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Sample records for nonphotochemical excitation quenching

  1. Quantum Yields and Rate Constants of Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Excitation Quenching (Experiment and Model).

    PubMed Central

    Laisk, A.; Oja, V.; Rasulov, B.; Eichelmann, H.; Sumberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.), amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.), and cytochrome b6f complex-deficient transgenic tobacco leaves were used to test the response of plants exposed to differnt light intensities and CO2 concentrations before and after photoinhibition at 4000 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 and to thermoinhibition up to 45[deg]C. Quantum yields of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching (YP and YN) and the corresponding relative rate constants for excitation capture from the antenna-primary radical pair equilibrium system (k[prime]P and k[prime]N) were calculated from measured fluorescence parameters. The above treatments resulted in decreases in YP and K[prime]P and in approximately complementary increases in YN and K[prime]N under normal and inhibitory conditions. The results were reproduced by a mathematical model of electron/proton transport and O2 evolution/CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis based on budget equations for the intermediates of photosynthesis. Quantitative differences between model predictions and experiments are explainable, assuming that electron transport is organized into domains that contain relatively complete electron and proton transport chains (e.g. thylakoids). With the complementation that occurs between the photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching, the regulatory system can constantly maintain the shortest lifetime of excitation necessary to avoid the formation of chlorophyll triplet states and singlet oxygen. PMID:12223845

  2. Higher plant photosystem II light-harvesting antenna, not the reaction center, determines the excited-state lifetime-both the maximum and the nonphotochemically quenched.

    PubMed

    Belgio, Erica; Johnson, Matthew P; Jurić, Snježana; Ruban, Alexander V

    2012-06-20

    The maximum chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime in isolated photosystem II (PSII) light-harvesting complex (LHCII) antenna is 4 ns; however, it is quenched to 2 ns in intact thylakoid membranes when PSII reaction centers (RCIIs) are closed (Fm). It has been proposed that the closed state of RCIIs is responsible for the quenching. We investigated this proposal using a new, to our knowledge, model system in which the concentration of RCIIs was highly reduced within the thylakoid membrane. The system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants under long-term treatment with lincomycin, a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor. The treatment led to 1), a decreased concentration of RCIIs to 10% of the control level and, interestingly, an increased antenna component; 2), an average reduction in the yield of photochemistry to 0.2; and 3), an increased nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ). Despite these changes, the average fluorescence lifetimes measured in Fm and Fm' (with NPQ) states were nearly identical to those obtained from the control. A 77 K fluorescence spectrum analysis of treated PSII membranes showed the typical features of preaggregation of LHCII, indicating that the state of LHCII antenna in the dark-adapted photosynthetic membrane is sufficient to determine the 2 ns Fm lifetime. Therefore, we conclude that the closed RCs do not cause quenching of excitation in the PSII antenna, and play no role in the formation of NPQ.

  3. The structural basis of non-photochemical quenching is revealed?

    PubMed

    Cogdell, Richard J

    2006-02-01

    Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII, the major plant light-harvesting pigment-protein complex, efficiently harvests light-energy. However, if the incident light intensity is too high and photosynthesis becomes saturated, LHCII can switch into a quenching state that prevents photodamage. This important process is called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, and represents feedback control. Andrew Pascal et al. have recently proposed a detailed model of NPQ based upon the crystal structure of LHCII from spinach.

  4. A kinetic model of rapidly reversible nonphotochemical quenching

    PubMed Central

    Zaks, Julia; Amarnath, Kapil; Kramer, David M.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms possess nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) pathways that protect against photo-induced damage. The majority of NPQ in plants is regulated on a rapid timescale by changes in the pH of the thylakoid lumen. In order to quantify the rapidly reversible component of NPQ, called qE, we developed a mathematical model of pH-dependent quenching of chlorophyll excitations in Photosystem II. Our expression for qE depends on the protonation of PsbS and the deepoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin deepoxidase. The model is able to simulate the kinetics of qE at low and high light intensities. The simulations suggest that the pH of the lumen, which activates qE, is not itself affected by qE. Our model provides a framework for testing hypothesized qE mechanisms and for assessing the role of qE in improving plant fitness in variable light intensity. PMID:22891305

  5. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich; Nesterov, Alexander; Lopez, Gustavo; Sayre, Richard Thomas

    2015-04-23

    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  6. Direct interaction of the major light-harvesting complex II and PsbS in nonphotochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Laura; Grunwald, Matthias; Liao, Pen-Nan; Walla, Peter Jomo; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-04-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) subunit S (PsbS) plays a key role in nonphotochemical quenching, a photoprotective mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in plants. The precise function of PsbS in nonphotochemical quenching is unknown. By reconstituting PsbS together with the major light-harvesting complex of PSII (LHC-II) and the xanthophyll zeaxanthin (Zea) into proteoliposomes, we have tested the individual contributions of PSII complexes and Zea to chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching in a membrane environment. We demonstrate that PsbS is stable in the absence of pigments in vitro. Significant Chl fluorescence quenching of reconstituted LHC-II was observed in the presence of PsbS and Zea, although neither Zea nor PsbS alone was sufficient to induce the same quenching. Coreconstitution with PsbS resulted in the formation of LHC-II/PsbS heterodimers, indicating their direct interaction in the lipid bilayer. Two-photon excitation measurements on liposomes containing LHC-II, PsbS, and Zea showed an increase of electronic interactions between carotenoid S1 and Chl states, Φ(Coupling)(CarS1-Chl), that correlated directly with Chl fluorescence quenching. These findings are in agreement with a carotenoid-dependent Chl fluorescence quenching by direct interactions of LHCs of PSII with PsbS monomers.

  7. Carotenoid radical cations as a probe for the molecular mechanism of nonphotochemical quenching in oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Amarie, Sergiu; Standfuss, Jörg; Barros, Tiago; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Dreuw, Andreas; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2007-04-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. Recently, carotenoid radical cation (Car*+) formation has been discovered to be a key step for the feedback deexcitation quenching mechanism (qE), a component of NPQ, of which the molecular mechanism and location is still unknown. We have generated and characterized carotenoid radical cations by means of resonant two color, two photon ionization (R2C2PI) spectroscopy. The Car*+ bands have maxima located at 830 nm (violaxanthin), 880 nm (lutein), 900 nm (zeaxanthin), and 920 nm (beta-carotene). The positions of these maxima depend strongly on solution conditions, the number of conjugated C=C bonds, and molecular structure. Furthermore, R2C2PI measurements on the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II) samples with or without zeaxanthin (Zea) reveal the violaxanthin (Vio) radical cation (Vio*+) band at 909 nm and the Zea*+ band at 983 nm. The replacement of Vio by Zea in the light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) has no influence on the Chl excitation lifetime, and by exciting the Chls lowest excited state, no additional rise and decay corresponding to the Car*+ signal observed previously during qE was detected in the spectral range investigated (800-1050 nm). On the basis of our findings, the mechanism of qE involving the simple replacement of Vio with Zea in LHC II needs to be reconsidered.

  8. Non-photochemical Fluorescence Quenching in Photosystem II Antenna Complexes by the Reaction Center Cation Radical.

    PubMed

    Paschenko, V Z; Gorokhov, V V; Grishanova, N P; Korvatovskii, B N; Ivanov, M V; Maksimov, E G; Mamedov, M D

    2016-06-01

    In direct experiments, rate constants of photochemical (kP) and non-photochemical (kP(+)) fluorescence quenching were determined in membrane fragments of photosystem II (PSII), in oxygen-evolving PSII core particles, as well as in core particles deprived of the oxygen-evolving complex. For this purpose, a new approach to the pulse fluorometry method was implemented. In the "dark" reaction center (RC) state, antenna fluorescence decay kinetics were measured under low-intensity excitation (532 nm, pulse repetition rate 1 Hz), and the emission was registered by a streak camera. To create a "closed" [P680(+)QA(-)] RC state, a high-intensity pre-excitation pulse (pump pulse, 532 nm) of the sample was used. The time advance of the pump pulse against the measuring pulse was 8 ns. In this experimental configuration, under the pump pulse, the [P680(+)QA(-)] state was formed in RC, whereupon antenna fluorescence kinetics was measured using a weak testing picosecond pulsed excitation light applied to the sample 8 ns after the pump pulse. The data were fitted by a two-exponential approximation. Efficiency of antenna fluorescence quenching by the photoactive RC pigment in its oxidized (P680(+)) state was found to be ~1.5 times higher than that of the neutral (P680) RC state. To verify the data obtained with a streak camera, control measurements of PSII complex fluorescence decay kinetics by the single-photon counting technique were carried out. The results support the conclusions drawn from the measurements registered with the streak camera. In this case, the fitting of fluorescence kinetics was performed in three-exponential approximation, using the value of τ1 obtained by analyzing data registered by the streak camera. An additional third component obtained by modeling the data of single photon counting describes the P680(+)Pheo(-) charge recombination. Thus, for the first time the ratio of kP(+)/kP = 1.5 was determined in a direct experiment. The mechanisms of higher

  9. Predicting Light Acclimation in Cyanobacteria from Nonphotochemical Quenching of Photosystem II Fluorescence, Which Reflects State Transitions in These Organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D.; Oquist, G.

    1996-01-01

    An important factor in photosynthetic ecophysiology is the light regime that a photobiont is acclimated to exploit. In a wide range of cyanobacteria and cyano-lichens, the easily measured fluorescence parameters, coefficient of nonphotochemical quenching of photosystem II variable fluorescence (qN) and nonphotochemical quenching, decline to a minimum near the acclimated growth light intensity. This characteristic pattern predicts the integrated light regime to which populations are acclimated, information that is particularly useful for cyanobacteria or cyano-lichens from habitats with highly variable light intensities. qN reflects processes that compete with photosystem II photochemistry for absorbed excitation energy. In cyanobacteria, we find no evidence for energy-dependent quenching mechanisms, which are the predominant components of qN in higher plants. Instead, in cyanobacteria, qN correlates closely with the excitation flow from the phycobilisome to photosystem I, indicating that qN reflects the state transition mechanism for equilibration of excitation from the phycobilisome to the two photosystems. PMID:12226362

  10. Light-induced dissociation of an antenna hetero-oligomer is needed for non-photochemical quenching induction.

    PubMed

    Betterle, Nico; Ballottari, Matteo; Zorzan, Simone; de Bianchi, Silvia; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Dall'osto, Luca; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto

    2009-05-29

    PsbS plays a major role in activating the photoprotection mechanism known as "non-photochemical quenching," which dissipates chlorophyll excited states exceeding the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport. PsbS activity is known to be triggered by low lumenal pH. However, the molecular mechanism by which this subunit regulates light harvesting efficiency is still unknown. Here we show that PsbS controls the association/dissociation of a five-subunit membrane complex, composed of two monomeric Lhcb proteins (CP29 and CP24) and the trimeric LHCII-M. Dissociation of this supercomplex is indispensable for the onset of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in high light, strongly suggesting that protein subunits catalyzing the reaction of heat dissipation are buried into the complex and thus not available for interaction with PsbS. Consistently, we showed that knock-out mutants on two subunits participating to the B4C complex were strongly affected in heat dissipation. Direct observation by electron microscopy and image analysis showed that B4C dissociation leads to the redistribution of PSII within grana membranes. We interpreted these results to mean that the dissociation of B4C makes quenching sites, possibly CP29 and CP24, available for the switch to an energy-quenching conformation. These changes are reversible and do not require protein synthesis/degradation, thus allowing for changes in PSII antenna size and adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  11. Ecophysiology of photosynthesis in bryophytes: major roles for oxygen photoreduction and non-photochemical quenching?

    PubMed

    Proctor, Michael C F; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2011-02-01

    CO(2) fixation in mosses saturates at moderate irradiances. Relative electron transport rate (RETR) inferred from chlorophyll fluorescence saturates at similar irradiance in shade species (e.g. Plagiomnium undulatum, Trichocolea tomentella), but many species of unshaded habitats (e.g. Andreaea rothii, Schistidium apocarpum, Sphagnum spp. and Frullania dilatata) show non-saturating RETR at high irradiance, with high non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In P. undulatum and S. apocarpum, experiments in different gas mixtures showed O(2) and CO(2) as interchangeable electron sinks. Nitrogen + saturating CO(2) gave high RETR and depressed NPQ. In S. apocarpum, glycolaldehyde (inhibiting photosynthesis and photorespiration) depressed RETR in air more at low than at high irradiance; in CO(2) -free air RETR was maintained at all irradiances. Non-saturating electron flow was not suppressed in ambient CO(2) with 1% O(2) . The results indicate high capacity for oxygen photoreduction when CO(2) assimilation is limited. Non-saturating light-dependent H(2) O(2) production, insensitive to glycolaldehyde, suggests that electron transport is supported by oxygen photoreduction, perhaps via the Mehler-peroxidase reaction. Consistent with this, mosses were highly tolerant to paraquat, which generates superoxide at photosystem I (PSI). Protection against excess excitation energy in mosses involves high capacity for photosynthetic electron transport to oxygen and high NPQ, activated at high irradiance, alongside high reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance.

  12. On improving the performance of nonphotochemical quenching in CP29 light-harvesting antenna complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Sayre, Richard T.; Still, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    We model and simulate the performance of charge-transfer in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in the CP29 light-harvesting antenna-complex associated with photosystem II (PSII). The model consists of five discrete excitonic energy states and two sinks, responsible for the potentially damaging processes and charge-transfer channels, respectively. We demonstrate that by varying (i) the parameters of the chlorophyll-based dimer, (ii) the resonant properties of the protein-solvent environment interaction, and (iii) the energy transfer rates to the sinks, one can significantly improve the performance of the NPQ. Our analysis suggests strategies for improving the performance of the NPQ in response to environmental changes, and may stimulate experimental verification.

  13. Increased biomass productivity in green algae by tuning non-photochemical quenching

    PubMed Central

    Berteotti, Silvia; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have a high potential for the production of biofuels and highly valued metabolites. However, their current industrial exploitation is limited by a productivity in photobioreactors that is low compared to potential productivity. The high cell density and pigment content of the surface layers of photosynthetic microalgae result in absorption of excess photons and energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ prevents photoinhibition, but its activation reduces the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is catalyzed by protein subunits encoded by three lhcsr (light harvesting complex stress related) genes. Here, we show that heat dissipation and biomass productivity depends on LHCSR protein accumulation. Indeed, algal strains lacking two lhcsr genes can grow in a wide range of light growth conditions without suffering from photoinhibition and are more productive than wild-type. Thus, the down-regulation of NPQ appears to be a suitable strategy for improving light use efficiency for biomass and biofuel production in microalgae. PMID:26888481

  14. Increased biomass productivity in green algae by tuning non-photochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Berteotti, Silvia; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have a high potential for the production of biofuels and highly valued metabolites. However, their current industrial exploitation is limited by a productivity in photobioreactors that is low compared to potential productivity. The high cell density and pigment content of the surface layers of photosynthetic microalgae result in absorption of excess photons and energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ prevents photoinhibition, but its activation reduces the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is catalyzed by protein subunits encoded by three lhcsr (light harvesting complex stress related) genes. Here, we show that heat dissipation and biomass productivity depends on LHCSR protein accumulation. Indeed, algal strains lacking two lhcsr genes can grow in a wide range of light growth conditions without suffering from photoinhibition and are more productive than wild-type. Thus, the down-regulation of NPQ appears to be a suitable strategy for improving light use efficiency for biomass and biofuel production in microalgae. PMID:26888481

  15. Non-Photochemical Quenching Capacity in Arabidopsis thaliana Affects Herbivore Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Johansson Jänkänpää, Hanna; Frenkel, Martin; Zulfugarov, Ismayil; Reichelt, Michael; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Mishra, Yogesh; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Moen, Jon; Lee, Choon-Hwan; Jansson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Under natural conditions, plants have to cope with numerous stresses, including light-stress and herbivory. This raises intriguing questions regarding possible trade-offs between stress defences and growth. As part of a program designed to address these questions we have compared herbivory defences and damage in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana and two “photoprotection genotypes”, npq4 and oePsbS, which respectively lack and overexpress PsbS (a protein that plays a key role in qE-type non-photochemical quenching). In dual-choice feeding experiments both a specialist (Plutella xylostella) and a generalist (Spodoptera littoralis) insect herbivore preferred plants that expressed PsbS most strongly. In contrast, although both herbivores survived equally well on each of the genotypes, for oviposition female P. xylostella adults preferred plants that expressed PsbS least strongly. However, there were no significant differences between the genotypes in levels of the 10 most prominent glucosinolates; key substances in the Arabidopsis anti-herbivore chemical defence arsenal. After transfer from a growth chamber to the field we detected significant differences in the genotypes’ metabolomic profiles at all tested time points, using GC-MS, but no consistent “metabolic signature” for the lack of PsbS. These findings suggest that the observed differences in herbivore preferences were due to differences in the primary metabolism of the plants rather than their contents of typical “defence compounds”. A potentially significant factor is that superoxide accumulated most rapidly and to the highest levels under high light conditions in npq4 mutants. This could trigger changes in planta that are sensed by herbivores either directly or indirectly, following its dismutation to H2O2. PMID:23301046

  16. Possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects in nonphotochemical quenching in photosynthetic complexes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berman, Gennady P.; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Gurvitz, Shmuel; Sayre, Richard T.

    2016-04-30

    Here, we analyze theoretically a simple and consistent quantum mechanical model that reveals the possible role of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The model consists of a network of five interconnected sites (excitonic states of light-sensitive molecules) responsible for the NPQ mechanism. The model also includes the “damaging” and the dissipative channels. The damaging channel is responsible for production of singlet oxygen and other destructive outcomes. In this model, both damaging and “dissipative” charge transfer channels are described by discrete electron energy levels attached to their sinks, that mimicmore » the continuum part of electron energy spectrum. All five excitonic sites interact with the protein environment that is modeled using a stochastic process. Our approach allowed us to derive the exact and closed system of linear ordinary differential equations for the reduced density matrix and its first momentums. Moreover, these equations are solved numerically including for strong interactions between the light-sensitive molecules and protein environment. As an example, we apply our model to demonstrate possible contributions of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the NPQ mechanism in the CP29 minor LHC. The numerical simulations show that using proper combination of quantum interference effects, properties of noise, and sinks, one can significantly suppress the damaging channel. Finally, our findings demonstrate the possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects for modeling, engineering, and optimizing the performance of the NPQ processes in both natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes.« less

  17. Non-photochemical quenching in cryptophyte alga Rhodomonas salina is located in chlorophyll a/c antennae.

    PubMed

    Kaňa, Radek; Kotabová, Eva; Sobotka, Roman; Prášil, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s) of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates - e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1) there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2) NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE) of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3) a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching.

  18. Disentangling two non-photochemical quenching processes in Cyclotella meneghiniana by spectrally-resolved picosecond fluorescence at 77K.

    PubMed

    Chukhutsina, Volha U; Büchel, Claudia; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    Diatoms, which are primary producers in the oceans, can rapidly switch on/off efficient photoprotection to respond to fast light-intensity changes in moving waters. The corresponding thermal dissipation of excess-absorbed-light energy can be observed as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Fluorescence-induction measurements on Cyclotella meneghiniana diatoms show two NPQ processes: qE1 relaxes rapidly in the dark while qE2 remains present upon switching to darkness and is related to the presence of the xanthophyll-cycle pigment diatoxanthin (Dtx). We performed picosecond fluorescence measurements on cells locked in different (quenching) states, revealing the following sequence of events during full development of NPQ. At first, trimers of light-harvesting complexes (fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c proteins), or FCPa, become quenched, while being part of photosystem II (PSII), due to the induced pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane. This is followed by (partial) detachment of FCPa from PSII after which quenching persists. The pH gradient also causes the formation of Dtx which leads to further quenching of isolated PSII cores and some aggregated FCPa. In subsequent darkness, the pH gradient disappears but Dtx remains present and quenching partly pertains. Only in the presence of some light the system completely recovers to the unquenched state.

  19. Site of non-photochemical quenching of the phycobilisome by orange carotenoid protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Stadnichuk, Igor N; Yanyushin, Mikhail F; Maksimov, Evgeni G; Lukashev, Evgeni P; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Elanskaya, Irina V; Paschenko, Vladimir Z

    2012-08-01

    In cyanobacteria, the thermal dissipation of excess absorbed energy at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS)-antenna is triggered by absorption of strong blue-green light by the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP). This process known as non-photochemical quenching, whose molecular mechanism remains in many respects unclear, is revealed in vivo as a decrease in phycobilisome fluorescence. In vitro reconstituted system on the interaction of the OCP and the PBS isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 presents evidence that the OCP is not only a photosensor, but also an effecter that makes direct contacts with the PBS and causes dissipation of absorbed energy. To localize the site(s) of quenching, we have analyzed the role of chromophorylated polypeptides of the PBS using PBS-deficient mutants in conjunction with in vitro systems of assembled PBS and of isolated components of the PBS core. The results demonstrated that L(CM), the core-membrane linker protein and terminal emitter of the PBS, could act as the docking site for OCP in vitro. The ApcD and ApcF terminal emitters of the PBS core are not directly subjected to quenching. The data suggests that there could be close contact between the phycocyanobilin chromophore of L(CM) and the 3'-hydroxyechinenone chromophore present in OCP and that L(CM) could be involved in OCP-induced quenching. According to the reduced average life-time of the PBS-fluorescence and linear dependence of fluorescence intensity of the PBS on OCP concentration, the quenching has mostly dynamic character. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22483736

  20. Action potential in a plant cell lowers the light requirement for non-photochemical energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Krupenina, Natalia A; Bulychev, Alexander A

    2007-06-01

    This study deals with effects of membrane excitation on photosynthesis and cell protection against excessive light, manifested in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In Chara corallina cells, NPQ and pericellular pH displayed coordinated spatial patterns along the length of the cell. The NPQ values were lower in H(+)-extruding cell regions (external pH approximately 6.5) than in high pH regions (pH approximately 9.5). Generation of an action potential by applying a pulse of electric current caused NPQ to increase within 30-60 s. This effect, manifested as a long-lived drop of maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F(m)'), occurred at lower photosynthetic flux densities (PFD) in the alkaline as compared to acidic cell regions. The light response curve of NPQ shifted, after generation of an action potential, towards lower PFD. The release of NPQ by nigericin and the rapid reversal of action potential-triggered NPQ in darkness indicate its relation to thylakoid DeltapH. Generation of an action potential shortly after darkening converted the chloroplasts into a latent state with the F(m) identical to that of unexcited cells. This state transformed to the quenched state after turning on weak light that was insufficient for NPQ prior to membrane excitation of the cells. The ionophore, A23187, shifted NPQ plots similarly to the action potential effect, consistent with a likely role of a rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level in the action potential-induced quenching. The results suggest that a rapid electric signal, across the plasma membrane, might exert long-lived effects on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence through ion flux-mediated pathways.

  1. Zeaxanthin Binds to Light-Harvesting Complex Stress-Related Protein to Enhance Nonphotochemical Quenching in Physcomitrella patens[W

    PubMed Central

    Pinnola, Alberta; Dall’Osto, Luca; Gerotto, Caterina; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) dissipates excess energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light. The moss Physcomitrella patens exhibits strong NPQ by both algal-type light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR)–dependent and plant-type S subunit of Photosystem II (PSBS)-dependent mechanisms. In this work, we studied the dependence of NPQ reactions on zeaxanthin, which is synthesized under light stress by violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE) from preexisting violaxanthin. We produced vde knockout (KO) plants and showed they underwent a dramatic reduction in thermal dissipation ability and enhanced photoinhibition in excess light conditions. Multiple mutants (vde lhcsr KO and vde psbs KO) showed that zeaxanthin had a major influence on LHCSR-dependent NPQ, in contrast with previous reports in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The PSBS-dependent component of quenching was less dependent on zeaxanthin, despite the near-complete violaxanthin to zeaxanthin exchange in LHC proteins. Consistent with this, we provide biochemical evidence that native LHCSR protein binds zeaxanthin upon excess light stress. These findings suggest that zeaxanthin played an important role in the adaptation of modern plants to the enhanced levels of oxygen and excess light intensity of land environments. PMID:24014548

  2. Zeaxanthin binds to light-harvesting complex stress-related protein to enhance nonphotochemical quenching in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Pinnola, Alberta; Dall'Osto, Luca; Gerotto, Caterina; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) dissipates excess energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light. The moss Physcomitrella patens exhibits strong NPQ by both algal-type light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR)-dependent and plant-type S subunit of Photosystem II (PSBS)-dependent mechanisms. In this work, we studied the dependence of NPQ reactions on zeaxanthin, which is synthesized under light stress by violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE) from preexisting violaxanthin. We produced vde knockout (KO) plants and showed they underwent a dramatic reduction in thermal dissipation ability and enhanced photoinhibition in excess light conditions. Multiple mutants (vde lhcsr KO and vde psbs KO) showed that zeaxanthin had a major influence on LHCSR-dependent NPQ, in contrast with previous reports in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The PSBS-dependent component of quenching was less dependent on zeaxanthin, despite the near-complete violaxanthin to zeaxanthin exchange in LHC proteins. Consistent with this, we provide biochemical evidence that native LHCSR protein binds zeaxanthin upon excess light stress. These findings suggest that zeaxanthin played an important role in the adaptation of modern plants to the enhanced levels of oxygen and excess light intensity of land environments.

  3. Multiple Effects of Dithiothreitol on Nonphotochemical Fluorescence Quenching in Intact Chloroplasts (Influence on Violaxanthin De-epoxidase and Ascorbate Peroxidase Activity).

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, C.

    1993-01-01

    Reversible nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching depends on thylakoid lumen acidification and violaxanthin de-epoxidation and is correlated with photoprotection of photosynthesis. The O2-dependent electron flow in the coupled Mehler-ascorbate peroxidase reaction (MP-reaction) mediates the electron flow necessary for lumen acidification and violaxanthin de-epoxidation in isolated, intact chloroplasts. Inhibition of violaxanthin de-epoxidation by dithiothreitol (DTT) was correlated with suppression of fluorescence quenching. In addition, DTT was also found to suppress fluorescence quenching due to inhibition of ascorbate peroxidase activity, a main enzyme of the MP-reaction, even in the presence of zeaxanthin. In intact, non-CO2-fixing chloroplasts, violaxanthin and antheraxanthin de-epoxidation and the ascorbate peroxidase activity show different sensitivities to increasing DTT concentrations. Violaxanthin de-epoxidase activity, measured as the sum of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin formed, was inhibited with an inhibitor concentration for 50% inhibition (I50) of 0.35 mM DTT. In contrast, inhibition of the O2-dependent electron flow and corresponding lumen acidification occurred with higher I50 values of 2.5 and 3 mM DTT, respectively, and was attributed to inhibition of ascorbate peroxidase activity (I50 = 2 mM DTT). Accordingly, the DTT-induced inhibition of the nigericin-sensitive nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching was correlated linearly with the decreasing concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin and was almost unaffected by DTT inhibition of the MP-reaction and correlated [delta]pH. The nigericin-insensitive, photoinhibitory kind of nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching up to 1 mM was mainly correlated with inhibition of violaxanthin de-epoxidation. At higher DTT concentrations, it was attributed to inhibition of both violaxanthin de-epoxidation and MP-reaction. The results show that DTT has multiple, but distinguishable, effects on

  4. The chloroplast NADPH thioredoxin reductase C, NTRC, controls non-photochemical quenching of light energy and photosynthetic electron transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Belén; Mignée, Clara; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Lindahl, Marika

    2016-04-01

    High irradiances may lead to photooxidative stress in plants, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) contributes to protection against excess excitation. One of the NPQ mechanisms, qE, involves thermal dissipation of the light energy captured. Importantly, plants need to tune down qE under light-limiting conditions for efficient utilization of the available quanta. Considering the possible redox control of responses to excess light implying enzymes, such as thioredoxins, we have studied the role of the NADPH thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC). Whereas Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking NTRC tolerate high light intensities, these plants display drastically elevated qE, have larger trans-thylakoid ΔpH and have 10-fold higher zeaxanthin levels under low and medium light intensities, leading to extremely low linear electron transport rates. To test the impact of the high qE on plant growth, we generated an ntrc-psbs double-knockout mutant, which is devoid of qE. This double mutant grows faster than the ntrc mutant and has a higher chlorophyll content. The photosystem II activity is partially restored in the ntrc-psbs mutant, and linear electron transport rates under low and medium light intensities are twice as high as compared with plants lacking ntrc alone. These data uncover a new role for NTRC in the control of photosynthetic yield.

  5. The chloroplast NADPH thioredoxin reductase C, NTRC, controls non-photochemical quenching of light energy and photosynthetic electron transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Belén; Mignée, Clara; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Lindahl, Marika

    2016-04-01

    High irradiances may lead to photooxidative stress in plants, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) contributes to protection against excess excitation. One of the NPQ mechanisms, qE, involves thermal dissipation of the light energy captured. Importantly, plants need to tune down qE under light-limiting conditions for efficient utilization of the available quanta. Considering the possible redox control of responses to excess light implying enzymes, such as thioredoxins, we have studied the role of the NADPH thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC). Whereas Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking NTRC tolerate high light intensities, these plants display drastically elevated qE, have larger trans-thylakoid ΔpH and have 10-fold higher zeaxanthin levels under low and medium light intensities, leading to extremely low linear electron transport rates. To test the impact of the high qE on plant growth, we generated an ntrc-psbs double-knockout mutant, which is devoid of qE. This double mutant grows faster than the ntrc mutant and has a higher chlorophyll content. The photosystem II activity is partially restored in the ntrc-psbs mutant, and linear electron transport rates under low and medium light intensities are twice as high as compared with plants lacking ntrc alone. These data uncover a new role for NTRC in the control of photosynthetic yield. PMID:26476233

  6. Ethylene Regulates Energy-Dependent Non-Photochemical Quenching in Arabidopsis through Repression of the Xanthophyll Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent (qE) non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity. PMID:26630486

  7. THE IMPACT OF NONPHOTOCHEMICAL QUENCHING OF FLUORESCENCE ON THE PHOTON BALANCE IN DIATOMS UNDER DYNAMIC LIGHT CONDITIONS(1).

    PubMed

    Su, Wanwen; Jakob, Torsten; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of fluorescence is an important photoprotective mechanism in particular under dynamic light conditions. Its photoprotective potential was suggested to be a functional trait of algal diversity. In the present study, the influence of the photoprotective capacity on the growth balance was investigated in two diatoms, which possess different NPQ characteristics. It was hypothesized that under fluctuating light conditions Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz. would benefit from its large and flexible NPQ potential, whereas the comparably small NPQ capacity in Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve should exert an unfavorable impact on growth. The results of the study clearly falsify this hypothesis. Although C. meneghiniana possesses a fast NPQ component, this diatom was not able to recover its full NPQ capacity under fluctuating light. On the other hand, the induction of NPQ at relatively low irradiance in S. costatum resulted in rather small differences in the fraction of energy dissipation by the NPQ mechanism in the comparison of both diatoms. Larger differences were found in the metabolic characteristics. Both diatoms differed in their biomass composition, with a higher content of lipids in C. meneghiniana but higher amounts of carbohydrates in S. costatum. Finally, the lower degree of reduction in the biomass compensated for the higher respiration rates in S. costatum and resulted in a higher quantum efficiency of biomass production. An indirect correlation between the photoprotective and the metabolic capacity is discussed. PMID:27009723

  8. Ethylene Regulates Energy-Dependent Non-Photochemical Quenching in Arabidopsis through Repression of the Xanthophyll Cycle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent (qE) non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity.

  9. Kinetic Studies on the Xanthophyll Cycle in Barley Leaves (Influence of Antenna Size and Relations to Nonphotochemical Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching).

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, H.; Lokstein, H.; Grimm, B.; Rank, B.

    1996-01-01

    Xanthophyll-cycle kinetics as well as the relationship between the xanthophyll de-epoxidation state and Stern-Volmer type nonphotochemical chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching (qN) were investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves comprising a stepwise reduced antenna system. For this purpose plants of the wild type (WT) and the Chl b-less mutant chlorina 3613 were cultivated under either continuous (CL) or intermittent light (IML). Violaxanthin (V) availability varied from about 70% in the WT up to 97 to 98% in the mutant and IML-grown plants. In CL-grown mutant leaves, de-epoxidation rates were strongly accelerated compared to the WT. This is ascribed to a different accessibility of V to the de-epoxidase due to the existence of two V pools: one bound to light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding complexes (LHC) and the other one not bound. Epoxidation rates (k) were decreased with reduction in LHC protein contents: kWT > kmutant >> kIML plants. This supports the idea that the epoxidase activity resides on certain LHC proteins. Irrespective of huge zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin accumulation, the capacity to develop qN was reduced stepwise with antenna size. The qN level obtained in dithiothreitol-treated CL- and IML-grown plants was almost identical with that in untreated IML-grown plants. The findings provide evidence that structural changes within the LHC proteins, mediated by xanthophyll-cycle operation, render the basis for the development of a major proportion of qN. PMID:12226199

  10. Enhancement of non-photochemical quenching in the Bryophyte Physcomitrella patens during acclimation to salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Azzabi, Ghazi; Pinnola, Alberta; Betterle, Nico; Bassi, Roberto; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Drought and salt stress are major abiotic constraints affecting plant growth worldwide. Under these conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon taking place mainly in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, mitochondria and apoplasts, especially when associated with high light stress. ROS are harmful because of their high reactivity to cell components, thereby leading to cytotoxicity and cell death. During the Ordovician and early Devonian period, photosynthetic organisms colonized terrestrial habitats, and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance has been a major component of their evolution. We have studied the capacity for acclimation to drought and salt stress of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a representative of the early land colonization stage. Exposure to high concentrations of NaCl and sorbitol strongly affects chloroplast development, the Chl content and the thylakoid protein composition in this moss. Under sublethal conditions (0.2 M NaCl and 0.4 M sorbitol), the photosynthetic apparatus of P. patens responds to oxidative stress by increasing non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Surprisingly, the accumulation of PSBS and LHCSR, the two polypeptides essential for NPQ in P. patens, was not up-regulated in these conditions. Rather, an increased NPQ amplitude correlated with the overaccumulation of zeaxanthin and the presence of the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase. These results suggest that the regulation of excess energy dissipation through control of PSBS and LHCSR is mainly driven by light conditions, while osmotic and salt stress act through acclimative regulation of the xanthophyll cycle. We conclude that regulation of the xanthophyll cycle is an important anticipatory strategy against photoinhibition by high light. PMID:22952250

  11. Enhancement of non-photochemical quenching in the Bryophyte Physcomitrella patens during acclimation to salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Azzabi, Ghazi; Pinnola, Alberta; Betterle, Nico; Bassi, Roberto; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Drought and salt stress are major abiotic constraints affecting plant growth worldwide. Under these conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon taking place mainly in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, mitochondria and apoplasts, especially when associated with high light stress. ROS are harmful because of their high reactivity to cell components, thereby leading to cytotoxicity and cell death. During the Ordovician and early Devonian period, photosynthetic organisms colonized terrestrial habitats, and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance has been a major component of their evolution. We have studied the capacity for acclimation to drought and salt stress of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a representative of the early land colonization stage. Exposure to high concentrations of NaCl and sorbitol strongly affects chloroplast development, the Chl content and the thylakoid protein composition in this moss. Under sublethal conditions (0.2 M NaCl and 0.4 M sorbitol), the photosynthetic apparatus of P. patens responds to oxidative stress by increasing non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Surprisingly, the accumulation of PSBS and LHCSR, the two polypeptides essential for NPQ in P. patens, was not up-regulated in these conditions. Rather, an increased NPQ amplitude correlated with the overaccumulation of zeaxanthin and the presence of the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase. These results suggest that the regulation of excess energy dissipation through control of PSBS and LHCSR is mainly driven by light conditions, while osmotic and salt stress act through acclimative regulation of the xanthophyll cycle. We conclude that regulation of the xanthophyll cycle is an important anticipatory strategy against photoinhibition by high light.

  12. Excitation migration, quenching, and regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Valkunas, Leonas; Chmeliov, Jevgenij; Trinkunas, Gediminas; Duffy, Christopher D P; van Grondelle, Rienk; Ruban, Alexander V

    2011-07-28

    Excitation energy transfer and quenching in LHCII aggregates is considered in terms of a coarse-grained model. The model assumes that the excitation energy transfer within a pigment-protein complex is much faster than the intercomplex excitation energy transfer, whereas the quenching ability is attributed to a specific pigment-protein complex responsible for the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). It is demonstrated that the pump-probe experimental data obtained at low excitation intensities for LHCII aggregates under NPQ conditions can be equally well explained at two limiting cases, either describing the excitation kinetics in the migration-limited or in the trap-limited regime. Thus, it is concluded that low excitation conditions do not allow one to unambiguously define the relationship between the mean times of excitation migration and trapping. However, this could be achieved by using high excitation conditions when exciton-exciton annihilation is dominant. In this case it was found that in the trap-limited regime the excitation kinetics in the aggregate should be almost insensitive to the excitation density, meaning that singlet-singlet annihilation has little effect on the NPQ decay kinetics, whereas in the migration-limited case there is a clear intensity dependence. In order to account for the random distribution of the NPQ-traps within the LHCII aggregates, excitation diffusion in a continuous medium with random static traps was considered. This description demonstrates a very good correspondence to the experimental fluorescence kinetics assuming a lamellar (quasi-3D) structure of the antenna characterized by the dimension d=2.4 and therefore justifying the diffusion-limited approach on which the model is based. Using the coarse-grained model to describe the aggregate we estimate one NPQ-trap per 100 monomeric LHCII complexes. Finally we discuss the origin of the traps responsible for excitation quenching under NPQ conditions.

  13. Carotenoid-induced non-photochemical quenching in the cyanobacterial chlorophyll synthase-HliC/D complex.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Tronina, Tomasz; Liu, Haijun; Staleva, Hristina; Komenda, Josef; Sobotka, Roman; Blankenship, Robert E; Polívka, Tomáš

    2016-09-01

    Chl synthase (ChlG) is an important enzyme of the Chl biosynthetic pathway catalyzing attachment of phytol/geranylgeraniol tail to the chlorophyllide molecule. Here we have investigated the Flag-tagged ChlG (f.ChlG) in a complex with two different high-light inducible proteins (Hlips) HliD and HliC. The f.ChlG-Hlips complex binds a Chl a and three different carotenoids, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and myxoxanthophyll. Application of ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy performed at room and cryogenic temperatures revealed excited-state dynamics of complex-bound pigments. After excitation of Chl a in the complex, excited Chl a is efficiently quenched by a nearby carotenoid molecule via energy transfer from the Chl a Qy state to the carotenoid S1 state. The kinetic analysis of the spectroscopic data revealed that quenching occurs with a time constant of ~2ps and its efficiency is temperature independent. Even though due to its long conjugation myxoxanthophyll appears to be energetically best suited for role of Chl a quencher, based on comparative analysis and spectroscopic data we propose that β-carotene bound to Hlips acts as the quencher rather than myxoxanthophyll and zeaxanthin, which are bound at the f.ChlG and Hlips interface. The S1 state lifetime of the quencher has been determined to be 13ps at room temperature and 21ps at 77K. These results demonstrate that Hlips act as a conserved functional module that prevents photodamage of protein complexes during photosystem assembly or Chl biosynthesis. PMID:27133505

  14. Action potential in Chara cells intensifies spatial patterns of photosynthetic electron flow and non-photochemical quenching in parallel with inhibition of pH banding.

    PubMed

    Krupenina, Natalia A; Bulychev, Alexander A; Roelfsema, M Rob G; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2008-06-01

    Characean cells exposed to illumination arrange plasma-membrane H(+) fluxes and photosynthesis in coordinated spatial patterns. The limited availability of CO(2) in alkaline bands accounts for the lower effective quantum yield of photosystem II (DeltaF/F(m)') in chloroplasts of these bands compared to acidic zones. The effect of electrically triggered action potential on the spatial distribution of photosynthetic parameters (DeltaF/F(m)' and non-photochemical quenching, NPQ) and extracellular pH was studied with fluorescence imaging and pH microelectrodes. In the resting cell at a range of light intensities, the periodic profile of extracellular pH is parallel to the profile of NPQ and antiparallel to that of DeltaF/F(m)'. After triggering the action potential, the pH banding temporarily disappeared, but in contrast, the differences in effective quantum yield and NPQ patterns became more apparent. The transient changes in pH-banding, effective quantum yield and non-photochemical quenching are discussed in relation to alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) and H(+) concentrations during and after the action potential.

  15. Diurnal changes in the xanthophyll cycle pigments of freshwater algae correlate with the environmental hydrogen peroxide concentration rather than non-photochemical quenching

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Thomas; Miller, Ramona; Aigner, Siegfried; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In photosynthetic organisms exposure to high light induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in part is prevented by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). As one of the most stable and longest-lived ROS, H2O2 is involved in key signalling pathways in development and stress responses, although in excess it can induce damage. A ubiquitous response to high light is the induction of the xanthophyll cycle, but its role in algae is unclear as it is not always associated with NPQ induction. The aim of this study was to reveal how diurnal changes in the level of H2O2 are regulated in a freshwater algal community. Methods A natural freshwater community of algae in a temporary rainwater pool was studied, comprising photosynthetic Euglena species, benthic Navicula diatoms, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species. Diurnal measurements were made of photosynthetic performance, concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and H2O2. The frequently studied model organisms Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species were isolated to study photosynthesis-related H2O2 responses to high light. Key Results NPQ was shown to prevent H2O2 release in Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species under high light; in addition, dissolved organic carbon excited by UV-B radiation was probably responsible for a part of the H2O2 produced in the water column. Concentrations of H2O2 peaked at 2 µm at midday and algae rapidly scavenged H2O2 rather than releasing it. A vertical H2O2 gradient was observed that was lowest next to diatom-rich benthic algal mats. The diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigments included the violaxanthin and diadinoxanthin cycles; the former was induced prior to the latter, but neither was strictly correlated with NPQ. Conclusions The diurnal cycling of H2O2 was apparently modulated by the organisms in this freshwater algal community. Although the community showed flexibility in its levels of NPQ, the diurnal changes in

  16. Temperature dependence of violaxanthin de-epoxidation and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in intact leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. and Malva parviflora L.

    PubMed

    Bilger, W; Björkman, O

    1991-05-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate of de-epoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin was determined in leaves of chilling-sensitive Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) and chilling-resistant Malva parviflora L. by measurements of the increase in absorbance at 505 nm (ΔA 505) and in the contents of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin that occur upon exposure of predarkened leaves to excessive light. A linear relationship between ΔA 505 and the decrease in the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll-cycle pigment pool was obtained over the range 10-40° C. The maximal rate of de-epoxidation was strongly temperature dependent; Q10 measured around the temperature at which the leaf had developed was 2.1-2.3 in both species. In field-grown Malva the rate of de-epoxidation at any given measurement temperature was two to three times higher in leaves developed at a relatively low temperature in the early spring than in those developed in summer. Q10 measured around 15° C was in the range 2.2-2.6 in both kinds of Malva leaves, whereas it was as high as 4.6 in cotton leaves developed at a daytime temperature of 30° C. Whereas the maximum (initial) rate of de-epoxidation showed a strong decrease with decreased temperature the degree of de-epoxidation reached in cotton leaves after a 1-2 · h exposure to a constant photon flux density increased with decreased temperature as the rate of photosynthesis decrease. The zeaxanthin content rose from 2 mmol · (mol chlorophyll)(-1) at 30° C to 61 mmol · (mol Chl)(-1) at 10° C, corresponding to a de-epoxidation of 70% of the violaxanthin pool at 10° C. The degree of de-epoxidation at each temperature was clearly related to the amount of excessive light present at that temperature. The relationship between non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and zeaxanthin formation at different temperatures was determined for both untreated control leaves and for leaves in which zeaxanthin formation was prevented by dithiothreitol

  17. Multi-Level, Multi Time-Scale Fluorescence Intermittency of Photosynthetic LH2 Complexes: A Precursor of Non-Photochemical Quenching?

    PubMed

    Schörner, Mario; Beyer, Sebastian Reinhardt; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The light harvesting complex LH2 is a chromoprotein that is an ideal system for studying protein dynamics via the spectral fluctuations of the emission of its intrinsic chromophores. We have immobilized these complexes in a polymer film and studied the fluctuations of the fluorescence intensity from individual complexes over 9 orders of magnitude in time. Combining time-tagged detection of single photons with a change-point analysis has allowed the unambigeous identification of the various intensity levels due to the huge statistical basis of the data set. We propose that the observed intensity level fluctuations reflect conformational changes of the protein backbone that might be a precursor of the mechanism from which nonphotochemical quenching of higher plants has evolved.

  18. Multi-Level, Multi Time-Scale Fluorescence Intermittency of Photosynthetic LH2 Complexes: A Precursor of Non-Photochemical Quenching?

    PubMed

    Schörner, Mario; Beyer, Sebastian Reinhardt; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The light harvesting complex LH2 is a chromoprotein that is an ideal system for studying protein dynamics via the spectral fluctuations of the emission of its intrinsic chromophores. We have immobilized these complexes in a polymer film and studied the fluctuations of the fluorescence intensity from individual complexes over 9 orders of magnitude in time. Combining time-tagged detection of single photons with a change-point analysis has allowed the unambigeous identification of the various intensity levels due to the huge statistical basis of the data set. We propose that the observed intensity level fluctuations reflect conformational changes of the protein backbone that might be a precursor of the mechanism from which nonphotochemical quenching of higher plants has evolved. PMID:26419118

  19. Responses to desiccation stress in bryophytes and an important role of dithiothreitol-insensitive non-photochemical quenching against photoinhibition in dehydrated states.

    PubMed

    Nabe, Hayase; Funabiki, Ryoko; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    2007-11-01

    The effects of air drying and hypertonic treatments in the dark on seven bryophytes, which had grown under different water environments, were studied. All the desiccation-tolerant species tested lost most of their PSII photochemical activity when photosynthetic electron transport was inhibited by air drying, while, in all the sensitive species, the PSII photochemical activity remained at a high level even when photosynthesis was totally inhibited. The PSI reaction center remained active under drying conditions in both sensitive and tolerant species, but the activity became non-detectable in the light only in tolerant species due to deactivation of the cyclic electron flow around PSI and of the back reaction in PSI. Light-induced non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was found to be induced not only by the xanthophyll cycle but also by a DeltapH-induced, dithiothreitol-insensitive mechanism in both the desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant bryophytes. Both mechanisms are thought to have an important role in protecting desiccation-tolerant species from photoinhibition under drying conditions. Fluorescence emission spectra at 77K showed that dehydration-induced quenching of PSII fluorescence was observed only in tolerant species and was due to neither state 1-state 2 transition nor detachment of light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes from PSII core complexes. The presence of dehydration-induced quenching of PSI fluorescence was also suggested.

  20. Excitation energy after a smooth quench in a Luttinger liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Tylutki, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Low-energy physics of quasi-one-dimensional ultracold atomic gases is often described by a gapless Luttinger liquid (LL). It is nowadays routine to manipulate these systems by changing their parameters in time but, no matter how slow the manipulation is, it must excite a gapless system. We study a smooth change of parameters of the LL (a smooth ''quench'') with a variable quench time and find that the excitation energy decays with an inverse power of the quench time. This universal exponent is -2 at zero temperature and -1 for slow enough quenches at finite temperature. The smooth quench does not excite beyond the range of validity of the low-energy LL description.

  1. The zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent qE components of nonphotochemical quenching involve common conformational changes within the photosystem II antenna in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew P; Pérez-Bueno, María L; Zia, Ahmad; Horton, Peter; Ruban, Alexander V

    2009-02-01

    The light-harvesting antenna of higher plant photosystem II (LHCII) has the intrinsic capacity to dissipate excess light energy as heat in a process termed nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Recent studies suggest that zeaxanthin and lutein both contribute to the rapidly relaxing component of NPQ, qE, possibly acting in the minor monomeric antenna complexes and the major trimeric LHCII, respectively. To distinguish whether zeaxanthin and lutein act independently as quenchers at separate sites, or alternatively whether zeaxanthin fulfills an allosteric role regulating lutein-mediated quenching, the kinetics of qE and the qE-related conformational changes (DeltaA535) were compared in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant/antisense plants with altered contents of minor antenna (kolhcb6, aslhcb4), trimeric LHCII (aslhcb2), lutein (lut2, lut2npq1, lut2npq2), and zeaxanthin (npq1, npq2). The kinetics of the two components of NPQ induction arising from zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent qE were both sensitive to changes in the protein composition of the photosystem II antenna. The replacement of lutein by zeaxanthin or violaxanthin in the internal Lhcb protein-binding sites affected the kinetics and relative amplitude of each component as well as the absolute chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime. Both components of qE were characterized by a conformational change leading to nearly identical absorption changes in the Soret region that indicated the involvement of the LHCII lutein 1 domain. Based on these observations, we suggest that both components of qE arise from a common quenching mechanism based upon a conformational change within the photosystem II antenna, optimized by Lhcb subunit-subunit interactions and tuned by the synergistic effects of external and internally bound xanthophylls.

  2. Efficient Quenching of Population Trapping in Excited Yb superscript +

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency of various buffer gases in quenching the population trapping states of laser excited ytterbium ions is described. Highly efficient in quenching the population of the trapping states, N subscript 2 has been identified as the most suitable buffer gas to use with ytterbium for the development i=of a trapped ion microwave frequency standard.

  3. High light-dependent phosphorylation of photosystem II inner antenna CP29 in monocots is STN7 independent and enhances nonphotochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Betterle, Nico; Ballottari, Matteo; Baginsky, Sacha; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorylation of the photosystem II antenna protein CP29 has been reported to be induced by excess light and further enhanced by low temperature, increasing resistance to these stressing factors. Moreover, high light-induced CP29 phosphorylation was specifically found in monocots, both C3 and C4, which include the large majority of food crops. Recently, knockout collections have become available in rice (Oryza sativa), a model organism for monocots. In this work, we have used reverse genetics coupled to biochemical and physiological analysis to elucidate the molecular basis of high light-induced phosphorylation of CP29 and the mechanisms by which it exerts a photoprotective effect. We found that kinases and phosphatases involved in CP29 phosphorylation are distinct from those reported to act in State 1-State 2 transitions. In addition, we elucidated the photoprotective role of CP29 phosphorylation in reducing singlet oxygen production and enhancing excess energy dissipation. We thus established, in monocots, a mechanistic connection between phosphorylation of CP29 and nonphotochemical quenching, two processes so far considered independent from one another.

  4. Identification of pH-sensing Sites in the Light Harvesting Complex Stress-related 3 Protein Essential for Triggering Non-photochemical Quenching in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Ballottari, Matteo; Truong, Thuy B.; De Re, Eleonora; Erickson, Erika; Stella, Giulio R.; Fleming, Graham R.; Bassi, Roberto; Niyogi, Krishna K.

    2016-01-01

    Light harvesting complex stress-related 3 (LHCSR3) is the protein essential for photoprotective excess energy dissipation (non-photochemical quenching, NPQ) in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Activation of NPQ requires low pH in the thylakoid lumen, which is induced in excess light conditions and sensed by lumen-exposed acidic residues. In this work we have used site-specific mutagenesis in vivo and in vitro for identification of the residues in LHCSR3 that are responsible for sensing lumen pH. Lumen-exposed protonatable residues, aspartate and glutamate, were mutated to asparagine and glutamine, respectively. By expression in a mutant lacking all LHCSR isoforms, residues Asp117, Glu221, and Glu224 were shown to be essential for LHCSR3-dependent NPQ induction in C. reinhardtii. Analysis of recombinant proteins carrying the same mutations refolded in vitro with pigments showed that the capacity of responding to low pH by decreasing the fluorescence lifetime, present in the wild-type protein, was lost. Consistent with a role in pH sensing, the mutations led to a substantial reduction in binding the NPQ inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. PMID:26817847

  5. Non-photochemical quenching and xanthophyll cycle activities in six green algal species suggest mechanistic differences in the process of excess energy dissipation.

    PubMed

    Quaas, Theresa; Berteotti, Silvia; Ballottari, Matteo; Flieger, Kerstin; Bassi, Roberto; Wilhelm, Christian; Goss, Reimund

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of four biofilm-forming and two planktonic green algae was investigated by fluorescence measurements, determinations of the light-driven proton gradient and determination of the violaxanthin cycle activity by pigment analysis. It was observed that, despite the common need for efficient photoprotection, the structural basis of NPQ was heterogeneous in the different species. Three species, namely Chlorella saccharophila, Chlorella vulgaris and Bracteacoccus minor, exhibited a zeaxanthin-dependent NPQ, while in the three other species, Tetracystis aeria, Pedinomonas minor and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii violaxanthin de-epoxidation was absent or unrelated to the establishment of NPQ. Acclimation of the algae to high light conditions induced an increase of the NPQ activity, suggesting that a significant part of the overall NPQ was rather inducible than constitutively present in the green algae. Comparing the differences in the NPQ mechanisms with the phylogenetic position of the six algal species led to the conclusion that the NPQ heterogeneity observed in the present study was not related to the phylogeny of the algae but to the environmental selection pressure. Finally, the difference in the NPQ mechanisms in the different species is discussed within the frame of the current NPQ models.

  6. Identification of pH-sensing Sites in the Light Harvesting Complex Stress-related 3 Protein Essential for Triggering Non-photochemical Quenching in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ballottari, Matteo; Truong, Thuy B; De Re, Eleonora; Erickson, Erika; Stella, Giulio R; Fleming, Graham R; Bassi, Roberto; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2016-04-01

    Light harvesting complex stress-related 3 (LHCSR3) is the protein essential for photoprotective excess energy dissipation (non-photochemical quenching, NPQ) in the model green algaChlamydomonas reinhardtii Activation of NPQ requires low pH in the thylakoid lumen, which is induced in excess light conditions and sensed by lumen-exposed acidic residues. In this work we have used site-specific mutagenesisin vivoandin vitrofor identification of the residues in LHCSR3 that are responsible for sensing lumen pH. Lumen-exposed protonatable residues, aspartate and glutamate, were mutated to asparagine and glutamine, respectively. By expression in a mutant lacking all LHCSR isoforms, residues Asp(117), Glu(221), and Glu(224)were shown to be essential for LHCSR3-dependent NPQ induction inC. reinhardtii Analysis of recombinant proteins carrying the same mutations refoldedin vitrowith pigments showed that the capacity of responding to low pH by decreasing the fluorescence lifetime, present in the wild-type protein, was lost. Consistent with a role in pH sensing, the mutations led to a substantial reduction in binding the NPQ inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. PMID:26817847

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity.

