in the management of blood-borne virus carriers and the performance of barrier dentistry. Most dental students were aware of the association of hairy leukoplakia, oral Kaposi's sarcoma, oral candidiasis as a whole, and thrush as one clinical variant, with HIV infection but there was a much lower level of knowledge of erythematous candidiasis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, oral melanotic hyperpigmentation and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. This study highlights some important gaps in the knowledge of final year dental students about HIV and AIDS.

  11. Comparison of neotropical migrant landbird populations wintering in tropical forest, isolated forest fragments, and agricultural habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Colon, J.A.; Estrada, R.; Sutton, A.; Sutton, R.; Weyer, D.; Hagan, John M.; Johnston, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Neotropical migrant bird populations were sampled at 76 sites in seven countries by using mist nets and point counts during a six-winter study. Populations in major agricultural habitats were compared with those in extensive forest and isolated forest fragments. Certain Neotropical migrants, such as the Northern Parula, American Redstart, and the Black-throated Blue, Magnolia, Black-and-white, and Hooded warblers, were present in arboreal agricultural habitats such as pine, cacao, citrus, and shade coffee plantations in relatively large numbers. Many north temperate zone shrub-nesting species, such as the Gray Catbird, White-eyed Vireo, Tennessee Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, and Indigo Bunting, also used agricultural habitats in winter, as did resident hummingbirds and migrant orioles. Ground-foraging migrants, such as thrushes and Kentucky Warblers, were rarely found in the agricultural habitats sampled. Although many Neotropical migrants use some croplands, this use might be severely limited by overgrazing by cattle, by intensive management (such as removal of ground cover in an orchard), or by heavy use of insecticides, herbicides, or fungicides.

  12. Fuel loads acquired at a stopover site influence the pace of intercontinental migration in a boreal songbird.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Camila; Bayly, Nicholas J; Norris, D Ryan; Mackenzie, Stuart A; Rosenberg, Kenneth V; Taylor, Philip D; Hobson, Keith A; Daniel Cadena, Carlos

    2017-06-13

    Long-distance migratory organisms are under strong selection to migrate quickly. Stopovers demand more time than flying and are used by individuals to refuel during migration, but the effect of fuel loads (fat) acquired at stopover sites on the subsequent pace of migration has not been quantified. We studied stopover behaviour of Grey-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus) at a site in northern Colombia and then tracked their migration using an intercontinental radio-telemetry array. Tracking confirmed long-distance flights of more than 3000 km, highlighting the key importance of a single stopover site to the migration strategy of this species. Our results suggest that these songbirds behave as time-minimizers as predicted by optimal migration theory, and that fuel loads acquired at this South American stopover site, together with departure date, carry-over to influence the pace of migration, contributing to differences in travel time of up to 30 days in birds subsequently detected in the U. S. and Canada. Such variation in the pace of migration arising from a single stopover site, likely has important fitness consequences and suggests that identifying important fuelling sites will be essential to effectively conserve migratory species.

  13. Estimation of population trajectories from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

  14. Now you see it, now you don't: flushing hosts prior to experimentation can predict their responses to brood parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Daniel; Samaš, Peter; Heryán, Josef; Hauber, Mark E.; Grim, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in other birds' nests, leaving hosts to raise their offspring. To understand parasite-host coevolutionary arms races, many studies have examined host responses to experimentally introduced eggs. However, attending parents often need to be flushed from their nests to add experimental eggs. If these birds witness parasitism events, they may recognize and reject foreign eggs more readily than parents who did not. We found that, after being flushed, female blackbirds, Turdus merula, remained close to their nests. Flushed females were more likely to eject foreign eggs and did so more quickly than females that were not flushed during experimentation. In contrast, flushing did not predict responses and latency to responses to parasitism by song thrush, Turdus philomelos, which flew farther from their nests and likely did not witness experimental parasitism. When statistically considering flushing, previously published conclusions regarding both species' response to experimental parasitism did not change. Nevertheless, we recommend that researchers record and statistically control for whether hosts were flushed prior to experimental parasitism. Our results have broad implications because more vigilant and/or bolder parents can gain more information about parasitism events and therefore have better chances of successfully defending against brood parasitism. PMID:25762433

  15. Campylobacter jejuni sequence types show remarkable spatial and temporal stability in Blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Griekspoor, Petra; Hansbro, Philip M; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni has a broad host range but is especially associated with birds, both domestic and wild. Earlier studies have indicated thrushes of the genus Turdus in Europe to be frequently colonized with C. jejuni, and predominately with host-associated specific genotypes. The European Blackbird Turdus merula has a large distribution in Europe, including some oceanic islands, and was also introduced to Australia by European immigrants in the 1850s. The host specificity and temporal stability of European Blackbird C. jejuni was investigated with multilocus sequence typing in a set of isolates collected from Sweden, Australia, and The Azores. Remarkably, we found that the Swedish, Australian, and Azorean isolates were genetically highly similar, despite extensive spatial and temporal isolation. This indicates adaptation, exquisite specificity, and stability in time for European Blackbirds, which is in sharp contrast with the high levels of recombination and mutation found in poultry-related C. jejuni genotypes. The maintenance of host-specific signals in spatially and temporally separated C. jejuni populations suggests the existence of strong purifying selection for this bacterium in European Blackbirds.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni sequence types show remarkable spatial and temporal stability in Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Griekspoor, Petra; Hansbro, Philip M.; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Background The zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni has a broad host range but is especially associated with birds, both domestic and wild. Earlier studies have indicated thrushes of the genus Turdus in Europe to be frequently colonized with C. jejuni, and predominately with host-associated specific genotypes. The European Blackbird Turdus merula has a large distribution in Europe, including some oceanic islands, and was also introduced to Australia by European immigrants in the 1850s. Methods The host specificity and temporal stability of European Blackbird C. jejuni was investigated with multilocus sequence typing in a set of isolates collected from Sweden, Australia, and The Azores. Results Remarkably, we found that the Swedish, Australian, and Azorean isolates were genetically highly similar, despite extensive spatial and temporal isolation. This indicates adaptation, exquisite specificity, and stability in time for European Blackbirds, which is in sharp contrast with the high levels of recombination and mutation found in poultry-related C. jejuni genotypes. Conclusion The maintenance of host-specific signals in spatially and temporally separated C. jejuni populations suggests the existence of strong purifying selection for this bacterium in European Blackbirds. PMID:26634844

