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Sample records for nonphotochemical excitation quenching

  1. Alteration of photosystem II properties with non-photochemical excitation quenching.

    PubMed Central

    Laisk, A; Oja, V

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen yield from single turnover flashes and multiple turnover pulses was measured in sunflower leaves differently pre-illuminated to induce either 'energy-dependent type' non-photochemical excitation quenching (qE) or reversible, inhibitory type non-photochemical quenching (qI). A zirconium O2 analyser, combined with a flexible gas system, was used for these measurements. Oxygen yield from saturating single turnover flashes was the equivalent of 1.3-2.0 micromole(-) m(-2) in leaves pre-adapted to low light. It did not decrease when qE quenching was induced by a 1 min exposure to saturating light, but it decreased when pre-illumination was extended to 30-60 min. Oxygen evolution from saturating multiple turnover pulses behaved similarly: it did not decrease with the rapidly induced qE but decreased considerably when exposure to saturating light was extended or O2 concentration was decreased to 0.4%. Parallel recording of chlorophyll fluorescence and O2 evolution during multiple turnover pulses, interpreted with the help of a mathematical model of photosystem II (PS II) electron transport, revealed PS II donor and acceptor side resistances. These experiments showed that PS II properties depend on the type of non-photochemical quenching present. The rapidly induced and rapidly reversible qE type (photoprotective) quenching does not induce changes in the number of active PS II or in the PS II maximum turnover rate, thus confirming the antenna mechanism of qE. The more slowly induced but still reversible qE type quenching (photoinactivation) induced a decrease in the number of active PS II and in the maximum PS II turnover rate. Modelling showed that, mainly, the acceptor side resistance of PS II increased in parallel with the reversible qI. PMID:11127995

  2. Quantum Yields and Rate Constants of Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Excitation Quenching (Experiment and Model).

    PubMed Central

    Laisk, A.; Oja, V.; Rasulov, B.; Eichelmann, H.; Sumberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.), amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.), and cytochrome b6f complex-deficient transgenic tobacco leaves were used to test the response of plants exposed to differnt light intensities and CO2 concentrations before and after photoinhibition at 4000 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 and to thermoinhibition up to 45[deg]C. Quantum yields of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching (YP and YN) and the corresponding relative rate constants for excitation capture from the antenna-primary radical pair equilibrium system (k[prime]P and k[prime]N) were calculated from measured fluorescence parameters. The above treatments resulted in decreases in YP and K[prime]P and in approximately complementary increases in YN and K[prime]N under normal and inhibitory conditions. The results were reproduced by a mathematical model of electron/proton transport and O2 evolution/CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis based on budget equations for the intermediates of photosynthesis. Quantitative differences between model predictions and experiments are explainable, assuming that electron transport is organized into domains that contain relatively complete electron and proton transport chains (e.g. thylakoids). With the complementation that occurs between the photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching, the regulatory system can constantly maintain the shortest lifetime of excitation necessary to avoid the formation of chlorophyll triplet states and singlet oxygen. PMID:12223845

  3. Beller Lectureship Talk: Ultrafast Excitation Energy Transfer and the Mechanism of Non-Photochemical Quenching in Plant Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grondelle, Rienk

    2011-03-01

    The success of photosynthesis relies on two ultrafast processes: excitation energy transfer in the light-harvesting antenna followed by charge separation in the reaction center. LHCII, the peripheral light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II, plays a major role. At the same time, the same light-harvesting system can be `switched' into a quenching state, which effectively protects the reaction center of Photosystem II from over-excitation and photodamage. In this talk I will demonstrate how LHCII collects and transfers excitation energy. Using single molecule spectroscopy we have discovered how LHCII can switch between this light-harvesting state, a quenched state and a red-shifted state. We show that the switching properties between the light-harvesting state and the quenched state depend strongly on the environmental conditions, where the quenched state is favoured under `NPQ-like' conditions. It is argued that this is the mechanism of non-photochemical quenching in plants.

  4. The Transiently Generated Nonphotochemical Quenching of Excitation Energy in Arabidopsis Leaves Is Modulated by Zeaxanthin1

    PubMed Central

    Kalituho, Ljudmila; Beran, Karl Christian; Jahns, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Upon the transition of dark-adapted plants to low light, the energy-dependent quenching (qE) of excitation energy is only transiently induced due to the only transient generation of the transthylakoid pH gradient. We investigated the transient qE (qETR) in different Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants. In dark-adapted plants, qETR was absent in the npq4 mutant (deficient in the PsbS protein) and the pgr1 mutant (restricted in lumen acidification). In comparison with wild-type plants, qETR was reduced in the zeaxanthin (Zx)-deficient npq1 mutant and increased in the Zx-accumulating npq2 mutant. After preillumination of plants (to allow the synthesis of large amounts of Zx), the formation and relaxation of qETR was accelerated in all plants (except for npq4) in comparison with the respective dark-adapted plants. The extent of qETR, however, was unchanged in npq1 and npq4, decreased in npq2, but increased in wild-type and pgr1 plants. Even in presence of high levels of Zx, qETR in pgr1 mutants was still lower than that in wild-type plants. In the presence of the uncoupler nigericin, qETR was completely abolished in all genotypes. Thus, the transient qETR shows essentially the same characteristics as the steady-state qE; it is strictly dependent on the PsbS protein and a low lumen pH, but the extent of qETR is largely modulated by Zx. These results indicate that qETR does not represent a different quenching mechanism in comparison with the steady-state qE, but simply reflects the response of qE to the dynamics of the lumen pH during light activation of photosynthesis. PMID:17416642

  5. Dissipation of excess excitation energy by drought-induced nonphotochemical quenching in two species of drought-tolerant moss: desiccation-induced acceleration of photosystem II fluorescence decay.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Hisanori; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-07-02

    Drought-tolerant mosses survive with their green color intact even after long periods of dehydration that would kill ordinary plants. The mechanism of dissipation of excitation energy under drought stress was studied in two species of drought-tolerant moss, Rhytidium rugosum and Ceratodon purpureus. They showed severe quenching of photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence (PSII) after being dehydrated in the dark. Quenching was induced by the acceleration of the fluorescence decay rate. This drought-induced nonphotochemical quenching (designated d-NPQ) was fully reversed by rehydration. Global analysis of fluorescence decay at 77 K indicated rapid 46 ps transfer of excitation energy from the 680-690 nm PSII bands to a 710 nm band, and to 740-760 nm bands. The latter bands decayed to the ground state with the same time constant showing the rapid dissipation of excitation energy into heat. The quenching by d-NPQ in dry moss was stronger than that by PSII charge separation or nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), which operates under hydrating conditions. Drought-tolerant mosses, thus, dissipate excess excitation energy into heat. The d-NPQ mechanism in moss resembles that reported in lichens, suggesting their common origin.

  6. Nonphotochemical quenching of excitation energy in photosystem II. A picosecond time-resolved study of the low yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence induced by single-turnover flash in isolated spinach thylakoids.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, S; Bruce, D

    1998-08-04

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence emission is widely used as a noninvasive measure of a number of parameters related to photosynthetic efficiency in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. The most important component for the estimation of photochemistry is the relative increase in fluorescence yield between dark-adapted samples which have a maximal capacity for photochemistry and a minimal fluorescence yield (F0) and light-saturated samples where photochemistry is saturated and fluorescence yield is maximal (Fm). However, when photosynthesis is saturated with a short (less than 50 micro(s)) flash of light, which induces only one photochemical turnover of photosystem II, the maximal fluorescence yield is significantly lower (Fsat) than when saturation is achieved with a millisecond duration multiturnover flash (Fm). To investigate the origins of the difference in fluorescence yield between these two conditions, our time-resolved fluorescence apparatus was modified to allow collection of picosecond time-resolved decay kinetics over a short time window immediately following a saturating single-turnover flash (Fsat) as well as after a multiturnover saturating pulse (Fm). Our data were analyzed with a global kinetic model based on an exciton radical pair equilibrium model for photosystem II. The difference between Fm and Fsat was modeled well by changing only the rate constant for quenching of excitation energy in the antenna of photosystem II. An antenna-based origin for the quenching was verified experimentally by the observation that addition of the antenna quencher 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone to thylakoids under Fm conditions resulted in decay kinetics and modeled kinetic parameters very similar to those observed under Fsat conditions in the absence of added quinone. Our data strongly support the origin of low fluorescence yield at Fsat to be an antenna-based nonphotochemical quenching of excitation energy in photosystem II which has not usually been considered explicitly in

  7. Non-photochemical fluorescence quenching and the diadinoxanthin cycle in a marine diatom.

    PubMed

    Olaizola, M; La Roche, J; Kolber, Z; Falkowski, P G

    1994-08-01

    The diadinoxanthin cycle (DD-cycle) in chromophyte algae involves the interconversion of two carotenoids, diadinoxanthin (DD) and diatoxanthin (DT). We investigated the kinetics of light-induced DD-cycling in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and its role in dissipating excess excitation energy in PS II. Within 15 min following an increase in irradiance, DT increased and was accompanied by a stoichiometric decrease in DD. This reaction was completely blocked by dithiothreitol (DTT). A second, time-dependent, increase in DT was detected ∼ 20 min after the light shift without a concomitant decrease in DD. DT accumulation from both processes was correlated with increases in non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Stern-Volmer analyses suggests that changes in non-photochemical quenching resulted from changes in thermal dissipation in the PS II antenna and in the reaction center. The increase in non-photochemical quenching was correlated with a small decrease in the effective absorption cross section of PS II. Model calculations suggest however that the changes in cross section are not sufficiently large to significantly reduce multiple excitation of the reaction center within the turnover time of steady-state photosynthetic electron transport at light saturation. In DTT poisoned cells, the change in non-photochemical quenching appears to result from energy dissipation in the reaction center and was associated with decreased photochemical efficiency. D1 protein degradation was slightly higher in samples poisoned with DTT than in control samples. These results suggest that while DD-cycling may dynamically alter the photosynthesis-irradiance response curve, it offers limited protection against photodamage of PS II reaction centers at irradiance levels sufficient to saturate steady-state photosynthesis.

  8. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich; Nesterov, Alexander; Lopez, Gustavo; Sayre, Richard Thomas

    2015-04-23

    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  9. Carotenoid radical cations as a probe for the molecular mechanism of nonphotochemical quenching in oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Amarie, Sergiu; Standfuss, Jörg; Barros, Tiago; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Dreuw, Andreas; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2007-04-05

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. Recently, carotenoid radical cation (Car*+) formation has been discovered to be a key step for the feedback deexcitation quenching mechanism (qE), a component of NPQ, of which the molecular mechanism and location is still unknown. We have generated and characterized carotenoid radical cations by means of resonant two color, two photon ionization (R2C2PI) spectroscopy. The Car*+ bands have maxima located at 830 nm (violaxanthin), 880 nm (lutein), 900 nm (zeaxanthin), and 920 nm (beta-carotene). The positions of these maxima depend strongly on solution conditions, the number of conjugated C=C bonds, and molecular structure. Furthermore, R2C2PI measurements on the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II) samples with or without zeaxanthin (Zea) reveal the violaxanthin (Vio) radical cation (Vio*+) band at 909 nm and the Zea*+ band at 983 nm. The replacement of Vio by Zea in the light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) has no influence on the Chl excitation lifetime, and by exciting the Chls lowest excited state, no additional rise and decay corresponding to the Car*+ signal observed previously during qE was detected in the spectral range investigated (800-1050 nm). On the basis of our findings, the mechanism of qE involving the simple replacement of Vio with Zea in LHC II needs to be reconsidered.

  10. O2-dependent electron flow, membrane energization and the mechanism of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, U; Neubauer, C

    1990-09-01

    Recent progress in chlorophyll fluorescence research is reviewed, with emphasis on separation of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and qN) by the 'saturation pulse method'. This is part of an introductory talk at the Wageningen Meeting on 'The use of chlorophyll fluorescence and other non-invasive techniques in plant stress physiology'. The sequence of events is investigated which leads to down-regulation of PS II quantum yield in vivo, expressed in formation of qN. The role of O2-dependent electron flow for ΔpH- and qN-formation is emphasized. Previous conclusions on the rate of 'pseudocyclic' transport are re-evaluated in view of high ascorbate peroxidase activity observed in intact chloroplasts. It is proposed that the combined Mehler-Peroxidase reaction is responsible for most of the qN developed when CO2-assimilation is limited. Dithiothreitol is shown to inhibit part of qN-formation as well as peroxidase-induced electron flow. As to the actual mechanism of non-photochemical quenching, it is demonstrated that quenching is favored by treatments which slow down reactions at the PS II donor side. The same treatments are shown to stimulate charge recombination, as measured via 50 μs luminescence. It is suggested that also in vivo internal thylakoid acidification leads to stimulation of charge recombination, although on a more rapid time scale. A unifying model is proposed, incorporating reaction center and antenna quenching, with primary control of ΔpH at the PS II reaction center, involving radical pair spin transition and charge recombination to the triplet state in a first quenching step. In a second step, triplet excitation is trapped by zeaxanthin (if present) which in its triplet excited state causes additional quenching of singlet excited chlorophyll.

  11. ΔpH-dependent non-photochemical quenching (qE) of excited chlorophylls in the photosystem II core complex of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Kostas; Papageorgiou, George C

    2014-08-01

    Light-induced and lumen acidity-dependent quenching (qE) of excited chlorophylls (Chl) in vivo has been amply documented in plants and algae, but not in cyanobacteria, using primarily the saturation pulse method of quenching analysis which is applied to continuously illuminated samples. This method is unsuitable for cyanobacteria because the background illumination elicits in them a very large Chl a fluorescence signal, due to a state 2 to state 1 transition, which masks fluorescence changes due to other causes. We investigated the qE problem in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 using a kinetic method (Chl a fluorescence induction) with which qE can be examined before the onset of the state 2 to state 1 transition and the attendant rise of Chl a fluorescence. Our results confirm the existence of a qE mechanism that operates on excited Chls a in Photosystem II core complexes of cyanobacteria.

  12. Ecophysiology of photosynthesis in bryophytes: major roles for oxygen photoreduction and non-photochemical quenching?

    PubMed

    Proctor, Michael C F; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2011-02-01

    CO(2) fixation in mosses saturates at moderate irradiances. Relative electron transport rate (RETR) inferred from chlorophyll fluorescence saturates at similar irradiance in shade species (e.g. Plagiomnium undulatum, Trichocolea tomentella), but many species of unshaded habitats (e.g. Andreaea rothii, Schistidium apocarpum, Sphagnum spp. and Frullania dilatata) show non-saturating RETR at high irradiance, with high non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In P. undulatum and S. apocarpum, experiments in different gas mixtures showed O(2) and CO(2) as interchangeable electron sinks. Nitrogen + saturating CO(2) gave high RETR and depressed NPQ. In S. apocarpum, glycolaldehyde (inhibiting photosynthesis and photorespiration) depressed RETR in air more at low than at high irradiance; in CO(2) -free air RETR was maintained at all irradiances. Non-saturating electron flow was not suppressed in ambient CO(2) with 1% O(2) . The results indicate high capacity for oxygen photoreduction when CO(2) assimilation is limited. Non-saturating light-dependent H(2) O(2) production, insensitive to glycolaldehyde, suggests that electron transport is supported by oxygen photoreduction, perhaps via the Mehler-peroxidase reaction. Consistent with this, mosses were highly tolerant to paraquat, which generates superoxide at photosystem I (PSI). Protection against excess excitation energy in mosses involves high capacity for photosynthetic electron transport to oxygen and high NPQ, activated at high irradiance, alongside high reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance.

  13. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Breitholtz, Hanna-Leena; Srivastava, Renu; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex II (LHC II) proteins is induced in light via activation of the LHC II kinase by reduction of cytochrome b(6)f complex in thylakoid membranes. We have recently shown that, besides this activation, the LHC II kinase can be regulated in vitro by a thioredoxin-like component, and H2O2 that inserts an inhibitory loop in the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In order to disclose the complex network for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana. In comparison to wild-type, these mutants showed reduced non-photochemical quenching and increased excitation pressure of Photosystem II (PS II) under physiological light intensities. Peculiar regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation was observed in mutant leaves under illumination. The npq4-1 mutant was able to maintain a high amount of phosphorylated LHC II proteins in thylakoid membranes at light intensities that induced inhibition of phosphorylation in wild-type leaves. Light intensity-dependent changes in the level of LHC II protein phosphorylation were smaller in the npq1-2 mutant compared to the wild-type. No significant differences in leaf thickness, dry weight, chlorophyll content, or the amount of LHC II proteins were observed between the two mutant and wild-type lines. We propose that the reduced capacity of the mutant lines to dissipate excess excitation energy induces changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, which consequently affects the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation.

  14. Kinetic and spectral resolution of multiple nonphotochemical quenching components in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Lambrev, Petar H; Nilkens, Manuela; Miloslavina, Yuliya; Jahns, Peter; Holzwarth, Alfred R

    2010-03-01

    Using novel specially designed instrumentation, fluorescence emission spectra were recorded from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves during the induction period of dark to high-light adaptation in order to follow the spectral changes associated with the formation of nonphotochemical quenching. In addition to an overall decrease of photosystem II fluorescence (quenching) across the entire spectrum, high light induced two specific relative changes in the spectra: (1) a decrease of the main emission band at 682 nm relative to the far-red (750-760 nm) part of the spectrum (Delta F(682)); and (2) an increase at 720 to 730 nm (Delta F(720)) relative to 750 to 760 nm. The kinetics of the two relative spectral changes and their dependence on various mutants revealed that they do not originate from the same process but rather from at least two independent processes. The Delta F(720) change is specifically associated with the rapidly reversible energy-dependent quenching. Comparison of the wild-type Arabidopsis with mutants unable to produce or overexpressing the PsbS subunit of photosystem II showed that PsbS was a necessary component for Delta F(720). The spectral change Delta F(682) is induced both by energy-dependent quenching and by PsbS-independent mechanism(s). A third novel quenching process, independent from both PsbS and zeaxanthin, is activated by a high turnover rate of photosystem II. Its induction and relaxation occur on a time scale of a few minutes. Analysis of the spectral inhomogeneity of nonphotochemical quenching allows extraction of mechanistically valuable information from the fluorescence induction kinetics when registered in a spectrally resolved fashion.

  15. Relaxation of the non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in diatoms: kinetics, components and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Roháček, Karel; Bertrand, Martine; Moreau, Brigitte; Jacquette, Boris; Caplat, Christelle; Morant-Manceau, Annick; Schoefs, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are especially important microorganisms because they constitute the larger group of microalgae. To survive the constant variations of the light environment, diatoms have developed mechanisms aiming at the dissipation of excess energy, such as the xanthophyll cycle and the non-photochemical chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching. This contribution is dedicated to the relaxation of the latter process when the adverse conditions cease. An original nonlinear regression analysis of the relaxation of non-photochemical Chl fluorescence quenching, qN, in diatoms is presented. It was used to obtain experimental evidence for the existence of three time-resolved components in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum: qNf, qNi and qNs. qNf (s time-scale) and qNs (h time-scale) are exponential in shape. By contrast, qNi (min time-scale) is of sigmoidal nature and is dominant among the three components. The application of metabolic inhibitors (dithiothreitol, ammonium chloride, cadmium and diphenyleneiodonium chloride) allowed the identification of the mechanisms on which each component mostly relies. qNi is linked to the relaxation of the ΔpH gradient and the reversal of the xanthophyll cycle. qNs quantifies the stage of photoinhibition caused by the high light exposure, qNf seems to reflect fast conformational changes within thylakoid membranes in the vicinity of the photosystem II complexes. PMID:24591721

  16. Proton equilibration in the chloroplast modulates multiphasic kinetics of nonphotochemical quenching of fluorescence in plants.

    PubMed

    Joliot, Pierre A; Finazzi, Giovanni

    2010-07-13

    In plants, the major route for dissipating excess light is the nonphotochemical quenching of absorbed light (NPQ), which is associated with thylakoid lumen acidification. Our data offer an interpretation for the complex relationship between changes in luminal pH and the NPQ response. Upon steady-state illumination, fast NPQ relaxation in the dark reflects the equilibration between the electrochemical proton gradient established in the light and the cellular ATP/ADP+Pi ratio. This is followed by a slower phase, which reflects the decay of the proton motive force at equilibrium, due to gradual cellular ATP consumption. In transient conditions, a sustained lag appears in both quenching onset and relaxation, which is modulated by the size of the antenna complexes of photosystem II and by cyclic electron flow around photosystem I. We propose that this phenomenon reflects the signature of protonation of specific domains in the antenna and of slow H(+) diffusion in the different domains of the chloroplast.

  17. On improving the performance of nonphotochemical quenching in CP29 light-harvesting antenna complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Sayre, Richard T.; Still, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    We model and simulate the performance of charge-transfer in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in the CP29 light-harvesting antenna-complex associated with photosystem II (PSII). The model consists of five discrete excitonic energy states and two sinks, responsible for the potentially damaging processes and charge-transfer channels, respectively. We demonstrate that by varying (i) the parameters of the chlorophyll-based dimer, (ii) the resonant properties of the protein-solvent environment interaction, and (iii) the energy transfer rates to the sinks, one can significantly improve the performance of the NPQ. Our analysis suggests strategies for improving the performance of the NPQ in response to environmental changes, and may stimulate experimental verification.

  18. Increased biomass productivity in green algae by tuning non-photochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Berteotti, Silvia; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto

    2016-02-18

    Photosynthetic microalgae have a high potential for the production of biofuels and highly valued metabolites. However, their current industrial exploitation is limited by a productivity in photobioreactors that is low compared to potential productivity. The high cell density and pigment content of the surface layers of photosynthetic microalgae result in absorption of excess photons and energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ prevents photoinhibition, but its activation reduces the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is catalyzed by protein subunits encoded by three lhcsr (light harvesting complex stress related) genes. Here, we show that heat dissipation and biomass productivity depends on LHCSR protein accumulation. Indeed, algal strains lacking two lhcsr genes can grow in a wide range of light growth conditions without suffering from photoinhibition and are more productive than wild-type. Thus, the down-regulation of NPQ appears to be a suitable strategy for improving light use efficiency for biomass and biofuel production in microalgae.

  19. On improving the performance of nonphotochemical quenching in CP29 light-harvesting antenna complex

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Sayre, Richard Thomas; Still, Susanne

    2016-02-02

    In this study, we model and simulate the performance of charge-transfer in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in the CP29 light-harvesting antenna-complex associated with photosystem II (PSII). The model consists of five discrete excitonic energy states and two sinks, responsible for the potentially damaging processes and charge-transfer channels, respectively. We demonstrate that by varying (i) the parameters of the chlorophyll-based dimer, (ii) the resonant properties of the protein-solvent environment interaction, and (iii) the energy transfer rates to the sinks, one can significantly improve the performance of the NPQ. In conclusion, our analysis suggests strategies for improving the performance of the NPQ in response to environmental changes, and may stimulate experimental verification.

  20. On improving the performance of nonphotochemical quenching in CP29 light-harvesting antenna complex

    DOE PAGES

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Sayre, Richard Thomas; ...

    2016-02-02

    In this study, we model and simulate the performance of charge-transfer in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in the CP29 light-harvesting antenna-complex associated with photosystem II (PSII). The model consists of five discrete excitonic energy states and two sinks, responsible for the potentially damaging processes and charge-transfer channels, respectively. We demonstrate that by varying (i) the parameters of the chlorophyll-based dimer, (ii) the resonant properties of the protein-solvent environment interaction, and (iii) the energy transfer rates to the sinks, one can significantly improve the performance of the NPQ. In conclusion, our analysis suggests strategies for improving the performance of the NPQ inmore » response to environmental changes, and may stimulate experimental verification.« less

  1. Light harvesting and blue-green light induced non-photochemical quenching in two different C-phycocyanin mutants of Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lijin; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Koehorst, Rob B M; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2013-09-26

    Cyanobacteria are oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms that harvest sunlight and convert excitation energy into chemical energy. Most of the light is absorbed by large light harvesting complexes called phycobilisomes (PBs). In high-light conditions, cyanobacteria switch on a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ): During this process, absorption of blue-green light transforms the inactive orange form of the orange carotenoid protein OCP (OCP(o)) into the red active form OCP(r) that subsequently binds to the PB, resulting in a substantial loss of excitation energy and corresponding decrease of the fluorescence. In wild-type cells, the quenching site is a bilin chomophore that fluoresces at 660 nm and which is called APC(Q)(660). In the present work, we studied NPQ in two different types of mutant cells (CB and CK) that possess significantly truncated PBs, using spectrally resolved picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are in very good agreement with earlier in vitro experiments on quenched and unquenched PBs, although the fraction of quenched PBs is far lower in vivo. It is also lower than the fraction of PBs that is quenched in wild-type cells, but the site, rate, and location of quenching appear to be very similar.

  2. Genetic variability associated with photosynthetic pigment concentration, and photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching, in strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bañares-España, Elena; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo; Salgado, Concepción; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2007-06-01

    Although populations of cyanobacteria are usually considered to be clonal, their capacity to survive environmental changes suggests intrapopulation genetic variation. We therefore estimated the genetic variability on the basis of two processes important for any photoautotroph - photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching - as well as photosynthetic pigment concentrations. For this purpose, two parameters related to photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching were measured using specific experimental and statistical procedures, in 25 strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, along with their contents of chlorophyll a, total carotenoids and phycocyanin. The experimental procedure allowed discrimination between genetic and nongenetic (or residual) variability among strains. The high genetic variability found in photosynthetic pigments and both photosynthetic parameters denotes large differences even among strains isolated from the same community. The high genetic diversity within a population could be important for the evolutionary success of cyanobacteria.

  3. Nonphotochemical Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching: Mechanism and Effectiveness in Protecting Plants from Photodamage1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We review the mechanism underlying nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) and its role in protecting plants against photoinhibition. This review includes an introduction to this phenomenon, a brief history of major milestones in our understanding of NPQ, definitions, and a discussion of quantitative measurements of NPQ. We discuss the current knowledge and unknown aspects in the NPQ scenario, including the following: ΔpH, the proton gradient (trigger); light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), PSII light harvesting antenna (site); and changes in the antenna induced by ΔpH (change), which lead to the creation of the quencher. We conclude that the minimum requirements for NPQ in vivo are ΔpH, LHCII complexes, and the PsbS protein. We highlight the most important unknown in the NPQ scenario, the mechanism by which PsbS acts upon the LHCII antenna. Finally, we describe a novel, emerging technology for assessing the photoprotective “power” of NPQ and the important findings obtained through this technology. PMID:26864015

  4. Increased biomass productivity in green algae by tuning non-photochemical quenching

    PubMed Central

    Berteotti, Silvia; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have a high potential for the production of biofuels and highly valued metabolites. However, their current industrial exploitation is limited by a productivity in photobioreactors that is low compared to potential productivity. The high cell density and pigment content of the surface layers of photosynthetic microalgae result in absorption of excess photons and energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ prevents photoinhibition, but its activation reduces the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is catalyzed by protein subunits encoded by three lhcsr (light harvesting complex stress related) genes. Here, we show that heat dissipation and biomass productivity depends on LHCSR protein accumulation. Indeed, algal strains lacking two lhcsr genes can grow in a wide range of light growth conditions without suffering from photoinhibition and are more productive than wild-type. Thus, the down-regulation of NPQ appears to be a suitable strategy for improving light use efficiency for biomass and biofuel production in microalgae. PMID:26888481

  5. Possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects in nonphotochemical quenching in photosynthetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Berman, Gennady P; Nesterov, Alexander I; Gurvitz, Shmuel; Sayre, Richard T

    2017-01-01

    We analyze theoretically a simple and consistent quantum mechanical model that reveals the possible role of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The model consists of a network of five interconnected sites (excitonic states of light-sensitive molecules) responsible for the NPQ mechanism. The model also includes the "damaging" and the dissipative channels. The damaging channel is responsible for production of singlet oxygen and other destructive outcomes. In our model, both damaging and "dissipative" charge transfer channels are described by discrete electron energy levels attached to their sinks, that mimic the continuum part of electron energy spectrum. All five excitonic sites interact with the protein environment that is modeled using a stochastic process. Our approach allowed us to derive the exact and closed system of linear ordinary differential equations for the reduced density matrix and its first momentums. These equations are solved numerically including for strong interactions between the light-sensitive molecules and protein environment. As an example, we apply our model to demonstrate possible contributions of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the NPQ mechanism in the CP29 minor LHC. The numerical simulations show that using proper combination of quantum interference effects, properties of noise, and sinks, one can significantly suppress the damaging channel. Our findings demonstrate the possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects for modeling, engineering, and optimizing the performance of the NPQ processes in both natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes.

  6. Arctic Micromonas uses protein pools and non-photochemical quenching to cope with temperature restrictions on Photosystem II protein turnover.

    PubMed

    Ni, Guangyan; Zimbalatti, Gabrielle; Murphy, Cole D; Barnett, Audrey B; Arsenault, Christopher M; Li, Gang; Cockshutt, Amanda M; Campbell, Douglas A

    2017-02-01

    Micromonas strains of small prasinophyte green algae are found throughout the world's oceans, exploiting widely different niches. We grew arctic and temperate strains of Micromonas and compared their susceptibilities to photoinactivation of Photosystem II, their counteracting Photosystem II repair capacities, their Photosystem II content, and their induction and relaxation of non-photochemical quenching. In the arctic strain Micromonas NCMA 2099, the cellular content of active Photosystem II represents only about 50 % of total Photosystem II protein, as a slow rate constant for clearance of PsbA protein limits instantaneous repair. In contrast, the temperate strain NCMA 1646 shows a faster clearance of PsbA protein which allows it to maintain active Photosystem II content equivalent to total Photosystem II protein. Under growth at 2 °C, the arctic Micromonas maintains a constitutive induction of xanthophyll deepoxidation, shown by second-derivative whole-cell spectra, which supports strong induction of non-photochemical quenching under low to moderate light, even if xanthophyll cycling is blocked. This non-photochemical quenching, however, relaxes during subsequent darkness with kinetics nearly comparable to the temperate Micromonas NCMA 1646, thereby limiting the opportunity cost of sustained downregulation of PSII function after a decrease in light.

  7. Possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects in nonphotochemical quenching in photosynthetic complexes

    DOE PAGES

    Berman, Gennady P.; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Gurvitz, Shmuel; ...

    2016-04-30

    Here, we analyze theoretically a simple and consistent quantum mechanical model that reveals the possible role of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The model consists of a network of five interconnected sites (excitonic states of light-sensitive molecules) responsible for the NPQ mechanism. The model also includes the “damaging” and the dissipative channels. The damaging channel is responsible for production of singlet oxygen and other destructive outcomes. In this model, both damaging and “dissipative” charge transfer channels are described by discrete electron energy levels attached to their sinks, that mimicmore » the continuum part of electron energy spectrum. All five excitonic sites interact with the protein environment that is modeled using a stochastic process. Our approach allowed us to derive the exact and closed system of linear ordinary differential equations for the reduced density matrix and its first momentums. Moreover, these equations are solved numerically including for strong interactions between the light-sensitive molecules and protein environment. As an example, we apply our model to demonstrate possible contributions of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the NPQ mechanism in the CP29 minor LHC. The numerical simulations show that using proper combination of quantum interference effects, properties of noise, and sinks, one can significantly suppress the damaging channel. Finally, our findings demonstrate the possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects for modeling, engineering, and optimizing the performance of the NPQ processes in both natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes.« less

  8. Possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects in nonphotochemical quenching in photosynthetic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Gurvitz, Shmuel; Sayre, Richard T.

    2016-04-30

    Here, we analyze theoretically a simple and consistent quantum mechanical model that reveals the possible role of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The model consists of a network of five interconnected sites (excitonic states of light-sensitive molecules) responsible for the NPQ mechanism. The model also includes the “damaging” and the dissipative channels. The damaging channel is responsible for production of singlet oxygen and other destructive outcomes. In this model, both damaging and “dissipative” charge transfer channels are described by discrete electron energy levels attached to their sinks, that mimic the continuum part of electron energy spectrum. All five excitonic sites interact with the protein environment that is modeled using a stochastic process. Our approach allowed us to derive the exact and closed system of linear ordinary differential equations for the reduced density matrix and its first momentums. Moreover, these equations are solved numerically including for strong interactions between the light-sensitive molecules and protein environment. As an example, we apply our model to demonstrate possible contributions of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the NPQ mechanism in the CP29 minor LHC. The numerical simulations show that using proper combination of quantum interference effects, properties of noise, and sinks, one can significantly suppress the damaging channel. Finally, our findings demonstrate the possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects for modeling, engineering, and optimizing the performance of the NPQ processes in both natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes.

  9. Non-photochemical quenching in epipsammic and epipelic microalgal assemblages from two marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pniewski, Filip F.; Richard, Pierre; Latała, Adam; Blanchard, Gerard

    2017-03-01

    This work presents differences in the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ) formation and its further dark relaxation between two microphytobenthos types, i.e. epipelon from Aiguillon Bay on the Atlantic coast and epipsammon from Puck Bay in the Baltic Sea. NPQ was characterized by the induction kinetics and light-response curves subsequently compared to the light-response curves of PSII relative electron transport rate (rETR), measured on assemblages collected in summer (July/August) and autumn (October/November). Both assemblages differed in species composition. Epipelon was exclusively composed of motile bi-raphid diatoms, while in epipsammon next to small-sized diatoms species other taxonomic groups such as green algae, euglenophytes and blue-green algae were also present. The study confirmed that epipelon was low light acclimated, while epipsammon showed features of high light acclimation. In both assemblage types a clear seasonal shift in photoprotection capacity was observed. Higher NPQ values were always observed in summer. In epipelon, the maximum NPQ (NPQmax) inferred from the NPQ light-response curves reached the value above 11; in epipsammon, NPQmax was up to the value of 4. The NPQ induction kinetics together with the light stress-recovery analysis suggested the presence of different photoprotective mechanisms in the studied microphytobenthos communities. In epipsammon photoprotection was assumed to be mostly dependent on the activity of the xanthophyll cycle, while in epipelon other processes also contributed to the overall photoprotection. Neither epipelon nor epipsammon showed compelling signs of photoinhibition. By comparing the NPQ and rETR light-response curves it was shown that in high light acclimated epipsammon NPQ promptly responded to changes in light conditions. A weak relationship between NPQ development and photochemistry emphasized the importance of behavioural photoprotection in low light acclimated epipelon

  10. Possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects in nonphotochemical quenching in photosynthetic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Gurvitz, Shmuel; Sayre, Richard T.

    2016-04-30

    Here, we analyze theoretically a simple and consistent quantum mechanical model that reveals the possible role of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The model consists of a network of five interconnected sites (excitonic states of light-sensitive molecules) responsible for the NPQ mechanism. The model also includes the “damaging” and the dissipative channels. The damaging channel is responsible for production of singlet oxygen and other destructive outcomes. In this model, both damaging and “dissipative” charge transfer channels are described by discrete electron energy levels attached to their sinks, that mimic the continuum part of electron energy spectrum. All five excitonic sites interact with the protein environment that is modeled using a stochastic process. Our approach allowed us to derive the exact and closed system of linear ordinary differential equations for the reduced density matrix and its first momentums. Moreover, these equations are solved numerically including for strong interactions between the light-sensitive molecules and protein environment. As an example, we apply our model to demonstrate possible contributions of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the NPQ mechanism in the CP29 minor LHC. The numerical simulations show that using proper combination of quantum interference effects, properties of noise, and sinks, one can significantly suppress the damaging channel. Finally, our findings demonstrate the possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects for modeling, engineering, and optimizing the performance of the NPQ processes in both natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes.