  8. Lutein from Deepoxidation of Lutein Epoxide Replaces Zeaxanthin to Sustain an Enhanced Capacity for Nonphotochemical Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching in Avocado Shade Leaves in the Dark1

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Britta; Pogson, Barry James; Osmond, Charles Barry

    2011-01-01

    Leaves of avocado (Persea americana) that develop and persist in deep shade canopies have very low rates of photosynthesis but contain high concentrations of lutein epoxide (Lx) that are partially deepoxidized to lutein (L) after 1 h of exposure to 120 to 350 μmol photons m−2 s−1, increasing the total L pool by 5% to 10% (ΔL). Deepoxidation of Lx to L was near stoichiometric and similar in kinetics to deepoxidation of violaxanthin (V) to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z). Although the V pool was restored by epoxidation of A and Z overnight, the Lx pool was not. Depending on leaf age and pretreatment, the pool of ΔL persisted for up to 72 h in the dark. Metabolism of ΔL did not involve epoxidation to Lx. These contrasting kinetics enabled us to differentiate three states of the capacity for nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) in attached and detached leaves: ΔpH dependent (NPQΔpH) before deepoxidation; after deepoxidation in the presence of ΔL, A, and Z (NPQΔLAZ); and after epoxidation of A+Z but with residual ΔL (NPQΔL). The capacity of both NPQΔLAZ and NPQΔL was similar and 45% larger than NPQΔpH, but dark relaxation of NPQΔLAZ was slower. The enhanced capacity for NPQ was lost after metabolism of ΔL. The near equivalence of NPQΔLAZ and NPQΔL provides compelling evidence that the small dynamic pool ΔL replaces A+Z in avocado to “lock in” enhanced NPQ. The results are discussed in relation to data obtained with other Lx-rich species and in mutants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with increased L pools. PMID:21427278

  9. Proton Gradient Regulation5-Like1-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow Is Crucial for Acclimation to Anoxia and Complementary to Nonphotochemical Quenching in Stress Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kukuczka, Bernadeta; Magneschi, Leonardo; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Steinbeck, Janina; Bald, Till; Powikrowska, Marta; Fufezan, Christian; Finazzi, Giovanni; Hippler, Michael

    2014-06-19

    To investigate the functional importance of Proton Gradient Regulation5-Like1 (PGRL1) for photosynthetic performances in the moss Physcomitrella patens, we generated a pgrl1 knockout mutant. Functional analysis revealed diminished nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) as well as decreased capacity for cyclic electron flow (CEF) in pgrl1. Under anoxia, where CEF is induced, quantitative proteomics evidenced severe down-regulation of photosystems but up-regulation of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase complex, plastocyanin, and Ca(2+) sensors in the mutant, indicating that the absence of PGRL1 triggered a mechanism compensatory for diminished CEF. On the other hand, proteins required for NPQ, such as light-harvesting complex stress-related protein1 (LHCSR1), violaxanthin de-epoxidase, and PSII subunit S, remained stable. To further investigate the interrelation between CEF and NPQ, we generated a pgrl1 npq4 double mutant in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacking both PGRL1 and LHCSR3 expression. Phenotypic comparative analyses of this double mutant, together with the single knockout strains and with the P. patens pgrl1, demonstrated that PGRL1 is crucial for acclimation to high light and anoxia in both organisms. Moreover, the data generated for the C. reinhardtii double mutant clearly showed a complementary role of PGRL1 and LHCSR3 in managing high light stress response. We conclude that both proteins are needed for photoprotection and for survival under low oxygen, underpinning a tight link between CEF and NPQ in oxygenic photosynthesis. Given the complementarity of the energy-dependent component of NPQ (qE) and PGRL1-mediated CEF, we suggest that PGRL1 is a capacitor linked to the evolution of the PSII subunit S-dependent qE in terrestrial plants.

  10. Silencing of the Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase Gene in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Reduces Diatoxanthin Synthesis and Non-Photochemical Quenching

    PubMed Central

    Vugrinec, Sascha; Kroth, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms are a major group of primary producers ubiquitous in all aquatic ecosystems. To protect themselves from photooxidative damage in a fluctuating light climate potentially punctuated with regular excess light exposures, diatoms have developed several photoprotective mechanisms. The xanthophyll cycle (XC) dependent non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) is one of the most important photoprotective processes that rapidly regulate photosynthesis in diatoms. NPQ depends on the conversion of diadinoxanthin (DD) into diatoxanthin (DT) by the violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), also called DD de-epoxidase (DDE). To study the role of DDE in controlling NPQ, we generated transformants of P. tricornutum in which the gene (Vde/Dde) encoding for DDE was silenced. RNA interference was induced by genetic transformation of the cells with plasmids containing either short (198 bp) or long (523 bp) antisense (AS) fragments or, alternatively, with a plasmid mediating the expression of a self-complementary hairpin-like construct (inverted repeat, IR). The silencing approaches generated diatom transformants with a phenotype clearly distinguishable from wildtype (WT) cells, i.e. a lower degree as well as slower kinetics of both DD de-epoxidation and NPQ induction. Real-time PCR based quantification of Dde transcripts revealed differences in transcript levels between AS transformants and WT cells but also between AS and IR transformants, suggesting the possible presence of two different gene silencing mediating mechanisms. This was confirmed by the differential effect of the light intensity on the respective silencing efficiency of both types of transformants. The characterization of the transformants strengthened some of the specific features of the XC and NPQ and confirmed the most recent mechanistic model of the DT/NPQ relationship in diatoms. PMID:22629333

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity. PMID:26291919

  12. Quenching of Excited Na due to He Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Stancil, P. C.; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Buenker, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The quenching and elastic scattering of excited Sodium by collisions with Helium have been investigated for energies between 10(exp -13) eV and 10 eV. With the ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings obtained from multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction approach, we carried out scattering calculations by the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Cross sections for quenching reactions and elastic collisions are presented. Quenching and elastic collisional rate coefficients as a function of temperature between 1 micro-K and 10,000 K are also obtained. The results are relevant to modeling non-LTE effects on Na D absorption lines in extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs.

  13. Efficient Quenching of Population Trapping in Excited Yb(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, D. J.; Maleki, L.

    1995-01-01

    We report on a study to determine the efficiency of various buffer gases in quenching the population trapping states of laser-excited ytterbium ions. The ions were confined in an rf-dc hybrid trap, and their (2)S(.5) left and right arrow (2)P(3/2) transition was excited with 329-nm laser light. Buffer gases used include H2, N2, CO2, Ar, and He at several different pressure regimes. We have identified N2 to be highly efficient in quenching the population of the trapping states and thus be the most suitable buffer gas to use with ytterbium for the development of a trapped-ion microwave frequency standard.

  14. Collisional quenching dynamics and reactivity of highly vibrationally excited molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingnan

    Highly excited molecules are of great importance in many areas of chemistry including photochemistry. The dynamics of highly excited molecules are affected by the intermolecular and intramolecular energy flow between many different kinds of motions. This thesis reports investigations of the collisional quenching and reactivity of highly excited molecules aimed at understanding the dynamics of highly excited molecules. There are several important questions that are addressed. How do molecules behave in collisions with a bath gas? How do the energy distributions evolve in time? How is the energy partitioned for both the donor and bath molecules after collisions? How do molecule structure, molecule state density and intermolecular potential play the role during collisional energy transfer? To answer these questions, collisional quenching dynamics and reactivity of highly vibrationally excited azabenzene molecules have been studied using high resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy. The first study shows that the alkylated pyridine molecules that have been excited with Evib˜38,800 cm-1 impart less rotational and translational energy to CO2 than pyridine does. Comparison between the alkylated donors shows that the strong collisions are reduced for donors with longer alkyl chains by lowering the average energy per mode but longer alkyl chain have increased flexibility and higher state densities that enhance energy loss via strong collisions. In the second study, the role of hydrogen bonding interactions is explored in collision of vibrationally excited pyridines with H2O. Substantial difference in the rotational energy of H 2O is correlated with the structure of the global energy minimum. A torque-inducing mechanism is proposed that involves directed movement of H 2O between sigma and pi-hydrogen bonding interactions with the pyridine donors. In the third study the dynamics of strong and weak collisions for highly vibrationally excited methylated pyridine

  15. Effects of habitat light conditions on the excitation quenching pathways in desiccating Haberlea rhodopensis leaves: an Intelligent FluoroSensor study.

    PubMed

    Solti, Ádám; Lenk, Sándor; Mihailova, Gergana; Mayer, Péter; Barócsi, Attila; Georgieva, Katya

    2014-01-01

    Resurrection plants can survive dehydration to air-dry state, thus they are excellent models of understanding drought and dehydration tolerance mechanisms. Haberlea rhodopensis, a chlorophyll-retaining resurrection plant, can survive desiccation to relative water content below 10%. Leaves, detached from plants of sun and shade habitats, were moderately (∼50%) dehydrated in darkness. During desiccation, chlorophyll a fluorescence was detected by the recently innovated wireless Intelligent FluoroSensor (IFS) chlorophyll fluorometer, working with three different detectors: a pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) broadband channel and two channels to measure non-modulated red and far-red fluorescence. No change in area-based chlorophyll content of leaves was observed. The maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II decreased gradually in both shade and sun leaves. Shade leaves could not increase antennae-based quenching, thus inactivated photosystem II took part in quenching of excess irradiation. Sun leaves seemed to be pre-adapted to quench excess light as they established an intensive increase in antennae-based non-photochemical quenching parallel to desiccation. The higher far-red to red antennae-based quenching may sign light-harvesting complex reorganization. Thus, compared to PAM, IFS chlorophyll fluorometer has additional benefits including (i) parallel estimation of changes in the Chl content and (ii) prediction of underlying processes of excitation energy quenching. PMID:24345600

  16. Quenching of highly rotationally excited HCl in collisions with He

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Benhui; Stancil, P. C. E-mail: stancil@physast.uga.edu

    2014-03-10

    We report rotational quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of HCl due to collisions with He. The close-coupling method and the coupled-states approximation are applied in quantum-mechanical scattering calculations of state-to-state cross sections for HCl with initial rotational levels up to j = 20 for kinetic energies from 10{sup –5} to 15,000 cm{sup –1}. State-to-state rate coefficients for temperatures between 0.1 and 3000 K are also presented. Comparison of the present rate coefficients with previous results reported in the literature for lowly excited rotational levels shows reasonable agreement. Small differences are attributed to the differences in the interaction potential energy surfaces. The uncertainty in the computed cross sections and rate coefficients is estimated by varying the potential well depth. Applications of current results to astrophysical systems are also briefly discussed.

  17. Half-Collision Dynamics of Excited Metal Atom Quenching Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Ingvar Axel, II

    Half-collision studies of the quenching of excited states of Zn by Xe and Cd by H_2, CH_4 and i-C_4H _{10} have been undertaken and have provided information concerning the role of alignment of the excited metal atom p-orbital as well as other dynamical information and details about the potential energy surfaces (curves) involved in the quenching process. Van der Waals complexes of a single metal atom with a rare gas atom or quencher molecule are prepared using a supersonic expansion of the metal vapor, carrier gas and quencher gas. To provide a more detailed understanding of van der Waals bonding involving closed shell metal atoms, spectroscopic investigations of the MgcdotNe, Zncdot Ar and ZncdotKr C ^1Pi_1 and X^1 Sigma_0^+ states as well as the ZncdotXe D^1Sigma _0^+ and X^1Sigma _0^+ states via laser induced fluorescence have also been performed. No fluorescence is observed from the Zn cdotXe C^1Pi_1 state which predissociates to Zn(4s4p^3 P_{rm J}) + Xe, permitting the C state to be characterized via a Zn(4s4p^3P_2) "action spectrum." Modeling of the deeply bound C state and the shallow D state using Morse potentials suggests that the long range tail of the C state curve crosses the inner wall of the D state curve. For the CdcdotCH _4 and CdcdotC _4H_{10} complexes, fluorescence is not observed from either the C or D states. However, Cd(5s5p^3P _{rm J}) action spectra are obtained for C and D state excitation. A Cd(5s5p ^3P_0) action spectrum is observed as a result of CdcdotCH _4 A and B state excitation. Rotational structure is observed in the vibrational bands and has permitted characterization of the Cdcdot CH_4 X and A states within a pseudodiatomic approximation and provided evidence for hindered rotation of the methane molecule. When CdcdotH_2 or CdcdotD_2 is excited to the red of the Cd(5s5p^1 P_1 >=ts 5s5s^1S_0) atomic transition, fluorescence is again absent while Cd(5s5p ^3P_{rm J}) action spectra are observed. The observation in the spectra of

  18. Heterologous Expression of Moss Light-harvesting Complex Stress-related 1 (LHCSR1), the Chlorophyll a-Xanthophyll Pigment-protein Complex Catalyzing Non-photochemical Quenching, in Nicotiana sp.*

    PubMed Central

    Pinnola, Alberta; Ghin, Leonardo; Gecchele, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Alboresi, Alessandro; Avesani, Linda; Pezzotti, Mario; Capaldi, Stefano; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms evolved mechanisms for thermal dissipation of energy absorbed in excess to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species. The major and fastest component, called non-photochemical quenching, occurs within the photosystem II antenna system by the action of two essential light-harvesting complex (LHC)-like proteins, photosystem II subunit S (PSBS) in plants and light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) in green algae and diatoms. In the evolutionary intermediate Physcomitrella patens, a moss, both gene products are active. These proteins, which are present in low amounts, are difficult to purify, preventing structural and functional analysis. Here, we report on the overexpression of the LHCSR1 protein from P. patens in the heterologous systems Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum using transient and stable nuclear transformation. We show that the protein accumulated in both heterologous systems is in its mature form, localizes in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, and is correctly folded with chlorophyll a and xanthophylls but without chlorophyll b, an essential chromophore for plants and algal LHC proteins. Finally, we show that recombinant LHCSR1 is active in quenching in vivo, implying that the recombinant protein obtained is a good material for future structural and functional studies. PMID:26260788

  19. Heterologous expression of moss light-harvesting complex stress-related 1 (LHCSR1), the chlorophyll a-xanthophyll pigment-protein complex catalyzing non-photochemical quenching, in Nicotiana sp.

    PubMed

    Pinnola, Alberta; Ghin, Leonardo; Gecchele, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Alboresi, Alessandro; Avesani, Linda; Pezzotti, Mario; Capaldi, Stefano; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms evolved mechanisms for thermal dissipation of energy absorbed in excess to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species. The major and fastest component, called non-photochemical quenching, occurs within the photosystem II antenna system by the action of two essential light-harvesting complex (LHC)-like proteins, photosystem II subunit S (PSBS) in plants and light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) in green algae and diatoms. In the evolutionary intermediate Physcomitrella patens, a moss, both gene products are active. These proteins, which are present in low amounts, are difficult to purify, preventing structural and functional analysis. Here, we report on the overexpression of the LHCSR1 protein from P. patens in the heterologous systems Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum using transient and stable nuclear transformation. We show that the protein accumulated in both heterologous systems is in its mature form, localizes in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, and is correctly folded with chlorophyll a and xanthophylls but without chlorophyll b, an essential chromophore for plants and algal LHC proteins. Finally, we show that recombinant LHCSR1 is active in quenching in vivo, implying that the recombinant protein obtained is a good material for future structural and functional studies. PMID:26260788

  20. Heterologous expression of moss light-harvesting complex stress-related 1 (LHCSR1), the chlorophyll a-xanthophyll pigment-protein complex catalyzing non-photochemical quenching, in Nicotiana sp.

    PubMed

    Pinnola, Alberta; Ghin, Leonardo; Gecchele, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Alboresi, Alessandro; Avesani, Linda; Pezzotti, Mario; Capaldi, Stefano; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms evolved mechanisms for thermal dissipation of energy absorbed in excess to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species. The major and fastest component, called non-photochemical quenching, occurs within the photosystem II antenna system by the action of two essential light-harvesting complex (LHC)-like proteins, photosystem II subunit S (PSBS) in plants and light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) in green algae and diatoms. In the evolutionary intermediate Physcomitrella patens, a moss, both gene products are active. These proteins, which are present in low amounts, are difficult to purify, preventing structural and functional analysis. Here, we report on the overexpression of the LHCSR1 protein from P. patens in the heterologous systems Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum using transient and stable nuclear transformation. We show that the protein accumulated in both heterologous systems is in its mature form, localizes in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, and is correctly folded with chlorophyll a and xanthophylls but without chlorophyll b, an essential chromophore for plants and algal LHC proteins. Finally, we show that recombinant LHCSR1 is active in quenching in vivo, implying that the recombinant protein obtained is a good material for future structural and functional studies.

  1. PsbS-specific zeaxanthin-independent changes in fluorescence emission spectrum as a signature of energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Dogsom, Bolormaa; Lee, Chung Yeol; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2010-05-01

    The PsbS protein of photosystem II is necessary for the development of energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence (qE), and PsbS-deficient Arabidopsis plant leaves failed to show qE-specific changes in the steady-state 77 K fluorescence emission spectra observed in wild-type leaves. The difference spectrum between the quenched and un-quenched states showed a negative peak at 682 nm. Although the level of qE development in the zeaxanthin-less npq1-2 mutant plants, which lacked violaxanthin de-epoxidase enzyme, was only half that of wild type, there were no noticeable changes in this qE-dependent difference spectrum. This zeaxanthin-independent DeltaF682 signal was not dependent on state transition, and the signal was not due to photobleaching of pigments either. These results suggest that DeltaF682 signal is formed due to PsbS-specific conformational changes in the quenching site of qE and is a new signature of qE generation in higher plants.

  2. Integrating transient heterogeneity of non-photochemical quenching in shade-grown heterobaric leaves of avocado (Persea americana L.): responses to CO2 concentration, stomatal occlusion, dehydration and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kotaro; King, Diana; Robinson, Sharon A; Osmond, Barry

    2013-11-01

    Long-lived shade leaves of avocado had extremely low rates of photosynthesis. Gas exchange measurements of photosynthesis were of limited use, so we resorted to Chl fluorescence imaging (CFI) and spot measurements to evaluate photosynthetic electron transport rates (ETRs) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Imaging revealed a remarkable transient heterogeneity of NPQ during photosynthetic induction in these hypostomatous, heterobaric leaves, but was adequately integrated by spot measurements, despite long-lasting artifacts from repeated saturating flashes during assays. Major veins (mid-vein, first- and second-order veins) defined areas of more static large-scale heterogeneous NPQ, with more dynamic small-scale heterogeneity most strongly expressed in mesophyll cells between third- and fourth-order veins. Both responded to external CO2 concentration ([CO2]), occlusion of stomata with Vaseline™, leaf dehydration and relative humidity (RH). We interpreted these responses in terms of independent behavior of stomata in adjacent areoles that was largely expressed through CO2-limited photosynthesis. Heterogeneity was most pronounced and prolonged in the absence of net CO2 fixation in 100 p.p.m. [CO2] when respiratory and photorespiratory CO2 cycling constrained the inferred ETR to ~75% of values in 400 or 700 p.p.m. [CO2]. Likewise, sustained higher NPQ under Vaseline™, after dehydration or at low RH, also restricted ETR to ~75% of control values. Low NPQ in chloroplast-containing cells adjacent to major veins but remote from stomata suggested internal sources of high [CO2] in these tissues.

  3. Cyclic electron transport around photosystem I and its relationship to non-photochemical quenching in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina under nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Einali, Alireza; Shariati, Mansour; Sato, Fumihiko; Endo, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Electron transport in photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) was estimated in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence and changes in P700 redox, respectively, in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina in the presence or absence of a nitrogen source in the culture medium. In a nitrogen-containing medium, the quantum yield of PSII (Φ(II)) and that in PSI (Φ(I)) were at the same level in low light, but cyclic electron transport around photosystem I (CET-PSI) was induced under high light as estimated from an increase in Φ(I)/Φ(II). High light might further enhance the rate of electron transport in PSI by inducing the state 2 transition, in which the distribution of light energy is shifted to PSI at the expense of PSII. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in a decrease in Φ(II) and an increase in Φ(I). As a consequence, the rate of CET-PSI was expected to increase. The high CET-PSI under N deficiency was probably associated with a high level of energy quenching (qE) formation in PSII.

  4. Integrating transient heterogeneity of non-photochemical quenching in shade-grown heterobaric leaves of avocado (Persea americana L.): responses to CO2 concentration, stomatal occlusion, dehydration and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kotaro; King, Diana; Robinson, Sharon A; Osmond, Barry

    2013-11-01

    Long-lived shade leaves of avocado had extremely low rates of photosynthesis. Gas exchange measurements of photosynthesis were of limited use, so we resorted to Chl fluorescence imaging (CFI) and spot measurements to evaluate photosynthetic electron transport rates (ETRs) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Imaging revealed a remarkable transient heterogeneity of NPQ during photosynthetic induction in these hypostomatous, heterobaric leaves, but was adequately integrated by spot measurements, despite long-lasting artifacts from repeated saturating flashes during assays. Major veins (mid-vein, first- and second-order veins) defined areas of more static large-scale heterogeneous NPQ, with more dynamic small-scale heterogeneity most strongly expressed in mesophyll cells between third- and fourth-order veins. Both responded to external CO2 concentration ([CO2]), occlusion of stomata with Vaseline™, leaf dehydration and relative humidity (RH). We interpreted these responses in terms of independent behavior of stomata in adjacent areoles that was largely expressed through CO2-limited photosynthesis. Heterogeneity was most pronounced and prolonged in the absence of net CO2 fixation in 100 p.p.m. [CO2] when respiratory and photorespiratory CO2 cycling constrained the inferred ETR to ~75% of values in 400 or 700 p.p.m. [CO2]. Likewise, sustained higher NPQ under Vaseline™, after dehydration or at low RH, also restricted ETR to ~75% of control values. Low NPQ in chloroplast-containing cells adjacent to major veins but remote from stomata suggested internal sources of high [CO2] in these tissues. PMID:24078766

  5. On the O2(a1Δ) quenching by vibrationally excited ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    The development of a discharge oxygen iodine laser (DOIL) requires efficient production of singlet delta oxygen (O2(a)) in electric discharge. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which O2(a) is quenched in these devices. To gain understanding of this mechanisms quenching of O2(a) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2 a --> X transition. Fast quenching of O2(a) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  6. Inter- and intramolecular quenching of the singlet excited state of porphyrins by ferrocene

    SciTech Connect

    Giasson, R.; Lee, E.J.; Xiaohong Zhao; Wrighton, M.S. )

    1993-03-18

    Inter- and intramolecular quenching of the lowest singlet excited state of three porphyrins by ferrocene derivatives is reported. 5,15-Bis(4-tolyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octamethylporphyrin (1) and two derivatives of 1 where one of the tolyl methyl groups was replaced by a ferrocenylvinyl group, 2, or by a ferrocenylethyl group, 3, were prepared. Porphyrin 2 was isolated as a mixture of cis (73%) and trans (27%) isomers. Singlet excited state properties were studied by steady-state emission spectroscopy and by emission lifetime measurements. The relative quantum yields of fluorescence for 2 and 3 compared to 1 are 0.38 and 0.84, respectively. Fluorescence decay lifetimes of 1 and 3 are 15 and 14 ns, respectively. Fluorescence of 2 is revealed to be due to the emission of two species (cis and trans isomers) with lifetimes of 4 and 13 ns. The shorter fluorescence lifetimes and smaller fluorescence quantum yields for 2 and 3 compared to 1 are attributed to quenching of the singlet excited state of the porphyrin by the ferrocenyl centers. However, the fraction of quenching by electron transfer and energy transfer could not be quantitatively measured. The rate constant for quenching is no more than 10[sup 8] s[sup [minus]1], consistent with electron-transfer quenching. Intermolecular quenching rate constants for the quenching of the porphyrin singlet excited state by ferrocene derivatives were also found to be consistent with an electron transfer quenching mechanism. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Measured Strain of Nb3Sn Coils During Excitation and Quench

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hannaford, C.R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lietzke, S.; Mattafirri,M.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.

    2005-04-16

    The strain in a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a ''common coil'' fashion capable of reaching 11T at 4.2K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench.

  8. Semiclassical study of the quenching of excited-state fluorine atom by hydrogen molecule - Comparison between reactive and nonreactive processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.-M.; Skuse, B. M.; Jaffe, R. L.; Komornicki, A.; Morokuma, K.; George, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    Semiclassical calculations are carried out for the quenching of excited-state fluorine atom by collinear collisions with hydrogen molecule. The overall quenching probability is the sum of two contributions: the reactive quenching probability associated with the formation of hydrogen fluoride and the nonreactive quenching probability leading to ground-state fluorine atom and hydrogen molecule. The reactive probability is greater in the threshold region of the collision energy, whereas the nonreactive probability dominates for energies above the threshold region.

  9. Dissociative excitation of the N(+)(5S) state by electron impact on N2 - Excitation function and quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, P. W.; Zipf, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    Metastable N(+)(5S) ions were produced in the laboratory by dissociative excitation of N2 with energetic electrons. The resulting radiative decay of the N(+)(5S) state was observed with sufficient resolution to completely resolve the doublet from the nearby N2 molecular radiation. The excitation function was measured from threshold to 500 eV. The cross section peaks at a high electron energy and also exhibits a high threshold energy both of which are typical of dissociative excitation-ionization processes. This finding complicates the explanation of electron impact on N2 as the mechanism for the source of the 2145 A 'auroral mystery feature' by further increasing the required peak cross section. It is suggested that the apparent N(+)(5S) quenching in auroras may be an artifact due to the softening of the electron energy spectrum in the auroral E region.

  10. Intermolecular chiral recognition probed by enantiodifferential excited-state quenching kinetics.

    PubMed

    Stockman, T G; Klevickis, C A; Grisham, C M; Richardson, F S

    1996-01-01

    Time-resolved chiroptical luminescence (TR-CL) measurements are used to study the kinetics of chirality-dependent excited-state quenching processes in aqueous solution. Experiments are carried out on samples that contain a racemic mixture of chiral luminophore molecules (L) in solution with a small, optically active concentration of chiral quencher molecules (Q). The luminophores are excited with a pulse of unpolarized light to create an initially racemic excited-state population of lambda L* and delta L* enantiomers, and TR-CL measurements are then used to monitor the differential decay kinetics of the lambda L* and delta L* subpopulations. Observed differences between the lambda L* and delta L* decay kinetics reflect differential rate processes and efficiencies for lambda L*-Q versus delta L*-Q quenching actions, and they are diagnostic of chiral discriminatory interactions between the luminophore and quencher molecules. In this study, the luminophores are either Eu(dpa)3(3-) or Tb(dpa)3(3-) coordination complexes (where dpa denotes a dipicolinate dianion ligand), and the quenchers are diastereomeric structures of Cr(H2O)4(ATP), Rh(H2O)4(ATP) and Rh(H2O)3(ATP) (where ATP identical to adenosine triphosphate). The Ln(dpa)3(3-) (Ln identical to En3+ or Tb3+) complexes have three-bladed propeller-like structures of D3 symmetry, and in aqueous solution they exist as a racemic mixture of left-handed (lambda) and right-handed (delta) configurational isomers (enantiomers). The results show that the chiral quencher molecules can distinguish between the lambda and delta enantiomeric structures of the luminophores in their excited-state quenching actions. The degree and sense of enantiomeric preference in these quenching actions are governed by the electronic and stereochemical properties of the quencher molecules. Twenty-one different luminophore-quencher systems are examined in this study, and they exhibit interestingly diverse enantiodifferential quenching kinetics. The

  11. Quenching of OH(A(2)Sigma(+)) by H(2) through conical intersections: highly excited products in nonreactive channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-Yu; Lu, Rui-Feng; Chu, Tian-Shu; Han, Ke-Li

    2010-06-24

    Nonadiabatic quantum scattering calculations have been carried out for the reactive and nonreactive quenching of OH(A(2)Sigma(+)) in collisions with molecular H(2) on two new potential energy surfaces of the 1A' and 2A' states. Integral cross sections of the reactive and nonreactive quenching channels and the quantum state distributions of the nonreactive channel have been obtained. The theory reveals a high degree of rotational excitation of the quenched OH(X(2)II) products and vibrational excitation of the H(2) products. The calculated results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The topography of the potential energy surfaces in the conical intersection regions is provided in order to discuss the origin of the internal excitations of nonreactive products and the branching of the reactive and nonreactive channels.

  12. Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai M; Bharath, Hebbe M; Boguslawski, Matthew J; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce A; Chapman, Michael S

    2016-08-23

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and massive Anderson-Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental understanding of matter in the Universe and appear as collective phase or amplitude excitations of an order parameter in a many-body system. The amplitude excitation plays a crucial role in determining the critical exponents governing universal nonequilibrium dynamics in the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Here, we characterize the amplitude excitations in a spin-1 condensate and measure the energy gap for different phases of the quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point of the transition, finite-size effects lead to a nonzero gap. Our measurements are consistent with this prediction, and furthermore, we demonstrate an adiabatic quench through the phase transition, which is forbidden at the mean field level. This work paves the way toward generating entanglement through an adiabatic phase transition. PMID:27503886

  13. Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thai M.; Bharath, Hebbe M.; Boguslawski, Matthew J.; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce A.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu–Goldstone modes and massive Anderson–Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental understanding of matter in the Universe and appear as collective phase or amplitude excitations of an order parameter in a many-body system. The amplitude excitation plays a crucial role in determining the critical exponents governing universal nonequilibrium dynamics in the Kibble–Zurek mechanism (KZM). Here, we characterize the amplitude excitations in a spin-1 condensate and measure the energy gap for different phases of the quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point of the transition, finite-size effects lead to a nonzero gap. Our measurements are consistent with this prediction, and furthermore, we demonstrate an adiabatic quench through the phase transition, which is forbidden at the mean field level. This work paves the way toward generating entanglement through an adiabatic phase transition. PMID:27503886

  14. Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Bharath, Hebbe M.; Boguslawski, Matthew J.; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce A.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and massive Anderson-Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental understanding of matter in the Universe and appear as collective phase or amplitude excitations of an order parameter in a many-body system. The amplitude excitation plays a crucial role in determining the critical exponents governing universal nonequilibrium dynamics in the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Here, we characterize the amplitude excitations in a spin-1 condensate and measure the energy gap for different phases of the quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point of the transition, finite-size effects lead to a nonzero gap. Our measurements are consistent with this prediction, and furthermore, we demonstrate an adiabatic quench through the phase transition, which is forbidden at the mean field level. This work paves the way toward generating entanglement through an adiabatic phase transition.

  15. Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai M; Bharath, Hebbe M; Boguslawski, Matthew J; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce A; Chapman, Michael S

    2016-08-23

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and massive Anderson-Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental understanding of matter in the Universe and appear as collective phase or amplitude excitations of an order parameter in a many-body system. The amplitude excitation plays a crucial role in determining the critical exponents governing universal nonequilibrium dynamics in the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Here, we characterize the amplitude excitations in a spin-1 condensate and measure the energy gap for different phases of the quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point of the transition, finite-size effects lead to a nonzero gap. Our measurements are consistent with this prediction, and furthermore, we demonstrate an adiabatic quench through the phase transition, which is forbidden at the mean field level. This work paves the way toward generating entanglement through an adiabatic phase transition.

  16. Rotational Quenching of Rotationally Excited H2O in Collisions with He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Benhui; Nagao, M.; Satomi, W.; Kimura, M.; Stancil, P. C.

    2013-03-01

    Theoretical rotational quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of ortho- and para-H2O due to collisions with He atoms are presented. The complete angular momentum close-coupling approach as well as the coupled-states approximation for the angular momentum decoupling was applied to solve the scattering problem for a large range of rotationally excited states of water. Results are obtained for quenching from initial levels 11, 0, 21, 2, 22, 1, 30, 3, 31, 2, 32, 1, 41, 4, 33, 0, and 42, 3 of ortho-H2O and from initial levels 11, 1, 20, 2, 21, 1, 22, 0, 31, 3, 32, 2, 40, 4, 41, 3, and 33, 1 of para-H2O for kinetic energies from 10-5 to 104 cm-1. State-to-state and total deexcitation cross sections and rate coefficients for temperatures between 0.1 and 3000 K are reported. The present state-to-state rate coefficients are found to be in good agreement with previous results obtained by Green and coworkers at high temperatures, but significant discrepancies are obtained at lower temperatures likely due to differences in the adopted potential energy surfaces. Astrophysical applications of the current rate coefficients are briefly discussed.

  17. Quenching excited triplet C{sub 60} fullerene by tetracyanoethylene in benzonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Nadtochenko, V.A.; Denisov, N.N.; Rubtsov, I.V.; Lobach, A.S.; Moravsky, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The main photophysical properties of C{sub 60} fullerene: The absorption spectra of excited singlet C{sub 60}, the inter-combinational conversion time, the quantum yield of triplet C{sub 60}, the triplet-triplet absorption spectra, and the channels and rate constants of the deactivation of triplet C{sub 60} have been established. The photochemical properties of C{sub 60} fullerene have been investigated to a lesser degree. C{sub 60} is known to be readily reduced (E{sub 1/2} = {minus}0.4 in relation to Ag/Ag{sup +}), in particular, photochemically. For example, photoexcitation of charge-transfer complexes of C{sub 60} with amines gives the radical anion C{sup {minus}}{sub 60} which is also formed in reactions of photoexcited C{sub 60} fullerene. The formation of the radical cation C{sup +}{sub 60} under the action of light has been detected in the reaction with colloidal TiO{sub 2}. The radical ion C{sup +}{sub 60} has been obtained in a homogeneous photochemical process: the reaction of unexcited C{sub 60} with excited singlet N-methylacridinium hexafluorophosphate or with the biphenyl radical cation generated in the reaction with excited singlet N-methylacridinium hexafluorophosphate. The formation of C{sup +}{sub 60} with an electron acceptor in a homogeneous process has not so far been observed. The purpose of this work has been to study the quenching of triplet {sup 3}C{sub 60} with an electron acceptor, tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), which is known to oxidize unsaturated or aromatic hydrocarbons in photochemical reactions.

  18. Effect of gold nanoparticles on the fluorescence excitation spectrum of α-fetoprotein: Local environment dependent fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, A.-qing; Zhu, Jian; Zhao, Jun-wu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of colloid gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the fluorescence excitation spectrum of α-fetoprotein (AFP) has been investigated experimentally. The excitation spectral peaks of AFP with low concentration from 0.01 ng ml -1 to 12 ng ml -1 increase monotonically with increasing of AFP concentration. When some gold colloids were added to the AFP solution, the excitation peak at 285 nm decreases distinctly. By comparing the excitation peak intensity of AFP solution with gold colloids and without gold colloids at different AFP concentrations, the quenching effect from gold nanoparticle was more effective at lower AFP concentration. So the range of concentration from 0.01 ng ml -1 to 0.09 ng ml -1 will be the potential range of applications because of the higher sensitivity. The physical origin based on local field effect was investigated to illuminate this local environment dependent fluorescence quenching. The changing extent of quenching with different AFP concentrations can be attributed to the nonlinear decreasing of the local field factor of gold nanoparticles as a function of environmental dielectric constant.

  19. Control of excitation and quenching in multi-colour electrogenerated chemiluminescence systems through choice of co-reactant.

    PubMed

    Barbante, Gregory J; Kebede, Noah; Hindson, Christopher M; Doeven, Egan H; Zammit, Elizabeth M; Hanson, Graeme R; Hogan, Conor F; Francis, Paul S

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a new approach to manipulate the selective emission in mixed electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) systems, where subtle changes in co-reactant properties are exploited to control the relative electron-transfer processes of excitation and quenching. Two closely related tertiary-amine co-reactants, tri-n-propylamine and N,N-diisopropylethylamine, generate remarkably different emission profiles: one provides distinct green and red ECL from [Ir(ppy)3] (ppy=2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N) and a [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) derivative at different applied potentials, whereas the other generates both emissions simultaneously across a wide potential range. These phenomena can be rationalized through the relative exergonicities of electron-transfer quenching of the excited states, in conjunction with the change in concentration of the quenchers over the applied potential range. PMID:25204830

  20. Control of excitation and quenching in multi-colour electrogenerated chemiluminescence systems through choice of co-reactant.

    PubMed

    Barbante, Gregory J; Kebede, Noah; Hindson, Christopher M; Doeven, Egan H; Zammit, Elizabeth M; Hanson, Graeme R; Hogan, Conor F; Francis, Paul S

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a new approach to manipulate the selective emission in mixed electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) systems, where subtle changes in co-reactant properties are exploited to control the relative electron-transfer processes of excitation and quenching. Two closely related tertiary-amine co-reactants, tri-n-propylamine and N,N-diisopropylethylamine, generate remarkably different emission profiles: one provides distinct green and red ECL from [Ir(ppy)3] (ppy=2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N) and a [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) derivative at different applied potentials, whereas the other generates both emissions simultaneously across a wide potential range. These phenomena can be rationalized through the relative exergonicities of electron-transfer quenching of the excited states, in conjunction with the change in concentration of the quenchers over the applied potential range.

  1. Excited state complex formation between methyl glyoxal and some aromatic bio-molecules: a fluorescence quenching study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Mandal, A.; Mukherjee, S.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence quenching of some important aromatic bio-molecules (ABM) such as 3-aminophthalhydrazide (luminol), tryptophan (Try), phenylalanine and tyrosine (Tyr) by methyl glyoxal (MG) has been studied employing different spectroscopic techniques. The interaction of MG with ABM in the excited state has been analysed using Stern-Volmer (S-V) mechanism. In the case of MG-luminol system time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique has also been applied to explain the S-V mechanism. The bimolecular rate constants obtained are found to be higher than the rate constant for diffusion controlled process. A plausible explanation of the quenching mechanism has been discussed on the basis of hydrogen bonding, charge transfer and energy transfer interaction between the colliding species.

  2. Effect of temperature on oxygen quenching of excited states polycyclic aromatic compounds in the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Kuchinskiĭ, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependences of oxygen quenching rate constants of singlet ( k_S^{O_2 } ) and triplet ( k_T^{O_2 } ) states, as well as of the fractions of singlet ( q_S^{O_2 } ) and triplet ( q_T^{O_2 } ) states quenched by oxygen in vapor pahse of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), namely, anthracene, 2-aminoanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, chrysene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and carbazole, are studied. It is found that in the temperature range 433-673 K, the oxygen quenching rate constants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons either do not change or slightly decrease with increasing temperature. The quenching activation energies E a for these cases are determined. The effect of the stored vibrational energy and the free energy of electron transfer from a PAH to oxygen on the temperature dependences of k_S^{O_2 } and k_T^{O_2 } is considered. The role played by charge-transfer complexes in the observed temperature dependences k_S^{O_2 } of and k_T^{O_2 } , as well as the applicability of a model of electron transfer concerted with reorganization of reactants for description of quenching in heated vapors is discussed.

  3. Optical excitation and quenching of photocurrent in single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeson; Lourette, Sean; Rezai, Kristine; Kehayias, Pauli; Lake, Michael; Jarmola, Andrey; Nesladek, Milos; Bouchard, Louis; Hemmer, Philip; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    Diamond has found important applications in optoelectronics including electron emitters, windows for high power devices, and x-ray photon detectors, thanks to its unique properties, such as a wide bandgap, high thermal conductance and broadband optical transmittance. It is thus of paramount importance to investigate the photoelectric properties of diamond in greater details. Here we report the observation of optical quenching of photocurrent in diamond using simultaneous illumination of pulsed and continuous wave lasers at the same wavelength and different wavelengths. The quenched photocurrent shows a recovery related to the external bias voltage, pulsed optical power and wavelength. The recovery of the quenched photocurrent provides information on the nature of the electron trap states in diamond. Current: Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

  4. Quenching of magnetic excitations in single adsorbates at surfaces: Mn on CuN/Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novaes, Frederico D.; Lorente, Nicolás; Gauyacq, Jean-Pierre

    2010-10-01

    The lifetimes of spin excitations of Mn adsorbates on CuN/Cu(100) are computed from first principles. The theory is based on a strong-coupling approach that evaluates the decay of a spin excitation due to electron-hole pair creation. Using a previously developed theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 176601 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.176601 and Phys. Rev. B 81, 165423 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevB.81.165423], we compute the excitation rates by a tunneling current for all the Mn spin states. A rate equation approach permits us to simulate the experimental results by Loth and co-workers [Nat. Phys. 6, 340 (2010)]10.1038/nphys1616 for large tunneling currents, taking into account the finite population of excited states. Our simulations give us insight into the spin dynamics, in particular, in the way polarized electrons can reveal the existence of an excited-state population. In addition, it reveals that the excitation process occurs in a way very different from the deexcitation one. Indeed, while excitation by tunneling electrons proceeds via the s and p electrons of the adsorbate, deexcitation mainly involves the d electrons.

  5. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED NONPHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this handbook is to summarize commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced nonphotochemical oxidation (ANPO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and soil. Similar information from pilot-and bench-scale evaluations of ANPO processes is also inclu...

  6. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, Gurinder Pal; Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λexc.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO4 units thus supporting the density results. The UV- Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  7. The study of excited oxygen molecule gas species production and quenching on thermal protection system materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Fujimoto, Gordon T.; Greene, Frank T.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of excited oxygen and ozone molecules formed by surface catalyzed oxygen atom recombination and reaction was investigated by laser induced fluorescence (LIF), molecular beam mass spectrometric (MBMS), and field ionization (FI) techniques. The experiment used partially dissociated oxygen flows from a microwave discharge at pressures in the range from 60 to 400 Pa or from an inductively coupled RF discharge at atmospheric pressure. The catalyst materials investigated were nickel and the reaction cured glass coating used for Space Shuttle reusable surface insulation tiles. Nonradiative loss processes for the laser excited states makes LIF detection of O2 difficult such that formation of excited oxygen molecules could not be detected in the flow from the microwave discharge or in the gaseous products of atom loss on nickel. MBMS experiments showed that ozone was a product of heterogeneous O atom loss on nickel and tile surfaces at low temperatures and that ozone is lost on these materials at elevated temperatures. FI was separately investigated as a method by which excited oxygen molecules may be conveniently detected. Partial O2 dissociation decreases the current produced by FI of the gas.

  8. Polyamines induce aggregation of LHC II and quenching of fluorescence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsiavos, Theodoros; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-05-01

    Dissipation of excess excitation energy within the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II (LHC II) is a main process in plants, which is measured as the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence or qE. We showed in previous works that polyamines stimulate qE in higher plants in vivo and in eukaryotic algae in vitro. In the present contribution we have tested whether polyamines can stimulate quenching in trimeric LHC II and monomeric light-harvesting complex b proteins from higher plants. The tetramine spermine was the most potent quencher and induced aggregation of LHC II trimers, due to its highly cationic character. Two transients are evident at 100 μM and 350 μM for the fluorescence and absorbance signals of LHC II respectively. On the basis of observations within this work, some links between polyamines and the activation of qE in vivo is discussed.

  9. Luminescence quenching of conductive Si nanocrystals via “Linkage emission”: Hopping-like propagation of infrared-excited Auger electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Masashi; Crowe, Iain F.; Halsall, Matthew P.; Hamilton, Bruce; Knights, Andrew P.; Gwilliam, Russell M.

    2014-08-14

    Phosphorus (P) is an n-type dopant for conductive silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc's), the electrical activation of which may be monitored through a non-radiative Auger recombination process that quenches the Si-nc luminescence. We investigated this quenching mechanism through electrical measurements of Si-nc's. Infrared-excited Auger electron emission as the non-radiative process was directly probed and the dynamics of the process are determined from a frequency response analysis. To explain the dynamics, we propose a model in which Auger electrons with a low kinetic energy establish a local inter-nanocrystal conductance and the repetition of this local conductance results in a constant photocurrent (“linkage emission”). This emission becomes significant by electron filling in the Si-nc's owing to the electrical activation of P, which is consistent with observed luminescence quenching behavior. We found that the IR photo-excited emission is distinct from the thermally induced hopping conduction and show that confined, rather than trapped, charges are the source of the Auger electrons. Thus, the process consumes both confined charges and the recombination energy for Auger emission, which explains the luminescence quenching mechanism of Si-nc:P.

  10. Quench in the 1D Bose-Hubbard model: Topological defects and excitations from the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2014-01-01

    Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) uses critical scaling to predict density of topological defects and other excitations created in second order phase transitions. We point out that simply inserting asymptotic critical exponents deduced from the immediate vicinity of the critical point to obtain predictions can lead to results that are inconsistent with a more careful KZM analysis based on causality – on the comparison of the relaxation time of the order parameter with the “time distance” from the critical point. As a result, scaling of quench-generated excitations with quench rates can exhibit behavior that is locally (i.e., in the neighborhood of any given quench rate) well approximated by the power law, but with exponents that depend on that rate, and that are quite different from the naive prediction based on the critical exponents relevant for asymptotically long quench times. Kosterlitz-Thouless scaling (that governs e.g. Mott insulator to superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension) is investigated as an example of this phenomenon. PMID:25091996

  11. Quenched Magnon excitations by oxygen sublattice reconstruction in (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantz, M.; Pelliciari, J.; Samal, D.; Bisogni, V.; Huang, Y.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Strocov, V. N.; Koster, G.; Schmitt, T.

    2016-09-01

    The recently discovered structural reconstruction in the cuprate superlattice (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 has been investigated across the critical value of n = 5 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). We find that at the critical value of n, the cuprate layer remains largely in the bulk-like two-dimensional structure with a minority of Cu plaquettes being reconstructed. The partial reconstruction leads to quenching of the magnons starting at the Γ-point due to the minority plaquettes acting as scattering points. Although comparable in relative abundance, the doped charge impurities in electron-doped cuprate superconductors do not show this quenching of magnetic excitations.

  12. Quenched Magnon excitations by oxygen sublattice reconstruction in (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Dantz, M.; Pelliciari, J.; Samal, D.; Bisogni, V.; Huang, Y.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Strocov, V. N.; Koster, G.; Schmitt, T.

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered structural reconstruction in the cuprate superlattice (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 has been investigated across the critical value of n = 5 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). We find that at the critical value of n, the cuprate layer remains largely in the bulk-like two-dimensional structure with a minority of Cu plaquettes being reconstructed. The partial reconstruction leads to quenching of the magnons starting at the Γ-point due to the minority plaquettes acting as scattering points. Although comparable in relative abundance, the doped charge impurities in electron-doped cuprate superconductors do not show this quenching of magnetic excitations. PMID:27616448

  13. Quenched Magnon excitations by oxygen sublattice reconstruction in (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 superlattices.

    PubMed

    Dantz, M; Pelliciari, J; Samal, D; Bisogni, V; Huang, Y; Olalde-Velasco, P; Strocov, V N; Koster, G; Schmitt, T

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered structural reconstruction in the cuprate superlattice (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 has been investigated across the critical value of n = 5 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). We find that at the critical value of n, the cuprate layer remains largely in the bulk-like two-dimensional structure with a minority of Cu plaquettes being reconstructed. The partial reconstruction leads to quenching of the magnons starting at the Γ-point due to the minority plaquettes acting as scattering points. Although comparable in relative abundance, the doped charge impurities in electron-doped cuprate superconductors do not show this quenching of magnetic excitations. PMID:27616448

  14. "Super-quenching" state protects Symbiodinium from thermal stress - Implications for coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Chavdar; Schrameyer, Verena; Reus, Michael; Ralph, Peter J; Hill, Ross; Büchel, Claudia; Larkum, Anthony W D; Holzwarth, Alfred R

    2016-06-01

    The global rise in sea surface temperatures causes regular exposure of corals to high temperature and high light stress, leading to worldwide disastrous coral bleaching events (loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) from reef-building corals). Our picosecond chlorophyll fluorescence experiments on cultured Symbiodinium clade C cells exposed to coral bleaching conditions uncovered the transformations of the alga's photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) that activate an extremely efficient non-photochemical "super-quenching" mechanism. The mechanism is associated with a transition from an initially heterogeneous photosystem II (PSII) pool to a homogeneous "spillover" pool, where nearly all excitation energy is transferred to photosystem I (PSI). There, the inherently higher stability of PSI and high quenching efficiency of P(700)(+) allow dumping of PSII excess excitation energy into heat, resulting in almost complete cessation of photosynthetic electron transport (PET). This potentially reversible "super-quenching" mechanism protects the PSA against destruction at the cost of a loss of photosynthetic activity. We suggest that the inhibition of PET and the consequent inhibition of organic carbon production (e.g. sugars) in the symbiotic Symbiodinium provide a trigger for the symbiont expulsion, i.e. bleaching.

  15. "Super-quenching" state protects Symbiodinium from thermal stress - Implications for coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Chavdar; Schrameyer, Verena; Reus, Michael; Ralph, Peter J; Hill, Ross; Büchel, Claudia; Larkum, Anthony W D; Holzwarth, Alfred R

    2016-06-01

    The global rise in sea surface temperatures causes regular exposure of corals to high temperature and high light stress, leading to worldwide disastrous coral bleaching events (loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) from reef-building corals). Our picosecond chlorophyll fluorescence experiments on cultured Symbiodinium clade C cells exposed to coral bleaching conditions uncovered the transformations of the alga's photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) that activate an extremely efficient non-photochemical "super-quenching" mechanism. The mechanism is associated with a transition from an initially heterogeneous photosystem II (PSII) pool to a homogeneous "spillover" pool, where nearly all excitation energy is transferred to photosystem I (PSI). There, the inherently higher stability of PSI and high quenching efficiency of P(700)(+) allow dumping of PSII excess excitation energy into heat, resulting in almost complete cessation of photosynthetic electron transport (PET). This potentially reversible "super-quenching" mechanism protects the PSA against destruction at the cost of a loss of photosynthetic activity. We suggest that the inhibition of PET and the consequent inhibition of organic carbon production (e.g. sugars) in the symbiotic Symbiodinium provide a trigger for the symbiont expulsion, i.e. bleaching. PMID:26869375

  16. LHCSR1 induces a fast and reversible pH-dependent fluorescence quenching in LHCII in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Emine; Tian, Lijin; Roy, Laura M; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Croce, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    To avoid photodamage, photosynthetic organisms are able to thermally dissipate the energy absorbed in excess in a process known as nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Although NPQ has been studied extensively, the major players and the mechanism of quenching remain debated. This is a result of the difficulty in extracting molecular information from in vivo experiments and the absence of a validation system for in vitro experiments. Here, we have created a minimal cell of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is able to undergo NPQ. We show that LHCII, the main light harvesting complex of algae, cannot switch to a quenched conformation in response to pH changes by itself. Instead, a small amount of the protein LHCSR1 (light-harvesting complex stress related 1) is able to induce a large, fast, and reversible pH-dependent quenching in an LHCII-containing membrane. These results strongly suggest that LHCSR1 acts as pH sensor and that it modulates the excited state lifetimes of a large array of LHCII, also explaining the NPQ observed in the LHCSR3-less mutant. The possible quenching mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27335457

  17. A novel Gaussian Binning (1GB) analysis of vibrational state distributions in highly excited H2O from reactive quenching of OH* by H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Riccardo; Fu, Bina; Kamarchik, Eugene; Bowman, Joel M.

    2013-07-01

    As shown in experiments by Lester and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11117 (1999)], 10.1063/1.479053, the reactive quenching of OH* by H_2 produces highly excited H_2O. Previous limited analysis of quasiclassical trajectory calculations using standard Histogram Binning (HB) was reported [B. Fu, E. Kamarchik, and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164306 (2010)], 10.1063/1.3488167. Here, we examine the quantized internal state distributions of H_2O in more detail, using two versions of Gaussian Binning (denoted 1GB). In addition to the standard version of 1GB, which relies on the harmonic energies of the states (1GB-H), we propose a new and more accurate technique based on exact quantum vibrational energies (1GB-EQ). Data from about 42 000 trajectories from previous calculations that give excited water molecules are used in the two versions of 1GB as well as HB. For the vibrationally hot molecules considered in this study, the classical internal energy distribution serves as a benchmark to estimate the accuracy of the different binning methods analyzed. The 1GB discretization methods, especially the one using exact quantum energies, reconstruct the classical distribution much more accurately than HB and also the original, more elaborate Gaussian Binning method. Detailed quantum state distributions are presented for pure overtone excitations as well as several antisymmetric stretch distributions. The latter are focused on because the antisymmetric stretch has the largest emission oscillator strength of the three water modes.

  18. Laser excitation of O 2(b 1Σ g+, ν' = 0, 1, 2) - rates and channels of energy transfer and quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildt, J.; Bednarek, G.; Fink, E. H.; Wayne, R. P.

    1988-06-01

    Molecular oxygen was selectively excited to vibrational levels ν' =0, 1 and 2 of the b 1Σ g+ state by pulsed dye laser absorption in the (0,0), (1,0) and (2,0) bands of the b 1Σ g+ ← X 3Σ g- system in the near-infrared region. Time-resolved fluorescence was observed in the Δν=0 and -1 sequences of the b→X system near λ = 760 and 860 nm and in the (0,0) band of the a→X system at λ = 1270 nm. Lower limits have been deduced for the rate constants of vibrational relaxation in the b 1Σ g+ state and for electronic-to-electronic energy exchange of the b 1Σ g+ state energy between 16O 2 and 18O 2 isotopes. Rate constants for quenching of O 2 (b 1Σ g+, ν'=0) were remeasured for H 2, D 2, N 2, CO 2, and CH 4. From studies of the a→X emission intensity as a function of added gas pressure it was concluded that, with most gases, the b 1Σ g+ state is quenched to the a 1Δ g state with yields of ⩾ 90%. Measurements of the decay of the a→X band as a function of time at different O 2 pressures yielded a rate constant for self-quenching of the a 1Δ g state by O 2 of (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10 -18 cm 3 s -1.

  19. Lifetimes, spectra, and quenching of the excited states of polypyridine complexes of iron(II), ruthenium(II), and osmium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, C.; Chou, M.; Netzel, T.L.; Okumura, M.; Sutin, N.

    1980-02-13

    The lifetimes of the excited states formed by 530-nm excitation of polypyridine complexes of iron(II) (FeL/sub 3//sup 2 +/) and osmium(II) (OsL/sub 3//sup 2 +/) have been determined by laser flash-photolysis techniques. The FeL/sub 3//sup 2 +/ lifetimes, measured in water at room temperature using picosecond absorption spectrometry, are as follows (L,tau +- sigma(ns)):2,2',2''-terpyridine (2.54 +- 0.13); 2,2'-bipyridine (0.81 +- 0.07); 4,4'-dimethyl(2,2'-bipyridine) (0.76 +- 0.04); 1,10-phenanthroline (0.80 +- 0.07); 4,7-(diphenyl sulfonate)-1,10-phenanthroline (0.43 +- 0.03). Lifetimes for the analogous complexes of osmium(II) lie in the range 10-100 ns under the same conditions. Unlike the excited states of Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/ and Os(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/ (lambda/sub max/430-460 nm, epsilon approx. 5 x 10/sup 3/ M/sup -1/ cm-/sup 1/), the excited state of Fe(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/ does not luminesce or absorb significantly in the visible (epsilon < 10/sup 3/ M/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ at lambda greater than or equal to 350 nm) but does exhibit intense absorption below approx. 325 nm. Rate constants for the quenching of the excited states of polypyridine complexes of osmium(II) and ruthenium(II) by ground-state polypyridine complexes of iron(II), ruthenium(II), and osmium(II) are reported and are ascribed to either electron-transfer or energy-transfer processes. The excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)iron(II) and of bis(2,2',2''-terpyridine)iron(II) undergo reaction with Fe/sub aq//sup 3 +/ (0.5 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 25/sup 0/C) with a rate constant less than or equal to 1 x 10/sup 7/ M-/sup 1/ s/sup -1/. Based on a comparison of its properties with those of the luminescent charge-transfer excited states of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) polypyridine complexes the excited state of FeL/sub 3//sup 2 +/ is identified as a ligand-field state.