  17. Burden of serious fungal infections in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Chrdle, Aleš; Mallátová, Nad'a; Vašáková, Martina; Haber, Jan; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    We have estimated the number of serious fungal infections in the Czech Republic. All published epidemiology papers reporting Czech fungal infection rates were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations. Population statistics were obtained from the 2011 Census data, prevalence and incidence data for at-risk conditions were obtained from publicly accessible healthcare statistics and relevant surveys. We estimate that 152,840 Czech women suffer with recurrent vaginal thrush. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is likely in 4739 adults and 6581 more have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. Hypersensitivity pneumonitits secondary to fungi is estimated in 1050 cases and 365 people may have chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Oesophageal candidiasis is estimated in 210 HIV-positive people. There are 12 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV population and 60 more cases in non-HIV population. There are an estimated 526 cases of candidaemia, 79 cases of Candida peritonitis and 297 cases of invasive aspergillosis a year. About 176,000 (1.67%) Czech people suffer from severe fungal infections each year, predominantly from recurrent vaginitis and allergic respiratory conditions. Substantial uncertainty surrounds these estimates except for invasive aspergillosis in haematology and candidaemia in critical care.

  18. Invasive fungal infections among inpatients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome at a Chinese university hospital.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yin Zhong; Qi, Tang Kai; Ma, Jian Xin; Jiang, Xue Yan; Wang, Jiang Rong; Xu, Qing Nian; Huang, Qin; Liu, Xi Nian; Sun, Hong Qing; Lu, Hong Zhou

    2007-11-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), however, little is known about the clinical features and prognosis of IFI in AIDS in China. This study aimed to characterise the clinical features and prognosis of IFI in AIDS patients in China. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all HIV-infected patients at a Chinese university hospital between December 2004 and May 2006. We identified 35 patients with IFI. IFIs included thrush, oesophageal candidiasis, fungal pneumonia, cryptococcosis, penicilliosis and fungaemia, 44.4% of IFIs occurred in the digestive tract, 71.8% of IFIs occurred in patients with CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts <100 cells mm(-3). Candida albicans accounted for 57.4% of fungal pathogens isolated. All the patients received both antiretroviral and antifungal therapy; 27 patients were cured and eight died. IFI is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients in China. IFIs mainly occur in patients with low CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts. The majority of IFIs occur in the digestive tract. The most common pathogen causing IFI is C. albicans. The mortality rate remains high although antiretroviral therapy and many newer antifungals are available in China.

  19. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies.

  20. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually.

  1. Ecological character displacement in the face of gene flow: Evidence from two species of nightingales

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ecological character displacement is a process of phenotypic differentiation of sympatric populations caused by interspecific competition. Such differentiation could facilitate speciation by enhancing reproductive isolation between incipient species, although empirical evidence for it at early stages of divergence when gene flow still occurs between the species is relatively scarce. Here we studied patterns of morphological variation in sympatric and allopatric populations of two hybridizing species of birds, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (L. luscinia). Results We conducted principal component (PC) analysis of morphological traits and found that nightingale species converged in overall body size (PC1) and diverged in relative bill size (PC3) in sympatry. Closer analysis of morphological variation along geographical gradients revealed that the convergence in body size can be attributed largely to increasing body size with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule. In contrast, interspecific interactions contributed significantly to the observed divergence in relative bill size, even after controlling for the effects of geographical gradients. We suggest that the divergence in bill size most likely reflects segregation of feeding niches between the species in sympatry. Conclusions Our results suggest that interspecific competition for food resources can drive species divergence even in the face of ongoing hybridization. Such divergence may enhance reproductive isolation between the species and thus contribute to speciation. PMID:21609448

  2. New mechanism of oral immunity to mucosal candidiasis in hyper-IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conti, H R; Baker, O; Freeman, A F; Jang, W S; Holland, S M; Li, R A; Edgerton, M; Gaffen, S L

    2011-07-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, thrush) is an opportunistic infection caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans. An understanding of immunity to Candida has recently begun to unfold with the identification of fungal pattern-recognition receptors such as C-type lectin receptors, which trigger protective T-helper (Th)17 responses in the mucosa. Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES/Job's syndrome) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency characterized by dominant-negative mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is downstream of the Th17-inductive cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23, and hence patients with HIES exhibit dramatic Th17 deficits. HIES patients develop oral and mucocutaneous candidiasis, supporting a protective role for Th17 cells in immunity to OPC. However, the Th17-dependent mechanisms of antifungal immunity in OPC are still poorly defined. An often unappreciated aspect of oral immunity is saliva, which is rich in antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and exerts direct antifungal activity. In this study, we show that HIES patients show significant impairment in salivary AMPs, including β-defensin 2 and Histatins. This tightly correlates with reduced candidacidal activity of saliva and concomitantly elevated colonization with Candida. Moreover, IL-17 induces histatins in cultured salivary gland cells. This is the first demonstration that HIES is associated with defective salivary activity, and provides a mechanism for the severe susceptibility of these patients to OPC.

  3. Effects of introducing threatened falcons into vineyards on abundance of passeriformes and bird damage to grapes.

    PubMed

    Kross, Sara M; Tylianakis, Jason M; Nelson, Ximena J

    2012-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes are becoming an important focus of animal conservation, although initiatives to conserve predators to date have rarely provided economic benefits to agricultural producers. We examined whether introduction to vineyards of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae), a species listed as threatened by the New Zealand Department of Conservation, affected the abundance of 4 species of Passeriformes that are considered vineyard pests or affected the amount of economic loss due to grape (Vitis vinifera) damage. Three of the species were introduced and remove whole grapes from bunches (Blackbird [Turdus merula], Song Thrush [Turdus philomelos], and Starling [Sturnus vulgaris]), whereas the one native species (Silvereye [Zosterops lateralis]) pecks holes in grapes. The introduction of falcons to vineyards was associated with a significant decrease in the abundance of introduced passerines and with a 95% reduction in the number of grapes removed relative to vineyards without falcons. Falcon presence was not associated with a change in the number of Silvereyes, but there was a 55% reduction in the number of grapes pecked in vineyards with falcons. Our results indicate that, relative to damage in vineyards without falcons, the presence of a falcon could potentially result in savings of US$234/ha for the Sauvignon Blanc variety of grapes and $326/ha for Pinot Noir variety of grapes. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Fungal infections in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, K; Meyer, R D