  11. Non-Photochemical Quenching Capacity in Arabidopsis thaliana Affects Herbivore Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Johansson Jänkänpää, Hanna; Frenkel, Martin; Zulfugarov, Ismayil; Reichelt, Michael; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Mishra, Yogesh; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Moen, Jon; Lee, Choon-Hwan; Jansson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Under natural conditions, plants have to cope with numerous stresses, including light-stress and herbivory. This raises intriguing questions regarding possible trade-offs between stress defences and growth. As part of a program designed to address these questions we have compared herbivory defences and damage in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana and two “photoprotection genotypes”, npq4 and oePsbS, which respectively lack and overexpress PsbS (a protein that plays a key role in qE-type non-photochemical quenching). In dual-choice feeding experiments both a specialist (Plutella xylostella) and a generalist (Spodoptera littoralis) insect herbivore preferred plants that expressed PsbS most strongly. In contrast, although both herbivores survived equally well on each of the genotypes, for oviposition female P. xylostella adults preferred plants that expressed PsbS least strongly. However, there were no significant differences between the genotypes in levels of the 10 most prominent glucosinolates; key substances in the Arabidopsis anti-herbivore chemical defence arsenal. After transfer from a growth chamber to the field we detected significant differences in the genotypes’ metabolomic profiles at all tested time points, using GC-MS, but no consistent “metabolic signature” for the lack of PsbS. These findings suggest that the observed differences in herbivore preferences were due to differences in the primary metabolism of the plants rather than their contents of typical “defence compounds”. A potentially significant factor is that superoxide accumulated most rapidly and to the highest levels under high light conditions in npq4 mutants. This could trigger changes in planta that are sensed by herbivores either directly or indirectly, following its dismutation to H2O2. PMID:23301046

  12. Non-Photochemical Quenching in Cryptophyte Alga Rhodomonas salina Is Located in Chlorophyll a/c Antennae

    PubMed Central

    Kaňa, Radek; Kotabová, Eva; Sobotka, Roman; Prášil, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s) of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates – e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1) there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2) NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE) of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3) a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching. PMID:22235327

  13. The carotenoid pathway: what is important for excitation quenching in plant antenna complexes?

    PubMed

    Fox, Kieran F; Balevičius, Vytautas; Chmeliov, Jevgenij; Valkunas, Leonas; Ruban, Alexander V; Duffy, Christopher D P

    2017-08-30

    Plant light-harvesting is regulated by the Non-Photochemical Quenching (NPQ) mechanism involving the reversible formation of excitation quenching sites in the Photosystem II (PSII) antenna in response to high light. While the major antenna complex, LHCII, is known to be a site of NPQ, the precise mechanism of excitation quenching is not clearly understood. A preliminary model of the quenched crystal structure of LHCII implied that quenching arises from slow energy capture by Car pigments. It predicted a thoroughly quenched system but offered little insight into the defining aspects of this quenching. In this work, we present a thorough theoretical investigation of this quenching, addressing the factors defining the quenching pathway and possible mechanism for its (de)activation. We show that quenching in LHCII crystals is the result of slow energy transfer from chlorophyll to the centrally-bound lutein Cars, predominantly the Lut620 associated with the chlorophyll 'terminal emitter', one of the proposed in vivo pathways. We show that this quenching is rather independent of the particular species of Car and excitation 'site' energy. The defining parameter is the resonant coupling between the pigment co-factors. Lastly, we show that these interactions must be severely suppressed for a light-harvesting state to be recovered.

  14. Zeaxanthin Binds to Light-Harvesting Complex Stress-Related Protein to Enhance Nonphotochemical Quenching in Physcomitrella patens[W

    PubMed Central

    Pinnola, Alberta; Dall’Osto, Luca; Gerotto, Caterina; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) dissipates excess energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light. The moss Physcomitrella patens exhibits strong NPQ by both algal-type light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR)–dependent and plant-type S subunit of Photosystem II (PSBS)-dependent mechanisms. In this work, we studied the dependence of NPQ reactions on zeaxanthin, which is synthesized under light stress by violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE) from preexisting violaxanthin. We produced vde knockout (KO) plants and showed they underwent a dramatic reduction in thermal dissipation ability and enhanced photoinhibition in excess light conditions. Multiple mutants (vde lhcsr KO and vde psbs KO) showed that zeaxanthin had a major influence on LHCSR-dependent NPQ, in contrast with previous reports in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The PSBS-dependent component of quenching was less dependent on zeaxanthin, despite the near-complete violaxanthin to zeaxanthin exchange in LHC proteins. Consistent with this, we provide biochemical evidence that native LHCSR protein binds zeaxanthin upon excess light stress. These findings suggest that zeaxanthin played an important role in the adaptation of modern plants to the enhanced levels of oxygen and excess light intensity of land environments. PMID:24014548

  15. A nonphotochemical-quenching-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana possessing normal pigment composition and xanthophyll-cycle activity.

    PubMed

    Peterson, R B; Havir, E A

    2000-01-01

    Higher-plant chloroplasts alter the distribution of absorbed radiant energy between photosynthesis and heat formation in response to changing illumination level or environmental stress. Fluorescence imaging was used to screen 62 yellow-green T-DNA insertion mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. for reduced photoprotective nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) capacity. Pulse-modulation fluorometry was employed to characterize one line (denoted Lsr1(-)) that exhibited an approximately 50% reduction in NPQ compared to the wild type (WT). The loss in NPQ capacity was associated with the DeltapH-dependent phase of quenching (qE). Under the growth conditions employed, pigment composition and levels of the six photosystem-II light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins were identical in mutant and WT. Changes in the in-vivo levels of the xanthophyll pigments violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin in excess light were the same for mutant and WT. However, use of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase inhibitor dithiothreitol indicated that a zeaxanthin-dependent component of NPQ was specifically reduced in the mutant. The mutant exhibited diminished suppression of minimum fluorescence yield (F(o)) in intense light suggesting an altered threshold in the mechanism of response to light stress in the mutant. The NPQ-deficient phenotype was meiotically transmissible as a semidominant trait and mapped near marker T27K12 on chromosome 1. The results suggest that the mutant is defective in sensing the transthylakoid DeltapH that reports exposure to excessive illumination.

  16. A mathematical model of non-photochemical quenching to study short-term light memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Matuszyńska, Anna; Heidari, Somayyeh; Jahns, Peter; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Plants are permanently exposed to rapidly changing environments, therefore it is evident that they had to evolve mechanisms enabling them to dynamically adapt to such fluctuations. Here we study how plants can be trained to enhance their photoprotection and elaborate on the concept of the short-term illumination memory in Arabidopsis thaliana. By monitoring fluorescence emission dynamics we systematically observe the extent of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) after previous light exposure to recognise and quantify the memory effect. We propose a simplified mathematical model of photosynthesis that includes the key components required for NPQ activation, which allows us to quantify the contribution to photoprotection by those components. Due to its reduced complexity, our model can be easily applied to study similar behavioural changes in other species, which we demonstrate by adapting it to the shadow-tolerant plant Epipremnum aureum. Our results indicate that a basic mechanism of short-term light memory is preserved. The slow component, accumulation of zeaxanthin, accounts for the amount of memory remaining after relaxation in darkness, while the fast one, antenna protonation, increases quenching efficiency. With our combined theoretical and experimental approach we provide a unifying framework describing common principles of key photoprotective mechanisms across species in general, mathematical terms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-photochemical Quenching Plays a Key Role in Light Acclimation of Rice Plants Differing in Leaf Color.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Baohua; Zhang, Caixia; Peng, Shaobing; Zhang, Xiufu; Fu, Guanfu; Tao, Longxing

    2016-01-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is an important photoprotective mechanism in rice; however, little is known regarding its role in the photosynthetic response of rice plants with differing in leaf color to different irradiances. In this study, two rice genotypes containing different chlorophyll contents, namely Zhefu802 (high chlorophyll) and Chl-8 (low chlorophyll), were subjected to moderate or high levels of light intensity at the 6-leaf stage. Chl-8 possessed a lower chlorophyll content and higher chlorophyll a:b ratio compared with Zhefu802, while Pn, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII contents were higher in Chl-8. Further results indicated that no significant differences were observed in the activities of Rubisco, Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase between these genotypes. This suggested that no significant difference in the capacity for CO2 assimilation exists between Zhe802 and Chl-8. Additionally, no significant differences in stomatal limitation were observed between the genotypes. Interestingly, higher NPQ and energy quenching (qE), as well as lower photoinhibitory quenching (qI) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in Chl-8 compared with Zhefu802 under both moderate and high light treatments. This indicated that NPQ could improve photosynthesis in rice under both moderate and high light intensities, particularly the latter, whereby NPQ alleviates photodamage by reducing ROS production. Both zeaxanthin content and the expression of PsbS1 were associated with the induction of NPQ under moderate light, while only zeaxanthin was associated with NPQ induction under high light. In summary, NPQ could improve photosynthesis in rice under moderate light and alleviate photodamage under high light via a decrease in ROS generation.

  18. Non-photochemical Quenching Plays a Key Role in Light Acclimation of Rice Plants Differing in Leaf Color

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Baohua; Zhang, Caixia; Peng, Shaobing; Zhang, Xiufu; Fu, Guanfu; Tao, Longxing

    2017-01-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is an important photoprotective mechanism in rice; however, little is known regarding its role in the photosynthetic response of rice plants with differing in leaf color to different irradiances. In this study, two rice genotypes containing different chlorophyll contents, namely Zhefu802 (high chlorophyll) and Chl-8 (low chlorophyll), were subjected to moderate or high levels of light intensity at the 6-leaf stage. Chl-8 possessed a lower chlorophyll content and higher chlorophyll a:b ratio compared with Zhefu802, while Pn, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII contents were higher in Chl-8. Further results indicated that no significant differences were observed in the activities of Rubisco, Mg2+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase between these genotypes. This suggested that no significant difference in the capacity for CO2 assimilation exists between Zhe802 and Chl-8. Additionally, no significant differences in stomatal limitation were observed between the genotypes. Interestingly, higher NPQ and energy quenching (qE), as well as lower photoinhibitory quenching (qI) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in Chl-8 compared with Zhefu802 under both moderate and high light treatments. This indicated that NPQ could improve photosynthesis in rice under both moderate and high light intensities, particularly the latter, whereby NPQ alleviates photodamage by reducing ROS production. Both zeaxanthin content and the expression of PsbS1 were associated with the induction of NPQ under moderate light, while only zeaxanthin was associated with NPQ induction under high light. In summary, NPQ could improve photosynthesis in rice under moderate light and alleviate photodamage under high light via a decrease in ROS generation. PMID:28119700

  19. The chloroplast NADPH thioredoxin reductase C, NTRC, controls non-photochemical quenching of light energy and photosynthetic electron transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Belén; Mignée, Clara; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Lindahl, Marika

    2016-04-01

    High irradiances may lead to photooxidative stress in plants, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) contributes to protection against excess excitation. One of the NPQ mechanisms, qE, involves thermal dissipation of the light energy captured. Importantly, plants need to tune down qE under light-limiting conditions for efficient utilization of the available quanta. Considering the possible redox control of responses to excess light implying enzymes, such as thioredoxins, we have studied the role of the NADPH thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC). Whereas Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking NTRC tolerate high light intensities, these plants display drastically elevated qE, have larger trans-thylakoid ΔpH and have 10-fold higher zeaxanthin levels under low and medium light intensities, leading to extremely low linear electron transport rates. To test the impact of the high qE on plant growth, we generated an ntrc-psbs double-knockout mutant, which is devoid of qE. This double mutant grows faster than the ntrc mutant and has a higher chlorophyll content. The photosystem II activity is partially restored in the ntrc-psbs mutant, and linear electron transport rates under low and medium light intensities are twice as high as compared with plants lacking ntrc alone. These data uncover a new role for NTRC in the control of photosynthetic yield.

  20. Relationship between xanthophyll cycle and non-photochemical quenching in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants in response to light stress.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Janet; Sharma, Prabhat K

    2011-01-01

    Thirty days old rice plants grown under low and moderate light conditions were transferred to full sunlight to observe the extent of photoinhibitory damage and protective mechanism, and the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching (qN) under changing light environment. Control plants (low, moderate and sun grown) exhibited similar Fv/Fm ratio, indicating similar photosynthetic efficiency prior to light stress. On exposure to the high light treatment, low light grown plants exhibited faster and higher degree of photoinhibition compared to moderate and high light grown plants. Moderate and high light grown plants showed relatively less photoinhibition and also showed higher qN, indicating better capacity of energy dissipation. Increase in qN in moderate light and sun grown plants was accompanied by conversion of violaxanthin (V) to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) indicating operation of Z-dependent thermal dissipation. Rice plants fed with ascorbate (AsA), a stimulator of the de-epoxidation state of V to Z, showed higher Fv/Fm ratio and qN than the plants fed with dithiothreitol (DTT) an inhibitor of xanthophyll cycle. This indicated that an increased amount of energy reached PS II reaction centre, due to absence of A and Z formation, thereby causing greater damage to photosynthesis in DTT fed rice plants. The present data confirmed the relationship between qN and Z in dissipating the excess light energy, thereby protecting plants against photodamage.

  1. Enhancement of Non-photochemical Quenching as an Adaptive Strategy under Phosphorus Deprivation in the Dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yudong; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2017-01-01

    Intensified water column stratification due to global warming has the potential to decrease nutrient availability while increasing excess light for the photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the euphotic zone, which together will increase the need for photoprotective strategies such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). We investigated whether NPQ is enhanced and how it is regulated molecularly under phosphorus (P) deprivation in the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum. We grew K. veneficum under P-replete and P-depleted conditions, monitored their growth rates and chlorophyll fluorescence, and conducted gene expression and comparative proteomic analyses. The results were used to characterize NPQ modulation and associated gene expression dynamics under P deprivation. We found that NPQ in K. veneficum was elevated significantly under P deprivation. Accordingly, the abundances of three light-harvesting complex stress-related proteins increased under P-depleted condition. Besides, many proteins related to genetic information flow were down-regulated while many proteins related to energy production and conversion were up-regulated under P deprivation. Taken together, our results indicate that K. veneficum cells respond to P deprivation by reconfiguring the metabolic landscape and up-tuning NPQ to increase the capacity to dissipate excess light energy and maintain the fluency of energy flow, which provides a new perspective about what adaptive strategy dinoflagellates have evolved to cope with P deprivation. PMID:28360892

  2. An explanation for the inter-species variability of the photoprotective non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Lavaud, Johann; Lepetit, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Diatoms are a major group of microalgae whose photosynthetic productivity supports a substantial part of the aquatic primary production. In their natural environment they have to cope with strong fluctuations of the light climate which can be harmful for photosynthesis. In order to prevent the damage of their photosynthetic machinery, diatoms use fast regulatory processes among which the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence (NPQ) is one of the most important. In a previous work, we highlighted differences in the kinetics and extent of NPQ between diatom species/strains originating from different aquatic habitats. We proposed that the NPQ differences observed between strains/species could potentially participate to their ecophysiological adaptation to the light environment of their respective natural habitat. In order to better understand the molecular bases of such differences, we compared the NPQ features of four strains/species of diatoms known for their NPQ discrepancy. We could identify new spectroscopic fingerprints concomitant to NPQ and the related xanthophyll cycle. These fingerprints helped us propose a molecular explanation for the NPQ differences observed between the diatom species/strains examined. The present work further strengthens the potential role of NPQ in the ecophysiology of diatoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethylene Regulates Energy-Dependent Non-Photochemical Quenching in Arabidopsis through Repression of the Xanthophyll Cycle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent (qE) non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity.

  4. Ethylene Regulates Energy-Dependent Non-Photochemical Quenching in Arabidopsis through Repression of the Xanthophyll Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent (qE) non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity. PMID:26630486

  5. On the relationship between the non-photochemical quenching of the chlorophyll fluorescence and the Photosystem II light harvesting efficiency. A repetitive flash fluorescence induction study.

    PubMed

    Koblízek, M; Kaftan, D; Nedbal, L

    2001-01-01

    Plants respond to excess light by a photoprotective reduction of the light harvesting efficiency. The notion that the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence can be reliably used as an indicator of the photoprotection is put to a test here. The technique of the repetitive flash fluorescence induction is employed to measure in parallel the non-photochemical quenching of the maximum fluorescence and the functional cross-section (sigma(PS II)) which is a product of the photosystem II optical cross-section a(PS II) and of its photochemical yield Phi(PS II) (sigma (PS II) = a(PS II) Phi(PS II)). The quenching is measured for both, the maximum fluorescence found in a single-turnover flash (F(M) (ST)) and in a multiple turnover light pulse (F(M) (MT)). The experiment with the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum confirmed that, in line with the prevalent model, the PS II functional cross-section sigma (PS II) is reduced in high light and restored in the dark with kinetics and amplitude that are closely matching the changes of the F(M) (ST) and F(M) (MT) quenching. In contrast, a poor correlation between the light-induced changes in the PS II functional cross-section sigma (PS II) and the quenching of the multiple-turnover F(M) (MT) fluorescence was found in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The non-photochemical quenching in Scenedesmus quadricauda was further investigated using series of single-turnover flashes given with different frequencies. Several mechanisms that modulate the fluorescence emission in parallel to the Q(A) redox state and to the membrane energization were resolved and classified in relation to the light harvesting capacity of Photosystem II.

  6. Characterizing non-photochemical quenching in leaves through fluorescence lifetime snapshots.

    PubMed

    Sylak-Glassman, Emily J; Zaks, Julia; Amarnath, Kapil; Leuenberger, Michelle; Fleming, Graham R

    2016-01-01

    We describe a technique to measure the fluorescence decay profiles of intact leaves during adaptation to high light and subsequent relaxation to dark conditions. We show how to ensure that photosystem II reaction centers are closed and compare data for wild type Arabidopsis thaliana with conventional pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence measurements. Unlike PAM measurements, the lifetime measurements are not sensitive to photobleaching or chloroplast shielding, and the form of the fluorescence decay provides additional information to test quantitative models of excitation dynamics in intact leaves.

  7. Characterizing non-photochemical quenching in leaves through fluorescence lifetime snapshots

    SciTech Connect

    Sylak-Glassman, Emily J.; Zaks, Julia; Amarnath, Kapil; Leuenberger, Michelle; Fleming, Graham R.

    2015-03-12

    A technique is described to measure the fluorescence decay profiles of intact leaves during adaptation to high light and subsequent relaxation to dark conditions. We illustrate how to ensure that photosystem II reaction centers are closed and compare data for wild type Arabidopsis thaliana with conventional pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence measurements. Unlike PAM measurements, the lifetime measurements are not sensitive to photobleaching or chloroplast shielding, and the form of the fluorescence decay provides additional information to test quantitative models of excitation dynamics in intact leaves.

  8. Exogenous Melatonin Mitigates Photoinhibition by Accelerating Non-photochemical Quenching in Tomato Seedlings Exposed to Moderate Light during Chilling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin plays an important role in tolerance to multiple stresses in plants. Recent studies have shown that melatonin relieves photoinhibition in plants under cold stress; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a key process thermally dissipating excess light energy that plants employ as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II. Here, we report the effects of exogenous melatonin on NPQ and mitigation of photoinhibition in tomato seedlings exposed to moderate light during chilling. In response to moderate light during chilling, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and the effective photochemical efficiency (F'v/F'm) of PSII were both substantially reduced, showing severe photoinhibition in tomato seedlings, whereas exogenous application of melatonin effectively alleviated the photoinhibition. Further experiment showed that melatonin accelerated the induction of NPQ in response to moderate light and maintained higher level of NPQ upon longer exposure to light during chilling. Consistent with the increased NPQ was the elevated de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments in melatonin-pretreated seedlings exposed to light during chilling. Enzyme activity assay showed that violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which catalyzes the de-epoxidation reaction in the xanthophyll cycle, was activated by light and the activity was further enhanced by application of melatonin. Further analysis revealed that melatonin induced the expression of VDE gene in tomato seedlings under moderate light and chilling conditions. Ascorbic acid is an essential cofactor of VDE and the level of it was found to be increased in melatonin-pretreated seedlings. Feeding tomato seedlings with dithiothreitol, an inhibitor of VDE, blocked the effects of melatonin on the de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments and the induction of NPQ. Collectively, these results suggest that exogenous melatonin mitigates photoinhibition by

  9. Exogenous Melatonin Mitigates Photoinhibition by Accelerating Non-photochemical Quenching in Tomato Seedlings Exposed to Moderate Light during Chilling

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin plays an important role in tolerance to multiple stresses in plants. Recent studies have shown that melatonin relieves photoinhibition in plants under cold stress; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a key process thermally dissipating excess light energy that plants employ as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II. Here, we report the effects of exogenous melatonin on NPQ and mitigation of photoinhibition in tomato seedlings exposed to moderate light during chilling. In response to moderate light during chilling, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and the effective photochemical efficiency (F′v/F′m) of PSII were both substantially reduced, showing severe photoinhibition in tomato seedlings, whereas exogenous application of melatonin effectively alleviated the photoinhibition. Further experiment showed that melatonin accelerated the induction of NPQ in response to moderate light and maintained higher level of NPQ upon longer exposure to light during chilling. Consistent with the increased NPQ was the elevated de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments in melatonin-pretreated seedlings exposed to light during chilling. Enzyme activity assay showed that violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which catalyzes the de-epoxidation reaction in the xanthophyll cycle, was activated by light and the activity was further enhanced by application of melatonin. Further analysis revealed that melatonin induced the expression of VDE gene in tomato seedlings under moderate light and chilling conditions. Ascorbic acid is an essential cofactor of VDE and the level of it was found to be increased in melatonin-pretreated seedlings. Feeding tomato seedlings with dithiothreitol, an inhibitor of VDE, blocked the effects of melatonin on the de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments and the induction of NPQ. Collectively, these results suggest that exogenous melatonin mitigates photoinhibition by

  10. Enhancement of non-photochemical quenching in the Bryophyte Physcomitrella patens during acclimation to salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Azzabi, Ghazi; Pinnola, Alberta; Betterle, Nico; Bassi, Roberto; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Drought and salt stress are major abiotic constraints affecting plant growth worldwide. Under these conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon taking place mainly in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, mitochondria and apoplasts, especially when associated with high light stress. ROS are harmful because of their high reactivity to cell components, thereby leading to cytotoxicity and cell death. During the Ordovician and early Devonian period, photosynthetic organisms colonized terrestrial habitats, and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance has been a major component of their evolution. We have studied the capacity for acclimation to drought and salt stress of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a representative of the early land colonization stage. Exposure to high concentrations of NaCl and sorbitol strongly affects chloroplast development, the Chl content and the thylakoid protein composition in this moss. Under sublethal conditions (0.2 M NaCl and 0.4 M sorbitol), the photosynthetic apparatus of P. patens responds to oxidative stress by increasing non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Surprisingly, the accumulation of PSBS and LHCSR, the two polypeptides essential for NPQ in P. patens, was not up-regulated in these conditions. Rather, an increased NPQ amplitude correlated with the overaccumulation of zeaxanthin and the presence of the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase. These results suggest that the regulation of excess energy dissipation through control of PSBS and LHCSR is mainly driven by light conditions, while osmotic and salt stress act through acclimative regulation of the xanthophyll cycle. We conclude that regulation of the xanthophyll cycle is an important anticipatory strategy against photoinhibition by high light.

  11. Excited state quenching via "unsuccessful" chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Nau, Werner M; Olivucci, Massimo

    2002-08-01

    We discuss the results of recent photochemical reaction path computations on 1n,pi* azoalkanes interacting with a single quencher molecule. We provide computational and experimental evidence that there are two basic mechanisms for the true quenching of 1n,pi* states both based on unsuccessful chemical reactions. The first mechanism is based upon an unsuccessful hydrogen atom transfer and may occur through two different (direct and stepwise) routes. The second mechanism is based on an unsuccessful charge transfer reaction that occurs exclusively in a direct fashion. We show that the efficiency of the two quenching mechanisms is substantially due to the existence of two different types of conical intersections between the excited and ground state potential energy surfaces of the reacting bimolecular system.

  12. Diurnal changes in the xanthophyll cycle pigments of freshwater algae correlate with the environmental hydrogen peroxide concentration rather than non-photochemical quenching

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Thomas; Miller, Ramona; Aigner, Siegfried; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In photosynthetic organisms exposure to high light induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in part is prevented by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). As one of the most stable and longest-lived ROS, H2O2 is involved in key signalling pathways in development and stress responses, although in excess it can induce damage. A ubiquitous response to high light is the induction of the xanthophyll cycle, but its role in algae is unclear as it is not always associated with NPQ induction. The aim of this study was to reveal how diurnal changes in the level of H2O2 are regulated in a freshwater algal community. Methods A natural freshwater community of algae in a temporary rainwater pool was studied, comprising photosynthetic Euglena species, benthic Navicula diatoms, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species. Diurnal measurements were made of photosynthetic performance, concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and H2O2. The frequently studied model organisms Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species were isolated to study photosynthesis-related H2O2 responses to high light. Key Results NPQ was shown to prevent H2O2 release in Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species under high light; in addition, dissolved organic carbon excited by UV-B radiation was probably responsible for a part of the H2O2 produced in the water column. Concentrations of H2O2 peaked at 2 µm at midday and algae rapidly scavenged H2O2 rather than releasing it. A vertical H2O2 gradient was observed that was lowest next to diatom-rich benthic algal mats. The diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigments included the violaxanthin and diadinoxanthin cycles; the former was induced prior to the latter, but neither was strictly correlated with NPQ. Conclusions The diurnal cycling of H2O2 was apparently modulated by the organisms in this freshwater algal community. Although the community showed flexibility in its levels of NPQ, the diurnal changes in

  13. Diurnal changes in the xanthophyll cycle pigments of freshwater algae correlate with the environmental hydrogen peroxide concentration rather than non-photochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Miller, Ramona; Aigner, Siegfried; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-09-01

    In photosynthetic organisms exposure to high light induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in part is prevented by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). As one of the most stable and longest-lived ROS, H2O2 is involved in key signalling pathways in development and stress responses, although in excess it can induce damage. A ubiquitous response to high light is the induction of the xanthophyll cycle, but its role in algae is unclear as it is not always associated with NPQ induction. The aim of this study was to reveal how diurnal changes in the level of H2O2 are regulated in a freshwater algal community. A natural freshwater community of algae in a temporary rainwater pool was studied, comprising photosynthetic Euglena species, benthic Navicula diatoms, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species. Diurnal measurements were made of photosynthetic performance, concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and H2O2. The frequently studied model organisms Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species were isolated to study photosynthesis-related H2O2 responses to high light. NPQ was shown to prevent H2O2 release in Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species under high light; in addition, dissolved organic carbon excited by UV-B radiation was probably responsible for a part of the H2O2 produced in the water column. Concentrations of H2O2 peaked at 2 µm at midday and algae rapidly scavenged H2O2 rather than releasing it. A vertical H2O2 gradient was observed that was lowest next to diatom-rich benthic algal mats. The diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigments included the violaxanthin and diadinoxanthin cycles; the former was induced prior to the latter, but neither was strictly correlated with NPQ. The diurnal cycling of H2O2 was apparently modulated by the organisms in this freshwater algal community. Although the community showed flexibility in its levels of NPQ, the diurnal changes in xanthophylls correlated with H2O2 concentrations

  14. Three-dimensional model of zeaxanthin binding PsbS protein associated with nonphotochemical quenching of excess quanta of light energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Haripal, Prafulla K; Raval, Hemant K; Raval, Mukesh K; Rawal, Rakesh M; Biswal, Basanti; Biswal, Udaya C

    2006-09-01

    A three-dimensional model of the PsbS protein was built with the help of homology-modeling methods. This protein is also known as CP22 and is associated with the protection of photosystem II of thylakoid from excess quanta of light energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. PsbS is reported to bind two molecules of zeaxanthin at low pH (<5.0) and is believed to be essential for rapid nonphotochemical quenching (qE) of chlorophyll a fluorescence in photosystem II. An attempt was made to explain the pH modulation of the conformation of protein through salt-bridges Glu(-)(122)-Lys(+)(113) and Glu(-)(226)-Lys(+)(217). Binding of two molecules of zeaxanthin in the three-dimensional model of PsbS is postulated. The molecular mechanism of photoprotection by PsbS is explained through the model.

  15. Responses to desiccation stress in bryophytes and an important role of dithiothreitol-insensitive non-photochemical quenching against photoinhibition in dehydrated states.

    PubMed

    Nabe, Hayase; Funabiki, Ryoko; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    2007-11-01

    The effects of air drying and hypertonic treatments in the dark on seven bryophytes, which had grown under different water environments, were studied. All the desiccation-tolerant species tested lost most of their PSII photochemical activity when photosynthetic electron transport was inhibited by air drying, while, in all the sensitive species, the PSII photochemical activity remained at a high level even when photosynthesis was totally inhibited. The PSI reaction center remained active under drying conditions in both sensitive and tolerant species, but the activity became non-detectable in the light only in tolerant species due to deactivation of the cyclic electron flow around PSI and of the back reaction in PSI. Light-induced non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was found to be induced not only by the xanthophyll cycle but also by a DeltapH-induced, dithiothreitol-insensitive mechanism in both the desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant bryophytes. Both mechanisms are thought to have an important role in protecting desiccation-tolerant species from photoinhibition under drying conditions. Fluorescence emission spectra at 77K showed that dehydration-induced quenching of PSII fluorescence was observed only in tolerant species and was due to neither state 1-state 2 transition nor detachment of light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes from PSII core complexes. The presence of dehydration-induced quenching of PSI fluorescence was also suggested.

  16. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum adjusts nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching capacity in response to dynamic light via fine-tuned Lhcx and xanthophyll cycle pigment synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lepetit, Bernard; Gélin, Gautier; Lepetit, Mariana; Sturm, Sabine; Vugrinec, Sascha; Rogato, Alessandra; Kroth, Peter G; Falciatore, Angela; Lavaud, Johann

    2017-04-01

    Diatoms contain a highly flexible capacity to dissipate excessively absorbed light by nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ) based on the light-induced conversion of diadinoxanthin (Dd) into diatoxanthin (Dt) and the presence of Lhcx proteins. Their NPQ fine regulation on the molecular level upon a shift to dynamic light conditions is unknown. We investigated the regulation of Dd + Dt amount, Lhcx gene and protein synthesis and NPQ capacity in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum after a change from continuous low light to 3 d of sine (SL) or fluctuating (FL) light conditions. Four P. tricornutum strains with different NPQ capacities due to different expression of Lhcx1 were included. All strains responded to dynamic light comparably, independently of initial NPQ capacity. During SL, NPQ capacity was strongly enhanced due to a gradual increase of Lhcx2 and Dd + Dt amount. During FL, cells enhanced their NPQ capacity on the first day due to increased Dd + Dt, Lhcx2 and Lhcx3; already by the second day light acclimation was accomplished. While quenching efficiency of Dt was strongly lowered during SL conditions, it remained high throughout the whole FL exposure. Our results highlight a more balanced and cost-effective photoacclimation strategy of P. tricornutum under FL than under SL conditions.

  17. Roles of the transthylakoid proton gradient and xanthophyll cycle in the non-photochemical quenching of the green alga Ulva linza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Ye, Naihao

    2015-09-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is one of the most important photoprotection mechanisms in photosynthetic organisms when they are exposed to excessive irradiation. The basic principle of NPQ, which is the safe dissipation of excessive absorbed light as heat, is identical in all photoautotrophs. However, crucial differences in its regulation and structural mechanisms exist in different phototrophs. Here, we investigated NPQ in the green alga Ulva linza coupled with inhibitors to alter the amplitude of the transthylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH) and/or de-expoxidation of xanthophyll cycle (XC) under high light conditions. The data demonstrates that NPQ started with a rapid initial rise within the first minute of illumination, followed by a decline before a further rise in quenching. During the whole phase, NPQ was triggered and completely controlled by ΔpH, then strengthened and modulated by zeaxanthin. NPQ relaxation was slower in U. linza when compared to plants and other green algae, and it may be mainly caused by the slow conversion of zeaxanthin to violaxanthin. NPQ in U. linza is controlled to a greater extent by XC, which show more similarities to Arabidopsis than to Chlamydomonas and may be an adaptive mechanism for its successful colonization of coastal ecosystems.

  18. Efficient Quenching of Population Trapping in Excited Yb superscript +

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency of various buffer gases in quenching the population trapping states of laser excited ytterbium ions is described. Highly efficient in quenching the population of the trapping states, N subscript 2 has been identified as the most suitable buffer gas to use with ytterbium for the development i=of a trapped ion microwave frequency standard.

  19. Identification of pH-sensing Sites in the Light Harvesting Complex Stress-related 3 Protein Essential for Triggering Non-photochemical Quenching in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Ballottari, Matteo; Truong, Thuy B.; De Re, Eleonora; Erickson, Erika; Stella, Giulio R.; Fleming, Graham R.; Bassi, Roberto; Niyogi, Krishna K.

    2016-01-01

    Light harvesting complex stress-related 3 (LHCSR3) is the protein essential for photoprotective excess energy dissipation (non-photochemical quenching, NPQ) in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Activation of NPQ requires low pH in the thylakoid lumen, which is induced in excess light conditions and sensed by lumen-exposed acidic residues. In this work we have used site-specific mutagenesis in vivo and in vitro for identification of the residues in LHCSR3 that are responsible for sensing lumen pH. Lumen-exposed protonatable residues, aspartate and glutamate, were mutated to asparagine and glutamine, respectively. By expression in a mutant lacking all LHCSR isoforms, residues Asp117, Glu221, and Glu224 were shown to be essential for LHCSR3-dependent NPQ induction in C. reinhardtii. Analysis of recombinant proteins carrying the same mutations refolded in vitro with pigments showed that the capacity of responding to low pH by decreasing the fluorescence lifetime, present in the wild-type protein, was lost. Consistent with a role in pH sensing, the mutations led to a substantial reduction in binding the NPQ inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. PMID:26817847

  20. Prediction of respective contribution of linear electron flow and PGR5-dependent cyclic electron flow to non-photochemical quenching induction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ryoichi; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Shinji

    2014-08-01

    In chloroplasts, regulated formation of the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) is important for controlling non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which is crucial for plants to perform photosynthesis under fluctuating light conditions. The ΔpH is generated by two electron flows: the linear electron flow (LEF) and the cyclic electron flow (CEF). The Arabidopsis CEF mutant, pgr5, showed significantly lower NPQ values than those observed in WT, indicating that ΔpH, generated by the PGR5-dependent CEF, has a crucial role in controlling NPQ. However, the respective significance of LEF and CEF for ΔpH formation is largely unknown. Here we applied computer simulation to reproduce NPQ induction kinetics and estimate the respective contribution of LEF and PGR5-dependent CEF to the dynamics of ΔpH formation. The results indicate that the contribution of CEF to total ΔpH formation for induction of NPQ varies from 60-80%. The simulation also suggested a role of the PGR5-dependent CEF in accelerating electron transfer in the cytochrome b6f complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Quenching of excited triplet states by dissolved natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Jannis; Eustis, Soren N; McNeill, Kristopher; Canonica, Silvio

    2013-11-19

    Excited triplet states of aromatic ketones and quinones are used as proxies to assess the reactivity of excited triplet states of the dissolved organic matter ((3)DOM*) in natural waters. (3)DOM* are crucial transients in environmental photochemistry responsible for contaminant transformation, production of reactive oxygen species, and potentially photobleaching of DOM. In recent photochemical studies aimed at clarifying the role of DOM as an inhibitor of triplet-induced oxidations of organic contaminants, aromatic ketones have been used in the presence of DOM, and the question of a possible interaction between their excited triplet states and DOM has emerged. To clarify this issue, time-resolved laser spectroscopy was applied to measure the excited triplet state quenching of four different model triplet photosensitizers induced by a suite of DOM from various aquatic and terrestrial sources. While no quenching for the anionic triplet sensitizers 4-carboxybenzophenone (CBBP) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (2,6-AQDS) was detected, second-order quenching rate constants with DOM for the triplets of 2-acetonaphthone (2AN) and 3-methoxyacetophenone (3MAP) in the range of 1.30-3.85 × 10(7) L mol(C)(-1) s(-1) were determined. On the basis of the average molecular weight of DOM molecules, the quenching for these uncharged excited triplet molecules is nearly diffusion-controlled, but significant quenching (>10%) in aerated water is not expected to occur below DOM concentrations of 22-72 mg(C) L(-1).