  20. Identification and quantification of carbamate pesticides in dried lime tree flowers by means of excitation-emission molecular fluorescence and parallel factor analysis when quenching effect exists.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A

    2014-04-11

    A non-separative, fast and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric method based on the second order calibration of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEMs) was proposed for the determination of carbaryl, carbendazim and 1-naphthol in dried lime tree flowers. The trilinearity property of three-way data was used to handle the intrinsic fluorescence of lime flowers and the difference in the fluorescence intensity of each analyte. It also made possible to identify unequivocally each analyte. Trilinearity of the data tensor guarantees the uniqueness of the solution obtained through parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), so the factors of the decomposition match up with the analytes. In addition, an experimental procedure was proposed to identify, with three-way data, the quenching effect produced by the fluorophores of the lime flowers. This procedure also enabled the selection of the adequate dilution of the lime flowers extract to minimize the quenching effect so the three analytes can be quantified. Finally, the analytes were determined using the standard addition method for a calibration whose standards were chosen with a D-optimal design. The three analytes were unequivocally identified by the correlation between the pure spectra and the PARAFAC excitation and emission spectral loadings. The trueness was established by the accuracy line "calculated concentration versus added concentration" in all cases. Better decision limit values (CCα), in x0=0 with the probability of false positive fixed at 0.05, were obtained for the calibration performed in pure solvent: 2.97 μg L(-1) for 1-naphthol, 3.74 μg L(-1) for carbaryl and 23.25 μg L(-1) for carbendazim. The CCα values for the second calibration carried out in matrix were 1.61, 4.34 and 51.75 μg L(-1) respectively; while the values obtained considering only the pure samples as calibration set were: 2.65, 8.61 and 28.7 μg L(-1), respectively.

  1. Photoprotective capacity of non-photochemical quenching in plants acclimated to different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Ware, Maxwell A; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V

    2015-12-01

    Arabidopsis plants grown at low light were exposed to a gradually increasing actinic light routine. This method allows for the discerning of the photoprotective component of NPQ, pNPQ and photoinhibition. They exhibited lower values of Photosystem II (PSII) yield in comparison to high-light grown plants, and higher calculated dark fluorescence level (F'o calc.) than the measured one (F'o act.). As a result, in low-light grown plants, the values of qP measured in the dark appeared higher than 1. Normally, F'o act. and F'o calc. match well at moderate light intensities but F'o act. becomes higher at increasing intensities due to reaction centre (RCII) damage; this indicates the onset of photoinhibition. To explain the unusual increase of qP in the dark in low-light grown plants, we have undertaken an analysis of PSII antenna size using biochemical and spectroscopic approaches. Sucrose gradient separation of thylakoid membrane complexes and fast fluorescence induction experiments illustrated that the relative PSII cross section does not increase appreciably with the rise in PSII antenna size in the low-light grown plants. This suggests that part of the increased LHCII antenna is less efficiently coupled to the RCII. A model based upon the existence of an uncoupled population LHCII is proposed to explain the discrepancies in calculated and measured values of F'o.

  2. Chlorophyll fluorescence quenching during ozone exposure of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris (pinto)

    SciTech Connect

    Guralnick, L.J. ); Miller, R.; Heath, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    During ozone exposure, observations have noted an initial decrease in CO{sub 2} uptake followed by a decrease in stomatal conductance. We examined this response utilizing the technique of fluorescence quenching. Fourteen day old plants were exposed to 0.3 ul/l ozone for 1 hour. Fluorescence quenching was monitored using the Hanstech modulated fluorescence system. This enabled us to measure changes in photochemical quenching (qQ) and non-photochemical quenching (qE) in control and ozone treated plants. Results have indicated no differences in qQ and qE between ozone treated and control plants. We are initiating further studies utilizing different ozone levels.

  3. Photophysical properties of some methylindoles and studies on quenching reactions in their excited singlet and triplet states in presence of the electron acceptor 2-nitrofluorene at 296 K as well as at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, S.; De, R.; Ganguly, T.

    1998-01-01

    Electronic absorption, steady state and time resolved, in the domain of nanosecond order, luminescence techniques were employed to study the photophysical properties of some electron donors methylindoles, e.g. 1-methylindole (1MI), 2-methylindole (2MI), 3-methylindole (3MI) and 5-methylindole (5MI) in nonpolar and polar environments at 296 K and in ethanol (EtOH) rigid glassy matrix at 77 K in the presence of electron acceptor 2-nitrofluorene (2NF). It has been proposed that at room temperature and in polar acetonitrile (ACN) solvent, MI (1, 2 or 3) emission originates mainly from the closely lying lowest excited states S 1 ( 1L b), S 2 ( 1L a) and the charge transfer (CT) exciplex state which is formed due to solute-highly polar solvent ACN interaction. This CT state has its origin in 1L a. The room temperature fluorescence quenchings of the MI donors in presence of acceptor 2NF are found to be mainly due to photoinduced electron transfer (ET), excitational energy transfer and transient quenching processes. Out of the three processes Förster's long range energy transfer seems to be the most dominant one. At 77 K singlet-singlet and triplet-triplet energy transfer processes seem to be responsible for the observed quenching in fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of the donor molecules in presence of the acceptor 2NF.

  4. Organic synthesis by quench reactions.

    PubMed

    Park, W K; Hochstim, A R

    1975-01-01

    The effects of chemical quench reactions on the formation of organic compounds at a water surface under simulated primordial earth conditions were investigated for the study of chemical evolution. A mixture of gaseous methane and ammonia over a water surface was exposed to an arc discharge between an electrode and the water surface. This discharge served as a source of dissociated, ionized and excited atomic and molecular species. Various organic molecules were formed in the gaseous, aqueous, and solid states by a subsequent quenching of these reactive species on the water surface. The effects of these water-surface quench reactions were assessed by comparing the amounts of synthesized molecules to the amounts which formed during the discharge of an arc above the water level. The results showed that: (1) the water-surface quench reaction permitted faster rates of formation of an insoluble solid and (2) the quench discharge yielded twice as much amino acids and 17 times more insoluble solids by weight than the other discharge. The highest yield of amino acids with the quench reaction was 9 x 10-7 molecules per erg of input energy. These observations indicate that quench reactions on the oceans, rain, and clouds that would have followed excitation by lightning and shock waves may have played an important role in the prebiotic milieu. Furthermore, the possibility exists that quench reactions can be exploited for the synthesis of organic compounds on a larger scale from simple starting materials.

  5. LHC magnet quench protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1994-07-01

    The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called 'cold diode' concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements - so called 'cold diodes'. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a 'natural' quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages.

  6. Enantioselective excited-state quenching of racemic Tb (III) and Eu (III) Tris (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) by vitamin B 12 derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Dekkers, Harry P. J. M.

    1999-08-01

    Enantioselectivity in the dynamic quenching of the luminescence of the Δ and Λ enantiomers of racemic Tb(III)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate=DPA) 33- and Eu(DPA) 33- by a series of corrinoids is demonstrated by time resolved luminescence and circular-polarization-of-luminescence (CPL) spectroscopy. Studied are cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12), aquacobalamin (B 12a) and its conjugated base hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl), dicyanocobinamide ((CN) 2Cbi) and the heptamethyl ester of dicyanocobyrinic acid ((CN) 2Cby(OMe) 7). For this set of quenchers (Q), the diastereomeric quenching rate constants ( kqΔ and kqΛ) are reported together with the degree of enantioselectivity Eq=( kqΔ- kqΛ)/( kqΔ+ kqΛ). In the systems with Tb, values of the average rate constant kqavg(=( kqΔ+ kqΛ)/2) are 1.0, 2.9 and 0.53 10 8 M -1 s -1 for CNCbl, (CN) 2Cbi, (CN) 2Cby(OMe) 7 with Eq=-0.24, -0.20, +0.01 (standard error of Eq is 0.01). The quenching by B 12a is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength ( I); when I=12 mM we find kqavg=5.3, Eq=-0.23 at pH 6.7 and kqavg=1.3, Eq=-0.27 at pH 8.9. Corresponding rates for Eu are 0.41, 27, 3.4 10 7 M -1 s -1 and for B 12a, 7.3 and 1.2 10 7 M -1 s -1, corresponding values for Eq -0.27, -0.29, +0.02, -0.21 and -0.29. The quenching reaction is modeled as a pre-equilibrium involving the formation of an encounter complex (association constant K) followed by the actual electronic energy transfer step (rate ket). By relating the quenching data with molecular structure it is argued that the binding in the encounter complex involves two hydrogen bonds between the uncoordinated carboxylate oxygen atom of two DPA ligands of Ln(DPA) 33- and two amide groups of the corrinoid, presumably involving the a and g, the a and b, or the b and g side chains. For some corrinoid/Ln(DPA) 33- complexes the association constants and enantioselectivities in the ground state are known (Spectrochimica Acta 55A (1999) 1837-1855), which allows for an estimate of the average rate of

  7. Spectral analysis on origination of the bands at 437 nm and 475.5 nm of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lizhang; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been often used as an intrinsic optical molecular probe to study photosynthesis. In this study, the origin of bands at 437 and 475.5 nm in the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum for emission at 685 nm in Arabidopsis chloroplasts was investigated using various optical analysis methods. The results revealed that this fluorescence excitation spectrum was related to the absorption characteristics of pigment molecules in PSII complexes. Moreover, the excitation band centred at 475.5 nm had a blue shift, but the excitation band at 437 nm changed relatively less due to induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Furthermore, fluorescence emission spectra showed that this blue shift occurred when excitation energy transfer from both chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids (Cars) to chlorophyll a (Chl a) was blocked. These results demonstrate that the excitation band at 437 nm was mainly contributed by Chl a, while the excitation band at 475.5 nm was mainly contributed by Chl b and Cars. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum, therefore, could serve as a useful tool to describe specific characteristics of light absorption and energy transfer between light-harvesting pigments.

  8. Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Transformations of Cysteine with Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chiheng; Erickson, Paul R; Lundeen, Rachel A; Stamatelatos, Dimitrios; Alaimo, Peter J; Latch, Douglas E; McNeill, Kristopher

    2016-06-21

    Cysteine (Cys) plays numerous key roles in the biogeochemistry of natural waters. Despite its importance, a full assessment of Cys abiotic transformation kinetics, products and pathways under environmental conditions has not been conducted. This study is a mechanistic evaluation of the photochemical and nonphotochemical (dark) transformations of Cys in solutions containing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The results show that Cys underwent abiotic transformations under both dark and irradiated conditions. Under dark conditions, the transformation rates of Cys were moderate and were highly pH- and temperature-dependent. Under UVA or natural sunlight irradiations, Cys transformation rates were enhanced by up to two orders of magnitude compared to rates under dark conditions. Product analysis indicated cystine and cysteine sulfinic acid were the major photooxidation products. In addition, this study provides an assessment of the contributions of singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and triplet dissolved organic matter to the CDOM-sensitized photochemical oxidation of Cys. The results suggest that another unknown pathway was dominant in the CDOM-sensitized photodegradation of Cys, which will require further study to identify. PMID:27172378

  9. Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Transformations of Cysteine with Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chiheng; Erickson, Paul R; Lundeen, Rachel A; Stamatelatos, Dimitrios; Alaimo, Peter J; Latch, Douglas E; McNeill, Kristopher

    2016-06-21

    Cysteine (Cys) plays numerous key roles in the biogeochemistry of natural waters. Despite its importance, a full assessment of Cys abiotic transformation kinetics, products and pathways under environmental conditions has not been conducted. This study is a mechanistic evaluation of the photochemical and nonphotochemical (dark) transformations of Cys in solutions containing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The results show that Cys underwent abiotic transformations under both dark and irradiated conditions. Under dark conditions, the transformation rates of Cys were moderate and were highly pH- and temperature-dependent. Under UVA or natural sunlight irradiations, Cys transformation rates were enhanced by up to two orders of magnitude compared to rates under dark conditions. Product analysis indicated cystine and cysteine sulfinic acid were the major photooxidation products. In addition, this study provides an assessment of the contributions of singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and triplet dissolved organic matter to the CDOM-sensitized photochemical oxidation of Cys. The results suggest that another unknown pathway was dominant in the CDOM-sensitized photodegradation of Cys, which will require further study to identify.

  10. Nonphotochemical hole burning and dispersive kinetics in amorphous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.J.

    1990-09-21

    Results covering burn intensities in the nW to {mu}W/cm{sup 2} range, of dispersive hole growth kinetics are reported for Oxazine 720 in glycerol glasses and polyvinyl alcohol polymer films and their deuterated analogues. A theoretical model which employs a distribution function for the hole burning rate constant based upon a Gaussian distribution for the tunnel parameter is shown to accurately describe the kinetic data. This model incorporates the linear electron-phonon coupling. A method for calculating the nonphotochemical quantum yield is presented which utilizes the Gaussian distribution of tunnel parameters. The quantum yield calculation can be extended to determine a quantum yield as a function of hole depth. The effect of spontaneous hole filling is shown to be insignificant over the burn intensity range studied. Average relaxation rates for hole burning are {approximately}8 orders of magnitude greater than for hole filling. The dispersive kinetics of hole burning are observed to be independent over the temperature range of these experiments, 1.6 to 7.0 K. 6 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Transient Loschmidt echo in quenched Ising chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Carla; Schiró, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We study the response to sudden local perturbations of highly excited quantum Ising spin chains. The key quantity encoding this response is the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write as a transient Loschmidt Echo. Its asymptotics at long time differences contain crucial information about the structure of the highly excited nonequilibrium environment induced by the quench. We compute the echo perturbatively for a weak local quench but for arbitrarily large global quench, using a cumulant expansion. Our perturbative results suggest that the echo decays exponentially, rather than power law as in the low-energy orthogonality catastrophe, a further example of quench-induced decoherence already found in the case of quenched Luttinger liquids. The emerging decoherence scale is set by the strength of the local potential and the bulk excitation energy.

  12. Molecular insights into Zeaxanthin-dependent quenching in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengqi; Tian, Lijin; Kloz, Miroslav; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms protect themselves from high-light stress by dissipating excess absorbed energy as heat in a process called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Zeaxanthin is essential for the full development of NPQ, but its role remains debated. The main discussion revolves around two points: where does zeaxanthin bind and does it quench? To answer these questions we have followed the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching from leaves to individual complexes, including supercomplexes. We show that small amounts of zeaxanthin are associated with the complexes, but in contrast to what is generally believed, zeaxanthin binding per se does not cause conformational changes in the complexes and does not induce quenching, not even at low pH. We show that in NPQ conditions zeaxanthin does not exchange for violaxanthin in the internal binding sites of the antennas but is located at the periphery of the complexes. These results together with the observation that the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching is active in isolated membranes, but not in functional supercomplexes, suggests that zeaxanthin is acting in between the complexes, helping to create/participating in a variety of quenching sites. This can explain why none of the antennas appears to be essential for NPQ and the multiple quenching mechanisms that have been observed in plants. PMID:26323786

  13. Luminescence Decay Times and Bimolecular Quenching: An Ultrafast Kinetics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the theory, apparatus, and procedure for an experiment that measures the bimolecular quenching constant for the deactivation of an excited ruthenium ion complex using dissolved oxygen. (MLH)

  14. An alternative method for correcting fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, L.; Guinet, C.; Bester, M.; Brierley, A.; Boehme, L.

    2015-01-01

    Under high light intensity, phytoplankton protect their photosystems from bleaching through non-photochemical quenching processes. The consequence of this is suppression of fluorescence emission, which must be corrected when measuring in situ yield with fluorometers. We present data from the Southern Ocean, collected over five austral summers by 19 southern elephant seals tagged with fluorometers. Conventionally, fluorescence data collected during the day (quenched) were corrected using the limit of the mixed layer, assuming that phytoplankton are uniformly mixed from the surface to this depth. However, distinct deep fluorescence maxima were measured in approximately 30% of the night (unquenched) data. To account for the evidence that chlorophyll is not uniformly mixed in the upper layer, we propose correcting from the limit of the euphotic zone, defined as the depth at which photosynthetically available radiation is ~ 1% of the surface value. Mixed layer depth exceeded euphotic depth over 80% of the time. Under these conditions, quenching was corrected from the depth of the remotely derived euphotic zone Zeu, and compared with fluorescence corrected from the depth of the density-derived mixed layer. Deep fluorescence maxima were evident in only 10% of the day data when correcting from mixed layer depth. This was doubled to 21% when correcting from Zeu, more closely matching the unquenched (night) data. Furthermore, correcting from Zeu served to conserve non-uniform chlorophyll features found between the 1% light level and mixed layer depth.

  15. Optical sensor based on fluorescent quenching and pulsed blue LED excitation for long-term monitoring of dissolved oxygen in NASA space bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Frank G; Fay, James M; Mathew, Grace; Jeevarajan, Antony S; Anderson, Melody M

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium for NASA's space cell biology experiments, as well as in earth-based cell cultures. Continuous measurement of DO concentration in the cell culture medium in perfused bioreactors requires that the oxygen sensor provide adequate sensitivity and low toxicity to the cells, as well as maintain calibration over several weeks. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An in-house optical oxygen sensor (HOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching of Tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) chloride and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. The sensing element consisted of the fluorescent dye embedded in a silicone matrix and coated onto a glass capillary. Photobleaching was minimized by a pulsed LED light source. The total noise in the sensor output is 2% and the sensor dynamic range is 0 to 200 mm Hg. The resolution of the sensor is 0.1 mm Hg at 50 mm Hg, and 0.25 mm Hg at 130 mm Hg, while the accuracy is 5%. The LED-based oxygen sensor exhibited stable performance and low drift, making it compatible for space-flight bioreactor systems.

  16. Chlorophyll fluorescence images demonstrate variable pathways in the effects of plasma membrane excitation on electron flow in chloroplasts of Chara cells.

    PubMed

    Krupenina, Natalia A; Bulychev, Alexander A; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence Imaging and Microscopy PAM fluorometry were applied to study spatial dynamics of photosystem II quantum yield (ΔF/F'(m)) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in resting and electrically stimulated Chara corallina cells in the absence and presence of the hydrophilic electron acceptor methyl viologen (MV) in the external medium. Electrical excitation of the plasma membrane temporarily enhanced the heterogeneity of photosynthetic patterns under physiological conditions (in the absence of MV), but irreversibly eliminated these patterns in the presence of MV. These findings suggest that the action potential (AP) of the excitable plant cell affects the spatial patterns of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence through different pathways operated in the absence and presence of MV. Based on the extent of NPQ as an indicator of MV-dependent electron flow, it is supposed that MV cannot permeate into the chloroplasts of photosynthetically active "acid cell regions" but gains an immediate access to the stroma of these chloroplasts after triggering of an AP. The AP-triggered MV-dependent non-photochemical quenching in the chloroplasts of acidic cell regions was routinely observed at 0.1 mM Ca(2+) in the medium but not at elevated (2 mM) external Ca(2+) concentration. The results are interpreted in terms of competition between two permeant divalent ion species, Ca(2+) and MV(2+), for their passage through the voltage-gated calcium channels of the plasma membrane. It is proposed that the herbicidal activity of MV in characean cells, here serving as model object, can be manipulated by triggering AP and varying Ca(2+) concentration in the environmental medium.

  17. An optimised method for correcting quenched fluorescence yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, L.; Guinet, C.; Bester, M.; Brierley, A.; Boehme, L.

    2014-05-01

    Under high light intensity, phytoplankton protect their photosystems from bleaching through non-photochemical quenching processes. The consequence of this is suppression of fluorescence emission, which must be corrected when measuring in situ yield with fluorometers. Previously, this has been done using the limit of the mixed layer, assuming that phytoplankton are uniformly mixed from the surface to this depth. However, the assumption of homogeneity is not robust in oceanic regimes that support deep chlorophyll maxima. To account for these features, we correct from the limit of the euphotic zone, defined as the depth at which light is at ~1% of the surface value. This method was applied to fluorescence data collected by eleven animal-borne fluorometers deployed in the Southern Ocean over four austral summers. Six tags returned data showing evidence of deep chlorophyll features. Using the depth of the euphotic layer, quenching was corrected without masking subsurface fluorescence signals.

  18. Cool flame quench distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R.; Hirsch, E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a brief experimental investigation are presented which confirm the expectation that cool flame quenching distances should be larger than hot flame quenching distances. It is also discovered that whereas quenching distances for hot flames reach their minimum values near stoichiometric conditions, cool flame quenching distances are least under rich conditions. Rich conditions are well known to favor cool flame formation.

  19. Non-Lorentzian zero-phonon holes and new insights on nonphotochemical hole burning: Al-phthalocyanine in hyperquenched glassy water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinot, T.; Small, G. J.

    2001-05-01

    Zero-phonon hole (ZPH) profiles and hole spectra that span about eight decades of burn fluence are reported for Al-phthalocyanine tetrasulphonate in hyperquenched glassy water (HGW) films at 5.0 K. The profiles of unsaturated zero-phonon holes (low burn fluence stage) are more sharply tipped than a Lorentzian. It is shown that the non-Lorentzian behavior is a natural consequence of the interplay between the three distributions that govern the dispersive kinetics of nonphotochemical hole growth. They are denoted by λ, α, and ω, where λ is the tunnel parameter associated with nonphotochemical hole burning (NPHB) and α is the angle between the transition dipole and the laser polarization. The ω distribution stems from off-resonant absorption of the zero-phonon line (ZPL). The single site absorption spectrum used in the calculations included the ZPL and the phonon sideband. The contribution of a distribution of homogeneous ZPL widths to the non-Lorentzian behavior was assessed and found to be negligible compared to that of the above distributions. The burn fluence dependence of the hole spectra, which include the ZPH, phonon sideband, and antihole structures, leads to new insights on the mechanism of NPHB, ones that necessitate modification of the Shu-Small mechanism [L. Shu and G. J. Small, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 724 (1992)]. Although that mechanism recognizes the importance of coupling between the intrinsic and extrinsic two-level systems (TLSint,TLSext) of the chromophore/glass system and diffusion of excess free volume triggered by optical excitation, it does not adequately account for the effects of multiple excitations of redshifted (relative to the burn frequency ωB) preburn and antihole sites. The results show that multiple excitations ultimately lead to the entire antihole being blueshifted. A "second channel" of hole burning becomes apparent at sufficiently high burn fluences. A model for this channel based on a distribution of extrinsic multilevel

  20. Relationship Between Photochemical Quenching and Non-Photochemical Quenching in Six Species of Cyanobacteria Reveals Species Difference in Redox State and Species Commonality in Energy Dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Misumi, Masahiro; Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomo, Tatsuya; Sonoike, Kintake

    2016-01-01

    Although the photosynthetic reaction center is well conserved among different cyanobacterial species, the modes of metabolism, e.g. respiratory, nitrogen and carbon metabolism and their mutual interaction, are quite diverse. To explore such uniformity and diversity among cyanobacteria, here we compare the influence of the light environment on the condition of photosynthetic electron transport through Chl fluorescence measurement of six cyanobacterial species grown under the same photon flux densities and at the same temperature. In the dark or under weak light, up to growth light, a large difference in the plastoquinone (PQ) redox condition was observed among different cyanobacterial species. The observed difference indicates that the degree of interaction between respiratory electron transfer and photosynthetic electron transfer differs among different cyanobacterial species. The variation could not be ascribed to the phylogenetic differences but possibly to the light environment of the original habitat. On the other hand, changes in the redox condition of PQ were essentially identical among different species at photon flux densities higher than the growth light. We further analyzed the response to high light by using a typical energy allocation model and found that ‘non-regulated’ thermal dissipation was increased under high-light conditions in all cyanobacterial species tested. We assume that such ‘non-regulated’ thermal dissipation may be an important ‘regulatory’ mechanism in the acclimation of cyanobacterial cells to high-light conditions. PMID:26712847

  1. Quenching of antihydrogen gravitational states by surface charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. Yu; Kupriyanova, E. A.; Lambrecht, A.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Reynaud, S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the effect of the quenching of antihydrogen quantum states near the surface of a material in the Earth's gravitational field by local charges randomly distributed along a mirror surface. The quenching reduces the probability of quantum reflection because of the additional atom–charge interaction, and thus the nonadiabatic transitions to excited gravitational states. Our approach is suitable when accounting for quenching caused by any kind of additional interaction with a characteristic range much smaller than the typical gravitational state wavelength.

  2. Dynamic quenching in single photosystem II supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, J Michael; Xu, Pengqi; Chmeliov, Jevgenij; Krüger, Tjaart P J; Alexandre, Maxime T A; Valkunas, Leonas; Croce, Roberta; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-10-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a huge pigment-protein supercomplex responsible for the primary steps of photosynthesis in green plants. Its light-harvesting antenna exhibits efficient transfer of the absorbed excitation energy to the reaction center and also contains a well-regulated protection mechanism against over-excitation in strong light conditions. The latter is based on conformational changes in antenna complexes that open up excitation decay channels resulting in considerable fluorescence quenching. Meanwhile, fluorescence blinking, observed in single antennas, is likely caused by a similar mechanism. Thus the question arises whether this effect is also present in and relevant to the native supramolecular organization of a fully assembled PSII. To further investigate energy transfer and quenching in single PSII, we performed single-molecule experiments on PSII supercomplexes at 5 °C. Analysis of the fluorescence intensity and mean lifetime allowed us to distinguish detached antennas and specifically analyze PSII supercomplexes. The average fluorescence lifetime in PSII of about 100-150 ps, measured under our extreme excitation conditions, is surprisingly similar to published ensemble lifetime data of photochemical quenching in PSII of a similar size. In our case, this lifetime is nevertheless caused by either one or multiple quenched antennas or by a quencher in the reaction center. The observed reversible light-induced changes in fluorescence intensity on a millisecond timescale are reminiscent of blinking subunits. Our results therefore directly illustrate how environmental control over a fluctuating antenna can regulate light-harvesting in plant photosynthesis. PMID:27604572

  3. Dynamic quenching in single photosystem II supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, J Michael; Xu, Pengqi; Chmeliov, Jevgenij; Krüger, Tjaart P J; Alexandre, Maxime T A; Valkunas, Leonas; Croce, Roberta; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-10-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a huge pigment-protein supercomplex responsible for the primary steps of photosynthesis in green plants. Its light-harvesting antenna exhibits efficient transfer of the absorbed excitation energy to the reaction center and also contains a well-regulated protection mechanism against over-excitation in strong light conditions. The latter is based on conformational changes in antenna complexes that open up excitation decay channels resulting in considerable fluorescence quenching. Meanwhile, fluorescence blinking, observed in single antennas, is likely caused by a similar mechanism. Thus the question arises whether this effect is also present in and relevant to the native supramolecular organization of a fully assembled PSII. To further investigate energy transfer and quenching in single PSII, we performed single-molecule experiments on PSII supercomplexes at 5 °C. Analysis of the fluorescence intensity and mean lifetime allowed us to distinguish detached antennas and specifically analyze PSII supercomplexes. The average fluorescence lifetime in PSII of about 100-150 ps, measured under our extreme excitation conditions, is surprisingly similar to published ensemble lifetime data of photochemical quenching in PSII of a similar size. In our case, this lifetime is nevertheless caused by either one or multiple quenched antennas or by a quencher in the reaction center. The observed reversible light-induced changes in fluorescence intensity on a millisecond timescale are reminiscent of blinking subunits. Our results therefore directly illustrate how environmental control over a fluctuating antenna can regulate light-harvesting in plant photosynthesis.

  4. Non-photochemical light-induced nucleation and control of polymorphism through polarization-switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matic, Jelena

    This dissertation examines the effect of polarization, intensity and wavelength on crystallization from supersaturated solutions using non-photochemical light-induced nucleation (NPLIN). Using NPLIN crystal structure can be controlled. Intense pulses of linearly-polarized laser light induce the nucleation of the gamma-glycine polymorph, which otherwise does not form under the same conditions. Moreover, intense pulses of circularly-polarized light induce the alpha-glycine polymorph to crystallize from solutions prepared using the same procedure. The observation that polymorphism could be controlled by changing between linear and circular polarization was named polarization-switching. It represents the strongest evidence to date that the mechanism involved in NPLIN is indeed non-photochemical. The interaction of light and matter responsible for the phenomenon is discussed, as well as the implication of the results of NPLIN experiments on the current understanding of the structure of supersaturated solutions and nucleation. The success rate of NPLIN shows a non-linear dependence on intensity, with a threshold value of 0.02--0.03 GW/cm2. Nucleation could successfully be induced at two different wavelengths, lending further support to the non-photochemical mechanism hypothesis. Green light was shown to be more effective than near-IR light at inducing nucleation. The difference was attributed to the lower absorption of water at the visible wavelength. The potential for use of NPLIN in fundamental studies of nucleation through pump-probe experiments is explored. In addition, evidence is presented that NPLIN has the potential to create unknown polymorphs. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of a new polymorph of L-alanine is presented and discussed.

  5. The Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Facilitates Cyclic Electron Flow, Energy-Dependent Quenching, and Chlororespiratory Metabolism during Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Nitrogen Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Saroussi, Shai I; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Grossman, Arthur R

    2016-04-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are deprived of nitrogen (N), the capacity to grow and assimilate carbon becomes limited, causing a decrease in the productive use of absorbed light energy and likely a rise in the cellular reduction state. Although there is a scarcity of N in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, a mechanistic understanding of how photosynthesis adjusts to low-N conditions and the enzymes/activities integral to these adjustments have not been described. In this work, we use biochemical and biophysical analyses of photoautotrophically grown wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the integration of electron transport pathways critical for maintaining active photosynthetic complexes even after exposure of cells to N deprivation for 3 d. Key to acclimation is the type II NADPH dehydrogenase, NDA2, which drives cyclic electron flow (CEF), chlororespiration, and the generation of an H(+) gradient across the thylakoid membranes. N deprivation elicited a doubling of the rate of NDA2-dependent CEF, with little contribution from PGR5/PGRL1-dependent CEF The H(+) gradient generated by CEF is essential to sustain nonphotochemical quenching, while an increase in the level of reduced plastoquinone would promote a state transition; both are necessary to down-regulate photosystem II activity. Moreover, stimulation of NDA2-dependent chlororespiration affords additional relief from the elevated reduction state associated with N deprivation through plastid terminal oxidase-dependent water synthesis. Overall, rerouting electrons through the NDA2 catalytic hub in response to photoautotrophic N deprivation sustains cell viability while promoting the dissipation of excess excitation energy through quenching and chlororespiratory processes. PMID:26858365

  6. The Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Facilitates Cyclic Electron Flow, Energy-Dependent Quenching, and Chlororespiratory Metabolism during Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Nitrogen Deprivation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Arthur R.

    2016-01-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are deprived of nitrogen (N), the capacity to grow and assimilate carbon becomes limited, causing a decrease in the productive use of absorbed light energy and likely a rise in the cellular reduction state. Although there is a scarcity of N in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, a mechanistic understanding of how photosynthesis adjusts to low-N conditions and the enzymes/activities integral to these adjustments have not been described. In this work, we use biochemical and biophysical analyses of photoautotrophically grown wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the integration of electron transport pathways critical for maintaining active photosynthetic complexes even after exposure of cells to N deprivation for 3 d. Key to acclimation is the type II NADPH dehydrogenase, NDA2, which drives cyclic electron flow (CEF), chlororespiration, and the generation of an H+ gradient across the thylakoid membranes. N deprivation elicited a doubling of the rate of NDA2-dependent CEF, with little contribution from PGR5/PGRL1-dependent CEF. The H+ gradient generated by CEF is essential to sustain nonphotochemical quenching, while an increase in the level of reduced plastoquinone would promote a state transition; both are necessary to down-regulate photosystem II activity. Moreover, stimulation of NDA2-dependent chlororespiration affords additional relief from the elevated reduction state associated with N deprivation through plastid terminal oxidase-dependent water synthesis. Overall, rerouting electrons through the NDA2 catalytic hub in response to photoautotrophic N deprivation sustains cell viability while promoting the dissipation of excess excitation energy through quenching and chlororespiratory processes. PMID:26858365

  7. High Photosynthetic Capacity in a Shade-Tolerant Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant (Implications for Sunfleck Use, Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation, and Susceptibility to Photoinhibition).

    PubMed Central

    Skillman, J. B.; Winter, K.

    1997-01-01

    Aechmea magdalenae Andre ex Baker, a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant from the shaded Panamanian rain forest understory, has a maximum photosynthesis rate 2 to 3 times that of co-occurring C3 species and a limited potential for photosynthetic acclimation to high light. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that (a) compared with co-occurring C3 species, photosynthetic electron transport in A. magdalenae responded more rapidly to light flecks of moderate intensity, attained a higher steady-state rate, and maintained a lower reduction state of plastoquinone during light flecks; (b) these characteristics were associated with phase III CO2 fixation of CAM; (c) when grown in full sun, A. magdalenae was chronically photoinhibited despite a remarkably high nonphotochemical quenching capacity, indicating a large potential for photoprotection; and (d) the degree of photoinhibition was inversely proportional to the length of phase III. Results from the light fleck studies suggest that understory A. magdalenae plants can make more efficient use of sun flecks for leaf carbon gain over most of the day than co-occurring C3 species. The association between the duration of phase III and the degree of photoinhibition for A. magdalenae in high light is discussed in relation to the limited photosynthetic plasticity in this species. PMID:12223618

  8. High Photosynthetic Capacity in a Shade-Tolerant Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant (Implications for Sunfleck Use, Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation, and Susceptibility to Photoinhibition).

    PubMed

    Skillman, J. B.; Winter, K.

    1997-02-01

    Aechmea magdalenae Andre ex Baker, a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant from the shaded Panamanian rain forest understory, has a maximum photosynthesis rate 2 to 3 times that of co-occurring C3 species and a limited potential for photosynthetic acclimation to high light. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that (a) compared with co-occurring C3 species, photosynthetic electron transport in A. magdalenae responded more rapidly to light flecks of moderate intensity, attained a higher steady-state rate, and maintained a lower reduction state of plastoquinone during light flecks; (b) these characteristics were associated with phase III CO2 fixation of CAM; (c) when grown in full sun, A. magdalenae was chronically photoinhibited despite a remarkably high nonphotochemical quenching capacity, indicating a large potential for photoprotection; and (d) the degree of photoinhibition was inversely proportional to the length of phase III. Results from the light fleck studies suggest that understory A. magdalenae plants can make more efficient use of sun flecks for leaf carbon gain over most of the day than co-occurring C3 species. The association between the duration of phase III and the degree of photoinhibition for A. magdalenae in high light is discussed in relation to the limited photosynthetic plasticity in this species.

  9. Fluorescence changes accompanying short-term light adaptations in photosystem I and photosystem II of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and phycobiliprotein-impaired mutants: State 1/State 2 transitions and carotenoid-induced quenching of phycobilisomes.

    PubMed

    Stadnichuk, Igor N; Lukashev, Evgeny P; Elanskaya, Irina V

    2009-03-01

    The features of the two types of short-term light-adaptations of photosynthetic apparatus, State 1/State 2 transitions, and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching of phycobilisomes (PBS) by orange carotene-protein (OCP) were compared in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 wild type, CK pigment mutant lacking phycocyanin, and PAL mutant totally devoid of phycobiliproteins. The permanent presence of PBS-specific peaks in the in situ action spectra of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII), as well as in the 77 K fluorescence excitation spectra for chlorophyll emission at 690 nm (PSII) and 725 nm (PSI) showed that PBS are constitutive antenna complexes of both photosystems. The mutant strains compensated the lack of phycobiliproteins by higher PSII content and by intensification of photosynthetic linear electron transfer. The detectable changes of energy migration from PBS to the PSI and PSII in the Synechocystis wild type and the CK mutant in State 1 and State 2 according to the fluorescence excitation spectra measurements were not registered. The constant level of fluorescence emission of PSI during State 1/State 2 transitions and simultaneous increase of chlorophyll fluorescence emission of PSII in State 1 in Synechocystis PAL mutant allowed to propose that spillover is an unlikely mechanism of state transitions. Blue-green light absorbed by OCP diminished the rout of energy from PBS to PSI while energy migration from PBS to PSII was less influenced. Therefore, the main role of OCP-induced quenching of PBS is the limitation of PSI activity and cyclic electron transport under relatively high light conditions.

  10. Theory of light quenching: effects of fluorescence polarization, intensity, and anisotropy decays.

    PubMed Central

    Kuśba, J; Bogdanov, V; Gryczynski, I; Lakowicz, J R

    1994-01-01

    Experimental studies have recently demonstrated that fluorescence emission can be quenched by laser light pulses from modern high repetition rate lasers, a phenomenon we call "light quenching." We now describe the theory of light quenching and some of its effects on the steady-state and time-resolved intensity and anisotropy decays of fluorophores. Light quenching can decrease or increase the steady-state or time-zero anisotropy. Remarkably, the light quenching can break the usual z axis symmetry of the excited-state population, and the emission polarization can range from -1 to +1 under selected conditions. The measured anisotropy (or polarization) depends upon whether the observation axis is parallel or perpendicular to the propagation direction of the light quenching beam. The effects of light quenching are different for a single pulse, which results in both excitation and quenching, as compared with a time-delayed quenching pulse. Time-delayed light quenching pulses can result in step-like changes in the time-dependent intensity or anisotropy and are predicted to cause oscillations in the frequency-domain intensity and anisotropy decays. The increasing availability of pulsed laser sources offers the opportunity for a new class of two-pulse or multiple-pulse experiments where the sample is prepared by an excitation pulse, the excited state population is modified by the quenching pulse(s), followed by time- or frequency-domain measurements of the resulting emission. PMID:7858140

  11. Quenching: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Basketter, D

    2000-11-01

    Fragrance chemicals are a frequently reported cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), a matter which has recently come into considerable prominence, to the point that legislation in Europe is under serious consideration. Certain skin-sensitizing fragrance chemicals have been reported by the producing industry to be rendered safe (quenched), at least in terms of ACD, when they are used in the presence of a specific quenching agent. Accordingly, it seemed timely to review this apparent quenching phenomenon, considering the available data and potential mechanistic hypotheses that might be used to explain it. If it is correct, it should be a phenomenon of potentially enormous value in the elimination of the allergenic properties of at least a proportion of common skin sensitizers. Whilst there is some evidence in man for the occurrence of quenching during the induction of skin sensitization, a much more substantial body of work has failed to find supportive evidence in various animals models, at a chemical level or at elicitation in human subjects with existing allergy. On balance, it is concluded that quenching of fragrance allergens is a phenomenon still awaiting positive evidence of existence.

  12. The Quench Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  13. Dye induced quenching of firefly luciferase-luciferin bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KrishnaMurthy, N. V.; Sudhaharan, T.; Ram Reddy, A.

    2007-11-01

    The quenching of firefly bioluminescence (BL) in presence of xanthene dyes and tetratolylporphyrin was investigated. The BL intensity was quenched with an altered decay pattern in presence of xanthene dyes and tetratolylporphyrin. The electronic absorption spectra indicate that there is no significant interaction occurring between the dyes and the BL components in the ground state. The BL quenching decay rate and fluorescence quenching studies of luciferin by the dyes suggest an energy transfer through an exciplex, involving oxyluciferin, in the excited state and the dyes, in the ground state. The bimolecular quenching rate constant ( Kq) values obtained from fluorescence studies varied between 7.7 × 10 12 and 19.8 × 10 12 M -1 s -1. The magnitude of the bimolecular quenching rate constants confirmed the complex formation between dye and excited oxyluciferin. The exciplex subsequently undergoes a non-radiative decay to the ground state via a combination of heavy atom induced and Förster-type energy transfer. The decay rate constants in presence and in absence of dyes vary between 7.47 × 10 -4 and 7.6 × 10 -2 s -1. In the presence of dyes the effective decay rate constants ( keff) increased while the lifetime of light emitting species decreased. The kinetic studies in presence of singlet oxygen scavengers, like β-carotene and NaN 3, prove that there is no significant quenching of the firefly BL due to the formation of singlet oxygen.

  14. Excitation mechanism and thermal emission quenching of Tb ions in silicon rich silicon oxide thin films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition—Do we need silicon nanoclusters?

    SciTech Connect

    Podhorodecki, A. Golacki, L. W.; Zatryb, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Wang, J.; Jadwisienczak, W.; Fedus, K.

    2014-04-14

    In this work, we will discuss the excitation and emission properties of Tb ions in a Silicon Rich Silicon Oxide (SRSO) matrix obtained at different technological conditions. By means of electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, undoped and doped SRSO films have been obtained with different Si content (33, 35, 39, 50 at. %) and were annealed at different temperatures (600, 900, 1100 °C). The samples were characterized optically and structurally using photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation, time resolved PL, absorption, cathodoluminescence, temperature dependent PL, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, we discuss how the matrix modifications influence excitation and emission properties of Tb ions.

  15. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH IN PROGRESS, WILPUTTE BATTERY, COAL PRE-HEATING UNIT, INCLINE CONVEYOR AND BATHHOUSE. - Alabama By-Products Company, Coke Plant, Highway 79 (Pinson Valley Parkway), Tarrant City, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Identification of the chromophores involved in aggregation-dependent energy quenching of the monomeric photosystem II antenna protein Lhcb5.

    PubMed

    Ballottari, Matteo; Girardon, Julien; Betterle, Nico; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excess absorbed light energy is a fundamental process that regulates photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. Among several proposed NPQ mechanisms, aggregation-dependent quenching (ADQ) and charge transfer quenching have received the most attention. In vitro spectroscopic features of both mechanisms correlate with very similar signals detected in more intact systems and in vivo, where full NPQ can be observed. A major difference between the models is the proposed quenching site, which is predominantly the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II in ADQ and exclusively monomeric Lhcb proteins in charge transfer quenching. Here, we studied ADQ in both monomeric and trimeric Lhcb proteins, investigating the activities of each antenna subunit and their dependence on zeaxanthin, a major modulator of NPQ in vivo. We found that monomeric Lhcb proteins undergo stronger quenching than light-harvesting complex II during aggregation and that this is enhanced by binding to zeaxanthin, as occurs during NPQ in vivo. Finally, the analysis of Lhcb5 mutants showed that chlorophyll 612 and 613, in close contact with lutein bound at site L1, are important facilitators of ADQ.

  17. Quench studies of ILC cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari; Dai, Jin

    2011-07-01

    Quench limits accelerating gradient in SRF cavities to a gradient lower than theoretically expected for superconducting niobium. Identification of the quenching site with thermometry and OST, optical inspection, and replica of the culprit is an ongoing effort at Jefferson Lab aimed at better understanding of this limiting phenomenon. In this contribution we present our finding with several SRF cavities that were limited by quench.

  18. Characterizing Water Quenching Systems with a Quench Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, B. Lynn; Li, Zhichao; Freborg, Andrew M.

    2014-12-01

    Quench probes have been used effectively to characterize the quality of quenchants for many years. For this purpose, a variety of commercial probes, as well as the necessary data acquisition system for determining the time-temperature data for a set of standardized test conditions, are available for purchase. The type of information obtained from such probes provides a good basis for comparing media, characterizing general cooling capabilities, and checking media condition over time. However, these data do not adequately characterize the actual production quenching process in terms of heat transfer behavior in many cases, especially when high temperature gradients are present. Faced with the need to characterize water quenching practices, including conventional and intensive practices, a quench probe was developed. This paper describes that probe, the data collection system, the data gathered for both intensive quenching and conventional water quenching, and the heat transfer coefficients determined for these processes. Process sensitivities are investigated and highlight some intricacies of quenching.

  19. A new quenching alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

  20. Quench from Mott Insulator to Superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Tylutki, Marek

    2012-06-01

    We study a linear ramp of the nearest-neighbor tunneling rate in the Bose-Hubbard model driving the system from the Mott insulator state into the superfluid phase. We employ the truncated Wigner approximation to simulate linear quenches of a uniform system in 1...3 dimensions, and in a harmonic trap in 3 dimensions. In all these setups the excitation energy decays like one over third root of the quench time. The -1/3 scaling is explained by an impulse-adiabatic approximation - a variant of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism - describing a crossover from non-adiabatic to adiabatic evolution when the system begins to keep pace with the increasing tunneling rate.

  1. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  2. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  3. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  4. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2002-06-27

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Q{sub y}-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll{sub a} (BChl{sub a}) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5. A version of the hole spectrum simulation program written by the candidate for the FMO complex study (Chapter 3) is included as an appendix. The references for each chapter are given at the end of each chapter.

  5. Hamiltonian truncation approach to quenches in the Ising field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovszky, T.; Mestyán, M.; Collura, M.; Kormos, M.; Takács, G.

    2016-10-01

    In contrast to lattice systems where powerful numerical techniques such as matrix product state based methods are available to study the non-equilibrium dynamics, the non-equilibrium behaviour of continuum systems is much harder to simulate. We demonstrate here that Hamiltonian truncation methods can be efficiently applied to this problem, by studying the quantum quench dynamics of the 1 + 1 dimensional Ising field theory using a truncated free fermionic space approach. After benchmarking the method with integrable quenches corresponding to changing the mass in a free Majorana fermion field theory, we study the effect of an integrability breaking perturbation by the longitudinal magnetic field. In both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the model we find persistent oscillations with frequencies set by the low-lying particle excitations not only for small, but even for moderate size quenches. In the ferromagnetic phase these particles are the various non-perturbative confined bound states of the domain wall excitations, while in the paramagnetic phase the single magnon excitation governs the dynamics, allowing us to capture the time evolution of the magnetisation using a combination of known results from perturbation theory and form factor based methods. We point out that the dominance of low lying excitations allows for the numerical or experimental determination of the mass spectra through the study of the quench dynamics.

  6. Bimolecular quenching of excitons and fluorescence in the photosynthetic unit.

    PubMed Central

    Swenberg, C E; Geacintov, N E; Pope, M

    1976-01-01

    The recent results of Campillo et al. and Mauzerall on the quenching of the fluorescence of chlorophyll a in Chlorella pyrenoidosa as a function of the intensity of the laser excitation pulses are rationalized by applying a model invoking singlet-singlet exciton annihilation. PMID:990396

  7. Excitation dynamics and structural implication of the stress-related complex LHCSR3 from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Nicoletta; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir; Roy, Laura M; van Grondelle, Rienk; Croce, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    LHCSR3 is a member of the Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHC) family, which is mainly composed of pigment-protein complexes responsible for collecting photons during the first steps of photosynthesis. Unlike related LHCs, LHCSR3 is expressed in stress conditions and has been shown to be essential for the fast component of photoprotection, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In plants, which do not possess LHCSR homologs, NPQ is triggered by the PSBS protein. Both PSBS and LHCSR3 possess the ability to sense pH changes but, unlike PSBS, LHCSR3 binds multiple pigments. In this work we have analyzed the properties of the pigments bound to LHCSR3 and their excited state dynamics. The data show efficient excitation energy transfer between pigments with rates similar to those observed for the other LHCs. Application of an exciton model based on a template of LHCII, the most abundant LHC, satisfactorily explains the collected steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic data, indicating that LHCSR3 has a LHC-like molecular architecture, although it probably binds less pigments. The model suggests that most of the chlorophylls have similar energy and interactions as in LHCII. The most striking difference is the localization of the lowest energy state, which is not on the Chlorophyll a (Chl a) 610-611-612 triplet as in all the LHCB antennas, but on Chl a613, which is located close to the lumen and to the pH-sensing region of the protein. PMID:27150505

  8. HIP quench technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, C.; Westerlund, J.; Zimmerman, F.X.

    1996-12-31

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is a viable production process today for densifying metals, ceramics, and composites to achieve fully dense parts. One major drawback for conventional HIPing is the long ten to twelve hour cycle time resulting in low productivity and high processing cost. Drastic furnace improvements have been made in the late 1980`s with the advent of Uniform Rapid Cooling (URC) called HIP Quenching. This innovation allows floor/floor cycles as short as four to five hours with one hour soak depending on the material to be HIPed. A flow device such as a fan is utilized at the base of the furnace for forced gas convection in promoting main features to: (1) accelerate time for heating, soaking and cooling; (2) add combined solution heat treating; and (3) reduce thermal distortion of parts with varying cross-sections. All three points promise to positively effect better economy with improved property and quality to promote the HIP process further. This paper describes the URC technology and illustrates a couple of HIP Quench studies made for a turbine disc and efficient High Speed Steel powder consolidation.

  9. Light Response of CO(2) Assimilation, Dissipation of Excess Excitation Energy, and Zeaxanthin Content of Sun and Shade Leaves.

    PubMed

    Demmig-Adams, B; Winter, K; Krüger, A; Czygan, F C

    1989-07-01

    Intact attached sun leaves of Helianthus annuus and shade leaves of Monstera deliciosa and Hedera helix were used to obtain light response curves of CO(2) uptake, the content of the carotenoid zeaxanthin (formed by violaxanthin de-epoxidation), as well as nonphotochemical quenching (q(NP)), and the rate constant of radiationless energy dissipation (k(D)). The latter two parameters were calculated from the decrease of chlorophyll a fluorescence at closed photosystem II traps in saturating pulses in the light. Among the three species, the light-saturated capacity of CO(2) uptake differed widely and light saturation of CO(2) uptake occurred at very different photon flux densities. Fluorescence quenching and zeaxanthin content exhibited features which were common to all three species: below light-saturation of CO(2) uptake nonphotochemical quenching occurred in the absence of zeaxanthin and was not accompanied by a decrease in the yield of instantaneous fluorescence. Nonphotochemical quenching, q(NP), increased up to values which ranged between 0.35 and 0.5 when based on a control value of the yield of variable fluorescence determined after 12 hours of darkness. As light saturation of CO(2) uptake was approached, q(NP) showed a secondary increase and the zeaxanthin content of the leaves began to rise. This was also the point from which the yield of instantaneous fluorescence began to decrease. The increase in zeaxanthin was paralleled by an increase in the rate constant for radiationless energy dissipation k(D), which opens the possibility that zeaxanthin is related to the rapidly relaxing "high-energy-state quenching" in leaves.

  10. Combined effect of cascade through circular orbits and Stark quenching on the decay of n=2→n=1 transition of H-like Fe in beam-foil excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Mishra, Adya P.; Nandi, T.

    2014-11-01

    Recently Mishra et al. (Mishra AP, et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2013;120:114-9), while analyzing the effects of cascading through circular orbits (l=n-1)on the decay of unresolved 2p,2s→1s transitions of H-like Fe, neglected the effect of electric field at the exit surface of foil on the lifetime of the 2s state. In the present work we have considered the combined effect of cascading through circular orbits and the Stark mixing on the decay of the 2p,2s→1s transitions of H-like Fe in beam-foil excitation. It is observed that the natural lifetime of the 2s state (350.6 ps) is reduced to 221.8±22.4 ps due to Stark mixing of the long-lived 2s2S1/2 state with the very close and short-lived 2p P1/2o2 state. The strength of the electric field responsible for such mixing comes out to be 7.09±0.37×106 V/cm. The results of the present work for cascading of circular orbits through the 2p state are in good agreement (within the error bars) with those obtained earlier by Mishra et al.

  11. Allelochemical stress inhibits growth, leaf water relations, PSII photochemistry, non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, and heat energy dissipation in three C3 perennial species.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the effect of two allelochemicals, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and cinnamic acid (CA), on different physiological and morphological characteristics of 1-month-old C(3) plant species (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, and Rumex acetosa) was analysed. BOA inhibited the shoot length of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and R. acetosa by 49%, 19%, and 19% of the control. The root length of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and R. acetosa growing in the presence of 1.5 mM BOA and CA was decreased compared with the control. Both allelochemicals (BOA, CA) inhibited leaf osmotic potential (LOP) in L. perenne and D. glomerata. In L. perenne, F(v)/F(m) decreased after treatment with BOA (1.5 mM) while CA (1.5 mM) also significantly reduced F(v)/F(m) in L. perenne. Both allelochemicals decreased ΦPSII in D. glomerata and L. perenne within 24 h of treatment, while in R. acetosa, ΦPSII levels decreased by 72 h following treatment with BOA and CA. There was a decrease in qP and NPQ on the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth days after treatment with BOA in D. glomerata, while both allelochemicals reduced the qP level in R. acetosa. There was a gradual decrease in the fraction of light absorbed by PSII allocated to PSII photochemistry (P) in R. acetosa treated with BOA and CA. The P values in D. glomerata were reduced by both allelochemicals and the portion of absorbed photon energy that was thermally dissipated (D) in D. glomerata and L. perenne was decreased by BOA and CA. Photon energy absorbed by PSII antennae and trapped by 'closed' PSII reaction centres (E) was decreased after CA exposure in D. glomerata. BOA and CA (1.5 mM concentration) decreased the leaf protein contents in all three perennial species. This study provides new understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of BOA and CA in one perennial dicotyledon and two perennial grasses. The acquisition of such knowledge may ultimately provide a rational and scientific basis for the design of safe and effective herbicides.

  12. Allelochemical stress inhibits growth, leaf water relations, PSII photochemistry, non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, and heat energy dissipation in three C3 perennial species

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M. Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of two allelochemicals, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and cinnamic acid (CA), on different physiological and morphological characteristics of 1-month-old C3 plant species (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, and Rumex acetosa) was analysed. BOA inhibited the shoot length of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and R. acetosa by 49%, 19%, and 19% of the control. The root length of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and R. acetosa growing in the presence of 1.5 mM BOA and CA was decreased compared with the control. Both allelochemicals (BOA, CA) inhibited leaf osmotic potential (LOP) in L. perenne and D. glomerata. In L. perenne, Fv/Fm decreased after treatment with BOA (1.5 mM) while CA (1.5 mM) also significantly reduced Fv/Fm in L. perenne. Both allelochemicals decreased ΦPSII in D. glomerata and L. perenne within 24 h of treatment, while in R. acetosa, ΦPSII levels decreased by 72 h following treatment with BOA and CA. There was a decrease in qP and NPQ on the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth days after treatment with BOA in D. glomerata, while both allelochemicals reduced the qP level in R. acetosa. There was a gradual decrease in the fraction of light absorbed by PSII allocated to PSII photochemistry (P) in R. acetosa treated with BOA and CA. The P values in D. glomerata were reduced by both allelochemicals and the portion of absorbed photon energy that was thermally dissipated (D) in D. glomerata and L. perenne was decreased by BOA and CA. Photon energy absorbed by PSII antennae and trapped by ‘closed’ PSII reaction centres (E) was decreased after CA exposure in D. glomerata. BOA and CA (1.5 mM concentration) decreased the leaf protein contents in all three perennial species. This study provides new understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of BOA and CA in one perennial dicotyledon and two perennial grasses. The acquisition of such knowledge may ultimately provide a rational and scientific basis for the design of safe and effective herbicides. PMID:21659663

  13. Quench Crucibles Reinforced with Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Carrasquillo, Edgar; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKehnie, N.