    1986-01-01

    Persons with AIDS are predisposed to a variety of previously rare bacterial and fungal infections. Improvement in the quality and duration of survival of AIDS patients depends on the efficacy of treatment for these infections. Between 58-81% of AIDS patients contract fungal infections at some time, and 10-20% of AIDS patients die as a direct consequence of such infections. Oral candidiasis, commonly known as thrush, is the most common fungal infection among AIDS and AIDS Related Complex patients, occurring in 80-90% of cases. In a recent U.S. study, 59% of persons with oral candidiasis who were at high risk of contracting AIDS went on to develop Kaposi's sarcoma and other life- threatening infections. The most common life-threatening fungal infection experienced by AIDS patients is cryptococcosis, a disease occurring among 6% of American AIDS patients and having a mortality rate of 17% during initial infections and 75-100% on relapse. Other opportunistic infections associated with AIDS and AIDS Related Complex are bronchial candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, disseminated histoplasmosis, and disseminated coccidioidomycosis. All are treatable but eradication i s difficult and relapse common.

  5. Emerging fungal infections among children: A review on its clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akansha; Jain, Shubham; Rawat, Swati

    2010-10-01

    The incidence of fungal infections is increasing at an alarming rate, presenting an enormous challenge to healthcare professionals. This increase is directly related to the growing population of immunocompromised individuals especially children resulting from changes in medical practice such as the use of intensive chemotherapy and immunosuppressive drugs. Although healthy children have strong natural immunity against fungal infections, then also fungal infection among children are increasing very fast. Virtually not all fungi are pathogenic and their infection is opportunistic. Fungi can occur in the form of yeast, mould, and dimorph. In children fungi can cause superficial infection, i.e., on skin, nails, and hair like oral thrush, candida diaper rash, tinea infections, etc., are various types of superficial fungal infections, subcutaneous fungal infection in tissues under the skin and lastly it causes systemic infection in deeper tissues. Most superficial and subcutaneous fungal infections are easily diagnosed and readily amenable to treatment. Opportunistic fungal infections are those that cause diseases exclusively in immunocompromised individuals, e.g., aspergillosis, zygomycosis, etc. Systemic infections can be life-threatening and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Because diagnosis is difficult and the causative agent is often confirmed only at autopsy, the exact incidence of systemic infections is difficult to determine. The most frequently encountered pathogens are Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. But other fungi such as non-albicans Candida spp. are increasingly important.

  6. Survival, dispersal, and home-range establishment of reintroduced captive-bred puaiohi, Myadestes palmeri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tweed, E.J.; Foster, J.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Oesterle, P.; Kuehler, C.; Lieberman, A.A.; Powers, A.T.; Whitaker, K.; Monahan, W.B.; Kellerman, J.; Telfer, T.

    2003-01-01

    We monitored the survival, dispersal, and home-range establishment of captive-bred, reintroduced puaiohi Myadestes palmeri, a critically endangered thrush endemic to the island of Kauai. Fourteen captive-bred, juvenile birds were released from hacktowers in January-February 1999 and monitored for 8-10 weeks using radiotelemetry. All 14 birds (100%) survived to 56 days post-release. Two birds (14.3%) dispersed greater than 3 km from release site within 1 day of release. The remaining birds settled within 1 week and established either temporary home-ranges (mean area = 7.9??12.0 ha, range 0.4-31.9) or breeding home-ranges (mean area 1.2??0.34 ha, range 0.8-1.6). Temporary home ranges were abandonded by the beginning of the breeding season, and ultimately 6 of the 14 birds (43%) established breeding home ranges in the release area. The high survival rate bodes well for establishing additional populations through captive breeding and release; however, the 57% dispersal rate out of the target area means that several releases of birds may be necessary in order to repopulate a given drainage. Furthermore, observed dispersal and gene flow between the reintroduced and wild populations have important implications for management of the captive flock. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Breeding ecology of the Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snetsinger, T.J.; Herrmann, C.M.; Holmes, D.E.; Hayward, C.D.; Fancy, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the breeding ecology of the critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), a poorly known Hawaiian thrush endemic to the island of Kauai. From 1996 through 1998, we monitored 96 active nests over the course of three breeding seasons. Mean clutch size was 2.0, and pairs produced an average of 1.5 fledglings/successful nest. Pairs renested after failure and some raised multiple broods. The mean annual reproductive effort was 2.1 nesting attempts/territory, and pairs produced a mean 1.1 fledglings/attempt. Large differences in nesting effort and productivity occurred among years, with mean number of fledglings/territory ranging from 0.4 to 4.9. Predation by owls (probably Short-eared Owls, Asia flammeus) and introduced rats (probably black rats, Rattus rattus) accounted for most nest failures. The presence of non-breeding floaters in the population and their largely unsuccessful attempts to gain territories in the study area suggest that the population is near carrying capacity. The high reproductive potential of the Puaiohi may help explain its persistence despite the species' historical rarity.

  8. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  9. Using lice to identify cowbird hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Price, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Avian lice may link fledgling Brown-headed Cowbirds to the host species that raised them. Lice, if host-specific and transferred to nestling cowbirds, could serve to identify the principal host species raising cowbirds in a local area. This approach of trapping cowbird fledglings in a feeding flock, then collecting and identifying the lice they carry is economical. The alternative requires a team of people to locate large numbers of parasitized host nests. We trapped 250 cowbird fledglings during June-August 1994 on Patuxent Research Center, and from them we collected 426 lice identified as representing 6 genera and 12 species. We. also collected and identified 347 lice from 30 known host species that were mist-netted on our Center. The lice found on cowbird fledglings in this population can be linked to Wood Thrush, Red-eyed Vireo, Common Yellowthroat, Rufous-sided Towhee, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Song Sparrow, Field Sparrow, and Tree sparrow, based on this study and also on published reports.

  10. Seasonal differences in riparian consumer diet and insect communities in an Oregon Coast Range watershed food web.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robillard, A.; Li, J.