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity.

  3. Lutein from Deepoxidation of Lutein Epoxide Replaces Zeaxanthin to Sustain an Enhanced Capacity for Nonphotochemical Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching in Avocado Shade Leaves in the Dark1

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Britta; Pogson, Barry James; Osmond, Charles Barry

    2011-01-01

    Leaves of avocado (Persea americana) that develop and persist in deep shade canopies have very low rates of photosynthesis but contain high concentrations of lutein epoxide (Lx) that are partially deepoxidized to lutein (L) after 1 h of exposure to 120 to 350 μmol photons m−2 s−1, increasing the total L pool by 5% to 10% (ΔL). Deepoxidation of Lx to L was near stoichiometric and similar in kinetics to deepoxidation of violaxanthin (V) to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z). Although the V pool was restored by epoxidation of A and Z overnight, the Lx pool was not. Depending on leaf age and pretreatment, the pool of ΔL persisted for up to 72 h in the dark. Metabolism of ΔL did not involve epoxidation to Lx. These contrasting kinetics enabled us to differentiate three states of the capacity for nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) in attached and detached leaves: ΔpH dependent (NPQΔpH) before deepoxidation; after deepoxidation in the presence of ΔL, A, and Z (NPQΔLAZ); and after epoxidation of A+Z but with residual ΔL (NPQΔL). The capacity of both NPQΔLAZ and NPQΔL was similar and 45% larger than NPQΔpH, but dark relaxation of NPQΔLAZ was slower. The enhanced capacity for NPQ was lost after metabolism of ΔL. The near equivalence of NPQΔLAZ and NPQΔL provides compelling evidence that the small dynamic pool ΔL replaces A+Z in avocado to “lock in” enhanced NPQ. The results are discussed in relation to data obtained with other Lx-rich species and in mutants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with increased L pools. PMID:21427278

  4. Silencing of the Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase Gene in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Reduces Diatoxanthin Synthesis and Non-Photochemical Quenching

    PubMed Central

    Vugrinec, Sascha; Kroth, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms are a major group of primary producers ubiquitous in all aquatic ecosystems. To protect themselves from photooxidative damage in a fluctuating light climate potentially punctuated with regular excess light exposures, diatoms have developed several photoprotective mechanisms. The xanthophyll cycle (XC) dependent non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) is one of the most important photoprotective processes that rapidly regulate photosynthesis in diatoms. NPQ depends on the conversion of diadinoxanthin (DD) into diatoxanthin (DT) by the violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), also called DD de-epoxidase (DDE). To study the role of DDE in controlling NPQ, we generated transformants of P. tricornutum in which the gene (Vde/Dde) encoding for DDE was silenced. RNA interference was induced by genetic transformation of the cells with plasmids containing either short (198 bp) or long (523 bp) antisense (AS) fragments or, alternatively, with a plasmid mediating the expression of a self-complementary hairpin-like construct (inverted repeat, IR). The silencing approaches generated diatom transformants with a phenotype clearly distinguishable from wildtype (WT) cells, i.e. a lower degree as well as slower kinetics of both DD de-epoxidation and NPQ induction. Real-time PCR based quantification of Dde transcripts revealed differences in transcript levels between AS transformants and WT cells but also between AS and IR transformants, suggesting the possible presence of two different gene silencing mediating mechanisms. This was confirmed by the differential effect of the light intensity on the respective silencing efficiency of both types of transformants. The characterization of the transformants strengthened some of the specific features of the XC and NPQ and confirmed the most recent mechanistic model of the DT/NPQ relationship in diatoms. PMID:22629333

  5. Proton Gradient Regulation5-Like1-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow Is Crucial for Acclimation to Anoxia and Complementary to Nonphotochemical Quenching in Stress Adaptation1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kukuczka, Bernadeta; Magneschi, Leonardo; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Steinbeck, Janina; Bald, Till; Powikrowska, Marta; Fufezan, Christian; Finazzi, Giovanni; Hippler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the functional importance of Proton Gradient Regulation5-Like1 (PGRL1) for photosynthetic performances in the moss Physcomitrella patens, we generated a pgrl1 knockout mutant. Functional analysis revealed diminished nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) as well as decreased capacity for cyclic electron flow (CEF) in pgrl1. Under anoxia, where CEF is induced, quantitative proteomics evidenced severe down-regulation of photosystems but up-regulation of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase complex, plastocyanin, and Ca2+ sensors in the mutant, indicating that the absence of PGRL1 triggered a mechanism compensatory for diminished CEF. On the other hand, proteins required for NPQ, such as light-harvesting complex stress-related protein1 (LHCSR1), violaxanthin de-epoxidase, and PSII subunit S, remained stable. To further investigate the interrelation between CEF and NPQ, we generated a pgrl1 npq4 double mutant in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacking both PGRL1 and LHCSR3 expression. Phenotypic comparative analyses of this double mutant, together with the single knockout strains and with the P. patens pgrl1, demonstrated that PGRL1 is crucial for acclimation to high light and anoxia in both organisms. Moreover, the data generated for the C. reinhardtii double mutant clearly showed a complementary role of PGRL1 and LHCSR3 in managing high light stress response. We conclude that both proteins are needed for photoprotection and for survival under low oxygen, underpinning a tight link between CEF and NPQ in oxygenic photosynthesis. Given the complementarity of the energy-dependent component of NPQ (qE) and PGRL1-mediated CEF, we suggest that PGRL1 is a capacitor linked to the evolution of the PSII subunit S-dependent qE in terrestrial plants. PMID:24948831

  6. Quenching of Excited Na due to He Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Stancil, P. C.; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Buenker, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The quenching and elastic scattering of excited Sodium by collisions with Helium have been investigated for energies between 10(exp -13) eV and 10 eV. With the ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings obtained from multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction approach, we carried out scattering calculations by the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Cross sections for quenching reactions and elastic collisions are presented. Quenching and elastic collisional rate coefficients as a function of temperature between 1 micro-K and 10,000 K are also obtained. The results are relevant to modeling non-LTE effects on Na D absorption lines in extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs.

  7. Efficient Quenching of Population Trapping in Excited Yb(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, D. J.; Maleki, L.

    1995-01-01

    We report on a study to determine the efficiency of various buffer gases in quenching the population trapping states of laser-excited ytterbium ions. The ions were confined in an rf-dc hybrid trap, and their (2)S(.5) left and right arrow (2)P(3/2) transition was excited with 329-nm laser light. Buffer gases used include H2, N2, CO2, Ar, and He at several different pressure regimes. We have identified N2 to be highly efficient in quenching the population of the trapping states and thus be the most suitable buffer gas to use with ytterbium for the development of a trapped-ion microwave frequency standard.

  8. Effects of habitat light conditions on the excitation quenching pathways in desiccating Haberlea rhodopensis leaves: an Intelligent FluoroSensor study.

    PubMed

    Solti, Ádám; Lenk, Sándor; Mihailova, Gergana; Mayer, Péter; Barócsi, Attila; Georgieva, Katya

    2014-01-05

    Resurrection plants can survive dehydration to air-dry state, thus they are excellent models of understanding drought and dehydration tolerance mechanisms. Haberlea rhodopensis, a chlorophyll-retaining resurrection plant, can survive desiccation to relative water content below 10%. Leaves, detached from plants of sun and shade habitats, were moderately (∼50%) dehydrated in darkness. During desiccation, chlorophyll a fluorescence was detected by the recently innovated wireless Intelligent FluoroSensor (IFS) chlorophyll fluorometer, working with three different detectors: a pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) broadband channel and two channels to measure non-modulated red and far-red fluorescence. No change in area-based chlorophyll content of leaves was observed. The maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II decreased gradually in both shade and sun leaves. Shade leaves could not increase antennae-based quenching, thus inactivated photosystem II took part in quenching of excess irradiation. Sun leaves seemed to be pre-adapted to quench excess light as they established an intensive increase in antennae-based non-photochemical quenching parallel to desiccation. The higher far-red to red antennae-based quenching may sign light-harvesting complex reorganization. Thus, compared to PAM, IFS chlorophyll fluorometer has additional benefits including (i) parallel estimation of changes in the Chl content and (ii) prediction of underlying processes of excitation energy quenching.

  9. Quenching of highly rotationally excited HCl in collisions with He

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Benhui; Stancil, P. C. E-mail: stancil@physast.uga.edu

    2014-03-10

    We report rotational quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of HCl due to collisions with He. The close-coupling method and the coupled-states approximation are applied in quantum-mechanical scattering calculations of state-to-state cross sections for HCl with initial rotational levels up to j = 20 for kinetic energies from 10{sup –5} to 15,000 cm{sup –1}. State-to-state rate coefficients for temperatures between 0.1 and 3000 K are also presented. Comparison of the present rate coefficients with previous results reported in the literature for lowly excited rotational levels shows reasonable agreement. Small differences are attributed to the differences in the interaction potential energy surfaces. The uncertainty in the computed cross sections and rate coefficients is estimated by varying the potential well depth. Applications of current results to astrophysical systems are also briefly discussed.

  10. Heterologous Expression of Moss Light-harvesting Complex Stress-related 1 (LHCSR1), the Chlorophyll a-Xanthophyll Pigment-protein Complex Catalyzing Non-photochemical Quenching, in Nicotiana sp.*

    PubMed Central

    Pinnola, Alberta; Ghin, Leonardo; Gecchele, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Alboresi, Alessandro; Avesani, Linda; Pezzotti, Mario; Capaldi, Stefano; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms evolved mechanisms for thermal dissipation of energy absorbed in excess to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species. The major and fastest component, called non-photochemical quenching, occurs within the photosystem II antenna system by the action of two essential light-harvesting complex (LHC)-like proteins, photosystem II subunit S (PSBS) in plants and light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) in green algae and diatoms. In the evolutionary intermediate Physcomitrella patens, a moss, both gene products are active. These proteins, which are present in low amounts, are difficult to purify, preventing structural and functional analysis. Here, we report on the overexpression of the LHCSR1 protein from P. patens in the heterologous systems Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum using transient and stable nuclear transformation. We show that the protein accumulated in both heterologous systems is in its mature form, localizes in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, and is correctly folded with chlorophyll a and xanthophylls but without chlorophyll b, an essential chromophore for plants and algal LHC proteins. Finally, we show that recombinant LHCSR1 is active in quenching in vivo, implying that the recombinant protein obtained is a good material for future structural and functional studies. PMID:26260788

  11. Heterologous expression of moss light-harvesting complex stress-related 1 (LHCSR1), the chlorophyll a-xanthophyll pigment-protein complex catalyzing non-photochemical quenching, in Nicotiana sp.

    PubMed

    Pinnola, Alberta; Ghin, Leonardo; Gecchele, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Alboresi, Alessandro; Avesani, Linda; Pezzotti, Mario; Capaldi, Stefano; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-10-02

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms evolved mechanisms for thermal dissipation of energy absorbed in excess to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species. The major and fastest component, called non-photochemical quenching, occurs within the photosystem II antenna system by the action of two essential light-harvesting complex (LHC)-like proteins, photosystem II subunit S (PSBS) in plants and light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) in green algae and diatoms. In the evolutionary intermediate Physcomitrella patens, a moss, both gene products are active. These proteins, which are present in low amounts, are difficult to purify, preventing structural and functional analysis. Here, we report on the overexpression of the LHCSR1 protein from P. patens in the heterologous systems Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum using transient and stable nuclear transformation. We show that the protein accumulated in both heterologous systems is in its mature form, localizes in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, and is correctly folded with chlorophyll a and xanthophylls but without chlorophyll b, an essential chromophore for plants and algal LHC proteins. Finally, we show that recombinant LHCSR1 is active in quenching in vivo, implying that the recombinant protein obtained is a good material for future structural and functional studies. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Diversity in photosynthetic electron transport under [CO2]-limitation: the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii drive an O2-dependent alternative electron flow and non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence during CO2-limited photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Ginga; Akimoto, Seiji; Ueno, Yoshifumi; Wada, Ayumi; Shaku, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Yuichiro; Miyake, Chikahiro

    2016-12-01

    Some cyanobacteria, but not all, experience an induction of alternative electron flow (AEF) during CO2-limited photosynthesis. For example, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (S. 6803) exhibits AEF, but Synechococcus elongatus sp. PCC 7942 does not. This difference is due to the presence of flavodiiron 2 and 4 proteins (FLV2/4) in S. 6803, which catalyze electron donation to O2. In this study, we observed a low-[CO2] induced AEF in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 that lacks FLV2/4. The AEF shows high affinity for O2, compared with AEF mediated by FLV2/4 in S. 6803, and can proceed under extreme low [O2] (about a few µM O2). Further, the transition from CO2-saturated to CO2-limited photosynthesis leads a preferential excitation of PSI to PSII and increased non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. We found that the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii also has an O2-dependent AEF showing the same affinity for O2 as that in S. 7002. These data represent the diverse molecular mechanisms to drive AEF in cyanobacteria and green algae. In this paper, we further discuss the diversity, the evolution, and the physiological function of strategy to CO2-limitation in cyanobacterial and green algal photosynthesis.

  13. Integrating transient heterogeneity of non-photochemical quenching in shade-grown heterobaric leaves of avocado (Persea americana L.): responses to CO2 concentration, stomatal occlusion, dehydration and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kotaro; King, Diana; Robinson, Sharon A; Osmond, Barry

    2013-11-01

    Long-lived shade leaves of avocado had extremely low rates of photosynthesis. Gas exchange measurements of photosynthesis were of limited use, so we resorted to Chl fluorescence imaging (CFI) and spot measurements to evaluate photosynthetic electron transport rates (ETRs) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Imaging revealed a remarkable transient heterogeneity of NPQ during photosynthetic induction in these hypostomatous, heterobaric leaves, but was adequately integrated by spot measurements, despite long-lasting artifacts from repeated saturating flashes during assays. Major veins (mid-vein, first- and second-order veins) defined areas of more static large-scale heterogeneous NPQ, with more dynamic small-scale heterogeneity most strongly expressed in mesophyll cells between third- and fourth-order veins. Both responded to external CO2 concentration ([CO2]), occlusion of stomata with Vaseline™, leaf dehydration and relative humidity (RH). We interpreted these responses in terms of independent behavior of stomata in adjacent areoles that was largely expressed through CO2-limited photosynthesis. Heterogeneity was most pronounced and prolonged in the absence of net CO2 fixation in 100 p.p.m. [CO2] when respiratory and photorespiratory CO2 cycling constrained the inferred ETR to ~75% of values in 400 or 700 p.p.m. [CO2]. Likewise, sustained higher NPQ under Vaseline™, after dehydration or at low RH, also restricted ETR to ~75% of control values. Low NPQ in chloroplast-containing cells adjacent to major veins but remote from stomata suggested internal sources of high [CO2] in these tissues.

  14. Cyclic electron transport around photosystem I and its relationship to non-photochemical quenching in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina under nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Einali, Alireza; Shariati, Mansour; Sato, Fumihiko; Endo, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Electron transport in photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) was estimated in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence and changes in P700 redox, respectively, in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina in the presence or absence of a nitrogen source in the culture medium. In a nitrogen-containing medium, the quantum yield of PSII (Φ(II)) and that in PSI (Φ(I)) were at the same level in low light, but cyclic electron transport around photosystem I (CET-PSI) was induced under high light as estimated from an increase in Φ(I)/Φ(II). High light might further enhance the rate of electron transport in PSI by inducing the state 2 transition, in which the distribution of light energy is shifted to PSI at the expense of PSII. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in a decrease in Φ(II) and an increase in Φ(I). As a consequence, the rate of CET-PSI was expected to increase. The high CET-PSI under N deficiency was probably associated with a high level of energy quenching (qE) formation in PSII.

  15. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Concentration quenching of noncoherent excitation in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burshteĭn, A. I.

    1984-08-01

    Delocalization of excitation in a system of disordered but uniformly distributed centers, its quenching by alien admixtures, and self-quenching by cross relaxation by pairs of identical particles are considered. It is shown that the direct transfer of excitation from an initial center to its neighbors becomes sequential and transforms into diffusion. However, quenching is seldom diffusive. As a rule, it follows a singly-acting hopping mechanism. Different theories of this mechanism are discussed and compared. The transformation from the diffusive to the hopping mechanism is described, and criteria for both are examined. Theoretical considerations are illustrated by applications to the kinetics and rates of concentration quenching of electronic, vibrational, and spin excitations in solid and liquid solutions. This is based on data on the selective and nonselective luminescence of rare-earth ions, picosecond absorption by dye molecules, and the decay of the electron spin echo signal due to hydrogen atoms in irradiated hosts.

  16. Optical quenching of photoconductivity in CdSe single nanowires via waveguiding excitation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fuxing; Wang, Pan; Yu, Huakang; Guo, Bing; Tong, Limin

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate broadband optical quenching of photoconductivity in CdSe single nanowires with low excitation power. Using 1550-nm-wavelength light with 10-nW power for waveguiding excitation, we observe a typical responsivity of 0.5 A/W for quenching the photoconductivity established by 10-µW 660-nm-wavelength background light in a 403-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire, with detectable limit of the quenching power down to pW level at room temperature, which is several orders of magnitude lower than those reported previously. This large quenching effect originates from the enhanced light-defect interaction in the nanowires via waveguiding excitation. These results open new opportunities for noninvasive characterization of deep-level defect states in low-dimensional semiconductor nanomaterials, and novel optoelectronic applications of semiconductor nanowires such as high-sensitive broadband photodetection.

  17. Acclimation of tobacco leaves to high light intensity drives the plastoquinone oxidation system--relationship among the fraction of open PSII centers, non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence and the maximum quantum yield of PSII in the dark.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Chikahiro; Amako, Katsumi; Shiraishi, Naomasa; Sugimoto, Toshio

    2009-04-01

    Responses of the reduction-oxidation level of plastoquinone (PQ) in the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) system of chloroplasts to growth light intensity were evaluated in tobacco plants. Plants grown in low light (150 micromol photons m-2 s-1) (LL plants) were exposed to a high light intensity (1,100 micromol photons m-2 s-1) for 1 d. Subsequently, the plants exposed to high light (LH plants) were returned back again to the low light condition: these plants were designated as LHL plants. Both LH and LHL plants showed higher values of non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence (NPQ) and the fraction of open PSII centers (qL), and lower values of the maximum quantum yield of PSII in the dark (Fv/Fm), compared with LL plants. The dependence of qL on the quantum yield of PSII [Phi(PSII)] in LH and LHL plants was higher than that in LL plants. To evaluate the effect of an increase in NPQ and decrease in Fv/Fm on qL, we derived an equation expressing qL in relation to both NPQ and Fv/Fm, according to the lake model of photoexcitation of the PSII reaction center. As a result, the heat dissipation process, shown as NPQ, did not contribute greatly to the increase in qL. On the other hand, decreased Fv/Fm did contribute to the increase in qL, i.e. the enhanced oxidation of PQ under photosynthesis-limited conditions. Thylakoid membranes isolated from LH plants, having high qL, showed a higher tolerance against photoinhibition of PSII, compared with those from LL plants. We propose a 'plastoquinone oxidation system (POS)', which keeps PQ in an oxidized state by suppressing the accumulation of electrons in the PET system in such a way as to regulate the maximum quantum yield of PSII.

  18. High irradiance-induced changes in carotenoid composition and increase in non-photochemical quenching of Chl a fluorescence in primary wheat leaves.

    PubMed

    Behera, Rajendra Kumar; Choudhury, Nakul Kumar

    2003-10-01

    The effect of acclimation to high irradiance stress (HIS, 250 Wm-2) in wheat leaves grown under three different irradiances was investigated by HPLC analyses of pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and photochemical activities of chloroplasts. Significant loss of beta-carotene was observed compared to the xanthophylls in all three types of seedlings exposed to HIS. However, the effect of HIS on neoxanthin and lutein contents was not significant. The loss of partial electron transport (Asc-DCPIP to MV, PSI activity) was less than the whole chain (H2O to MV) and PS II activity (H2O to DCPIP) suggesting that PS I is less susceptible to HIS compared to PS II. The percent of reductions in Fv/Fm and phi PS II were less in plants grown under high irradiance (HI-1, 30 Wm-2 and HI-2, 45 Wm-2) compared to those grown under moderate irradiance (MI, 15 Wm-2). On the other hand, the percent of NPQ increased more in the leaves of HI plants compared to the leaves of MI when exposed to HIS which suggests a more efficient non-radiative dissipation of excess excitation energy in HI plants compared to MI. These observations suggest that plants grown under relatively high irradiance are better adapted to HIS condition.

  19. Fluorescence quenching and excitation transfer between semiconducting and metallic organic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åsberg, Peter; Nilsson, Peter; Inganäs, Olle

    2004-09-01

    Here we present a simple approach to study the interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in conjugated polymers in organic electronic devices. Interlayer quenching constants KIL of 1.5M-1 between a fluorescent molecule and a doped polymer in a layered sample demonstrates the importance of understanding the quenching of excited states in polymeric devices. A combination of Förster resonance energy transfer and quenching of photoluminescence between a fluorescent molecule and a conjugated polymer in its semiconducting and metallic states were studied. The polymer is a chiral 3-substituted polythiophene (POWT) and the fluorescent molecule is fluorescein bound to dextran (D-FITC). Bilayer samples with fluorescein on top of the POWT were fabricated and studied with absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and electrochemical doping methods. When POWT is electrochemically dedoped it is possible to enhance the photoluminescence in the polymer layer by excitation transfer from the fluorescein layer. Our results demonstrate that PL from the polythiophene disappears rapidly as soon as the layer is doped. As the doping of polymer layer increases the fluorescence from the fluorescein on top of the polymer decreases, due to excitation quenching. Models for excitation transfer and excitation quenching in POWT/FITC bilayer devices have been developed. This model predicts a linear relationship between the PL from the two molecules, in agreement with our experimental findings. These results are relevant for the development of electroluminescent devices or solar cells based on conjugated polymers.

  20. On the O2(a1Δ) quenching by vibrationally excited ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    The development of a discharge oxygen iodine laser (DOIL) requires efficient production of singlet delta oxygen (O2(a)) in electric discharge. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which O2(a) is quenched in these devices. To gain understanding of this mechanisms quenching of O2(a) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2 a --> X transition. Fast quenching of O2(a) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  1. Quenching of nitrogen dioxide fluorescence excited by a He-Cd laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kireev, S.V.; Shnyrev, S.L.

    1994-06-01

    The effect of some buffer gases on nitrogen dioxide fluorescence excited by a 0.44-{mu}m He-Cd laser is investigated. The rate constants of fluorescence self-quenching by buffer gases are measured. The cross sections of collision quenching of fluorescence are determined. The obtained results can be used for nitrogen dioxide monitoring in the atmosphere. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Measured Strain of Nb3Sn Coils During Excitation and Quench

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hannaford, C.R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lietzke, S.; Mattafirri,M.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.

    2005-04-16

    The strain in a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a ''common coil'' fashion capable of reaching 11T at 4.2K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench.

  3. Negative-quench-induced excitation dynamics for ultracold bosons in one-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, S. I.; Cao, L.; Schmelcher, P.

    2015-03-01

    The nonequilibrium dynamics following a quench of strongly repulsive bosonic ensembles in one-dimensional finite lattices is investigated by employing interaction quenches and/or a ramp of the lattice potential. Both sudden and time-dependent quenches are analyzed in detail. For the case of interaction quenches we address the transition from the strong repulsive to the weakly interacting regime, suppressing in this manner the heating of the system. The excitation modes such as the cradle process and the local breathing mode are examined via local density observables. In particular, the cradle mode is inherently related to the initial delocalization and, following a negative interaction quench, can be excited only for incommensurate setups with filling larger than unity. Alternatively, a negative quench of the lattice depth which favors the spatial delocalization is used to access the cradle mode for setups with filling smaller than unity. Our results shed light on possible schemes to control the cradle and the breathing modes. Finally, employing the notion of fidelity we study the dynamical response of the system after a diabatic or adiabatic parameter modulation for short and long evolution times. The evolution of the system is obtained numerically using the ab initio multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons, which permits us to follow nonequilibrium dynamics including the corresponding investigation of higher-band effects.

  4. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence by quinones.

    PubMed

    Samuilov, V D; Borisov AYu; Barsky, E L; Borisova, O F; Kitashov, A V

    1998-10-01

    Quinones caused quenching of Chl a fluorescence in native and model systems. Menadione quenched twofold the fluorescence of Chl a and BChl a in pea chloroplasts, chromatophores of purple bacteria, and liposomes at concentrations of 50-80 microM. To obtain twofold quenching in Triton X-100 micelles and in ethanol, the addition of 1.3 mM and 11 mM menadione was required, respectively. A proportional decrease in the lifetime and yield of Chl a fluorescence in chloroplasts, observed as the menadione concentration increased, is indicative of the efficient excitation energy transfer from bulk Chl to menadione. The decrease in the lifetime and yield of fluorescence was close to proportional in liposomes, but not in detergent micelles. The insensitivity of the menadione quenching effect to DCMU in chloroplasts, and similarity of its action in chloroplasts and liposomes indicate that menadione in chloroplasts interacts with antenna Chl, i.e., nonphotochemical quenching of fluorescence occurs.

  5. Semiclassical study of the quenching of excited-state fluorine atom by hydrogen molecule - Comparison between reactive and nonreactive processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.-M.; Skuse, B. M.; Jaffe, R. L.; Komornicki, A.; Morokuma, K.; George, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    Semiclassical calculations are carried out for the quenching of excited-state fluorine atom by collinear collisions with hydrogen molecule. The overall quenching probability is the sum of two contributions: the reactive quenching probability associated with the formation of hydrogen fluoride and the nonreactive quenching probability leading to ground-state fluorine atom and hydrogen molecule. The reactive probability is greater in the threshold region of the collision energy, whereas the nonreactive probability dominates for energies above the threshold region.

  6. Influence of the excitation light intensity on the rate of fluorescence quenching reactions: pulsed experiments.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Gonzalo; Milkiewicz, Jadwiga; Kattnig, Daniel; Nejbauer, Michał; Stepanenko, Yuriy; Szczepanek, Jan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wnuk, Paweł; Grampp, Günter

    2017-02-22

    The effect of multiple light excitation events on bimolecular photo-induced electron transfer reactions in liquid solution is studied experimentally. It is found that the decay of fluorescence can be up to 25% faster if a second photon is absorbed after a first cycle of quenching and recombination. A theoretical model is presented which ascribes this effect to the enrichment of the concentration of quenchers in the immediate vicinity of fluorophores that have been previously excited. Despite its simplicity, the model delivers a qualitative agreement with the observed experimental trends. The original theory by Burshtein and Igoshin (J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 112, 10930-10940) was created for continuous light excitation though. A qualitative extrapolation from the here presented pulse experiments to the continuous excitation conditions lead us to conclude that in the latter the order of magnitude of the increase of the quenching efficiency upon increasing the light intensity of excitation, must also be on the order of tens of percent. These results mean that the rate constant for photo-induced bimolecular reactions depends not only on the usual known factors, such as temperature, viscosity and other properties of the medium, but also on the intensity of the excitation light.

  7. Distance Dependence of Electron Spin Polarization during Photophysical Quenching of Excited Naphthalene by TEMPO Radical.

    PubMed

    Rane, Vinayak; Das, Ranjan

    2015-06-04

    Quenching of excited states by a free radical is generally studied in systems where these two are separate entities freely moving in a liquid solution. Random diffusive encounters bring them together to cause the quenching and leave the spins of the radical polarized. In the dynamics of the radical-triplet pair mechanism of the generation of electron spin polarization (ESP), the distance-dependent exchange interaction plays a crucial role. To investigate how the distance between the excited molecule and the radical influences the ESP, we have covalently linked a naphthalene moiety to a TEMPO free radical through a spacer group of three different lengths. We compared the ESP process of these linked compounds with that of the usual "unlinked system" of naphthalene and TEMPO through time-resolved EPR experiments at low temperature in n-hexane solution. The time evolution of both the linked and the "unlinked system" was treated on a similar footing. The time-dependent EPR signal was analyzed by combining photophysical kinetics and time-dependent Bloch equations incorporating spin dynamics. Sequential quenching of the singlet state and the triplet state of naphthalene was seen in all the systems, as revealed through the spin-polarized TREPR spectra of opposite phase. The magnitudes of the ESP in the linked molecules were higher than those of the "unlinked system," showing that when the two moieties are held together greater mixing of quartet-doublet states takes place. The magnitudes of ESP steadily decrease with increasing the length of the spacer group. The polarization magnitudes due to triplet quenching and singlet quenching are very similar, differing by a factor of only ∼2. These characteristics show that for all the linked molecules the quenching takes place in the "weak exchange" regime and at almost the same distance of separation between the two moieties. Our results also showed that observation of small absorptive TREPR signals does not necessarily imply

  8. Positive and negative quenches induced excitation dynamics for ultracold bosons in one-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Cao, Lushuai; Schmelcher, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The correlated non-equilibrium dynamics of few-boson systems in one-dimensional finite lattices is investigated. Focusing on the low-lying modes of the finite lattice we observe the emergence of density-wave tunneling, breathing and cradle-like processes. In particular, the tunneling induced by the quench leads to a global density-wave oscillation. The resulting breathing and cradle modes are inherent to the local intrawell dynamics and related to excited-band states. Positive interaction quenches couple the density-wave and the cradle modes allowing for resonance phenomena. Moreover, the cradle mode is associated with the initial delocalization and following a negative interaction quench can be excited for setups with filling larger than unity. For subunit fillings it can be accessed with the aid of a negative quench of the lattice depth. Finally, our results shed light to possible controlling schemes for the cradle and the breathing modes. The evolution of the system is obtained numerically using the ab-initio multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons. (1)Hamburgisches Gesetz zur Förderung des wissenschaftlichen und künstlerischen Nachwuchses (HmbNFG), (2,3) Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  9. Hydrodynamics of local excitations after an interaction quench in 1D cold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, Fabio; Kulkarni, Manas; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the hydrodynamic approach to the study of the time evolution—induced by a quench—of local excitations in one dimension. We focus on interaction quenches: the considered protocol consists of creating a stable localized excitation propagating through the system, and then operating a sudden change of the interaction between the particles. To highlight the effect of the quench, we take the initial excitation to be a soliton. The quench splits the excitation into two packets moving in opposite directions, whose characteristics for short times can be expressed in a universal way. Our treatment allows for the description of the internal dynamics of these two packets in terms of the different velocities of their components. We confirm our analytical predictions through numerical simulations performed with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and with the Calogero model (as an example of long range interactions and solvable with a parabolic confinement). Through the Calogero model we also discuss the effect of an external trapping on the protocol. The hydrodynamic approach shows that there is a difference between the bulk velocities of the propagating packets and the velocities of their peaks: it is possible to discriminate the two quantities, as we show through the comparison between numerical simulations and analytical estimates. We show that our analytical results capture with remarkable precision the findings of the numerical simulations also for intermediate times and we provide predictions for the time at which the two packets becomes distinguishable. In the realizations of the discussed quench protocol in a cold atom experiment, these different velocities are accessible through different measurement procedures.

  10. Dissociative excitation of the N(+)(5S) state by electron impact on N2 - Excitation function and quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, P. W.; Zipf, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    Metastable N(+)(5S) ions were produced in the laboratory by dissociative excitation of N2 with energetic electrons. The resulting radiative decay of the N(+)(5S) state was observed with sufficient resolution to completely resolve the doublet from the nearby N2 molecular radiation. The excitation function was measured from threshold to 500 eV. The cross section peaks at a high electron energy and also exhibits a high threshold energy both of which are typical of dissociative excitation-ionization processes. This finding complicates the explanation of electron impact on N2 as the mechanism for the source of the 2145 A 'auroral mystery feature' by further increasing the required peak cross section. It is suggested that the apparent N(+)(5S) quenching in auroras may be an artifact due to the softening of the electron energy spectrum in the auroral E region.

  11. Noise focusing in neuronal tissues: Symmetry breaking and localization in excitable networks with quenched disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, Javier G.; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-05-01

    We introduce a coarse-grained stochastic model for the spontaneous activity of neuronal cultures to explain the phenomenon of noise focusing, which entails localization of the noise activity in excitable networks with metric correlations. The system is modeled as a continuum excitable medium with a state-dependent spatial coupling that accounts for the dynamics of synaptic connections. The most salient feature is the emergence at the mesoscale of a vector field V (r ) , which acts as an advective carrier of the noise. This entails an explicit symmetry breaking of isotropy and homogeneity that stems from the amplification of the quenched fluctuations of the network by the activity avalanches, concomitant with the excitable dynamics. We discuss the microscopic interpretation of V (r ) and propose an explicit construction of it. The coarse-grained model shows excellent agreement with simulations at the network level. The generic nature of the observed phenomena is discussed.

  12. Positive-parity excited states of the nucleon in quenched lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Mahbub, M. S.; Cais, Alan O.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2010-11-01

    Positive-parity spin-(1/2) excitations of the nucleon are explored in lattice QCD. The variational method is used in this investigation and several correlation matrices are employed. As our focus is on the utility and methodology of the variational approach, we work in the quenched approximation to QCD. Various sweeps of Gaussian fermion-field smearing are applied at the source and at the sink of {chi}{sub 1{chi}1} and {chi}{sub 1{chi}2} correlation functions to obtain a large basis of operators. Using several different approaches for constructing basis interpolators, we demonstrate how improving the basis can split what otherwise might be interpreted as a single state into multiple eigenstates. Consistency of the extracted excited energy states are explored over various dimensions of the correlation matrices. The use of large correlation matrices is emphasized for the reliable extraction of the excited eigenstates of QCD.

  13. Onset of quenching of the giant dipole resonance at high excitation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santonocito, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Delaunay, F.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Hongmei, F.; Lima, V.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Wieland, O.

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) properties in nuclei of mass A =120 to 132 has been investigated in an excitation energy range between 150 and 270 MeV through the study of complete and nearly complete fusion reactions using 116Sn beams at 17 A and 23 A MeV from the cyclotron of the Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud impinging on 12C and 24Mg targets. γ rays and light charged particles were detected using the multi-element detector array MEDEA in coincidence with evaporation residues detected by using mass and charge identification spectrometry with telescope (MACISTE). Light-charged-particle energy spectra were analyzed within the framework of a multiple-source-emission scenario by using a fitting procedure to determine the amount of pre-equilibrium emission and deduce the excitation energies reached in the compound nuclei. A detailed analysis of the γ -ray spectra and their comparison with statistical model calculations is presented. Evidence of a quenching of the GDR gamma yield was found at 270 MeV excitation energy. The quenching effect becomes progressively more important with increasing excitation energy, as observed when the comparison is extended to data from the reaction 36Ar+96Mo at 37 A MeV where hot nuclei were populated up to 430 MeV excitation energy. A coherent scenario emerges indicating the existence of a limiting excitation energy for the collective motion of about E*/A =2.1 MeV for systems of mass A =105 to 111 while a slightly lower value was observed for nuclei of mass A ˜132 . The existence of a possible link between GDR disappearance and the liquid-gas phase transition is discussed.