    2008-01-01

    Improved crucibles consisting mainly of metal-reinforced ceramic ampules have been developed for use in experiments in which material specimens are heated in the crucibles to various high temperatures, then quenched by, for example, plunging the crucibles into water at room temperature. In a traditional quench crucible, the gap between the ampule and the metal cartridge impedes the transfer of heat to such a degree that the quench rate (the rate of cooling of the specimen) can be too low to produce the desired effect in the specimen. One can increase the quench rate by eliminating the metal cartridge to enable direct quenching of the ampule, but then the thermal shock of direct quenching causes cracking of the ampule. In a quench crucible of the present improved type, there is no gap and no metal cartridge in the traditional sense. Instead, there is an overlay of metal in direct contact with the ampule, as shown on the right side of the figure. Because there is no gap between the metal overlay and the ampule, the heat-transfer rate can be much greater than it is in a traditional quench crucible. The metal overlay also reinforces the ampule against cracking.

  14. Intermolecular-charge-transfer-induced fluorescence quenching in protic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao; Liu, Xiaojun; Lou, Zhidong; Hou, Yanbing; Teng, Feng

    2016-11-01

    The fluorescence quenching of fluorenone in protic solvent has been extensively investigated, and the intermolecular hydrogen bond was found to play a crucial role. Unfortunately, the mechanism at atomic level is still not clear. In the present work, we theoretically put forward the charge transfer along the hydrogen bond in the excited states. The vertical excitation energies of the fluorenone-methanol complex as well as the potential energy profiles and surfaces of the vertical excited states and charge transfer states were calculated by using the ab initio electronic-structure methods. The photochemical reactions occurring in the diverse charge transfer states were compared and their decisiveness to the fluorescence quenching was discussed in the paper.

  15. Fluorescence quenching of vaporous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Piuzzi, F.; Sambor, E. G.

    2007-04-01

    The fluorescence quenching by oxygen of vapors of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with strongly different oxidation potentials 0.44 eV < E ox < 1.61 eV (anthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 2-aminoanthracene, 9,10-dibromanthracene, pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and carbazole) is studied. From the dependences of the fluorescence decay rates and intensities on the oxygen pressure P O2, the quenching rate constants k S O2 for the excited singlet states S 1 and the fraction f S O2 of the S 1 states quenched by oxygen are estimated. At P O2 = 5 Torr, the k S O2 constants vary from 1.2 × 107 to 3.0 × 105 s-1 Torr-1, while the fraction of the quenched excited singlet states changes from 0.1 (fluoranthene) to 0.7 (chrysene) and 0.8 (pyrene). The dependences of k S O2 on the photophysical and electron-donor characteristics of the fluorescing compounds are analyzed. It is shown that, in the gas phase of anthracene and its derivatives, the magnitudes of k S O2 are limited by the rate constants of gas-kinetic collisions k gk and do not depend on the electron-donor characteristics of fluorophores, while the fraction of quenched states f S O2 changes with the oxidation potential. For compounds with k S O2 < k gk, both the rate constants k S O2 and the fraction of quenched states f S O2 depend on the E ox of sensitizers, which demonstrates an important role played by the charge-transfer interactions in quenching of the S 1 states. The dependence of the rate constants k S O2 on the free energy of electron transfer ΔG et is considered.

  16. Positronium quenching via collisions with triplet states of photomagnetic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, C.I.; Naidu, S.V.; Sharma, S.C.; Kowalski, J.M. )

    1991-04-01

    We have studied positronium quenching resulting from collisions with the triplet states of benzaldehyde, oxygen, benzophenone, and bromonaphthalene. Positronium pick-off decay rates are presented as functions of triplet populations via uv irradiation of benzaldehyde-ethane, benzaldehyde-helium, and oxgyen-ethane gaseous mixtures and of benzophenone and bromonaphthalene adsorbed porous silicas. Our results show that the cross sections for positronium quenching in collisions with excited triplet states are not as high as reported previously. The oxygen data suggest reactions between hot'' (nonthermal) positronium and oxygen molecules.

  17. Universal transport dynamics in a quenched tunnel-coupled Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambetta, F. M.; Cavaliere, F.; Citro, R.; Sassetti, M.

    2016-07-01

    The transport dynamics of a quenched Luttinger liquid tunnel-coupled to a fermionic reservoir is investigated. In the transient dynamics, we show that for a sudden quench of the electron interaction universal power-law decay in time of the tunneling current occurs, ascribed to the presence of entangled compound excitations created by the quench. In sharp contrast to the usual nonuniversal power-law behavior of a zero-temperature nonquenched Luttinger liquid, the steady-state tunneling current is Ohmic and can be explained in terms of an effective quench-activated heating of the system. Our study unveils an unconventional dynamics for a quenched Luttinger liquid that could be identified in quenched cold Fermi gases.

  18. Light Response of CO2 Assimilation, Dissipation of Excess Excitation Energy, and Zeaxanthin Content of Sun and Shade Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Winter, Klaus; Krüger, Almuth; Czygan, Franz-Christian

    1989-01-01

    Intact attached sun leaves of Helianthus annuus and shade leaves of Monstera deliciosa and Hedera helix were used to obtain light response curves of CO2 uptake, the content of the carotenoid zeaxanthin (formed by violaxanthin de-epoxidation), as well as nonphotochemical quenching (qNP), and the rate constant of radiationless energy dissipation (kD). The latter two parameters were calculated from the decrease of chlorophyll a fluorescence at closed photosystem II traps in saturating pulses in the light. Among the three species, the light-saturated capacity of CO2 uptake differed widely and light saturation of CO2 uptake occurred at very different photon flux densities. Fluorescence quenching and zeaxanthin content exhibited features which were common to all three species: below light-saturation of CO2 uptake nonphotochemical quenching occurred in the absence of zeaxanthin and was not accompanied by a decrease in the yield of instantaneous fluorescence. Nonphotochemical quenching, qNP, increased up to values which ranged between 0.35 and 0.5 when based on a control value of the yield of variable fluorescence determined after 12 hours of darkness. As light saturation of CO2 uptake was approached, qNP showed a secondary increase and the zeaxanthin content of the leaves began to rise. This was also the point from which the yield of instantaneous fluorescence began to decrease. The increase in zeaxanthin was paralleled by an increase in the rate constant for radiationless energy dissipation kD, which opens the possibility that zeaxanthin is related to the rapidly relaxing “high-energy-state quenching” in leaves. PMID:16666892

  19. Quench ring for a gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Denbleyker, A.L.

    1989-01-31

    This patent describes a gasifier for the high temperature combustion of a carbonaceous fuel to produce a usable gas, which gasifier includes an insulated shell having a combustion chamber in which the fuel is burned at an elevated temperature and pressure, a quench chamber in the shell holding a liquid bath for cooling products of combustion, a constricted throat communicating the respective combustion chamber and quench chamber, and an elongated dip tube having an inner wall which defines a flow guide path between the combustion chamber and the quench chamber, and having opposed upper and lower edges.

  20. Zeaxanthin and the Induction and Relaxation Kinetics of the Dissipation of Excess Excitation Energy in Leaves in 2% O2, 0% CO21

    PubMed Central

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Winter, Klaus; Krüger, Almuth; Czygan, Franz-Christian

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the carotenoid zeaxanthin, formed by violaxanthin de-epoxidation, and nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (qNP) in the light was investigated in leaves of Glycine max during a transient from dark to light in 2% O2, 0% CO2 at 100 to 200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second. (a) Up to a qNP (which can vary between 0 and 1) of about 0.7, the zeaxanthin content of leaves was linearly correlated with qNP as well as with the rate constant for radiationless energy dissipation in the antenna chlorophyll (kD). Beyond this point, at very high degrees of fluorescence quenching, only kD was directly proportional to the zeaxanthin content. (b) The relationship between zeaxanthin and kD was quantitatively similar for the rapidly relaxing quenching induced in 2% O2, 0% CO2 at 200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second and for the sustained quenching induced by long-term exposure of Nerium oleander to drought in high light (B Demmig, K Winter, A Krüger, F-C Czygan [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 17-24). These findings suggest that the same dissipation process may be induced by very different treatments and that this particular dissipation process can have widely different relaxation kinetics. (c) A rapid induction of strong nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching within about 1 minute was observed exclusively in leaves which already contained a background level of zeaxanthin. PMID:16666893

  1. Holographic Jet Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficnar, Andrej

    In this dissertation we study the phenomenon of jet quenching in quark-gluon plasma using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We start with a weakly coupled, perturbative QCD approach to energy loss, and present a Monte Carlo code for computation of the DGLV radiative energy loss of quarks and gluons at an arbitrary order in opacity. We use the code to compute the radiated gluon distribution up to n=9 order in opacity, and compare it to the thin plasma (n=1) and the multiple soft scattering (n=infinity) approximations. We furthermore show that the gluon distribution at finite opacity depends in detail on the screening mass mu and the mean free path lambda. In the next part, we turn to the studies of how heavy quarks, represented as "trailing strings" in AdS/CFT, lose energy in a strongly coupled plasma. We study how the heavy quark energy loss gets modified in a "bottom-up" non-conformal holographic model, constructed to reproduce some properties of QCD at finite temperature and constrained by fitting the lattice gauge theory results. The energy loss of heavy quarks is found to be strongly sensitive to the medium properties. We use this model to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of charm and bottom quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions, and comment on the range of validity of the model. The central part of this thesis is the energy loss of light quarks in a strongly coupled plasma. Using the standard model of "falling strings", we present an analytic derivation of the stopping distance of light quarks, previously available only through numerical simulations, and also apply it to the case of Gauss-Bonnet higher derivative gravity. We then present a general formula for computing the instantaneous energy loss in non-stationary string configurations. Application of this formula to the case of falling strings reveals interesting phenomenology, including a modified Bragg-like peak at late times and an approximately linear path dependence. Based

  2. Quench dynamics of a strongly interacting resonant Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiao; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2015-03-01

    We explore the dynamics of a resonant Bose gas following its quench to a strongly interacting regime near a Feshbach resonance. For such deep quenches, we utilize a self-consistent dynamic mean-field approximation and find that after an initial regime of many-body Rabi-like oscillations between the condensate and finite-momentum quasiparticle pairs, at long times, the gas reaches a prethermalized nonequilibrium steady state. We explore the resulting state through its broad stationary momentum distribution function, that exhibits a power-law high momentum tail. We study the associated enhanced depletion, quench-rate dependent excitation energy, Tan's contact, structure function and radio frequency spectroscopy. We find these predictions to be in a qualitative agreement with recent experiments We acknowledge the supported by the NSF through DMR-1001240 on this research.

  3. Holographic quenches with a gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    In order to holographically model quenches with a gapped final hamiltonian, we consider a gravity-scalar theory in anti-de Sitter space with an infrared hard wall. We allow a time dependent profile for the scalar field at the wall. This induces an energy exchange between bulk and wall and generates an oscillating scalar pulse. We argue that such backgrounds are the counterpart of quantum revivals in the dual field theory. We perform a qualitative comparison with the quench dynamics of the massive Schwinger model, which has been recently analyzed using tensor network techniques. Agreement is found provided the width of the oscillating scalar pulse is inversely linked to the energy density communicated by the quench. We propose this to be a general feature of holographic quenches.

  4. Antimycin A sensitive pathway independent from PGR5 cyclic electron transfer triggers non-photochemical reduction of PQ pool and state transitions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nellaepalli, Sreedhar; Kodru, Sireesha; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the mechanism involved in triggering state transitions at 40°C in Arabidopsis thaliana. Leaves (1-6 week old) exposed to 40°C exhibited state II transition indicating its role as one of the earliest stress responsive mechanism apart from regulation of light energy distribution between photosystem (PS)II and PSI. Post illumination transients (rise in Fo') revealed that non-photochemical reduction of PQ pool at 40°C in dark is responsible for activation of STN7 kinase, consequently light harvesting complex (LHC)II phosphorylation leading to state II condition. Later, in pgr5 mutant, non-photochemical reduction of PQ pool was observed indicating the involvement of alternative electron transfer routes. In chlororespiratory mutant crr2-2, state II transition occurred signifying that the reduction of PQ pool is independent from NDH mediated cyclic electron transfer. Further, antimycin A inhibitor studies in wt and mutants revealed its inhibitory action on non-photochemical reduction of PQ pool affecting both LHCII phosphorylation and migration to PSI which leads to state I. Thus, our study showed that antimycin A sensitive pathway independent from PGR5 dependent cyclic electron transfer, is responsible for inducing non-photochemical reduction of PQ pool and state transitions at 40°C.

  5. Flavodiiron protein Flv2/Flv4-related photoprotective mechanism dissipates excitation pressure of PSII in cooperation with phycobilisomes in Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bersanini, Luca; Battchikova, Natalia; Jokel, Martina; Rehman, Ateeq; Vass, Imre; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-02-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved with cyanobacteria, the ancestors of plant chloroplasts. The highly oxidizing chemistry of water splitting required concomitant evolution of efficient photoprotection mechanisms to safeguard the photosynthetic machinery. The role of flavodiiron proteins (FDPs), originally called A-type flavoproteins or Flvs, in this context has only recently been appreciated. Cyanobacterial FDPs constitute a specific protein group that evolved to protect oxygenic photosynthesis. There are four FDPs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Flv1 to Flv4). Two of them, Flv2 and Flv4, are encoded by an operon together with a Sll0218 protein. Their expression, tightly regulated by CO2 levels, is also influenced by changes in light intensity. Here we describe the overexpression of the flv4-2 operon in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and demonstrate that it results in improved photochemistry of PSII. The flv4-2/OE mutant is more resistant to photoinhibition of PSII and exhibits a more oxidized state of the plastoquinone pool and reduced production of singlet oxygen compared with control strains. Results of biophysical measurements indicate that the flv4-2 operon functions in an alternative electron transfer pathway from PSII, and thus alleviates PSII excitation pressure by channeling up to 30% of PSII-originated electrons. Furthermore, intact phycobilisomes are required for stable expression of the flv4-2 operon genes and for the Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer-mediated electron transfer mechanism. The latter operates in photoprotection in a complementary way with the orange carotenoid protein-related nonphotochemical quenching. Expression of the flv4-2 operon and exchange of the D1 forms in PSII centers upon light stress, on the contrary, are mutually exclusive photoprotection strategies among cyanobacteria. PMID:24367022

  6. Single vs multi-level quenching of the hydroxyl airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Christoph; Espy, Patrick J.; Hibbins, Robert; Djupvik, Anlaug Amanda

    2016-04-01

    The reaction in the upper mesosphere between atomic hydrogen and ozone results in hydroxyl (OH) that is produced in excited vibrational levels 6 through 9. The vibrationally excited OH radiates in a thin (~8 km thick) layer near 87 km, giving rise to the strong near infrared airglow emission that has been used for remote sensing of the mesopause region. The interpretation of the emission relies on accurate knowledge of the population and quenching of the upper states, and open questions remain as to whether the quenching takes place through single- or multi-quantum deactivation. Here we will demonstrate how high quality spectral observations of OH (9,7) and (8,6) airglow emissions are available as background measurements during standard K-band astronomical observations from the Nordic Optical Telescope (18°W, 29°N). These emissions have been analysed to ascertain the quenching of the upper vibrational populations. Together with a steady-state model of these emissions, an estimate of the ratio of single to multi-quantum quenching efficiency and the impact on the populations of the lower vibrational levels will be presented.

  7. Electronic excitation and quenching of atoms at insulator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaminathan, P. K.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Murthy, C. S.

    1988-01-01

    A trajectory-based semiclassical method is used to study electronically inelastic collisions of gas atoms with insulator surfaces. The method provides for quantum-mechanical treatment of the internal electronic dynamics of a localized region involving the gas/surface collision, and a classical treatment of all the nuclear degrees of freedom (self-consistently and in terms of stochastic trajectories), and includes accurate simulation of the bath-temperature effects. The method is easy to implement and has a generality that holds promise for many practical applications. The problem of electronically inelastic dynamics is solved by computing a set of stochastic trajectories that on thermal averaging directly provide electronic transition probabilities at a given temperature. The theory is illustrated by a simple model of a two-state gas/surface interaction.

  8. Thermal quenching and luminescence decay in self-activated La2W3O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheol Woo; Cai, Peiqing; Chen, Cuili; Lin, Qin; Han, Cheng; Wang, Jing; Dang, Thi Hang; Vu, Thi Quynh; Kim, Sun Il; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-02-01

    Lanthanum tritungstates, La2W3O12, were prepared by using a conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction. The formation of a single-phase compound with the monoclinic structure of La2W3O12 was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The luminescence propeities of La2W3O12 were investigated by using optical and laser-excitation spectroscopy. The excitation and the emission spectra and the decay curves were measured in the temperature range 7 - 300 K. The charge-transfer transition of WO 4 2- was identified in the excitation and the emission spectra under excitation by ultraviolet radiation. A strong green luminescence was observed at 500 nm with a bandwidth of 4240 cm -1 at temperatures lower than 60 K; then the thermal quenching occurred with increasing temperature. The thermal quenching behaviors of the luminescence intensity and the decay time could be explanined by using a simple thermal quenching model.

  9. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  10. Electronic quenching of OH A 2Σ+ induced by collisions with Kr atoms.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia H; Lester, Marsha I; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H; Dagdigian, Paul J; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F Javier; Brouard, Mark; Chadwick, Helen; Perkins, Tom; Seamons, Scott A

    2013-12-19

    Electronic quenching of OH A (2)Σ(+) by Kr was investigated through experimental studies of the collision cross sections and the OH X (2)Π product state distribution. The quenching cross sections decrease with increasing rotational excitation in the excited OH A (2)Σ(+) electronic state. The OH X (2)Π products of quenching exhibit a significant degree of rotational excitation but minimal vibrational excitation. Complementary theoretical studies of the OH (A (2)Σ(+), X (2)Π) + Kr potential energy surfaces (PESs), nonadiabatic coupling, and quasiclassical trajectory calculations were carried out to elucidate the quenching dynamics. Accurate PESs for the two lowest diabatic states of A' symmetry were computed along with the angularly dependent coupling between them. Coupling in nearly linear HO-Kr configurations provides the mechanism for the observed electronic quenching. A deep attractive well on the OH A (2)Σ(+) + Kr PES facilitates access to this region of strong coupling. Surface-hopping quasiclassical trajectory calculations yielded quenching cross sections and a OH X (2)Π product rotational distribution in good accord with experimental observations.

  11. Changes in Fluorescence Quenching Brought About by Feeding Dithiothreitol to Illuminated Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Karen J.; Walker, David A.

    1992-01-01

    When CO2 is abruptly removed from the atmosphere surrounding an illuminated leaf, the primary electron-accepting plastoquinone of photosystem II (QA) (as measured by photochemical quenching, qp) is rapidly reduced and then, after some seconds, becomes more oxidized. The reoxidation of QA− is accompanied by an increase in ΔpH (as measured by nonphotochemical quenching, qN) with kinetics consistent with a causal relationship. The fact that, in such circumstances, QA can become more oxidized in the absence of CO2 than in its presence indicates a diminished rate of reduction of QA, consequent upon impaired photosystem II efficacy. Dithiothreitol (DTT) feeding, which does not affect quantum yield or the maximum rate of photosynthesis, inhibits the reoxidation of QA− but not the increase in the proton gradient. When leaves are reilluminated in high light following a dark interval of several minutes, DTT also abolishes the separation in time between the first maximum in qP and the first maximum in the rate of O2 evolution. It also diminishes subsequent oscillations. These results are held to demonstrate ΔpH control of photosystem II and are consistent with DTT inhibition of the xanthophyll cycle and hydrogen peroxide reduction. They support the concept that oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are involved, as Hill oxidants, in a pH-related manner, during oscillatory behavior. PMID:16668838

  12. Continuum limit of quenched theories

    SciTech Connect

    Holdom, B.

    1989-02-27

    We study chiral-symmetry breaking in quenched gauge theories with ultraviolet cutoff ..lambda.., to all orders in the gauge coupling. For large ..lambda../kappa, where kappa is the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale, we derive ..lambda../kappaproportionalexp(const/ ..sqrt..(..cap alpha..-..cap alpha../sub c/) as ..cap alpha --> cap alpha../sub c/+. This is a gauge-invariant, universal consequence of quenched theories. But we argue that this relation does not define a ..beta.. function. We also obtain an explicit expression for the self-energy ..sigma..(p) which applies over most of the range kappa

  13. Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

  14. Charmonium excited state spectrum in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; Nilmani Mathur; David Richards

    2008-02-01

    Working with a large basis of covariant derivative-based meson interpolating fields we demonstrate the feasibility of reliably extracting multiple excited states using a variational method. The study is performed on quenched anisotropic lattices with clover quarks at the charm mass. We demonstrate how a knowledge of the continuum limit of a lattice interpolating field can give additional spin-assignment information, even at a single lattice spacing, via the overlap factors of interpolating field and state. Excited state masses are systematically high with respect to quark potential model predictions and, where they exist, experimental states. We conclude that this is most likely a result of the quenched approximation.

  15. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Osborne, M.G.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled. 6 figs.

  16. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Osborne, Matthew G.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled.

  17. Chiral logarithms in quenched QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; S. J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F. X. Lee; K. F. Liu; N. Mathur; and J. B. Zhang

    2004-08-01

    The quenched chiral logarithms are examined on a 163x28 lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant fpi is used to set the lattice spacing, a = 0.200(3) fm. With pion mass as low as {approx}180 MeV, we see the quenched chiral logarithms clearly in mpi2/m and fP, the pseudoscalar decay constant. The authors analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) to apply. With the constrained curve-fitting method, they are able to extract the quenched chiral logarithmic parameter delta together with other low-energy parameters. Only for mpi<=300 MeV do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant delta which they determine to be 0.24(3)(4) (at the chiral scale Lambdachi = 0.8 GeV). By comparing to the 123x28 lattice, they estimate the finite volume effect to be about 2.7% for the smallest pion mass. They also fitted the pion mass to the form for the re-summed cactus diagrams and found that its applicable region is extended farther than the range for the one-loop formula, perhaps up to mpi {approx}500-600 MeV. The scale independent delta is determined to be 0.20(3) in this case. The authors study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon mass and find that the coefficient C1/2 in the nucleon mass is consistent with the prediction of one-loop chiPT. They also obtain the low energy constant L5 from fpi. They conclude from this study that it is imperative to cover only the range of data with the pion mass less than {approx}300 MeV in order to examine the chiral behavior of the hadron masses and decay constants in quenched QCD and match them with quenched one-loop chiPT.

  18. Cryogenic exciter

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, James William; Garces, Luis Jose

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  19. Rapid-quench axially staged combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelberg, Alan S.; Schmidt, Mark Christopher; Goebel, Steven George

    1999-01-01

    A combustor cooperating with a compressor in driving a gas turbine includes a cylindrical outer combustor casing. A combustion liner, having an upstream rich section, a quench section and a downstream lean section, is disposed within the outer combustor casing defining a combustion chamber having at least a core quench region and an outer quench region. A first plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a first diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the core region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. A second plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a second diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the outer region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. In an alternative embodiment, the combustion chamber quench section further includes at least one middle region and at least a third plurality of quench holes disposed within the liner at the quench section having a third diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to at least one middle region of the quench section of the combustion chamber.

  20. Properties of chrysene in the higher triplet excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xichen; Hara, Michihiro; Kawai, Kiyohiko; Tojo, Sachiko; Majima, Tetsuro

    2003-01-01

    Properties of chrysene in the higher triplet excited state were studied by the two-color two-laser flash photolysis method. Triplet energy transfers from chrysene in the higher triplet excited state to quenchers such as biphenyl and naphthalene, and from the quenchers in the triplet excited state back to chrysene in the ground state were observed to proceed at the diffusion-controlled rate. From dependence of the quenching efficiency on the quencher concentration, the lifetime of chrysene in the higher triplet excited state was estimated to be 60 ps with considering the time-dependent quenching.

  1. I/asterisk/ /6s 4P/ collisional quenching - Application to the IF 491-nm laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, S. B.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Eden, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the rate constants for quenching of the excited I (6s 4P) states by Ar, Xe, CF39I, UF6, and NF3 are described. Each rate constant is determined by recording the exponential time decay of the excited IF or excited I2 (342 nm) fluorescence in the afterglow of the e-beam-excited plasmas containing Ar, CF3I, NF3, and the desired quenching gas. In addition, further experimental evidence in support of neutral channel formation of excited IF in e-beam-pumped Ar/CF3I/NF3 mixtures is presented. Details of the experimental apparatus and gas handling procedures are given, and the kinetics model developed to interpret the experimental data is described.

  2. I/asterisk/ /6s 4P/ collisional quenching - Application to the IF 491-nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, S. B.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Eden, J. G.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of the rate constants for quenching of the excited I (6s 4P) states by Ar, Xe, CF39I, UF6, and NF3 are described. Each rate constant is determined by recording the exponential time decay of the excited IF or excited I2 (342 nm) fluorescence in the afterglow of the e-beam-excited plasmas containing Ar, CF3I, NF3, and the desired quenching gas. In addition, further experimental evidence in support of neutral channel formation of excited IF in e-beam-pumped Ar/CF3I/NF3 mixtures is presented. Details of the experimental apparatus and gas handling procedures are given, and the kinetics model developed to interpret the experimental data is described.

  3. Effects of cyclosis on chloroplast-cytoplasm interactions revealed with localized lighting in Characean cells at rest and after electrical excitation.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, Alexander A; Dodonova, Svetlana O

    2011-09-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming in Characean internodes enables rapid intracellular transport and facilitates interactions between spatially remote cell regions. Cyclosis-mediated distant interactions might be particularly noticeable under nonuniform illumination, in the vicinity of light-shade borders where metabolites are transported between functionally distinct cell regions. In support of this notion, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters assessed on a microscopic area of Chara corallina internodal cells (area of inspection, AOI) responded to illumination of nearby regions in asymmetric manner depending on the vector of cytoplasmic streaming. When a beam of white light was applied through a 400-μm optic fiber upstream of AOI with regard to the direction of cytoplasmic streaming, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) developed after a lag period in AOI exposed to moderate intensity light. Conversely, no NPQ was induced in the same cell area when the beam position was shifted to an equal distance downstream of AOI. Light-response curves for the efficiency of photosystem II electron transport in chloroplasts differed markedly depending on the illumination pattern (whole-cell versus small area illumination) but these differences were eliminated after the inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming with cytochalasin B. Localized illumination promoted chloroplast fluorescence responses to electrical plasmalemma excitation at high light intensities, which contrasts to the requirement of low to moderate irradiances for observation of the stimulus-response coupling under whole-cell illumination. The results indicate that different photosynthetic capacities of chloroplasts under general and localized illumination are related to lateral transport of nonevenly distributed cytoplasmic components between the cell parts with dominant photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism.

  4. Universal corrections to entanglement entropy of local quantum quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Justin R.; Khetrapal, Surbhi; Kumar, S. Prem

    2016-08-01

    We study the time evolution of single interval Rényi and entanglement entropies following local quantum quenches in two dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperature for which the locally excited states have a finite temporal width ɛ. We show that, for local quenches produced by the action of a conformal primary field, the time dependence of Rényi and entanglement entropies at order ɛ2 is universal. It is determined by the expectation value of the stress tensor in the replica geometry and proportional to the conformal dimension of the primary field generating the local excitation. We also show that in CFTs with a gravity dual, the ɛ2 correction to the holographic entanglement entropy following a local quench precisely agrees with the CFT prediction. We then consider CFTs admitting a higher spin symmetry and turn on a higher spin chemical potential μ. We calculate the time dependence of the order ɛ2 correction to the entanglement entropy for small μ, and show that the contribution at order μ 2 is universal. We verify our arguments against exact results for minimal models and the free fermion theory.

  5. Effects of nitrogen quenching gas on spin-exchange optical pumping of {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Lancor, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2010-10-15

    We consider the degree of conservation of nuclear spin polarization in the process of optical pumping under typical spin-exchange optical pumping conditions. Previous analyses have assumed that negligible nuclear spin precession occurs during the brief periods of time in which the alkali-metal atoms are in the excited state after absorbing photons and before undergoing quenching collisions with nitrogen molecules. We include excited-state hyperfine interactions, electronic spin relaxation in collisions with He and N{sub 2}, spontaneous emission, quenching collisions, and a simplified treatment of radiation trapping.

  6. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  7. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  8. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  9. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  10. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  11. Measuring oxygen pressures using triplet quenching of Pd-porphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaasappel, Michiel; Ince, C.; Sanderse, E. A.; Bruining, Hajo A.

    1994-02-01

    A non-invasive optical method for measuring free oxygen in vivo is described. The method, introduced by Wilson and co-workers, is based on the quenching of the triplet state of Pd- porphine by oxygen and is described by the Stern-Volmer relation. The quenching of the triplet state is determined by measurement of the phosphorescence decay following excitation by a pulse of light. Measuring decay times has the advantage that they are independent of the changing optical properties of tissue and concentration of the dye. We describe a setup to measure the phosphorescence decay and present the values of Kq and (tau) o as a function of pH and temperature. Furthermore, some experiments on a rat liver and gut are presented.

  12. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, A. M.; Mezacasa, A. V.; Graciano, D. E.; Falco, W. F.; M'Peko, J.-C.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Lawson, T.; Colbeck, I.; Oliveira, S. L.; Caires, A. R. L.

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between chlorophyll (Chl) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was evaluated by analyzing the optical behavior of Chl molecules surrounded by different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 60, and 100 nm of diameter). UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were performed for Chl in the presence and absence of these nanoparticles. AgNPs strongly suppressed the Chl fluorescence intensity at 678 nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) showed that fluorescence suppression is driven by the dynamic quenching process. In particular, KSV was nanoparticle size-dependent with an exponential decrease as a function of the nanoparticle diameter. Finally, changes in the Chl fluorescence lifetime in the presence of nanoparticles demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching may be induced by the excited electron transfer from the Chl molecules to the metal nanoparticles.

  13. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, A M; Mezacasa, A V; Graciano, D E; Falco, W F; M'Peko, J-C; Guimarães, F E G; Lawson, T; Colbeck, I; Oliveira, S L; Caires, A R L

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between chlorophyll (Chl) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was evaluated by analyzing the optical behavior of Chl molecules surrounded by different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 60, and 100nm of diameter). UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were performed for Chl in the presence and absence of these nanoparticles. AgNPs strongly suppressed the Chl fluorescence intensity at 678nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) showed that fluorescence suppression is driven by the dynamic quenching process. In particular, KSV was nanoparticle size-dependent with an exponential decrease as a function of the nanoparticle diameter. Finally, changes in the Chl fluorescence lifetime in the presence of nanoparticles demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching may be induced by the excited electron transfer from the Chl molecules to the metal nanoparticles.

  14. Europium doped lanthanum zirconate nanoparticles with high concentration quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Alaparthi, Suresh B.; Lu, Long; Tian, Yue; Mao, Yuanbing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles were prepared facilely by a kinetically modified molten salt method. • High color purity and concentration quenching were achieved in these La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu nanoparticles. • Concentration quenching mechanism was discussed for Eu{sup 3+} in these Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles. - Abstract: A series of Eu{sup 3+} doped lanthanum zirconate (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanoparticles (NPs, 20 ± 5 nm in diameter) with cubic fluorite structure were facilely synthesized by a kinetically modified molten salt synthetic (MSS) process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). Under the excitation of 405 nm, intense red emission with high color purity can be observed in the Eu{sup 3+} doped La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} NPs. Moreover, the as-prepared Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} NPs possess high concentration quenching, which is as high as ∼32.5 mol% of europium dopants in the La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} host. The corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was discussed as well. Our results confirm that the kinetically modified MSS process is a promising approach for preparing rare earth (RE) ions doped A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles with uniform RE doping and high concentration quenching.

  15. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Hong; Goodwin, Peter M; Keller, Richard A.; Nolan, Rhiannon L.

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  16. Momentum-Space Entanglement and Loschmidt Echo in Luttinger Liquids after a Quantum Quench.

    PubMed

    Dóra, Balázs; Lundgren, Rex; Selover, Mark; Pollmann, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) arise by coupling left- and right-moving particles through interactions in one dimension. This most natural partitioning of LLs is investigated by the momentum-space entanglement after a quantum quench using analytical and numerical methods. We show that the momentum-space entanglement spectrum of a LL possesses many universal features both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The largest entanglement eigenvalue is identical to the Loschmidt echo, i.e., the overlap of the disentangled and final wave functions of the system. The second largest eigenvalue is the overlap of the first excited state of the disentangled system with zero total momentum and the final wave function. The entanglement gap is universal both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The momentum-space entanglement entropy is always extensive and saturates fast to a time independent value after the quench, in sharp contrast to a spatial bipartitioning.

  17. Momentum-Space Entanglement and Loschmidt Echo in Luttinger Liquids after a Quantum Quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dóra, Balázs; Lundgren, Rex; Selover, Mark; Pollmann, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) arise by coupling left- and right-moving particles through interactions in one dimension. This most natural partitioning of LLs is investigated by the momentum-space entanglement after a quantum quench using analytical and numerical methods. We show that the momentum-space entanglement spectrum of a LL possesses many universal features both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The largest entanglement eigenvalue is identical to the Loschmidt echo, i.e., the overlap of the disentangled and final wave functions of the system. The second largest eigenvalue is the overlap of the first excited state of the disentangled system with zero total momentum and the final wave function. The entanglement gap is universal both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The momentum-space entanglement entropy is always extensive and saturates fast to a time independent value after the quench, in sharp contrast to a spatial bipartitioning.

  18. Momentum-Space Entanglement and Loschmidt Echo in Luttinger Liquids after a Quantum Quench.

    PubMed

    Dóra, Balázs; Lundgren, Rex; Selover, Mark; Pollmann, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) arise by coupling left- and right-moving particles through interactions in one dimension. This most natural partitioning of LLs is investigated by the momentum-space entanglement after a quantum quench using analytical and numerical methods. We show that the momentum-space entanglement spectrum of a LL possesses many universal features both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The largest entanglement eigenvalue is identical to the Loschmidt echo, i.e., the overlap of the disentangled and final wave functions of the system. The second largest eigenvalue is the overlap of the first excited state of the disentangled system with zero total momentum and the final wave function. The entanglement gap is universal both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The momentum-space entanglement entropy is always extensive and saturates fast to a time independent value after the quench, in sharp contrast to a spatial bipartitioning. PMID:27419554

  19. Light Harvesting in Microscale Metal-Organic Frameworks by Energy Migration and Interfacial Electron Transfer Quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Caleb A.; Liu, Demin; Ma, Liqing; Papanikolas, John M.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Lin, Wenbin

    2011-08-24

    Microscale metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized from photoactive Ru(II)-bpy building blocks with strong visible light absorption and long-lived triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (³MLCT) excited states. These MOFs underwent efficient luminescence quenching in the presence of either oxidative or reductive quenchers. Up to 98% emission quenching was achieved with either an oxidative quencher (1,4-benzoquinone) or a reductive quencher (N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine), as a result of rapid energy migration over several hundred nanometers followed by efficient electron transfer quenching at the MOF/solution interface. The photoactive MOFs act as an excellent light-harvesting system by combining intraframework energy migration and interfacial electron transfer quenching.

  20. Quenching star formation in cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranu, Dan S.; Hudson, Michael J.; Balogh, Michael L.; Smith, Russell J.; Power, Chris; Oman, Kyle A.; Krane, Brad

    2014-05-01

    In order to understand the processes that quench star formation in cluster galaxies, we construct a library of subhalo orbits drawn from Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of four rich clusters. We combine these orbits with models of star formation followed by environmental quenching, comparing model predictions with observed bulge and disc colours and stellar absorption line-strength indices of luminous cluster galaxies. Models in which the bulge stellar populations depend only on the galaxy subhalo mass while the disc is quenched upon infall are acceptable fits to the data. An exponential disc quenching time-scale of 3-3.5 Gyr is preferred. Quenching in lower mass groups prior to infall (`pre-processing') provides better fits, with similar quenching time-scales. Models with short (≲1 Gyr) quenching time-scales yield excessively steep cluster-centric gradients in disc colours and Balmer line indices, even if quenching is delayed for several Gyr. The data slightly prefer models where quenching occurs only for galaxies falling within ˜0.5r200. These results imply that the environments of rich clusters must impact star formation rates of infalling galaxies on relatively long time-scales, indicative of gentler quenching mechanisms such as slow `strangulation' over more rapid ram-pressure stripping.

  1. Holographic quenches and anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Grieninger, Sebastian; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Macedo, Rodrigo P.; Melgar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    We study the response of the chiral magnetic effect due to continuous quenches induced by time dependent electric fields within holography. Concretely, we consider a holographic model with dual chiral anomaly and compute the electric current parallel to a constant, homogeneous magnetic field and a time dependent electric field in the probe approximation. We explicitly solve the PDEs by means of pseudospectral methods in spatial and time directions and study the transition to an universal "fast" quench response. Moreover, we compute the amplitudes, i.e., residues of the quasi normal modes, by solving the (ODE) Laplace transformed equations. We investigate the possibility of considering the asymptotic growth rate of the amplitudes as a well defined notion of initial time scale for linearized systems. Finally, we highlight the existence of Landau level resonances in the electrical conductivity parallel to a magnetic field at finite frequency and show explicitly that these only appear in presence of the anomaly. We show that the existence of these resonances induces, among others, a long-lived AC electric current once the electric field is switched off.

  2. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory’s main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, iron-chromium-nickel, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. The system is described and some initial results are presented.

  3. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  4. Tree size and light availability increase photochemical instead of non-photochemical capacities of Nothofagus nitida trees growing in an evergreen temperate rain forest.

    PubMed

    Coopman, Rafael E; Briceño, Verónica F; Corcuera, Luis J; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alvarez, Daniela; Sáez, Katherine; García-Plazaola, José I; Alberdi, Miren; Bravo, León A

    2011-10-01

    Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser (Nothofagaceae) regenerates under the canopy in microsites protected from high light. Nonetheless, it is common to find older saplings in clear areas and adults as emergent trees of the Chilean evergreen forest. We hypothesized that this shade to sun transition in N. nitida is supported by an increase in photochemical and non-photochemical energy dissipation capacities of both photosystems in parallel with the increase in plant size and light availability. To dissect the relative contribution of light environment and plant developmental stage to these physiological responses, the photosynthetic performance of both photosystems was studied from the morpho-anatomical to the biochemical level in current-year leaves of N. nitida plants of different heights (ranging from 0.1 to 7 m) growing under contrasting light environments (integrated quantum flux (IQF) 5-40 mol m(-2). Tree height (TH) and light environment (IQF) independently increased the saturated electron transport rates of both photosystems, as well as leaf and palisade thickness, but non-photochemical energy flux, photoinhibition susceptibility, state transition capacity, and the contents of D1 and PsbS proteins were not affected by IQF and TH. Spongy mesophyll thickness and palisade cell diameter decreased with IQF and TH. A(max), light compensation and saturation points, Rubisco and nitrogen content (area basis) only increased with light environment (IQF), whereas dark respiration (R(d)) decreased slightly and relative chlorophyll content was higher in taller trees. Overall, the independent effects of more illuminated environment and tree height mainly increased the photochemical instead of the non-photochemical energy flux. Regardless of the photochemical increase with TH, carbon assimilation only significantly improved with higher IQF. Therefore it seems that mainly acclimation to the light environment supports the phenotypic transition of N. nitida from shade to

  5. Quench current improvement through shape modification of racetrack coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Seung-Kyu; Sohn, Myung-Hwan; Ko, Rock-Kil; Kwon, Young-Kil; Ryu, Kang-Sik; Jo, Young-Sik

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting racetrack coils have different shapes from those of ordinary solenoid coils which have the same curvature along the windings. So they have different or worse performance from the viewpoint of quench characteristics due to the different structures. Racetrack coils also have round curvatures along their end portions; however, the main difference of their structures from solenoid coils exists in the straight portions. It is considered that the worse performance is due to the straight portions. In the round portions, there exists strong continuous constraint along the windings against the movement toward the perpendicular direction during coil excitation. On the contrary, in the straight portions, there is almost no constraining. As a result, especially in the case of dry magnet, they show even worse characteristics than solenoid counterparts. For the compensation of this worse performance, we proposed one idea to improve quench characteristics of racetrack coils. We manufactured one racetrack coil with an ordinary shape and the other with the proposed idea. By experiments we made sure that the proposed one had a higher quench current. Moreover, after we had made an application of the proposed idea to the four field coils of an actual 30 kVA superconducting generator, we could get very good output voltage and current waveforms.

  6. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  7. Mechanism of fluorescence quenching of tyrosine derivatives by amide group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiczk, Wiesław; Rzeska, Alicja; Łukomska, Joanna; Stachowiak, Krystyna; Karolczak, Jerzy; Malicka, Joanna; Łankiewicz, Leszek

    2001-06-01

    The difference between fluorescence lifetimes of the following amino acids: phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), ( O-methyl)tyrosine (Tyr(Me)), (3-hydroxy)tyrosine (Dopa), (3,4-dimethoxy)phenylalanine (Dopa(Me) 2) and their amides was used to testify the mechanism of fluorescence quenching of aromatic amino acids by the amide group. On the basis of the Marcus theory of photoinduced electron transfer parabolic relationships between ln kET and ionization potentials reduced by energy of excitation ( IP-E ∗0,0) for the above-mentioned amino acids were obtained. This finding indicates the occurrence of photoinduced electron transfer from the excited chromophore group to the amide group.

  8. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Imaging Studies of in vitro Carcinoma and Normal Cells Utilizing a Mitochondrial Specific Dye

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Joseph Walsh

    2002-06-27

    Low temperature Nonphotochemical Hole Burning (NPHB) Spectroscopy of the dye rhodamine 800 (MF680) was applied for the purpose of discerning differences between cultured normal and carcinoma ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Both the cell lines were developed and characterized at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN), with the normal cell line having been transfected with a strain of temperature sensitive Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen (SV40) for the purpose of extending the life of the cell culture without inducing permanent changes in the characteristics of the cell line. The cationic lipophilic fluorophore rhodamine 800 preferentially locates in in situ mitochondria due to the high lipid composition of mitochondria and the generation of a large negative membrane potential (relative to the cellular cytoplasm) for oxidative phosphorylation. Results presented for NPHB of MF680 located in the cells show significant differences between the two cell lines. The results are interpreted on the basis of the NPHB mechanism and characteristic interactions between the host (cellular mitochondrial) and the guest (MF680) in the burning of spectral holes, thus providing an image of the cellular ultrastructure. Hole growth kinetics (HGK) were found to differ markedly between the two cell lines, with the carcinoma cell line burning at a faster average rate for the same exposure fluence. Theoretical fits to the data suggest a lower degree of structural heterogeneity in the carcinoma cell line relative to the normal cell line. Measurement of changes in the permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu}) were accomplished by measurement of changes in hole width in response to the application of an external electric field (the Stark effect), and found that {Delta}{mu} values for the carcinoma line were 1.5x greater than those of the SV40 antigen-free normal analogs. These findings are interpreted in terms of effects from the mitochondrial membrane potential. Results for HGK on the scale of

  9. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Imaging Studies of In Vitro Carcinoma and Normal Cells Utilizing a Mitochondrial Specific Dye

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Joseph Walsh

    2002-08-01

    Low temperature Nonphotochemical Hole Burning (NPHB) Spectroscopy of the dye rhodamine 800 (MF680) was applied for the purpose of discerning differences between cultured normal and carcinoma ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Both the cell lines were developed and characterized at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN), with the normal cell line having been transfected with a strain of temperature sensitive Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen (SV40) for the purpose of extending the life of the cell culture without inducing permanent changes in the characteristics of the cell line. The cationic lipophilic fluorophore rhodamine 800 preferentially locates in in situ mitochondria due to the high lipid composition of mitochondria and the generation of a large negative membrane potential (relative to the cellular cytoplasm) for oxidative phosphorylation. Results presented for NPHB of MF680 located in the cells show significant differences between the two cell lines. The results are interpreted on the basis of the NPHB mechanism and characteristic interactions between the host (cellular mitochondrial) and the guest (MF680) in the burning of spectral holes, thus providing an image of the cellular ultrastructure. Hole growth kinetics (HGK) were found to differ markedly between the two cell lines, with the carcinoma cell line burning at a faster average rate for the same exposure fluence. Theoretical fits to the data suggest a lower degree of structural heterogeneity in the carcinoma cell line relative to the normal cell line. Measurement of changes in the permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu})were accomplished by measurement of changes in hole width in response to the application of an external electric field (the Stark effect), and found that {Delta}{mu} values for the carcinoma line were 1.5x greater than those of the SV40 antigen-free normal analogs. These findings are interpreted in terms of effects from the mitochondrial membrane potential. Results for HGK on the scale of

  10. Luminescence Spectroscopy and Bimolecular Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment in which a low cost spectrofluorimeter is used to carry out elementary emission measurements on a transition metal complex. The students measure uncorrected emission and excitation spectra, and determine the rate constant for an exceedingly fast bimolecular reaction, the deactivation of an…

  11. [The quenching phenomenon or antigenic extinction].

    PubMed

    Giménez Camarasa, J M

    1985-01-01

    The new concept of "quenching" is exposed for its diffusion and Knowledge. This phenomenon occurs in nature, industry and in clinic dermatology. Doctors working in contact dermatitis suffer contradictions and paradoxic reactions due to "quenching situations". Most important bibliography on this theme is commented.

  12. On the scaling properties of quenched QED

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, William A.; Love, Sherwin T.; Miransky, Vladimir A.

    1990-06-17

    Critical scaling laws are studied in quenched quantum electrodynamics with induced four-fermion interactions that drive the theory to criticality. The critical exponents are calculated in the quenched, planar model and the physical picture extracted is consistent with recent results from lattice simulations. Near criticality, a composite scalar state plays an essential role in the effective dynamics.

  13. A thermal equation for flame quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A E , Jr; Berlad, A I

    1956-01-01

    An approximate thermal equation was derived for quenching distance based on a previously proposed diffusional treatment. The quenching distance was expressed in terms of the thermal conductivity, the fuel mole fraction, the heat capacity, the rate of the rate-controlling chemical reaction, a constant that depends on the geometry of the quenching surface, and one empirical constant. The effect of pressure on quenching distance was shown to be inversely proportional to the pressure dependence of the flame reaction, with small correction necessitated by the effect of pressure on flame temperature. The equation was used with the Semenov equation for burning velocity to show that the quenching distance was inversely proportional to burning velocity and pressure at any given initial temperature and equivalence ratio.

  14. QUENCH STUDIES AND PREHEATING ANALYSIS OF SEAMLESS

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli; Eremeev, Grigory

    2013-09-01

    One of the alternative manufacturing technologies for SRF cavities is hydroforming from seamless tubes. Although this technology has produced cavities with gradient and Q-values comparable to standard EBW/EP cavities, a few questions remain. One of these questions is whether the quench mechanism in hydroformed cavities is the same as in standard electron beam welded cavities. Towards this effort Jefferson Lab performed quench studies on 2 9 cell seamless hydroformed cavities. These cavities include DESY's - Z163 and Z164 nine-cell cavities hydroformed at DESY. Initial Rf test results Z163 were published in SRF2011. In this report we will present post JLAB surface re-treatment quench studies for each cavity. The data will include OST and T-mapping quench localization as well as quench location preheating analysis comparing them to the observations in standard electron beam welded cavities.

  15. Even parity excitations of the nucleon in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    B. G. Lasscock; J. N. Hedditch; W. Kamleh; D. B. Leinweber; W. Melnitchouk; A. G. Williams; J. M. Zanotti

    2007-09-01

    We study the spectrum of the even parity excitations of the nucleon in quenched lattice QCD. We extend our earlier analysis by including an expanded basis of nucleon interpolating fields, increasing the physical size of the lattice, including more configurations to enhance statistics and probing closer to the chiral limit. With a review of world lattice data, we conclude that there is little evidence of the Roper resonance in quenched lattice QCD.

  16. Fluorescence quenching effects of antibiotics on the main components of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wei-Hua; Liu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater can be characterized using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis. Wastewater from animal farms or pharmaceutical plants usually contains high concentration of antibiotics. In this study, the quenching effect of antibiotics on the typical components of DOM was explored using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC analysis. Four antibiotics (roxarsone, sulfaquinoxaline sodium, oxytetracycline, and erythromycin) at the concentration of 0.5∼4.0 mg/L and three typical components of DOM (tyrosine, tryptophan, and humic acid) were selected. Fluorescence quenching effects were observed with the addition of antibiotics. Among these four antibiotics, roxarsone (2.9∼20.2 %), sulfaquinoxaline sodium (0∼32.0 %), and oxytetracycline (0∼41.8 %) led to a stronger quenching effect than erythromycin (0∼8.0 %). From the side of DOM, tyrosine and tryptophan (0.5∼41.8 %) exhibited a similar quenching effect, but they were higher than humic acids (0∼20.2 %) at the same concentration of antibiotics. For humic acid, a significant quenching effect was observed only with the addition of roxarsone. This might be the first report about the fluorescence quenching effect caused by antibiotics. The results from this study confirmed the interference of antibiotics on the fluorescence intensity of the main components of DOM and highlighted the importance of correcting fluorescence data in the wastewater containing antibiotics. PMID:26578380

  17. Quenching and anisotropy of hydromagnetic turbulent transport

    SciTech Connect

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Brandenburg, Axel; Rheinhardt, Matthias; Käpylä, Petri J.; Käpylä, Maarit J.

    2014-11-01

    Hydromagnetic turbulence affects the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields through mean-field effects like turbulent diffusion and the α effect. For stronger fields, these effects are usually suppressed or quenched, and additional anisotropies are introduced. Using different variants of the test-field method, we determine the quenching of the turbulent transport coefficients for the forced Roberts flow, isotropically forced non-helical turbulence, and rotating thermal convection. We see significant quenching only when the mean magnetic field is larger than the equipartition value of the turbulence. Expressing the magnetic field in terms of the equipartition value of the quenched flows, we obtain for the quenching exponents of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity about 1.3, 1.1, and 1.3 for Roberts flow, forced turbulence, and convection, respectively. However, when the magnetic field is expressed in terms of the equipartition value of the unquenched flows, these quenching exponents become about 4, 1.5, and 2.3, respectively. For the α effect, the exponent is about 1.3 for the Roberts flow and 2 for convection in the first case, but 4 and 3, respectively, in the second. In convection, the quenching of turbulent pumping follows the same power law as turbulent diffusion, while for the coefficient describing the Ω×J effect nearly the same quenching exponent is obtained as for α. For forced turbulence, turbulent diffusion proportional to the second derivative along the mean magnetic field is quenched much less, especially for larger values of the magnetic Reynolds number. However, we find that in corresponding axisymmetric mean-field dynamos with dominant toroidal field the quenched diffusion coefficients are the same for the poloidal and toroidal field constituents.

  18. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Demas, James N.; Jones, Wesley M.; Keller, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequenices. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may reduced to tis unquenched value.

  19. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Demas, J.N.; Jones, W.M.; Keller, R.A.

    1987-06-26

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequencies. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may be reduced to its unquenched value. 3 figs.

  20. Accelerating slow excited state proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David J; Concepcion, Javier J; Brennaman, M Kyle; Binstead, Robert A; Meyer, Thomas J

    2013-01-15

    Visible light excitation of the ligand-bridged assembly [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(II)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)] (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine; L is the bridging ligand, 4-phen-tpy) results in emission from the lowest energy, bridge-based metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state (L(-•))Ru(b)(III)-OH(2) with an excited-state lifetime of 13 ± 1 ns. Near-diffusion-controlled quenching of the emission occurs with added HPO(4)(2-) and partial quenching by added acetate anion (OAc(-)) in buffered solutions with pH control. A Stern-Volmer analysis of quenching by OAc(-) gave a quenching rate constant of k(q) = 4.1 × 10(8) M(-1) • s(-1) and an estimated pK(a)* value of ~5 ± 1 for the [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L(•-))Ru(b)(III)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)]* excited state. Following proton loss and rapid excited-state decay to give [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(II)(bpy)(OH)(3+)] in a H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO(4)(2-) buffer, back proton transfer occurs from H(2)PO(4)(-) to give [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)] with k(PT,2) = 4.4 × 10(8) M(-1) • s(-1). From the intercept of a plot of k(obs) vs. [H(2)PO(4)(-)], k = 2.1 × 10(6) s(-1) for reprotonation by water providing a dramatic illustration of kinetically limiting, slow proton transfer for acids and bases with pK(a) values intermediate between pK(a)(H(3)O(+)) = -1.74 and pK(a)(H(2)O) = 15.7. PMID:23277551

  1. Accelerating slow excited state proton transfer

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, David J.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Brennaman, M. Kyle; Binstead, Robert A.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Visible light excitation of the ligand-bridged assembly [(bpy)2RuaII(L)RubII(bpy)(OH2)4+] (bpy is 2,2′-bipyridine; L is the bridging ligand, 4-phen-tpy) results in emission from the lowest energy, bridge-based metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state (L−•)RubIII-OH2 with an excited-state lifetime of 13 ± 1 ns. Near–diffusion-controlled quenching of the emission occurs with added HPO42− and partial quenching by added acetate anion (OAc−) in buffered solutions with pH control. A Stern–Volmer analysis of quenching by OAc− gave a quenching rate constant of kq = 4.1 × 108 M−1⋅s−1 and an estimated pKa* value of ∼5 ± 1 for the [(bpy)2RuaII(L•−)RubIII(bpy)(OH2)4+]* excited state. Following proton loss and rapid excited-state decay to give [(bpy)2RuaII(L)RubII(bpy)(OH)3+] in a H2PO4−/HPO42− buffer, back proton transfer occurs from H2PO4− to give [(bpy)2RuaII(L)Rub(bpy)(OH2)4+] with kPT,2 = 4.4 × 108 M−1⋅s−1. From the intercept of a plot of kobs vs. [H2PO4−], k = 2.1 × 106 s−1 for reprotonation by water providing a dramatic illustration of kinetically limiting, slow proton transfer for acids and bases with pKa values intermediate between pKa(H3O+) = −1.74 and pKa(H2O) = 15.7. PMID:23277551

  2. Jet quenching from QCD evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Emerman, Alexander; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ovanesyan, Grigory; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluons have led to the development of a new method that gives a unified description of inclusive hadron production in reactions with nucleons and heavy nuclei. We show how this approach, based on the generalization of the DGLAP evolution equations to include final-state medium-induced parton shower corrections for large Q2 processes, can be combined with initial-state effects for applications to jet quenching phenomenology. We demonstrate that the traditional parton energy loss calculations can be regarded as a special soft-gluon emission limit of the general QCD evolution framework. We present phenomenological comparison of the SCETG -based results on the suppression of inclusive charged hadron and neutral pion production in √{sNN }=2.76 TeV lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider to experimental data. We also show theoretical predictions for the upcoming √{sNN }≃5.1 TeV Pb +Pb run at the LHC.