    2005-05-01

    In riparian areas, terrestrial and aquatic habitats overlap creating zones where they interact as an aquatic-terrestrial interface. This coupling allows energy to move between systems and generates intertwining food webs. Thus, vertebrate riparian consumers, such as fish or birds, potentially have alternative prey from sources external to their habitats. The purpose of our study was to explore this reciprocal exchange in an alder dominated riparian forest of the Oregon Coast Range. Diet samples were collected from birds and fish in summer and fall 2003 with a suite of insect samples at Honeygrove Creek and two of its small tributaries. In a comparison of emerging aquatic insects and flying terrestrial insects during June and again in September, we detected seasonal differences in terrestrial and aquatic insects available to riparian consumers. Despite this availability of externally derived prey, fish depended more on resources derived from within their respective habitats during summer. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kitsutch) ate more juvenile aquatic than adult aquatic or terrestrial insects. During fall, the same pattern was exhibited by Coho but Cutthroat trout appeared to consume a slightly greater number of terrestrial insects. The preliminary analysis of bird diet samples from commonly encountered species such as, Swainson's thrush, Song Sparrow, and Pacific-slope Flycatcher, showed more terrestrial derived prey in their diets than aquatic during the summer sampling season.

  11. virF-Positive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica Found in Migratory Birds in Sweden†

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Taina; Waldenström, Jonas; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Olsen, Björn; Korkeala, Hannu

    2003-01-01

    During spring and autumn migrations, 468 fecal samples from 57 different species of migratory birds were collected in Sweden. In total, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 12.8% of collected samples. The most commonly found species was Yersinia enterocolitica, which was isolated from 5.6% of all collected samples, followed by Y. intermedia (3.8%), Y. frederiksenii (3.0%), Y. kristensenii (0.9%), Y. pseudotuberculosis (0.6%), and Y. rohdei (0.4%). The pathogenic, virF-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered from three thrushes. These strains belonged to the same bioserotype, 1/O:2, but had two different profiles as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with NotI and SpeI enzymes. In addition, 10 Y. enterocolitica strains, all from barnacle geese, belonged to bioserotype 3/O:3, which is associated with human disease. Two of the strains were pathogenic, carrying the virF gene on their plasmids. All pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica strains were recovered during the spring, and as the birds were caught during active migration they likely became infected at an earlier stage of the migration, thus potentially transporting these bacterial pathogens over long geographical distances. PMID:12902256

  12. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  13. Drug utilization review of cephalosporins in a secondary care hospital in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shaaban, Mohammad; Ali, Areeg Anwer; Rao, Padma G M; Majid, Asif

    2016-12-01

    Background Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antibiotics in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Few studies have been carried out to evaluate the antibiotic utilization pattern in UAE in spite of the obvious increase in cephalosporins resistance during the past decade. Objective To assess the prescriptions pattern of cephalosporins among physicians at a secondary care hospital in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. Method This observational prospective study was carried out during October 2013 to April 2014. The data of in patients were documented in the predesigned patient profile form and was analyzed for patient's, drug's and drug's therapy related parameters. Results The 3rd generation cephalosporins constituted 83.6 % of the prescriptions, with ceftriaxone being the most commonly used one (81.1 %). They were mainly prescribed for the treatment of the lower respiratory tract infections (60.2 %). Seven (3.5 %) different ADRs linked to cephalosporin use were observed ranging from oral thrush to clostridium difficile infection. A total of 1039 antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial medications were prescribed concomitantly with cephalosporins. Conclusion The 3rd generation cephalosporins were commonly prescribed by parenteral route. Thus, there is a strong need for rationalizing their use to preserve their efficacy and prevent the development of resistance in the region.

  14. Streptococcal co-infection augments Candida pathogenicity by amplifying the mucosal inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H; Sobue, T; Thompson, A; Xie, Z; Poon, K; Ricker, A; Cervantes, J; Diaz, P I; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mitis-group streptococci are ubiquitous oral commensals that can promote polybacterial biofilm virulence. Using a novel murine oral mucosal co-infection model we sought to determine for the first time whether these organisms promote the virulence of C. albicans mucosal biofilms in oropharyngeal infection and explored mechanisms of pathogenic synergy. We found that Streptococcus oralis colonization of the oral and gastrointestinal tract was augmented in the presence of C. albicans. S. oralis and C. albicans co-infection significantly augmented the frequency and size of oral thrush lesions. Importantly, S. oralis promoted deep organ dissemination of C. albicans. Whole mouse genome tongue microarray analysis showed that when compared with animals infected with one organism, the doubly infected animals had genes in the major categories of neutrophilic response/chemotaxis/inflammation significantly upregulated, indicative of an exaggerated inflammatory response. This response was dependent on TLR2 signalling since oral lesions, transcription of pro-inflammatory genes and neutrophil infiltration, were attenuated in TLR2−/− animals. Furthermore, S. oralis activated neutrophils in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, this study identifies a previously unrecognized pathogenic synergy between oral commensal bacteriaand C. albicans. This is the first report of the ability of mucosal commensal bacteria to modify the virulence of an opportunistic fungal pathogen. PMID:24079976

  15. [Composition and characteristics of understory bird communities in monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest of Mengyang, Xishuangbanna in the dry season].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun-Hui; Zou, Fa-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Understory birds in monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest of Mengyang, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan were sampled using mist nets from October 2008 to March 2009. A total of 1423 individuals of 90 species belonging to 28 families and 7 orders were captured, among which there are 8 dominant bird species, i.e., Sliver-breasted Broadbill (Serilophus lunatus), Brown-cheeked Fulvatta (Alcippe poioicephala), White-throated Bulbul (Alophoixus pallidus), Golden-spectacled Warbler (Seicercus burkii), White-tailed Robin (Cinclidium leucurum), Black-breasted Thrush (Turdus dissimilis), Streak-Breasted Jungle Babbler (Pellorneum ruficeps), and Buff-breasted Jungle Babbler (Trichastoma tickelli). Resident birds, the major composition of the understory birds, accounted for 89.3 percent of total captures. The mean capture rate was 9.0+-3.7 individuals/(100 net-hours) and it differed significantly between months, highest in December 2008 (12.5+-1.3)individuals/(100 net-hours), lowest in February 2009 (5.2+-0.6) individuals/(100 net-hours). The most significant characteristic of understory birds in Xishuangbanna is more species abundance and lower species density compared to understory bird composition of South China. Another characteristic is that no obvious dominance pattern was observed in Babbler species. We also noticed that silver-breasted Broadbill, National Key Protection Bird, is the most abundance species in our captures, thus their habitat require further protection.