  14. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Self-quenching of excited europium ions in Eu(DBM)3bath-based organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. J.; Wong, T. C.; Hung, L. S.; Lee, S. T.; Hong, Z. R.; Li, W. L.

    2001-06-01

    Luminance-current characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices based on the europium complex of europium(dibenzoylmethanato)3 (bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM)3bath) have been investigated. Transient measurements were carried out to study the decay process of excited Eu3+ ions. A comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculation shows that biexcitonic quenching among the excited Eu3+ ions is an important channel in their decay process, and this quenching process is a primary cause for our observation of a rapid decrease in quantum efficiency with increasing current density. Extending the recombination zone is found to be beneficial to reducing this defective effect. The mechanism of the quenching process is also discussed.

  15. Cross-relaxation quenching of x-ray excited luminescence in Eu-activated phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacold, Joseph; Mortensen, Devon; Reichlin, William; Finfrock, Zou; Diaz, Anthony; Seidler, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Compounds, molecules, and nanoparticles containing lanthanides as primary constituents or as dopants are widely used in applications including luminescent dyes and lighting phosphors. Recent work has shown that x-ray spectroscopy methods can be used to monitor the sequence of excited states that leads to luminescence in lanthanide materials. Here, we use x-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) to identify a nonradiative process that quenches the emissive excited state of Eu3+ in the phosphors YVO4:Eu3+ and YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+. Taking advantage of the high flux (up to 2 ×1012 photons/second) and focusing capability (beam FWHM 5 μm) of a modern synchrotron beamline, we observe saturation of the XEOL yield at high x-ray flux densities. The saturation effect is interpreted with a kinetic model in which pairs of excited Eu ions undergo an Auger-like cross-relaxation. This effect is well documented in the literature on cathode-ray phosphors, and allows us to estimate the excited fraction of Eu3+ ions. We discuss applications of this method to the broader problem of studying energy transfer in luminescent materials, as well as technical implications for future x-ray spectroscopy studies that require high flux.

  16. Persistent photoconductivity and optical quenching of photocurrent in GaN layers under dual excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursaki, V. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Anedda, A.; Hubbard, S.; Pavlidis, D.

    2003-09-01

    Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) and optical quenching (OQ) of photoconductivity (PC) were investigated in a variety of n-GaN layers characterized by different carrier concentrations, luminescence characteristics, and strains. The relation between PPC and OQ of PC was studied by exciting the samples with two beams of monochromatic radiation of various wavelengths and intensities. The PPC was found to be excited by the first beam with a threshold at 2.0 eV, while the second beam induces OQ of PC in a wide range of photon energies with a threshold at 1.0 eV. The obtained results are explained on the basis of a model combining two previously put forward schemes with electron traps playing the main role in PPC and hole traps inducing OQ of PC. The possible nature of the defects responsible for optical metastability of GaN is discussed.

  17. Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai M; Bharath, Hebbe M; Boguslawski, Matthew J; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce A; Chapman, Michael S

    2016-08-23

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and massive Anderson-Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental understanding of matter in the Universe and appear as collective phase or amplitude excitations of an order parameter in a many-body system. The amplitude excitation plays a crucial role in determining the critical exponents governing universal nonequilibrium dynamics in the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Here, we characterize the amplitude excitations in a spin-1 condensate and measure the energy gap for different phases of the quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point of the transition, finite-size effects lead to a nonzero gap. Our measurements are consistent with this prediction, and furthermore, we demonstrate an adiabatic quench through the phase transition, which is forbidden at the mean field level. This work paves the way toward generating entanglement through an adiabatic phase transition.

  18. Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Bharath, Hebbe M.; Boguslawski, Matthew J.; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce A.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and massive Anderson-Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental understanding of matter in the Universe and appear as collective phase or amplitude excitations of an order parameter in a many-body system. The amplitude excitation plays a crucial role in determining the critical exponents governing universal nonequilibrium dynamics in the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Here, we characterize the amplitude excitations in a spin-1 condensate and measure the energy gap for different phases of the quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point of the transition, finite-size effects lead to a nonzero gap. Our measurements are consistent with this prediction, and furthermore, we demonstrate an adiabatic quench through the phase transition, which is forbidden at the mean field level. This work paves the way toward generating entanglement through an adiabatic phase transition.

  19. Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thai M.; Bharath, Hebbe M.; Boguslawski, Matthew J.; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce A.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu–Goldstone modes and massive Anderson–Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental understanding of matter in the Universe and appear as collective phase or amplitude excitations of an order parameter in a many-body system. The amplitude excitation plays a crucial role in determining the critical exponents governing universal nonequilibrium dynamics in the Kibble–Zurek mechanism (KZM). Here, we characterize the amplitude excitations in a spin-1 condensate and measure the energy gap for different phases of the quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point of the transition, finite-size effects lead to a nonzero gap. Our measurements are consistent with this prediction, and furthermore, we demonstrate an adiabatic quench through the phase transition, which is forbidden at the mean field level. This work paves the way toward generating entanglement through an adiabatic phase transition. PMID:27503886

  20. ROTATIONAL QUENCHING OF ROTATIONALLY EXCITED H{sub 2}O IN COLLISIONS WITH He

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Benhui; Stancil, P. C.; Nagao, M.; Satomi, W.; Kimura, M. E-mail: stancil@physast.uga.edu

    2013-03-10

    Theoretical rotational quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of ortho- and para-H{sub 2}O due to collisions with He atoms are presented. The complete angular momentum close-coupling approach as well as the coupled-states approximation for the angular momentum decoupling was applied to solve the scattering problem for a large range of rotationally excited states of water. Results are obtained for quenching from initial levels 1{sub 1,0}, 2{sub 1,2}, 2{sub 2,1}, 3{sub 0,3}, 3{sub 1,2}, 3{sub 2,1}, 4{sub 1,4}, 3{sub 3,0}, and 4{sub 2,3} of ortho-H{sub 2}O and from initial levels 1{sub 1,1}, 2{sub 0,2}, 2{sub 1,1}, 2{sub 2,0}, 3{sub 1,3}, 3{sub 2,2}, 4{sub 0,4}, 4{sub 1,3}, and 3{sub 3,1} of para-H{sub 2}O for kinetic energies from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}. State-to-state and total deexcitation cross sections and rate coefficients for temperatures between 0.1 and 3000 K are reported. The present state-to-state rate coefficients are found to be in good agreement with previous results obtained by Green and coworkers at high temperatures, but significant discrepancies are obtained at lower temperatures likely due to differences in the adopted potential energy surfaces. Astrophysical applications of the current rate coefficients are briefly discussed.

  1. Collisional Quenching of Highly-Excited H2 due to H2 Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yier; Yang, Benhui H.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Forrey, Robert C.; This work was partially support by Hubble grant HST-AT-13899. We thank Kyle Walkerassistance with vrrmm.

    2017-06-01

    Collision-induced energy transfer involving H2 molecules are of significant interest, since H2 is the most abundant molecular species in the universe. Collisional de-excitation rate coefficients of the H2-H2 system are necessary to produce accurate models of astrophysical environments. However, accurate calculations of collisional energy transfer are still a challenging problem, especially for highly-excited H2 because a large number of levels must be included in the calculation.Currently, most data are limited to initial rotational levels j up to 8 or initial vibrational levels up to 3. The vast majority of these results involve some form of a reduced-dimensional approach which may be of questionable accuracy. A reliable and accurate four-dimensional PES computed by Patkowski et al. is used in this work along with two quantum scattering programs (MOLSCAT and vrrmm). Another accurate full-dimensional PES has been reported for the H2-H2 system by Hinde.Not all transitions will be explicitly calculated. A zero-energy scaling technique (ZEST) is used to estimate some intermediate transitions from calculated rate coefficients. New inelastic quenching cross section for para-H2+para-H2 collisions with initial level j= 10, 12, 14, 18, 24 are calculated. Calculations for other de-excitation transitions from higher initial levels and collisions involving other spin isomer of hydrogen, ortho-H2+para-H2, ortho-H2+ortho-H2 and para-H2+ortho-H2 are in progress. The coupled- states approximation is also applied to obtain cross sections at high energy.K. Patkowski, et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 094304 (2008).J. M. Hutson and S. Green, MOLSCAT Computer code, v14 (1994).K. Walker, 2013, VRRMM: Vibrational/Rotational Rich Man’s MOLSCAT v3.1.K. Walker, Song, L., Yang, B. H.,et al. 2015, ApJ, \\811,27.S. Green, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2271 (1975).Flower, D. R., Roueff, E. 1998, J. Phys. B, 31, 2935.T. -G. Lee, N. Balakrishnan, R. C. Forrey, P. C. Stancil, G. Shaw, D. R. Schultz, and G. J

  2. Quenching Enhancement of the Singlet Excited State of Pheophorbide-a by DNA in the Presence of the Quinone Carboquone

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Espinosa, Yisaira; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E.; Alegría, Antonio E.; García, Carmelo; Arce, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the emission fluorescence intensity of pheophorbide-a (PHEO) in the presence of carboquone (CARBOQ) were used to obtain the association constant, the number of CARBOQ molecules interacting with PHEO, and the fluorescence quantum yield of the complex. Excitation spectra of mixtures of PHEO and CARBOQ in ethanol (EtOH) show an unresolved doublet in the red-most excitation band of PHEO, indicating the formation of a loose ground-state complex. The 1:1 CARBOQ–PHEO complex shows a higher fluorescence quantum yield in EtOH (0.41 ± 0.02) than in buffer solution (0.089 ± 0.002), which is also higher than that of the PHEO monomer (0.28). Quenching of the PHEO fluorescence by DNA nucleosides and double-stranded oligonucleotides was also observed and the bimolecular quenching rate constants were determined. The quenching rate constant increase as the oxidation potential of the DNA nucleoside increases. Larger quenching constants were obtained in the presence of CARBOQ suggesting that CARBOQ enhances DNA photo-oxidation, presumably by inhibiting the back–electron-transfer reaction from the photoreduced PHEO to the oxidized base. Thus, the enhanced DNA-base photosensitized oxidation by PHEO in the presence of CARBOQ may be related to the large extent by which this quinone covalently binds to DNA, as previously reported. PMID:21138440

  3. Non-linear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo, proved by feedback system theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paor, A. M.

    Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998) has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ɛ has the value 1 is proved via the Popov theorem from feedback system stability theory.

  4. Investigation of the molecular mechanism of the blue-light-specific excitation energy quenching in the plant antenna complex LHCII.

    PubMed

    Gruszecki, Wieslaw I; Zubik, Monika; Luchowski, Rafal; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Gospodarek, Malgorzata; Szurkowski, Janusz; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2011-03-15

    Excitation of the major photosynthetic antenna complex of plants, LHCII, with blue light (470nm) provides an advantage to plants, as it gives rise to chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetimes shorter than with excitation with red light (635nm). This difference is particularly pronounced in fluorescence emission wavelengths longer than 715nm. Illumination of LHCII preparation with blue light additionally induces fluorescence quenching, which develops on a minute timescale. This effect is much less efficient when induced by red light, despite the equalized energy absorbed in both the spectral regions. Simultaneous analysis of the fluorescence and photoacoustic signals in LHCII demonstrated that the light-driven fluorescence quenching is not associated with an increase in heat emission. Instead, a reversible light-induced conformational transformation of the protein takes place, as demonstrated by the FTIR technique. These findings are discussed in terms of the blue-light-specific excitation energy quenching in LHCII, which may have photoprotective applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hide, R.

    In the interpretation of geomagnetic polarity reversals with their highly variable frequency over geological time it is necessary, as with other irregularly fluctuating geophysical phenomena, to consider the relative importance of forced contributions associated with changing boundary conditions and of free contributions characteristic of the behaviour of nonlinear systems operating under fixed boundary conditions. New evidence -albeit indirect- in favour of the likely predominance of forced contributions is provided by the discovery reported here of the possibility of complete quenching by nonlineax effects of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo with its single Faraday disk driven into rotation with angular speed y(τ) (where τ denotes time) by a steady applied couple. The armature of an electric motor connected in series with the coil of the dynamo is driven into rotation' with angular speed z(τ) by a torque xf (x) due to Lorentz forces associated with the electric current x(τ) in the system (just as certain parts of the spectrum of eddies within the liquid outer core are generated largely by Lorentz forces associated with currents generated by the self-exciting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) geodynamo). The discovery is based on bifurcation analysis supported by computational studies of the following (mathematically novel) autonomous set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: dx/dt = x(y - 1) - βzf(x), dy/dt = α(1 - x²) - κy, dz/dt = xf (x) -λz, where f (x) = 1 - ɛ + ɛσx, in cases when the dimensionless parameters (α, β, κ, λ, σ) are all positive and 0 ≤ ɛ ≤ 1. Within those regions of (α, β, κ, λ, σ) parameter space where the applied couple, as measured by α, is strong enough for persistent dynamo action (i.e. x ≠ 0) to occur at all, there are in general extensive regions where x(τ) exhibits large amplitude regular or irregular (chaotic) fluctuations. But these fluctuating régimes shrink in size as increases

  6. The steric hindrance of methyl groups in collisional quenching of highly vibrationally excited methyl-substituted pyrazines by He, Ar, and Kr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Seung Yong; Yang, Hyunik; Park, Jeunghee

    2001-03-01

    The collisional quenching of vibrationally excited methyl-substituted pyrazine series with an initial energy of 38 000-39 000 cm -1 by He, Ar, and Kr has been investigated using time-resolved infrared fluorescence of C-H stretching vibrations. The methyl group facilitates the quenching process, but its enhancement effect decreases as the number of methyl groups increases. The quenching efficiency of dimethylpyrazines depends on the position of methyl groups, which becomes significant when going from He to Kr. The steric hindrance of methyl groups plays an important role in the quenching of dimethylpyrazines and trimethylpyrazine by inert gas.

  7. Photochemical properties of C 60. Triplet-excited C 60 quenching by electron acceptors TCNQ and TCNE in solution. Laser photolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadtochenko, Victor A.; Denisov, Nikolai N.; Rubtsov, Igor V.; Lobach, Anatolii S.; Moravskii, Alexander P.

    1993-06-01

    The quenching of triplet-excited 3C 60 by electron acceptors TCNQ and TCNE has been established in nonpolar toluene and moderately polar benzonitrile solutions. The quenching constants kq are 5.5 × 10 9 in toluene, 2.2 × 10 9 in benzonitrile for TCNQ and 7.9 × 10 5 in toluene, 4.2 × 10 8 (M s) -1 in benzonitrile for TCNE. The 3C 60 quenching can be explained by triplet exciplex formation. The time-resolved spectra of the C 60/TCNE system exhibit a well pronounced charge-transfer excited state [C δ60 … TCNE δ-] in benzonitrile.

  8. Comments on the effect of Δ (1232 MeV)-hole excitation in quenching the gamow-teller matrix element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, A.; Cheon, T.; Shimizu, K.; Hyuga, H.; Suzuki, T.

    1983-03-01

    The effect of the Δ-hole excitation in quenching the Gamow-Teller matrix element is investigated using the pion and rho-meson exchange potential. The contributions are found to be smaller than those given by the calculation using the Landau-Migdal type interaction with g' Δ = 0.6. The difference is found to be due to the choice of g' Δ. Discussions concerning the validity of the universality g' N = g' Δ and the estimate of g' Δ are given.

  9. Quenching of electronically excited N2 molecules and Tb(3)(+) /Eu(3)(+) ions by polyatomic sulfur-containing gases upon triboluminescence of inorganic lanthanide salts.

    PubMed

    Sharipov, G L; Tukhbatullin, A A; Bagautdinova, A R

    2016-12-20

    The triboluminescence of Eu2 (SO4 )3 ·8H2 O and Tb2 (SO4 )3 ·8H2 O crystals in an atmosphere of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) was studied. Quenching of the gaseous (emitter N2 ) and solid-state (emitter Ln(3+) ) components of the triboluminescence (TL) emission spectrum was seen when compared with the TL spectra of the crystals in air. One reason for the quenching is a reduction in the effective charge both on the crystal surface and in micro-cracks under an SO2 or SF6 atmosphere, leading to a decrease in the probability of electrical breakdown and a reduction in electric field strength responsible for the electroluminescence excitation of lanthanide ions in TL. In an SO2 atmosphere, there is an additional mode of quenching, as confirmed by quenching of the crystal photoluminescence (emitter Ln(3+) ). It is supposed that this quenching is due to an exchange of energy on electronic excitation of the lanthanide ions to the vibrational sublevels of the SO2 molecules adsorbed on the crystal surface. Another additional channel of TL quenching originates from non-radiative transfer of excitation energy during collisions between the *N2 and SO2 molecules in the gaseous phase.

  10. Quenching of the Giant Dipole Resonance Strength at High Excitation Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santonocito, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Delaunay, F.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Hongmei, F.; Lima, V.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    The evolution with excitation energy of the Giant Dipole Resonance features in nuclei of mass A≈108-136 is reviewed. We first discuss the results of the experiments performed with MEDEA studying the GDR gamma decay from hot nuclei populated at excitation energies above 300 MeV. The focus of the paper is on the excitation energy region between 160 and 290 MeV. This region has been investigated through the study of the reactions 116Sn + 12C at 17 and 23 A MeV, and 116Sn + 24Mg at 17 A MeV. Gamma-rays were detected using MEDEA in coincidence with evaporation residues detected in MACISTE. The analysis of the gamma-ray spectra and their comparison with statistical calculations are presented. The comparison with γ-ray spectra from the reaction 36Ar + 98Mo at higher excitation energies shows a coherent scenario where a progressive reduction of γ multiplicity relative to predictions for 100% of the Energy Weighted Sum Rule is observed above 200 MeV excitation energy. Finally, the existence of a link between disappearance of collective motion and the liquid-gas phase transitions is discussed.

  11. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED NONPHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this handbook is to summarize commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced nonphotochemical oxidation (ANPO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and soil. Similar information from pilot-and bench-scale evaluations of ANPO processes is also inclu...

  12. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED NONPHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this handbook is to summarize commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced nonphotochemical oxidation (ANPO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and soil. Similar information from pilot-and bench-scale evaluations of ANPO processes is also inclu...

  13. Simple replacement of violaxanthin by zeaxanthin in LHC-II does not cause chlorophyll fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed

    Dreuw, Andreas; Wormit, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Recently, a mechanism for the energy-dependent component (qE) of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), the fundamental photo-protection mechanism in green plants, has been suggested. Replacement of violaxanthin by zeaxanthin in the binding pocket of the major light harvesting complex LHC-II may be sufficient to invoke efficient chlorophyll fluorescence quenching. Our quantum chemical calculations, however, show that the excited state energies of violaxanthin and zeaxanthin are practically identical when their geometry is constrained to the naturally observed structure of violaxanthin in LHC-II. Therefore, since violaxanthin does not quench LHC-II, zeaxanthin should not either. This theoretical finding is nicely in agreement with experimental results obtained by femtosecond spectroscopy on LHC-II complexes containing violaxanthin or zeaxanthin.

  14. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, Gurinder Pal; Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λexc.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO4 units thus supporting the density results. The UV- Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  15. The study of excited oxygen molecule gas species production and quenching on thermal protection system materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Fujimoto, Gordon T.; Greene, Frank T.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of excited oxygen and ozone molecules formed by surface catalyzed oxygen atom recombination and reaction was investigated by laser induced fluorescence (LIF), molecular beam mass spectrometric (MBMS), and field ionization (FI) techniques. The experiment used partially dissociated oxygen flows from a microwave discharge at pressures in the range from 60 to 400 Pa or from an inductively coupled RF discharge at atmospheric pressure. The catalyst materials investigated were nickel and the reaction cured glass coating used for Space Shuttle reusable surface insulation tiles. Nonradiative loss processes for the laser excited states makes LIF detection of O2 difficult such that formation of excited oxygen molecules could not be detected in the flow from the microwave discharge or in the gaseous products of atom loss on nickel. MBMS experiments showed that ozone was a product of heterogeneous O atom loss on nickel and tile surfaces at low temperatures and that ozone is lost on these materials at elevated temperatures. FI was separately investigated as a method by which excited oxygen molecules may be conveniently detected. Partial O2 dissociation decreases the current produced by FI of the gas.

  16. Excited state kinetics in crystalline solids: self-quenching in nanocrystals of 4,4'-disubstituted benzophenone triplets occurs by a reductive quenching mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanich, Gregory; Simoncelli, Sabrina; Gard, Matthew N; Spänig, Fabian; Henderson, Bryana L; Guldi, Dirk M; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2011-11-02

    We report an efficient triplet state self-quenching mechanism in crystals of eight benzophenones, which included the parent structure (1), six 4,4'-disubstituted compounds with NH(2) (2), NMe(2) (3), OH (4), OMe (5), COOH (6), and COOMe (7), and benzophenone-3,3',4,4'-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (8). Self-quenching effects were determined by measuring their triplet-triplet lifetimes and spectra using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption measurements with nanocrystalline suspensions. When possible, triplet lifetimes were confirmed by measuring the phosphorescence lifetimes and with the help of diffusion-limited quenching with iodide ions. We were surprised to discover that the triplet lifetimes of substituted benzophenones in crystals vary over 9 orders of magnitude from ca. 62 ps to 1 ms. In contrast to nanocrystalline suspensions, the lifetimes in solution only vary over 3 orders of magnitude (1-1000 μs). Analysis of the rate constants of quenching show that the more electron-rich benzophenones are the most efficiently deactivated such that there is an excellent correlation, ρ = -2.85, between the triplet quenching rate constants and the Hammet σ(+) values for the 4,4' substituents. Several crystal structures indicate the existence of near-neighbor arrangements that deviate from the proposed ideal for "n-type" quenching, suggesting that charge transfer quenching is mediated by a relatively loose arrangement.

  17. Quenching of excited electronic states of quantum dots by a metallic nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmereva, T. M.; Kucherenko, M. G.; Dmitriev, A. D.

    2015-02-01

    Nonradiative transfer of energy from an excited quantum dot to a conducting nanowire accompanied by emission of one-dimensional surface plasmons is investigated. We consider the cases of intraband and interband relaxation of charge carriers in the quantum dot. Calculations of the nonradiative energy transfer rate are performed for various values of system parameters. We show that the rate of energy transfer by the considered mechanisms can be as large as ˜1011 s-1, which is comparable to the rates due to other possible mechanisms of relaxation and exceeds significantly the typical rate of radiative electron-hole recombination.

  18. Quenching of highly vibrationally excited pyrimidine by collisions with CO2.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremy A; Duffin, Andrew M; Hom, Brian J; Jackson, Karl E; Sevy, Eric T

    2008-02-07

    Relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrimidine (C(4)N(2)H(4)) by collisions with carbon dioxide has been investigated using diode laser transient absorption spectroscopy. Vibrationally hot pyrimidine (E(')=40 635 cm(-1)) was prepared by 248-nm excimer laser excitation, followed by rapid radiationless relaxation to the ground electronic state. The nascent rotational population distribution (J=58-80) of the 00(0)0 ground state of CO(2) resulting from collisions with hot pyrimidine was probed at short times following the excimer laser pulse. Doppler spectroscopy was used to measure the CO(2) recoil velocity distribution for J=58-80 of the 00(0)0 state. Rate constants and probabilities for collisions populating these CO(2) rotational states were determined. The measured energy transfer probabilities, indexed by final bath state, were resorted as a function of DeltaE to create the energy transfer distribution function, P(E,E(')), from E(')-E approximately 1300-7000 cm(-1). P(E,E(')) is fitted to a single exponential and a biexponential function to determine the average energy transferred in a single collision between pyrimidine and CO(2) and parameters that can be compared to previously studied systems using this technique, pyrazineCO(2), C(6)F(6)CO(2), and methylpyrazineCO(2). P(E,E(')) parameters for these four systems are also compared to various molecular properties of the donor molecules. Finally, P(E,E(')) is analyzed in the context of two models, one which suggests that the shape of P(E,E(')) is primarily determined by the low-frequency out-of-plane donor vibrational modes and one which suggests that the shape of P(E,E(')) can be determined by how the donor molecule final density of states changes with DeltaE.

  19. Quenching of highly vibrationally excited pyrimidine by collisions with CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jeremy A.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Hom, Brian J.; Jackson, Karl E.; Sevy, Eric T.

    2008-02-07

    Relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrimidine (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) by collisions with carbon dioxide has been investigated using diode laser transient absorption spectroscopy. Vibrationally hot pyrimidine (E{sup '}=40 635 cm{sup -1}) was prepared by 248-nm excimer laser excitation, followed by rapid radiationless relaxation to the ground electronic state. The nascent rotational population distribution (J=58-80) of the 00{sup 0}0 ground state of CO{sub 2} resulting from collisions with hot pyrimidine was probed at short times following the excimer laser pulse. Doppler spectroscopy was used to measure the CO{sub 2} recoil velocity distribution for J=58-80 of the 00{sup 0}0 state. Rate constants and probabilities for collisions populating these CO{sub 2} rotational states were determined. The measured energy transfer probabilities, indexed by final bath state, were resorted as a function of {delta}E to create the energy transfer distribution function, P(E,E{sup '}), from E{sup '}-E{approx}1300-7000 cm{sup -1}. P(E,E{sup '}) is fitted to a single exponential and a biexponential function to determine the average energy transferred in a single collision between pyrimidine and CO{sub 2} and parameters that can be compared to previously studied systems using this technique, pyrazine/CO{sub 2}, C{sub 6}F{sub 6}/CO{sub 2}, and methylpyrazine/CO{sub 2}. P(E,E{sup '}) parameters for these four systems are also compared to various molecular properties of the donor molecules. Finally, P(E,E{sup '}) is analyzed in the context of two models, one which suggests that the shape of P(E,E{sup '}) is primarily determined by the low-frequency out-of-plane donor vibrational modes and one which suggests that the shape of P(E,E{sup '}) can be determined by how the donor molecule final density of states changes with {delta}E.

  20. Influence of CB[n] complexation on the quenching of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium excited states by Fe2+ ions.

    PubMed

    Montes-Navajas, Pedro; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2013-11-15

    This manuscript focuses on the influence that the addition of Fe(2+) as electron donor quencher exerts on the photophysics of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium (TP(+)) depending on the formation or not of supramolecular inclusion complexes with cucurbit[n]uril (n: 7 or 8). (1)H-NMR spectroscopy does not provide evidence supporting the formation of a ternary TP(+)@CB[n]-Fe(2+) complex. Emission quenching studies indicate that the prevalent deactivation mechanism for the quenching of TP(+) emission by Fe(2+) is by increasing the ionic strength of the solution, with no evidence for the occurrence of dynamic quenching. Laser flash photolysis indicates that while the triplet excited state of TP(+) is instantaneously quenched by Fe(2+) in the absence of CB[n], formation of the TP(+)@CB[n] inclusion complex protects TP(+) triplet excited state from quenching, an effect that is more pronounced in the case of CB[8] due to the deeper penetration and more complete encapsulation of the heterocyclic pyrylium core inside the larger CB[8] capsule.

  1. Center for Fluorescence Spectroscopy: advanced studies of fluorescence dynamics, lifetime imaging, clinical sensing, two-photon excitation, and light quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Malak, Henryk M.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Szmacinski, Henryk; Kusba, Jozef; Akkaya, Engin; Terpetschnig, Ewald A.; Johnson, Michael L.

    1994-08-01

    The Center for Fluorescence Spectroscopy (CFS) is a multi-user facility providing state of the art time-resolved fluorescence instrumentation and software for scientists, whose research can be enhanced by such experimental data. The CFS is a national center, supported by the National Center for Research Resources Division of the National Institutes of Health, and in part by the National Science Foundation. Both time-domain (TD) and frequency- domain (FD) measurements (10 MHz to 10 Ghz) are available, with a wide range of excitation and emission wavelengths (UV to NIR). The data can be used to recover distances and site-to-site diffusion in protein, interactions between macromolecules, accessibility of fluorophores to quenchers, and the dynamic properties of proteins, membranes and nucleic acids. Current software provides for analysis of multi-exponential intensity and anisotropy decays, lifetime distribution, distance distributions for independent observation of fluorescence donors and acceptors, transient effects in collisional quenching, phase-modulation spectra and time-resolved emission spectra. Most programs provide for global analysis of multiple data sets obtained under similar experimental conditions. Data can be analyzed on-site by connection with the CFS computers through the internet. During six years of operation we have established scientific collaborations with over 30 academic and industrial groups in the United States. These collaborations have resulted in 63 scientific papers.

  2. Luminescence quenching of conductive Si nanocrystals via “Linkage emission”: Hopping-like propagation of infrared-excited Auger electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Masashi; Crowe, Iain F.; Halsall, Matthew P.; Hamilton, Bruce; Knights, Andrew P.; Gwilliam, Russell M.

    2014-08-14

    Phosphorus (P) is an n-type dopant for conductive silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc's), the electrical activation of which may be monitored through a non-radiative Auger recombination process that quenches the Si-nc luminescence. We investigated this quenching mechanism through electrical measurements of Si-nc's. Infrared-excited Auger electron emission as the non-radiative process was directly probed and the dynamics of the process are determined from a frequency response analysis. To explain the dynamics, we propose a model in which Auger electrons with a low kinetic energy establish a local inter-nanocrystal conductance and the repetition of this local conductance results in a constant photocurrent (“linkage emission”). This emission becomes significant by electron filling in the Si-nc's owing to the electrical activation of P, which is consistent with observed luminescence quenching behavior. We found that the IR photo-excited emission is distinct from the thermally induced hopping conduction and show that confined, rather than trapped, charges are the source of the Auger electrons. Thus, the process consumes both confined charges and the recombination energy for Auger emission, which explains the luminescence quenching mechanism of Si-nc:P.

  3. Quench in the 1D Bose-Hubbard model: topological defects and excitations from the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2014-08-05

    Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) uses critical scaling to predict density of topological defects and other excitations created in second order phase transitions. We point out that simply inserting asymptotic critical exponents deduced from the immediate vicinity of the critical point to obtain predictions can lead to results that are inconsistent with a more careful KZM analysis based on causality - on the comparison of the relaxation time of the order parameter with the "time distance" from the critical point. As a result, scaling of quench-generated excitations with quench rates can exhibit behavior that is locally (i.e., in the neighborhood of any given quench rate) well approximated by the power law, but with exponents that depend on that rate, and that are quite different from the naive prediction based on the critical exponents relevant for asymptotically long quench times. Kosterlitz-Thouless scaling (that governs e.g. Mott insulator to superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension) is investigated as an example of this phenomenon.

  4. Dynamics of the quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model: Excitations and correlations induced by a quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2017-03-01

    The ground state of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at unit filling undergoes the Mott-superfluid quantum phase transition. It belongs to the Kosterlitz-Thouless universality class with an exponential divergence of the correlation length in place of the usual power law. We present numerical simulations of a linear quench both from the Mott insulator to superfluid and back. The results satisfy the scaling hypothesis that follows from the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). In the superfluid-to-Mott quenches there is no significant excitation in the superfluid phase despite its gaplessness. Since all critical superfluid ground states are qualitatively similar, the excitation begins to build up only after crossing the critical point when the ground state begins to change fundamentally. The last process falls into the KZM framework.

  5. Polyamines induce aggregation of LHC II and quenching of fluorescence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsiavos, Theodoros; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-05-01

    Dissipation of excess excitation energy within the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II (LHC II) is a main process in plants, which is measured as the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence or qE. We showed in previous works that polyamines stimulate qE in higher plants in vivo and in eukaryotic algae in vitro. In the present contribution we have tested whether polyamines can stimulate quenching in trimeric LHC II and monomeric light-harvesting complex b proteins from higher plants. The tetramine spermine was the most potent quencher and induced aggregation of LHC II trimers, due to its highly cationic character. Two transients are evident at 100 μM and 350 μM for the fluorescence and absorbance signals of LHC II respectively. On the basis of observations within this work, some links between polyamines and the activation of qE in vivo is discussed.

  6. Methylation effects in state resolved quenching of highly vibrationally excited azabenzenes (Evib˜38 500 cm-1). I. Collisions with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elioff, Michael S.; Fang, Maosen; Mullin, Amy S.

    2001-10-01

    To investigate the role of molecular structure in collisions that quench highly vibrationally excited molecules, we have performed state resolved transient infrared absorption studies of energy gain in a number of rotational levels of H2O(000) resulting from collisions of water with vibrationally excited 2-methylpyridine (2-picoline) and 2,6-dimethylpyridine (2,6-lutidine) in a low-pressure gas-phase environment at 298 K. Vibrationally excited methylpyridines were prepared with ˜38 500 cm-1 of internal energy using 266 nm ultraviolet excitation to an S1 electronic state followed by rapid radiationless decay to the S0 electronic state. Collisions that populate rotationally excited states of H2O(000) were investigated with infrared absorption by monitoring the appearance of individual rotational states of H2O(000) with energies between 1000 and 2000 cm-1. Rotational state distributions for recoiling water molecules were characterized by Boltzmann temperatures of Trot=590±90 K for quenching of hot picoline and Trot=490±80 K for lutidine quenching. Doppler-broadened transient absorption line profiles show that the scattered H2O(000) molecules have laboratory-frame translational energy distributions corresponding to Ttrans≈600 K for deactivation of picoline and Ttrans≈590 K for lutidine. Energy transfer rate constant measurements indicate that rotational excitation of H2O(000) with Evib>1000 cm-1 occurs for one in 31 picoline/water collisions and one in 17 lutidine/water collisions. Comparison with earlier quenching studies on pyrazine [M. Fraelich, M. S. Elioff, and A. S. Mullin, J. Phys. Chem. 102, 9761 (1998)] and pyridine [M. S. Elioff, M. Fraelich, R. L. Sansom, and A. S. Mullin, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 3517 (1999)] indicate that, for the same initial internal energy in the hot donor, the extent of rotational excitation in water is diminished as the number of vibrational modes in the donor increases. The energy transfer probability for this pathway exhibits

  7. Photochemical and nonphotochemical hole burning in dimethyl-s-tetrazine in a polyvinyl carbazole film

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, E.; Castro, G.

    1981-01-01

    Hole burning as well as fluorescence line narrowing experiments have been performed on the system dimethyl-s-tetrazine in polyvinyl carbazole films at low temperatures. The first singlet electronic absorption bands are typical (300 cm-1 wide) of inhomogeneously broadened bands of guest molecules in amorphous organic hosts. In this paper, evidence is presented for both photochemical and nonphotochemical hole burning. The narrowest holes observed were lorentzian, had a width of 0.44 cm-1 at 1.8 K, and are believed to be of nonphotochemical origin. A model which envisions the guest molecules to occupy different sites in the polymer host with a distribution of energy barriers between sites is used to describe these observations. Finally, the fast (20 ps) relaxation time implied by the 0.44 cm-1 lorentzian linewidth is interpreted as indicative of the rate of site interconversion in the excited state.

  8. Synthesis, spectral behaviour and photophysics of donor-acceptor kind of chalcones: Excited state intramolecular charge transfer and fluorescence quenching studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannipara, Mehboobali; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Alamry, Khalid A.; Arshad, Muhammad N.; El-Daly, Samy A.