  3. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  4. Consecutive quenches and the safety leads

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.

    1984-04-30

    The safety leads of the Energy Saver were designed to handle occasional quenches. In order to save capital investment in another system of plumbing they involve no gas cooling. In their design optimization was sought on the ratio of load capability (for a single quench) to steady state heat leak into the liquid helium environment. Reference 1 describes the design considerations and tests on a prototype made out of constanta. The actual production models are made out of 304 Stainless Steel rods 13/16'' diameter by 48.66'' long/sup 2/ wrapped in Kapton film for electrical insulation. Here the behavior of production models relevant for consecutive quenches is analyzed.

  5. CHARMONIUM EXCITED STATES FROM LATTICE QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; Nilmani Mathur; David Richards

    2007-11-20

    We apply the variational method with a large basis of interpolating operators to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting multiple excited states in charmonium from lattice QCD. The calculation is performed in the quenched approximation to QCD, using the clover fermion action on an anisotropic lattice. A crucial element of our approach is a knowledge of the continuum limit of the interpolating operators, providing important additional information on the spin assignment of the states, even at a single value of the lattice spacing. Though we find excited-state masses that are systematically high with respect to the quark potential model, and the experimental masses where known, we attribute this as most likely an artifact of the quenched approximation.

  6. On the Mystery of using Helium's second Sound for Quench Detection of a Superconducting Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, R.; Markham, S.

    The detection of a second sound wave, excited by a quench, has become a valuable tool in diagnosing hot spots and performance limitations of superconducting cavities. Several years ago, Cornell developed a convenient detector (OSTs) for these waves that nowadays are used world-wide. In a usual set-up, many OSTs surround the cavity and the quench location is determined by triangulation of the different OST signals. Convenient as the method is there is a small remaining mystery: taking the well-known velocity of the second sound wave, the quench seems to come from a place slightly beyond the cavity's outer surface. We will present a model that might help explaining the discrepancy.

  7. Cooperative luminescence quenching on many-particle acceptors in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiev, T. T.; Basieva, I. T.

    2012-06-01

    Many-body cooperative energy transfer is an important process in biology, medicine, photosynthesis, rare-earth-doped laser materials, responsible for up- and down-conversion of energy, optical excitation sensitization and relaxation. We present an analytical solution for long-time asymptotic of static luminescence quenching kinetics due to cooperative energy transfer to ensembles of acceptors comprised of two-, three-, and more particles. For cooperative energy transfer and cooperative luminescence quenching to n-body acceptors we have discovered a new law of power d/(nS-(n-1)d) time dependence (d=1,2,3 is the space dimension, S=6,8,10 is the multipolarty of interaction: dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole, or quadrupole-quadrupole). The detailed numerical simulation of cooperative quenching by Monte-Carlo method confirms the theoretical result.

  8. Collisional quenching of OH radio emission from comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schloerb, F. P.; Devries, C. H.; Lovell, A. J.; Irvine, W. M.; Senay, M.; Wootten, H. A.; Ferris, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Observations of comets in the 18-cm OH transitions offer a means to probe gas production, kinematics, and OH excitation in comets. We present initial results of OH observations of comet Hale-Bopp obtained with the NRAO 43 m antenna located in Greenbank, WV. Maps of the emission provide strong constraints on the amount of quenching of the inversion of the OH ground state A-doublet in the coma. Analysis of the total radio OH flux and maps of its radial brightness distribution indicate a quenched region on the order of approximately 500,000 km during March and April 1997. This large value is generally consistent with previous observations of radio OH quenching in lower production rate comets when the high production rate of comet Hale-Bopp is considered.

  9. Quenching of A 2Sigma(+) OH at 300 K by several colliders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysong, Ingrid J.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Crosley, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Quenching cross sections, sigma(Q), were measured for A 2Sigma(+) OH for a variety of colliders, using the pressure dependence of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence to obtain quenching cross sections. The OH radicals, produced in a discharge or by photolysis, were maintained in the excited state at 300 K by an Ar buffer bath. It was found that quenching by CF4 and C2F6 the cross sections are very small. For Kr and Ze, the sigma(Q) values were found to be 8 and 27 sq A, respectively. For O2, sigma(Q) was 18 sq A, and for H2O, sigma(Q) was 80 sq A.

  10. Quantum Quenches in a Spinor Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Lamacraft, Austen

    2007-04-20

    We discuss the ordering of a spin-1 condensate when quenched from its paramagnetic phase to its ferromagnetic phase by reducing the magnetic field. We first elucidate the nature of the equilibrium quantum phase transition. Quenching rapidly through this transition reveals XY ordering either at a specific wave vector, or the ''light-cone'' correlations familiar from relativistic theories, depending on the end point of the quench. For a quench proceeding at a finite rate the ordering scale is governed by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The creation of vortices through growth of the magnetization fluctuations is also discussed. The long-time dynamics again depends on the end point, conserving the order parameter in a zero field, but not at a finite field, with differing exponents for the coarsening of magnetic order. The results are discussed in the light of a recent experiment by Sadler et al.

  11. Torus CLAS12-Superconducting Magnet Quench Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V S; Elouadhiri, L; Ghoshal, P K; Kashy, D; Makarov, A; Pastor, O; Quettier, L; Velev, G; Wiseman, M

    2014-06-01

    The JLAB Torus magnet system consists of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a toroidal configuration. These coils are wound with SSC-36 Nb-Ti superconductor and have the peak magnetic field of 3.6 T. The first coil manufacturing based on the JLAB design began at FNAL. The large magnet system dimensions (8 m diameter and 14 MJ of stored energy) dictate the need for quench protection. Each coil is placed in an aluminum case mounted inside a cryostat and cooled by 4.6 K supercritical helium gas flowing through a copper tube attached to the coil ID. The large coil dimensions and small cryostat thickness drove the design to challenging technical solutions, suggesting that Lorentz forces due to transport currents and eddy currents during quench and various failure scenarios are analyzed. The paper covers the magnet system quench analysis using the OPERA3d Quench code.

  12. Torus CLAS12-Superconducting Magnet Quench Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V. S.; Elouadhiri, L.; Ghoshal, P. K.; Kashy, D.; Makarov, A.; Pastor, O.; Quettier, L.; Velev, G.; Wiseman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The JLAB Torus magnet system consists of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a toroidal configuration. These coils are wound with SSC-36 Nb-Ti superconductor and have the peak magnetic field of 3.6 T. The first coil manufacturing based on the JLAB design began at FNAL. The large magnet system dimensions (8 m diameter and 14 MJ of stored energy) dictate the need for quench protection. Each coil is placed in an aluminum case mounted inside a cryostat and cooled by 4.6 K supercritical helium gas flowing through a copper tube attached to the coil ID. The large coil dimensions and small cryostat thickness drove the design to challenging technical solutions, suggesting that Lorentz forces due to transport currents and eddy currents during quench and various failure scenarios are analyzed. The paper covers the magnet system quench analysis using the OPERA3d Quench code.

  13. The Rate Constant for Fluorescence Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenza, Michael W.; Marzzacco, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that utilizes fluorescence intensity measurements from a Spectronic 20 to determine the rate constant for the fluorescence quenching of various aromatic hydrocarbons by carbon tetrachloride in an ethanol solvent. (MLH)

  14. Quenching gas for detectors of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1974-01-22

    Operation of detectors of charged particles such as wire counters and Geiger-Muller tubes is improved by filling the counters with a quenching-gas mixture of argon, isobutane and methylchloroform. (Official Gazette)

  15. Rapid quenching effects in PVC films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. D.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin films (with no additives, 30-100 micrometers thick), due to rapid quenching (approximately 300 C/sec) through the glass transition temperature, have been observed. The more severe the quench, the greater is the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC has also been studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements takes place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra have been applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching have been monitored by tensile creep and stress-strain to failure. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content, due to rapid quenching.

  16. Binding phenomena and fluorescence quenching. I: Descriptive quantum principles of fluorescence quenching using a supermolecule approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callis, Patrik R.

    2014-12-01

    Principal aspects of fluorescence and quenching are placed on an equal footing consistent with microscopic quantum concepts familiar to all who use fluorescence in the study of association of ligands with proteins. Quenching of fluorophores involved in determination of ligand binding to proteins is described in terms of generic quantum principles using a framework in which the fluorophore and quencher are together considered a “supermolecule”. Quenching then becomes just another form of internal conversion, which in turn leads to new language for defining “dynamic” and “static” quenching, for which there exist disparate definitions. The benefit of casting quenching in this manner, and citing relevant literature, has been to expand the vocabulary and mental imagery associated with quenching.

  17. Excited Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Asia; Ahern, Terence L.; Henderson, Sean O.

    2011-01-01

    Excited (or agitated) delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. PMID:21691475

  18. A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong

    1990-12-01

    We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: `quenched` matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our `quenched` matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints.

  19. A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong.

    1990-12-01

    We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints.

  20. Radiation-affected laminar flame quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Arpaci, V.S.; Tabaczynski, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    A radiation number describing all effects of radiation (emission, absorption, and scattering) near a wall is introduced. The increase in the Peclet number characterizing the flame quench distance and the decrease in flame temperature are shown in terms of this radiation number. Finally, the above considerations have made it possible to qualitatively show that the contribution of radiation to the heat transfer and the laminar flame quenching in small diesel engines can be as much as 35 percent. 27 references.

  1. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-11-08

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream. 1 fig.

  2. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  3. Excited baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  4. pH sensitivity of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching is determined by the detergent/protein ratio and the state of LHCII aggregation.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Katherina; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V

    2014-09-01

    Here we show how the protein environment in terms of detergent concentration/protein aggregation state, affects the sensitivity to pH of isolated, native LHCII, in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching. Three detergent concentrations (200, 20 and 6μM n-dodecyl β-d-maltoside) have been tested. It was found that at the detergent concentration of 6μM, low pH quenching of LHCII is close to the physiological response to lumen acidification possessing pK of 5.5. The analysis has been conducted both using arbitrary PAM fluorimetry measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime component analysis. The second led to the conclusion that the 3.5ns component lifetime corresponds to an unnatural state of LHCII, induced by the detergent used for solubilising the protein, whilst the 2ns component is rather the most representative lifetime component of the conformational state of LHCII in the natural thylakoid membrane environment when the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was absent. The 2ns component is related to a pre-aggregated LHCII that makes it more sensitive to pH than the trimeric LHCII with the dominating 3.5ns lifetime component. The pre-aggregated LHCII displayed both a faster response to protons and a shift in the pK for quenching to higher values, from 4.2 to 4.9. We concluded that environmental factors like lipids, zeaxanthin and PsbS protein that modulate NPQ in vivo could control the state of LHCII aggregation in the dark that makes it more or less sensitive to the lumen acidification. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy.

  5. Quench antenna studies of mechanical and quench performance in Fermilab interaction region quadrupoles for LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Feher, S.; Hocker, A.; Lamm, M.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As part of the US-LHC collaboration, Fermilab has built and tested seventeen high gradient quadrupole magnets, assembled into nine cryostats, for installation at the Large Hadron Collider Interaction Regions. Most of these magnets have only quarter coil voltage taps for quench characterization, but the magnetic measurement warm bore is instrumented with a quench antenna for localization and characterization. We report on studies using the quench antenna for pre-production prototype (with extensive voltage taps) and 17 production magnets. These include a summary of quench localization and development characteristics, as well as general features of flux changes observed during training ramps.

  6. Photosystem II Subunit PsbS Is Involved in the Induction of LHCSR Protein-dependent Energy Dissipation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Correa-Galvis, Viviana; Redekop, Petra; Guan, Katharine; Griess, Annika; Truong, Thuy B; Wakao, Setsuko; Niyogi, Krishna K; Jahns, Peter

    2016-08-12

    Non-photochemical quenching of excess excitation energy is an important photoprotective mechanism in photosynthetic organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a high quenching capacity is constitutively present and depends on the PsbS protein. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, non-photochemical quenching becomes activated upon high light acclimation and requires the accumulation of light harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) proteins. Expression of the PsbS protein in C. reinhardtii has not been reported yet. Here, we show that PsbS is a light-induced protein in C. reinhardtii, whose accumulation under high light is further controlled by CO2 availability. PsbS accumulated after several hours of high light illumination at low CO2 At high CO2, however, PsbS was only transiently expressed under high light and was degraded after 1 h of high light exposure. PsbS accumulation correlated with an enhanced non-photochemical quenching capacity in high light-acclimated cells grown at low CO2 However, PsbS could not compensate for the function of LHCSR in an LHCSR-deficient mutant. Knockdown of PsbS accumulation led to reduction of both non-photochemical quenching capacity and LHCSR3 accumulation. Our data suggest that PsbS is essential for the activation of non-photochemical quenching in C. reinhardtii, possibly by promoting conformational changes required for activation of LHCSR3-dependent quenching in the antenna of photosystem II. PMID:27358399

  7. Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticle-Triplet Emitter Hybrids in Aqueous Dispersion: Fabrication and Fluorescence Quenching Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sujoy; Métivier, Rémi; Pallavi, Pragyan; Preis, Eduard; Nakatani, Keitaro; Landfester, Katharina; Patra, Abhijit; Scherf, Ullrich

    2016-02-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles based on poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene] and poly[N-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-N,N-diphenylamine)-4,4'-diyl] are fabricated using anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate in water by miniemulsion technique. Average diameters of polyfluorene and polytriarylamine nanoparticles range from 70 to 100 and 100 to 140 nm, respectively. The surface of the nanoparticles is decorated with triplet emitting dye, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride. Intriguing photophysics of aqueous dispersions of these hybrid nanoparticles is investigated. Nearly 50% quenching of fluorescence is observed in the case of dye-coated polyfluorene nanoparticles; excitation energy transfer is found to be the dominant quenching mechanism. On the other hand, nearly complete quenching of emission is noticed in polytriarylamine nanoparticle-dye hybrids. It is proposed that the excited state electron transfer from the electron-rich polytriarylamine donor polymer to Ru complex leads to the complete quenching of emission of polytriarylamine nanoparticles. The current study offers promising avenues for developing aqueous solution processed-electroluminescent devices involving a conjugated polymer nanoparticle host and Ru or Ir-based triplet emitting dye as the guest.

  8. The aeronomy of vibrationally excited ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Allen, J. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical calculations show that above 80 km in the earth's atmosphere the production of vibrationally excited ozone by chemical processes leads to number densities which are usually larger than those expected for local thermodynamic equilibrium. Quenching of highly excited molecules produced in O+O2+M, O3+M provided a significant source of the lower lying states above the mesopause while the 9.6 microns emission of O3 (0,0,1) was a major sink. Analysis of available laboratory results implied that reactions involving excited ozone play a significant role in the global ozone balance despite the relatively small abundance of the molecule. However, this effect is implicit in many of the rate coefficients currently used in stratospheric calculations. In the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, where the excited state populations differ from those for thermal equilibrium, published reaction rate data are not necessarily applicable to aeronomic calculations.

  9. Universal behavior after a quantum quench in interacting field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Aditi

    The dynamics of an isolated quantum system represented by a field theory with O(N) symmetry, and in d>2 spatial dimensions, is investigated after a quantum quench from a disordered initial state to the critical point. A perturbative renormalization-group approach involving an expansion around d=4 is employed to study the time-evolution, and is supplemented by an exact solution of the Hartree-Fock equations in the large-N limit. The results show that the dynamics is characterized by a prethermal regime controlled by elastic dephasing where excitations propagate ballistically, and a light cone emerges in correlation functions in real space. The memory of the initial state, together with the absence of time-scales at the critical point, gives rise to universal power-law aging which is characterized by a new non-equilibrium short-time exponent. The dynamics of the entanglement following a quench is also explored, and reveals that while the time evolution of the entanglement entropy itself is not much different between a free bosonic theory and an interacting bosonic theory, the low-energy entanglement spectrum on the other hand shows clear signature of the non-equilibrium short-time exponent related to aging. This work was done in collaboration with Y. Lemonik (NYU), M. Tavora (NYU), A. Chiocchetta (SISSA), A. Maraga (SISSA), and A. Gambassi (SISSA). Supported by NSF-DMR 1303177.

  10. Temperature quenching of spontaneous emission in tunnel-injection nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaev, V. G. Novikov, B. V.; Cirlin, G. E.; Leipner, H. S.

    2015-11-15

    The spontaneous-emission spectra in the near-IR range (0.8–1.3 μm) from inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures are measured. These structures contain an InAs quantum-dot layer and an InGaAs quantum-well layer, separated by GaAs barrier spacer whose thickness varies in the range 3–9 nm. The temperature dependence of this emission in the range 5–295 K is investigated, both for optical excitation (photoluminescence) and for current injection in p–n junction (electroluminescence). At room temperature, current pumping proves more effective for inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures with a thin barrier (<6 nm), when the apexes of the quantum dots connect with the quantum well by narrow InGaAs straps (nanobridges). In that case, the quenching of the electroluminescence by heating from 5 to 295 K is slight. The quenching factor S{sub T} of the integrated intensity I is S{sub T} = I{sub 5}/I{sub 295} ≈ 3. The temperature stability of the emission from inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures is discussed on the basis of extended Arrhenius analysis.

  11. Universal Nonequilibrium Signatures of Majorana Zero Modes in Quench Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Romain; Dahlhaus, Jan; Moore, Joel

    2015-03-01

    The quantum evolution after a metallic lead is suddenly connected to an electron system contains information about the excitation spectrum of the combined system. We exploit this type of ``quantum quench'' to probe the presence of Majorana fermions at the ends of a topological superconducting wire. We obtain an algebraically decaying overlap (Loschmidt echo) calL (t) = < Ψ (0) | Ψ (t) > 2 ~t-α for large times after the quench, with a universal critical exponent α =1/4 that is found to be remarkably robust against details of the setup, such as interactions in the normal lead, the existence of additional lead channels or the presence of bound levels between the lead and the superconductor. As in recent quantum dot experiments, this exponent could be measured by optical absorption, offering a new signature of Majorana zero modes that is distinct from interferometry and tunneling spectroscopy. This work was supported by the Quantum Materials program of LBNL (R.V.), NSF DMR-1206515 and the Simons Foundation (J.E.M.), the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research NWO (J.P.D.), and the German Academic Exchange Service DAAD (J.P.D.).

  12. Dissolved oxygen sensing based on fluorescence quenching of ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, Nader; Meehan, Kathleen; Leber, Donald

    2012-10-01

    The development of oxygen sensors has positively impacted the fields of medical science, bioengineering, environmental monitoring, solar cells, industrial process control, and a number of military applications. Fluorescent quenching sensors have an inherent high sensitivity, chemical selectivity, and stability when compared to other types of sensors. While cerium oxide thin films have been used to monitor oxygen in the gas phase, the potential of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles as the active material in sensor for oxygen gas has only recently been investigated. Ceria nanoparticles are one of the most unique nanomaterials that are being studied today due to the diffusion and reactivity of its oxygen vacancies, which contributes to its high oxygen storage capability. The reactivity of the oxygen vacancies, which is also related to conversion of cerium ion from the Ce+4 to Ce+3 state, affects the fluorescence properties of the ceria nanoparticles. Our research demonstrates that the ceria nanoparticles (~7 nm in diameter) have application as a fluorescence quenching sensor to measure dissolved oxygen in water. We have found a strong inverse correlation between the amplitude of the fluorescence emission (λexcitation = 430 nm and λpeak = 520 nm) and the dissolved oxygen concentration between 5 - 13 mg/L. The Stern-Volmer constant, which is an indication of the sensitivity of gas sensing is 184 M-1 for the ceria nanoparticles. The results show that ceria nanoparticles can be used in an improved, robust fluorescence sensor for dissolved oxygen in a liquid medium.

  13. O2(a1Δ) Quenching In The O/O2/O3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Postell, D.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-10-01

    The development of discharge singlet oxygen generators (DSOG's) that can operate at high pressures is required for the power scaling of the discharge oxygen iodine laser. In order to achieve efficient high-pressure DSOG operation it is important to understand the mechanisms by which singlet oxygen (O2(a1Δ)) is quenched in these devices. It has been proposed that three-body deactivation processes of the type O2(a1Δ)+O+M→2O2+M provide significant energy loss channels. To further explore these reactions the physical and reactive quenching of O2(a1Δ) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a1Δ) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2a1Δ-X3∑ transition. Fast quenching of O2(a1Δ) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  14. Probing Energy and Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Fluorescence Quenching of Biomass Carbon Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zicheng; Kang, Mijeong; Payne, Gregory F; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Runcang

    2016-07-13

    The recent discovery of biomass-derived carbon quantum dots (CQDs) offers the potential to extend the sensing and imaging capabilities of quantum dots (QDs) to applications that require biocompatibility and environmental friendliness. Many studies have confirmed the exciting optical properties of CQDs and suggested a range of applications, but realizing the potential of CQDs will require a deeper fundamental understanding of their photophysical behavior. Here, biomass-derived CQDs were synthesized by hydrothermal processing methods from the aminopolysaccharide chitosan, and their fluorescence quenching behaviors were investigated. A family of nitroaromatics with different ring substituents was used to generate systematically varying CQD-quenching behaviors. Experimental evidence including a correlation between quenching constant and spectral overlap, fluorescence lifetime decay, and donor-acceptor distance all demonstrate that the primary mechanism for QCD-quenching is Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and not electron transfer. Spectroelectrochemical studies with redox-dependent quenching molecules and studies with complex dye molecules further support this conclusion. We envision this fundamental understanding of CQDs will facilitate the application of these emerging nanomaterials for sensing and imaging.

  15. Probing Energy and Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Fluorescence Quenching of Biomass Carbon Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zicheng; Kang, Mijeong; Payne, Gregory F; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Runcang

    2016-07-13

    The recent discovery of biomass-derived carbon quantum dots (CQDs) offers the potential to extend the sensing and imaging capabilities of quantum dots (QDs) to applications that require biocompatibility and environmental friendliness. Many studies have confirmed the exciting optical properties of CQDs and suggested a range of applications, but realizing the potential of CQDs will require a deeper fundamental understanding of their photophysical behavior. Here, biomass-derived CQDs were synthesized by hydrothermal processing methods from the aminopolysaccharide chitosan, and their fluorescence quenching behaviors were investigated. A family of nitroaromatics with different ring substituents was used to generate systematically varying CQD-quenching behaviors. Experimental evidence including a correlation between quenching constant and spectral overlap, fluorescence lifetime decay, and donor-acceptor distance all demonstrate that the primary mechanism for QCD-quenching is Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and not electron transfer. Spectroelectrochemical studies with redox-dependent quenching molecules and studies with complex dye molecules further support this conclusion. We envision this fundamental understanding of CQDs will facilitate the application of these emerging nanomaterials for sensing and imaging. PMID:27314592

  16. Chlorpromazine interactions to sera albumins. A study by the quenching of fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Célia M.; Louro, Sônia R. W.

    2004-04-01

    Binding of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and hemin (Hmn) to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin was studied by fluorescence quenching technique. Intrinsic fluorescences of BSA and HSA were measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed by titration of both proteins with CPZ and Hmn. CPZ is a widely used anti-psychosis drug that causes severe side effects and strongly interacts with biomembranes, both in its lipidic and proteic regions. CPZ also interacts with blood components, influences bioavailability, and affects the function of several biomolecules. Albumin plays an important role in the transport and storage of hormones, ions, fatty acids and others substances, including CPZ, affecting the regulation of their plasmatic concentration. Hmn is an important ferric residue of hemoglobin that binds within the hydrophobic region of albumin with great specificity. Hmn added to HSA and BSA solutions at a molar ratio of 1:1 quenched about half of their fluorescence. Stern-Volmer plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25 and 35 °C showed the quenching of fluorescence of HSA and BSA by CPZ to be a collisional phenomenon. Hmn quenches fluorescence by a static process, which specifically indicates the formation of a complex. Our results suggest the prime binding site for CPZ and Hmn on both HSA and BSA to be near tryptophan residues.

  17. Investigations on the fluorescence quenching of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene by certain flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, V; Kalaiselvan, A; Jaccob, M; Venuvanalingam, P; Renganathan, R

    2008-05-29

    The fluorescence quenching of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) by seven flavonoids namely flavone, flavanone, quercetin, rutin, genistein, diadzein and chrysin has been investigated in acetonitrile and dichloromethane solvents. The bimolecular quenching rate constants lie in the range of 0.09-5.75 x 10(9)M(-1)s(-1) and are explained in terms of structure of the flavonoids studied. The reactivity of flavonoids are in the order: quercetin>rutin>genistein>diadzein>chrysin>flavone>flavanone. The quenching rate constants (k(q)) increase with increase in the number of -OH groups. The endergonic thermodynamic values of DeltaG(et) reveal that electron transfer quenching mechanism can be ruled out. Bond dissociation enthalpy calculations reveal that the position of -OH is important. Further in vitro-antioxidant activities of flavonoids were evaluated with rat liver catalase by gel electrophoresis. The deuterium isotope effect thus observed in this work provides evidence for hydrogen abstraction involved in the quenching process of singlet excited DBO by flavonoids. The data suggest the involvement of direct hydrogen atom transfer (radical scavenging) in the fluorescence quenching of DBO. Bond dissociation enthalpy calculation performed at B3LYP/6-31G(p')//B3LYP/3-21G level are in excellent agreement with the above observations and further reveal that the number OH groups and position of them decide the quenching ability of the flavonoids.

  18. Quench echo and work statistics in integrable quantum field theories.

    PubMed

    Pálmai, T; Sotiriadis, S

    2014-11-01

    We propose a boundary thermodynamic Bethe ansatz calculation technique to obtain the Loschmidt echo and the statistics of the work done when a global quantum quench is performed on an integrable quantum field theory. We derive an analytic expression for the lowest edge of the probability density function and find that it exhibits universal features, in the sense that its scaling form depends only on the statistics of excitations. We perform numerical calculations on the sinh-Gordon model, a deformation of the free boson theory, and we obtain that by turning on the interaction the density function develops fermionic properties. The calculations are facilitated by a previously unnoticed property of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz construction.

  19. Graphene as a quencher of electronic excited states of photochemical probes.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Maykel; Alvaro, Mercedes; García, Hermenegildo

    2012-02-01

    Graphene sheets quench the singlet and triplet excited states of a series of six photochemical probes including pyrene, acridine orange, tris(2,2́-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) dichloride, methylene blue, meso-tetrakis(phenylsulphonate)porphyrin, and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,28H-porphine zinc. It was found that Stern-Volmer fluorescence quenching can fit to one or two different quenching regimes depending on the probe. In addition, the quenching can be either static or dynamic depending on the fluorophore. The occurrence of several quenching regimes has been interpreted considering that quenching arises from the crowding of the fluorophore on both graphene faces, or site isolation on the graphene sheets. Laser flash photolysis has shown that the triplet lifetime of the probes generally decreases due to graphene quenching and that no new transients appear except in the case of methylene blue, where a new absorption spectrum characterized by a continuous absorption band is observed and attributed to graphene radical ion. This spectroscopic evidence suggests that the most general quenching mechanism is energy transfer from the singlet or triplet excited state of the dye to graphene. This raises the issue of determining the energy of the electronic excited states of graphene.

  20. Quench Protection of DI-BSCCO Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Ueno, E.; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.

    Quench protection is one of the most important requirements for the practical application of high-temperature-superconducting (HTS) coils. Quench protection requires that early detection of a developing quench event is followed by rapid reduction of the operating current. However, such quench detection is very difficult because HTS wire produces heat only locally due to the very slow propagation velocity of a normal zone. Excellent high voltage insulation performance is required if the current is to be reduced rapidly in a large-scale superconducting application with very large inductance. Thus it is important to investigate the behavior of coils with various decay time constants, and to detect voltages on very short time scales. This goal remains to be achieved. In the present study we built test coil and a full-scale pole coil for a 20 MW motor for use in experiments on quench protection, and parameterized the relation between the decay time constant and the detecting voltage, using a conventional balance circuit to detect the quench, which was generated by gradually raising the temperature of the coils. The results verify that a balance circuit can be used for quench detection. For example, when the current decay time constant is 4 seconds, the test coil can be protected even with a detecting voltage of 0.15 volts, despite a significant heat production rate of 126 W. We also confirmed that the full-scale pole coil, with a decay time constant of 20 seconds, can be protected with a detecting voltage of 0.06 V.

  1. 40 CFR 63.7295 - What requirements must I meet for quenching?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... each quench tower and backup quench station at a new or existing coke oven battery. (1) For the... quenching. (b) For each quench tower at a new or existing coke oven battery and each backup quench...

  2. 40 CFR 63.7295 - What requirements must I meet for quenching?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... each quench tower and backup quench station at a new or existing coke oven battery. (1) For the... quenching. (b) For each quench tower at a new or existing coke oven battery and each backup quench...

  3. 40 CFR 63.7295 - What requirements must I meet for quenching?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... each quench tower and backup quench station at a new or existing coke oven battery. (1) For the... quenching. (b) For each quench tower at a new or existing coke oven battery and each backup quench...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7295 - What requirements must I meet for quenching?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... each quench tower and backup quench station at a new or existing coke oven battery. (1) For the... quenching. (b) For each quench tower at a new or existing coke oven battery and each backup quench...

  5. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior. PMID:949223

  6. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  7. Quench-protection studies on CBA magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A.J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Ghosh, A.; Robins, K.; Sampson, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    Results from quench studies on both short-cable samples and prototype Colliding Beam Accelerator project magnets are presented. The quantity of paramount interest is ..integral..I/sup 2/dt which is a monotonic function of the maximum conductor temperature obtained in a quench. Conductor damage in short samples has been observed for ..integral..I/sup 2/dt greater than or equal to 8.4 x 10/sup 6/ amp/sup 2/-sec at 50 kG and 4.2/sup 0/K. Each magnet is equipped with spot heaters in various locations so that systematic studies of quench propagation under controlled conditions can be made. Values of ..integral..I/sup 2/dt as a function of current, location, bath temperature, and cooling mode (single-phase helium versus two-phase helium) are presented. The magnets are able to absorb their own energy with a modest margin of safety for the type of quenches expected in an accelerator environment. In order to obtain an additional margin of safety, a quench-protection scheme which employs current shunting diodes across each magnet half has been adopted.

  8. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Richard B.

    2007-05-01

    A fluorescent clock reaction is described that is based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but uses the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents. The reaction uses easily obtained household products. One variation illustrates the sequential steps and mechanisms of the reaction; other variations maximize the dramatic impact of the demonstration; and a variation that uses liquid detergent in the Briggs Rauscher reaction yields a striking oscillating luminescence. The iodine fluorescence quenching clock reaction can be used in the classroom to explore not only the principles of redox chemistry and reaction kinetics, but also the photophysics of fluorescent pH probes and optical quenching.

  9. Quenching the firefly bioluminescence by various ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huateng; Bai, Haixiu; Jiang, Tianyu; Ma, Zhao; Cheng, Yanna; Zhou, Yubin; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2016-02-01

    The luciferase reporter gene assay system is broadly applied in various biomedical aspects, including signaling pathway dissection, transcriptional activity analysis, and genetic toxicity testing. It significantly improves the experimental accuracy and reduces the experimental error by the addition of an internal control. In the current research, we discovered some specific ions that could selectively inhibit firefly luciferase while having a negligible effect on renilla luciferase in vitro in the dual-reporter gene assay. We showed that these ionic compounds had a high potential of being utilized as quench-and-activate reagents in the dual-reporter assay. Furthermore, results from kinetic studies on ion-mediated quenching effects indicated that different ions have distinct inhibition modes. Our study is anticipated to guide a more affordable design of quench-and-activate reagents in biomedicine and pharmaceutical analysis.

  10. Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Santander, María; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Roldán-Molina, A.; Troncoso, Roberto E.

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation.

  11. Soliton splitting in quenched classical integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayun, O.; Semenyakin, M.

    2016-08-01

    We take a soliton solution of a classical non-linear integrable equation and quench (suddenly change) its non-linearity parameter. For that we multiply the amplitude or the width of a soliton by a numerical factor η and take the obtained profile as a new initial condition. We find the values of η for which the post-quench solution consists of only a finite number of solitons. The parameters of these solitons are found explicitly. Our approach is based on solving the direct scattering problem analytically. We demonstrate how it works for Korteweg–de Vries, sine-Gordon and non-linear Schrödinger integrable equations.

  12. Quench and Transport Dynamics in Disordered Atomic Hubbard Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarco, Brian

    I will give an overview of our experiments using ultracold atom gases trapped in optical lattices to probe transport, dynamics, and relaxation in disordered Hubbard models. By introducing disorder to naturally clean optical lattices using focused optical speckle, we realize variants of the disordered Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard models. In these systems, the distribution of Hubbard parameters is fully known, and the ratio of characteristic energy scales is completely tunable. I will discuss two measurements. In the first, we observe localization via transport measurements in the metallic regime of the Fermi-Hubbard model. We observe three phenomena consistent with many-body localization: localization at non-zero temperature, localization across a range of temperatures, and interaction-induced delocalization. These measurements show agreement with a mean-field theory in a limited parameter regime. In a separate experiment using bosonic atoms, we measure excitations following a quantum quench of disorder. Via comparison to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo calculations that capture all aspects of the experiments--including all the particles--we show that the onset of excitations corresponds to the superfluid-Bose-glass transition. I will discuss how this behavior is reminiscent of the quantum Kibble-Zurek effect. This work is funded by the NSF and ARO.

  13. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  14. Quenching of the fluorescence of NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braslavsky, S.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The fluorescence yield of NO2 was monitored at 25 C with incident wavelengths of 4047, 4358, and 4800A at fluorescence wavelengths of 4860, 5577, and 6300A. The NO2 pressure was varied between 0.004 and 0.080 torr. Measurements were taken both in the absence of foreign gases and in the presence of up to 30 torr. He, N2, and O2 at each NO2 pressure. In the absence of foreign gases, the self quenching follows a Stern-Volmer quenching mechanism, but foreign-gas quenching shows marked deviations from this mechanism. Both from lifetime and kinetic considerations, it is argued that the electronic state formed by absorption of the radiation cannot be the emitting state. Emission occurs from several vibrational levels of the emitting state, the various vibrational levels being formed by collisional cascade reactions. The appropriate quenching rate constant ratios were measured and tabulated. Even the two electronic state mechanism is insufficient to explain all the observations.

  15. The impact of nanoperforation on persistent photoconductivity and optical quenching effects in suspended GaN nanomembranes

    SciTech Connect

    Volciuc, Olesea; Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Ebeling, Jakob; Aschenbrenner, Timo; Hommel, Detlef; Gutowski, Jürgen; Ursaki, Veaceslav

    2013-12-09

    We report on fabrication of suspended ∼15 nm thick GaN membranes nanoperforated in an ordered fashion using direct writing of negative charges by focused ion beam and subsequent photoelectrochemical etching of GaN epilayers. Both continuous and nanoperforated membranes exhibit persistent photoconductivity (PPC), which can be optically quenched under excitation by 546 nm radiation. Optical quenching of PPC occurs also under relatively intense intrinsic excitation of nanoperforated membranes by 355 nm radiation at T < 100 K. The proposed explanation is based on strong surface localization of charge carriers in nanoperforated membranes and UV-induced reactions occurring at surface states under intense intrinsic excitation.

  16. Quenched Disorder in Magnetic Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchau, Brian James

    In quenched systems, the disorder is frozen on the time scale of the thermodynamic variables. The replica trick is a method which is used to overcome some of the mathematical difficulties of quenched disorder by allowing one to average out the degrees of freedom associated with the quenched disorder before tracing over the thermodynamic variables. Although the replica trick uses a mathematically illegal interchange of limits, in all known situations it gives the same results as a nonreplica method. The replica method, in conjunction with the Mermin -Wagner-Hohenberg inequality is first applied to the random field Ising model (RFIM). Domain wall models for the RFIM of Pytte, Imry and Mukamel and of Grinstein and Ma are presented. Our inequality places a lower bound on the width of domain walls in the RFIM. This then gives three as the lower critical dimension (the dimension below which ferromagnetism is absent) in agreement with some, but not all, of the earlier results. A dynamical method of Martin Siggia and Rose, to calculate quenched averages without the use of replicas is presented. However the method is as yet unsuccessful when applied to the XY model with a quenched random field. Finally, the replica trick, in conjunction with the renormalization group is applied to study the low temperature region of the two-dimensional XY model in the presence of a uniaxial random field, which points in the plus or minus x direction with equal probability. Kosterlitz style recursion valid for weak fields are generated and we find that the system develops a phase that has long-range order with Ising symmetry for nonzero temperature and small values of the random field.

  17. Fluorescent proteins as biosensors by quenching resonance energy transfer from endogenous tryptophan: detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Alexa; Sarette, Joseph; Shawler, Evan; Lee, Taeyoung; Freund, Steve; Holwitt, Eric; Hicks, Barry W

    2013-10-15

    Ensuring domestic safety from terrorist attack is a daunting challenge because of the wide array of chemical agents that must be screened. A panel of purified fluorescent protein isoforms (FPs) was screened for the ability to detect various explosives, explosive simulants, and toxic agents. In addition to their commonly used visible excitation wavelengths, essentially all FPs can be excited by UV light at 280 nm. Ultraviolet illumination excites electrons in endogenous tryptophan (W) residues, which then relax by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to the chromophore of the FP, and thus the FPs emit with their typical visible spectra. Taking advantage of the fact that tryptophan excitation can be quenched by numerous agents, including nitroaromatics like TNT and nitramines like RDX, it is demonstrated that quenching of visible fluorescence from UV illumination of FPs can be used as the basis for detecting these explosives and explosive degradation products. This work provides the foundation for production of an array of genetically-modified FPs for in vitro biosensors capable of rapid, simultaneous, sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of explosive or toxic agents.

  18. Exciplexes and conical intersections lead to fluorescence quenching in π-stacked dimers of 2-aminopurine with natural purine nucleobases†

    PubMed Central

    Liang, JingXin; Nguyen, Quynh L.; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent analogues of the natural DNA bases are useful in the study of nucleic acids’ structure and dynamics. 2-Aminopurine (2AP) is a widely used analogue with environmentally sensitive fluorescence behavior. The quantum yield of 2AP has been found to be significantly decreased when engaged in π-stacking interactions with the native bases. We present a theoretical study on fluorescence quenching mechanisms in dimers of 2AP π-stacked with adenine or guanine as in natural DNA. Relaxation pathways on the potential energy surfaces of the first excited states have been computed and reveal the importance of exciplexes and conical intersections in the fluorescence quenching process. PMID:23625036

  19. Probing the Bose glass-superfluid transition using quantum quenches of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldgin, Carolyn; Ray, Ushnish; Russ, Philip; Chen, David; Ceperley, David M.; Demarco, Brian

    2016-07-01

    The disordered Bose-Hubbard model--a paradigm for strongly correlated and disordered bosonic systems--is central to our understanding of quantum phase transitions. Despite extensive theoretical work on the disordered Bose-Hubbard model, little is known about the impact of temperature, the dynamical behaviour of quantum phases, and how equilibrium is affected during quantum phase transitions. These issues are critically important to applications such as quantum annealing and electronics based on quantum phase transitions. Here, we use a quantum quench of disorder in an ultracold lattice gas to dynamically probe the superfluid-Bose glass quantum phase transition at non-zero temperature ( Fig. 1). By measuring excitations generated during the quench, we provide evidence for superfluid puddles in the Bose glass phase and produce a superfluid-Bose glass phase diagram consistent with completely constrained, finite temperature, and equilibrium quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The residual energy from the quench, which is an efficacy measure for optimization through quantum annealing, is unchanged for quench times spanning nearly a hundred tunnelling times.

  20. Special Effect of Polystyrene on Quenching Pyrene in presence of Nitro-Aromatics Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrig, David; Jang, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hyun-Seok; van Zee, John W.; Nieh, Mu-Pingh

    2015-03-01

    The pyrene (Py) excimer fluorescence and its time-dependent quenching by 2,4-DNT in Py/polystyrene (PS) binary thin films are investigated regarding different architectures (i.e., linear, centipede and 4-arm star) and molecular weights (i.e., 2.5K, 35K, 192K, 350K and 900K) of PS. Both molecular architecture and molecular weight do not show significant effect on either Py excimer fluorescence or its quenching. However, the presence of PS in Py evidently enhances the excimer quenching efficiency under the exposure of nitroaromatic molecules (2,4 dinitrotoluene, DNT). The results of cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption suggest that PS can effectively reduce the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit (LUMO) level of Py/PS than that of Py alone and thus decrease the conduction band with 2,4-DNT -facilitating the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from Py/PS to 2,4-DNT for fluorescence quenching. This interaction between Py and PS in confirmed by Föster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) results in the enhanced S0 --> S2 excitation of Py in the range between 300 and 350 nm.

  1. Novel Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Determination of Perindopril Erbumine Based on Fluorescence Quenching of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Fael, Hanan; Sakur, Amir Al-Haj

    2015-11-01

    A novel, simple and specific spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the determination of perindopril erbumine (PDE). The method is based on the fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B upon adding perindopril erbumine. The quenched fluorescence was monitored at 578 nm after excitation at 500 nm. The optimization of the reaction conditions such as the solvent, reagent concentration, and reaction time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the fluorescence quenching was linear over a concentration range of 1.0-6.0 μg/mL. The proposed method was fully validated and successfully applied to the analysis of perindopril erbumine in pure form and tablets. Statistical comparison of the results obtained by the developed and reference methods revealed no significant differences between the methods compared in terms of accuracy and precision. The method was shown to be highly specific in the presence of indapamide, a diuretic that is commonly combined with perindopril erbumine. The mechanism of rhodamine B quenching was also discussed. PMID:26438658

  2. Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xing Long; Xu, Feng Yu; Wang, Li; Green, Michael A.; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Liu, X.K.; Jia, Lin Xiang; Amm, Kathleen

    2008-08-02

    This paper describes the passive quench protection system selected for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) cooling channel coupling magnet. The MICE coupling magnet will employ two methods of quench protection simultaneously. The most important method of quench protection in the coupling magnet is the subdivision of the coil. Cold diodes and resistors are put across the subdivisions to reduce both the voltage to ground and the hot-spot temperature. The second method of quench protection is quench-back from the mandrel, which speeds up the spread of the normal region within the coils. Combining quench back with coil subdivision will reduce the hot spot temperature further. This paper explores the effect on the quench process of the number of coil sub-divisions, the quench propagation velocity within the magnet, and the shunt resistance.

  3. 1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Submerged Quench Incinerator, 3940 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 930 feet West of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. Evidence for an unidentified non-photochemical ground-level source of formaldehyde in the Po Valley with potential implications for ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.; Wolfe, G. M.; Bohn, B.; Broch, S.; Fuchs, H.; Ganzeveld, L. N.; Gomm, S.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Jäger, J.; Li, X.; Lohse, I.; Lu, K.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Rohrer, F.; Wegener, R.; Wolf, R.; Mentel, T. F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2015-02-01

    Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. We investigate the sources of HCHO in the Po Valley using vertical profile measurements acquired from the airship Zeppelin NT over an agricultural region during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. Using a 1-D model, the total VOC oxidation rate is examined and discussed in the context of formaldehyde and ozone production in the early morning. While model and measurement discrepancies in OH reactivity are small (on average 3.4 ± 13%), HCHO concentrations are underestimated by as much as 1.5 ppb (45%) in the convective mixed layer. A similar underestimate in HCHO was seen in the 2002-2003 FORMAT Po Valley measurements, though the additional source of HCHO was not identified. Oxidation of unmeasured VOC precursors cannot explain the missing HCHO source, as measured OH reactivity is explained by measured VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. We conclude that local direct emissions from agricultural land are the most likely source of missing HCHO. Model calculations demonstrate that radicals from degradation of this non-photochemical HCHO source increase model ozone production rates by as much as 0.6 ppb h-1 (12%) before noon.

  5. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  6. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... any flow rate into the reaction chamber. This includes, but is not limited to, sample capillary, ozone... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each...

  7. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any flow rate into the reaction chamber. This includes, but is not limited to, sample capillary, ozone... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each...

  8. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... any flow rate into the reaction chamber. This includes, but is not limited to, sample capillary, ozone... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each...

  9. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each new analyzer that has an ambient pressure or “soft vacuum” reaction chamber prior to initial use....

  10. Quench simulation of SMES consisting of some superconducting coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, S.; Oga, Y.; Igarashi, H.

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, many HTS superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) systems are investigated and designed. They usually consist of some superconducting element coils due to storing excessively high energy. If one of them was quenched, the storage energy of the superconducting element coil quenched has to be immediately dispersed to protect the HTS-SMES system. As the result, the current of the other element coils, which do not reach to quench, increases since the magnetic coupling between the quenched element coil and the others are excessively strong. The increase of the current may cause the quench of the other element coils. If the energy dispersion of the element coil quenched was failed, the other superconducting element coil would be quenched in series. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES after quenching one or more element coils. To protect a chain of quenches, it is also important to investigate the time constant of the coils. We have developed a simulation code to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES. By the quench simulation, it is indicated that a chain of quenches is caused by a quench of one element coil.

  11. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366 nm and 423 nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303 nm and 430 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0 μmol L- 1, with a limit of detection (3 σ/k) of 79.6 nmol L- 1. Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Quenched Spectroscopic Factors for Low-Lying Positive Parity States in 31Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, N.; Mukai, M.; Cederkäll, J.; Aghai, H.; Golubev, P.; Johansson, H. T.; Kahl, D.; Teranishi, T.; Watanabe, Y. X.

    The excitation function of the proton resonance elastic scattering with a 30Mg beam of 2.92 MeV/nucleon was measured around 0 degrees in the laboratory frame. Three resonances corresponding to high excited states in 31Al were successfully observed. They correspond to the isobaric analog resonances of the first three bound states in 31Mg, which is considered to be located at the border of the island of inversion. An R-matrix analysis on the excitation function revealed that the spectroscopic factors for the first two positive parity resonances were quenched compared to those for other N=19 nuclei, 35S and 37Al, clearly indicating that the shell structure changes between 30Mg and 31Mg.

  13. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366nm and 423nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303nm and 430nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0μmolL(-1), with a limit of detection (3σ/k) of 79.6nmolL(-1). Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27262658

  14. Energy upgrade as regards quench performance

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay, W.W.; Tepikian, S.

    2011-01-01

    Since the cross section for W production increases rapidly with energy, we consider the possibility of increasing the collision energy of polarized protons at RHIC. The limits of present hardware are examined with a particular emphasis on the quench training performance of magnets. Ignoring the limits of the DX magnets, the short-sample currents for the main arc (8 cm) dipoles could allow an increase of more than 30%, however we estimate 400 to 500 training quenches for the just 8 cm dipoles to reach this level. We propose that a 10% increase in energy might be achieved with the present hardware configuration. Raising the beam energy to 275 GeV ({radical}s = 550 GeV) should increase the W production rate by almost 50% from the 250 GeV level for the same optics with identical {beta}*'s at the collision points.

  15. Applications of partially quenched chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Golterman, M.F.; Leung, K.C.

    1998-05-01

    Partially quenched theories are theories in which the valence- and sea-quark masses are different. In this paper we calculate the nonanalytic one-loop corrections of some physical quantities: the chiral condensate, weak decay constants, Goldstone boson masses, B{sub K}, and the K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay amplitude, using partially quenched chiral perturbation theory. Our results for weak decay constants and masses agree with, and generalize, results of previous work by Sharpe. We compare B{sub K} and the K{sup +} decay amplitude with their real-world values in some examples. For the latter quantity, two other systematic effects that plague lattice computations, namely, finite-volume effects and unphysical values of the quark masses and pion external momenta, are also considered. We find that typical one-loop corrections can be substantial. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Kaon B parameter in quenched QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrand, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    I calculate the kaon B parameter BK, defined via 8(mKfK)2BK/3=, with a lattice simulation in the quenched approximation. The lattice simulation uses an action possessing exact lattice chiral symmetry, an overlap action. Computations are performed at two lattice spacings, about 0.13 and 0.09 fm (parametrized by Wilson gauge action couplings β=5.9 and 6.1) with nearly the same physical volumes and quark masses. I describe particular potential difficulties which arise due to the use of such a lattice action in finite volume. The continuum-extrapolated result for quenched BNDRK(μ=2 GeV)=0.55(7) where the uncertainty includes statistics, extrapolation, and an estimate of uncertainty from the choice of matching factor and strange quark mass.

  17. Renormalization of the jet-quenching parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2014-09-01

    We study the radiative processes that affect the propagation of a high energy gluon in a dense medium, such as a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we investigate the role of the large double logarithmic corrections, ∼αsln2 L /τ0, that were recently identified in the study of p⊥-broadening by Liou, Mueller and Wu. We show that these large corrections can be reabsorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter controlling both momentum broadening and energy loss. We argue that the probabilistic description of these phenomena remains valid, in spite of the large non-locality in time of the radiative corrections. The renormalized jet-quenching parameter is enhanced compared to its standard perturbative estimate. As a particular consequence, the radiative energy loss scales with medium size L as L 2 + γ, with γ = 2√{αsNc / π }, as compared to the standard scaling in L2.

  18. Quenching of neodymium fluorescence by molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, J.D.; Machewirth, D.P.; Snitzer, E.

    1995-04-01

    We show that the hydrogen-loading technique used to enhance a fiber`s ultraviolet photosensitivity for writing Bragg gratings can lead to quenching of the lasing ion`s fluorescence. The neodymium fluorescence and radiative lifetimes are measured for the untreated fiber, the hydrogen-loaded fiber, and the postannealed fiber. We show that postannealing can be used to remove the unreacted hydrogen molecules from the fiber laser and restore the radiative lifetime to near that of its original value.

  19. BB Potentials in Quenched Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold; Kostas Orginos; Martin J. Savage

    2007-12-01

    The potentials between two B-mesons are computed in the heavy-quark limit using quenched lattice QCD at $m_\\pi\\sim 400~{\\rm MeV}$. Non-zero central potentials are clearly evident in all four spin-isospin channels, (I,s_l) = (0,0) , (0,1) , (1,0) , (1,1), where s_l is the total spin of the light degrees of freedom. At short distance, we find repulsion in the $I\

  20. Functional colloidal trimers by quenched electrostatic assembly.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Joseph J; Chaturvedi, Neetu; Velegol, Darrell

    2010-10-14

    It is shown how to assemble three particles into a single "colloidal trimer". The particles may consist of different materials and be different sizes, and they can be assembled in a particular sequence (i.e. 1-2-3 or 2-1-3 or 2-3-1). Several trimer assemblies are demonstrated, including polystyrene-silica-polystyrene, gold-polystyrene-silver, and gold-silicon-silver. The gold-silicon-silver assembly operates as a catalytic motor, moving rapidly by autoelectrophoresis when placed in a hydrogen peroxide solution. The assemblies are made by allowing oppositely-charged particles to aggregate in a diffusion-limited manner for a time, and then quenching the aggregation by the addition of a nanoparticle coating on one of the particles. We call this method "Quenched Electrostatic Assembly", and it serves as a general, scalable method for synthesizing multi-component colloidal trimers, including those requiring a certain sequential order, but not requiring particular orientations. In addition, when polymer nanoparticles are used to quench the aggregation, they can be fused above their glass transition temperature to produce assemblies that are mechanically stable. PMID:20830380

  1. Fluorescence quenching and photocatalytic degradation of textile dyeing waste water by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S R; Umadevi, M; Janani, S R; Balakrishnan, T; Ramanibai, R

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes have been prepared by chemical reduction method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence spectral analysis showed that the quenching of fluorescence of textile dyeing waste water (TDW) has been found to decrease with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. Experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed TDW effectively. The fluorescence interaction between Ag NPs (acceptor) and TDW (donor) confirms the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism. Long range dipole-dipole interaction between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules is the dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer. Furthermore, photocatalytic degradation of TDW was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under UV light illumination. The kinetic study revealed that synthesized Ag NPs was found to be effective in degrading TDW.

  2. Comparison of the Na(4p) + H2 and Na(3p) + H2 reactive/quenching systems studied with CARS, resonance-enhanced CARS, and DFWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motzkus, M.; Pichler, G.; Kompa, K. L.; Hering, P.

    1997-06-01

    Three different nonlinear optical techniques, CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering), resonance-enhanced CARS, and DFWM (degenerate four-wave mixing), were used to compare the reactive and quenching behavior of the two different electronically excited sodium atoms, Na(3p) and Na(4p), in a collision with H2. In the chemical reaction channel both excited sodium states produce NaH molecules, but in the case of Na(3p) it is shown that the reaction is not a direct formation process and involves more than one step. Both sodium states induce a population of the vibrational levels v″=0-3 of NaH. For the Na(3p) excitation the population of the NaH molecules is concentrated at v″=0, whereas for the excitation of the Na(4p) state NaH has its maximum population in the v″=1 level. The differences are attributed to different potential energy surfaces. The quenching investigations were focused on the behavior of the Na(4p) state and the results were compared with the well-known behavior of the Na(3p) state. Because no quenching products were detected in the CARS spectra with Na(4p) excitation, the upper limit for the integrated quenching cross section was estimated to be less than 5×10-17 cm2, as based on the detection sensitivity of the CARS apparatus.

  3. Speciation, luminescence, and alkaline fluorescence quenching of 4-(2-methylbutyl)aminodipicolinic acid (H2MEBADPA).

    PubMed

    Ingram, Andrew J; Dunlap, Alexander G; Dipietro, Richard; Muller, Gilles

    2011-07-14

    4-(2-Methylbutyl)aminodipicolinic acid (H(2)MEBADPA) has been synthesized and fully characterized in terms of aqueous phase protonation constants (pK(a)'s) and photophysical measurements. The pK(a)'s were determined by spectrophotometric titrations, utilizing a fully sealed titration system. Photophysical measurements consisted of room temperature fluorescence and frozen solution phosphorescence as well as quantum yield determinations at various pH, which showed that only fully deprotonated MEBADPA(2-) is appreciably emissive. The fluorescence of MEBADPA(2-) has been determined to be quenched by hydroxide and methoxide anions, most likely through base-catalyzed excited-state tautomerism or proton transfer. This quenching phenomenon has been quantitatively explored through steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Utilizing the determined pK(a)s and quenching constants, the fluorescent intensity of MEBADPA(2-) has been successfully modeled as a function of pH.