  16. West Nile virus surveillance in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Mackay, Andrew J; Roy, Alma; Yates, Mathew M; Vaeth, Randy H; Faget, Guy M; Folsom, Alex E; Augustine, William F; Wells, Roderick A; Perich, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected for the first time in Louisiana in the fall of 2001. Surveillance data collected from East Baton Rouge Parish in 2002 were examined to establish baseline data on WNV activity, to support the current design of disease surveillance programs, and to target vector control efforts in the parish. The first indications of WNV activity were from a dead Northern Cardinal collected in February and from a live male cardinal sampled on 14 March. In mosquito pools, WNV was first detected on June 11. The onset of the first human case and the first detection of WNV in sentinel chickens occurred concurrently on June 24. The number of reported human cases and minimum infection rates in mosquitoes peaked in July. WNV prevalence in wild birds increased in late August and was highest in December. WNV-positive wild birds and mosquito pools were detected an average of 31 and 59 days in advance of the onset date of reported human cases, respectively, within 5 km of the residence of a human case. Antibodies to WNV were detected in sera from 7 (Northern Cardinal, House Sparrow, Northern Mockingbird, Blue Jay, Hermit Thrush, Yellow-rumped Warbler, and White-throated Sparrow) of the 42 wild bird species tested. Wild bird serology indicated WNV activity during the winter. Out of 18 mosquito species tested, the only species found positive for WNV was Culex quinquefasciatus, a result suggesting that this species was the primary epizootic/epidemic vector.

  17. Evidence of genotypes 1 and 3 of avian hepatitis E virus in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinquan; Bilic, Ivana; Troxler, Salome; Hess, Michael

    2017-01-15

    Although the presence of four genotypes of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens has been demonstrated, its natural host range is still barely known. In this study, swab samples from 626 wild birds originating from 62 bird species were investigated for HEV detection by molecular methods. The aim was to explore the cross-species infection of avian HEV and to compare the genetic diversity between strains infecting chicken and wild birds. In total, 8 positive samples from 4 different bird species (song thrush, little owl, feral pigeon and common buzzard) were identified and further confirmed by partial sequencing of ORF3. Based on a 237bp fragment of the capsid gene retrieved from 5 samples, phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of avian HEV genotypes 1 and 3 in wild birds. The wild bird isolates shared 82.7-84.8% and 85.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, to chicken isolates from the corresponding genotype. For two of the genotype 1 samples (14-2901 and 14-2906), from feral pigeons, genotype assignment could be also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis based on partial nucleotide sequence of the helicase gene. For the first time, the appearance of genotype 1 in Europe was detected, which together with close genetic relationship between HEVs present in chickens and wild birds indicates cross-species transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interleukin-17-induced protein lipocalin 2 is dispensable for immunity to oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Carolina; Whibley, Natasha; Mamo, Anna J; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Chan, Yvonne R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-03-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by the commensal microbe Candida albicans. Immunity to OPC is strongly dependent on CD4+ T cells, particularly those of the Th17 subset. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) deficiency in mice or humans leads to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the specific downstream mechanisms of IL-17-mediated host defense remain unclear. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2; 24p3; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) is an antimicrobial host defense factor produced in response to inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-17. Lcn2 plays a key role in preventing iron acquisition by bacteria that use catecholate-type siderophores, and lipocalin 2(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to infection by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The role of Lcn2 in mediating immunity to fungi is poorly defined. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of Lcn2 in immunity to oral infection with C. albicans. Lcn2 is strongly upregulated following oral infection with C. albicans, and its expression is almost entirely abrogated in mice with defective IL-17 signaling (IL-17RA(-/-) or Act1(-/-) mice). However, Lcn2(-/-) mice were completely resistant to OPC, comparably to wild-type (WT) mice. Moreover, Lcn2 deficiency mediated protection from OPC induced by steroid immunosuppression. Therefore, despite its potent regulation during C. albicans infection, Lcn2 is not required for immunity to mucosal candidiasis.

  19. Pointed wings, low wingloading and calm air reduce migratory flight costs in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, Melissa S; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-05-14

    Migratory bird, bat and insect species tend to have more pointed wings than non-migrants. Pointed wings and low wingloading, or body mass divided by wing area, are thought to reduce energy consumption during long-distance flight, but these hypotheses have never been directly tested. Furthermore, it is not clear how the atmospheric conditions migrants encounter while aloft affect their energy use; without such information, we cannot accurately predict migratory species' response(s) to climate change. Here, we measured the heart rates of 15 free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory flight. Heart rate, and therefore rate of energy expenditure, was positively associated with individual variation in wingtip roundedness and wingloading throughout the flights. During the cruise phase of the flights, heart rate was also positively associated with wind speed but not wind direction, and negatively but not significantly associated with large-scale atmospheric stability. High winds and low atmospheric stability are both indicative of the presence of turbulent eddies, suggesting that birds may be using more energy when atmospheric turbulence is high. We therefore suggest that pointed wingtips, low wingloading and avoidance of high winds and turbulence reduce flight costs for small birds during migration, and that climate change may have the strongest effects on migrants' in-flight energy use if it affects the frequency and/or severity of high winds and atmospheric instability.

  20. Avian habitat relationships in pinyon-juniper woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat relationships of breeding birds were examined in northwestern Colorado in pinyon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) woodland and in openings where most overstory trees had been knocked down by anchor chaining. Vegetation characteristics and physical habitat features were measured in 233 0.04-ha circular plots around singing males of 13 species of birds from 15 May to 15 July 1980. Thirteen-group discriminant function analysis ordinated bird species along three habitat dimensions described by (1) canopy height; (2) slope, shrub size, and shrub species diversity; and (3) percentage canopy cover, large tree density, distance from a habitat edge, litter cover, and green cover. Woodland, open-area, and intermediate edge species were clearly segregated along the first discriminant axis, and species' associations with shrubs, inclination, ground cover, and edges were revealed by the ordinations along the second and third discriminant axes. Two-group discriminant analyses comparing occupied and available plots identified additional and more specific habitat associations. For example, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) were associated with mature forested habitats and forest interiors, Virginia's Warblers (Vermivora virginiae) favored steep, oak-covered draws, Rock Wrens (Salpinctes obsoletus) selected areas where percentage log cover and small tree density were high, and Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) preferred shrubby slopes with scattered large trees near woodland edges.