    2015-02-01

    The spectral and photophysical properties of two chalcones containing electron donating and accepting groups with intramolecular charge transfer characteristics were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and X-ray crystallography. Both compounds show very strong solvent polarity dependent changes in their photophysical characteristics, namely, remarkable red shift in the emission spectra with increasing solvent polarity, large change in Stokes shift, significant reduction in the fluorescence quantum yield; indicating that the fluorescence states of these compounds are of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character. The solvent effect on the photophysical parameters such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, oscillator strength, dipole moment, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence quantum yield of both compounds have been investigated comprehensively. For both dyes, Lippert-Mataga and Reichardt's correlations were used to estimate the difference between the excited and ground state dipole moments (Δμ). The interactions of dyes with colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were also studied in ethanol using steady state fluorescence quenching measurements. The fluorescence quenching data reveal that dynamic quenching and energy transfer play a major role in the fluorescence quenching of dyes by Ag NPs.

  9. Radiative lifetimes and quenching rate coefficients for directly excited rotational levels of OH/A 2Sigma +, v-prime = 0/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, I. S.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A narrow-bandwidth pulsed dye laser was used to excite OH X 2Pi i radicals to the A 2Sigma(+) state by pumping in the (0, 0) vibrational band around 308 nm. The radiative lifetimes of specific (K-prime, J-prime) rotational levels in v-prime = 0 were measured at low pressures (not greater than 1 mtorr), which yielded a mean lifetime of 0.71 + or - 0.009 microsec (2 sigma). Electronic quenching rate constants for N2, O2, H2O, and H2 were measured for a range of initially excited rotational levels. A strong dependence of this rate constant on the initially excited rotational level was found for N2, and less markedly for O2, with the rate constant tending to increase for the lowest rotational levels K-prime not greater than 3. The implications of these results for the laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric OH are discussed.

  10. Quenched Magnon excitations by oxygen sublattice reconstruction in (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantz, M.; Pelliciari, J.; Samal, D.; Bisogni, V.; Huang, Y.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Strocov, V. N.; Koster, G.; Schmitt, T.

    2016-09-01

    The recently discovered structural reconstruction in the cuprate superlattice (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 has been investigated across the critical value of n = 5 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). We find that at the critical value of n, the cuprate layer remains largely in the bulk-like two-dimensional structure with a minority of Cu plaquettes being reconstructed. The partial reconstruction leads to quenching of the magnons starting at the Γ-point due to the minority plaquettes acting as scattering points. Although comparable in relative abundance, the doped charge impurities in electron-doped cuprate superconductors do not show this quenching of magnetic excitations.

  11. Quenched Magnon excitations by oxygen sublattice reconstruction in (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 superlattices.

    PubMed

    Dantz, M; Pelliciari, J; Samal, D; Bisogni, V; Huang, Y; Olalde-Velasco, P; Strocov, V N; Koster, G; Schmitt, T

    2016-09-12

    The recently discovered structural reconstruction in the cuprate superlattice (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 has been investigated across the critical value of n = 5 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). We find that at the critical value of n, the cuprate layer remains largely in the bulk-like two-dimensional structure with a minority of Cu plaquettes being reconstructed. The partial reconstruction leads to quenching of the magnons starting at the Γ-point due to the minority plaquettes acting as scattering points. Although comparable in relative abundance, the doped charge impurities in electron-doped cuprate superconductors do not show this quenching of magnetic excitations.

  12. Quenched Magnon excitations by oxygen sublattice reconstruction in (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Dantz, M.; Pelliciari, J.; Samal, D.; Bisogni, V.; Huang, Y.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Strocov, V. N.; Koster, G.; Schmitt, T.

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered structural reconstruction in the cuprate superlattice (SrCuO2)n/(SrTiO3)2 has been investigated across the critical value of n = 5 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). We find that at the critical value of n, the cuprate layer remains largely in the bulk-like two-dimensional structure with a minority of Cu plaquettes being reconstructed. The partial reconstruction leads to quenching of the magnons starting at the Γ-point due to the minority plaquettes acting as scattering points. Although comparable in relative abundance, the doped charge impurities in electron-doped cuprate superconductors do not show this quenching of magnetic excitations. PMID:27616448

  13. Absolute rate constants for the quenching of reactive excited states by melanin and related 5,6-dihydroxyindole metabolites: implications for their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Erb, C; Flammer, J; Nau, W M

    2000-05-01

    The triplet-excited state of benzophenone and the singlet-excited state of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (Fluorazophore-P) have been employed as kinetic probes to obtain information on the antioxidant activity of the skin and eye pigment melanin and its biogenetic precursors 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA). The excited states were generated by the laser-flash photolysis technique and their reaction kinetics was examined by time-resolved transient absorption or fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The reaction between triplet benzophenone and DHI produced with unit efficiency the corresponding 6O-centered semiquinone radical, which was characterized by its characteristic transient absorption. The quenching rate constants for DHI (3.1-8.4 x 10(9) M-1 s-1) and DHICA (3.3-5.5 x 10(9) M-1 s-1) were near the diffusion-controlled limit, indicating excellent antioxidant properties. Kinetic solvent effects were observed. The reactivity of synthetic melanin, assessed through the quenching rate constant of Fluorazophore-P and normalized to the number of monomer units, was more than one order of magnitude lower (2.7 x 10(8) M-1 s-1) than that of its precursors. The trend of the quenching rate constants, i.e. DHI > DHICA approximately alpha-tocopherol > melanin, along with the preferential solubility of DHICA in aqueous environments, serves to account for several experimental results from biochemical studies on the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by these natural antioxidants.

  14. Effect of protein aggregation on the spectroscopic properties and excited state kinetics of the LHCII pigment–protein complex from green plants.

    PubMed

    Magdaong, Nikki M; Enriquez, Miriam M; LaFountain, Amy M; Rafka, Lauren; Frank, Harry A

    2013-12-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments have been carried out at room and cryogenic temperatures on aggregated and unaggregated monomeric and trimeric LHCII complexes isolated from spinach chloroplasts. Protein aggregation has been hypothesized to be one of the mechanistic factors controlling the dissipation of excess photo-excited state energy of chlorophyll during the process known as nonphotochemical quenching. The data obtained from the present experiments reveal the role of protein aggregation on the spectroscopic properties and dynamics of energy transfer and excited state deactivation of the protein-bound chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments.

  15. The OI/1S/ state - Its quenching by O2 and formation by the dissociative recombination of vibrationally excited O2/+/ ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    The rate coefficient for the quenching of metastable O(1S) atoms by O2 was measured as a function of temperature from 250 to 550 K. The resulting Arrhenius expression correlates well with previous laboratory work. It is suggested that the much larger value of the rate coefficient inferred from an analysis of artificial auroral experiment, Precede, may be explained by overestimation of the contribution of O(1S) production from O2(+) dissociative recombination. The possibility that O(1S) atoms are produced only by the dissociative recombination of vibrationally excited O2(+) ions is examined; such excited ions would not exist in the Precede experiment because of the rapid cooling of the ions by resonant charge transfer processes.

  16. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II: a systematic study of the effect of carotenoid structure.

    PubMed Central

    Phillip, D; Ruban, A V; Horton, P; Asato, A; Young, A J

    1996-01-01

    The role of carotenoids in quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II has been studied with a view to understanding the molecular basis of the control of photoprotective nonradiative energy dissipation by the xanthophyll cycle in vivo. The control of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in the isolated complex has been investigated in terms of the number of the conjugated double bonds for a series of carotenoids ranging from n = 5-19, giving an estimated first excited singlet state energy from 20,700 cm-1 to 10,120 cm-1. At pH 7.8 the addition of exogenous carotenoids with >=10 conjugated double bonds (including zeaxanthin) stimulated fluorescence quenching relative to the control with no added carotenoid, whereas those with n quenching in the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II was induced by a lowering of pH to 5.5, carotenoids with n quenching relative to the control. Of the 10 carotenoids tested, quenching induced by the addition of the tertiary amine compound, dibucaine, to isolated light-harvesting complex of photosystem II could only be reversed by violaxanthin. These results are discussed in terms of the two theories developed to explain the role of zeaxanthin and violaxanthin in nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. PMID:11607629

  17. Induction of Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation and Absorbance Changes in Leaves (Evidence for Changes in the State of the Light-Harvesting System of Photosystem II in Vivo).

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, A. V.; Young, A. J.; Horton, P.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and absorbance changes in the 400- to 560-nm region have been made following illumination of dark-adapted leaves of the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia. During the first illumination, an absorbance change at 505 nm occurred with a half-time of 45 s as the leaf zeaxanthin content rose to 14% of total leaf carotenoid. Selective light scattering at 535 nm occurred with a half-time of 30 s. During a second illumination, following a 5-min dark period, quenching and the 535-nm absorbance change occurred more rapidly, reaching a maximum extent within 30 s. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was found to be linearly correlated to the 535-nm absorbance change throughout. Examination of the spectra of chlorophyll fluorescence emission at 77 K for leaves sampled at intervals during this regime showed selective quenching in the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII). The quenching spectrum of the reversible component of quenching had a maximum at 700 nm, indicating quenching in aggregated LHCII, whereas the irreversible component represented a quenching of 680-nm fluorescence from unaggregated LHCII. It is suggested that this latter process, which is associated with the 505-nm absorbance change and zeaxanthin formation, is indicating a change in state of the LHCII complexes that is necessary to amplify or activate reversible pH-dependent energy dissipation, which is monitored by the 535-nm absorbance change. Both of the major forms of nonphotochemical energy dissipation in vivo are therefore part of the same physiological photoprotective process and both result from alterations in the LHCII system. PMID:12231862

  18. "Super-quenching" state protects Symbiodinium from thermal stress - Implications for coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Chavdar; Schrameyer, Verena; Reus, Michael; Ralph, Peter J; Hill, Ross; Büchel, Claudia; Larkum, Anthony W D; Holzwarth, Alfred R

    2016-06-01

    The global rise in sea surface temperatures causes regular exposure of corals to high temperature and high light stress, leading to worldwide disastrous coral bleaching events (loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) from reef-building corals). Our picosecond chlorophyll fluorescence experiments on cultured Symbiodinium clade C cells exposed to coral bleaching conditions uncovered the transformations of the alga's photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) that activate an extremely efficient non-photochemical "super-quenching" mechanism. The mechanism is associated with a transition from an initially heterogeneous photosystem II (PSII) pool to a homogeneous "spillover" pool, where nearly all excitation energy is transferred to photosystem I (PSI). There, the inherently higher stability of PSI and high quenching efficiency of P(700)(+) allow dumping of PSII excess excitation energy into heat, resulting in almost complete cessation of photosynthetic electron transport (PET). This potentially reversible "super-quenching" mechanism protects the PSA against destruction at the cost of a loss of photosynthetic activity. We suggest that the inhibition of PET and the consequent inhibition of organic carbon production (e.g. sugars) in the symbiotic Symbiodinium provide a trigger for the symbiont expulsion, i.e. bleaching. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Measuring the Quenching of no Fluorescence Produced from the Excitation of Photo-Fragmented Nitrobenzene Using a Picosecond Laser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Christopher J.; Tanjaroon, Chakree; Johnson, J. Bruce; Reeve, Scott W.; Allen, Susan D.

    2013-06-01

    The military is interested in using spectroscopic methods to detect nitroaromatic compounds related to explosives. Upon absorption of a UV photon, nitrobenzene can dissociate into C_6H_5O and NO. Wynn, et al. have shown that looking at NO fluorescence from the photodissociated nitrobenzene could be a possible detection method. However, the fluorescence can easily be quenched by molecular oxygen and other constituents in air. We have measured fluorescence lifetimes of the nascent NO resulting from photo-fragmented nitrobenzene using a pulsed picosecond tunable laser (pulse width ≈15 ps) by means of a two-color process. In the two-color process, photons of a particular energy dissociated the nitrobenzene while photons of a different energy probed the A^2Σ^+← X^2Π_{(1/2,3/2)} NO band system between 225-260 nm. We have performed the measurements with different background pressures of He, N_2, and air. We present the results of these measurements which indicate considerable quenching of the NO fluorescence due to oxygen. Wynn, C. M.; Palmacci, S.; Kunz, R. R.; and Rothschild, M.Opt. Express, OSA, 2010, 18, 5399-5406

  20. Photochemistry of bromoacetylene - Formation of HBr and quenching of excited Br/4 2P 0 1/2/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The photolysis of bromacetylene is examined by means of vacuum ultraviolet flash photolysis-kinetic spectroscopy, with attention given to the production of Br atoms in the 2P 0 3/2 and 2P 0 1/2 states, the production of HBr, and UV absorption attributable to the ethynyl radical. Although Br(2P 0 1/2) and Br(2P 0 3/2) were both directly observed at the shortest delay time after the flash, strongly indicating the presence of the ethynyl radical, transient absorption by C2H was not detected in the range 125 to 180 nm. Quenching rate constants for the decay of the 2P 0 1/2 state of Br, which is observed to form concurrently with the ground state, are derived for quenching by He, CH2Br, CF4, and D2 from the pseudo-first-order decay rates. HBr was observed as a secondary photolysis product, and a model of its formation by the exothermic reaction of ground-state atoms with C2HBR, coupled with the secondary production of Br atoms, is found to agree well with the experiment.

  1. LHCSR1 induces a fast and reversible pH-dependent fluorescence quenching in LHCII in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells

    PubMed Central

    Dinc, Emine; Tian, Lijin; Roy, Laura M.; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Croce, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    To avoid photodamage, photosynthetic organisms are able to thermally dissipate the energy absorbed in excess in a process known as nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Although NPQ has been studied extensively, the major players and the mechanism of quenching remain debated. This is a result of the difficulty in extracting molecular information from in vivo experiments and the absence of a validation system for in vitro experiments. Here, we have created a minimal cell of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is able to undergo NPQ. We show that LHCII, the main light harvesting complex of algae, cannot switch to a quenched conformation in response to pH changes by itself. Instead, a small amount of the protein LHCSR1 (light-harvesting complex stress related 1) is able to induce a large, fast, and reversible pH-dependent quenching in an LHCII-containing membrane. These results strongly suggest that LHCSR1 acts as pH sensor and that it modulates the excited state lifetimes of a large array of LHCII, also explaining the NPQ observed in the LHCSR3-less mutant. The possible quenching mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27335457

  2. Radiative Quenching and Excitation of Metastable States upon Differential Scattering of Atoms: II. The He(1{sup 1}S-2{sup 1}S)-Ne Molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Devdariani, A.Z.; Chesnokov, E.A.

    2005-12-15

    The differential cross sections of radiative-collisional quenching (absorption) of a metastable state of a colliding atom are calculated for the first time. As a particular example, the reaction of quenching (excitation) of the metastable state He(2{sup 1}S) in collisions with Ne atoms in the ground state is considered. The calculations are performed for the thermal collisional energy E = 10{sup -3} au for a wide range of radiation frequencies, including both wings and the center of the line of a forbidden atomic transition, and are based on the uniform quasi-classical approximation, which generalizes the Franck-Condon approximation to the case of an exponential dependence of the transition dipole moment on the internuclear distance, as well as to the case of nonintersecting terms. The calculated differential cross sections have an oscillating structure, which, for the blue wing of the forbidden spectral line, is interpreted as Stueckelberg oscillations. At a radiation frequency close to the frequency of the forbidden atomic transition, a sharp maximum in the differential cross section--the giant glory effect--is observed in the range of small scattering angles. This effect is shown to occur as a result of superimposition of the rainbowlike feature of the differential cross section on the glory feature.

  3. Identification and quantification of carbamate pesticides in dried lime tree flowers by means of excitation-emission molecular fluorescence and parallel factor analysis when quenching effect exists.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A

    2014-04-11

    A non-separative, fast and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric method based on the second order calibration of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEMs) was proposed for the determination of carbaryl, carbendazim and 1-naphthol in dried lime tree flowers. The trilinearity property of three-way data was used to handle the intrinsic fluorescence of lime flowers and the difference in the fluorescence intensity of each analyte. It also made possible to identify unequivocally each analyte. Trilinearity of the data tensor guarantees the uniqueness of the solution obtained through parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), so the factors of the decomposition match up with the analytes. In addition, an experimental procedure was proposed to identify, with three-way data, the quenching effect produced by the fluorophores of the lime flowers. This procedure also enabled the selection of the adequate dilution of the lime flowers extract to minimize the quenching effect so the three analytes can be quantified. Finally, the analytes were determined using the standard addition method for a calibration whose standards were chosen with a D-optimal design. The three analytes were unequivocally identified by the correlation between the pure spectra and the PARAFAC excitation and emission spectral loadings. The trueness was established by the accuracy line "calculated concentration versus added concentration" in all cases. Better decision limit values (CCα), in x0=0 with the probability of false positive fixed at 0.05, were obtained for the calibration performed in pure solvent: 2.97 μg L(-1) for 1-naphthol, 3.74 μg L(-1) for carbaryl and 23.25 μg L(-1) for carbendazim. The CCα values for the second calibration carried out in matrix were 1.61, 4.34 and 51.75 μg L(-1) respectively; while the values obtained considering only the pure samples as calibration set were: 2.65, 8.61 and 28.7 μg L(-1), respectively.

  4. Radiative Quenching and Excitation of Metastable States upon Differential Scattering of Atoms: I. Uniform Quasi-Classical Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Devdariani, A.Z.; Chesnokov, E.A.

    2005-12-15

    A theory of radiative-collisional transitions between the ground and metastable {sup 1}S states of a colliding atom is proposed. The theory uses the uniform quasi-classical approximation generalized to the case of spherically asymmetric interactions. The theory takes into account the angular momentum of an emitted (absorbed) photon and allows one to calculate the total and differential scattering cross sections in a wide range of radiation frequencies including both wings and the center of the line of a forbidden atomic transition. The range of admissible collision energies and intensities of an external radiation field is restricted by the use of the adiabatic approximation, as well as the approximation of a weak coupling between the ground and excited states of a quasi-molecule, the potentials of which are assumed to be monotonically repulsive.

  5. Unusual concentration quenching of Sm3+ and Eu3+ doped Sr2SnO4 under UV and NUV excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Chang, Wenrui; Ma, Bo; Wang, Yuhua

    2017-09-01

    Sr2-x/2Sn1-x/2O4:xSm3+ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.23) and Sr2-y/2Sn1-y/2O4:yEu3+ (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.17) are prepared by the solid-state reaction. The structural properties, absorption, excitation and emission spectra are measured for the obtained powders. The XRD results indicate a small structure change of Sr2-x/2Sn1-x/2O4:xSm3+ and Sr2-y/2Sn1-y/2O4:yEu3+ due to Sm3+ and Eu3+ content increase. As shown by the absorption spectroscopy, Sr2SnO4 can efficiently absorb the energy in the region of 200-350 nm. The emission spectra indicate that the variation of the emission intensity of Sr2-x/2Sn1-x/2O4:xSm3+ and Sr2-y/2Sn1-y/2O4:yEu3+ is nonlinear. The emission intensity of Sr2-x/2Sn1-x/2O4:xSm3+ increases when x < 0.01, then decreases when 0.01 0.07. Two emission maxima are observed when x = 0.01 and 0.19. The change curve of the emission intensity for Sr2-y/2Sn1-y/2O4:yEu3+ (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.17) is similar to that of Sr2-x/2Sn1-x/2O4:xSm3+ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.23). The Eu3+ emission reaches the maximum when y = 0.03 and 0.11. We call this phenomenon as two quenching concentrations. This phenomenon is exotic in phosphors.

  6. Nonphotochemical hole burning of the native antenna complex of photosystem I (PSI-200)

    SciTech Connect

    Gillie, J.K.; Small, G.J. ); Golbeck, J.H. )

    1989-02-23

    Nonphotochemical hole burning is used to determine the frequencies and Franck-Condon factors for 41 chlorophyll a (Chla) and 15 Chlb intramolecular modes for PSI-200. The linear electron-vibration coupling for all modes is very weak with the maximum Franck-Condon factor observed being {approx} 0.04. No activity by modes with a frequency lower than {approx} 260 cm{sup {minus}1} is observed. The linear electron-phonon coupling for protein modes of mean frequency 22 cm{sup {minus}1} is stronger but can still be categorized as weak since the Huang-Rhys factor is 0.8. The experimental mode and phonon frequencies and Franck-Condon factors are used with multiphonon excitation transport theories to analyze the available temperature-dependent data on the kinetics of transport within the core antenna complex. The calculations indicate that it is the phonons (and not the intermolecular modes) that mediate excitation transport within the antenna and from the antenna to the reaction center. They indicate also that a subunit or cluster model for the antenna provides a more accurate picture than the regular array model for excitation transport.

  7. Chlorophyll fluorescence quenching during ozone exposure of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris (pinto)

    SciTech Connect

    Guralnick, L.J. ); Miller, R.; Heath, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    During ozone exposure, observations have noted an initial decrease in CO{sub 2} uptake followed by a decrease in stomatal conductance. We examined this response utilizing the technique of fluorescence quenching. Fourteen day old plants were exposed to 0.3 ul/l ozone for 1 hour. Fluorescence quenching was monitored using the Hanstech modulated fluorescence system. This enabled us to measure changes in photochemical quenching (qQ) and non-photochemical quenching (qE) in control and ozone treated plants. Results have indicated no differences in qQ and qE between ozone treated and control plants. We are initiating further studies utilizing different ozone levels.

  8. Inhomogeneous Thermal Quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Kiyoumars A.

    2017-07-01

    We describe holographic thermal quenches that are inhomogeneous in space. The main characteristic of the quench is to take the system far from its equilibrium configuration. Except in special extreme cases, the problem has no analytic solution. Using the numerical holography methods, we study different observables that measure thermalization such as the time evolution of the apparent horizon, two-point Wightman function and entanglement entropy (EE). Having an extra nontrivial spacial direction allows us to study this peculiar generalization since we categorize the problem based on whether we do the measurements along this special direction or perpendicular to it. Exciting new features that are absent in the common computations appear in the literature; the appearance of negative EE valleys surrounding the positive EE hills and abrupt quenches that occupy the whole space at their universal limit are some of the results of this paper. Physical explanation is given, and connections to Cardy's idea of thermalization are discussed.

  9. Photoprotective energy dissipation in higher plants involves alteration of the excited state energy of the emitting chlorophyll(s) in the light harvesting antenna II (LHCII).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew P; Ruban, Alexander V

    2009-08-28

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a mechanism of energy dissipation in higher plants protects photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers from damage by excess light. NPQ involves a reduction in the chlorophyll excited state lifetime in the PSII harvesting antenna (LHCII) by a quencher. Yet, little is known about the effect of the quencher on chlorophyll excited state energy and dynamics. Application of picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that NPQ involves a red-shift (60 +/- 5 cm(-1)) and slight enhancement of the vibronic satellite of the main PSII lifetime component present in intact chloroplasts. Whereas this fluorescence red-shift was enhanced by the presence of zeaxanthin, it was not dependent upon it. The red-shifted fluorescence of intact chloroplasts in the NPQ state was accompanied by red-shifted chlorophyll a absorption. Nearly identical absorption and fluorescence changes were observed in isolated LHCII complexes quenched in a low detergent media, suggesting that the mechanism of quenching is the same in both systems. In both cases, the extent of the fluorescence red-shift was shown to correlate with the lifetime of a component. The alteration in the energy of the emitting chlorophyll(s) in intact chloroplasts and isolated LHCII was also accompanied by changes in lutein 1 observed in their 77K fluorescence excitation spectra. We suggest that the characteristic red-shifted fluorescence emission reflects an altered environment of the emitting chlorophyll(s) in LHCII brought about by their closer interaction with lutein 1 in the quenching locus.

  10. Reductive quenching of the excited states of ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2,2[prime]-bipyridine, 2,2[prime]-bipyrazine, and 2,2[prime]-bipyrimidine ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H.; Hoffman, M.Z. )

    1994-11-10

    The reductive quenching of the luminescent excited states of Ru(II) complexes of the general formula Ru-(bpy)[sub 3-m-z](bpm)[sub m](bpz)[sub z][sup 2+] (bpy = 2,2[prime]-bipyridine, bpm = 2,2[prime]-bipyrimidine, bpz = 2,2[prime]-bipyrazine, m and z = 0, 1,2,3 and m + z [le] 3) by aromatic amines and methoxybenzenes as nonsacrificial electron donors and by C[sub 2]O[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  11. Collisions of excited Na atoms with H2 molecules. I. Ab initio potential energy surfaces and qualitative discussion of the quenching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botschwina, Peter; Meyer, Wilfried; Hertel, Ingolf V.; Reiland, W.

    1981-12-01

    Potential energy surfaces have been calculated for the four lowest electronic states of Na (3 2S, 3 2P)+H2(1Σ+g) by means of the RHF-SCF and PNO-CEPA methods. For the so-called quenching process of Na (3 2P) by H2 at low initial translational energies (E-VRT energy transfer) the energetically most favorable path occurs in C2v symmetry, since—at intermediate Na-H2 separation—the ? 2B2 potential energy surface is attractive. From the CEPA calculations, the crossing point of minimal energy between the ? 2A1 and ? 2B2 surfaces is obtained at Rc = 3.57 a.u. and rc = 2.17 a.u. with an energy difference to the asymptotic limit (R = ∞, r = re) of -0.06 eV. It is thus classically accessible without any initial translational energy, but at low initial translational energies (˜0.1 eV) quenching will be efficient only for arrangements of collision partners close to C2v symmetry. There is little indication of an avoiding crossing with an ionic intermediate correlating asymptotically with Na+ and H2- as was assumed in previous discussions of the quenching process. The dependence of the total quenching cross sections on the initial translational energy is discussed by means of the ''absorbing sphere'' model, taking the initial zero-point vibrational energy of the hydrogen molecule into account. New experimental data of the product channel distribution in H2 for center-of-mass forward scattering are presented. The final vibrational states v' = 3, 2, 1, and 0 of H2 are populated to about 26%, 61%, 13%, and 0%, respectively. The observed distributions in H2 (and D2) may be rationalized by simple dynamic considerations on the basis of the calculated surfaces.

  12. Photoprotection in a monophyletic branch of chlorophyte algae is independent of energy-dependent quenching (qE).

    PubMed

    Christa, Gregor; Cruz, Sónia; Jahns, Peter; de Vries, Jan; Cartaxana, Paulo; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Serôdio, João; Gould, Sven B

    2017-05-01

    Phototrophic organisms need to ensure high photosynthetic performance whilst suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress occurring under excess light conditions. The xanthophyll cycle (XC), related to the high-energy quenching component (qE) of the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of excitation energy, is considered to be an obligatory component of photoprotective mechanisms. The pigment composition of at least one representative of each major clade of Ulvophyceae (Chlorophyta) was investigated. We searched for a light-dependent conversion of pigments and investigated the NPQ capacity with regard to the contribution of XC and the qE component when grown under different light conditions. A XC was found to be absent in a monophyletic group of Ulvophyceae, the Bryopsidales, when cultivated under low light, but was triggered in one of the 10 investigated bryopsidalean species, Caulerpa cf. taxifolia, when cultivated under high light. Although Bryopsidales accumulate zeaxanthin (Zea) under high-light (HL) conditions, NPQ formation is independent of a XC and not related to qE. qE- and XC-independent NPQ in the Bryopsidales contradicts the common perception regarding its ubiquitous occurrence in Chloroplastida. Zea accumulation in HL-acclimated Bryopsidales most probably represents a remnant of a functional XC. The existence of a monophyletic algal taxon that lacks qE highlights the need for broad biodiversity studies on photoprotective mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Translational and rotational excitation of the CO{sub 2}(00{sup 0}0) vibrationless state in the collisional quenching of highly vibrationally excited 2-methylpyrazine: Kinetics and dynamics of large energy transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Sevy, Eric T.; Rubin, Seth M.; Lin, Zhen; Flynn, George W.

    2000-09-22

    The relaxation of highly vibrationally excited methylpyrazine (C{sub 5}N{sub 2}H{sub 6}) by collisions with CO{sub 2} molecules has been investigated over the temperature range 243-364 K using diode laser transient absorption spectroscopy. Particular focus is placed on understanding both the dynamical features and the kinetics of collisions which are accompanied by large energy transfers into the CO{sub 2} rotational and translational degrees of freedom. Vibrationally hot methylpyrazine (E{sup '}=40 987 cm{sup -1}) was prepared by 248 nm excimer laser pumping, followed by rapid radiationless transitions to the ground electronic state. The nascent rotational population distributions (J=58-80) of the 00{sup 0}0 ground state of CO{sub 2} resulting from collisions with hot methylpyrazine were probed at short times following the excimer laser pulse. Doppler spectroscopy was used to measure the distributions of CO{sub 2} recoil velocities for individual rotational levels of the 00{sup 0}0 state. In addition, the temperature dependence of the state resolved, absolute rate constants for collisions populating high J states of CO{sub 2} was determined. The rotational population distributions, distributions of recoil velocities, and quenching rates for production of CO{sub 2} high J states (J=58-80) exhibit a very weak temperature dependence. The slight temperature dependence indicates that CO{sub 2} molecules which scatter into high J states of the ground vibrationless level originate from rotational levels near the mean of the precollision thermal rotational distribution. A gap law model is used to estimate the average initial rotational state and velocity of the CO{sub 2} bath, which allows for the calculation of the energy transfer magnitudes, {delta}E. The measured energy transfer probabilities which are indexed by final bath state are resorted as a function of {delta}E to create the energy transfer distribution function, P(E,E{sup '}) from E{sup '}-E{approx}1500-6000 cm

  14. Enantioselective excited-state quenching of racemic Tb (III) and Eu (III) Tris (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) by vitamin B 12 derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Dekkers, Harry P. J. M.

    1999-08-01

    Enantioselectivity in the dynamic quenching of the luminescence of the Δ and Λ enantiomers of racemic Tb(III)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate=DPA) 33- and Eu(DPA) 33- by a series of corrinoids is demonstrated by time resolved luminescence and circular-polarization-of-luminescence (CPL) spectroscopy. Studied are cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12), aquacobalamin (B 12a) and its conjugated base hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl), dicyanocobinamide ((CN) 2Cbi) and the heptamethyl ester of dicyanocobyrinic acid ((CN) 2Cby(OMe) 7). For this set of quenchers (Q), the diastereomeric quenching rate constants ( kqΔ and kqΛ) are reported together with the degree of enantioselectivity Eq=( kqΔ- kqΛ)/( kqΔ+ kqΛ). In the systems with Tb, values of the average rate constant kqavg(=( kqΔ+ kqΛ)/2) are 1.0, 2.9 and 0.53 10 8 M -1 s -1 for CNCbl, (CN) 2Cbi, (CN) 2Cby(OMe) 7 with Eq=-0.24, -0.20, +0.01 (standard error of Eq is 0.01). The quenching by B 12a is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength ( I); when I=12 mM we find kqavg=5.3, Eq=-0.23 at pH 6.7 and kqavg=1.3, Eq=-0.27 at pH 8.9. Corresponding rates for Eu are 0.41, 27, 3.4 10 7 M -1 s -1 and for B 12a, 7.3 and 1.2 10 7 M -1 s -1, corresponding values for Eq -0.27, -0.29, +0.02, -0.21 and -0.29. The quenching reaction is modeled as a pre-equilibrium involving the formation of an encounter complex (association constant K) followed by the actual electronic energy transfer step (rate ket). By relating the quenching data with molecular structure it is argued that the binding in the encounter complex involves two hydrogen bonds between the uncoordinated carboxylate oxygen atom of two DPA ligands of Ln(DPA) 33- and two amide groups of the corrinoid, presumably involving the a and g, the a and b, or the b and g side chains. For some corrinoid/Ln(DPA) 33- complexes the association constants and enantioselectivities in the ground state are known (Spectrochimica Acta 55A (1999) 1837-1855), which allows for an estimate of the average rate of

  15. Nonphotochemical hole burning and dispersive kinetics in amorphous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.J.

    1990-09-21

    Results covering burn intensities in the nW to {mu}W/cm{sup 2} range, of dispersive hole growth kinetics are reported for Oxazine 720 in glycerol glasses and polyvinyl alcohol polymer films and their deuterated analogues. A theoretical model which employs a distribution function for the hole burning rate constant based upon a Gaussian distribution for the tunnel parameter is shown to accurately describe the kinetic data. This model incorporates the linear electron-phonon coupling. A method for calculating the nonphotochemical quantum yield is presented which utilizes the Gaussian distribution of tunnel parameters. The quantum yield calculation can be extended to determine a quantum yield as a function of hole depth. The effect of spontaneous hole filling is shown to be insignificant over the burn intensity range studied. Average relaxation rates for hole burning are {approximately}8 orders of magnitude greater than for hole filling. The dispersive kinetics of hole burning are observed to be independent over the temperature range of these experiments, 1.6 to 7.0 K. 6 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Transformations of Cysteine with Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chiheng; Erickson, Paul R; Lundeen, Rachel A; Stamatelatos, Dimitrios; Alaimo, Peter J; Latch, Douglas E; McNeill, Kristopher

    2016-06-21

    Cysteine (Cys) plays numerous key roles in the biogeochemistry of natural waters. Despite its importance, a full assessment of Cys abiotic transformation kinetics, products and pathways under environmental conditions has not been conducted. This study is a mechanistic evaluation of the photochemical and nonphotochemical (dark) transformations of Cys in solutions containing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The results show that Cys underwent abiotic transformations under both dark and irradiated conditions. Under dark conditions, the transformation rates of Cys were moderate and were highly pH- and temperature-dependent. Under UVA or natural sunlight irradiations, Cys transformation rates were enhanced by up to two orders of magnitude compared to rates under dark conditions. Product analysis indicated cystine and cysteine sulfinic acid were the major photooxidation products. In addition, this study provides an assessment of the contributions of singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and triplet dissolved organic matter to the CDOM-sensitized photochemical oxidation of Cys. The results suggest that another unknown pathway was dominant in the CDOM-sensitized photodegradation of Cys, which will require further study to identify.

  17. Collisions of excited Na atoms with H/sub 2/ molecules. I. Ab initio potential energy surfaces and qualitative discussion of the quenching process

    SciTech Connect

    Botschwina, P.; Meyer, W.; Hertel, I.V.; Reiland, W.

    1981-12-01

    Potential energy surfaces have been calculated for the four lowest electronic states of Na (3 /sup 2/S, 3 /sup 2/P)+H/sub 2/(/sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub g/) by means of the RHF--SCF and PNO--CEPA methods. For the so-called quenching process of Na (3 /sup 2/P) by H/sub 2/ at low initial translational energies (E--VRT energy transfer) the energetically most favorable path occurs in C/sub 2v/ symmetry, since: at intermediate Na--H/sub 2/ separation: the A /sup 2/B/sub 2/ potential energy surface is attractive. From the CEPA calculations, the crossing point of minimal energy between the X /sup 2/A/sub 1/ and A /sup 2/B/sub 2/ surfaces is obtained at R/sub c/ = 3.57 a.u. and r/sub c/ = 2.17 a.u. with an energy difference to the asymptotic limit (R = infinity, r = r/sub e/) of -0.06 eV. It is thus classically accessible without any initial translational energy, but at low initial translational energies (approx.0.1 eV) quenching will be efficient only for arrangements of collision partners close to C/sub 2v/ symmetry. There is little indication of an avoiding crossing with an ionic intermediate correlating asymptotically with Na/sup +/ and H/sub 2//sup -/ as was assumed in previous discussions of the quenching process. The dependence of the total quenching cross sections on the initial translational energy is discussed by means of the ''absorbing sphere'' model, taking the initial zero-point vibrational energy of the hydrogen molecule into account. New experimental data of the product channel distribution in H/sub 2/ for center-of-mass forward scattering are presented. The final vibrational states v' = 3, 2, 1, and 0 of H/sub 2/ are populated to about 26%, 61%, 13%, and 0%, respectively. The observed distributions in H/sub 2/ (and D/sub 2/) may be rationalized by simple dynamic considerations on the basis of the calculated surfaces.