  4. Cryogenic Quenching Process for Electronic Part Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; Cressler, John

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures (less than 100 C) for extreme environments is not well controlled or developed from a product quality and reliability point of view. This is in contrast to the very rigorous and well-documented procedures to qualify electronic parts for mission use in the 55 to 125 C temperature range. A similarly rigorous methodology for screening and evaluating electronic parts needs to be developed so that mission planners can expect the same level of high reliability performance for parts operated at cryogenic temperatures. A formal methodology for screening and qualifying electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures has been proposed. The methodology focuses on the base physics of failure of the devices at cryogenic temperatures. All electronic part reliability is based on the bathtub curve, high amounts of initial failures (infant mortals), a long period of normal use (random failures), and then an increasing number of failures (end of life). Unique to this is the development of custom screening procedures to eliminate early failures at cold temperatures. The ability to screen out defects will specifically impact reliability at cold temperatures. Cryogenic reliability is limited by electron trap creation in the oxide and defect sites at conductor interfaces. Non-uniform conduction processes due to process marginalities will be magnified at cryogenic temperatures. Carrier mobilities change by orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, significantly enhancing the effects of electric field. Marginal contacts, impurities in oxides, and defects in conductor/conductor interfaces can all be magnified at low temperatures. The novelty is the use of an ultra-low temperature, short-duration quenching process for defect screening. The quenching process is designed to identify those defects that will precisely (and negatively) affect long-term, cryogenic part operation. This quenching process occurs at a temperature that is at least

  5. The mass dependence of dwarf satellite galaxy quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F. E-mail: ericbell@umich.edu

    2014-09-10

    We combine observations of the Local Group with data from the NASA-Sloan Atlas to show the variation in the quenched fraction of satellite galaxies from low-mass dwarf spheroidals and dwarf irregulars to more massive dwarfs similar to the Magellanic Clouds. While almost all of the low-mass (M {sub *} ≲ 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}) dwarfs are quenched, at higher masses the quenched fraction decreases to approximately 40%-50%. This change in the quenched fraction is large and suggests a sudden change in the effectiveness of quenching that correlates with satellite mass. We combine this observation with models of satellite infall and ram pressure stripping to show that the low-mass satellites must quench within 1-2 Gyr of pericenter passage to maintain a high quenched fraction, but that many more massive dwarfs must continue to form stars today even though they likely fell into their host >5 Gyr ago. We also characterize how the susceptibility of dwarfs to ram pressure must vary as a function of mass if it is to account for the change in quenched fractions. Though neither model predicts the quenching effectiveness a priori, this modeling illustrates the physical requirements that the observed quenched fractions place on possible quenching mechanisms.

  6. The Mass Dependence of Dwarf Satellite Galaxy Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.

    2014-09-01

    We combine observations of the Local Group with data from the NASA-Sloan Atlas to show the variation in the quenched fraction of satellite galaxies from low-mass dwarf spheroidals and dwarf irregulars to more massive dwarfs similar to the Magellanic Clouds. While almost all of the low-mass (M sstarf <~ 107 M ⊙) dwarfs are quenched, at higher masses the quenched fraction decreases to approximately 40%-50%. This change in the quenched fraction is large and suggests a sudden change in the effectiveness of quenching that correlates with satellite mass. We combine this observation with models of satellite infall and ram pressure stripping to show that the low-mass satellites must quench within 1-2 Gyr of pericenter passage to maintain a high quenched fraction, but that many more massive dwarfs must continue to form stars today even though they likely fell into their host >5 Gyr ago. We also characterize how the susceptibility of dwarfs to ram pressure must vary as a function of mass if it is to account for the change in quenched fractions. Though neither model predicts the quenching effectiveness a priori, this modeling illustrates the physical requirements that the observed quenched fractions place on possible quenching mechanisms.

  7. Characterisation of dissolved organic matter fluorescence properties by PARAFAC analysis and thermal quenching.

    PubMed

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Baker, Andy; Bieroza, Magdalena; Reynolds, Darren M; Bridgeman, John

    2014-09-15

    The fluorescence intensity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aqueous samples is known to be highly influenced by temperature. Although several studies have demonstrated the effect of thermal quenching on the fluorescence of DOM, no research has been undertaken to assess the effects of temperature by combining fluorescence excitation - emission matrices (EEM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modelling. This study further extends previous research on thermal quenching by evaluating the impact of temperature on the fluorescence of DOM from a wide range of environmental samples, in the range 20 °C - 0 °C. Fluorescence intensity increased linearly with respect to temperature decrease at all temperatures down to 0 °C. Results showed that temperature affected the PARAFAC components associated with humic-like and tryptophan-like components of DOM differently, depending on the water type. The terrestrial humic-like components, C1 and C2 presented the highest thermal quenching in rural water samples and the lowest in urban water samples, while C3, the tryptophan-like component, and C4, a reprocessed humic-like component, showed opposite results. These results were attributed to the availability and abundance of the components or to the degree of exposure to the heat source. The variable thermal quenching of the humic-like components also indicated that although the PARAFAC model generated the same components across sites, the DOM composition of each component differed between them. This study has shown that thermal quenching can provide additional information on the characteristics and composition of DOM and highlighted the importance of correcting fluorescence data collected in situ.

  8. Measured strain in Nb3Sn coils during excitation and quence

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Barlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D. R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S. A.; Hannaford, C. R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.

    2005-06-01

    The strain in a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a 'common coil' fashion capable of reaching 11 T at 4.2 K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench.

  9. Pressure-induced Co2+ photoluminescence quenching in MgAl2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Lucie; Rodríguez, Fernando; Valiente, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    This work investigates the electronic structure and photoluminescence (PL) of Co2+-doped MgAl2O4 and their pressure dependence by time-resolved spectroscopy. The variations of the visible absorption band and its associated emission at 663 nm (τ = 130 ns at ambient conditions) with pressure/temperature can be explained on the basis of a configurational energy model. It provides an interpretation for both the electronic structure and the excited-state phenomena yielding photoluminescence emission and the subsequent quenching. We show that there is an excited-state crossover (ESCO) [4T1(P)↔2E(G)] at ambient pressure, which is responsible for the evolution of the emission spectrum from a broadband emission between 300 K and 100 K to a narrow-line emission at lower temperatures. Contrary to expectations from the Tanabe-Sugano diagram, instead of enhancing ESCO phenomena, pressure reduces PL and even suppresses it (PL quenching) above 6 GPa. We explain such variations in terms of pressure-induced nonradiative relaxation to lower excited states: 2E(G)→4T1(F). The variation of PL intensity and its associated lifetime with pressure supports the proposed interpretation.

  10. The effect of quenched disorder on dynamical transitions in systems of coupled cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinshan; Singh, Rajeev; Garnier, Nicolas B.; Sinha, Sitabhra; Pumir, Alain

    2013-09-01

    Non-equilibrium systems are characterized by a rich variety of dynamical behaviors, which may sensitively depend on control parameters. Here, we investigate and provide a quantitative analysis of the role of disorder on the transitions between different dynamical regimes in extended heterogeneous systems of excitable and passive cells, induced by varying the strength of the coupling between cells. The random distribution of passive cells provides a quenched disorder in important biological contexts, such as the appearance of contractions in the pregnant uterus. We observe a large variability between different realizations of the disorder (replicas) in a lattice of excitable cells, each cell being coupled to a random number of passive cells. The statistics of these large disorder-induced fluctuations are related to the properties of the coarse-grained distribution of passive cells, in particular, to its extreme values. We show that these fluctuations can be characterized by a simple scaling relation, involving the strength of the coupling between excitable cells, the mean passive cell density and the logarithm of the system size. Our results provide a quantitative understanding of the important effect of a quenched disorder in the transition between dynamical regimes in extended dynamical systems.

  11. The examination of berberine excited state by laser flash photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lingli; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Ping; Zhu, Hui; Zhu, Rongrong; Sun, Xiaoyu; Yao, Side; Wang, Shilong

    2009-07-01

    The property of the excited triplet state of berberine (BBR) was investigated by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm in acetonitrile. The transient absorption spectra of the excited triplet BBR were obtained in acetonitrile, which have an absorption maximum at 420 nm. And the ratio of excitation to ionization of BBR in acetonitrile solvent was calculated. The self-decay and self-quenching rate constants, and the absorption coefficient of 3BBR* were investigated and the excited state quantum yield was determined. Furthermore utilizing the benzophenone (BEN) as a triplet sensitizer, and the β-carotene (Car) as an excited energy transfer acceptor, the assignment of 3BBR* was further confirmed and the related energy transfer rate constants were also determined.

  12. Optical fiber sensor for nitroaromatic explosives based on fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fenghong

    2010-10-01

    The detection of explosives and related compounds is important in both forensic and environmental applications. In this paper, we report on the preparation of novel plastic optical fiber explosive sensor based on fluorescence quenching. A low priced LED light source and PIN detector were used in this sensor system, a U-shaped plastic optical fiber with high sensitivity act as sensor head. We use amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFP) MEH-PPV as fluorescence indictor. MEHPPV was dip coated on to the surface of the U-shaped plastic optical fiber. For the first time as far as we know we detected the fluorescence lifetime by the phase-fluorometry method to measure the concentration of TNT, which has a merit of immunity to fluctuation of the light source and is more reliable than measuring intensity alone. In the experimental set-up the phase shift between excitation light and fluorescence is calculated by correlation method. Two degree phase difference was measured when the sensor head was exposed to TNT vapor and air in primary experiments.

  13. Tunable nonequilibrium dynamics of field quenches in spin ice

    PubMed Central

    Mostame, Sarah; Castelnovo, Claudio; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji L.

    2014-01-01

    We present nonequilibrium physics in spin ice as a unique setting that combines kinematic constraints, emergent topological defects, and magnetic long-range Coulomb interactions. In spin ice, magnetic frustration leads to highly degenerate yet locally constrained ground states. Together, they form a highly unusual magnetic state—a “Coulomb phase”—whose excitations are point-like defects—magnetic monopoles—in the absence of which effectively no dynamics is possible. Hence, when they are sparse at low temperature, dynamics becomes very sluggish. When quenching the system from a monopole-rich to a monopole-poor state, a wealth of dynamical phenomena occur, the exposition of which is the subject of this article. Most notably, we find reaction diffusion behavior, slow dynamics owing to kinematic constraints, as well as a regime corresponding to the deposition of interacting dimers on a honeycomb lattice. We also identify potential avenues for detecting the magnetic monopoles in a regime of slow-moving monopoles. The interest in this model system is further enhanced by its large degree of tunability and the ease of probing it in experiment: With varying magnetic fields at different temperatures, geometric properties—including even the effective dimensionality of the system—can be varied. By monitoring magnetization, spin correlations or zero-field NMR, the dynamical properties of the system can be extracted in considerable detail. This establishes spin ice as a laboratory of choice for the study of tunable, slow dynamics. PMID:24379372

  14. O2(a1Δ) quenching in O/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Postell, D.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-02-01

    The development of discharge singlet oxygen generators (DSOG's) that can operate at high pressures is required for the power scaling of the discharge oxygen iodine laser. In order to achieve efficient high-pressure DSOG operation it is important to understand the mechanisms by which singlet oxygen (O2(a1Δ)) is quenched in these devices. It has been proposed that three-body deactivation processes of the type O2(a1Δ))+O+M-->2O2+M provide significant energy loss channels. To further explore these reactions the physical and reactive quenching of O2(a1Δ)) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a1Δ)) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2 a1Δ-X3Ε transition. Fast quenching of O2(a1Δ)) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  15. In depth analysis of the quenching of three fluorene-phenylene-based cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes by DNA and DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Davies, Matthew L; Douglas, Peter; Burrows, Hugh D; Martincigh, Bice; Miguel, Maria da Graça; Scherf, Ullrich; Mallavia, Ricardo; Douglas, Alastair

    2014-01-16

    The interaction of three cationic poly {9,9-bis[N,N-(trimethylammonium)hexyl]fluorene-co-1,4-phenylene} polymers with average chain lengths of ∼6, 12, and 100 repeat units (PFP-NR36(I),12(Br),100(Br)) with both double and single stranded, short and long, DNA and DNA bases have been studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence of PFP-NR3 polymers is quenched with high efficiency by DNA (both double and single stranded) and DNA bases. The resulting quenching plots are sigmoidal and are not accurately described by using a Stern-Volmer quenching mechanism. Here, the quenching mechanism is well modeled in terms of an equilibrium in which a PFP-NR3/DNA aggregate complex is formed which brings polymer chains into close enough proximity to allow interchain excitation energy migration and quenching at aggregate or DNA base traps. Such an analysis gives equilibrium constants of 8.4 × 10(6) (±1.2 × 10(6)) M(-1) for short-dsDNA and 8.6 × 10(6) (±1.7 × 10(6)) M(-1) for short-ssDNA with PFP-NR36(I).

  16. Temperature dependence of electronic energy transfer and quenching in copolymer films of styrene and 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-vinylphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Donald B.; Scott, Gary W.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1991-01-01

    Quenching of the emission of both the polystyrene monomer and the excimer for a series of varying composition copolymer films of styrene and 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-vinylphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole is reported. The preponderance of quenching for both the monomer and excimer emissions is due to interception of the migrating excitation at the quencher site, although additional quenching results via long-range dipole-dipole energy transfer from the monomer and excimer traps to the quencher trap. The quenching of the monomer fluorescence and phosphorescence and that of the excimer fluorescence were found to be temperature independent over the ranges 14-58 and 191-296 K, respectively. Most significantly, it is concluded that the energy migration process is temperature independent over the range 14-296 K.

  17. Effects of thermal quenching on the breakup of pyroclasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, A.; Manga, M.; Carey, R. J.; Degruyter, W.; Dufek, J.

    2012-12-01

    It is often assumed that magma fragments when it contacts water. Obsidian chips and glass spheres crack when quenched. Vesicular pyroclasts are made of similar glass, so thermal quenching may cause them to break more easily. We performed a set of experiments on air fall pumice from Medicine Lake, California. Density and texture of similar samples are described in Manga et al., Bull Volc 2010. We made "quenched" samples by heating natural pyroclasts to 600 °C, quenching them in water at 21 °C, drying them at 105 °C, and then cooling them to room temperature. We compare these samples with untreated air fall pumice from the same deposit, hereafter referred to as "regular" pumice. We tested whether quenched pumice would 1) shatter more easily in collisions and 2) abrade faster. Our collision experiment methods are described in Dufek et al., Nature Geoscience 2012. Our abrasion experiment methods are described in Manga et al., Bull Volc 2010. We also tested whether individual clasts lose mass upon quenching and whether they increase in effective wet density. Effective wet density is defined as underwater density of a clast when water occupies part of the pore space. Effective wet density, measured as a function of time after immersion, indicates the volume fraction of the pore space that becomes occupied by water. We compare effective wet density of individual clasts pre-quenching with effective wet density after having been quenched, thoroughly dried and then cooled to room temperature. An increase in effective wet density would suggest that bubble walls had been damaged during quenching, allowing water to occupy the pore space faster. We also compare pre-quenching and post-quenching textures using X-Ray Tomography (XRT) and SEM images. Results from collision experiments show no obvious difference between quenched pumice and regular pumice. Quenched pumice abraded more quickly than regular pumice. We find that 1 to 2 % of mass was lost during quenching. Effective

  18. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  19. Quenching of acoustic bandgaps by flow noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnady, T.; Elsabbagh, A.; Akl, W.; Mohamady, O.; Garcia-Chocano, V. M.; Torrent, D.; Cervera, F.; Sánchez-Dehesa, J.

    2009-03-01

    We report an experimental study of acoustic effects produced by wind impinging on noise barriers based on two-dimensional sonic crystals with square symmetry. We found that the attenuation strength of sonic-crystal bandgaps decreases for increasing values of flow speed. A quenching of the acoustic bandgap appears at a certain speed value that depends of the barrier filling ratio. For increasing values of flow speed, the data indicate that the barrier becomes a sound source because of its interaction with the wind. We conclude that flow noise should be taken into account in designing acoustic barriers based on sonic crystals.

  20. Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System.

    PubMed

    Antipov, Andrey E; Dong, Qiaoyuan; Gull, Emanuel

    2016-01-22

    We examine the dynamics of a correlated quantum dot in the mixed valence regime. We perform numerically exact calculations of the current after a quantum quench from equilibrium by rapidly applying a bias voltage in a wide range of initial temperatures. The current exhibits short equilibration times and saturates upon the decrease of temperature at all times, indicating Kondo behavior both in the transient regime and in the steady state. The time-dependent current saturation temperature connects the equilibrium Kondo temperature to a substantially increased value at voltages outside of the linear response. These signatures are directly observable by experiments in the time domain. PMID:26849606

  1. Annealed and quenched inhomogeneous cellular automata (INCA)

    SciTech Connect

    Vichniac, G.Y.; Tamayo, P.; Hartman, H.

    1986-12-01

    A probabilistic one-dimensional cellular automaton model by Domany and Kinzel is mapped into an inhomogeneous cellular automaton with the Boolean functions XOR an AND as transition rules. Wolfram's classification is recovered by varying the frequency of these two simple rules and by quenching or annealing the inhomogeneity. In particular, ''class 4'' is related to critical behavior in directed percolation. Also, the critical slowing down of second-order phase transitions is related to a stochastic version of the classical ''halting problem'' of computation theory.

  2. The excitation of O2 in auroras.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W.

    1972-01-01

    Newly measured electron impact cross sections for excitation of the a super 1 Delta sub g and b super 1 Sigma (plus) sub g electronic states of O2 have been employed to predict the absolute volume emission rates from these states under auroral conditions. A secondary electron flux typical of an IBC II nighttime aurora was used, and the most important quenching processes were included in the calculations. The new excitation cross sections for the a super 1 Delta sub g and b super 1 Sigma (plus) sub g states are more than an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates and lead to correspondingly greater intensities in the atmospheric and IR atmospheric band systems. The calculated intensity ratios of the volume emission rates of 7621 A and 1.27 micron to that for 3914 A are smaller than those obtained from aircraft observations and recent rocket experiments.

  3. Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources.

    PubMed

    Viste, Pierre; Plain, Jérome; Jaffiol, Rodolphe; Vial, Alexandre; Adam, Pierre Michel; Royer, Pascal

    2010-02-23

    We report on the emission of hybrid nanosources composed of gold nanoparticles coupled with quantum dots. The emission relies on energy transfer from the quantum dots to gold nanoparticles which could be de-excited through radiative plasmon relaxation. The dependence of the emission efficiency is studied systematically as a function of the size of gold nanoparticles and interdistance between gold nanoparticles and quantum dots. We demonstrate a size-dependent transition between quenching and enhancement and a nonradiative energy transfer from the quantum dots to the gold nanoparticles.

  4. Improvement of Quench Factor Analysis in Phase and Hardness Prediction of a Quenched Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kianezhad, M.; Sajjadi, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    The accurate prediction of alloys' properties introduced by heat treatment has been considered by many researchers. The advantages of such predictions are reduction of test trails and materials' consumption as well as time and energy saving. One of the most important methods to predict hardness in quenched steel parts is Quench Factor Analysis (QFA). Classical QFA is based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. In this study, a modified form of the QFA based on the work by Rometsch et al. is compared with the classical QFA, and they are applied to prediction of hardness of steels. For this purpose, samples of CK60 steel were utilized as raw material. They were austenitized at 1103 K (830 °C). After quenching in different environments, they were cut and their hardness was determined. In addition, the hardness values of the samples were fitted using the classical and modified equations for the quench factor analysis and the results were compared. Results showed a significant improvement in fitted values of the hardness and proved the higher efficiency of the new method.

  5. Quench dynamics in SRF cavities: can we locate the quench origin with 2nd sound?

    SciTech Connect

    Maximenko, Yulia; Segatskov, Dmitri A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A newly developed method of locating quenches in SRF cavities by detecting second-sound waves has been gaining popularity in SRF laboratories. The technique is based on measurements of time delays between the quench as determined by the RF system and arrival of the second-sound wave to the multiple detectors placed around the cavity in superfluid helium. Unlike multi-channel temperature mapping, this approach requires only a few sensors and simple readout electronics; it can be used with SRF cavities of almost arbitrary shape. One of its drawbacks is that being an indirect method it requires one to solve an inverse problem to find the location of a quench. We tried to solve this inverse problem by using a parametric forward model. By analyzing the data we found that the approximation where the second-sound emitter is a near-singular source does not describe the physical system well enough. A time-dependent analysis of the quench process can help us to put forward a more adequate model. We present here our current algorithm to solve the inverse problem and discuss the experimental results.

  6. System and method for quench protection of a superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Xianrui; Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba Haran; Bray, James William; Ryan, David Thomas

    2008-03-11

    A system and method for protecting a superconductor from a quench condition. A quench protection system is provided to protect the superconductor from damage due to a quench condition. The quench protection system comprises a voltage detector operable to detect voltage across the superconductor. The system also comprises a frequency filter coupled to the voltage detector. The frequency filter is operable to couple voltage signals to a control circuit that are representative of a rise in superconductor voltage caused by a quench condition and to block voltage signals that are not. The system is operable to detect whether a quench condition exists in the superconductor based on the voltage signal received via the frequency filter and to initiate a protective action in response.

  7. Quorum quenching revisited--from signal decays to signalling confusion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kar-Wai; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing), others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching), thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes "signalling confusion", a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching. PMID:22666051

  8. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signalling Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kar-Wai; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing), others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching), thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes “signalling confusion”, a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching. PMID:22666051

  9. Quenching phenomena for fourth-order nonlinear parabolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Niu; Xiaotong, Qiu; Runzhang, Xu

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quenching phenomena of the initial boundary value problem for the fourth-order nonlinear parabolic equation in bounded domain. By some assumptions on the exponents and initial data for a class of equations with the general source term, we not only obtain the quenching phenomena in finite time but also estimate the quenching time. Our main tools are maximum principle, comparison principle and eigenfunction method.

  10. QUENCH2D. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, A.; Beck, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  11. An Intelligent Optical Dissolved Oxygen Measurement Method Based on a Fluorescent Quenching Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengmei; Wei, Yaoguang; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Daoliang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-12-09

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key factor that influences the healthy growth of fishes in aquaculture. The DO content changes with the aquatic environment and should therefore be monitored online. However, traditional measurement methods, such as iodometry and other chemical analysis methods, are not suitable for online monitoring. The Clark method is not stable enough for extended periods of monitoring. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent DO measurement method based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The measurement system is composed of fluorescent quenching detection, signal conditioning, intelligent processing, and power supply modules. The optical probe adopts the fluorescent quenching mechanism to detect the DO content and solves the problem, whereas traditional chemical methods are easily influenced by the environment. The optical probe contains a thermistor and dual excitation sources to isolate visible parasitic light and execute a compensation strategy. The intelligent processing module adopts the IEEE 1451.2 standard and realizes intelligent compensation. Experimental results show that the optical measurement method is stable, accurate, and suitable for online DO monitoring in aquaculture applications.

  12. Interaction quantum quenches in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Bauer, Andreas; Dorfner, Florian; Riegger, Luis; Orso, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the nonequilibrium dynamics in two interaction quantum quenches in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model. First, we study the decay of the Néel state as a function of interaction strength. We observe a fast charge dynamics over which double occupancies are built up, while the long-time decay of the staggered moment is controlled by spin excitations, corroborated by the analysis of the entanglement dynamics. Second, we investigate the formation of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) correlations in a spin-imbalanced system in quenches from the noninteracting case to attractive interactions. Even though the quench puts the system at a finite energy density, peaks at the characteristic FFLO quasimomenta are visible in the quasi-momentum distribution function, albeit with an exponential decay of s-wave pairing correlations. We also discuss the imprinting of FFLO correlations onto repulsively bound pairs and their rapid decay in ramps. Supported by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) via FOR 1807.

  13. Investigation of Oxygen-Induced Quenching of Phosphorescence in Photoexcited Aromatic Molecules by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1996-01-01

    Platinum OctaEthyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state P(T(Sup 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen O2 molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the P(T(Sup 1) approaches P(S(Sub O)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic singlet states P(S(Sub n)), which feed P(T(Sub 1)) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be only the magnetic P(T(Sub 1)) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of O2P(S(Sub n)), complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the P(T(Sub 1)) states (i.e., quench phosphorescence). This reduction is possible because higher triplet states in (Pt.OEP) are admixed with the P(S(Sub 1)), states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are presented in this paper.

  14. An Intelligent Optical Dissolved Oxygen Measurement Method Based on a Fluorescent Quenching Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengmei; Wei, Yaoguang; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Daoliang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key factor that influences the healthy growth of fishes in aquaculture. The DO content changes with the aquatic environment and should therefore be monitored online. However, traditional measurement methods, such as iodometry and other chemical analysis methods, are not suitable for online monitoring. The Clark method is not stable enough for extended periods of monitoring. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent DO measurement method based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The measurement system is composed of fluorescent quenching detection, signal conditioning, intelligent processing, and power supply modules. The optical probe adopts the fluorescent quenching mechanism to detect the DO content and solves the problem, whereas traditional chemical methods are easily influenced by the environment. The optical probe contains a thermistor and dual excitation sources to isolate visible parasitic light and execute a compensation strategy. The intelligent processing module adopts the IEEE 1451.2 standard and realizes intelligent compensation. Experimental results show that the optical measurement method is stable, accurate, and suitable for online DO monitoring in aquaculture applications. PMID:26690176

  15. Mechanism of phosphorescence quenching in photomagnetic molecules determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, A.; Naidu, S. V. N.

    1994-01-01

    Platinum Octaethyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state (T(sub 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen (O2) molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the (T(sub 1) - S(sub 0)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic S(sub n) singlet states, which feed T(sub 1) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be the magnetic T(sub 1) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of (S(sub n) central dot O2) complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the T(sub 1) states (i.e. quench phosphorescence). This is possible since higher triplet states in (Pt.OEP) are admixed with the S(sub n) states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are discussed in this paper.

  16. Mechanism of phosphorescence quenching in photomagnetic molecules determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, A.; Naidu, S. V. N.

    1994-01-01

    Platinum Octaethyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state (T(sub 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen (O2) molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the (T(sub 1)-S(sub 0)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic S(sub n) singlet states, which feed T(sub 1) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be the magnetic T(sub 1) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of (S(sub n).02) complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the T(sub 1) states (i.e. quench phosphorescence). This is possible since higher triplet states in (Pt-OEP) are admixed with the S(sub n) states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are discussed in this paper.

  17. Flux quench in a system of interacting spinless fermions in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yuya O.; Misguich, Grégoire; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    We study a quantum quench in a one-dimensional spinless fermion model (equivalent to the XXZ spin chain), where a magnetic flux is suddenly switched off. This quench is equivalent to imposing a pulse of electric field and therefore generates an initial particle current. This current is not a conserved quantity in the presence of a lattice and interactions, and we investigate numerically its time evolution after the quench, using the infinite time-evolving block decimation method. For repulsive interactions or large initial flux, we find oscillations that are governed by excitations deep inside the Fermi sea. At long times we observe that the current remains nonvanishing in the gapless cases, whereas it decays to zero in the gapped cases. Although the linear response theory (valid for a weak flux) predicts the same long-time limit of the current for repulsive and attractive interactions (relation with the zero-temperature Drude weight), larger nonlinearities are observed in the case of repulsive interactions compared with that of the attractive case.

  18. Pulse and quench induced dynamical phase transition in a chiral multiferroic spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi, M.; Sekania, M.; Mishra, S. K.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Berakdar, J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dynamics of magnetic order in a chiral multiferroic chain is studied. We consider two different scenarios: ultrashort terahertz excitations or a sudden electric field quench. Performing analytical and numerical exact diagonalization calculations, we trace the pulse induced spin dynamics and extract quantities that are relevant to quantum information processing. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of the system chirality, the von Neumann entropy, and the pairwise and many-body entanglement. If the characteristic frequencies of the generated states are noncommensurate, then a partial loss of pair concurrence occurs. Increasing the system size, this effect becomes even more pronounced. Many-particle entanglement and chirality are robust and persist in the incommensurate phase. To analyze the dynamical quantum transitions for the quenched and pulsed dynamics we combined the Weierstrass factorization technique for entire functions and the Lanczos exact diagonalization method. For a small system we obtained analytical results including the rate function of the Loschmidt echo. Exact numerical calculations for a system up to 40 spins confirm phase transition. Quench-induced dynamical transitions have been extensively studied recently. Here we show that related dynamical transitions can be achieved and controlled by appropriate electric field pulses.

  19. Measurements of O(1 D) quenching rates in the F-region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipler, D. P.; Biondi, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    In-situ determinations of the quenching of O(1 D) atoms by N2 and O2 molecules were made from observations of 6300 A nightglow intensity enhancements produced by the Platteville 1.6 MW transmitter. The heating of F-region electrons near the point of reflection of the RF wave leads to electron impact excitation of oxygen atoms to the O(1 D) state. It is shown that the resulting region of enhance 6300 A emission is localized to the region of electron energy absorption for heating at the lower altitudes. At 225 km the measured time constants for intensity buildup following transmitter turn-on and for intensity decay following turn-off are identical and equal to (13 plus or minus 1) sec. Time constants varying from 30 to 80 sec are found for the altitude range 260 to 300 km. The inferred quenching coefficient for the whole altitude range, 225 to 300 km, is 4.4 + 2 or - 1 x 10 to the minus 11th power cu cm/sec at 950 K, in good agreement with laboratory data. The quenching frequency obtained at 225 km, when referred to the altitude 120 km, is equal to (21 plus or minus 2)/sec, in agreement with less direct ionospheric determinations.

  20. Dissolved-oxygen quenching of in-situ fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudyk, Wayne; Tonaszuck, David; Pohlig, Kenneth

    1993-04-01

    In-situ fluorescence measurements of aromatic organic ground water contaminants do not always agree with gas chromatographic methods. Dissolved oxygen quenching of fluorescence may be an interferant in field measurements. Two standard fluorescent aromatics, quinine sulfate and naphthalene, were evaluated in this study. Over the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations expected to be encountered in the field, no effects of oxygen quenching on fluorescence of these compounds was observed. Quenching of quinine sulfate fluorescence by sodium chloride was observed using this system. Sodium chloride quenching was shown to follow the Stern-Volmer relation.

  1. Research of the quenched dye lasers pumped by excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Shaolin; Lou Qihong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, the quenched dye lasers pumped by XeCl and KrF excimer lasers were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Dye laser pulses with duration of 0.8 ns for XeCl laser pumping and 2 ns for KrF laser pumping were obtained. The dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in methyl was used as the active medium in the quenched dye laser. When the pump laser was KrF and the active medium was Coumarin 498 the quenched dye laser emitted pulse with duration of about 2 ns. The characteristics of the quenched dye laser was also investigated in detail.

  2. "Inverted" Solvent Effect on Charge Transfer in the Excited State.

    PubMed

    Nau; Pischel

    1999-10-01

    Faster in cyclohexane than in acetonitrile is the fluorescence quenching of the azoalkane 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) by amines and sulfides. Although this photoreaction is induced by charge transfer (CT; see picture) and exciplexes are formed, the increase in the dipole moment of the exciplex is not large enough to offset the solvent stabilization of the excited reactants, and an "inverted" solvent effect results.

  3. Excited states in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N

    2009-11-30

    A review of investigations of kinetic processes in active media oxygen - iodine lasers (OILs) performed in the last decade is presented. The mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited O{sub 2} and I{sub 2} molecules are considered, and dissociation mechanisms of I{sub 2} in the active medium of the OIL are analysed. The values of kinetic constants of processes proceeding in the active media of OILs are recommended. (review)

  4. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. Final report, August 4, 1986--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1997-12-31

    The techniques of continuous photolysis and pulsed laser flash photolysis, continuous and pulse radiolysis, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, and time-resolved fluorimetry have been used to examine intramolecular electron transfer within the solvent quenching cage, photodynamics of quenching of the excited states of transition-metal photosensitizers, the properties of excites states and one-electron reduced forms, ground- and excited-state interactions with solutes, and photoinduced oxidations of organic solutes in aqueous solution. The following specific areas were examined: (1) the parameters that govern the yields of redox products from excited-state electron-transfer quenching reactions; (2) the mediation of the properties of excited states and one-electron reduced forms by the ligands and the solution medium; (3) the effect of the interactions between the ground state of the complex and the solution components on the behavior of the excited state; (4) the yields of singlet oxygen from excited-state energy-transfer quenching by O{sub 2}; and (5) the oxidations of solutes by singlet oxygen, excited-state electron-transfer quenching, and free radicals. This report contains the abstracts of 50 publications describing the studies.

  5. Experimental methods for quenching structures in lunar-analog silicate melts - Variations as a function of quench media and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybar, M. D.

    1984-11-01

    Compositions analogous to lunar green, orange, and brown glasses were synthesized under consistent conditions, then quenched into a variety of different media when the samples were removed from the furnace. Iron valence and coordination are a direct function of quench media used, spanning the range from brine/ice (most effective quench), water, butyl phthalate, silicone oil, liquid nitrogen, highly reducing CO-CO2 gas, to air (least efficient quench). In the green and brown glasses, Fe(3+) in four-fold and six-fold coordination is observed in the slowest-quenched samples; Fe(2+) coordination varies directly with quench efficiency. Less pronounced changes were observed in the Ti-rich orange glass. Therefore the remote-sensed spectrum of a glass-bearing regolith on the moon may be influenced by the process by which the glass cooled, and extreme caution must be used when comparing spectra of synthetic glass analogs with real lunar glasses.

  6. Experimental methods for quenching structures in lunar-analog silicate melts - Variations as a function of quench media and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Compositions analogous to lunar green, orange, and brown glasses were synthesized under consistent conditions, then quenched into a variety of different media when the samples were removed from the furnace. Iron valence and coordination are a direct function of quench media used, spanning the range from brine/ice (most effective quench), water, butyl phthalate, silicone oil, liquid nitrogen, highly reducing CO-CO2 gas, to air (least efficient quench). In the green and brown glasses, Fe(3+) in four-fold and six-fold coordination is observed in the slowest-quenched samples; Fe(2+) coordination varies directly with quench efficiency. Less pronounced changes were observed in the Ti-rich orange glass. Therefore the remote-sensed spectrum of a glass-bearing regolith on the moon may be influenced by the process by which the glass cooled, and extreme caution must be used when comparing spectra of synthetic glass analogs with real lunar glasses.

  7. Experimental methods for quenching structures in lunar-analog silicate melts: Variations as a function of quench media and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions analogous to lunar green, organge, and brown glasses were synthesized under consistent conditions, then quenched into a variety of different media when the samples were removed from the furnace. Iron valence and coordination are a direct function of quench media used, spanning the range from brine/ice (most effective quench), water, butyl phthalate, silicone oil, liquid nitrogen, highly reducing CO-CO2 gas, to air (least efficient quench). In the green and brown glasses, Fe(3+) in four-fold and six-fold coordination is observed in the slowest-quenched samples; Fe(2+) coordination varies directly with quench efficiency. Less pronounced changes were observed in the Ti-rich orange glass. Therefore the remote-sensed spectrum of a glass-bearing regolith on the Moon may be influenced by the process by which the glass cooled, and extreme caution must be used when comparing spectra of synthetic glass analogs with real lunar glasses.

  8. Quench dynamics and statistics of measurements for a line of quantum spins in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, Jonathan; Rosch, Achim

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we investigate the dynamics of a line of spin-down spins embedded in the ferromagnetic spin-up ground state of a two-dimensional XXZ model close to the Ising limit. In a situation where the couplings in the x and y directions are different, the quench dynamics of this system is governed by the interplay of one-dimensional excitations (kinks and holes) moving along the line and single-spin excitations evaporating into the two-dimensional background. A semiclassical approximation can be used to calculate the dynamics of this complex quantum system. Recently, it became possible to perform projective quantum measurements on such spin systems, allowing us to determine, e.g., the z component of each individual spin. We predict the statistical properties of such measurements which contain much more information than correlation functions.

  9. Modified Methodology for the Quench Temperature Selection in Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) Processing of Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun Jung; Cho, Lawrence; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2016-08-01

    The original method to select the optimum quench temperature for quenching and partitioning (Q&P) processing aims to determine the quench temperature which yields a maximum volume fraction of retained austenite. In the present study, the original method was reviewed and refined by comparison with experimental results. The proposed methodology is based on the use of a modified Koistinen-Marburger equation for the kinetics of the athermal martensite transformation of steels containing C, Mn, Si, Cr, and B.

  10. Driving magnetic order in a manganite by ultrafast lattice excitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Forst, M.; Tobey, R. I.; Wall, S.; Bromberger, H.; Khanna, V.; Cavalieri, A. L.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, W. S.; Moore, R.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Krupin, O.; Trigo, M.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Hill, J. P.; Cavalleri, A.

    2011-01-01

    Femtosecond midinfrared pulses are used to directly excite the lattice of the single-layer manganite La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. Magnetic and orbital orders, as measured by femtosecond resonant soft x-ray diffraction with an x-ray free-electron laser, are reduced within a few picoseconds. This effect is interpreted as a displacive exchange quench, a prompt shift in the equilibrium value of the magnetic- and orbital-order parameters after the lattice has been distorted. Control of magnetism through ultrafast lattice excitation may be of use for high-speed optomagnetism.

  11. An Artificial Ising System with Phononic Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Hamed; Griffith, W. Ashley; Benson, Philip; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems and problems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we report mapping collective phononic excitations from different sources of crystal vibrations to spin systems. The phononic excitations in our experiments are due to micro and nano cracking (yielding crackling noises due to lattice distortion). We develop real time mapping of the multi-array senores to a network-space and then mapping the excitation- networks to spin-like systems. We show that new mapped system satisfies the quench (impulsive) characteristics of the Ising model in 2D classical spin systems. In particular, we show that our artificial Ising system transits between two ground states and approaching the critical point accompanies with a very short time frozen regime, inducing formation of domains separated by kinks. For a cubic-test under a true triaxial test (3D case), we map the system to a 6-spin ring under a transversal-driving field where using functional multiplex networks, the vector components of the spin are inferred (i.e., XY model). By visualization of spin patterns of the ring per each event, we demonstrate that ``kinks'' (as defects) proliferate when system approach from above to its critical point. We support our observations with employing recorded acoustic excitations during distortion of crystal lattices in nano-indentation tests on different crystals (silicon and graphite), triaxial loading test on rock (poly-crystal) samples and a true 3D triaxial test.

  12. The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Long Solenoids with Coil Sub-division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Guo, XingLong; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong

    2009-10-19

    This paper describes how a passive quench protection system can be applied to long superconducting solenoid magnets. When a solenoid coil is long compared to its thickness, the magnet quench process will be dominated by the time needed for uench propagation along the magnet length. Quench-back will permit a long magnet to quench more rapidly in a passive way. Quenchback from a conductive (low resistivity) mandrel is essential for spreading the quench along the length of a magnet. The andrel must be inductively coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. Current induced in the mandrel by di/dt in the magnet produces heat in the mandrel, which in turn causes the superconducting coil wound on the mandrel to quench. Sub-divisions often employed to reduce the voltages to ground within the coil. This paper explores when it is possible for quench-back to be employed for passive quench protection. The role of sub-division of the coil is discussed for long magnets.

  13. Fluorescence Quenching of (Dimethylamino)naphthalene Dyes Badan and Prodan by Tryptophan in Cytochromes P450 and Micelles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-6-propionylnaphthalene dyes Badan and Prodan is quenched by tryptophan in Brij 58 micelles as well as in two cytochrome P450 proteins (CYP102, CYP119) with Badan covalently attached to a cysteine residue. Formation of nonemissive complexes between a dye molecule and tryptophan accounts for about 76% of the fluorescence intensity quenching in micelles, the rest is due to diffusive encounters. In the absence of tryptophan, fluorescence of Badan-labeled cytochromes decays with triexponential kinetics characterized by lifetimes of about 100 ps, 700–800 ps, and 3 ns. Site mutation of a histidine residue in the vicinity of the Badan label by tryptophan results in shortening of all three decay lifetimes. The relative amplitude of the fastest component increases at the expense of the two slower ones. The average quenching rate constants are 4.5 × 108 s–1 (CYP102) and 3.7 × 108 s–1 (CYP119), at 288 K. Cyclic voltammetry of Prodan in MeCN shows a reversible reduction peak at −1.85 V vs NHE that becomes chemically irreversible and shifts positively upon addition of water. A quasireversible reduction at −0.88 V was observed in an aqueous buffer (pH 7.3). The excited-state reduction potential of Prodan (and Badan) is estimated to vary from about +0.6 V (vs NHE) in polar aprotic media (MeCN) to approximately +1.6 V in water. Tryptophan quenching of Badan/Prodan fluorescence in CYPs and Brij 58 micelles is exergonic by ≤0.5 V and involves tryptophan oxidation by excited Badan/Prodan, coupled with a fast reaction between the reduced dye and water. Photoreduction is a new quenching mechanism for 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-6-propionylnaphthalene dyes that are often used as solvatochromic polarity probes, FRET donors and acceptors, as well as reporters of solvation dynamics. PMID:25079965

  14. Tomography of Band Insulators from Quench Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Lewenstein, Maciej; Eckardt, André

    2014-07-01

    We propose a simple scheme for tomography of band-insulating states in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices with two sublattice states. In particular, the scheme maps out the Berry curvature in the entire Brillouin zone and extracts topological invariants such as the Chern number. The measurement relies on observing—via time-of-flight imaging—the time evolution of the momentum distribution following a sudden quench in the band structure. We consider two examples of experimental relevance: the Harper model with π flux and the Haldane model on a honeycomb lattice. Moreover, we illustrate the performance of the scheme in the presence of a parabolic trap, noise, and finite measurement resolution.

  15. Quenching Phase Separation by Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ran; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2015-03-01

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a solventless, free radical technique predominately used to deposit homogeneous films of linear and crosslinked polymers directly from gas phase feeds. We report a template-free method to fabricate continuous-phase porous polymer films by simultaneous phase separation during iCVD. Phase separation during film growth is achieved by condensing an inert porogen, along with initiator, monomer, and crosslinker. When the vapor mixture transports to the cooled substrate, phase separation occurs along with polymerization and crosslinking, which quench the state of phase separation. The kinetics of spontaneously phase separation can be qualitatively understood on the basis of Cahn-Hilliard theory. A series of films were grown by varying monomer and porogen's degree of saturation. Deposited films were studied by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques.

  16. Thermal quenching of fluorescence in condensed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Miguel; Paredes, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    Environmental factors strongly affect the features of the electromagnetic spectra of fluorescent compounds hosted by material media. The shape of the absorption and emission peaks, their characteristic asymmetry and breadth, the Stokes shift and quantum yield are generally temperature dependent and heavily influenced by both the local and extended physical properties of the medium. The theoretical method used before to obtain the lineshape function is extended here to other terms of the interaction energy between the optically sensitive orbital and the hosting medium, which become significant when the spectral feature is broad. An analytical expression for the temperature dependent decay rate by non-radiative processes is obtained by this way. Comparison with experiment on thermal quenching gives agreement within the experimental uncertainty. The solvent polarity, its protic or aprotic character, hydrogen bonds, proximity effects and presence of quenchers are expected to enter through the coupling constants of the corresponding energy terms.

  17. Photodamage of mesotetraphenylporphyrin under one- and two-photon excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Yanan; Liu Yuqiang; Yang Zhenling; Yang Yanqiang; Guo Ximing

    2010-08-15

    Photoinduced damage behavior of mesotetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) under one- and two-photon excitation with femtosecond laser pulses is investigated in the present work. Quenching in the luminescent intensity is observed. Results suggest that laser irradiation on TPP mainly causes two simultaneously occurring photoprocesses: photodamage and formation of a porphine-type photoproduct. The damage rate exhibits a linear dependence on the incident light power in one-photon excitation, whereas in two-photon excitation, the power dependence of the damage rate turns out to be exponential. The photoproduct formed in one- and two-photon excitation is identical. This product, which is observed to possess superior photostability and two-photon absorbing ability compared with the original TPP sensitizer, is likely to be treated as a secondary photosensitizer in the activation process of photodynamic therapy (PDT). This work might be helpful for the drug evaluation in the practical application of PDT.

  18. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Gregorash, D.; Aeschlimann, R.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO/sub 2/, 16% ZrO/sub 2/, and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m/sup 2/ and 3.7 MW/m/sup 2/, respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Quenching of flames by magnetic fields (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.

    1988-11-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on combustion of alcohol with the aid of platinum catalysis have been studied to simulate in part the oxidation of organic matter in the living body, and it has been found that the combustion reactions are influenced by magnetic fields. It has also been observed that candle flames are pressed down by magnetic fields of higher intensities when flames are exposed to gradient magnetic fields in a range 20-200 T/m under 0.5-1.4 T. Apart from the combustion experiments, flows of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon gases were exposed to magnetic fields up to 2.2 T and 300 T/m. The flows of these gases were blocked or disturbed by the magnetic fields. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the mechanisms for the phenomena observed in the experiments of magnetic effects on combustion and gas flow. An electromagnet with a pair of columnar magnetic poles of which inner sidepieces were hollowed out was used. The magnetic fields of 1.5 T at the brim gave a gradient of 50-100 T/m in the direction perpendicular to the pole axis when the distance of the airgap was in a range 5-10 mm. A candle was burned in the hollowed space between magnetic poles, and candle flames were exposed to magnetic fields. The flames were quenched in a few seconds after the onset of field exposures. Oxygen gas as a paramagnetic molecule can be attracted to the magnetic fields of higher intensities. However, under the intensities of magnetic fields concerned, oxygen gases are not concentrated but are aligned so as to make a ``wall of oxygen'' or an ``air curtain.'' The air curtain, which is also called the ``magnetic curtain,'' blocks air flow into and out of the hollowed space. The interception of oxygen by magnetic curtain quenches flames. The magnetic curtain also presses back flames and other gases.

  20. Oxygen Quenching of Luminescence of Pressure Sensitive Paint for Wind Tunnel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouterman, Martin

    1997-06-01

    A technique for measuring the lift on airfoils in wind tunnels has been developed based on oxygen quenching of luminescence. A luminophor that is quenched by oxygen is dissolved in a paint containing polymer that is oxygen permeable and a volatile solvent. The paint is sprayed to form a coating on the airfoil surface. The intensity of photo excited emission depends on the effective oxygen pressure over the surface. During airflow this is reduced and the emission gets brighter. The ratio of a CCD camera image of the emission intensity taken in still air to that taken during airflow provides a map of the pressure on the airfoil surface. This is given by the Stern-Volmer equation: Io(x,y)/I(x,y) = A + B(pxy/po) where Io(x,y) is the intensity measured at point x,y in still air at pressure po, I(x,y) is the intensity at the same point during airflow, pxy is the pressure at that point during airflow, and A and B are calibration constants. The luminophor of choice was a platinum porphyrin that is excited in the near uv and emits a phosphorescence at 650 nm. The most serious problem with the method is that the emission intensity is also temperature dependent.

  1. Cooperativity and Site-Selectivity of Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds on the Fluorescence Quenching of Modified GFP Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Deng-Hsiang; Ou, Chun-Lin; Hsu, Hung-Yu; Huang, Guan-Jhih; Kao, Chen-Yi; Liu, Yi-Hung; Peng, Shie-Ming; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Yang, Jye-Shane

    2015-12-18

    This paper provides the first example of experimentally characterized hydrogen-bond cooperativity on fluorescence quenching with a modified green fluorescence protein (GFP) chromophore that contains a 6-membered C═N···H-O and a 7-membered C═O···H-O intramolecular H-bonds. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR and electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies were used to elucidate the preference of intra- vs intermolecular H-bonding at different concentrations (1 mM and 10 μM), and X-ray crystal structures provide clues of possible intermolecular H-bonding modes. In the ground state, the 6-membered H-bond is significant but the 7-membered one is rather weak. However, fluorescence quenching is dominated by the 7-membered H-bond, indicating a strengthening of the H-bond in the excited state. The H-bonding effect is more pronounced in more polar solvents, and no intermediates were observed from femtosecond fluorescence decays. The fluorescence quenching is attributed to the occurrence of diabatic excited-state proton transfer. Cooperativity of the two intramolecular H-bonds on spectral shifts and fluorescence quenching is evidenced by comparing with both the single H-bonded and the non-H-bonded counterparts. The H-bond cooperativity does not belong to the conventional patterns of σ- and π-cooperativity but a new type of polarization interactions, which demonstrates the significant interplay of H-bonds for multiple H-bonding systems in the electronically excited states. PMID:26583964

  2. Chiral and continuum extrapolation of partially quenched lattice results

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Allton; W. Armour; D.B. Leinweber; A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young

    2005-04-01

    The vector meson mass is extracted from a large sample of partially quenched, two-flavor lattice QCD simulations. For the first time, discretization, finite-volume and partial quenching artifacts are treated in a unified chiral effective field theory analysis of the lattice simulation results.

  3. Electrical and Quench Performance of the First MICE Coupling Coil

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tartaglia, M. A.; Carcagno, R.; Makulski, A.; Nogiec, Jerzy; Orris, D.; Pilipenko, R.; Sylvester, C.; Caspi, S.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; et al

    2014-11-10

    The first MICE Coupling Coil has been tested in a conduction-cooled environment in the new Solenoid Test Facility at Fermilab. We present an overview of the power and quench protection scheme, and report on the electrical and quench performance results obtained during cold power tests of the magnet.

  4. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace, which will fly in the Materials Science Research Facility. The QMI provides high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. This paper will describe the capabilities and present of on-going analysis and development testing.

  5. Universal scaling in fast quantum quenches in conformal field theories.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumit R; Galante, Damián A; Myers, Robert C

    2014-05-01

    We study the time evolution of a conformal field theory deformed by a relevant operator under a smooth but fast quantum quench which brings it to the conformal point. We argue that when the quench time scale δt is small compared to the scale set by the relevant coupling, the expectation value of the quenched operator scales universally as δλ/δt(2Δ-d), where δλ is the quench amplitude. This growth is further enhanced by a logarithmic factor in even dimensions. We present explicit results for free scalar and fermionic field theories, supported by an analytic understanding of the leading contribution for fast quenches. Our results suggest that this scaling result, first found in holography, is in fact quite general. Our considerations also show that this limit of fast smooth quenches is quite different from an instantaneous quench from one time-independent Hamiltonian to another, where the state at the time of the quench serves as an initial condition for subsequent evolution with the final Hamiltonian.

  6. 25. Wood quench tower, chemical tank on right, hot gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Wood quench tower, chemical tank on right, hot gas pipes between coke ovens and compressor building XX), coal conveyor to pulverizer building on right, water tank to left of quench tower. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  7. Short initial length quench on CICC of ITER TF coils

    SciTech Connect

    Nicollet, S.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Lacroix, B.; Bessette, D.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Gauthier, F.

    2014-01-29

    Previous quench studies performed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field (TF) Coils have led to identify two extreme families of quench: first 'severe' quenches over long initial lengths in high magnetic field, and second smooth quenches over short initial lengths in low field region. Detailed analyses and results on smooth quench propagation and detectability on one TF Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) with a lower propagation velocity are presented here. The influence of the initial quench energy is shown and results of computations with either a Fast Discharge (FD) of the magnet or without (failure of the voltage quench detection system) are reported. The influence of the central spiral of the conductor on the propagation velocity is also detailed. In the cases of a regularly triggered FD, the hot spot temperature criterion of 150 K (with helium and jacket) is fulfilled for an initial quench length of 1 m, whereas this criterion is exceed (Tmax ≈ 200 K) for an extremely short length of 5 cm. These analyses were carried out using both the Supermagnet(trade mark, serif) and Venecia codes and the comparisons of the results are also discussed.

  8. Acoustically excited heated jets. 1: Internal excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Ahuja, K. K.; Brown, W. H.; Salikuddin, M.; Morris, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of relatively strong upstream acoustic excitation on the mixing of heated jets with the surrounding air are investigated. To determine the extent of the available information on experiments and theories dealing with acoustically excited heated jets, an extensive literature survey was carried out. The experimental program consisted of flow visualization and flowfield velocity and temperature measurements for a broad range of jet operating and flow excitation conditions. A 50.8-mm-diam nozzle was used for this purpose. Parallel to the experimental study, an existing theoretical model of excited jets was refined to include the region downstream of the jet potential core. Excellent agreement was found between theory and experiment in moderately heated jets. However, the theory has not yet been confirmed for highly heated jets. It was found that the sensitivity of heated jets to upstream acoustic excitation varies strongly with the jet operating conditions and that the threshold excitation level increases with increasing jet temperature. Furthermore, the preferential Strouhal number is found not to change significantly with a change of the jet operating conditions. Finally, the effects of the nozzle exit boundary layer thickness appear to be similar for both heated and unheated jets at low Mach numbers.

  9. Studies of the quenching phenomenon in delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; Allenby, C F

    1991-09-01

    Studies in guinea pig and man have shown that eugenol can quench non-specifically contact urticarial responses, whereas limonene seems largely ineffective. In a comprehensive series of studies, there was little evidence of quenching of delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions to cinnamic aldehyde or citral, including in 'pre-quenched' material supplied by a perfume/flavour company, and in a similar mixture prepared in this laboratory, in the guinea pig model. In addition, there was no evidence of the quenching by eugenol of allergic reactions to cinnamic aldehyde in a panel of human subjects with a proven history of cinnamic-aldehyde-induced allergic contact dermatitis. Overall, the results lend little credibility to earlier literature reports of quenching phenomena in delayed contact hypersensitivity responses.

  10. Chiral Loops and Ghost States in the Quenched Scalar Propagator

    SciTech Connect

    W. Bardeen; A. Duncan; E. Eichten; N. Isgur; H. Thacker

    2001-06-01

    The scalar, isovector meson propagator is analyzed in quenched QCD, using the MQA pole-shifting ansatz to study the chiral limit. In addition to the expected short-range exponential falloff characteristic of a heavy scalar meson, the propagator also exhibits a longer-range, negative metric contribution which becomes pronounced for smaller quark masses. We show that this is a quenched chiral loop effect associated with the anomalous structure of the eta' propagator in quenched QCD. Both the time dependence and the quark mass dependence of this effect are well-described by a chiral loop diagram corresponding to an eta'-pi intermediate state, which is light and effectively of negative norm in the quenched approximation. The relevant parameters of the effective Lagrangian describing the scalar sector of the quenched theory are determined.

  11. Fluorescence quenching of protonated β-carbolines in water and microemulsions: evidence for heavy-atom and electron-transfer mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Souad A; Douglas, Peter; Burrows, Hugh D; Fonseca, Sofia M

    2013-09-01

    The fluorescence quenching of protonated β-carbolines has been investigated in acidic aqueous solutions and in w/o microemulsions using I(-), Br(-), Cu(2+), SCN(-), and Pb(2+) as quenchers. It was found that fluorescence quenching by these compounds is much more efficient in water than in microemulsions since quenching in microemulsions depends on the simultaneous occupancy of the water droplets by both fluorophore and quencher. Linear Stern-Volmer plots were obtained in all cases, leading to quenching rate constants of ca. 10(8)-10(10) M(-1) s(-1) in water and ca. 10(7)-10(8) M(-1) s(-1) in microemulsions. In the case of quenching by SCN(-), ns flash photolysis studies indicate formation of (SCN)2(˙-) showing that at least part of the quenching process involves an electron transfer mechanism. This indicates that the singlet excited states of the protonated β-carbolines can act as relatively strong oxidants (E° > 1.6 V), capable of oxidizing many species, including the biologically relevant DNA base guanine. The observation of the (SCN)2(˙-) transient in microemulsions demonstrates that it is possible to have the protonated β-carboline and at least two thiocyanate ions in the same water pool.