  1. Avian, salamander, and forest floor mercury concentrations increase with elevation in a terrestrial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jason M; Driscoll, Charles T; Rimmer, Christopher C; McFarland, Kent P

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation ecosystems of the northeastern United States are vulnerable to deposition and environmental accumulation of atmospheric pollutants, yet little work has been done to assess mercury (Hg) concentrations in organisms occupying montane ecosystems. The authors present data on Hg concentrations in ground-foraging insectivorous songbirds, a terrestrial salamander, and forest floor horizons sampled along a forested elevational gradient from 185 m to 1273 m in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA. Mean Hg concentrations in Catharus thrushes and the salamander Plethodon cinereus increased with elevation, as did Hg concentrations in all forest floor horizons. Mean Hg concentrations in organic soils at approximately 1200 m elevation (503.5 ± 17.7 ng/g, dry wt) were 4.4-fold greater than those at approximately 200 m. Montane ecosystems of the northeastern United States, and probably elsewhere, are exposed to higher levels of atmospheric Hg deposition as reflected in accumulation patterns in the forest floor and associated high-elevation fauna. This information can be used to parameterize and test Hg transport and bioaccumulation models of landscape-specific patterns and may serve as a monitoring tool for decision makers considering future controls on Hg emissions. Further investigation is needed into the potential effects of increased Hg concentrations on high-elevation fauna. © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Diaper dermatitis-frequency and contributory factors in hospital attending children.

    PubMed

    Adalat, Shazia; Wall, David; Goodyear, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of diaper dermatitis varies widely between published studies. It is a condition which causes considerable parental anxiety. To better understand the frequency of diaper dermatitis, treatment practices, and the current importance of previously identified etiologic factors, a questionnaire survey of parents who had children wearing diapers (n = 532) attending a large United Kingdom district general hospital was undertaken. At the time of survey, only 16% of the study population had diaper dermatitis. Forty-eight percent of the study population had never had an episode of diaper dermatitis. In a multivariate analysis, current diaper dermatitis was independently associated with four factors: presence of oral thrush, number of previous episodes, frequency of diaper changes, and diarrhea. Recurrent episodes of diaper dermatitis were associated with increasing age, lack of barrier cream use, current diaper rash, and frequency of diaper changes. In the majority of children with diaper dermatitis at the time of survey, treatment had been instituted in the community. Diaper dermatitis usually presents and is treated successfully outside the hospital setting and is not a common clinical problem in secondary care.

  3. Temporal Variation in Sindbis Virus Antibody Prevalence in Bird Hosts in an Endemic Area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hesson, Jenny Christina; Lundström, Jan O; Tok, Atalay; Östman, Örjan; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne bird virus that occasionally causes human disease in Fennoscandia, suggested to have cyclic 7-year intervals between outbreaks. Reliable data on human infections in Sweden is however lacking. Here we investigated the SINV antibody prevalence among birds in a Swedish area endemic to SINV to scrutinize if a cyclic variation in antibody prevalence is present in the natural host of SINV. Serum from birds were sampled in the summers of 2002-2004 and 2009 in the floodplains of the River Dalälven in central Sweden, with 2002 and 2009 representing hypothesized years of SINV outbreaks. A total of 963 birds from 52 species (mainly passerines) were tested for the presence of SINV antibodies using a plaque reduction neutralization test. The highest SINV antibody prevalence was found in Turdidae species, specifically Fieldfare, Redwing and Song thrush in which more than 70% of sampled individuals had antibodies to SINV in 2009. The SINV antibody prevalence significantly varied between years with 2% in 2002, 8% in 2003, 14% in 2004 and 37% in 2009. Antibodies were found equally often in hatchlings and in adults and increased from early to late in the season. Clearly, the SINV antibody prevalence was not elevated in the bird hosts in the predicted outbreak year 2002, thus solid evidence of a cyclic occurrence of SINV in Sweden is still lacking.

  4. Repeat Tracking of Individual Songbirds Reveals Consistent Migration Timing but Flexibility in Route

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Kevin C.; McKinnon, Emily A.; Stutchbury, Bridget J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Tracking repeat migratory journeys of individual animals is required to assess phenotypic plasticity of individual migration behaviour in space and time. We used light-level geolocators to track the long-distance journeys of migratory songbirds (wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina), and, for the first time, repeat journeys of individuals. We compare between- and within-individual variation in migration to examine flexibility of timing and route in spring and autumn. Date of departure from wintering sites in Central America, along with sex and age factors, explained most of the variation (71%) in arrival date at North American breeding sites. Spring migration showed high within-individual repeatability in timing, but not in route. In particular, spring departure dates of individuals were highly repeatable, with a mean difference between years of just 3 days. Autumn migration timing and routes were not repeatable. Our results provide novel evidence of low phenotypic plasticity in timing of spring migration, which may limit the ability of individuals to adjust migration schedules in response to climate change. PMID:22848395

  5. Oral passive IgY-based immunotherapeutics: a novel solution for prevention and treatment of alimentary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shofiqur; Van Nguyen, Sa; Icatlo, Faustino C; Umeda, Kouji; Kodama, Yoshikatsu

    2013-05-01

    This commentary summarizes the laboratory investigations and clinical trials published recently involving per-oral application of IgY supplemented food for specific orogastrointestinal disease prevention and control purposes. The prolonged use and misuse of conventional antibacterial drugs has spawned antibiotic resistant microbes prompting scientists to search for other germ-killing options. In particular, the use of IgY as a novel mode of immunotherapy using oral chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) to confer passive immunity has gained much interest as an inexpensive non-antibiotic alternative for the prophylaxis and treatment of a wide variety of infectious diseases. The stability of IgY in the orogastrointestinal tract and its safety profile has been well-documented. IgY has been used in the treatment or prevention of dental caries, periodontitis and gingivitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer, oral thrush and infant rotavirus diarrhea. The recent clinical trials on IgY with encouraging results has catapulted into the market novel nutraceutical or health supplements for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention based on the consumption of mono-specific or mixed IgY formulations. With recent trends in consumer preference for natural materials to alleviate health concerns, the increasing healthcare costs and the recent advances in drug delivery systems, IgY is likely to shift from its mainly functional food status toward pharmaceuticalization in the foreseeable future.