  18. State-resolved collisional quenching of highly vibrationally excited pyridine by water: The role of strong electrostatic attraction in V-->RT energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elioff, Michael S.; Fraelich, Margaret; Sansom, Rebecca L.; Mullin, Amy S.

    1999-08-01

    We report experiments that investigate the influence of long-range attractive forces on collisional energy loss from highly vibrationally excited molecules. State-resolved studies of energy transfer from highly vibrationally excited pyridine (μ=2.2 D) to water (μ=1.8 D) in a low-pressure environment at 298 K have been performed using high-resolution transient absorption spectroscopy of water at λ≈2.7 μm. Pyridine in its ground electronic state with 37 900 cm-1 of vibrational energy was prepared by absorption of pulsed ultraviolet light (λ=266 nm) to the S1 state, followed by rapid internal conversion to the S0 state. Collisions between vibrationally excited pyridine and water that result in rotational and translational excitation of the ground vibrationless state of H2O (000) were investigated by monitoring the populations of individual rotational states of H2O (000) at short times following pyridine excitation. The infrared probe of water was the highly allowed asymmetric stretching (000→001) transition. The nascent distribution of rotationally excited H2O (000) states is well described by a thermal distribution with a rotational temperature of Trot=770±80 K. Doppler-broadened transient linewidth measurements yield the velocity distributions of the recoiling H2O (000) molecules that correspond to center-of-mass translational temperatures of Ttrans˜515 K for all water rotational states investigated. Additionally, rate constants for energy gain in individual water states were determined, yielding an integrated rate constant of k2int=1.1×10-11 cm3 mol-1 s-1 for the appearance of H2O (000) with Erot=1000-2000 cm-1. These results are compared with previous relaxation studies of excited pyrazine (μ=0 D) with water and of excited pyridine with CO2 (μ=0 D), and the influence of electrostatic attraction on the relaxation dynamics is discussed.

  19. Transient Loschmidt echo in quenched Ising chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Carla; Schiró, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We study the response to sudden local perturbations of highly excited quantum Ising spin chains. The key quantity encoding this response is the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write as a transient Loschmidt Echo. Its asymptotics at long time differences contain crucial information about the structure of the highly excited nonequilibrium environment induced by the quench. We compute the echo perturbatively for a weak local quench but for arbitrarily large global quench, using a cumulant expansion. Our perturbative results suggest that the echo decays exponentially, rather than power law as in the low-energy orthogonality catastrophe, a further example of quench-induced decoherence already found in the case of quenched Luttinger liquids. The emerging decoherence scale is set by the strength of the local potential and the bulk excitation energy.

  20. Spectral analysis on origination of the bands at 437 nm and 475.5 nm of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lizhang; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been often used as an intrinsic optical molecular probe to study photosynthesis. In this study, the origin of bands at 437 and 475.5 nm in the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum for emission at 685 nm in Arabidopsis chloroplasts was investigated using various optical analysis methods. The results revealed that this fluorescence excitation spectrum was related to the absorption characteristics of pigment molecules in PSII complexes. Moreover, the excitation band centred at 475.5 nm had a blue shift, but the excitation band at 437 nm changed relatively less due to induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Furthermore, fluorescence emission spectra showed that this blue shift occurred when excitation energy transfer from both chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids (Cars) to chlorophyll a (Chl a) was blocked. These results demonstrate that the excitation band at 437 nm was mainly contributed by Chl a, while the excitation band at 475.5 nm was mainly contributed by Chl b and Cars. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum, therefore, could serve as a useful tool to describe specific characteristics of light absorption and energy transfer between light-harvesting pigments.

  1. Luminescence Decay Times and Bimolecular Quenching: An Ultrafast Kinetics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the theory, apparatus, and procedure for an experiment that measures the bimolecular quenching constant for the deactivation of an excited ruthenium ion complex using dissolved oxygen. (MLH)

  2. Luminescence Decay Times and Bimolecular Quenching: An Ultrafast Kinetics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the theory, apparatus, and procedure for an experiment that measures the bimolecular quenching constant for the deactivation of an excited ruthenium ion complex using dissolved oxygen. (MLH)

  3. Molecular insights into Zeaxanthin-dependent quenching in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengqi; Tian, Lijin; Kloz, Miroslav; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms protect themselves from high-light stress by dissipating excess absorbed energy as heat in a process called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Zeaxanthin is essential for the full development of NPQ, but its role remains debated. The main discussion revolves around two points: where does zeaxanthin bind and does it quench? To answer these questions we have followed the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching from leaves to individual complexes, including supercomplexes. We show that small amounts of zeaxanthin are associated with the complexes, but in contrast to what is generally believed, zeaxanthin binding per se does not cause conformational changes in the complexes and does not induce quenching, not even at low pH. We show that in NPQ conditions zeaxanthin does not exchange for violaxanthin in the internal binding sites of the antennas but is located at the periphery of the complexes. These results together with the observation that the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching is active in isolated membranes, but not in functional supercomplexes, suggests that zeaxanthin is acting in between the complexes, helping to create/participating in a variety of quenching sites. This can explain why none of the antennas appears to be essential for NPQ and the multiple quenching mechanisms that have been observed in plants. PMID:26323786

  4. An alternative method for correcting fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, L.; Guinet, C.; Bester, M.; Brierley, A.; Boehme, L.

    2015-01-01

    Under high light intensity, phytoplankton protect their photosystems from bleaching through non-photochemical quenching processes. The consequence of this is suppression of fluorescence emission, which must be corrected when measuring in situ yield with fluorometers. We present data from the Southern Ocean, collected over five austral summers by 19 southern elephant seals tagged with fluorometers. Conventionally, fluorescence data collected during the day (quenched) were corrected using the limit of the mixed layer, assuming that phytoplankton are uniformly mixed from the surface to this depth. However, distinct deep fluorescence maxima were measured in approximately 30% of the night (unquenched) data. To account for the evidence that chlorophyll is not uniformly mixed in the upper layer, we propose correcting from the limit of the euphotic zone, defined as the depth at which photosynthetically available radiation is ~ 1% of the surface value. Mixed layer depth exceeded euphotic depth over 80% of the time. Under these conditions, quenching was corrected from the depth of the remotely derived euphotic zone Zeu, and compared with fluorescence corrected from the depth of the density-derived mixed layer. Deep fluorescence maxima were evident in only 10% of the day data when correcting from mixed layer depth. This was doubled to 21% when correcting from Zeu, more closely matching the unquenched (night) data. Furthermore, correcting from Zeu served to conserve non-uniform chlorophyll features found between the 1% light level and mixed layer depth.

  5. Fluorescence quenching at high quencher concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, David; Werner, T. C.; Dennin, Richard M., Jr.; Baird, James K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical reactions occurring in dense media at high reactant concentrations can be described by rate ``constants'' which are actually functions of concentration. We present a theoretical model in which this so-called rate constant ``renormalization'' occurs for the specific case of fluorescence quenching in solution. We show that both the quenching and the excitation rate constants can become concentration dependent. We fit our theory to several sets of experimental data—our own and some from the literature—and show that excellent agreement is obtained by varying a single free parameter, namely, the efficiency with which a fluorophore-quencher collision leads to a quench of the excited state.

  6. Optical sensor based on fluorescent quenching and pulsed blue LED excitation for long-term monitoring of dissolved oxygen in NASA space bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Frank G; Fay, James M; Mathew, Grace; Jeevarajan, Antony S; Anderson, Melody M

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium for NASA's space cell biology experiments, as well as in earth-based cell cultures. Continuous measurement of DO concentration in the cell culture medium in perfused bioreactors requires that the oxygen sensor provide adequate sensitivity and low toxicity to the cells, as well as maintain calibration over several weeks. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An in-house optical oxygen sensor (HOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching of Tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) chloride and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. The sensing element consisted of the fluorescent dye embedded in a silicone matrix and coated onto a glass capillary. Photobleaching was minimized by a pulsed LED light source. The total noise in the sensor output is 2% and the sensor dynamic range is 0 to 200 mm Hg. The resolution of the sensor is 0.1 mm Hg at 50 mm Hg, and 0.25 mm Hg at 130 mm Hg, while the accuracy is 5%. The LED-based oxygen sensor exhibited stable performance and low drift, making it compatible for space-flight bioreactor systems.

  7. Wavelength-selective light quenching of biochemical fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryczynski, Ignacy; Kusba, Jozef; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of light quenching to selectively eliminate the emission of biochemical fluorophores based on the emission wavelength is described. To demonstrate the possibility of wavelength-selective light quenching, a mixture of two fluorophores, 4-(dimethylamino)-4'-cyanostillene (DCS) and Prodan, emitting at different wavelengths was examined first. The emission spectrum and intensity decay were altered by the 570-nm quenching pulse due to selective quenching of the longer wavelength emission of DCS. Quenching of the solvent-sensitive fluorophore partially bound to human serum albumin and partially in the aqueous phase was then examined. Light quenching with a long wavelength (570 nm) time-delayed pulse selectively quenched the Prodan fluorophore in the aqueous phase while in the presence of the Prodan bound to human serum albumin, which emitted at shorter wavelengths, was not quenched. Using one- beam short wavelength excitation and quenching, a selective quenching of the blue-shifted emission of ribonuclease T1 in the presence of the red-shifted emission of the tryptophan residue in adrenocorticotropic hormone was observed. In both systems wavelength-selective light quenching was demonstrated by a shift in the emission spectra, and by changes in the intensity decay consistent with preferential quenching of one species. Light quenching is instantly reversible by blocking or defocusing of the quenching beam. It can occur for inaccessible residues or in viscous solvents, and thus can be of wide applicability for resolving the complex emission of biological macromolecules.

  8. Quenching equation for scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takahisa

    1980-06-01

    A mathematical expression is postulated showing the relationship between counting rate and quenching agent concentration in a liquid scintillation solution. The expression is more suited to a wider range of quenching agent concentrations than the Stern-Volmer equation. An estimation of the quenched correction is demonstrated using the expression.

  9. Quenching Dynamics of Electronically Excited Hydroxyl Radicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-19

    the research of graduate students Margaret Greenslade , Erika Derro, Ilana Pollack, Logan Dempsey, and Eunice Li. In addition, postdoctoral...acknowledging AFOSR support 1) M. E. Greenslade , M. 1. Lester, D. C. Radenovi6, A. J. A. van Roij, and D. H. Parker, "(2+1) Resonance Enhanced Ionization...Spectroscopy of a State Selected Beam of OH Radicals", J. Chem. Phys. 123, 074309 (2005). 4 2) E. L. Derro, I. B. Pollack, L. Dempsey, M. E. Greenslade , Y

  10. Quenching Dynamics of Electronically Excited Hydroxyl Radicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-19

    Margaret Greenslade , Erika Derro, Ilana Pollack, Logan Dempsey, and Eunice Li. In addition, postdoctoral researchers Patricia Cleary, Craig Murray...6. E. L. Derro, I. B. Pollack, L. Dempsey, M. E. Greenslade , Y. Lei, D. 4ý. Radenovie, and M. I. Lester, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244313 (2005). 7. G...Parlant and D. R. Yarkony, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 363 (1999). 8. M. E. Greenslade , M. 1. Lester, D. (1 Radenovi6, A. J. A. van Roij, and D. H. Parker, J

  11. Vibrationally Excited Ions: Quenching, Reaction and Lifetimes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-20

    renewed in October 1988. The USAF support came too late to enable me to employ Dr. R. Richter from Professor W. Lindingers laboratory at Innsbruck but...Richter et al. [91 have re-investigated this reaction in Innsbruck and determined that the reaction of SFJ with H.S is not charge-transfer but rather...bath ases as a fuLnction of temperature in sex eral liiboratories I see ref. ’ and the refernccs cited thereint. Much interest has centred on it

  12. Relationship Between Photochemical Quenching and Non-Photochemical Quenching in Six Species of Cyanobacteria Reveals Species Difference in Redox State and Species Commonality in Energy Dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Misumi, Masahiro; Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomo, Tatsuya; Sonoike, Kintake

    2016-01-01

    Although the photosynthetic reaction center is well conserved among different cyanobacterial species, the modes of metabolism, e.g. respiratory, nitrogen and carbon metabolism and their mutual interaction, are quite diverse. To explore such uniformity and diversity among cyanobacteria, here we compare the influence of the light environment on the condition of photosynthetic electron transport through Chl fluorescence measurement of six cyanobacterial species grown under the same photon flux densities and at the same temperature. In the dark or under weak light, up to growth light, a large difference in the plastoquinone (PQ) redox condition was observed among different cyanobacterial species. The observed difference indicates that the degree of interaction between respiratory electron transfer and photosynthetic electron transfer differs among different cyanobacterial species. The variation could not be ascribed to the phylogenetic differences but possibly to the light environment of the original habitat. On the other hand, changes in the redox condition of PQ were essentially identical among different species at photon flux densities higher than the growth light. We further analyzed the response to high light by using a typical energy allocation model and found that ‘non-regulated’ thermal dissipation was increased under high-light conditions in all cyanobacterial species tested. We assume that such ‘non-regulated’ thermal dissipation may be an important ‘regulatory’ mechanism in the acclimation of cyanobacterial cells to high-light conditions. PMID:26712847

  13. Quenching of antihydrogen gravitational states by surface charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. Yu; Kupriyanova, E. A.; Lambrecht, A.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Reynaud, S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the effect of the quenching of antihydrogen quantum states near the surface of a material in the Earth's gravitational field by local charges randomly distributed along a mirror surface. The quenching reduces the probability of quantum reflection because of the additional atom-charge interaction, and thus the nonadiabatic transitions to excited gravitational states. Our approach is suitable when accounting for quenching caused by any kind of additional interaction with a characteristic range much smaller than the typical gravitational state wavelength.

  14. Edge mode dynamics of quenched topological wires.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, P D

    2016-06-01

    The fermionic and Majorana edge mode dynamics of various topological systems are compared, after a sudden global quench of the Hamiltonian parameters takes place. Attention is focused on the regimes where the survival probability of an edge state has oscillations either due to critical or off-critical quenches. The nature of the wave functions and the overlaps between the eigenstates of different points in parameter space determine the various types of behaviors, and the distinction due to the Majorana nature of the excitations plays a lesser role. Performing a sequence of quenches, it is shown that the edge states, including Majorana modes, may be switched off and on. Also, the generation of Majoranas due to quenching from a trivial phase is discussed.

  15. Demonstration of thermal dissipation of absorbed quanta during energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in photosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Yahyaoui, W; Harnois, J; Carpentier, R

    1998-11-27

    When plant leaves or chloroplasts are exposed to illumination that exceeds their photosynthetic capacity, photoprotective mechanisms such as described by the energy-dependent (non-photochemical) quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence are involved. The protective action is attributed to an increased rate constant for thermal dissipation of absorbed quanta. We applied photoacoustic spectroscopy to monitor thermal dissipation in spinach thylakoid membranes together with simultaneous measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence in the presence of inhibitors of opposite action on the formation of delta pH across the thylakoid membrane (tentoxin and nigericin/valinomycin). A linear relationship between the appearance of fluorescence quenching during formation of the delta pH and the reciprocal variation of thermal dissipation was demonstrated. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, which is known to prevent protonation of the minor light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II, significantly reduced the formation of fluorescence quenching and the concurrent increase in thermal dissipation. However, the addition of exogenous ascorbate to activate the xanthophyll de-epoxidase increased non-photochemical fluorescence quenching without affecting the measured thermal dissipation. It is concluded that a portion of energy-dependent fluorescence quenching that is independent of de-epoxidase activity can be readily measured by photoacoustic spectroscopy as an increase in thermal deactivation processes.

  16. Quenching of fluorescence in membrane protein by hypocrellin B.

    PubMed

    Yue, J; Pang, S

    1997-04-01

    The hypocrellin B (HB) was used as a fluorescence quencher to study the basic physical charactcristics of HB in membrane systems, including the diffusion speed of quencher from aqueous phase into membrane phase, the partition coefficient (P) of quenchtr between membrane and water, and the fluorescence quenching constant of protein (K(sv); K(q),). The experimental results show that the quenching of fluorescence in membrane protein by HB can be determined by the principle of dynamic quenching. The experimental process of fluorescence quenching was observed in detail by using the ESR technique. The signal of HB- was found to arise from an electron transfer from excited trytophan to HB.

  17. The Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Facilitates Cyclic Electron Flow, Energy-Dependent Quenching, and Chlororespiratory Metabolism during Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Nitrogen Deprivation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Arthur R.

    2016-01-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are deprived of nitrogen (N), the capacity to grow and assimilate carbon becomes limited, causing a decrease in the productive use of absorbed light energy and likely a rise in the cellular reduction state. Although there is a scarcity of N in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, a mechanistic understanding of how photosynthesis adjusts to low-N conditions and the enzymes/activities integral to these adjustments have not been described. In this work, we use biochemical and biophysical analyses of photoautotrophically grown wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the integration of electron transport pathways critical for maintaining active photosynthetic complexes even after exposure of cells to N deprivation for 3 d. Key to acclimation is the type II NADPH dehydrogenase, NDA2, which drives cyclic electron flow (CEF), chlororespiration, and the generation of an H+ gradient across the thylakoid membranes. N deprivation elicited a doubling of the rate of NDA2-dependent CEF, with little contribution from PGR5/PGRL1-dependent CEF. The H+ gradient generated by CEF is essential to sustain nonphotochemical quenching, while an increase in the level of reduced plastoquinone would promote a state transition; both are necessary to down-regulate photosystem II activity. Moreover, stimulation of NDA2-dependent chlororespiration affords additional relief from the elevated reduction state associated with N deprivation through plastid terminal oxidase-dependent water synthesis. Overall, rerouting electrons through the NDA2 catalytic hub in response to photoautotrophic N deprivation sustains cell viability while promoting the dissipation of excess excitation energy through quenching and chlororespiratory processes. PMID:26858365

  18. The Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Facilitates Cyclic Electron Flow, Energy-Dependent Quenching, and Chlororespiratory Metabolism during Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Nitrogen Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Saroussi, Shai I; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Grossman, Arthur R

    2016-04-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are deprived of nitrogen (N), the capacity to grow and assimilate carbon becomes limited, causing a decrease in the productive use of absorbed light energy and likely a rise in the cellular reduction state. Although there is a scarcity of N in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, a mechanistic understanding of how photosynthesis adjusts to low-N conditions and the enzymes/activities integral to these adjustments have not been described. In this work, we use biochemical and biophysical analyses of photoautotrophically grown wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the integration of electron transport pathways critical for maintaining active photosynthetic complexes even after exposure of cells to N deprivation for 3 d. Key to acclimation is the type II NADPH dehydrogenase, NDA2, which drives cyclic electron flow (CEF), chlororespiration, and the generation of an H(+) gradient across the thylakoid membranes. N deprivation elicited a doubling of the rate of NDA2-dependent CEF, with little contribution from PGR5/PGRL1-dependent CEF The H(+) gradient generated by CEF is essential to sustain nonphotochemical quenching, while an increase in the level of reduced plastoquinone would promote a state transition; both are necessary to down-regulate photosystem II activity. Moreover, stimulation of NDA2-dependent chlororespiration affords additional relief from the elevated reduction state associated with N deprivation through plastid terminal oxidase-dependent water synthesis. Overall, rerouting electrons through the NDA2 catalytic hub in response to photoautotrophic N deprivation sustains cell viability while promoting the dissipation of excess excitation energy through quenching and chlororespiratory processes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. High Photosynthetic Capacity in a Shade-Tolerant Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant (Implications for Sunfleck Use, Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation, and Susceptibility to Photoinhibition).

    PubMed Central

    Skillman, J. B.; Winter, K.

    1997-01-01

    Aechmea magdalenae Andre ex Baker, a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant from the shaded Panamanian rain forest understory, has a maximum photosynthesis rate 2 to 3 times that of co-occurring C3 species and a limited potential for photosynthetic acclimation to high light. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that (a) compared with co-occurring C3 species, photosynthetic electron transport in A. magdalenae responded more rapidly to light flecks of moderate intensity, attained a higher steady-state rate, and maintained a lower reduction state of plastoquinone during light flecks; (b) these characteristics were associated with phase III CO2 fixation of CAM; (c) when grown in full sun, A. magdalenae was chronically photoinhibited despite a remarkably high nonphotochemical quenching capacity, indicating a large potential for photoprotection; and (d) the degree of photoinhibition was inversely proportional to the length of phase III. Results from the light fleck studies suggest that understory A. magdalenae plants can make more efficient use of sun flecks for leaf carbon gain over most of the day than co-occurring C3 species. The association between the duration of phase III and the degree of photoinhibition for A. magdalenae in high light is discussed in relation to the limited photosynthetic plasticity in this species. PMID:12223618

  20. Quench behavior of a superconducting accelerator magnet

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, A D; Sampson, W B; Garber, M; Dahl, P F

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented on the minimum energy required to cause quenches to propagate in an accelerator dipole magnet. The amount of stored energy dissipated into the magnet was measured as a function of dipole excitation current. This in turn determines the maximum coil temperature reached in a given magnet. Quench velocities in the longitudinal direction of the conductor were as high as 11m/sec. The azimuthal velocities or turn to turn velocities were found to be a function of the number of fiberglass layers of insulation that the quench had to cross and were on the order of a few tens of centimeters/sec. The field shape of a given magnet was found to be unchanged for more than 100 quenches. The coil to coil connection and inter-coil splice resistances were found to be less than a namo-ohm and therefore of litle consequence in the cryogenic load considerations. No definitive answers were found on how to decrease the rate of training (130 Gauss/Quench average) required from 4.OT to 5.1T.

  1. Quantum dynamical response of ultracold few-boson ensembles in finite optical lattices to multiple interaction quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus-Steinmetz, J.; Mistakidis, S. I.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-05-01

    The correlated nonequilibrium quantum dynamics following a multiple interaction quench protocol for few-bosonic ensembles confined in finite optical lattices is investigated. The quenches give rise to an interwell tunneling and excite the cradle and a breathing mode. Several tunneling pathways open during the time interval of increased interactions, while only a few occur when the system is quenched back to its original interaction strength. The cradle mode, however, persists during and in between the quenches, while the breathing mode possesses distinct frequencies. The occupation of excited bands is explored in detail revealing a monotonic behavior with increasing quench amplitude and a nonlinear dependence on the duration of the application of the quenched interaction strength. Finally, a periodic population transfer between momenta for quenches of increasing interaction is observed, with a power-law frequency dependence on the quench amplitude. Our results open the possibility to dynamically manipulate various excited modes of the bosonic system.

  2. Cool Flame Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism

  3. Quenching: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Basketter, D

    2000-11-01

    Fragrance chemicals are a frequently reported cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), a matter which has recently come into considerable prominence, to the point that legislation in Europe is under serious consideration. Certain skin-sensitizing fragrance chemicals have been reported by the producing industry to be rendered safe (quenched), at least in terms of ACD, when they are used in the presence of a specific quenching agent. Accordingly, it seemed timely to review this apparent quenching phenomenon, considering the available data and potential mechanistic hypotheses that might be used to explain it. If it is correct, it should be a phenomenon of potentially enormous value in the elimination of the allergenic properties of at least a proportion of common skin sensitizers. Whilst there is some evidence in man for the occurrence of quenching during the induction of skin sensitization, a much more substantial body of work has failed to find supportive evidence in various animals models, at a chemical level or at elicitation in human subjects with existing allergy. On balance, it is concluded that quenching of fragrance allergens is a phenomenon still awaiting positive evidence of existence.

  4. The Quench Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  5. Study of excitation transfer in a flowing helium afterglow pumped with a tuneable dye laser. 1: Measurement of the rate coefficient for selected quenching reactions involving he(5 3P)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, C. B.; Johnson, B. W.; Shaw, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    A system is described for the measurement of excited state reaction times in the nanosecond range. A flowing afterglow produces large populations of chemically unstable species, and a pulsed, tuneable dye laser is used to selectively pump these into the reacting excited state. The transient fluorescence from the populations of reactants and end products is used to determine reaction lifetimes and yields. This radiatron is collected with a photon counting system which logs arrival times of spectrally dispersed photons with 10 nanosecond resolution.

  6. Wet quenching of incandescent coke

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.W.

    1981-04-21

    Method for the reduction of emissions from the wet quenching of incandescent coke in a quenching tower adapted to receive in its base a quench car containing the coke which comprises positioning the car with the coke in the quenching chamber of the tower, effecting a gas seal to substantially prevent air from infiltrating the quenching chamber and ascending the tower, quenching the coke with the resultant generation of steam and other quenching emissions, cooling and cleaning the emissions with water sprays, demisting the cooled emissions, sensing the external and internal pressures of the tower during the quenching process, maintaining a substantially zero gauge internal pressure by controlling the emissions flow exiting the tower and collecting, cooling and recycling the quenching and cooling waters. Apparatus for practicing the method is also disclosed.

  7. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH IN PROGRESS, WILPUTTE BATTERY, COAL PRE-HEATING UNIT, INCLINE CONVEYOR AND BATHHOUSE. - Alabama By-Products Company, Coke Plant, Highway 79 (Pinson Valley Parkway), Tarrant City, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Quorum quenching enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-05-10

    Bacteria use cell-to-cell communication systems based on chemical signal molecules to coordinate their behavior within the population. These quorum sensing systems are potential targets for antivirulence therapies, because many bacterial pathogens control the expression of virulence factors via quorum sensing networks. Since biofilm maturation is also usually influenced by quorum sensing, quenching these systems may contribute to combat biofouling. One possibility to interfere with quorum sensing is signal inactivation by enzymatic degradation or modification. Such quorum quenching enzymes are wide-spread in the bacterial world and have also been found in eukaryotes. Lactonases and acylases that hydrolyze N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecules have been investigated most intensively, however, different oxidoreductases active toward AHLs or 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolone signals as well as other signal-converting enzymes have been described. Several approaches have been assessed which aim at alleviating virulence, or biofilm formation, by reducing the signal concentration in the bacterial environment. These involve the application or stimulation of signal-degrading bacteria as biocontrol agents in the protection of crop plants against soft-rot disease, the use of signal-degrading bacteria as probiotics in aquaculture, and the immobilization or entrapment of quorum quenching enzymes or bacteria to control biofouling in membrane bioreactors. While most approaches to use quorum quenching as antivirulence strategy are still in the research phase, the growing number of organisms and enzymes known to interfere with quorum sensing opens up new perspectives for the development of innovative antibacterial strategies.

  9. Excitation mechanism and thermal emission quenching of Tb ions in silicon rich silicon oxide thin films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition—Do we need silicon nanoclusters?

    SciTech Connect

    Podhorodecki, A. Golacki, L. W.; Zatryb, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Wang, J.; Jadwisienczak, W.; Fedus, K.

    2014-04-14

    In this work, we will discuss the excitation and emission properties of Tb ions in a Silicon Rich Silicon Oxide (SRSO) matrix obtained at different technological conditions. By means of electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, undoped and doped SRSO films have been obtained with different Si content (33, 35, 39, 50 at. %) and were annealed at different temperatures (600, 900, 1100 °C). The samples were characterized optically and structurally using photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation, time resolved PL, absorption, cathodoluminescence, temperature dependent PL, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, we discuss how the matrix modifications influence excitation and emission properties of Tb ions.

  10. Quench studies of ILC cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari; Dai, Jin

    2011-07-01

    Quench limits accelerating gradient in SRF cavities to a gradient lower than theoretically expected for superconducting niobium. Identification of the quenching site with thermometry and OST, optical inspection, and replica of the culprit is an ongoing effort at Jefferson Lab aimed at better understanding of this limiting phenomenon. In this contribution we present our finding with several SRF cavities that were limited by quench.

  11. Characterizing Water Quenching Systems with a Quench Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, B. Lynn; Li, Zhichao; Freborg, Andrew M.

    2014-12-01

    Quench probes have been used effectively to characterize the quality of quenchants for many years. For this purpose, a variety of commercial probes, as well as the necessary data acquisition system for determining the time-temperature data for a set of standardized test conditions, are available for purchase. The type of information obtained from such probes provides a good basis for comparing media, characterizing general cooling capabilities, and checking media condition over time. However, these data do not adequately characterize the actual production quenching process in terms of heat transfer behavior in many cases, especially when high temperature gradients are present. Faced with the need to characterize water quenching practices, including conventional and intensive practices, a quench probe was developed. This paper describes that probe, the data collection system, the data gathered for both intensive quenching and conventional water quenching, and the heat transfer coefficients determined for these processes. Process sensitivities are investigated and highlight some intricacies of quenching.

  12. Phenomenology of Holographic Quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.

  13. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Qy-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5.

  14. Quench from Mott Insulator to Superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Tylutki, Marek

    2012-06-01

    We study a linear ramp of the nearest-neighbor tunneling rate in the Bose-Hubbard model driving the system from the Mott insulator state into the superfluid phase. We employ the truncated Wigner approximation to simulate linear quenches of a uniform system in 1...3 dimensions, and in a harmonic trap in 3 dimensions. In all these setups the excitation energy decays like one over third root of the quench time. The -1/3 scaling is explained by an impulse-adiabatic approximation - a variant of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism - describing a crossover from non-adiabatic to adiabatic evolution when the system begins to keep pace with the increasing tunneling rate.

  15. A new quenching alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

  16. Quenched catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Krambeck, F.J.; Penick, J.E.; Schipper, P.H.

    1990-12-18

    This paper describes improvement in a fluidized catalytic cracking process wherein a fluidizable catalyst cracking catalyst and a hydrocarbon feed are charged to a reactor riser at catalytic riser cracking conditions to form catalytically cracked vapor product and spent catalyst which are discharged into a reactor vessel having a volume via a riser reactor outlet equipped with a separation means to produce a catalyst lean phase. It comprises: a majority of the cracked product, and a catalyst rich phase comprising a majority of the spend catalyst. The the catalyst rich phase is discharged into a dense bed of catalyst maintained below the riser outlet and the catalyst lean phase is discharged into the vessel for a time, and at a temperature, which cause unselective thermal cracking of the cracked product in the reactor volume before product is withdrawn from the vessel via a vessel outlet. The improvement comprises: addition, after riser cracking is completed, and after separation of cracked products from catalyst, of a quenching stream into the vessel above the dense bed of catalyst, via a quench stream addition point which allows the quench stream to contact at least a majority of the volume of the vessel above the dense bed.

  17. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron- transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1993-03-31

    Progress on 6 projects is reported: excited state absorption spectrum of Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+], solvent cage model for electron transfer quenching, reductive quenching of [sup *]Cr(III) complexes, solution medium effects in oxidative quenching of [sup *]Ru(II) complexes, photosensitized oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution, and quenching of Ru(II) complexes by oxygen.

  18. "Light-cone" dynamics after quantum quenches in spin chains.

    PubMed

    Bonnes, Lars; Essler, Fabian H L; Läuchli, Andreas M

    2014-10-31

    Signal propagation in the nonequilibrium evolution after quantum quenches has recently attracted much experimental and theoretical interest. A key question arising in this context is what principles, and which of the properties of the quench, determine the characteristic propagation velocity. Here we investigate such issues for a class of quench protocols in one of the central paradigms of interacting many-particle quantum systems, the spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ chain. We consider quenches from a variety of initial thermal density matrices to the same final Hamiltonian using matrix product state methods. The spreading velocities are observed to vary substantially with the initial density matrix. However, we achieve a striking data collapse when the spreading velocity is considered to be a function of the excess energy. Using the fact that the XXZ chain is integrable, we present an explanation of the observed velocities in terms of "excitations" in an appropriately defined generalized Gibbs ensemble.

  19. Dynamical Outcomes of Quenching: Reflections on a Conical Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Julia H.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2014-04-01

    This review focuses on experimental studies of the dynamical outcomes following collisional quenching of electronically excited OH A2Σ+ radicals by molecular partners. The experimental observables include the branching between reactive and nonreactive decay channels, kinetic energy release, and quantum state distributions of the products. Complementary theoretical investigations reveal regions of strong nonadiabatic coupling, known as conical intersections, which facilitate the quenching process. The dynamical outcomes observed experimentally are connected to the local forces and geometric properties of the nuclei in the conical intersection region. Dynamical calculations for the benchmark OH-H2 system are in good accord with experimental observations, demonstrating that the outcomes reflect the strong coupling in the conical intersection region as the system evolves from the excited electronic state to quenched products.

  20. Small quenches and thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennes, D. M.; Pommerening, J. C.; Diekmann, J.; Karrasch, C.; Meden, V.

    2017-01-01

    We study the expectation values of observables and correlation functions at long times after a global quantum quench. Our focus is on metallic ("gapless") fermionic many-body models and small quenches. The system is prepared in an eigenstate of an initial Hamiltonian, and the time evolution is performed with a final Hamiltonian which differs from the initial one in the value of one global parameter. We first derive general relations between time-averaged expectation values of observables as well as correlation functions and those obtained in an eigenstate of the final Hamiltonian. Our results are valid to linear and quadratic order in the quench parameter g and generalize prior insights in several essential ways. This allows us to develop a phenomenology for the thermalization of local quantities up to a given order in g . Our phenomenology is put to a test in several case studies of one-dimensional models representative of four distinct classes of Hamiltonians: quadratic ones, effectively quadratic ones, those characterized by an extensive set of (quasi-) local integrals of motion, and those for which no such set is known (and believed to be nonexistent). We show that for each of these models, all observables and correlation functions thermalize to linear order in g . The more local a given quantity, the longer the linear behavior prevails when increasing g . Typical local correlation functions and observables for which the term O (g ) vanishes thermalize even to order g2. Our results show that lowest-order thermalization of local observables is an ubiquitous phenomenon even in models with extensive sets of integrals of motion.

  1. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  2. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  3. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  4. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  5. Detection of Non-Photochemical Superoxide in Coastal and Open Ocean Seawater: Particulate Versus Dissolved Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, K. L.; Rand, T.; Hansel, C. M.; Voelker, B. M.

    2016-02-01

    Superoxide radical (O2-) could have a significant effect on marine metal redox chemistry, but little data exists on its marine concentrations. In this study, we measured superoxide steady-state concentrations in both filtered and unfiltered samples collected near the California coast and at Station ALOHA. Particle-generated superoxide, defined as the difference between unfiltered and filtered concentrations, ranged from undetectable to 0.019 nM at Station ALOHA and from undetectable to 0.052 nM in samples from the southern California Current. We also show that a transient superoxide signal is generated during filtering, an artifact that may have affected previously reported concentrations of particle-generated superoxide in the ocean. High concentrations of superoxide (range) were measured in filtered samples from ALOHA station and the California Current, raising concerns about possible sources of background signals. Further study of background signals revealed that some superoxide production occurs even in artificial seawater and very aged filtered seawater samples, and that a small additional background signal is generated as the sample travels from the container to the flow cell where it is mixed with reagent for CL analysis. However, filtered seawater samples collected from the Scripps Pier had significantly higher superoxide production rates than those measured in artificial seawater, and production rates in unfiltered samples were no higher than those in filtered samples. Therefore, production by dissolved sources was the dominant non-photochemical source of superoxide in these samples. Production rates decreased in the presence of DTPA, suggesting involvement of metal ions in superoxide production. Laboratory experiments with natural organic matter (NOM) indicate that superoxide formation occurs during oxidation of reduced moieties of NOM by oxygen.