  12. Plexciton quenching by resonant electron transfer from quantum emitter to metallic nanoantenna.

    PubMed

    Marinica, D C; Lourenço-Martins, H; Aizpurua, J; Borisov, A G

    2013-01-01

    Coupling molecular excitons and localized surface plasmons in hybrid nanostructures leads to appealing, tunable optical properties. In this respect, the knowledge about the excitation dynamics of a quantum emitter close to a plasmonic nanoantenna is of importance from fundamental and practical points of view. We address here the effect of the excited electron tunneling from the emitter into a metallic nanoparticle(s) in the optical response. When close to a plasmonic nanoparticle, the excited state localized on a quantum emitter becomes short-lived because of the electronic coupling with metal conduction band states. We show that as a consequence, the characteristic features associated with the quantum emitter disappear from the optical absorption spectrum. Thus, for the hybrid nanostructure studied here and comprising quantum emitter in the narrow gap of a plasmonic dimer nanoantenna, the quantum tunneling might quench the plexcitonic states. Under certain conditions the optical response of the system approaches that of the individual plasmonic dimer. Excitation decay via resonant electron transfer can play an important role in many situations of interest such as in surface-enhanced spectroscopies, photovoltaics, catalysis, or quantum information, among others. PMID:24206447

  13. Emergent ``super-solitons'' following an interaction strength quantum quench across a Luttinger liquid-Mott insulating phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Matthew; Yuzbashyan, Emil

    2010-03-01

    Rapid progress in cold atom experiments has motivated the study of non-equilibrium many-body dynamics following a sudden deformation of the system Hamiltonian (a ``quantum quench''). Here, we consider the dynamics of localized excitations produced via a quench across a quantum phase boundary separating critical Luttinger liquid and gapped Mott insulating states. Our initial liquid ground state is labeled by a Luttinger interaction parameter K, and subject to a density-inhomogeneity forming external potential. For the Mott insulator, we employ the quantum Sine Gordon model at the Luther-Emery (LE) point. We find that over a wide range of initial K values, the quench induces the production of relativistic, non-dispersive traveling density waves, which we dub ``super-solitons.'' The super-solitons are generated from generic antecedent localized density lumps, and appear to be a robust feature of the post-quench dynamics. An isolated exception occurs for the case of K = KLE; here, the density dynamics are generically dispersive, and depend sensitively upon the shape of the initial inhomogeneity. We show that the super-solitons do not interact, and we demonstrate that an inhomogeneous Luttinger parameter K can be used to produce super-solitons with different characteristics in the same system.

  14. Synthetic control of excited states. Nonchromophoric ligand variations in polypyridyl complexes of osmium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, E.M.; Marshall, J.L.; Dressick, W.J.; Sullivan, B.P.; Caspar, J.V.; Meyer, T.J.

    1985-08-28

    Two themes are explored with regard to the properties of the metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited states of Os(II). For a series of Os(II) complexes it is shown that the MLCT excited states undergo facile oxidative or reductive quenching. Excited-state redox potentials have been estimated by both kinetic quenching and spectroscopic techniques for excited-state oxidative couples and excited-state reductive couples. The second theme, the manipulation of excited-state properties by synthetic changes, follows from a consideration of these factors that dictate excited-state redox potentials. It is shown that in the series (phen)OsL/sub 4//sup 2 +/ (L = pyridine, CH/sub 3/CN, PR/sub 3/, AsR/sub 3/, ... and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) where the metal-ligand basis for the MLCT chromophore remains the same and variations are made in the nonchromophoric ligand, emission energies, excited-state redox potentials, and radiative and nonradiative rate constants all vary systematically with the potential of the ground-state Os(III/II) couple. The results show that it is possible through synthetic changes to control excited-state properties in a systematical way. 37 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  15. 40 CFR 1065.370 - CLD CO2 and H2O quench verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analyzer uses quench compensation algorithms that utilize H2O and/or CO2 measurement instruments, evaluate quench with these instruments active and evaluate quench with the compensation algorithms applied....

  16. 40 CFR 1065.370 - CLD CO2 and H2O quench verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analyzer uses quench compensation algorithms that utilize H2O and/or CO2 measurement instruments, evaluate quench with these instruments active and evaluate quench with the compensation algorithms applied....

  17. 40 CFR 1065.370 - CLD CO2 and H2O quench verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... analyzer uses quench compensation algorithms that utilize H2O and/or CO2 measurement instruments, evaluate quench with these instruments active and evaluate quench with the compensation algorithms applied....

  18. Quench Protection and Magnet Supply Requirements for the MICEFocusingand Coupling Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Witte, Holger

    2005-06-08

    This report discusses the quench protection and power supply requirements of the MICE superconducting magnets. A section of the report discusses the quench process and how to calculate the peak voltages and hotspot temperature that result from a magnet quench. A section of the report discusses conventional quench protection methods. Thermal quench back from the magnet mandrel is also discussed. Selected quench protection methods that result in safe quenching of the MICE focusing and coupling magnets are discussed. The coupling of the MICE magnets with the other magnets in the MICE is described. The consequences of this coupling on magnet charging and quenching are discussed. Calculations of the quenching of a magnet due quench back from circulating currents induced in the magnet mandrel due to quenching of an adjacent magnet are discussed. The conclusion of this report describes how the MICE magnet channel will react when one or magnets in that channel are quenched.

  19. Quorum Quenching Agents: Resources for Antivirulence Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaihao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a concern to human health and highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Quorum sensing (QS) regulates virulence in many bacterial pathogens, and thus, is a promising target for antivirulence therapy which may inhibit virulence instead of cell growth and division. This means that there is little selective pressure for the evolution of resistance. Many natural quorum quenching (QQ) agents have been identified. Moreover, it has been shown that many microorganisms are capable of producing small molecular QS inhibitors and/or macromolecular QQ enzymes, which could be regarded as a strategy for bacteria to gain benefits in competitive environments. More than 30 species of marine QQ bacteria have been identified thus far, but only a few of them have been intensively studied. Recent studies indicate that an enormous number of QQ microorganisms are undiscovered in the highly diverse marine environments, and these marine microorganism-derived QQ agents may be valuable resources for antivirulence therapy. PMID:24886865

  20. Quorum quenching agents: resources for antivirulence therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kaihao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a concern to human health and highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Quorum sensing (QS) regulates virulence in many bacterial pathogens, and thus, is a promising target for antivirulence therapy which may inhibit virulence instead of cell growth and division. This means that there is little selective pressure for the evolution of resistance. Many natural quorum quenching (QQ) agents have been identified. Moreover, it has been shown that many microorganisms are capable of producing small molecular QS inhibitors and/or macromolecular QQ enzymes, which could be regarded as a strategy for bacteria to gain benefits in competitive environments. More than 30 species of marine QQ bacteria have been identified thus far, but only a few of them have been intensively studied. Recent studies indicate that an enormous number of QQ microorganisms are undiscovered in the highly diverse marine environments, and these marine microorganism-derived QQ agents may be valuable resources for antivirulence therapy.

  1. TPP and singlet oxygen quenching by carotene in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Svoboda, Antonín; Hála, Jan

    2011-05-01

    Antioxidant properties of naturally occurring species, β-carotene, are investigated by examining its ability to quench singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) and triplet states of photosensitizer 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-porphin (TPP) in tetrahydrofuran solutions. Concentrations of all species are biologically relevant. The quenching is evaluated using direct spectral- and temporal-resolved detection of weak near-infrared phosphorescence of both triplet TPP ( 3TPP) and 1O 2. Dependencies of lifetimes of 3TPP and 1O 2 on concentration of β-carotene were established as well as quenching rate constants for β-carotene. Hypothesis of multi-component 3TPP is proposed and investigated. Quenching constant of (10.9 ± 0.5) × 10 9 M -1 s -1 for bimolecular quenching of 1O 2 by β-carotene and quenching constant of (8 ± 3) × 10 9 M -1 s -1 for bimolecular quenching of 3TPP longer lived component were determined.

  2. Excited states in DNA strands investigated by ultrafast laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinquan; Zhang, Yuyuan; Kohler, Bern

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser experiments on carefully selected DNA model compounds probe the effects of base stacking, base pairing, and structural disorder on excited electronic states formed by UV absorption in single and double DNA strands. Direct π-orbital overlap between two stacked bases in a dinucleotide or in a longer single strand creates new excited states that decay orders of magnitude more slowly than the generally subpicosecond excited states of monomeric bases. Half or more of all excited states in single strands decay in this manner. Ultrafast mid-IR transient absorption experiments reveal that the long-lived excited states in a number of model compounds are charge transfer states formed by interbase electron transfer, which subsequently decay by charge recombination. The lifetimes of the charge transfer states are surprisingly independent of how the stacked bases are oriented, but disruption of π-stacking, either by elevating temperature or by adding a denaturing co-solvent, completely eliminates this decay channel. Time-resolved emission measurements support the conclusion that these states are populated very rapidly from initial excitons. These experiments also reveal the existence of populations of emissive excited states that decay on the nanosecond time scale. The quantum yield of these states is very small for UVB/UVC excitation, but increases at UVA wavelengths. In double strands, hydrogen bonding between bases perturbs, but does not quench, the long-lived excited states. Kinetic isotope effects on the excited-state dynamics suggest that intrastrand electron transfer may couple to interstrand proton transfer. By revealing how structure and non-covalent interactions affect excited-state dynamics, on-going experimental and theoretical studies of excited states in DNA strands can advance understanding of fundamental photophysics in other nanoscale systems.

  3. Prediction of quench and rewet temperatures. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerson, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Many postulated nuclear reactor accidents result in high-temperature dryout or film boiling within the nuclear core. In order to mitigate potential fuel rod damage or rod failure, safe or lower fuel rod temperatures must be reestablished by promoting coolant/cladding contact. This process is commonly referred to as quenching or rewetting, and often, these terms are not differentiated. All theoretical predictions of the cooling process by various models based on single or multidimensional analytical and numerical studies require a knowledge of either the quenching or the rewetting temperature. The purpose of this paper is to define quench and rewet temperatures and present a method whereby each may be estimated.

  4. Photon Antibunching in Complex Intermolecular Fluorescence Quenching Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arjun; Enderlein, Jörg; Kumbhakar, Manoj

    2016-08-18

    We present a novel fluorescence spectroscopic method, which combines fluorescence antibunching, time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC), and steady-state emission spectroscopy, to study chemical reactions at the single molecule level. We exemplify our method on investigating intermolecular fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine110 by aniline. We demonstrate that the combination of measurements of fluorescence antibunching, fluorescence lifetime, and fluorescence steady state intensity, captures the full picture of the complex quenching kinetics, which involves static and dynamics quenching, and which cannot be seen by steady-state or lifetime measurements alone. PMID:27468007

  5. Quantum quench in an atomic one-dimensional Ising chain.

    PubMed

    Meinert, F; Mark, M J; Kirilov, E; Lauber, K; Weinmann, P; Daley, A J; Nägerl, H-C

    2013-08-01

    We study nonequilibrium dynamics for an ensemble of tilted one-dimensional atomic Bose-Hubbard chains after a sudden quench to the vicinity of the transition point of the Ising paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition. The quench results in coherent oscillations for the orientation of effective Ising spins, detected via oscillations in the number of doubly occupied lattice sites. We characterize the quench by varying the system parameters. We report significant modification of the tunneling rate induced by interactions and show clear evidence for collective effects in the oscillatory response. PMID:23952393

  6. Rotational quenching of CS in ultracold 3He collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajwant; Dhilip Kumar, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum mechanical scattering calculations of rotational quenching of CS (v = 0) collision with 3He are performed at ultracold temperatures and results are compared with isotopic 4He collision. Rotational quenching cross sections and rate coefficients have been calculated in the ultracold region for rotational levels up to j = 10 using the He-CS potential energy surface computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory. The quenching cross sections are found to be two orders of magnitude larger for the 3He than the 4He isotope under ultracold conditions. Wigner threshold law is found to be valid below 10-3 K temperature.

  7. Three dimensional FEM quench simulations of superconducting strands

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Ryuji; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    The detailed phenomena in quench starting of Nb{sub 3}Sn strands are simulated in 3-D and in time using ANSYS and FEMLAB programs. The current sharing between the superconductor and copper stabilizer in strands at the beginning of a quench was studied and displayed in time. The differences in copper configuration and RRR value of copper were found to have large effect to the stability and quench propagation velocity. The MPZ theory was found to be effective for 3D multifilament situation.

  8. Quench of non-Markovian coherence in the deep sub-Ohmic spin–boson model: A unitary equilibration scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Yao

    2015-09-15

    The deep sub-Ohmic spin–boson model shows a longstanding non-Markovian coherence at low temperature. Motivating to quench this robust coherence, the thermal effect is unitarily incorporated into the time evolution of the model, which is calculated by the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group algorithm combined with the orthogonal polynomials theory. Via introducing a unitary heating operator to the bosonic bath, the bath is heated up so that a majority portion of the bosonic excited states is occupied. It is found in this situation the coherence of the spin is quickly quenched even in the coherent regime, in which the non-Markovian feature dominates. With this finding we come up with a novel way to implement the unitary equilibration, the essential term of the eigenstate-thermalization hypothesis, through a short-time evolution of the model.

  9. Carbonated aqueous media for quench heat treatment of steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, U. Vignesh; Rao, K. M. Pranesh; Pai, M. Ashwin; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2016-09-01

    Distilled water and polyalkylene glycol (PAG)-based aqueous quenchants of 5 and 10 vol.% with and without carbonation were prepared and used as heat transfer media during immersion quenching. Cooling curves were recorded during quenching of an inconel 600 cylindrical probe instrumented with multiple thermocouples. It was observed that the vapor stage duration was prolonged and the wetting front ascended uniformly for quenching with carbonated media. The cooling data were analyzed by determining the critical cooling parameters and by estimating the spatially dependent probe/quenchant interfacial heat flux transients. The study showed significantly reduced values of heat transfer rate for carbonated quenchants compared to quenchants without carbonation. Further, the reduction was more pronounced in the case of PAG-based carbonated quenchants than carbonated distilled water. The results also showed the dependence of heat transfer characteristics of the carbonated media on polymer concentration. The effect of quench uniformity on the microstructure of the material was assessed.

  10. Response of fermions in Chern bands to spatially local quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grushin, Adolfo G.; Roy, Sthitadhi; Haque, Masudul

    2016-08-01

    We study the dynamical evolution of Chern-band systems after subjecting them to local quenches. For open-boundary systems, we show for half-filling that the chiral nature of edge states is manifested in the time-dependent chiral response to local density quenches on the edge. In the presence of power-law traps, we show how to mimic the half-filling situation by choosing the appropriate number of fermions depending on the trap size, and explore chiral responses of edges to local quenches in such a configuration. We find that perturbations resulting from the quenches propagate at smaller group velocities as the gap controlling the spatial extent of the edge modes decreases. Our results provide different routes to check dynamically the non-trivial nature of Chern bands.

  11. Carbonated aqueous media for quench heat treatment of steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, U. Vignesh; Rao, K. M. Pranesh; Pai, M. Ashwin; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2016-07-01

    Distilled water and polyalkylene glycol (PAG)-based aqueous quenchants of 5 and 10 vol.% with and without carbonation were prepared and used as heat transfer media during immersion quenching. Cooling curves were recorded during quenching of an inconel 600 cylindrical probe instrumented with multiple thermocouples. It was observed that the vapor stage duration was prolonged and the wetting front ascended uniformly for quenching with carbonated media. The cooling data were analyzed by determining the critical cooling parameters and by estimating the spatially dependent probe/quenchant interfacial heat flux transients. The study showed significantly reduced values of heat transfer rate for carbonated quenchants compared to quenchants without carbonation. Further, the reduction was more pronounced in the case of PAG-based carbonated quenchants than carbonated distilled water. The results also showed the dependence of heat transfer characteristics of the carbonated media on polymer concentration. The effect of quench uniformity on the microstructure of the material was assessed.

  12. Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xi Tao; Hua Ni, Zhen Yan Nan, Hai; Hui Wang, Wen; Yan Liao, Chun; Zhang, Yan; Wei Zhao, Wei

    2013-11-11

    We studied systematically the fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on graphene and its multilayers, as well as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Raman intensity of QDs was used as a quantitatively measurement of its concentration in order to achieve a reliable quenching factor (QF). It was found that the QF of graphene (∼13.1) and its multilayers is much larger than rGO (∼4.4), while GO (∼1.5) has the lowest quenching efficiency, which suggests that the graphitic structure is an important factor for quenching the fluorescence of QDs. It was also revealed that the QF of graphene is not strongly dependent on its thicknesses.

  13. 8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Spontaneous quenches of a high temperature superconducting pancake coil

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Aized, D.; Campbell, J.M.; Schwall, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    A double-pancake coil made of Bi-2223/Ag high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape was constructed with an embedded heater and graded conductors to study the stability and quench propagation in HTS coils. The experiments were performed with liquid nitrogen and gaseous helium cooling in temperatures ranging from 5 to 77 K. The coil was very stable, and no ``normal`` zone was sustained or propagated with local pulsed heating. However, spontaneous quenches of the cod were experienced. This was found to be the result of having the coil current higher than that of the lower I{sub c} sections of the coil for a long time. This quench process took minutes to develop--much longer than would be expected in a low temperature superconducting coil. The quench behaved more like a spreading and continuous heating of an increasingly larger partially resistive section of the coil than like a sequential ``normal`` front propagation.

  15. Plasma quench production of titanium from titanium tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    This project, Plasma Quench Production of Titanium from Titanium Tetrachloride, centers on developing a technique for rapidly quenching the high temperature metal species and preventing back reactions with the halide. The quenching technique chosen uses the temperature drop produced in a converging/diverging supersonic nozzle. The rapid quench provided by this nozzle prevents the back reaction of the halide and metal. The nature of the process produces nanosized particles (10 to 100 nm). The powders are collected by cyclone separators, the hydrogen flared, and the acid scrubbed. Aluminum and titanium powders have been produced in the laboratory-scale device at 1 gram per hour. Efforts to date to scale up this process have not been successful.

  16. Simulating Zeno physics by a quantum quench with superconducting circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Qing-Jun; An, Jun-Hong; Kwek, L. C.; Luo, Hong-Gang; Oh, C. H.

    2014-06-01

    Studying out-of-equilibrium physics in quantum systems under quantum quench is of vast experimental and theoretical interest. Using periodic quantum quenches, we present an experimentally accessible scheme to simulate the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in an open quantum system of a single superconducting qubit interacting with an array of transmission line resonators. The scheme is based on the following two observations: First, compared with conventional systems, the short-time nonexponential decay in our superconducting circuit system is readily observed; and second, a quench-off process mimics an ideal projective measurement when its time duration is sufficiently long. Our results show the active role of quantum quench in quantum simulation and control.

  17. Organic synthesis by quench reactions. [in prebiotic simulation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, W. K.; Hochstim, A. R.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1975-01-01

    Study of the effects of chemical quench reactions on the formation of organic compounds at a water surface under simulated primordial earth conditions. A mixture of gaseous methane and ammonia over a water surface was exposed to an arc discharge between an electrode and the water surface, generating reactive species. Various organic molecules were formed by a subsequent quenching of these species generated on the water surface. The effects of these water-surface quench reactions were assessed by comparing the amounts of synthesized molecules to the amounts which formed during the discharge of an arc above the water level. It is concluded that the quench (or wet) discharge led to faster rates of reactions, higher-molecular-weight organic compounds, and one-order-of-magnitude larger yields than the dry discharge.

  18. Theoretical Studies on the Reaction Pathways of Electronically Excited Daaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenneville, J.; Moore, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    The use of temporally and spectrally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to initiate, as well as detect, high explosives is being explored at Los Alamos. High level ab initio calculations, presented here, are employed to help guide and interpret the experiments. The ground and first excited electronic states of 3, 3'-diamino-4, 4'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) are investigated using complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The geometrical and energetic character of the excited state minima, conical intersections and reaction pathways of DAAF are described. Two radiative and two non-radiative excited state population quenching mechanisms are outlined, and possible pathways for photochemical and spectroscopic control are discussed.

  19. Distance Mapping in Proteins Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Tyrosine, like Tryptophan, Quenches Bimane Fluorescence in a Distance-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophan-induced quenching of fluorophores (TrIQ) uses intramolecular fluorescence quenching to assess distances in proteins too small (<15 Å) to be easily probed by traditional Forster resonance energy transfer methods. A powerful aspect of TrIQ is its ability to obtain an ultrafast snapshot of a protein conformation, by identifying “static quenching” (contact between the Trp and probe at the moment of light excitation). Here we report new advances in this site-directed fluorescence labeling (SDFL) approach, gleaned from recent studies of T4 lysozyme (T4L). First, we show that like TrIQ, tyrosine-induced quenching (TyrIQ) occurs for the fluorophore bimane in a distance-dependent fashion, although with some key differences. The Tyr “sphere of quenching” for bimane (≤10 Å) is smaller than for Trp (≤15 Å, Cα–Cα distance), and the size difference between the quenching residue (Tyr) and control (Phe) differs by only a hydroxyl group. Second, we show how TrIQ and TyrIQ can be used together to assess the magnitude and energetics of a protein movement. In these studies, we placed a bimane (probe) and Trp or Tyr (quencher) on opposite ends of a “hinge” in T4L and conducted TrIQ and TyrIQ measurements. Our results are consistent with an ∼5 Å change in Cα–Cα distances between these sites upon substrate binding, in agreement with the crystal structures. Subsequent Arrhenius analysis suggests the activation energy barrier (Ea) to this movement is relatively low (∼1.5–2.5 kcal/mol). Together, these results demonstrate that TyrIQ, used together with TrIQ, significantly expands the power of quenching-based distance mapping SDFL studies. PMID:25144569

  20. Quenching histories of galaxies and the role of AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, Rebecca Jane; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2016-01-01

    Two open issues in modern astrophysics are: (i) how do galaxies fully quench their star formation and (ii) how is this affected - or not - by AGN feedback? I present the results of a new Bayesian-MCMC analysis of the star formation histories of over 126,000 galaxies across the colour magnitude diagram showing that diverse quenching mechanisms are instrumental in the formation of the present day red sequence. Using classifications from Galaxy Zoo we show that the rate at which quenching can occur is morphologically dependent in each of the blue cloud, green valley and red sequence. We discuss the nature of these possible quenching mechanisms, considering the influence of secular evolution, galaxy interactions and mergers, both with and without black hole activity. We focus particularly on the relationship between these quenched star formation histories and the presence of an AGN by using this new Bayesian method to show a population of type 2 AGN host galaxies have recently (within 2 Gyr) undergone a rapid (τ < 1 Gyr) drop in their star formation rate. With this result we therefore present the first statistically supported observational evidence that AGN feedback is an important mechanism for the cessation of star formation in this population of galaxies. The diversity of this new method also highlights that such rapid quenching histories cannot account fully for all the quenching across the current AGN host population. We demonstrate that slower (τ > 2 Gyr) quenching rates dominate for high stellar mass (log10[M*/M⊙] > 10.75) hosts of AGN with both early- and late-type morphology. We discuss how these results show that both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes across the entirety of the colour magnitude diagram.

  1. Problems with the quenched approximation in the chiral limit

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the quenched approximation, loops of the light singlet meson (the [eta][prime]) give rise to a type of chiral logarithm absent in full QCD. These logarithms are singular in the chiral limit, throwing doubt upon the utility of the quenched approximation. In previous work, I summed a class of diagrams, leading to non-analytic power dependencies such as [l angle][anti [psi

  2. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-) filled proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Agrawal, P. C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. Results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases are presented.

  3. Satellite Quenching and the Lifecycle of Dwarf Galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Colin; Bell, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    In the past ten years the known population of Local Group dwarf galaxies has expanded substantially, both to greater distances from the Milky Way and to lower dwarf masses. This growing sample allows us to study the dwarf system as a population, and ask if we can see in aggregate the signs of processes that would otherwise be difficult to trace in dwarfs individually. Following this strategy I will discuss how the quenching of dwarf galaxies can be modeled and understood at the population-level, and how we use that to constrain how possible quenching mechanisms must work if they are to reproduce the Local Group system that we see. I show that the distribution of quenched satellites can be reproduced by environmental quenching if and only if a single pericenter passage is sufficient to end star formation in low mass dwarfs. I also show that there is a significant transition in the effectiveness of quenching between low mass dwarfs and dwarfs at Magellanic cloud-like masses, with the higher mass dwarfs much more resilient to quenching. I present both ram pressure and delay time models to try to understand the origin of this transition.

  4. Quench Crack Behavior of Nickel-base Disk Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Kantzos, Pete; Miller, Jason

    2002-01-01

    There is a need to increase the temperature capability of superalloy turbine disks to allow higher operating temperatures in advanced aircraft engines. When modifying processing and chemistry of disk alloys to achieve this capability, it is important to preserve the ability to use rapid cooling during supersolvus heat treatments to achieve coarse grain, fine gamma prime microstructures. An important step in this effort is an understanding of the key variables controlling the cracking tendencies of nickel-base disk alloys during quenching from supersolvus heat treatments. The objective of this study was to investigate the quench cracking tendencies of several advanced disk superalloys during simulated heat treatments. Miniature disk specimens were rapidly quenched after solution heat treatments. The responses and failure modes were compared and related to the quench cracking tendencies of actual disk forgings. Cracking along grain boundaries was generally observed to be operative. For the alloys examined in this study, the solution temperature not alloy chemistry was found to be the primary factor controlling quench cracking. Alloys with high solvus temperatures show greater tendency for quench cracking.

  5. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  6. 8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER No. 2., AND GENERATOR UNITS BEHIND EXCITER No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. EXCITER No. 1 GENERATOR HAS A COVER OVER TOP HALF OF COMMUTATOR ELEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  7. Vibrational quenching of excitonic splittings in H-bonded molecular dimers: The electronic Davydov splittings cannot match experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel; Köppel, Horst

    2012-05-01

    The S1/S2 state exciton splittings of symmetric doubly hydrogen-bonded gas-phase dimers provide spectroscopic benchmarks for the excited-state electronic couplings between UV chromophores. These have important implications for electronic energy transfer in multichromophoric systems ranging from photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae to photosynthetic reaction centers, conjugated polymers, molecular crystals, and nucleic acids. We provide laser spectroscopic data on the S1/S2 excitonic splitting Δexp of the doubly H-bonded o-cyanophenol (oCP) dimer and compare to the splittings of the dimers of (2-aminopyridine)2, [(2AP)2], (2-pyridone)2, [(2PY)2], (benzoic acid)2, [(BZA)2], and (benzonitrile)2, [(BN)2]. The experimental S1/S2 excitonic splittings are Δexp = 16.4 cm-1 for (oCP)2, 11.5 cm-1 for (2AP)2, 43.5 cm-1 for (2PY)2, and <1 cm-1 for (BZA)2. In contrast, the vertical S1/S2 energy gaps Δcalc calculated by the approximate second-order coupled cluster (CC2) method for the same dimers are 10-40 times larger than the Δexp values. The qualitative failure of this and other ab initio methods to reproduce the exciton splitting Δexp arises from the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation, which implicitly assumes the strong-coupling case and cannot be employed to evaluate excitonic splittings of systems that are in the weak-coupling limit. Given typical H-bond distances and oscillator strengths, the majority of H-bonded dimers lie in the weak-coupling limit. In this case, the monomer electronic-vibrational coupling upon electronic excitation must be accounted for; the excitonic splittings arise between the vibronic (and not the electronic) transitions. The discrepancy between the BO-based splittings Δcalc and the much smaller experimental Δexp values is resolved by taking into account the quenching of the BO splitting by the intramolecular vibronic coupling in the monomer S1 ← S0 excitation. The vibrational quenching factors Γ for the five dimers (oCP)2, (2AP)2

  8. CO2 in the MLT: Constraining the CO2(υ2)-O Quenching Rate Coefficient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, E. C. M.; Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A.; Janches, D.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide plays an important role in the terrestrial atmosphere, with infrared emission in the 15 μm CO2 band (I15μm) providing the dominant cooling mechanism in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region via interaction with atomic O. This CO2(υ2)-O quenching rate coefficient is poorly understood and current estimates vary by a factor 3-4, with a significant discrepancy between laboratory measurements and those provided by satellite remote sensing. However, the true value of this rate coefficient is of vital importance in understanding both the energetics of the MLT region and for temperatures retrievals from measurements of I15μm. This work builds upon and extends an existing methodology developed by Feofilov et al. (2012) who used TIMED/SABER satellite instrument data to retrieve the CO2(υ2)-O quenching rate coefficient using a synergy of atmospheric and ground-based lidar temperature measurements. Using the SABER overflights of the Fort Collins (CO) lidar, these authors derived the altitude variation of the CO2(υ2)-O quenching rate. The latter demonstrated deficiency of the current non-LTE model of the 15 μm CO2 emission which obviously misses some so far unknown mechanisms of non-thermal excitation of the CO2(υ2) vibrations. Current work involves several other lidar locations and is aimed at assessing whether there is a spatio-temporal variability component to this rate coefficient, and what this could reveal about these additional energy sources and sinks in the real atmosphere that are currently not accounted for in the non-LTE model.

  9. Use of propane as a quench gas in argon-filled proportional counters and comparison with other quench gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. C.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of propane and six other quench gases was carried out in argon-filled proportional counters. The objective of the study was to find the best gas mixture for optimizing the gas gain and the energy resolution as well as to understand the role of the ionization potential of quench gases in determining these parameters. It was found that the best gas gains and energy resolutions are obtained with propane, ethane, and isobutane in that order. The ionization potentials of these three lie below the argon metastable potentials and have the lowest value of resonance defect compared to the other quench gases. The better results obtained with these mixtures can be explained by an increased ionization yield resulting from the Penning effect. Propylene and trans-2-butene give inferior performance compared to the above three gases. Methane and carbon dioxide, the most commonly used quench gases in the argon-filled detectors, provide the worst results.

  10. Interaction between encapsulated excited organic molecules and free nitroxides: communication across a molecular wall.

    PubMed

    Porel, Mintu; Jockusch, Steffen; Ottaviani, M Francesca; Turro, N J; Ramamurthy, V

    2011-09-01

    Communication between two molecules, one confined and excited (triplet or singlet) and one free and paramagnetic, has been explored through quenching of fluorescence and/or phosphorescence by nitroxides as paramagnetic radical species. Quenching of excited states by nitroxides has been investigated in solution, and the mechanism is speculated to involve charge transfer and/or exchange processes, both of which require close orbital interaction between excited molecule and quencher. We show in this report that such a quenching, which involves electron-electron spin communication, can occur even when there is a molecular wall between the two. The excited state molecule is confined within an organic capsule made up of two molecules of a deep cavity cavitand, octa acid, that exists in the anionic form in basic aqueous solution. The nitroxide is kept free in aqueous solution. (1)H NMR and EPR experiments were carried out to ascertain the location of the two molecules. The distance between the excited molecule and the paramagnetic quencher was manipulated by the use of cationic, anionic, and neutral nitroxide and also by selectively including the cationic nitroxide within the cavity of cucurbituril. Results presented here highlight the role of the lifetime of the encounter complex in electron-electron spin communication when the direct orbital overlap between the two molecules is prevented by the intermediary wall. PMID:21749113

  11. Tryptophan octyl ester in detergent micelles of dodecylmaltoside: fluorescence properties and quenching by brominated detergent analogs.

    PubMed Central

    de Foresta, B; Gallay, J; Sopkova, J; Champeil, P; Vincent, M

    1999-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of tryptophan octyl ester (TOE), a hydrophobic model of Trp in proteins, were investigated in various mixed micelles of dodecylmaltoside (DM) and 7,8-dibromododecyl beta-maltoside (BrDM) or 10,11-dibromoundecanoyl beta-maltoside (BrUM). This study focuses on the mechanism via which these brominated detergents quench the fluorescence of TOE in a micellar system. The experiments were performed at a pH at which TOE is uncharged and almost completely bound to detergent micelles. TOE binding was monitored by its enhanced fluorescence in pure DM micelles or its quenched fluorescence in pure BrUM or BrDM micelles. In DM/BrUM and DM/BrDM mixed micelles, the fluorescence intensity of TOE decreased, as a nonlinear function of the molar fraction of brominated detergent, to almost zero in pure brominated detergent. The indole moiety of TOE is therefore highly accessible to the bromine atoms located on the detergent alkyl chain because quenching by bromines occurs by direct contact with the fluorophore. TOE is simultaneously poorly accessible to iodide (I(-)), a water-soluble collisional quencher. TOE time-resolved fluorescence intensity decay is heterogeneous in pure DM micelles, with four lifetimes (from 0.2 to 4.4 ns) at the maximum emission wavelength. Such heterogeneity may arise from dipolar relaxation processes in a motionally restricted medium, as suggested by the time-dependent (nanoseconds) red shift (11 nm) of the TOE emission spectrum, and from the existence of various TOE conformations. Time-resolved quenching experiments for TOE in mixed micelles showed that the excited-state lifetime values decreased only slightly with increases in the proportion of BrDM or BrUM. In contrast, the relative amplitude of the component with the longest lifetime decreased significantly relative to that of the short-lived species. This is consistent with a mainly static mechanism for the quenching of TOE by brominated detergents. Molecular modeling of TOE

  12. Investigation of polar and stereoelectronic effects on pure excited-state hydrogen atom abstractions from phenols and alkylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Pischel, Uwe; Patra, Digambara; Koner, Apurba L; Nau, Werner M

    2006-01-01

    The fluorescence quenching of singlet-excited 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) by 22 phenols and 12 alkylbenzenes has been investigated. Quenching rate constants in acetonitrile are in the range of 10(8)-10(9) M(-1)s(-1) for phenols and 10(5)-10(6) M(-1)s(-1) for alkylbenzenes. In contrast to the quenching of triplet-excited benzophenone, no exciplexes are involved, so that a pure hydrogen atom transfer is proposed as quenching mechanism. This is supported by (1) pronounced deuterium isotope effects (kH/kD ca 4-6), which were observed for phenols and alkylbenzenes, and (2) a strongly endergonic thermodynamics for charge transfer processes (electron transfer, exciplex formation). In the case of phenols, linear free energy relationships applied, which led to a reaction constant of rho = -0.40, suggesting a lower electrophilicity of singlet-excited DBO than that of triplet-excited ketones and alkoxyl radicals. The reactivity of singlet-excited DBO exposes statistical, steric, polar and stereoelectronic effects on the hydrogen atom abstraction process in the absence of complications because of competitive exciplex formation.

  13. Comparative study on fluorescence enhancement and quenching of europium and terbium chelate anions in cationic micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xinzhen; Hou, Jinguo; Deng, Hualin; Gao, Jinzhang; Kang, Jingwan

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence enhancement and quenching of water soluble chelates of terbium (Tb 3+) with Tiron, salicylic acid (SA), 4-sulfonyl salicylic acid (SSA) and acetylacetone (AA) and sparingly soluble chelates of europium (Eu 3+) with β-diketones were comparatively examined in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). By the composition of the complexes, surface tension measurements and spectral analysis, the binding mode of chelate anions to the micellar surface of cationic surfactants was discussed in terms of ion-exchange model. Quenching effect of CPC on the fluorescence of association complexes seems to arise from the charge transfer from a fluorescent ligand to pyridinium cation. In the case of the chelates of Eu 3+ with β-diketones, however, pyridinium ion is only capable of overlapping the aromatic ring of β-diketones to less extent since the poorly soluble charged chelates have a weak affinity for the highly polar surface of pyridinium cationic micelles. Efficient charge transfer between the excited aromatic β-diketone and pyridinium cation fails to be established. CPC also shows enhanced effect on fluorescence like CTMAB.

  14. Is the electron avalanche process in a martian dust devil self-quenching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; McLain, J. L.; Collier, M. R.; Keller, J. W.; Jackson, T. J.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-07-01

    Viking era laboratory experiments show that mixing tribocharged grains in a low pressure CO2 gas can form a discharge that glows, indicating the presence of an excited electron population that persists over many seconds. Based on these early experiments, it has been predicted that martian dust devils and storms may also contain a plasma and new plasma chemical species as a result of dust grain tribo-charging. However, recent results from modeling suggest a contrasting result: that a sustained electron discharge may not be easily established since the increase in gas conductivity would act to short-out the local E-fields and quickly dissipate the charged grains driving the process. In essence, the system was thought to be self-quenching (i.e., turn itself off). In this work, we attempt to reconcile the difference between observation and model via new laboratory measurements. We conclude that in a Mars-like low pressure CO2 atmosphere and expected E-fields, the electron current remains (for the most part) below the expected driving tribo-electric dust currents (∼10 μA/m2), thereby making quenching unlikely.

  15. Is the Electron Avalanche Process in a Martian Dust Devil Self-Quenching?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, William M.; McLain, Jason L.; Collier, M. R.; Keller, J. W.; Jackson, T. J.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Viking era laboratory experiments show that mixing tribocharged grains in a low pressure CO2 gas can form a discharge that glows, indicating the presence of an excited electron population that persists over many seconds. Based on these early experiments, it has been predicted that martian dust devils and storms may also contain a plasma and new plasma chemical species as a result of dust grain tribo-charging. However, recent results from modeling suggest a contrasting result: that a sustained electron discharge may not be easily established since the increase in gas conductivity would act to short-out the local E-fields and quickly dissipate the charged grains driving the process. In essence, the system was thought to be self-quenching (i.e., turn itself off). In this work, we attempt to reconcile the difference between observation and model via new laboratory measurements. We conclude that in a Mars-like low pressure CO2 atmosphere and expected E-fields, the electron current remains (for the most part) below the expected driving tribo-electric dust currents (approx. 10 microA/m(exp. 2)), thereby making quenching unlikely.

  16. 16. EXCITERS, AND SYNCHROSCOPE GAUGE ON WALL. ACTIVE ELECTRIC EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EXCITERS, AND SYNCHROSCOPE GAUGE ON WALL. ACTIVE ELECTRIC EXCITER AT REAR; UNUSED WATER-DRIVEN EXCITER IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Evidence for carrier localization in the pseudogap state of cuprate superconductors from coherent quench experiments

    PubMed Central

    Madan, I.; Kurosawa, T.; Toda, Y.; Oda, M.; Mertelj, T.; Mihailovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    A ‘pseudogap' was introduced by Mott to describe a state of matter that has a minimum in the density of states at the Fermi level, deep enough for states to become localized. It can arise either from Coulomb repulsion between electrons, and/or incipient charge or spin order. Here we employ ultrafast spectroscopy to study dynamical properties of the normal to pseudogap state transition in the prototype high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. We perform a systematic temperature and doping dependence study of the pseudogap photodestruction and recovery in coherent quench experiments, revealing marked absence of critical behaviour of the elementary excitations, which implies an absence of collective electronic ordering beyond a few coherence lengths on short timescales. The data imply ultrafast carrier localization into a textured polaronic state arising from a competing Coulomb interaction and lattice strain, enhanced by a Fermi surface instability. PMID:25891310

  18. Evidence for carrier localization in the pseudogap state of cuprate superconductors from coherent quench experiments.

    PubMed

    Madan, I; Kurosawa, T; Toda, Y; Oda, M; Mertelj, T; Mihailovic, D

    2015-01-01

    A 'pseudogap' was introduced by Mott to describe a state of matter that has a minimum in the density of states at the Fermi level, deep enough for states to become localized. It can arise either from Coulomb repulsion between electrons, and/or incipient charge or spin order. Here we employ ultrafast spectroscopy to study dynamical properties of the normal to pseudogap state transition in the prototype high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. We perform a systematic temperature and doping dependence study of the pseudogap photodestruction and recovery in coherent quench experiments, revealing marked absence of critical behaviour of the elementary excitations, which implies an absence of collective electronic ordering beyond a few coherence lengths on short timescales. The data imply ultrafast carrier localization into a textured polaronic state arising from a competing Coulomb interaction and lattice strain, enhanced by a Fermi surface instability. PMID:25891310

  19. 40 CFR 63.7295 - What requirements must I meet for quenching?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and... each quench tower and backup quench station at a new or existing coke oven battery. (1) For the quenching of hot coke, you must meet the requirements in paragraph (a)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section....

  20. Magnetic field effects on yields and decays of fluorescence of pyrimidine vapor: Excited rovibronic level dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Nobuhiro; Takemura, Takeshi; Fujita, Masahisa; Baba, Hiroaki

    1988-04-01

    External magnetic field effects on yields and decays of fluorescence of pyrimidine vapor on excitation into various rotational levels belonging to the vibrationless level or the 6a1 level of S1 have been studied in a supersonic jet or in a bulk gas at room temperature with a field strength of 0-150 G. The fast component of fluorescence is not affected by an external magnetic field, whereas the slow fluorescence is quenched by a field except for excitation at the R(0) line belonging to the 0-0 transition. The fluorescence quenching is more effective at the 6a1 level than that at 00, indicating that the level density of the triplet state coupled to the singlet state plays an important role in the magnetic mixing of the triplet spin sublevels, in terms of which the fluorescence quenching by a magnetic field is interpreted. The excited rotational level dependence of the fluorescence quenching by a magnetic field is attributed to K scrambling in the triplet manifold following intersystem crossing.

  1. Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel CouplingMagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Wang, L.; Guo, X.L.

    2007-11-20

    The MICE coupling coil is fabricated from Nb-Ti, which hashigh quench propagation velocities within the coil in all directionscompared to coils fabricated with other superconductors such as niobiumtin. The time for the MICE coupling coil to become fully normal throughnormal region propagation in the coil is shorter than the time needed fora safe quench (as defined by a hot-spot temperature that is less than 300K). A MICE coupling coil quench was simulated using a code written at theInstitute of Cryogenics and Superconductive Technology (ICST) at theHarbin Institute of Technology (HIT). This code simulates quench backfrom the mandrel as well as normal region propagation within the coil.The simulations included sub-division of the coil. Each sub-division hasa back to back diodes and resistor across the coil. Current flows in theresistor when there is enough voltage across the coil to cause current toflow through the diodes in the forward direction. The effects of thenumber of coil sub-divisions and the value of the resistor across thesub-division on the quench were calculated with and without quench back.Sub-division of the coupling coil reduces the peak voltage to ground, thelayer-to-layer voltage and the magnet hot-spot temperature. Quench backreduces the magnet hot-spot temperature, but the peak voltage to groundand layer-to-layer voltage are increased, because the magnet quenchesfaster. The resistance across the coil sub-division affects both thehot-spot temperature and the peak voltage to ground.

  2. Lifetimes and quenching of B 2Σ+ PO by atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Koon Ng; Anderson, William R.; Kotlar, Anthony J.; DeWilde, Mark A.; Decker, Leon J.

    1986-01-01

    Pulsed laser excited fluorescence in the B 2Σ+ ← X 2π system of gas phase PO was used to measure the lifetime for v'=0 of the B state. Rotationally resolved measurements for a few selected J' levels, at Ar or He carrier gas pressures of ˜2 Torr, reveal no dependence of the lifetime on the rotational level excited. Earlier measurements of relative fluorescence intensities in the v'=0 vibrational progression were reinterpreted to extract the dependence of the electronic transition moment on internuclear distance. Using this transition moment, no lifetime dependence on rotational level is to be expected, even at low pressures. Rate constants for quenching of the B state PO by N2, O2, CO2, and H2O, and upper limits thereof for He and Ar are reported. O2 was found to react with ground state PO. A crude measurement of the rate constant was performed. The result is compared to two other known measurements. The rate constant is in excellent agreement with the previous measurement, but in poor agreement with that of a concurrent study. Further work is required to determine the reason for the discrepancy. A cathode ray-vidicon type waveform digitizer was found to lend itself readily to the lifetime measurements, wherein a low repetition rate laser was used. Unfortunately, it was discovered that small nonlinearities (˜1% of full scale) in the digitizer response have a marked effect on the fits to the exponential lifetime decays and, especially, the quenching rate constants. We believe this problem is not commonly recognized. A simple method for calibration of this type of digitizer and removal of these effects is presented.

  3. Excitation energy transfer between erythrosin B and malachite green adsorbed on a microheterogeneous polymer latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A. K.

    1995-07-01

    In this article electronic excitation energy transfer between the aggregates of the donor erythrosin B (EB) and the acceptor malachite green (MG) has been studied in polystyrenebutylmethacrylate latex. Steady state flourescence quenching studies reveal that with the increasing latex concentration the rate of quenching decreases initially, attains a minimum and then increases again. Such a behaviour has been attributed to aggregation of the dye molecules at low latex concentration and redistribution at larger latex concentrations. These results illustrate the role of the microenvironment in modifying the energy transfer reaction rates and provides a model system for understanding energy transfer mechanisms in context to photosynthesis in real living systems.

  4. State-resolved collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited CsH by CO2.

    PubMed

    Mu, Baoxia; Cui, Xiuhua; Shen, Yifan; Dai, Kang

    2015-09-01

    Quenching of highly vibrationally excited CsH(X(1)Σ(+), v=15-23) by collisions with CO2 was investigated. A significant fraction of the initial population of highly vibrationally excited CsH(v=22) was relaxed to a low vibrational level (Δv=-5). The near-resonant 5-1 vibration-to-vibration (V-V) energy was efficiently exchanged. The rate constants for the rotational levels of CO2(00(0)0) [J=36-60] and CO2(00(0)1) [J=5-31] from the collisions with excited CsH were determined. The experiments revealed that the collisions resulting in CO2(00(0)0) were accompanied by substantial excitation in rotation and translation. The vibrationally excited CO2(00(0)1) state exhibited rotational and translational energy distributions near those of the initial state. The total quenching rates relative to the probed state of excited CsH were determined for both CO2 states. The corresponding data indicated that the gains in the rotational and translational energies in CO2 were sensitive to the collisional depletion of excited CsH.

  5. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, B.; Baer, T.; Bednarek, M.; Bellodi, G.; Bracco, C.; Bruce, R.; Cerutti, F.; Chetvertkova, V.; Dehning, B.; Granieri, P. P.; Hofle, W.; Holzer, E. B.; Lechner, A.; Nebot Del Busto, E.; Priebe, A.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua, B.; Sapinski, M.; Schmidt, R.; Shetty, N.; Skordis, E.; Solfaroli, M.; Steckert, J.; Valuch, D.; Verweij, A.; Wenninger, J.; Wollmann, D.; Zerlauth, M.

    2015-06-01

    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam-induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy deposition in the coils is compared to the quench levels predicted by electrothermal models, thus allowing one to validate and improve the models which are used to set beam-dump thresholds on beam-loss monitors for run 2.

  6. Scaling of Quench Front and Entrainment-Related Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Aumiller, D. L.; Hourser, R. J.; Holowach, M. J.; Hochreiter, L. E.; Cheung, F-B.

    2002-04-01

    The scaling of thermal hydraulic systems is of great importance in the development of experiments in laboratory-scale test facilities that are used to replicate the response of full-size prototypical designs. One particular phenomenon that is of interest in experimental modeling is the quench front that develops during the reflood phase in a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) following a large-break LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The purpose of this study is to develop a scaling methodology such that the prototypical quench front related phenomena can be preserved in a laboratory-scale test facility which may have material, geometrical, fluid, and flow differences as compared to the prototypical case. A mass and energy balance on a Lagrangian quench front control volume along with temporal scaling methods are utilized in developing the quench front scaling groups for a phenomena-specific second-tier scaling analysis. A sample calculation is presented comparing the quench front scaling groups calculated for a prototypical Westinghouse 17 x 17 PWR fuel design and that of the geometry and material configuration used in the FLECHT SEASET series of experiments.

  7. Acoustic emission during quench training of superconducting accelerator magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchevsky, M.; Sabbi, G.; Bajas, H.; Gourlay, S.

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) sensing is a viable tool for superconducting magnet diagnostics. Using in-house developed cryogenic amplified piezoelectric sensors, we conducted AE studies during quench training of the US LARP's high-field quadrupole HQ02 and the LBNL's high-field dipole HD3. For both magnets, AE bursts were observed, with spike amplitude and frequency increasing toward the quench current during current up-ramps. In the HQ02, the AE onset upon current ramping is distinct and exhibits a clear memory of the previously-reached quench current (Kaiser effect). On the other hand, in the HD3 magnet the AE amplitude begins to increase well before the previously-reached quench current (felicity effect), suggesting an ongoing progressive mechanical motion in the coils. A clear difference in the AE signature exists between the untrained and trained mechanical states in HD3. Time intervals between the AE signals detected at the opposite ends of HD3 coils were processed using a combination of narrow-band pass filtering; threshold crossing and correlation algorithms, and the spatial distributions of AE sources and the mechanical energy release were calculated. Both distributions appear to be consistent with the quench location distribution. Energy statistics of the AE spikes exhibits a power-law scaling typical for the self-organized critical state.

  8. Vertical Distribution of Vibrationally Excited Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygalashvyly, Mykhaylo; Becker, Erich; Sonnemann, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge about the vertical distribution of the vibrationally excited states of hydroxyl (OH*) is important for the interpretation of airglow measurements with respect to dynamical processes in the mesopause region. We derive an approximate analytical expression for the distribution of OH* that highlights the dependence on atomic oxygen and temperature. In addition, we use an advanced numerical model for the formation and relaxation of OH* and investigate the distributions of the different vibrationally exited states of OH*. For the production of OH*, the model includes the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone, as well as the reaction of atomic oxygen with hydroperoxy radicals. As loss processes we include 1) deactivation by atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, and molecular nitrogen, 2) spontaneous emission, and 3) loss due to chemical reaction with atomic oxygen. All these processes take the dependence on the vibrational number into account. The quenching by molecular and atomic oxygen is parameterized by a multi-quantum relaxation scheme. This diagnostic model for OH* has been implemented as part of a chemistry-transport model that is driven by the dynamics simulated with the KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model). Numerical results confirm that emission from excited states with higher vibrational number is weaker and emanates from higher altitudes. In addition we find that the OH*-peak altitudes depend significantly on season and latitude. This behavior is mainly controlled by the corresponding variations of atomic oxygen and temperature, as is also confirmed by the aforementioned approximate theory.

  9. Excited-Nucleon Spectroscopy with 2+1 Fermion Flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Saul; Foley, Justin; Morningstar, Colin; Wong, Ricky; Edwards, Robert G; Joo, Balint; Richards, David G; Juge, Jimmy; Lin, Huey-Lin; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Micheal J; Ryan, Sinead M

    2010-01-01

    We present progress made by the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration (HSC) in determining the tower of excited nucleon states using 2+1-flavor anisotropic clover lattices. The HSC has been investigating interpolating operators projected into irreducible representations of the cubic group in order to better calculate two-point correlators for nucleon spectroscopy; results are published for quenched and 2-flavor anisotropic Wilson lattices. In this work, we present the latest results using a new technique, distillation, which allows us to reach higher statistics than before. Future directions will be outlined at the end.

  10. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-09-01

    When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  11. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  12. Microstructural analysis of martensite constituents in quenching and partitioning steels

    SciTech Connect

    Santofimia, M.J.; Petrov, R.H.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to distinguish martensite formed in the first quench (M1) from martensite formed in the second quench (M2) of the Quenching and Partitioning process is presented, enabling the study of the structural characteristics of both microstructural constituents. Investigations show that M1 displays larger block size and less lattice imperfections than M2, differences that can be related to their respective carbon contents. - Highlights: • An approach to distinguish “old” from “new” martensite in Q and P steels is presented • Methodology allows separate characterization of microstructure and crystallography “Old” martensite has larger block size and more perfect lattice than the “new” one • The differences between the old and new martensite depend on their carbon contents.

  13. A stop-restart solid propellant study with salt quench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to gain insight into the unsatisfactory performance of the salt quench system of solid propellants in earlier studies. Nine open-air salt spray tests were conducted and high-speed cinematographic coverage was obtained of the events. It is shown that the salt spray by the detonator is generally a two-step process yielding two different fractions. The first fraction consists of finely powdered salt and moves practically unidirectionally at a high velocity (thousand of feet per second) while the second fraction consists of coarse particles and moves randomly at a low velocity (a few feet per second). Further investigation is required to verify the speculation that a lower quench charge ratio (weight of salt/propellant burning area) than previously employed may lead to an efficient quench

  14. Alleviating α quenching by solar wind and meridional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, D.; Moss, D.; Tavakol, R.; Brandenburg, A.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We study the ability of magnetic helicity expulsion to alleviate catastrophic α-quenching in mean field dynamos in two-dimensional spherical wedge domains. Methods: Motivated by the physical state of the outer regions of the Sun, we consider α^2Ω mean field models with a dynamical α quenching. We include two mechanisms which have the potential to facilitate helicity expulsion, namely advection by a mean flow ("solar wind") and meridional circulation. Results: We find that a wind alone can prevent catastrophic quenching, with the field saturating at finite amplitude. In certain parameter ranges, the presence of a large-scale meridional circulation can reinforce this alleviation. However, the saturated field strengths are typically below the equipartition field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms that might increase the saturated field.

  15. Flame quenching process in cavity based on model scramjet combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu; Lei, Jing; Liang, Jian-Han; Liu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2012-02-01

    The flame quenching process in combustors was observed by high speed camera and Schlieren system, at the inflow conditions of Ma = 2.64, T 0 = 1 483 K, P 0 = 1.65MPa, T = 724K and P = 76.3 kPa. Changing process of the flame and shock structure in the combustor was clearly observed. The results revealed that the precombustion shock disappeared accompanied with the process in which the flame was blown out and withdrawed from the mainflow into the cavity and vanished after a short while. The time of quenching process was extended by the cavity flame holder, and the ability of flame holding was enhanced by arranging more cavities in the downstream as well. The flame was blown from the upstream to the downstream, so the flame in the downstream of the cavity was quenched out later than that in the upstream.

  16. Sensitive iodate sensor based on fluorescence quenching of gold nanocluster.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiping; Xu, Pingping; Fan, Jun; Di, Junwei; Tu, Yifeng; Yan, Jilin

    2014-05-27

    In this report we described a highly selective and sensitive iodate sensor. Due to its interaction with fluorescent gold nanoclusters, iodate was capable of oxidizing and etching gold core of the nanoclusters, resulting in fluorescence quenching. Furthermore, it was found that extra iodide ion could enhance this etching process, and even a small amount of iodate could lead to significant quenching. Under an optimized condition, linear relationship between the iodate concentration and the fluorescence quenching was obtained in the range 10 nM-1 μM. The developed iodate sensor was found selective and capable of detecting iodate as low as 2.8 nM. The sensor was then applied for the analysis of iodate in real sample and satisfactory recoveries were obtained.

  17. Quench tank in-leakage diagnosis at St. Lucie

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.E.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Beckner, D.A.; Vickery, A.N.