  6. Resource tracking within and across continents in long-distance bird migrants.

    PubMed

    Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Willemoes, Mikkel; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Vega, Marta Lomas; Dasari, Hari P; Araújo, Miguel B; Wikelski, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Migratory birds track seasonal resources across and between continents. We propose a general strategy of tracking the broad seasonal abundance of resources throughout the annual cycle in the longest-distance migrating land birds as an alternative to tracking a certain climatic niche or shorter-term resource surplus occurring, for example, during spring foliation. Whether and how this is possible for complex annual spatiotemporal schedules is not known. New tracking technology enables unprecedented spatial and temporal mapping of long-distance movement of birds. We show that three Palearctic-African species track vegetation greenness throughout their annual cycle, adjusting the timing and direction of migratory movements with seasonal changes in resource availability over Europe and Africa. Common cuckoos maximize the vegetation greenness, whereas red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales track seasonal surplus in greenness. Our results demonstrate that the longest-distance migrants move between consecutive staging areas even within the wintering region in Africa to match seasonal variation in regional climate. End-of-century climate projections indicate that optimizing greenness would be possible but that vegetation surplus might be more difficult to track in the future.

  7. Factors influencing the movement biology of migrant songbirds confronted with an ecological barrier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smolinsky, J. A.; Diehl, Robert H.; Radzio, T. A.; Delaney, D. K.; Moore, F. R

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a migratory songbird embarks on a long-distance flight across an ecological barrier is likely a response to a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. During autumn 2008 and 2009, we used automated radio tracking to investigate how energetic condition, age, and weather influenced the departure timing and direction of Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory stopover along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Most birds left within 1 h after sunset on the evening following capture. Those birds that departed later on the first night or remained longer than 1 day were lean. Birds that carried fat loads sufficient to cross the Gulf of Mexico generally departed in a seasonally appropriate southerly direction, whereas lean birds nearly always flew inland in a northerly direction. We did not detect an effect of age or weather on departures. The decision by lean birds to reorient movement inland may reflect the suitability of the coastal stopover site for deposition of fuel stores and the motivation to seek food among more extensive forested habitat away from the barrier.

  8. [Partial deficiency of cell-mediated immunity in a child with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Intercurrent meningeal and pulmonary cryptococcosis].

    PubMed

    Gerbeaux, J; Baculard, A; Tournier, G; Moulias, R; Goust, J M; Drouhet, E d; Saint-Martin, J

    1975-01-01

    The authors report a new case of partial immune deficiency of cellular immunity, associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in a 12 Years-old boy. The disease began very early during the first few weeks of life, with thrush in the mouth. This candidiasis then evolved intermittently and was still present. Numerous cutaneous, pulmonary and ear infections occured throughout this child's life. This morbid association led to a search for an immune deficiency. Humoral immunity was normal. Abnormalities of cellular immunity were as follows: apart from candidine skin anergy, there was a deficiency in the factor which inhibits leukocyte migration, secretion of a factor favouring this migration (MEF). It was also noted the presence of the patient's serum, of a factor inhibiting lymphocyte transformation in the presence of candidine. In spite of treatment with intravenous route, amphotericin B, followed by transfer factor, the oral candidiasis persisted together with the skin anergy to candidine. On the other hand, the serum inhibitory factor disappeared. Pulmonary cryptococcosis probably favoured by corticosteroid treatment, developed on this background of immune deficiency; as usual it spread to the meninges. Treatment associating intraveinous amphotericin B and 5 fluorocytosine oral and later intravenous, total duration 6 months, grave a recovery maintained on a 8 months follow up.

  9. A coupled kinematics-energetics model for predicting energy efficient flapping flight.

    PubMed

    Salehipour, Hesam; Willis, David J

    2013-02-07

    A new computational model based on an optimal power, wake-only aerodynamics method is presented to predict the interdependency of energetics and kinematics in bird and bat flight. The model is divided into offline, intermediate and online modules. In the offline module, a four-dimensional design space sweep is performed (lift, thrust, flapping amplitude and flapping frequency). In the intermediate stage, the physical characteristics of the animal are introduced (wing span, mass, wing area, aspect ratio, etc.), and a series of amplitude-frequency response surfaces are constructed for all viable flight speeds. In the online component, the amplitude-frequency response surfaces are mined for the specific flapping motions being considered. The method is applied to several biological examples including a medium sized fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis), and two birds: a thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) and a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). For each of these animals, the power and kinematics predictions are compared with available experimental data. These examples demonstrate that this new method can reasonably predict animal flight energetics and kinematics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Streptococcal co-infection augments Candida pathogenicity by amplifying the mucosal inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Sobue, T; Thompson, A; Xie, Z; Poon, K; Ricker, A; Cervantes, J; Diaz, P I; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2014-02-01

    Mitis-group streptococci are ubiquitous oral commensals that can promote polybacterial biofilm virulence. Using a novel murine oral mucosal co-infection model we sought to determine for the first time whether these organisms promote the virulence of C. albicans mucosal biofilms in oropharyngeal infection and explored mechanisms of pathogenic synergy. We found that Streptococcus oralis colonization of the oral and gastrointestinal tract was augmented in the presence of C. albicans. S. oralis and C. albicans co-infection significantly augmented the frequency and size of oral thrush lesions. Importantly, S. oralis promoted deep organ dissemination of C. albicans. Whole mouse genome tongue microarray analysis showed that when compared with animals infected with one organism, the doubly infected animals had genes in the major categories of neutrophilic response/chemotaxis/inflammation significantly upregulated, indicative of an exaggerated inflammatory response. This response was dependent on TLR2 signalling since oral lesions, transcription of pro-inflammatory genes and neutrophil infiltration, were attenuated in TLR2(-/-) animals. Furthermore, S. oralis activated neutrophils in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, this study identifies a previously unrecognized pathogenic synergy between oral commensal bacteriaand C. albicans. This is the first report of the ability of mucosal commensal bacteria to modify the virulence of an opportunistic fungal pathogen.

  11. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros da; Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  12. Interleukin-17-Induced Protein Lipocalin 2 Is Dispensable for Immunity to Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Maria Carolina; Whibley, Natasha; Mamo, Anna J.; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Chan, Yvonne R.