  6. Spontaneous and nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation in levitated supersaturated microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ke

    Research of nucleation in levitated supersaturated microdroplets was conducted in this dissertation. An unconventional crystallization system, levitated microdroplets, was utilized in this research. The microdroplet was levitated by an electrodynamic balance (EDB) constructed inside a vacuum chamber. EDB has the advantage of creating a containerless environment for the crystallization system. Spontaneous nucleation in levitated microdroplets was investigated. Spontaneous nucleation of aqueous microdroplets was caused by reducing the ambient relative humidity (RH) surrounding the solution droplets. Different polymorphs of glutaric acid and malonic acid are nucleated in levitated microdroplets when injected into a chamber maintained at different initial RH values. Effect of surfactant as additive is also investigated. A site-dependent evaporation-driven crystallization theory is established to explain the spontaneous nucleation phenomena in levitated aqueous microdroplets. Levitated microdroplets containing a solute and an organic solvent were also investigated. The crystallization behavior of glutaric acid methanol solutions and ethanol solutions was observed. ROY, a deca-polymorphic compound, was also studied from its DMSO solution microdroplets. Non-photochemical laser induced nucleation (NPLIN) was observed in levitated microdroplets of supersaturated potassium chloride (KCl) aqueous solution. A focused green (532 nm) pulsed laser with 1 ns pulse width was used to induce nucleation. Nucleation of levitated KCl microdroplet with high supersaturation was observed upon laser irradiation. A laser-induced charge loss phenomenon was also observed. A hypothesis of laser-induced electrostriction and corona discharge is discussed. Analysis with classical nucleation theory suggests that the NPLIN results in levitated microdroplets are consistent with previously published data on bulk samples.

  7. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Qy-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophylla (BChla) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5. A version of the hole spectrum simulation program written by the candidate for the FMO complex study (Chapter 3) is included as an appendix. The references for each chapter are given at the end of each chapter.

  8. Hamiltonian truncation approach to quenches in the Ising field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovszky, T.; Mestyán, M.; Collura, M.; Kormos, M.; Takács, G.

    2016-10-01

    In contrast to lattice systems where powerful numerical techniques such as matrix product state based methods are available to study the non-equilibrium dynamics, the non-equilibrium behaviour of continuum systems is much harder to simulate. We demonstrate here that Hamiltonian truncation methods can be efficiently applied to this problem, by studying the quantum quench dynamics of the 1 + 1 dimensional Ising field theory using a truncated free fermionic space approach. After benchmarking the method with integrable quenches corresponding to changing the mass in a free Majorana fermion field theory, we study the effect of an integrability breaking perturbation by the longitudinal magnetic field. In both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the model we find persistent oscillations with frequencies set by the low-lying particle excitations not only for small, but even for moderate size quenches. In the ferromagnetic phase these particles are the various non-perturbative confined bound states of the domain wall excitations, while in the paramagnetic phase the single magnon excitation governs the dynamics, allowing us to capture the time evolution of the magnetisation using a combination of known results from perturbation theory and form factor based methods. We point out that the dominance of low lying excitations allows for the numerical or experimental determination of the mass spectra through the study of the quench dynamics.

  9. Quench observation using quench antennas on RHIC IR quadrupole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J.; Wanderer, P.

    1995-07-01

    Quench observation using quench antennas is now being performed routinely on RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. Recently, a quench antenna was used on a RHIC IR magnet which is heavily instrumented with voltage taps. It was confirmed that the signals detected in the antenna coils do not contradict the voltage tap signals. The antenna also detects a sign of mechanical disturbance which could be related to a training quench. This paper summarizes signals detected in the antenna and discusses possible causes of these signals.

  10. HIP quench technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, C.; Westerlund, J.; Zimmerman, F.X.

    1996-12-31

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is a viable production process today for densifying metals, ceramics, and composites to achieve fully dense parts. One major drawback for conventional HIPing is the long ten to twelve hour cycle time resulting in low productivity and high processing cost. Drastic furnace improvements have been made in the late 1980`s with the advent of Uniform Rapid Cooling (URC) called HIP Quenching. This innovation allows floor/floor cycles as short as four to five hours with one hour soak depending on the material to be HIPed. A flow device such as a fan is utilized at the base of the furnace for forced gas convection in promoting main features to: (1) accelerate time for heating, soaking and cooling; (2) add combined solution heat treating; and (3) reduce thermal distortion of parts with varying cross-sections. All three points promise to positively effect better economy with improved property and quality to promote the HIP process further. This paper describes the URC technology and illustrates a couple of HIP Quench studies made for a turbine disc and efficient High Speed Steel powder consolidation.

  11. Quench dynamics near a quantum critical point: Application to the sine-Gordon model

    SciTech Connect

    De Grandi, C.; Polkovnikov, A.; Gritsev, V.

    2010-06-01

    We discuss the quench dynamics near a quantum critical point focusing on the sine-Gordon model as a primary example. We suggest a unified approach to sudden and slow quenches, where the tuning parameter {lambda}(t) changes in time as {lambda}(t){approx}{upsilon}t{sup r}, based on the adiabatic expansion of the excitation probability in powers of {upsilon}. We show that the universal scaling of the excitation probability can be understood through the singularity of the generalized adiabatic susceptibility {chi}{sub 2r+2}({lambda}), which for sudden quenches (r=0) reduces to the fidelity susceptibility. In turn this class of susceptibilities is expressed through the moments of the connected correlation function of the quench operator. We analyze the excitations created after a sudden quench of the cosine potential using a combined approach of form-factors expansion and conformal perturbation theory for the low-energy and high-energy sector, respectively. We find the general scaling laws for the probability of exciting the system, the density of excited quasiparticles, the entropy and the heat generated after the quench. In the two limits where the sine-Gordon model maps to hard-core bosons and free massive fermions we provide the exact solutions for the quench dynamics and discuss the finite temperature generalizations.

  12. Determination of carbazochrome by fluorescence quenching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiaojuan; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Cui, Zhiping; Wang, Yaqiong

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive, simple and selective spectrofluorimetric method for the reaction of carbazochrome (CBZC) and Eosin Y (EY) or Phloxine B (PB) in acidic medium is developed for the determination of carbazochrome in biological fluids, which gives a highly fluorescent derivative measured at 545 and 565 nm at excitation wavelengths of 301 and 305 nm. The fluorescence quenching extent (ΔF) is proportional to the concentration of CBZC for CBZC-EY and CBZC-PB system at the range of 0.03-1.50 μg/mL and 0.08-1.25 μg/mL, respectively. The detection limit is 9.1 ng/mL for EY system and 22.7 ng/mL for PB system. The intra-day and inter-day reproducibility (RSD values) are less than 8.3% under three concentrations. Moreover, the affecting factors of fluorescence intensity of the product are carefully investigated and optimized, as well as the effect of coexisting substances. Judging from temperature, the Stern-Volmer plots and fluorescence emission decay curves, the quenching of fluorescence of EY and PB by CBZC is a static quenching process, caused by electrostatic attraction and aromatic stacking interaction.

  13. Allelochemical stress inhibits growth, leaf water relations, PSII photochemistry, non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, and heat energy dissipation in three C3 perennial species

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M. Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of two allelochemicals, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and cinnamic acid (CA), on different physiological and morphological characteristics of 1-month-old C3 plant species (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, and Rumex acetosa) was analysed. BOA inhibited the shoot length of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and R. acetosa by 49%, 19%, and 19% of the control. The root length of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and R. acetosa growing in the presence of 1.5 mM BOA and CA was decreased compared with the control. Both allelochemicals (BOA, CA) inhibited leaf osmotic potential (LOP) in L. perenne and D. glomerata. In L. perenne, Fv/Fm decreased after treatment with BOA (1.5 mM) while CA (1.5 mM) also significantly reduced Fv/Fm in L. perenne. Both allelochemicals decreased ΦPSII in D. glomerata and L. perenne within 24 h of treatment, while in R. acetosa, ΦPSII levels decreased by 72 h following treatment with BOA and CA. There was a decrease in qP and NPQ on the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth days after treatment with BOA in D. glomerata, while both allelochemicals reduced the qP level in R. acetosa. There was a gradual decrease in the fraction of light absorbed by PSII allocated to PSII photochemistry (P) in R. acetosa treated with BOA and CA. The P values in D. glomerata were reduced by both allelochemicals and the portion of absorbed photon energy that was thermally dissipated (D) in D. glomerata and L. perenne was decreased by BOA and CA. Photon energy absorbed by PSII antennae and trapped by ‘closed’ PSII reaction centres (E) was decreased after CA exposure in D. glomerata. BOA and CA (1.5 mM concentration) decreased the leaf protein contents in all three perennial species. This study provides new understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of BOA and CA in one perennial dicotyledon and two perennial grasses. The acquisition of such knowledge may ultimately provide a rational and scientific basis for the design of safe and effective herbicides. PMID:21659663

  14. Combined effect of cascade through circular orbits and Stark quenching on the decay of n=2→n=1 transition of H-like Fe in beam-foil excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Mishra, Adya P.; Nandi, T.

    2014-11-01

    Recently Mishra et al. (Mishra AP, et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2013;120:114-9), while analyzing the effects of cascading through circular orbits (l=n-1)on the decay of unresolved 2p,2s→1s transitions of H-like Fe, neglected the effect of electric field at the exit surface of foil on the lifetime of the 2s state. In the present work we have considered the combined effect of cascading through circular orbits and the Stark mixing on the decay of the 2p,2s→1s transitions of H-like Fe in beam-foil excitation. It is observed that the natural lifetime of the 2s state (350.6 ps) is reduced to 221.8±22.4 ps due to Stark mixing of the long-lived 2s2S1/2 state with the very close and short-lived 2p P1/2o2 state. The strength of the electric field responsible for such mixing comes out to be 7.09±0.37×106 V/cm. The results of the present work for cascading of circular orbits through the 2p state are in good agreement (within the error bars) with those obtained earlier by Mishra et al.

  15. Fluid mechanics of quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, D. A.; Brent, R.; Melly, S.; Schroeder, W.; Wells, S.

    1985-02-01

    An array of heated rods is lowered vertically in a cold water bath at a constant speed V in order to quench them to obtain desired mechanical properties. Relative to the rods, the water flows in a subchannel, is heated, and boils, while cooling the rods. A model is proposed and studied which considers a one dimensional flow in a subchannel. It is argued that the heat release occurs in a thin region, where water is heated to boiling conditions and boils completely to steam. Above this boiling layer, steam flows rapidly against the friction of the rod bundle. Below the boiling layer, the water flow is approximately hydrostatic. This results in the boiling layer moving at a constant speed proportional to V. The effect of cross flow (leaking into or out of the channel) is also investigated, and the results discussed.

  16. Quench Crucibles Reinforced with Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Carrasquillo, Edgar; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKehnie, N.

    2008-01-01

    Improved crucibles consisting mainly of metal-reinforced ceramic ampules have been developed for use in experiments in which material specimens are heated in the crucibles to various high temperatures, then quenched by, for example, plunging the crucibles into water at room temperature. In a traditional quench crucible, the gap between the ampule and the metal cartridge impedes the transfer of heat to such a degree that the quench rate (the rate of cooling of the specimen) can be too low to produce the desired effect in the specimen. One can increase the quench rate by eliminating the metal cartridge to enable direct quenching of the ampule, but then the thermal shock of direct quenching causes cracking of the ampule. In a quench crucible of the present improved type, there is no gap and no metal cartridge in the traditional sense. Instead, there is an overlay of metal in direct contact with the ampule, as shown on the right side of the figure. Because there is no gap between the metal overlay and the ampule, the heat-transfer rate can be much greater than it is in a traditional quench crucible. The metal overlay also reinforces the ampule against cracking.

  17. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron- transfer reactions. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1993-03-31

    Progress on 6 projects is reported: excited state absorption spectrum of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, solvent cage model for electron transfer quenching, reductive quenching of {sup *}Cr(III) complexes, solution medium effects in oxidative quenching of {sup *}Ru(II) complexes, photosensitized oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution, and quenching of Ru(II) complexes by oxygen.

  18. Positronium quenching via collisions with triplet states of photomagnetic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, C.I.; Naidu, S.V.; Sharma, S.C.; Kowalski, J.M. )

    1991-04-01

    We have studied positronium quenching resulting from collisions with the triplet states of benzaldehyde, oxygen, benzophenone, and bromonaphthalene. Positronium pick-off decay rates are presented as functions of triplet populations via uv irradiation of benzaldehyde-ethane, benzaldehyde-helium, and oxgyen-ethane gaseous mixtures and of benzophenone and bromonaphthalene adsorbed porous silicas. Our results show that the cross sections for positronium quenching in collisions with excited triplet states are not as high as reported previously. The oxygen data suggest reactions between hot'' (nonthermal) positronium and oxygen molecules.

  19. Universal transport dynamics in a quenched tunnel-coupled Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambetta, F. M.; Cavaliere, F.; Citro, R.; Sassetti, M.

    2016-07-01

    The transport dynamics of a quenched Luttinger liquid tunnel-coupled to a fermionic reservoir is investigated. In the transient dynamics, we show that for a sudden quench of the electron interaction universal power-law decay in time of the tunneling current occurs, ascribed to the presence of entangled compound excitations created by the quench. In sharp contrast to the usual nonuniversal power-law behavior of a zero-temperature nonquenched Luttinger liquid, the steady-state tunneling current is Ohmic and can be explained in terms of an effective quench-activated heating of the system. Our study unveils an unconventional dynamics for a quenched Luttinger liquid that could be identified in quenched cold Fermi gases.

  20. Simulation of quenches in SSC magnets with passive quench protection

    SciTech Connect

    Koepke, K.

    1985-06-01

    The relative ease of protecting an SSC magnet following a quench and the implications of quench protection on magnet reliability and operation are necessary inputs in a rational magnet selection process. As it appears likely that the magnet selection will be made prior to full scale prototype testing, an alternative means is required to ascertain the surviveability of contending magnet types. This paper attempts to provide a basis for magnet selection by calculating the peak expected quench temperatures in the 3 T Design C magnet and the 6 T Design D magnet as a function of magnet length. A passive, ''cold diode'' protection system has been assumed. The relative merits of passive versus active protection systems have been discussed in a previous report. It is therefore assumed that - given the experience gained from the Tevatron system - that an active quench protection system can be employed to protect the magnets in the eventuality of unreliable cold diode function.

  1. Selective quenching of 2-naphtholate fluorescence by imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Pandey, Siddharth

    2012-10-04

    The effect of addition of water-miscible ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF(4)]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([bmim][OTf]), and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([bmpyrr][OTf]), on photophysical properties of 2-naphthol in water at various pHs is reported. Electronic absorbance behavior of 2-naphthol dissolved in aqueous mixtures of ILs is observed to be similar to that found in water at different pHs. The excited-state properties, however, are changed dramatically as the IL is added to the milieu. The presence of imidazolium IL results in significant quenching of the fluorescence emission from 2-naphtholate. On the contrary, pyrrolidinium IL does not quench the fluorescence from the anionic species. The quenching of 2-naphtholate fluorescence by aromatic imidazolium cations in aqueous IL mixtures is found to follow simple Stern-Volmer behavior. The aromatic imidazolium cation acts as an electron/charge acceptor during the quenching process where formation of a weakly fluorescent complex between the imidazolium cation and the excited 2-naphtholate anion possibly involving the acidic C2 proton of imidazolium is proposed. Because of the absence of such an acidic proton, the nonaromatic pyrrolidinium cation is not able to form a complex with the excited 2-naphtholate and cannot act as an electron/charge acceptor. Excited-state emission intensity decay data further corroborate this hypothesis as the intensity decay fits well to a single-exponential decay with no change in recovered lifetimes as [bmpyrr][OTf] is added; a double-exponential decay is required to satisfactorily fit the decay data in the presence of [bmim][BF(4)], hinting at the presence of a weakly fluorescent complex. The uniqueness of ILs in affecting excited-state properties of the 2-naphthol system is demonstrated through comparison with NaBF(4), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol with an average molecular weight of

  2. Quench dynamics of a strongly interacting resonant Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiao; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2015-03-01

    We explore the dynamics of a resonant Bose gas following its quench to a strongly interacting regime near a Feshbach resonance. For such deep quenches, we utilize a self-consistent dynamic mean-field approximation and find that after an initial regime of many-body Rabi-like oscillations between the condensate and finite-momentum quasiparticle pairs, at long times, the gas reaches a prethermalized nonequilibrium steady state. We explore the resulting state through its broad stationary momentum distribution function, that exhibits a power-law high momentum tail. We study the associated enhanced depletion, quench-rate dependent excitation energy, Tan's contact, structure function and radio frequency spectroscopy. We find these predictions to be in a qualitative agreement with recent experiments We acknowledge the supported by the NSF through DMR-1001240 on this research.

  3. Spaser quenching by off-resonant plasmon modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, L. S.; Shahbazyan, T. V.

    2017-08-01

    We study the effect of off-resonant plasmon modes on spaser threshold in nanoparticle-based spasers. We develop an analytical semiclassical model and derive spaser threshold condition accounting for gain coupling to higher-order plasmons. We show that such a coupling originates from inhomogeneity of gain distribution near the metal surface and leads to an upward shift of spaser frequency and population inversion threshold. This effect is similar, albeit significantly weaker, to quenching of plasmon-enhanced fluorescence near metal nanostructures due to excitation of off-resonant modes with wide spectral band. We also show that spaser quenching is suppressed for high gain concentrations and establish a simple criterion for quenching onset, which we support by numerical calculations for spherical geometry.

  4. Triplet quenching by diacyl peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingold, K. U.; Johnston, L. J.; Lusztyk, J.; Scaiano, J. C.

    1984-10-01

    Benzoyl and decanoyl peroxides are efficient quenchers of various triplet sensitizers: kinetic studies using laser photolysis techniques indicate that electronic energy transfer and charge transfer to the peroxide are important factors contributing to the quenching process.

  5. Photochemical and photoelectrochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Vredenberg, Wim; Durchan, Milan; Prásil, Ondrej

    2009-12-01

    This paper deals with kinetics and properties of variable fluorescence in leaves and thylakoids upon excitation with low intensity multi-turnover actinic light pulses corresponding with an excitation rate of about 10 Hz. These show a relatively small and amply documented rise in the sub-s time range towards the plateau level F(pl) followed by a delayed and S-shaped rise towards a steady state level F(m) which is between three and four fold the initial dark fluorescence level F(o). Properties of this retarded slow rise are i) rate of dark recovery is (1-6 s)(-1), ii) suppression by low concentration of protonophores, iii) responsiveness to complementary single turnover flash excitation with transient amplitude towards a level F(m) which is between five and six fold the initial dark fluorescence level F(o) and iv) in harmony with and quantitatively interpretable in terms of a release of photoelectrochemical quenching controlled by the trans-thylakoid proton pump powered by the light-driven Q cycle. Data show evidence for a sizeable fluorescence increase upon release of (photo) electrochemical quenching, defined as qPE. Release of qPE occurs independent of photochemical quenching defined here as qPP even under conditions at which qPP = 1. The term photochemical quenching, hitherto symbolized by qP, will require a new definition, because it incorporates in its present form a sizeable photoelectrochemical component. The same is likely to be true for definition and use of qN as an indicator of non photochemical quenching.

  6. Triplet-polaron quenching in conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Hertel, D; Meerholz, K

    2007-10-25

    We studied the triplet-polaron quenching in a platinum(II) porphyrin- (PtOEP-) doped polyspirobifluorene (PSF-TAD) copolymer. The copolymer contains a hole-transporting phenylenediamine unit (TAD) as a comonomer. Triplet-polaron quenching was probed by the change in PtOEP phosphorescence lifetime under an applied voltage in a unipolar device. The charge-induced reduction of the optically excited lifetime of PtOEP is one-third for the highest applied bias. The charge density can be obtained from current-voltage characteristics in the space-charge-limited (SCL) regime. The obtained hole mobility under SCL conditions is (7 +/- 2) x 10(-5) cm(2)/(V s). This result is in accord with recent mobility measurements of the time-of-flight mobility in our polymer. The triplet-polaron recombination constant was evaluated to be (4 +/- 1) x 10(-13) cm(3)/s, implying a triplet-polaron interaction radius of 2 x 10(-10) m. The results show that triplet-polaron annihilation cannot be neglected in device models for phosphorescent light-emitting diodes.

  7. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  8. Electronic quenching of OH A 2Σ+ induced by collisions with Kr atoms.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia H; Lester, Marsha I; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H; Dagdigian, Paul J; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F Javier; Brouard, Mark; Chadwick, Helen; Perkins, Tom; Seamons, Scott A

    2013-12-19

    Electronic quenching of OH A (2)Σ(+) by Kr was investigated through experimental studies of the collision cross sections and the OH X (2)Π product state distribution. The quenching cross sections decrease with increasing rotational excitation in the excited OH A (2)Σ(+) electronic state. The OH X (2)Π products of quenching exhibit a significant degree of rotational excitation but minimal vibrational excitation. Complementary theoretical studies of the OH (A (2)Σ(+), X (2)Π) + Kr potential energy surfaces (PESs), nonadiabatic coupling, and quasiclassical trajectory calculations were carried out to elucidate the quenching dynamics. Accurate PESs for the two lowest diabatic states of A' symmetry were computed along with the angularly dependent coupling between them. Coupling in nearly linear HO-Kr configurations provides the mechanism for the observed electronic quenching. A deep attractive well on the OH A (2)Σ(+) + Kr PES facilitates access to this region of strong coupling. Surface-hopping quasiclassical trajectory calculations yielded quenching cross sections and a OH X (2)Π product rotational distribution in good accord with experimental observations.

  9. Quench simulation program for superconducting accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Seog-Whan Kim

    2001-08-10

    In the design of superconducting magnets for accelerator and the quench protection systems, it is necessary to calculate the current, voltage and temperature during quench. The quench integral value (MIITs) is used to get a rough idea about the quench, but they need numerical calculations to obtain more detailed picture of the quench. A simulation program named KUENCH, which is not based on the MIITs calculation, was developed to calculate voltage, current and temperature of accelerator magnets during quenches. The software and calculation examples are introduced. The example also gives some important information about effects of copper content in the coil and quench protection heaters.

  10. Electronic excitation and quenching of atoms at insulator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaminathan, P. K.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Murthy, C. S.

    1988-01-01

    A trajectory-based semiclassical method is used to study electronically inelastic collisions of gas atoms with insulator surfaces. The method provides for quantum-mechanical treatment of the internal electronic dynamics of a localized region involving the gas/surface collision, and a classical treatment of all the nuclear degrees of freedom (self-consistently and in terms of stochastic trajectories), and includes accurate simulation of the bath-temperature effects. The method is easy to implement and has a generality that holds promise for many practical applications. The problem of electronically inelastic dynamics is solved by computing a set of stochastic trajectories that on thermal averaging directly provide electronic transition probabilities at a given temperature. The theory is illustrated by a simple model of a two-state gas/surface interaction.

  11. Electronic excitation and quenching of atoms at insulator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaminathan, P. K.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Murthy, C. S.

    1988-01-01

    A trajectory-based semiclassical method is used to study electronically inelastic collisions of gas atoms with insulator surfaces. The method provides for quantum-mechanical treatment of the internal electronic dynamics of a localized region involving the gas/surface collision, and a classical treatment of all the nuclear degrees of freedom (self-consistently and in terms of stochastic trajectories), and includes accurate simulation of the bath-temperature effects. The method is easy to implement and has a generality that holds promise for many practical applications. The problem of electronically inelastic dynamics is solved by computing a set of stochastic trajectories that on thermal averaging directly provide electronic transition probabilities at a given temperature. The theory is illustrated by a simple model of a two-state gas/surface interaction.

  12. Excited State Absorption Measurements In Some Scintillator Dye Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharamsi, A., N.; Jong, Shawpin; Hassam, A. B.

    1986-11-01

    Time-resolved excited state triplet-triplet absorption spectra were measured for solutions of 2,5 diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 2,1 napthyl, 5 phenyloxazole (aNPO) in several solvents. Concentration quenching effects due to excimer formation in nonaromatic solvents were observed. A numerical analysis of the experimental results yielded the rate constants for intersystem crossing, triplet quenching by 02, triplet self quenching and the formation of excimers.

  13. Pathways for Fluorescence Quenching in 2-Aminopurine π-Stacked with Pyrimidine Nucleobases

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jingxin; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2011-05-04

    Fluorescent analogues of nucleobases are very useful as probes to study DNA dynamics, because natural DNA does not fluoresce significantly. In many of these analogues, such as 2-aminopurine (2AP), the fluorescence is quenched when incorporated into DNA through processes that are not well understood. This work uses theoretical studies to examine fluorescence quenching pathways in 2AP-containing dimers. The singlet excited states of π-stacked dimer systems containing 2AP and a pyrimidine base, thymine or cytosine, have been studied using ab initio computational methods. Computed relaxation pathways along the excited-state surfaces reveal novel mechanisms that can lead to fluorescence quenching in the π-stacked dimers. The placement of 2AP on the 5’ or 3’ terminus of the dimers has different effects on the excitation energies and the relaxation pathways on the S₁ excited state. Conical intersections between the ground and first excited states exist when 2AP is placed at the 3’ side, whereas the placement of 2AP at the 5’ side leads to the switching of a bright state to a dark state. Both of these processes can lead to fluorescence quenching and may contribute to the fluorescence quenching observed in 2AP when incorporated in DNA.

  14. Pathways for fluorescence quenching in 2-aminopurine π-stacked with pyrimidine nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingxin; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2011-05-04

    Fluorescent analogues of nucleobases are very useful as probes to study DNA dynamics, because natural DNA does not fluoresce significantly. In many of these analogues, such as 2-aminopurine (2AP), the fluorescence is quenched when incorporated into DNA through processes that are not well understood. This work uses theoretical studies to examine fluorescence quenching pathways in 2AP-containing dimers. The singlet excited states of π-stacked dimer systems containing 2AP and a pyrimidine base, thymine or cytosine, have been studied using ab initio computational methods. Computed relaxation pathways along the excited-state surfaces reveal novel mechanisms that can lead to fluorescence quenching in the π-stacked dimers. The placement of 2AP on the 5' or 3' terminus of the dimers has different effects on the excitation energies and the relaxation pathways on the S(1) excited state. Conical intersections between the ground and first excited states exist when 2AP is placed at the 3' side, whereas the placement of 2AP at the 5' side leads to the switching of a bright state to a dark state. Both of these processes can lead to fluorescence quenching and may contribute to the fluorescence quenching observed in 2AP when incorporated in DNA. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Adiabatic and Non-adiabatic quenches in a Spin-1 Bose Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslawski, Matthew; Hebbe Madhusudhana, Bharath; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce; Barrios, Maryrose; Hoang, Thai; Chapman, Michael

    2016-05-01

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is observed in a wide range of phenomena. We have studied the dynamics of a spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic quenches through a QPT. At the quantum critical point (QCP), finite size effects lead to a non-zero gap, which makes an adiabatic quench possible through the QPT. We experimentally demonstrate such a quench, which is forbidden at the mean field level. For faster quenches through the QCP, the vanishing energy gap causes the reaction timescale of the system to diverge, preventing the system from adiabatically following the ground state. We measure the temporal evolution of the spin populations for different quench speeds and determine the exponents characterizing the scaling of the onset of excitations, which are in good agreement with the predictions of Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  16. Characterization of Iodine Quenching and Energy Transfer Rate Constants for Supersonic Flow Visualization Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-28

    SUBTITLE Sm. CONTRACTNUBER Characterization of iodine quenching and energy transfer rate FA9550-41-- o3G Sb. GRANT NUMBER constants for supersonic flow...in the nozzle from a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL). PLIF images are recorded using laser excitation of the I= B-X transition. Data for the...Preacolbed byANSI Sad Z30.16 20071015188 Final report for the project, "Characterization of iodine quenching and energy transfer rate constants for

  17. Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

  18. A study of polymer quenching on gears

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.; Yi, T.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching oil was widely used as a quenchant for the carburized gear direct hardening. With the progress of the quenching technology, however, the oil quenching of gears has been successfully replaced by the polymer quenching in the production. This paper will investigate the principle and application of gear quenching to replace oil, with aqueous polymer quenchants. During the direct quenching of carburized gear and precision forging gear, cracking and distortion reduction, and maximum and uniformity hardness can be achieved. From the quenching process and economic, advantages and limitations of polymer quenching of gears will be discussed. The data of production indicate that it is suitable for gear hardening to use polymer quenchant. The characteristics of polymer quenching are the improved performance, reduced fire hazards and environmental safety, processing flexibility and lower process costs.

  19. Two-level quenching of photoluminescence in hexagonal boron nitride micropowder

    SciTech Connect

    Henaish, A. M. A.; Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.

    2016-03-29

    The processes of photoluminescence thermal quenching in the range RT – 800 K of h-BN micropowder in the 3.56 eV band were studied. It was found that two non-radiative channels of excitations relaxation with activation energies of 0.27 and 0.81 eV control the quenching for emission observed. It was assumed that emptying the shallow traps based on O{sub N}-centers characterized external quenching in RT – 530 K range and non-radiative mechanism of donor-acceptor recombination began to dominate at T > 530 K.

  20. State transitions and fluorescence quenching in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 in response to changes in light quality and intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenfeng; Xie, Jie; Xu, Xiuling; Zhao, Jingquan

    2015-01-01

    State transition and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in cyanobacteria are short-term adaptations of photosynthetic apparatus to changes in light quality and intensity, however, the kinetic details and relationship are still not clear. In this work, time-dependent 77K fluorescence spectra were monitored for cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells under blue, orange and blue-green light in a series of intensities. The characteristic fluorescence signals indicated state transition taking place exclusively under 430-450 or 580-600nm light or 480-550nm light at the intensities ⩽150μEm(-2)s(-1) to achieve a conserved level with variable rate constant. Under 480-500nm or 530-550nm light at the intensities ⩾160μEm(-2)s(-1), state transition took place at first but stopped as soon as the fluorescence quenching appeared. The dependence of appearance, induction period, level and rate constant for the quenching on light intensity suggests that a critical concentration of photo-activated OCPs is necessary and may be achieved by a dynamic equilibrium between the activation and deactivation under light.

  1. Charmonium excited state spectrum in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; Nilmani Mathur; David Richards

    2008-02-01

    Working with a large basis of covariant derivative-based meson interpolating fields we demonstrate the feasibility of reliably extracting multiple excited states using a variational method. The study is performed on quenched anisotropic lattices with clover quarks at the charm mass. We demonstrate how a knowledge of the continuum limit of a lattice interpolating field can give additional spin-assignment information, even at a single lattice spacing, via the overlap factors of interpolating field and state. Excited state masses are systematically high with respect to quark potential model predictions and, where they exist, experimental states. We conclude that this is most likely a result of the quenched approximation.

  2. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Osborne, Matthew G.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled.

  3. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Osborne, M.G.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled. 6 figs.

  4. Bioanalytical Applications of Fluorenscence Quenching.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-10

    interaction of different cyclodextrin systems with the polynuclear aromatic compound, pyrene.(7 ) There are other cases where the Stern-Volmer plot deviates... encapsulated in lecithin liposomes. In this manner the fluorescence is self-quenched. When the liposomes are disrupted, the dye is released and

  5. On the origin of emission and thermal quenching of SRSO:Er3+ films grown by ECR-PECVD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon-rich silicon oxide matrix doped with Er3+ ions have been fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Indirect excitation of erbium photoluminescence via silicon nanocrystals has been investigated. Temperature quenching of the photoluminescence originating from the silicon nanocrystals and the erbium ions has been observed. Activation energies of the thermally activated quenching process were estimated for different excitation wavelengths. The temperature quenching mechanism of the emission is discussed. Also, the origin of visible emission and kinetic properties of Er-related emission have been discussed in details. PMID:23433189

  6. Identification of emissive lanthanide complexes suitable for cellular imaging that resist quenching by endogenous anti-oxidants.

    PubMed

    Poole, Robert A; Montgomery, Craig P; New, Elizabeth J; Congreve, Aileen; Parker, David; Botta, Mauro

    2007-07-07

    Excited state quenching by urate and ascorbate of selected europium and terbium(III) macrocyclic complexes has been assessed and related to the ease of complex visualisation by optical microscopy inside various living cells, e.g. CHO, COS and NIH 3T3. It is the relative insensitivity of certain sterically encumbered complexes to dynamic quenching by urate that favours their usage for in cellulo applications. Non-covalent binding of the complex by protein also shields the excited lanthanide(III) ion from collisional quenching; this effect is most marked for a cationic triamide complex, [Ln.1](3+), consistent with its ease of visualisation by luminescence microscopy.

  7. Chiral logarithms in quenched QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; S. J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F. X. Lee; K. F. Liu; N. Mathur; and J. B. Zhang

    2004-08-01

    The quenched chiral logarithms are examined on a 163x28 lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant fpi is used to set the lattice spacing, a = 0.200(3) fm. With pion mass as low as {approx}180 MeV, we see the quenched chiral logarithms clearly in mpi2/m and fP, the pseudoscalar decay constant. The authors analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) to apply. With the constrained curve-fitting method, they are able to extract the quenched chiral logarithmic parameter delta together with other low-energy parameters. Only for mpi<=300 MeV do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant delta which they determine to be 0.24(3)(4) (at the chiral scale Lambdachi = 0.8 GeV). By comparing to the 123x28 lattice, they estimate the finite volume effect to be about 2.7% for the smallest pion mass. They also fitted the pion mass to the form for the re-summed cactus diagrams and found that its applicable region is extended farther than the range for the one-loop formula, perhaps up to mpi {approx}500-600 MeV. The scale independent delta is determined to be 0.20(3) in this case. The authors study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon mass and find that the coefficient C1/2 in the nucleon mass is consistent with the prediction of one-loop chiPT. They also obtain the low energy constant L5 from fpi. They conclude from this study that it is imperative to cover only the range of data with the pion mass less than {approx}300 MeV in order to examine the chiral behavior of the hadron masses and decay constants in quenched QCD and match them with quenched one-loop chiPT.

  8. I/asterisk/ /6s 4P/ collisional quenching - Application to the IF 491-nm laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, S. B.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Eden, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the rate constants for quenching of the excited I (6s 4P) states by Ar, Xe, CF39I, UF6, and NF3 are described. Each rate constant is determined by recording the exponential time decay of the excited IF or excited I2 (342 nm) fluorescence in the afterglow of the e-beam-excited plasmas containing Ar, CF3I, NF3, and the desired quenching gas. In addition, further experimental evidence in support of neutral channel formation of excited IF in e-beam-pumped Ar/CF3I/NF3 mixtures is presented. Details of the experimental apparatus and gas handling procedures are given, and the kinetics model developed to interpret the experimental data is described.

  9. Rapid-quench axially staged combustor

    DOEpatents

    Feitelberg, Alan S.; Schmidt, Mark Christopher; Goebel, Steven George

    1999-01-01

    A combustor cooperating with a compressor in driving a gas turbine includes a cylindrical outer combustor casing. A combustion liner, having an upstream rich section, a quench section and a downstream lean section, is disposed within the outer combustor casing defining a combustion chamber having at least a core quench region and an outer quench region. A first plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a first diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the core region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. A second plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a second diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the outer region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. In an alternative embodiment, the combustion chamber quench section further includes at least one middle region and at least a third plurality of quench holes disposed within the liner at the quench section having a third diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to at least one middle region of the quench section of the combustion chamber.