    1996-12-01

    In February 1995, leakage into the quench tank of the St. Lucie Nuclear Station Unit 1 was becoming an operational concern. This internal leak resulted in measurable increases in both the temperature and level of the quench tank water, and was so severe that, if the trend continued, plant shut down would be necessary. Preliminary diagnosis based on in-plant instrumentation indicated that any one of 11 valves might be leaking into the quench tank. This paper describes the joint effort by two teams of engineers--one from Florida Power & Light, the other from Framatome Technologies--to identify the sources of the leak, using the latest technology developed for valve diagnosis.

  18. Zeroing in on jet quenching: a PHENIX perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, J.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    We review recent progresses on jet quenching measurements by the PHENIX experiment. With increased statistics, PHENIX has gone beyond the single hadron suppression RAA, and made measurements on multiple jet quenching observables, such as v{sub 2}, IAA and {nu}{sub 2}{sup IAA}. We argue that, by combining these observables together, one can achieve a better understanding of the energy loss mechanism. We present new {gamma}-hadron correlation results with associated hadrons extended to low p{sub T}; an enhancement has been observed, suggesting a contribution of genuine medium response that is relatively unbiased by the initial geometry fluctuations. The status of full jet reconstruction and future perspective of the PHENIX jet quenching program are discussed.

  19. Structure of quenched alloys of the Ti-Pd system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobromyslov, A. V.; Taluts, N. I.

    2016-07-01

    The quenched alloys of the Ti-Pd system containing 2-15 at % Pd have been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, and measurements of the microhardness. It has been found that, in the course of quenching, epy alloys containing 2, 3, and 5 at % Pd undergo a eutectoid decomposition into the α phase and Ti2Pd intermetallic compound, and the Ti-7 at % Pd and Ti-9 at % Pd alloys undergo a β → α' martensitic transformation. In the alloys with Pd contents of more than 9 at %, the β phase is fixed in the metastable state. The complete stabilization of the β phase takes place in the alloys containing 11 at % Pd and more. It has been found that the formation of the orthorhombic α" phase and metastable ω phase in the quenched alloys of this system does not occur.

  20. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, William E.; Crouch, M. R.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace that will operate in the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) on the International Space Station. It will provide high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. Numerical analyses and breadboard testing conducted to date show that the QMI can produce an axial temperature gradient approaching 150 C per centimeter in a 1 centimeter diameter aluminum sample with a maximum molten sample temperature of 1100 C. Breadboard testing and analysis have also shown that the quench capabilities of the furnace are sufficient to rapidly solidify at least a 5mm axial portion of a 1 centimeter diameter molten aluminum sample in significantly less than the required 2 seconds and prevent significant backmelt. This paper presents the furnace requirements and capabilities and a status of the associated development testing and analyses.

  1. Neodymium Fluorescence Quenching by Hydroxyl Groups in Phosphate Laser Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrmann, P R; Carlson, K; Campbell, J H; Click, C A; Brow, R K

    2003-09-02

    Non-radiative losses due to OH fluorescence quenching of the Nd{sup 3+} {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} state are quantified over a range of OH concentrations from 4 x 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} to 4 x 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} and Nd doping levels from 0.4 to 9 x 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} in two K{sub 2}O-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} metaphosphate glasses having different K/Mg ratios ({approx}1/1 and 2/1). The quenching rate is found to vary linearly with the Nd and OH concentrations as predicted by Forster-Dexter theory. However, in contrast to theory the OH quenching rate extrapolates to a non-zero value at low Nd{sup 3+} doping levels. It is proposed that at low Nd{sup 3+} concentrations the OH is correlated with Nd sites in the glass. The quenching strength of OH on a per ion basis is found to be weak compared to other common transition metal impurities (e.g. Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}). Nevertheless, OH dominates the Nd quenching in phosphate glass because under most processing conditions OH is present at concentrations 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} greater than transition metal ion impurities. A correlation of the quenching strength of OH and common metal impurity ions with the degree of spectral overlap of the impurity absorption bands and the four {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}I{sub J} transitions shows good agreement.

  2. Sucrose and KF quenching system for solution phase parallel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Sunil; Watpade, Rahul; Toche, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    The KF, sucrose (table sugar) exploited as quenching system in solution phase parallel synthesis. Excess of electrophiles were covalently trapped with hydroxyl functionality of sucrose and due to polar nature of sucrose derivative was solubilize in water. Potassium fluoride used to convert various excess electrophilic reagents such as acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates to corresponding fluorides, which are less susceptible for hydrolysis and subsequently sucrose traps these fluorides and dissolves them in water thus removing them from reaction mixture. Various excess electrophilic reagents such as acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, and isocyanates were quenched successfully to give pure products in excellent yields. PMID:27462506

  3. Quenching of fluorescence in C60 fulleropyrrolidines by chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Abdulrazack; Sughanya, Venkatesan; Nagarajan, Samuthira

    2016-01-01

    Functionalized [C60] fullerene, fulleropyrrolidines were synthesized and their photophysical properties are studied. The absorption and emission patterns are altered in fulleropyrrolidines, when compared with C60. Fluorescence of the molecules is quenched by CHCl3 in toluene solution at room temperature. Effect of nature and length of side chains in fulleropyrrolidine on quenching is investigated. Results suggested that the fluorescence intensity increased with increase in carbon chain length and the Stern-Volmer plot intercept values are indirectly proportional to the number of the carbons.

  4. Quench detection system for twin coils HTS SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badel, A.; Tixador, P.; Simiand, G.; Exchaw, O.

    2010-10-01

    The quench detection and protection system is a critical element in superconducting magnets. After a short summary of the quench detection and protection issues in HTS magnets, an original detection system is presented. The main feature of this system is an active protection of the detection electronics during the discharges, making it possible to use standard electronics even if the discharge voltage is very high. The design of the detection system is therefore easier and it can be made very sensitive. An implementation example is presented for a twin coil HTS SMES prototype, showing the improvements when compared to classical detection systems during operation.

  5. Thermal luminescence quenching of amine-functionalized silicon quantum dots: a pH and wavelength-dependent study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Surajit; Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti

    2015-10-01

    Understanding and resolving the mechanisms that affect the photoluminescence (PL) of Si QDs are of great importance because of their strong potential for optoelectronic and solar cell materials. In this article, the intrinsic exciton dynamics of water-dispersed allylamine-functionalized silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) have been explored as a function of temperature by means of steady-state and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. Significant PL quenching of Si QDs has been observed with increase in temperature from 278 K to 348 K. This thermal quenching is found to be a reversible process. The mechanism involves nonradiative reversible relaxation of conduction band electrons through the thermally-created temporary trap states. These temporary trap states arise due to the displacement of surface atoms from their regular positions at elevated temperature. Upon cooling, these surface irregularities relax back to their equilibrium positions with retrieval of the original PL intensity. It has been observed that the quenching mechanism is strongly influenced by the pH and excitation wavelength (λex). At pH 3.5, the quenching mechanism involves nonradiative relaxation of conduction band electrons through the thermally-created temporary trap states. However, at pH 7.4, the unprotonated surface amine groups introduce permanent nitrogen-related surface defects inside the bandgap of Si QDs. At elevated temperature, the conduction band electrons get trapped in these nitrogen-related surface defects through the involvement of thermally-created temporary trap states. Subsequent exciton recombination of these nitrogen-related defect states results in red-shifted green color luminescence. By using the Arrhenius equation we have estimated the activation energy of this nonradiative thermal relaxation process and it was found to be 138 and 139 meV at pH 3.5 and pH 7.4, respectively. PMID:26316306

  6. Fluorescence quenching and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of daunorubicin with meso-tera (4-sulphophenyl) porphyrin as probe.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Yang, Jidong; Zhu, Jinghui; Qiao, Man; Hu, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a synthetic meso-tera (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS4) was used as a probe to determine daunorubicin (DNR) by fluorescence quenching and spectrophotometric methods. At pH 4.6 potassium acid phthalate-NaOH buffer solution, a 1:1 complex of DNR interacted with TPPS4 formed via the electrostatic attractions and hydrophobic interactions, thus resulted in TPPS4 fluorescence quenching and absorption spectra change. The maximum excitation wavelength (λex) and the maximum emission wavelength (λem) are 435 nm and 672 nm, respectively. The fluorescence quenching values (ΔF) are the good linear relationship to the concentration of DNR in the range of 0.8-6.0 mgL(-1). The method exhibits high sensitivity with the detection limit (3σ) being 27.0 ng mL(-1). Meanwhile, a decrease of absorbance is detected at 433 nm with the appearance of a new absorption peak at 420 nm. The optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors and the effect of coexisting substances have been investigated in our experiment. The results showed that the method had a good selectivity and could be applied to determine DNR in serum and urine samples. In addition, the combine ratio between DNR and TPPS4 was measured and the charge distribution before and after reaction was calculated by quantum chemistry calculation AM1 method. The type of fluorescence quenching was discussed by the absorption spectra change, Stern-Volmer plots and fluorescence lifetime determination. PMID:24177862

  7. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  8. The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Uncoupled Solenoids in Series with and without Coil Sub-division

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xing Long; Green, Michael A; Wang, Li; Wu, Hong; Pan, Heng

    2010-10-15

    This paper is the final paper in a series of papers that discusses passive quench protection for high inductance solenoid magnets. This report describes how passive quench protection system may be applied to superconducting magnets that are connected in series but not inductively coupled. Previous papers have discussed the role of magnet sub-division and quench back from a conductive mandrel in reducing the hot-spot temperature and the peak coil voltages to ground. When magnets are connected in series, quench-back from a conductive mandrel can cause other magnets in a string to quench even without inductive coupling between magnets. The magnet mandrels must be well coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. When magnet circuit sub-division is employed to reduce the voltages-to-ground within magnets, the resistance across the subdivision becomes the most important factor in the successful quenching of the magnet string.

  9. Fluorescence quenching in proteins: some applications to protein-DNA and protein-lipid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Jay R.; Chen, Raymond F.; Porter, D. K.; Hensley, Preston; Han, Myun K.; Kim, S. J.; Wilson, Samuel H.; Clague, M.; Williamson, Cynthia K.

    1992-04-01

    The authors outline some examples of the advantages found in subdividing overall quenching into heterogeneous contributions. Subdivision is accomplished by overdetermination (global) and association (DAS, decay associated spectral) methods. In some cases, the subdivision of fluorescence leads to the unique identification of different fluorophores in different sites. Alternatively, the recovered components may reflect conformational heterogeneity at each site. For intrinsic protein fluorescence, it is often noted in the literature that single Trp proteins may be multiexponential. Genetic substitution in multi-Trp proteins, however, often leads to very strong (if not complete) lifetime-to-Trp assignment. Even if a single Trp experiences two or more microenvironments, it can be a useful reporter. The linkage of multiple lifetimes and amplitudes to changes in global conformation often reveals a more `sensitive' subpopulation or lifetime component that becomes a better indicator for important conformational states than aggregate intensity can provide. This has proven useful in studying pH transitions of proteins both in solution and embedded in membranes. Energy transfer is particularly useful in differentiating sites at different distances. Further, the disclosure of heterogeneity in distance is clearly superior to the reporting of a mean distance. This report surveys several systems that have been examined via emission DAS techniques, showing how each protein is better understood when viewed in terms of discrete spectral contributions. We conclude with an overview and some details about our construction of an EDAS (excitation-DAS) instrument; i.e., how excitation scans can be incorporated into a time-resolved instrument.

  10. Ultrafast quenching of electron-boson interaction and superconducting gap in a cuprate superconductor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wentao; Hwang, Choongyu; Smallwood, Christopher L; Miller, Tristan L; Affeldt, Gregory; Kurashima, Koshi; Jozwiak, Chris; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Tadashi; Koike, Yoji; Lee, Dung-Hai; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy is an emerging technique with great promise in the study of quantum materials, as it makes it possible to track similarities and correlations that are not evident near equilibrium. Thus far, however, the way in which these processes modify the electron self-energy--a fundamental quantity describing many-body interactions in a material--has been little discussed. Here we use time- and angle-resolved photoemission to directly measure the ultrafast response of self-energy to near-infrared photoexcitation in high-temperature cuprate superconductor. Below the critical temperature of the superconductor, ultrafast excitations trigger a synchronous decrease of electron self-energy and superconducting gap, culminating in a saturation in the weakening of electron-boson coupling when the superconducting gap is fully quenched. In contrast, electron-boson coupling is unresponsive to ultrafast excitations above the critical temperature of the superconductor and in the metallic state of a related material. These findings open a new pathway for studying transient self-energy and correlation effects in solids.

  11. Excited nucleon spectrum using non-perturbative improved clover action

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Richards; M. Gockeler; R. Horsley; D. Pleiter; P. E. L. Rakow; G. Schierholz; C. M. Maynard

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the extraction of negative-parity baryon masses from lattice QCD calculations. The mass of the lowest-lying negative-parity J = 1/2- state is computed in quenched lattice QCD using an O(a)-improved clover fermion action, and a splitting found with the nucleon mass. The calculation is performed on two lattice volumes, and three lattice spacings enabling a study of both finite-volume and finite-lattice-spacing uncertainties. A measurement of the first excited radial excitation of the nucleon finds a mass comparable, or even somewhat larger than that of the negative-parity ground state, in accord with other lattice determinations but in disagreement with experiment. Results are also presented for the lightest negative-parity I=3/2 state.

  12. Lattice QCD determination of patterns of excited baryon states

    SciTech Connect

    Basak, Subhasish; Edwards, R. G.; Richards, D. G.; Fleming, G. T.; Juge, K. J.; Lichtl, A.; Morningstar, C.; Sato, I.; Wallace, S. J.

    2007-10-01

    Energies for excited isospin I=(1/2) and I=(3/2) states that include the nucleon and {delta} families of baryons are computed using quenched, anisotropic lattices. Baryon interpolating field operators that are used include nonlocal operators that provide G{sub 2} irreducible representations of the octahedral group. The decomposition of spin (5/2) or higher spin states is realized for the first time in a lattice QCD calculation. We observe patterns of degenerate energies in the irreducible representations of the octahedral group that correspond to the subduction of the continuum spin (5/2) or higher. The overall pattern of low-lying excited states corresponds well to the pattern of physical states subduced to the irreducible representations of the octahedral group.

  13. Lattice QCD determination of patterns of excited baryon states

    SciTech Connect

    Subhasish Basak; Robert Edwards; George Fleming; Keisuke Juge; Adam Lichtl; Colin Morningstar; David Richards; Ikuro Sato; Stephen Wallace

    2007-10-01

    Energies for excited isospin I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 states that include the nucleon and Delta families of baryons are computed using quenched, anisotropic lattices. Baryon interpolating field operators that are used include nonlocal operators that provide G2 irreducible representations of the octahedral group. The decomposition of spin 5/2 or higher spin states is realized for the first time in a lattice QCD calculation. We observe patterns of degenerate energies in the irreducible representations of the octahedral group that correspond to the subduction of the continuum spin 5/2 or higher. The overall pattern of low-lying excited states corresponds well to the pattern of physical states subduced to the irreducible representations of the octahedral group.

  14. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoljan, Božo; Iljkić, Dario; Totten, George E.

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model and expressions for hardness prediction were established, where quenched and tempered steel hardness is predicted based on as-quenched hardness of steel. Hardenability properties of steel are included in the model to achieve a more precise prediction of quenched and tempered steel hardness. Prediction of the as-quenched hardness of steel is based on the relationship between as-quenched hardness and the characteristic cooling time from 1073 K to 773 K (800 °C to 500 °C) ( t 8/5). The model was used to simulate the hardness of a quenched and tempered steel workpieces.

  15. Decoherence at constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. M.; Sadurní, E.; Seligman, T. H.

    2012-02-01

    We present a simple exactly solvable extension of the Jaynes-Cummings model by adding dissipation. This is done such that the total number of excitations is conserved. The Liouville operator in the resulting master equation can be reduced to blocks of 4×4 matrices.

  16. Excited states in hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this brief review we first summarize some pertinent features of the photophysical properties of excited states of hydrocarbons and the mechanisms by which they transfer energy to solutes and then review their yields and their behavior under fast-electron irradiation conditions. 33 refs.

  17. Positron excitation of neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  18. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  3. Quantitative Imaging in Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S.

    2007-01-01

    The process of quantitative imaging, which is very commonly used in laboratory, is shown to be very useful for studying the fast kinetics and fluorescence quenching of many experiments. The imaging technique is extremely cheap and hence can be used in many absorption and luminescence experiments.

  4. Ballistic quench-induced correlation waves in ultracold gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, John P.; Bohn, John L.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the wave-packet dynamics of a pair of particles that undergoes a rapid change of scattering length. The short-range interactions are modeled in the zero-range limit, where the quench is accomplished by switching the boundary condition of the wave function at vanishing particle separation. This generates a correlation wave that propagates rapidly to nonzero particle separations. We have derived universal, analytic results for this process that lead to a simple phase-space picture of the quench-induced scattering. Intuitively, the strength of the correlation wave relates to the initial contact of the system. We find that, in one spatial dimension, the k-4 tail of the momentum distribution contains a ballistic contribution that does not originate from short-range pair correlations, and a similar conclusion can hold in other dimensionalities depending on the quench protocol. We examine the resultant quench-induced transport in an optical lattice in one dimension, and a semiclassical treatment is found to give quantitatively accurate estimates for the transport probabilities.

  5. Stretching and quenching of flamelets in premixed turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Meneveau, C. ); Poinsot, T. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on the stretch rate of flamelets in premixed turbulent combustion which is computed using detailed numerical simulations of vortex-flame interactions and a model for intermittent turbulence taking into account all possible turbulence scales acting on the flame front. Simulations of interactions between isolated vortices and a laminar flame front are used to obtain a relation between the characteristics of a given vortex and the actual flame stretch generated by this structure. Quenching conditions and quenching times are also given by these simulations. A net rate of stretch is then defined in the case of a complete turbulent flow field as the difference between the total rate of flame stretch and the quenching rate due to scales that have a high enough energy and a long enough lifetime to quench locally the flame front. The net rate of stretch is computed for a variety of parameters of interest in practical applications. It is a function of the large-scale turbulence parameters and the laminar flame speed and flame thickness and may be used as an input in most flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion.

  6. Quenching and Sensitizing Fullerene Photoreactions by Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of natural organic matter (NOM) on the photoreaction kinetics of fullerenes (i.e., C60 and fullerenol) were investigated using simulated sunlight and monochromatic radiation (365 nm). NOM from several sources quenched (slowed) the photoreaction of C60 aggregates in water ...

  7. Finite temperature quenches of fermions in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ian G.; Hulet, Randall G.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Although interaction quenches are known to drive interesting dynamics, most prior work has focused on quenches initiated from states that are well below the system's ordering temperature. Motivated by experiments with ultracold fermions in optical lattices, which currently are outside of this regime, we study interaction quenches in the Fermi-Hubbard model that start from finite-temperature initial states. We show that interesting dynamics occurs even under these conditions. A particularly important scenario is quenching to non-interacting systems, which despite its simplicity has been the focus of recent work as a prototype for integrability and prethermalization. In the limit where the temperature T is much greater than the tunneling t, we find that there is transient growth of short-ranged correlations. However, the steady state created in this case is essentially trivial: it is equivalent to an equilibrium T / t = ∞ state. We find more interesting steady states for large, but finite, T / t . We calculate the associated experimental observables by combining a high- T expansion of the interacting initial state with the exact calculation of the non-interacting dynamics.

  8. Determination of gasifier outlet and quench zone blockage

    SciTech Connect

    Clomburg, L.A. Jr.; Crenwelge, O.E. Jr.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for monitoring the open cross sectional area of the outlet, or a section of a quench zone or conduit proximate to and communicating with the outlet, to detect changes therein, of a gasifier operated under elevated temperature and pressure for partially oxidizing coal, while quenching synthesis gas and molten flyash particles from the gasifier and while carrying out a process for the partial oxidation of coal in the gasifier. It comprises: providing at least one first pressure transducer in the gasifier; providing at least one second pressure transducer at a locus in the quench zone proximate the outlet of the gasifier; concomitantly receiving sound pressure generated in the gasifier in both the at least one first pressure transducer and the at least one second pressure transducer, and transmitting from each of the transducers a time domain electrical signal proportionate to the amplitude of the sound pressure received by each of the respective transducers; converting the time domain signals respectively to mathematically complex signals in the frequency domain proportional to their pressure magnitudes; comparing the frequency domain signal from the at least one transducer in the quench zone to the frequency domain signal from the at least one transducer in the gasifier at a pre-selected frequency, and deriving a frequency response function from the comparison; and comparing the magnitude of the frequency response function with a predetermined value.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer During Quenching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madireddi, Sowjanya; Krishnan, Krishnan Nambudiripad; Reddy, Ammana Satyanarayana

    2016-06-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the immersion quenching process of metals. The time of quench plays an important role if the process involves a defined step quenching schedule to obtain the desired characteristics. Lumped heat capacity analysis used for this purpose requires the value of heat transfer coefficient, whose evaluation requires large experimental data. Experimentation on a sample work piece may not represent the actual component which may vary in dimension. A Fluid-Structure interaction technique with a coupled interface between the solid (metal) and liquid (quenchant) is used for the simulations. Initial times of quenching shows boiling heat transfer phenomenon with high values of heat transfer coefficients (5000-2.5 × 105 W/m2K). Shape of the work piece with equal dimension shows less influence on the cooling rate Non-uniformity in hardness at the sharp corners can be reduced by rounding off the edges. For a square piece of 20 mm thickness, with 3 mm fillet radius, this difference is reduced by 73 %. The model can be used for any metal-quenchant combination to obtain time-temperature data without the necessity of experimentation.

  10. Unitary equilibration after a quantum quench of a thermal state

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Zanardi, Paolo

    2011-08-15

    In this work we investigate the equilibration dynamics after a sudden Hamiltonian quench of a quantum spin system initially prepared in a thermal state. To characterize the equilibration we evaluate the Loschmidt echo, a global measure for the degree of distinguishability between the initial and time-evolved quenched states. We present general results valid for small quenches and detailed analysis of the quantum XY chain. The result is that quantum criticality manifests, even at small but finite temperatures, in a universal double-peaked form of the echo statistics and poor equilibration for sufficiently relevant perturbations. In addition, for this model we find a tight lower bound on the Loschmidt echo in terms of the purity of the initial state and the more easily evaluated Hilbert-Schmidt inner product between initial and time-evolved quenched states. This bound allows us to relate the time-averaged Loschmidt echo with the purity of the time-averaged state, a quantity that has been shown to provide an upper bound on the variance of observables.

  11. Copper(II)-quenched oligonucleotide probes for fluorescent DNA sensing.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Jens; Kraemer, Roland

    2004-10-27

    A copper(II)-quenched molecular beacon was prepared by attaching fluorescein to the 3'-end and a copper(II) complex to the 5'-end of DNA. In the presence of complementary DNA, copper(II) and dye are spatially separated in the duplex and fluorescence increases up to 15-fold, with excellent discrimination of single base mismatches.

  12. Quenching correction for volumetric scintillation dosimetry of proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Mirkovic, Dragan; Sahoo, Narayan; Beddar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution, three-dimensional radiation dosimetry. However, scintillators exhibit a nonlinear response at the high linear energy transfer (LET) values characteristic of proton Bragg peaks. The purpose of this study was to develop a quenching correction method for volumetric scintillation dosimetry of proton beams. Scintillation light from a miniature liquid scintillator detector was measured along the central axis of a 161.6 MeV proton pencil beam. Three-dimensional dose and LET distributions were calculated for 85.6, 100.9, 144.9 and 161.6 MeV beams using a validated Monte Carlo model. LET values were also calculated using an analytical formula. A least-squares fit to the data established the empirical parameters of a quenching correction model. The light distribution in a tank of liquid scintillator was measured with a CCD camera at all four beam energies. The quenching model and LET data were used to correct the measured light distribution. The calculated and measured Bragg peak heights agreed within ±3% for all energies except 85.6 MeV, where the agreement was within ±10%. The quality of the quenching correction was poorer for sharp low-energy Bragg peaks because of blurring and detector size effects. The corrections performed using analytical LET values resulted in doses within 1% of those obtained using Monte Carlo LET values. The proposed method can correct for quenching with sufficient accuracy for dosimetric purposes. The required LET values may be computed effectively using Monte Carlo or analytical methods. Future detectors should improve blurring correction methods and optimize the pixel size to improve accuracy for low-energy Bragg peaks.

  13. Resonant quenching of Rydberg atomic states by highly polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    The results of theoretical studies of the resonant quenching and ion-pair formation processes induced by collisions of Rydberg atoms with highly polar molecules possessing small electron affinities are reported. We elaborate an approach for describing collisional dynamics of both processes and demonstrate the predominant role of resonant quenching channel of reaction for the destruction of Rydberg states by electron-attaching molecules. The approach is based on the solution of the coupled differential equations for the transition amplitudes between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule formed during a collision of particles. It takes into account the possibility of the dipole-bound anion decay in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core and generalizes previous models of charge-transfer processes involving Rydberg atoms to the cases, when the multistate Landau–Zener approaches become inapplicable. Our calculations for {{Rb}}({nl}) atom perturbed by {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4{{SO}}3, {{CH}}2{CHCN}, {{CH}}3{{NO}}2, {{CH}}3{CN}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}2{{{O}}}3, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}4{{{O}}}3 molecules show that the curves representing the dependence of the resonant quenching cross sections on the principal quantum number n are bell-shaped with the positions of maxima being shifted towards lower values of n and the peak values, {σ }{max}({{q})}, several times higher than those for the ion-pair formation, {σ }{max}({{i})}. We obtain a simple power relation between the energy of electron affinity of a molecule and the position of maximum in n-dependence of the resonant quenching cross section. It can be used as an additional means for determining small binding energies of dipole-bound anions from the experimental data on resonant quenching of Rydberg states by highly polar molecules.

  14. Chiral logs and the quenched approximation on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrucci, Stefania

    1997-12-01

    The phenomenological success of the quenched approximation has been impressive in obtaining accurate results for the mass spectrum and other aspects of hadron structure. However, an independent theoretical estimate of the systematic error introduced by quenching is still missing. To this end, it can be useful to consider chiral theories which, at the one-loop level, introduced peculiar non analytical terms (the so-called chiral logs). Sharpe showed that when this framework is adapted to the quenched approximation, the dependence of the pion mass squared on the quark mass can be described by an anomalous power δ (the 'hairpin' diagram on the pion mass shell) associated with flavor singlet loops and enhanced chiral logs. Treating the hairpin as a momentum independent mass insertion, he estimated δ≃0.2. However, numerical calculations in quenched lattice quantum chromodynamics show little or no evidence for chiral logs at such a level. The following work determines the anomalous power numerically by studying the pion mass as a function of the bare quark mass, as well as its volume dependence. Sources of systematic error are carefully examined. Last, the coefficient of the chiral log is calculated from the two quark-loops pion propagator. The results consistently indicate a value for the anomalous power that is approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the earlier theoretical estimate, in particular/delta = 0.013(2)From this one can see that for all pion masses considered, the systematic error introduced by quenching is small and always within the statistical error. Finally, by a direct calculation of the topological susceptibility of the lattice configurations, I conclude that the reason why the anomalous power is so small is a strong momentum dependence giving rise to a suppression of the hairpin at momenta comparable with the pion mass.

  15. Resonant quenching of Rydberg atomic states by highly polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    The results of theoretical studies of the resonant quenching and ion-pair formation processes induced by collisions of Rydberg atoms with highly polar molecules possessing small electron affinities are reported. We elaborate an approach for describing collisional dynamics of both processes and demonstrate the predominant role of resonant quenching channel of reaction for the destruction of Rydberg states by electron-attaching molecules. The approach is based on the solution of the coupled differential equations for the transition amplitudes between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule formed during a collision of particles. It takes into account the possibility of the dipole-bound anion decay in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core and generalizes previous models of charge-transfer processes involving Rydberg atoms to the cases, when the multistate Landau-Zener approaches become inapplicable. Our calculations for {{Rb}}({nl}) atom perturbed by {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4{{SO}}3, {{CH}}2{CHCN}, {{CH}}3{{NO}}2, {{CH}}3{CN}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}2{{{O}}}3, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}4{{{O}}}3 molecules show that the curves representing the dependence of the resonant quenching cross sections on the principal quantum number n are bell-shaped with the positions of maxima being shifted towards lower values of n and the peak values, {σ }{max}({{q})}, several times higher than those for the ion-pair formation, {σ }{max}({{i})}. We obtain a simple power relation between the energy of electron affinity of a molecule and the position of maximum in n-dependence of the resonant quenching cross section. It can be used as an additional means for determining small binding energies of dipole-bound anions from the experimental data on resonant quenching of Rydberg states by highly polar molecules.

  16. Overconsumption, outflows and the quenching of satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Sean L.; Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.

    2014-07-01

    The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events - either direct stripping of the disc (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) - or from internally driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. These time-scales show significant deviations from the evolution expected for gas stripping mechanisms and suggest that either ram pressure stripping is much more efficient at high redshift, or that secular outflows quench satellites before orbit-based stripping occurs. Given the strong redshift evolution of star formation rates, at high redshift even moderate outflow rates will lead to extremely short delay times with the expectation that high-redshift (z > 1.5) satellites will be quenched almost immediately following the cessation of cosmological inflow. Observations of high-redshift satellites give an indirect but sensitive measure of the outflow rate, with current measurements suggesting that outflows are no larger than 2.5 times the star formation rate for galaxies with a stellar mass of 1010.5 M⊙.

  17. Rotational and translational effects in collisions of electronically excited diatomic hydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosley, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Collisional quenching and vibrational energy proceed competitively with rotational energy transfer for several excited states of the diatomic radicals OH, NH, and CH. This occurs for a wide variety of molecular collision partners. This phenomenon permits the examination of the influence of rotational motion on the collision dynamics of these theoretically tractable species. Measurements can also be made as a function of temperature, i.e., collision velocity. In OH (sup 2 sigma +), both vibrational transfer and quenching are found to decrease with an increase in rotational level, while quenching decreases with increasing temperature. This behavior indicates that for OH, anisotropic attractive forces govern the entrance channel dynamics for these collisions. The quenching of NH (sup 3 pi sub i) by many (although not all) collision partners also decreases with increasing rotational and translational energy, and NH (sup 1 pi) behaves much like OH (sup 2 sigma +). However, the quenching of CH (sup 2 delta) appears to decrease with increasing rotation but increases with increasing temperature, suggesting in this case anisotropic forces involving a barrier or repulsive wall. Such similarities and differences should furnish useful comparisons with both simple and detailed theoretical pictures of the appropriate collision dynamics.

  18. Study of the rotational-level and temperature dependence of the quenching rate of OH fluorescence due to collisions with water molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koker, Edmond B.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of the OH radical as an intermediate in many combustion reactions and in atmospheric photochemistry has led many researchers to use it as a diagnostic tool in these processes. The amount of data that has been acquired over the years for this radical is quite considerable. However, the quenching rate of OH with water molecules as a function of temperature and the rotational level of the excited state is not very well understood. The motivation of the studies undertaken is to bridge the gap between the low temperature measurements and the high temperature ones reported in the literature. The technique generally employed in these diagnostics is laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), through which rotational state selective excitation of the radical is possible. Furthermore, in a combustion medium, water is produced in abundance so that knowledge of the quenching rate of OH due to water molecules plays a crucial role in interpreting the data. In general, the precursor to an understanding of the collisional quenching rates of OH involves a characterization of the mode in which the radical is produced; the resulting rotational and translational distribution, followed by a measurement of the OH temperature; and ultimately obtaining the rate constants from the pressure dependence of the fluorescence signal. The experimental implementation of these measurements therefore involved, as a first step, the production of the OH radicals in a microwave discharge cell using water vapor as the source, wherein a hydrogen atom is abstracted from H2O. The second step involved the absorption of photons from the frequency-doubled output of a pulsed amplified, single-frequency cw ring dye laser. By tuning the laser to the peak of the transition and observing the fluorescence decay after the laser pulse, the lifetime of the OH in a particular rotational electronic state was determined (tau = 1.4 microseconds for Q(sub 1)(3)). Knowledge of this parameter led to a determination of

  19. Stimulated crystallization of melt-quenched Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films employing femtosecond laser double pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, Rebecca L.; Siegel, Jan

    2012-12-15

    The phase transformation of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films from the melt-quenched amorphous phase into the crystalline phase induced by 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses has been studied. For partly amorphized films, progressive crystallization could be induced by single pulses, which can be explained by growth of already existing crystalline embryos. For completely amorphized films, it was not possible to induce crystallization with one or two consecutive pulses; three pulses being the threshold for the onset of crystallization. By employing a fs laser double pulse with an adjustable inter-pulse delay, partial crystallization could be triggered for a delay range of 200 fs-100 ps, while for longer delays no crystallization was possible. The time window for stimulated crystallization can be related to the relaxation dynamics of free electrons excited by the first pulse, which are further excited by the second pulse still remaining in the excited state. Our results indicate that the lifetime of excited electrons in melt-quenched amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} is Almost-Equal-To 100 ps.

  20. Photophysical parameters and fluorescence quenching of 7-diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC) laser dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mossalamy, E. H.; Obaid, A. Y.; El-Daly, S. A.

    2011-10-01

    The optical properties including electronic absorption spectrum, emission spectrum, fluorescence quantum yield, and dipole moment of electronic transition of 7-diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC) laser dye have been measured in different solvents. Both electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are red shifted as the polarity of the medium increases, indicating that the dipole moment of molecule increases on excitation. The fluorescence quantum yield of DEAC decreases as the polarity of solvent increases, a result of the role of solvent polarity in stabilization of the twisting of the intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) in excited state, which is a non-emissive state, as well as hydrogen bonding with the hetero-atom of dye. The emission spectrum of DEAC has also been measured in cationic (CTAC) and anionic (SDS) micelles, the intensity increases as the concentration of surfactant increases, and an abrupt change in emission intensity is observed at critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant. 2×10 -3 mol dm -3 of DEAC gives laser emission in the blue region on pumping with nitrogen laser ( λex=337.1 nm). The laser parameters such as tuning range, gain coefficient ( α), emission cross section ( σe), and half-life energy have been calculated in different solvents, namely acetone, dioxane , ethanol, and dimethyforamide (DMF). The photoreactivity of DEAC has been studied in CCl 4 at a wavelength of 366 nm. The values of photochemical yield ( ϕc) and rate constant ( k) are determined. The interaction of organic acceptors such as picric acid (PA), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and 7,7,8,8-tetracynoquinonedimethane (TCNQ) with DEAC is also studied using fluorescence measurements in acetonitrile (CH 3CN); from fluorescence quenching study we assume the possible electron transfer from excited donor DEAC to organic acceptor forming non-emissive exciplex.

  1. Radiance limits of ceramic phosphors under high excitation fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Zheng, Yi; Tchoul, Maxim

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic phosphors, excited by high radiance pump sources, offer considerable potential for high radiance conversion. Interestingly, thermodynamic arguments suggest that the radiance of the luminescent spot can even exceed that of the incoming light source. In practice, however, thermal quenching and (non-thermal) optical saturation limit the maximum attainable radiance of the luminescent source. We present experimental data for Ce:YAG and Ce:GdYAG ceramics in which these limits have been investigated. High excitation fluxes are achieved using laser pumping. Optical pumping intensities exceeding 100W/mm2 have been shown to produce only modest efficiency depreciation at low overall pump powers because of the short Ce3+ lifetime, although additional limitations exist. When pump powers are higher, heat-transfer bottlenecks within the ceramic and heat-sink interfaces limit maximum pump intensities. We find that surface temperatures of these laser-pumped ceramics can reach well over 150°C, causing thermal-quenching losses. We also find that in some cases, the loss of quantum efficiency with increasing temperature can cause a thermal run-away effect, resulting in a rapid loss in converted light, possibly over-heating the sample or surrounding structures. While one can still obtain radiances on the order of many W/mm2/sr, temperature quenching effects ultimately limit converted light radiance. Finally, we use the diffusion-approximation radiation transport models and rate equation models to simulate some of these nonlinear optical pumping and heating effects in high-scattering ceramics.

  2. New functional polymers prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Study of the quenching of luminescence of pyrene end groups by ferrocene or phenothiazine centers in the polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Albagli, D.; Bazan, G.C.; Schrock, R.R.; Wrighton, M.S. )

    1993-09-30

    Emission from pyrene end-capped redox polymers is quenched relative to emission from l-vinylpyrene, a structural model for the end group in the polymer. The redox polymers were prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene derivatives containing ferrocene or phenothiazine, using catalysts of the type Mo(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(O-t-Bu)[sub 2] (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl). The pyrene group was introduced by reaction of the living polymer with l-pyrenecarboxaldehyde, thus producing polymers that are derivatives of l-vinylpyrene. A ferrocene-containing homopolymer was prepared with 12 equiv of a ferrocene-containing monomer, followed by capping with pyrene, (1)[sub 12]-pyrene, where pyrene emission is quenched by a factor of 30. Two phenothiazine-containing polymers were studied; a homopolymer prepared from 10 equiv of a phenothiazine-containing monomer followed by capping with pyrene, (2)[sub 10]-pyrene, and a block copolymer formed from 10 equiv of a phenothiazine monomer, then 70 equiv of norbornene, (NBE), followed by capping with pyrene, (2)[sub 10](NBE)[sub 70]-pyrene. In these polymers pyrene emission is quenched by a factor of 110 and 7, respectively. The quenching is proposed to occur via electron transfer from phenothiazine to the excited singlet state of pyrene and, depending on the structure of the polymer, by the formation of an exciplex with phenothiazine. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Long-lived plasma and fast quenching of N2(C3Π u ) by electrons in the afterglow of a nanosecond capillary discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepikhin, N. D.; Klochko, A. V.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    Quenching of electronically excited nitrogen state, {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u},{{v}\\prime}=0\\right) , in the afterglow of nanosecond capillary discharge in pure nitrogen is studied. It is found experimentally that an additional collisional mechanism appears and dominates at high specific deposited energies leading to the anomalously fast quenching of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) in the afterglow. On the basis of obtained experimental data and of the analysis of possible quenching agents, it is concluded that the anomalously fast deactivation of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) can be explained by quenching by electrons. Long-lived plasma at time scale of hundreds nanoseconds after the end of the pulse is observed. High electron densities, about 1014 cm‑3 at 27 mbar, are sustained by reactions of associative ionization. Kinetic 1D numerical modeling and comparison of calculated results with experimentally measured electric fields in the second high-voltage pulse 250 ns after the initial pulse, and electron density measurements in the afterglow confirm the validity of the suggested mechanism.

  4. Long-lived plasma and fast quenching of N2(C3Π u ) by electrons in the afterglow of a nanosecond capillary discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepikhin, N. D.; Klochko, A. V.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    Quenching of electronically excited nitrogen state, {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u},{{v}\\prime}=0\\right) , in the afterglow of nanosecond capillary discharge in pure nitrogen is studied. It is found experimentally that an additional collisional mechanism appears and dominates at high specific deposited energies leading to the anomalously fast quenching of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) in the afterglow. On the basis of obtained experimental data and of the analysis of possible quenching agents, it is concluded that the anomalously fast deactivation of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) can be explained by quenching by electrons. Long-lived plasma at time scale of hundreds nanoseconds after the end of the pulse is observed. High electron densities, about 1014 cm-3 at 27 mbar, are sustained by reactions of associative ionization. Kinetic 1D numerical modeling and comparison of calculated results with experimentally measured electric fields in the second high-voltage pulse 250 ns after the initial pulse, and electron density measurements in the afterglow confirm the validity of the suggested mechanism.

  5. Unraveling the exciton quenching mechanism of quantum dots on antimony-doped SnO₂ films by transient absorption and single dot fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Song, Nianhui; Zhu, Haiming; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Zhuangqun; Wu, David; Lian, Tianquan

    2013-02-26

    Integrating quantum dots (QDs) into modern optoelectronic devices requires an understanding of how a transparent conducting substrate affects the properties of QDs, especially their excited-state dynamics. Here, the exciton quenching dynamics of core/multishell (CdSe/CdS(3ML)ZnCdS(2ML)ZnS(2ML)) quantum dots deposited on glass, tin oxide (SnO₂), and antimony (Sb)-doped tin oxide (ATO) films are studied by transient absorption and single QD fluorescence spectroscopic methods. By comparing ensemble-averaged fluorescence decay and transient absorption kinetics, we show that, for QDs on SnO₂, the exciton is quenched by electron transfer from the QD to SnO₂. At the QD-ATO interface, much faster exciton quenching rates are observed and attributed to fast Auger recombination in charged QDs formed by Fermi level equilibration between the QD and n-doped ATO. Single QDs on SnO₂ and ATO show similar blinking dynamics with correlated fluctuations of emission intensities and lifetimes. Compared to QDs on SnO₂, QDs on ATO films show larger variation of average exciton quenching rates, which is attributed to a broad distribution of the number of charges and nature of charging sites on the QD surface.

  6. A Non-perturbing Probe of Coiled Coil Formation Based on Electron Transfer Mediated Fluorescence Quenching.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew D; Peran, Ivan; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Coiled coils are abundant in nature, occurring in ∼3% of proteins across sequenced genomes, and are found in proteins ranging from transcription factors to structural proteins. The motif continues to be an important model system for understanding protein-protein interactions and is finding increased use in bioinspired materials and synthetic biology. Knowledge of the thermodynamics of self-assembly, particularly the dissociation constant KD, is essential for the application of designed coiled coils and for understanding the in vivo specificity of natural coiled coils. Standard methods for measuring KD typically rely on concentration dependent circular dichroism (CD). Fluorescence methods are an attractive alternative; however Trp is rarely found in an interior position of a coiled coil, and appending unnatural fluorophores can perturb the system. We demonstrate a simple, non-perturbing method to monitor coiled coil formation using p-cyanophenylalanine (FCN) and selenomethionine (MSe), the Se analogue of Met. FCN fluorescence can be selectively excited and is effectively quenched by electron transfer with MSe. Both FCN and MSe represent minimally perturbing substitutions in coiled coils. MSe quenching of FCN fluorescence is shown to offer a non-perturbing method for following coiled coil formation and for accurately determining dissociation constants. The method is validated using a designed heterodimeric coiled coil. The KD deduced by fluorescence monitored titration is in excellent agreement with the value deduced from concentration dependent CD measurements to within the uncertainty of the measurement. However, the fluorescence approach requires less protein, is less time-consuming, can be applied to lower concentrations and could be applied to high throughput screens. PMID:27258904

  7. Temperature and species measurement in a quenching boundary layer on a flat-flame burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuyuto, Takayuki; Kronemayer, Helmut; Lewerich, Burkhard; Brübach, Jan; Fujikawa, Taketoshi; Akihama, Kazuhiro; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

    2010-10-01

    A detailed understanding of transport phenomena and reactions in near-wall boundary layers of combustion chambers is essential for further reducing pollutant emissions and improving thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. In a model experiment, the potential of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was investigated for measurements inside the boundary layer connected to flame-wall interaction at atmospheric pressure. Temperature and species distributions were measured in the quenching boundary layer formed close to a cooled metal surface located parallel to the flow of a premixed methane/air flat flame. Multi-line NO-LIF thermometry provided gas-phase temperature distributions. In addition, flame species OH, CH2O and CO were monitored by single-photon (OH, CH2O) and two-photon (CO) excitation LIF, respectively. The temperature dependence of the OH-LIF signal intensities was corrected for using the measured gas-phase temperature distributions. The spatial line-pair resolution of the imaging system was 22 μm determined by imaging microscopic line pairs printed on a resolution target. The experimental results show the expected flame quenching behavior in the boundary layer and they reveal the potential and limitations of the applied diagnostics techniques. Limitations in spatial resolution are attributed to refraction of fluorescence radiation propagating through steep temperature gradients in the boundary layer. For the present experimental arrangements, the applied diagnostics techniques are applicable as close to the wall as 200 μm with measurement precision then exceeding the 15-25% limit for species detection, with estimates of double this value for the case of H2CO due to the unknown effect of the Boltzmann fraction corrections not included in the data evaluation process. Temperature measurements are believed to be accurate within 50 K in the near-wall zone, which amounts to roughly 10% at the lower temperatures encountered in this region of the flames.

  8. Quenched near-infrared fluorescent peptide substrate for HIV-1 protease assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xinzhan; Draney, Daniel R.; Volcheck, William M.

    2006-02-01

    The HIV-1 protease enzyme is an excellent target for drug therapy of HIV infection/AIDS. To measure the protease activity and screen for potent protease inhibitors, homogeneous protease assays based on quenched fluorescent peptide substrates have been widely used as a high-throughput screening methods. The major problem in these assays is the compound interference or assay artifacts from colored or insoluble materials in the assay, e.g. assay components, screening library compounds, etc. We report in this paper a near-infrared fluorescence resonance energy transfer (NIRFRET) based HIV-1 protease assay that can dramatically reduce or completely eliminate these assay artifacts by using a novel near-IR donor-quencher pair and long wavelength excitation (780 nm) and detection (820+/-10 nm). In this assay, a HIV-1 protease peptide substrate is conjugated with a near-IR fluorescent donor (IRDye TM 800CW), and a novel near-IR non-fluorescent quencher (QC1) on opposite sides of the proteolytic cleavage site. The quencher, QC1, has extremely good spectral overlap of its absorption spectrum with the donor emission spectrum to ensure the efficient quenching of the donor's fluorescence. In the HIV-1 protease assay, this NIR-FRET system shows a large dynamic range, high signal to noise ratio, excellent Z'-factors, a wide range of DMSO tolerance, and no compound interference. This system provides a sensitive, robust assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) and can be readily adapted to other therapeutically significant protease targets.

  9. Auger Recombination in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Quenching and Broadening of the Charged Exciton Transition.

    PubMed

    Kurzmann, Annika; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Lorke, Axel; Geller, Martin

    2016-05-11

    In quantum dots (QDs), the Auger recombination is a nonradiative process in which the electron-hole recombination energy is transferred to an additional carrier. It has been studied mostly in colloidal QDs, where the Auger recombination time is in the picosecond range and efficiently quenches the light emission. In self-assembled QDs, on the other hand, the influence of Auger recombination on the optical properties is in general neglected, assuming that it is masked by other processes such as spin and charge fluctuations. Here, we use time-resolved resonance fluorescence to analyze the Auger recombination and its influence on the optical properties of a single self-assembled QD. From excitation-power-dependent measurements, we find a long Auger recombination time of about 500 ns and a quenching of the trion transition by about 80%. Furthermore, we observe a broadening of the trion transition line width by up to a factor of 2. With a model based on rate equations, we are able to identify the interplay between tunneling and Auger rate as the underlying mechanism for the reduced intensity and the broadening of the line width. This demonstrates that self-assembled QDs can serve as an ideal model system to study how the charge recapture process, given by the band-structure surrounding the confined carriers, influences the Auger process. Our findings are not only relevant for improving the emission properties of colloidal QD-based emitters and dyes, which have recently entered the consumer market, but also of interest for more visionary applications, such as quantum information technologies, based on self-assembled quantum dots.

  10. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  11. Two-photon excited quantum dots as energy donors for photosensitizer chlorin e6.

    PubMed

    Skripka, Artiom; Valanciunaite, Jurga; Dauderis, Gediminas; Poderys, Vilius; Kubiliute, Reda; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2013-07-01

    The excitation-related problems in photodynamic therapy of cancer might be solved by combining two-photon (TP) irradiation and quantum dots (QDs) as effective energy donors for conventional photosensitizers (PS). Here, it is demonstrated for the first time that QD-chlorin e6 (Ce6) complex formed due to the hydrophobic interaction between Ce6 molecules and lipid coating of QDs can be effectively excited via TP irradiation at 1030 nm, which spectrally coincides with the biological tissue optical window. TP absorption cross-section for free QDs and Ce6 at 1030 nm was 3325 and 13 Goeppert-Mayer, respectively. Upon TP excitation of QD-Ce6 solution, the fluorescence band of bound Ce6 molecules was observed via energy transfer from excited QDs. Increasing concentration of Ce6 resulted in quenching of the photoluminescence of QDs and an increase in the fluorescence intensity of bound Ce6 molecules. These intensity changes coincided well with those observed upon single-photon excitation of QD-Ce6 solution when QDs alone are excited. The efficiency of energy transfer in QD-Ce6 complex upon TP excitation was about 80% (QD∶Ce61∶5). These results indicate that the effective excitation of PS with a low TP absorption cross-section is possible in such type noncovalent complexes via energy transfer from TP excited QDs.

  12. Two-photon excited quantum dots as energy donors for photosensitizer chlorin e6.

    PubMed

    Skripka, Artiom; Valanciunaite, Jurga; Dauderis, Gediminas; Poderys, Vilius; Kubiliute, Reda; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2013-07-01

    The excitation-related problems in photodynamic therapy of cancer might be solved by combining two-photon (TP) irradiation and quantum dots (QDs) as effective energy donors for conventional photosensitizers (PS). Here, it is demonstrated for the first time that QD-chlorin e6 (Ce6) complex formed due to the hydrophobic interaction between Ce6 molecules and lipid coating of QDs can be effectively excited via TP irradiation at 1030 nm, which spectrally coincides with the biological tissue optical window. TP absorption cross-section for free QDs and Ce6 at 1030 nm was 3325 and 13 Goeppert-Mayer, respectively. Upon TP excitation of QD-Ce6 solution, the fluorescence band of bound Ce6 molecules was observed via energy transfer from excited QDs. Increasing concentration of Ce6 resulted in quenching of the photoluminescence of QDs and an increase in the fluorescence intensity of bound Ce6 molecules. These intensity changes coincided well with those observed upon single-photon excitation of QD-Ce6 solution when QDs alone are excited. The efficiency of energy transfer in QD-Ce6 complex upon TP excitation was about 80% (QD∶Ce61∶5). These results indicate that the effective excitation of PS with a low TP absorption cross-section is possible in such type noncovalent complexes via energy transfer from TP excited QDs. PMID:23864017

  13. Kinetics of the nitrogen first negative system excitation by ionising radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Khasenov, M U

    2005-12-31

    The rate constants of N{sub 2}{sup +}(B) quenching by nitrogen and helium and of two- and three-body charge exchange of He{sub 2}{sup +} on H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and Kr are measured from luminescence at the 0-0 transition of the first negative system of nitrogen in mixtures of helium and nitrogen with hydrogen, krypton or deuterium excited by alpha particles emitted by {sup 210}Po . (active media)

  14. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.

    1985-08-06

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

  15. Aperture excited dielectric antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.; Mason, V. B.; Tai, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the effect of placing dielectric objects over the aperture of waveguide antennas are presented. Experimental measurements of the radiation patterns, gain, impedance, near-field amplitude, and pattern and impedance coupling between pairs of antennas are given for various Plexiglas shapes, including the sphere and the cube, excited by rectangular, circular, and square waveguide feed apertures. The waveguide excitation of a dielectric sphere is modeled using the Huygens' source, and expressions for the resulting electric fields, directivity, and efficiency are derived. Calculations using this model show good overall agreement with experimental patterns and directivity measurements. The waveguide under an infinite dielectric slab is used as an impedance model. Calculations using this model agree qualitatively with the measured impedance data. It is concluded that dielectric loaded antennas such as the waveguide excited sphere, cube, or sphere-cylinder can produce directivities in excess of that obtained by a uniformly illuminated aperture of the same cross section, particularly for dielectric objects with dimensions of 2 wavelengths or less. It is also shown that for certain configurations coupling between two antennas of this type is less than that for the same antennas without dielectric loading.

  16. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1992-07-31

    Conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used to study the intermediates involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. These intermediates were excited state of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and species formed in reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern was the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes. (DLC)

  17. Cooling and Infrared Emission due to Molecular Collisional Excitation in Astrophysical Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Phillip

    2011-06-01

    Non-thermal popluations of molecules in a variety of astronomical environments, including photodissociation regions, X-ray dominated regions, and protoplanetary disks, are controlled by collisional excitation and quenching of their rovibrational levels. The important colliders are the dominant neutral species: H, He, and H2. Resulting emission lines are primary cooling transitions and can be observed by current and upcoming IR/submillimeter observatories including Spitzer, Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. Modeling these environments, however, requires large-scale computation of collisional excitation processes. The status, needs, and astrophysical applications for important molecular targets will be reviewed including H2, HD, CO, H2O, and NH3.

  18. Quench sensitivity of hot extruded 6061-T6 and 6069-T6 aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsma, S C; Kassner, M E; Li, X; Rosen, R S

    2000-08-08

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the quench sensitivity of mechanical properties of hot extruded 6061 and 6069 aluminum alloys. The relationship between mechanical properties and quench delzty time at various temperatures between 200-500 C was determined. It was concluded that the 6069-T6 was somewhat more quench sensitive than 6061, which may be consistent with the composition difference.

  19. Contribution of electronically excited states to the radiation chemistry of organic systems. Progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a perfluorocarbon to quench the photoionization current of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) in a non-polar liquid has been studied as a function of temperature, excitation energy and the nature and composition of the solution. A model is developed to explain the results on the basis of an interaction of the quencher with an epithermal electron. Contact charge-transfer bands involving saturated hydrocarbons and perfluorocycloalkanes have been discovered. Similar bands are not observed for hydrocarbon contact with perfluoro-n-alkanes. Also, perfluorocycloalkanes are found to have very strong quenching effect on saturated hydrocarbon fluorescence. Analysis of the quenching behavior indicates unusually large (approx. = 14 A) encounter radii for this quenching interaction. A long-range charge transfer appears to be implicated. The fluorescence quantum yield of liquid cyclohexane has been determined for excitation wavelengths from 165 nm to 178 nm. This data together with new measurements on the intensity of fluorescence of cyclohexane liquid excited by /sup 85/Kr beta particles confirms that G(S/sub 1/) = 1.45. The ratio of excimer to monomer fluorescence of dilute solutions of polystyrene in various solvents has been observed to increase with increasing polymer molecular weight and decreasing thermodynamic quality of the solvent. The effects are demonstrated to be not attributable to excimer formation via non-adjacent sites.

  20. Quenched dynamics of superconducting Dirac fermions on honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ming; Xie, X. C.; X. C. Xie's group Team

    We study the BCS paring dynamics for the superconducting Dirac fermions on honeycomb lattice after a sudden quench of pairing strength. We observe two distinct phases, one is the synchronized phase with undamped oscillations of paring amplitude; the other phase has the paring amplitude oscillates from positive to negative. The exact phase transition point is given by investigating the integrability of the system. Different from the previous work on normal superconducting fermions, which has three distinct phases, our results shows the absence of the Landau damped phase and over damped phase. Moreover, we present a linear analysis in the weakly quenched regime, showing that in a rather long time scale, the dynamics can be approximated as the periodic oscillation with 2Δ∞ angular frequency along with the logarithmic decay of the pairing amplitude, in contrast of the t - 1 / 2 decay for the normal fermions, namely the Landau damped phase. The presenter's advisor.