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by the commensal microbe Candida albicans. Immunity to OPC is strongly dependent on CD4+ T cells, particularly those of the Th17 subset. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) deficiency in mice or humans leads to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the specific downstream mechanisms of IL-17-mediated host defense remain unclear. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2; 24p3; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) is an antimicrobial host defense factor produced in response to inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-17. Lcn2 plays a key role in preventing iron acquisition by bacteria that use catecholate-type siderophores, and lipocalin 2−/− mice are highly susceptible to infection by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The role of Lcn2 in mediating immunity to fungi is poorly defined. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of Lcn2 in immunity to oral infection with C. albicans. Lcn2 is strongly upregulated following oral infection with C. albicans, and its expression is almost entirely abrogated in mice with defective IL-17 signaling (IL-17RA−/− or Act1−/− mice). However, Lcn2−/− mice were completely resistant to OPC, comparably to wild-type (WT) mice. Moreover, Lcn2 deficiency mediated protection from OPC induced by steroid immunosuppression. Therefore, despite its potent regulation during C. albicans infection, Lcn2 is not required for immunity to mucosal candidiasis. PMID:24343647

  13. Fuelling decisions in migratory birds: geomagnetic cues override the seasonal effect.

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Henshaw, Ian; Jakobsson, Sven; Johansson, Patrik; Fransson, Thord

    2007-09-07

    Recent evaluations of both temporal and spatial precision in bird migration have called for external cues in addition to the inherited programme defining the migratory journey in terms of direction, distance and fuelling behaviour along the route. We used juvenile European robins (Erithacus rubecula) to study whether geomagnetic cues affect fuel deposition in a medium-distance migrant by simulating a migratory journey from southeast Sweden to the wintering area in southern Spain. In the late phase of the onset of autumn migration, robins exposed to the magnetic treatment attained a lower fuel load than control birds exposed to the ambient magnetic field of southeast Sweden. In contrast, robins captured in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration all showed low fuel deposition irrespective of experimental treatment. These results are, as expected, the inverse of what we have found in similar studies in a long-distance migrant, the thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia), indicating that the reaction in terms of fuelling behaviour to a simulated southward migration varies depending on the relevance for the species. Furthermore, we suggest that information from the geomagnetic field act as an important external cue overriding the seasonal effect on fuelling behaviour in migratory birds.

  14. A host-race difference in begging calls of nestling cuckoos Cuculus canorus develops through experience and increases host provisioning

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Joah R; Davies, Nicholas B

    2006-01-01

    The structure of common cuckoo nestling begging calls differs between the two host-races parasitizing reed warblers (reed warbler-cuckoos) and dunnocks (dunnock-cuckoos; longer syllable duration, lower peak and maximum frequency, narrower bandwidth). Cross-fostering experiments demonstrated that this difference is not genetically fixed but develops through experience. When newly hatched reed warbler-cuckoos were transferred to dunnock nests, they developed begging calls more like those of dunnock-cuckoos, whereas controls transferred to the nests of robins or left to be raised by reed warblers developed calls more typical of reed warbler-cuckoos. We tested the effectiveness of these different calls in stimulating host provisioning by placing in host nests a single blackbird or song thrush nestling (of similar size to a young cuckoo, but lacking its exuberant begging calls); when it begged we broadcast, from a small loudspeaker on the nest rim, recordings of either dunnock-cuckoo or reed warbler-cuckoo begging calls. Playback of dunnock-cuckoo begging calls induced higher levels of provisioning by dunnocks, whereas playback of reed warbler-cuckoo begging calls did so for both reed warblers and robins. We suggest that the young cuckoo (which ejects the host's eggs/chicks and so is raised alone) learns by experience which calls best stimulate host provisioning. PMID:16928637

  15. Seasonal variation of infestation by ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in coffee agroecosystems of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dietsch, Thomas V

    2005-12-01

    Parasitism is not well documented for birds found in tropical habitats. Long-distance migratory birds may face additional risks to an already hazardous journey when infected. This study explores the ecology of an ectoparasite infestation in Chiapas, Mexico. During a mist-netting project in 2 different coffee management systems, chigger mites (Acarina: Trombiculidae), ectoparasitic during the larval stage, were found on both resident and migratory birds. Using a rapid assessment protocol, it was observed that 17 of 26 species of long-distance migrants and 33 of 71 resident species had at least 1 infested individual. Infestation prevalences were unexpectedly high on some long-distance migrants, as high as 0.73 for Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), a value on par with heavily infested resident species. Prevalence was highest during winter sampling: 0.18 overall, 0.16 of migrants, and 0.23 of residents. Prevalence was 0.14 for resident birds during the summer breeding season. Mean abundance and mean intensity of infestation are reported for 97 species captured and inspected during the course of this study. In this region, chigger mite larvae are relatively common on birds and their abundance varies seasonally. High prevalence for some migratory birds suggests that more research and monitoring of ectoparasites are needed, especially in light of emerging diseases.

  16. A survey of biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in NE Bulgaria, with respect to transmission of avian haemosporidians.

    PubMed

    Bobeva, Aneliya; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Bensch, Staffan; Radrova, Jana

    2013-12-01

    This study presents data from a molecular survey of the species of the genus Culicoides from the region of Kalimok Field Station (NE Bulgaria) and haemosporidian parasites occurring in them in order to investigate the host-parasite specificity of haemosporidians to their dipteran vectors. The identification of Culicoides spp. was carried out by morphological and molecular-genetic methods. We collected and analysed 230 individuals of the genus Culicoides. Nine species were found. Eight species were identified morphologically; Culicoides obsoletus, C. riethi, C. newsteadi, C. circumscriptus, C. festivipennis, C. punctatus, C. pictipennis and C. puncticollis. The ninth species might be classified as either of C. nubeculosus or C. riethi and its identification needs additional investigations. The total prevalence of Haemoproteus in the examined biting midges was 2.17%. Three individuals of C. pictipennis were infected with the Haemoproteus lineage TURDUS2 (prevalence 16.67%), a common parasite of thrushes (Turdidae). Two individuals of C. circumscriptus contained Haemoproteus lineages (prevalence 2.78%); these were the lineage HAWF2 (previously reported from Coccothraustes coccothraustes) and a new lineage CULCIR1 not previously reported in the literature.

  17. Phase 1 Study of Intravenous Oncolytic Poxvirus (vvDD) in Patients With Advanced Solid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Downs-Canner, Stephanie; Guo, Zong Sheng; Ravindranathan, Roshni; Breitbach, Caroline J; O'Malley, Mark E; Jones, Heather L; Moon, Anne; McCart, Judith Andrea; Shuai, Yongli; Zeh, Herbert J; Bartlett, David L

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a phase 1 study of intravenous vvDD, a Western Reserve strain oncolytic vaccinia virus, on 11 patients with standard treatment-refractory advanced colorectal or other solid cancers. The primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose and associated toxicity while secondary endpoints were pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immune responses, and antitumor activity. No dose-limiting toxicities and treatment related severe adverse events were observed. The most com