  10. How to quench a galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontzen, Andrew; Tremmel, Michael; Roth, Nina; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Saintonge, Amélie; Volonteri, Marta; Quinn, Tom; Governato, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    We show how the interplay between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merger history determines whether a galaxy quenches star formation (SF) at high redshift. We first simulate, in a full cosmological context, a galaxy of total dynamical mass Mvir = 1012 M⊙ at z = 2. Then we systematically alter the accretion history of the galaxy by minimally changing the linear overdensity in the initial conditions. This `genetic modification' approach allows the generation of three sets of Λ CDM initial conditions leading to maximum merger ratios of 1:10, 1:5 and 2:3, respectively. The changes leave the final halo mass, large-scale structure and local environment unchanged, providing a controlled numerical experiment. Interaction between the AGN physics and mergers in the three cases leads, respectively, to a star-forming, temporarily quenched and permanently quenched galaxy. However, the differences do not primarily lie in the black hole accretion rates, but in the kinetic effects of the merger: the galaxy is resilient against AGN feedback unless its gaseous disc is first disrupted. Typical accretion rates are comparable in the three cases, falling below 0.1 M⊙ yr-1, equivalent to around 2 per cent of the Eddington rate or 10-3 times the pre-quenching star formation rate, in agreement with observations. This low level of black hole accretion can be sustained even when there is insufficient dense cold gas for SF. Conversely, supernova feedback is too distributed to generate outflows in high-mass systems, and cannot maintain quenching over periods longer than the halo gas cooling time.

  11. Deep-defect-induced quenching effects in semi-insulating GaN layers detected by photoelectrical spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, H.; Krtschil, A.; Lisker, M.; Schrenk, E.; Christen, J.; Krost, A.; Kuhn, B.; Scholz, F.

    2003-06-01

    Quenching effects induced by additional below-bandgap illumination in undoped semi-insulating GaN were investigated using optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) and photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy as well as optically excited, thermally stimulated currents (TSC). In OAS and PC, a decrease of defect-related signals due to the quenching light was observed. The thermal quenching of the defect band between 2.7 and 3.3 eV shows a good agreement with thermal emissions as measured by TSC, indicating the same defects cause the optical transitions in OAS/PC and the thermal transitions in TSC. The thermal emission in the temperature region between 250 and 300 K, which is responsible for the thermal quenching of the blue band (BB) in OAS, also shows an optical quenching under below-bandgap excitation.

  12. A molecular mechanism for qE-quenching.

    PubMed

    Crofts, A R; Yerkes, C T

    1994-10-03

    We discuss energy-dependent fluorescence lowering (qE-quenching), and suggest a model to explain the experimental data currently available. The main elements of the model are: (a) the qE-quenching reflects a mechanism associated with a component of the light-harvesting antenna rather than the reaction center of photosystem (PS) II--we suggest that it occurs through formation of an efficient quencher in one of the minor chlorophyll protein (CP) complexes; (b) the minor CPs have glutamate residues instead of glutamines at positions shown in light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to be ligands to chlorophylls near the lumenal interface. We suggest that the quenching reflects a change in ligation of chlorophyll on protonation of these glutamate residues leading to formation of an exciton coupled dimer with a neighboring pigment, in which additional energy levels allow vibrational relaxation of the excited singlet. The model accounts for the dependence on low lumenal pH, the ligand residue changes between LHCII and the minor CPs, the preferential distribution of components of the xanthophyll cycle in the minor CPs, the inhibition of qE-quenching by DCCD, and the specific binding of DCCD to the minor CPs.

  13. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  14. Quench cooling under reduced gravity.

    PubMed

    Chatain, D; Mariette, C; Nikolayev, V S; Beysens, D

    2013-07-01

    We report quench cooling experiments performed with liquid O(2) under different levels of gravity, simulated with magnetic gravity compensation. A copper disk is quenched from 300 to 90 K. It is found that the cooling time in microgravity is very long in comparison with any other gravity level. This phenomenon is explained by the insulating effect of the gas surrounding the disk. A weak gas pressurization (which results in subcooling of the liquid with respect to the saturation temperature) is shown to drastically improve the heat exchange, thus reducing the cooling time (about 20 times). The effect of subcooling on the heat transfer is analyzed at different gravity levels. It is shown that this type of experiment cannot be used for the analysis of the critical heat flux of the boiling crisis. The film boiling heat transfer and the minimum heat flux of boiling are analyzed as functions of gravity and subcooling.

  15. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  16. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  17. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  18. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  19. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  20. Quench-induced entanglement and relaxation dynamics in Luttinger liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzona, Alessio; Gambetta, Filippo Maria; Cavaliere, Fabio; Carrega, Matteo; Sassetti, Maura

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the time evolution towards the asymptotic steady state of a one-dimensional interacting system after a quantum quench. We show that at finite times the latter induces entanglement between right- and left-moving density excitations, encoded in their cross-correlators, which vanishes in the long-time limit. This behavior results in a universal time decay ∝t-2 of the system spectral properties, in addition to nonuniversal power-law contributions typical of Luttinger liquids. Importantly, we argue that the presence of quench-induced entanglement clearly emerges in transport properties, such as charge and energy currents injected in the system from a biased probe and determines their long-time dynamics. In particular, the energy fractionalization phenomenon turns out to be a promising platform to observe the universal power-law decay ∝t-2 induced by entanglement and represents a novel way to study the corresponding relaxation mechanism.

  1. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, A M; Mezacasa, A V; Graciano, D E; Falco, W F; M'Peko, J-C; Guimarães, F E G; Lawson, T; Colbeck, I; Oliveira, S L; Caires, A R L

    2016-11-05

    The interaction between chlorophyll (Chl) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was evaluated by analyzing the optical behavior of Chl molecules surrounded by different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 60, and 100nm of diameter). UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were performed for Chl in the presence and absence of these nanoparticles. AgNPs strongly suppressed the Chl fluorescence intensity at 678nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) showed that fluorescence suppression is driven by the dynamic quenching process. In particular, KSV was nanoparticle size-dependent with an exponential decrease as a function of the nanoparticle diameter. Finally, changes in the Chl fluorescence lifetime in the presence of nanoparticles demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching may be induced by the excited electron transfer from the Chl molecules to the metal nanoparticles.

  2. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, A. M.; Mezacasa, A. V.; Graciano, D. E.; Falco, W. F.; M'Peko, J.-C.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Lawson, T.; Colbeck, I.; Oliveira, S. L.; Caires, A. R. L.

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between chlorophyll (Chl) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was evaluated by analyzing the optical behavior of Chl molecules surrounded by different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 60, and 100 nm of diameter). UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were performed for Chl in the presence and absence of these nanoparticles. AgNPs strongly suppressed the Chl fluorescence intensity at 678 nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) showed that fluorescence suppression is driven by the dynamic quenching process. In particular, KSV was nanoparticle size-dependent with an exponential decrease as a function of the nanoparticle diameter. Finally, changes in the Chl fluorescence lifetime in the presence of nanoparticles demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching may be induced by the excited electron transfer from the Chl molecules to the metal nanoparticles.

  3. Mutual information after a local quench in conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Bernamonti, Alice

    2014-03-01

    We compute the entanglement entropy and mutual information for two disjoint intervals in two-dimensional conformal field theories as a function of time after a local quench, using the replica trick and boundary conformal field theory. We obtain explicit formulas for the universal contributions, which are leading in the regimes of, for example, close or well-separated intervals of fixed length. The results are largely consistent with the quasiparticle picture, in which entanglement above that present in the ground state is carried by pairs of entangled freely propagating excitations. We also calculate the mutual information for two disjoint intervals in a proposed holographic local quench, whose holographic energy-momentum tensor matches the conformal field theory one. We find that the holographic mutual information shows qualitative differences from the conformal field theory results and we discuss possible interpretations of this.

  4. Dry coke quenching and pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Belding, J.

    1981-02-03

    A system and method are provided for dry quenching coke while simultaneously eliminating pollutants emitted during coke pushing and quenching operations. The method includes pushing the hot coke from a coke oven into a hooded, mobile coke quench car, drawing the pollutants emitted during the push downwardly through the hot coke contained in the quench car to oxidize the pollutants and produce an inert combustion gas, cooling the hot inert gas and utilizing the heat recovered from the gas, cleaning the cooled inert gas, and returning the cooled cleaned inert gas to the quench car for further passage through the hot coke.

  5. Europium doped lanthanum zirconate nanoparticles with high concentration quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Alaparthi, Suresh B.; Lu, Long; Tian, Yue; Mao, Yuanbing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles were prepared facilely by a kinetically modified molten salt method. • High color purity and concentration quenching were achieved in these La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu nanoparticles. • Concentration quenching mechanism was discussed for Eu{sup 3+} in these Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles. - Abstract: A series of Eu{sup 3+} doped lanthanum zirconate (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanoparticles (NPs, 20 ± 5 nm in diameter) with cubic fluorite structure were facilely synthesized by a kinetically modified molten salt synthetic (MSS) process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). Under the excitation of 405 nm, intense red emission with high color purity can be observed in the Eu{sup 3+} doped La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} NPs. Moreover, the as-prepared Eu:La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} NPs possess high concentration quenching, which is as high as ∼32.5 mol% of europium dopants in the La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} host. The corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was discussed as well. Our results confirm that the kinetically modified MSS process is a promising approach for preparing rare earth (RE) ions doped A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles with uniform RE doping and high concentration quenching.

  6. Quantum quench and scaling of entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Paweł; Das, Sumit R.; Nozaki, Masahiro; Tomiya, Akio

    2017-09-01

    Global quantum quench with a finite quench rate which crosses critical points is known to lead to universal scaling of correlation functions as functions of the quench rate. In this work, we explore scaling properties of the entanglement entropy of a subsystem in a harmonic chain during a mass quench which asymptotes to finite constant values at early and late times and for which the dynamics is exactly solvable. When the initial state is the ground state, we find that for large enough subsystem sizes the entanglement entropy becomes independent of size. This is consistent with Kibble-Zurek scaling for slow quenches, and with recently discussed "fast quench scaling" for quenches fast compared to physical scales, but slow compared to UV cutoff scales.

  7. The impact of nanoperforation on persistent photoconductivity and optical quenching effects in suspended GaN nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volciuc, Olesea; Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Ebeling, Jakob; Aschenbrenner, Timo; Hommel, Detlef; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Gutowski, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    We report on fabrication of suspended ˜15 nm thick GaN membranes nanoperforated in an ordered fashion using direct writing of negative charges by focused ion beam and subsequent photoelectrochemical etching of GaN epilayers. Both continuous and nanoperforated membranes exhibit persistent photoconductivity (PPC), which can be optically quenched under excitation by 546 nm radiation. Optical quenching of PPC occurs also under relatively intense intrinsic excitation of nanoperforated membranes by 355 nm radiation at T < 100 K. The proposed explanation is based on strong surface localization of charge carriers in nanoperforated membranes and UV-induced reactions occurring at surface states under intense intrinsic excitation.

  8. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Hong; Goodwin, Peter M; Keller, Richard A.; Nolan, Rhiannon L.

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  9. Momentum-Space Entanglement and Loschmidt Echo in Luttinger Liquids after a Quantum Quench.

    PubMed

    Dóra, Balázs; Lundgren, Rex; Selover, Mark; Pollmann, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) arise by coupling left- and right-moving particles through interactions in one dimension. This most natural partitioning of LLs is investigated by the momentum-space entanglement after a quantum quench using analytical and numerical methods. We show that the momentum-space entanglement spectrum of a LL possesses many universal features both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The largest entanglement eigenvalue is identical to the Loschmidt echo, i.e., the overlap of the disentangled and final wave functions of the system. The second largest eigenvalue is the overlap of the first excited state of the disentangled system with zero total momentum and the final wave function. The entanglement gap is universal both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The momentum-space entanglement entropy is always extensive and saturates fast to a time independent value after the quench, in sharp contrast to a spatial bipartitioning.

  10. Characterization of deep defects responsible for the quenching behavior in undoped GaN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, H.; Schrenk, E.; Flügge, K.; Krost, A.; Christen, J.; Kuhn, B.; Scholz, F.

    2005-03-01

    In undoped semi-insulating GaN samples grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire, the recombination and quenching processes were investigated for the main deep traps responsible for quenching. A comprehensive picture is obtained by using different complementary techniques of thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC). Three traps— Q1 , Q2 , and Q3 —were separated in the temperature region between 200 and 300K . Variations of the excitation and the cleaning temperature suggest a two-step trapping process of the defects Q2 and Q3 . Quenching experiments evidence the involvement of these traps in the quenching process and the existence of two metastable states. These results are summarized in a model involving two metastable states and a complex two-step recharging trapping process.

  11. THE PARITY PARTNER OF THE NUCLEON IN QUENCHED QCD WITH DOMAIN WALL FERMIONS

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI,S.

    2000-07-12

    The authors present preliminary results for the mass spectrum of the nucleon and its low-lying excited states from quenched lattice QCD using the domain wall fermion method which preserves the chiral symmetry at finite lattice cutoff. Definite mass splitting is observed between the nucleon and its parity partner. This splitting grows with decreasing valence quark mass. They also present preliminary data regarding the first positive-parity excited state.

  12. Chirp excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaneja, Navin

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the design of broadband chirp excitation pulses. We first develop a three stage model for understanding chirp excitation in NMR. We then show how a chirp π pulse can be used to refocus the phase of the chirp excitation pulse. The resulting magnetization still has some phase dispersion in it. We show how a combination of two chirp π pulses instead of one can be used to eliminate this dispersion, leaving behind a small residual phase dispersion. The excitation pulse sequence presented here allows exciting arbitrary large bandwidths without increasing the peak rf-amplitude. Experimental excitation profiles for the residual HDO signal in a sample of 99.5 % D2O are displayed as a function of resonance offset. Although methods presented in this paper have appeared elsewhere, we present complete analytical treatment that elucidates the working of these methods.

  13. Nonphotochemical hole burning of organic dyes and rare earth ions in polymers and glasses: a probe of the amorphous state

    SciTech Connect

    Fearey, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    New and in depth studies of amorphous materials (e.g., glasses and polymers) probed via the low temperature optical technique of nonphotochemical hole burning (NPHB) are presented. An extensive review of the phenomena itself, along with selected topics involving the use of persistent hole burning techniques, is given. In addition, a semi-complete tabulation of essentially all hole burning systems to date is included. The deuteration dependence in an amorphous host is examined for the system of tetracene in an ethanol/methanol mixture. The results illustrate the importance of hydrogen bonding in the hole burning process. The discovery of a highly efficient (or facile) class of hole burning systems, i.e., ionic dyes in hydroxylated polymers (i.e., poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)), is presented and discussed. Ultrafast relaxation processes (i.e., dephasing) are studied for the system of cresyl violet perchlorate (CV) in PVOH. Further, for the first time, NPHB of rare earth ions, specifically Pr/sup +3/ and Nd/sup +3/, in a soft organic glass (i.e., PVOH) is discussed briefly. Detailed experimental results of two related phenomena, spontaneous hole filling (SPHF) and laser induced hole filling (LIHF), are presented and discussed for several systems: rhodamine 560 perchlorate (R560), rhodamine 640 perchlorate (R640), CV, Pr/sup +3/ and Nd..mu../sup 3/ in either PVOH or PAA. A theoretical model is developed for SPHF. The model invokes a correlated feedback mechanism from the anti-hole, which is able to account for the fact that no line broadening is observed. A tentative model is also presented for the phenomenon of LIHF.

  14. Role of formation of statistical aggregates in chlorophyll fluorescence concentration quenching.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wu-Jun; Barber, James; Zhao, Yang

    2013-04-18

    Using extensive Monte Carlo simulations, a comprehensive investigation has been carried out on the phenomenon of chlorophyll fluorescence concentration quenching. Our results reveal that statistical aggregations of chlorophylls act mainly as trapping sites for excitation energy and lead to fluorescence quenching. Due to transition dipolar-dipolar interactions between the chlorophylls within a statistical aggregate, the associated oscillator strength changes in comparison to a monomer, and excited energy states show splitting. Further, as the lower energy states are more likely associated with lower oscillator strengths, the fluorescence intensity is observed to decrease. Due to the rapid energy transfer between chlorophyll molecules after photoexcitation, the excitonic energy can easily reach a statistical aggregate, where trapping of the exciton and its subsequent decay occur. With an increase in the chlorophyll concentration, the probability of statistical aggregation increases, thereby accentuating the fluorescence quenching effect.

  15. Quenching star formation in cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranu, Dan S.; Hudson, Michael J.; Balogh, Michael L.; Smith, Russell J.; Power, Chris; Oman, Kyle A.; Krane, Brad

    2014-05-01

    In order to understand the processes that quench star formation in cluster galaxies, we construct a library of subhalo orbits drawn from Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of four rich clusters. We combine these orbits with models of star formation followed by environmental quenching, comparing model predictions with observed bulge and disc colours and stellar absorption line-strength indices of luminous cluster galaxies. Models in which the bulge stellar populations depend only on the galaxy subhalo mass while the disc is quenched upon infall are acceptable fits to the data. An exponential disc quenching time-scale of 3-3.5 Gyr is preferred. Quenching in lower mass groups prior to infall (`pre-processing') provides better fits, with similar quenching time-scales. Models with short (≲1 Gyr) quenching time-scales yield excessively steep cluster-centric gradients in disc colours and Balmer line indices, even if quenching is delayed for several Gyr. The data slightly prefer models where quenching occurs only for galaxies falling within ˜0.5r200. These results imply that the environments of rich clusters must impact star formation rates of infalling galaxies on relatively long time-scales, indicative of gentler quenching mechanisms such as slow `strangulation' over more rapid ram-pressure stripping.

  16. Exciter switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  17. Quenched dislocation enhanced supersolid ordering.

    PubMed

    Toner, John

    2008-01-25

    I show using Landau theory that quenched dislocations can facilitate the supersolid to normal solid transition, making it possible for the transition to occur even if it does not in a dislocation-free crystal. I make detailed predictions for the dependence of the supersolid to normal solid transition temperature T_{c}(L), superfluid density rho_{S}(T,L), and specific heat C(T,L) on temperature T and dislocation spacing L, all of which can be tested against experiments. The results should also be applicable to an enormous variety of other systems, including, e.g., ferromagnets.

  18. Quenching preheating by light fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwińska, Olga; Enomoto, Seishi; Lalak, Zygmunt

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the role of additional light fields not directly coupled to the background during preheating. We extend our previous study that proved that the production of particles associated with such fields can be abundant due to quantum corrections, even for the massless states. We also obtain the expression for the occupation number operator in terms of interacting fields, which includes the nonlinear effects important for nonperturbative particle production. We show that adding too many light degrees of freedom without direct interactions with the background might attenuate or even quench preheating as the result of backreaction effects and quantum corrections.

  19. Efficient quenching of TGA-capped CdTe quantum dot emission by a surface-coordinated europium(III) cyclen complex.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shane A; Comby, Steve; Wojdyla, Michal; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur; Kelly, John M; Gun'ko, Yurii K; Clark, Ian P; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Quinn, Susan J

    2013-04-15

    Extremely efficient quenching of the excited state of aqueous CdTe quantum dots (QDs) by photoinduced electron transfer to a europium cyclen complex is facilitated by surface coordination to the thioglycolic acid capping ligand. The quenching dynamics are elucidated using steady-state emission and picosecond transient absorption.

  20. Holographic quenches and anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Grieninger, Sebastian; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Macedo, Rodrigo P.; Melgar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    We study the response of the chiral magnetic effect due to continuous quenches induced by time dependent electric fields within holography. Concretely, we consider a holographic model with dual chiral anomaly and compute the electric current parallel to a constant, homogeneous magnetic field and a time dependent electric field in the probe approximation. We explicitly solve the PDEs by means of pseudospectral methods in spatial and time directions and study the transition to an universal "fast" quench response. Moreover, we compute the amplitudes, i.e., residues of the quasi normal modes, by solving the (ODE) Laplace transformed equations. We investigate the possibility of considering the asymptotic growth rate of the amplitudes as a well defined notion of initial time scale for linearized systems. Finally, we highlight the existence of Landau level resonances in the electrical conductivity parallel to a magnetic field at finite frequency and show explicitly that these only appear in presence of the anomaly. We show that the existence of these resonances induces, among others, a long-lived AC electric current once the electric field is switched off.

  1. Whole cell quenched flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ya-Yu; Haeri, Sina; Gizewski, Carsten; Stewart, Joanna D; Ehrhard, Peter; Shrimpton, John; Janasek, Dirk; West, Jonathan

    2013-12-03

    This paper describes a microfluidic quenched flow platform for the investigation of ligand-mediated cell surface processes with unprecedented temporal resolution. A roll-slip behavior caused by cell-wall-fluid coupling was documented and acts to minimize the compression and shear stresses experienced by the cell. This feature enables high-velocity (100-400 mm/s) operation without impacting the integrity of the cell membrane. In addition, rotation generates localized convection paths. This cell-driven micromixing effect causes the cell to become rapidly enveloped with ligands to saturate the surface receptors. High-speed imaging of the transport of a Janus particle and fictitious domain numerical simulations were used to predict millisecond-scale biochemical switching times. Dispersion in the incubation channel was characterized by microparticle image velocimetry and minimized by using a horizontal Hele-Shaw velocity profile in combination with vertical hydrodynamic focusing to achieve highly reproducible incubation times (CV = 3.6%). Microfluidic quenched flow was used to investigate the pY1131 autophosphorylation transition in the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). This predimerized receptor undergoes autophosphorylation within 100 ms of stimulation. Beyond this demonstration, the extreme temporal resolution can be used to gain new insights into the mechanisms underpinning a tremendous variety of important cell surface events.

  2. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  3. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory’s main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, iron-chromium-nickel, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. The system is described and some initial results are presented.

  4. Reduced pressure quenching oil and distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Asada, S.; Ogino, M.

    1996-12-31

    Cooling process observed in a quenching oil`s cooling curve determination by JIS silver probe method, has been divided into three stages, vapor blanket stage, boiling stage and convection stage. Under reduced pressure vaporization is accelerated and extend the vapor blanket stage which shift the position of boiling stage the fastest of cooling speed among the cooling process toward low temperature side. Taking advantage of this behavior in quenching under reduced pressure, it is possible to improve quench hardenability by controlling reduced pressure. Vapor pressure of quenching oil increases under very high vacuum and accelerates vapor blanket formation and covers the material with more vapor blanket, resulting in reduction of cooling speed. Excessive vapor blanket covering the material will lead to partially uneven quenching of the treated material caused by uneven conditions by partial decomposition. Making vapor blanket distribution more even and to optimize uniform coating condition enables to prevent heat treatment distortion caused by uneven quenching conditions.

  5. Quench antenna for superconducting particle accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ogitsu, T.; Devred, A.; Kim, K.

    1993-10-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and test of an assembly of stationary pickup coils which can be used to localize quench origins. After describing the pickup coils configuration, we develop a simple model of current redistribution which allows interpretation of the measured voltages and determination of the turn of the magnet coil in which the quench started. The technique is illustrated by analyzing the data from a quench of a 5-cm-aperture, 15-m-long SSC dipole magnet prototype.

  6. A mathematical model for nonlinear fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    e Coura, Carla Patrícia de Morais; Schneider, Ayda Henriques; Cortez, Celia Martins; Cruz, Frederico Alan de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Here, we presents a mathematical model to describe the nonlinear processes of fluorescence quenching, showing that the Stern-Volmer model can be a particular case when the quenching occurs as a linear phenomenon. The preliminary simulation, using data from the interaction of risperidone, an antipsychotic drug, with human serum albumin showed that the mathematical model may reproduce with very good approximation the nonlinear fluorescence quenching process.

  7. Interaction Quench Induced Multimode Dynamics of Finite Atomic Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Cao, Lushuai; Schmelcher, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The correlated non-equilibrium dynamics of few-boson systems in one-dimensional finite lattices is investigated. Starting from weak interactions we perform a sudden interaction quench and employ the numerically exact Multi-Layer Multi-Configuration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons to obtain the resulting quantum dynamics. Focusing on the low-lying modes of the finite lattice we observe the emergence of density-wave tunneling, breathing and cradle-like processes. In particular, the tunneling induced by the quench leads to a ``global'' density-wave oscillation. The resulting breathing and cradle modes are inherent to the local intrawell dynamics and connected to excited-band states. Moreover, the interaction quenches couple the density-wave and the cradle modes allowing for resonance phenomena. These are associated with an avoided-crossing in the respective frequency spectrum and lead to a beating dynamics for the cradle. Hamburgisches Gesetz zur Förderung des wissenschaftlichen und künstlerischen Nachwuchses (HmbNFG).

  8. Coat forming quenching oil and distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Asada, S.

    1996-12-31

    Coat forming quenching oil which provides lubricous black coating on the treated surface of materials simultaneously with quenching is known to improve effectively surface characteristics of parts/materials treated. However, Zn-DTP added to this oil will be consumed some what at each quenching and gradual deterioration of the oil is inevitable and affecting greatly to cooling performance of the oil. To maintain long period oil stability by minimizing consumption of additive and suppressing cooling performance degradation, a new coat forming quenching oil containing petroleum type sulfonate has been developed. This is finally to contribute keeping low distortion level of treated materials in long term.

  9. Neural Variability Quenching Predicts Individual Perceptual Abilities.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Ayelet; Censor, Nitzan; Dinstein, Ilan

    2017-01-04

    Neural activity during repeated presentations of a sensory stimulus exhibits considerable trial-by-trial variability. Previous studies have reported that trial-by-trial neural variability is reduced (quenched) by the presentation of a stimulus. However, the functional significance and behavioral relevance of variability quenching and the potential physiological mechanisms that may drive it have been studied only rarely. Here, we recorded neural activity with EEG as subjects performed a two-interval forced-choice contrast discrimination task. Trial-by-trial neural variability was quenched by ∼40% after the presentation of the stimulus relative to the variability apparent before stimulus presentation, yet there were large differences in the magnitude of variability quenching across subjects. Individual magnitudes of quenching predicted individual discrimination capabilities such that subjects who exhibited larger quenching had smaller contrast discrimination thresholds and steeper psychometric function slopes. Furthermore, the magnitude of variability quenching was strongly correlated with a reduction in broadband EEG power after stimulus presentation. Our results suggest that neural variability quenching is achieved by reducing the amplitude of broadband neural oscillations after sensory input, which yields relatively more reproducible cortical activity across trials and enables superior perceptual abilities in individuals who quench more.

  10. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  11. Luminescence quenching of Dy3+ ions in lead bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, Wojciech A.; Pisarska, Joanna; Lisiecki, Radosław; Dominiak-Dzik, Grażyna; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold

    2012-04-01

    Luminescence of lead bismuthate glasses PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 containing Dy3+ ions has been studied. Two overlapping luminescence bands corresponding to 3P1-1S0 transition of Bi3+ and 4F9/2 -6H13/2 transition of Dy3+ were detected under 480 nm excitation. Comparison of luminescence features for the system under study to those reported for dysprosium-doped lead borate glass PbO-B2O3-Ga2O3 indicates that the luminescence of Dy3+ is efficiently quenched by Bi3+ ions. Analysis of luminescence dynamics implies that the excitation energy transfer from Dy3+ to Bi3+ is nonradiative. The theoretical calculations using Inokuti-Hirayama model confirm strong luminescence of Dy3+ ions in lead bismuthate glasses.

  12. Tree size and light availability increase photochemical instead of non-photochemical capacities of Nothofagus nitida trees growing in an evergreen temperate rain forest.

    PubMed

    Coopman, Rafael E; Briceño, Verónica F; Corcuera, Luis J; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alvarez, Daniela; Sáez, Katherine; García-Plazaola, José I; Alberdi, Miren; Bravo, León A

    2011-10-01

    Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser (Nothofagaceae) regenerates under the canopy in microsites protected from high light. Nonetheless, it is common to find older saplings in clear areas and adults as emergent trees of the Chilean evergreen forest. We hypothesized that this shade to sun transition in N. nitida is supported by an increase in photochemical and non-photochemical energy dissipation capacities of both photosystems in parallel with the increase in plant size and light availability. To dissect the relative contribution of light environment and plant developmental stage to these physiological responses, the photosynthetic performance of both photosystems was studied from the morpho-anatomical to the biochemical level in current-year leaves of N. nitida plants of different heights (ranging from 0.1 to 7 m) growing under contrasting light environments (integrated quantum flux (IQF) 5-40 mol m(-2). Tree height (TH) and light environment (IQF) independently increased the saturated electron transport rates of both photosystems, as well as leaf and palisade thickness, but non-photochemical energy flux, photoinhibition susceptibility, state transition capacity, and the contents of D1 and PsbS proteins were not affected by IQF and TH. Spongy mesophyll thickness and palisade cell diameter decreased with IQF and TH. A(max), light compensation and saturation points, Rubisco and nitrogen content (area basis) only increased with light environment (IQF), whereas dark respiration (R(d)) decreased slightly and relative chlorophyll content was higher in taller trees. Overall, the independent effects of more illuminated environment and tree height mainly increased the photochemical instead of the non-photochemical energy flux. Regardless of the photochemical increase with TH, carbon assimilation only significantly improved with higher IQF. Therefore it seems that mainly acclimation to the light environment supports the phenotypic transition of N. nitida from shade to

  13. Effect of xenon on the excited states of phototropic receptor flavin in corn seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierstra, R.D.; Poff, K.L.; Walker, E.B.; Song, P.S.

    1981-05-01

    The chemically inert, water-soluble heavy atom gas, xenon, at millimolar concentrations specifically quenches the triplet excited state of flavin in solution without quenching the flavin singlet excited state. The preferential quenching of the flavin triplet over the singlet excited state by Xe has been established by showing that the flavin triplet-sensitized photooxidation of NADH is inhibited while the fluorescence intensity and lifetime of flavin are not affected by Xe. No significant inhibition of phototropism and geotropism by Xe was observed, suggesting that a flavin singlet state is more likely involved than the triplet state in the primary photoprocess of phototropism in corn.

  14. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Imaging Studies of in vitro Carcinoma and Normal Cells Utilizing a Mitochondrial Specific Dye

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Richard Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Low temperature Nonphotochemical Hole Burning (NPHB) Spectroscopy of the dye rhodamine 800 (MF680) was applied for the purpose of discerning differences between cultured normal and carcinoma ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Both the cell lines were developed and characterized at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN), with the normal cell line having been transfected with a strain of temperature sensitive Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen (SV40) for the purpose of extending the life of the cell culture without inducing permanent changes in the characteristics of the cell line. The cationic lipophilic fluorophore rhodamine 800 preferentially locates in in situ mitochondria due to the high lipid composition of mitochondria and the generation of a large negative membrane potential (relative to the cellular cytoplasm) for oxidative phosphorylation. Results presented for NPHB of MF680 located in the cells show significant differences between the two cell lines. The results are interpreted on the basis of the NPHB mechanism and characteristic interactions between the host (cellular mitochondrial) and the guest (MF680) in the burning of spectral holes, thus providing an image of the cellular ultrastructure. Hole growth kinetics (HGK) were found to differ markedly between the two cell lines, with the carcinoma cell line burning at a faster average rate for the same exposure fluence. Theoretical fits to the data suggest a lower degree of structural heterogeneity in the carcinoma cell line relative to the normal cell line. Measurement of changes in the permanent dipole moment (fΔμ) were accomplished by measurement of changes in hole width in response to the application of an external electric field (the Stark effect), and found that Δμ values for the carcinoma line were 1.5x greater than those of the SV40 antigen-free normal analogs. These findings are interpreted in terms of effects from the mitochondrial membrane potential. Results for HGK on the scale of single cells is

  15. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Imaging Studies of In Vitro Carcinoma and Normal Cells Utilizing a Mitochondrial Specific Dye

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Richard Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Low temperature Nonphotochemical Hole Burning (NPHB) Spectroscopy of the dye rhodamine 800 (MF680) was applied for the purpose of discerning differences between cultured normal and carcinoma ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Both the cell lines were developed and characterized at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN), with the normal cell line having been transfected with a strain of temperature sensitive Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen (SV40) for the purpose of extending the life of the cell culture without inducing permanent changes in the characteristics of the cell line. The cationic lipophilic fluorophore rhodamine 800 preferentially locates in in situ mitochondria due to the high lipid composition of mitochondria and the generation of a large negative membrane potential (relative to the cellular cytoplasm) for oxidative phosphorylation. Results presented for NPHB of MF680 located in the cells show significant differences between the two cell lines. The results are interpreted on the basis of the NPHB mechanism and characteristic interactions between the host (cellular mitochondrial) and the guest (MF680) in the burning of spectral holes, thus providing an image of the cellular ultrastructure. Hole growth kinetics (HGK) were found to differ markedly between the two cell lines, with the carcinoma cell line burning at a faster average rate for the same exposure fluence. Theoretical fits to the data suggest a lower degree of structural heterogeneity in the carcinoma cell line relative to the normal cell line. Measurement of changes in the permanent dipole moment (fΔμ)were accomplished by measurement of changes in hole width in response to the application of an external electric field (the Stark effect), and found that Δμ values for the carcinoma line were 1.5x greater than those of the SV40 antigen-free normal analogs. These findings are interpreted in terms of effects from the mitochondrial membrane potential. Results for HGK on the scale of single cells is

  16. Rhodamine 6G Fluorescence Quenching by an External Heavy Atom and Silver Nanoparticles at the Nanoporous-Silica-Water Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. S.; Samusev, I. G.; Slezhkin, V. A.; Bryukhanov, V. V.

    2017-07-01

    Spectral and kinetic features of rhodamine 6G fluorescence quenching in a heterogeneous system of macroporous silica (silokhrom, S-80) and water caused by the combined influence of an external heavy atom (KI) and resonance-excited surface plasmons on citrate hydrosol silver nanoparticles. Surface plasmon quenching occurred through donor-acceptor interaction in complexes with iodide and silver nanoparticles. The activation energy of dye fluorescence quenching in the heterogeneous system had a minimum that was associated with hindered diffusion during the formation of silver-nanoparticle clusters.

  17. Quenching of tryptophan (1)(pi,pi*) fluorescence induced by intramolecular hydrogen abstraction via an aborted decarboxylation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Blancafort, Lluís; González, David; Olivucci, Massimo; Robb, Michael A

    2002-06-05

    CASSCF computations show that the hydrogen-transfer-induced fluorescence quenching of the (1)(pi,pi*) excited state of zwitterionic tryptophan occurs in three steps: (1) formation of an intramolecular excited-state complex, (2) hydrogen transfer from the amino acid side chain to the indole chromophore, and (3) radiationless decay through a conical intersection, where the reaction path bifurcates to a photodecarboxylation and a phototautomerization route. We present a general model for fluorescence quenching by hydrogen donors, where the radiationless decay occurs at a conical intersection (real state crossing). At the intersection, the reaction responsible for the quenching is aborted, because the reaction path bifurcates and can proceed forward to the products or backward to the reactants. The position of the intersection along the quenching coordinate depends on the nature of the states and, in turn, affects the formation of photoproducts during the quenching. For a (1)(n,pi*) model system reported earlier (Sinicropi, A.; Pogni, R.; Basosi, R.; Robb, M. A.; Gramlich, G.; Nau, W. M.; Olivucci, M. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 4185-4189), the ground and the excited state of the chromophore are hydrogen acceptors, and the excited-state hydrogen transfer is nonadiabatic and leads directly to the intersection point. There, the hydrogen transfer is aborted, and the reaction can return to the reactant pair or proceed further to the hydrogen-transfer products. In the tryptophan case, the ground state is not a hydrogen acceptor, and the excited-state hydrogen transfer is an adiabatic, sequential proton and electron transfer. The decay to the ground state occurs along a second reaction coordinate associated with decarboxylation of the amino acid side chain and the corresponding aborted conical intersection. The results show that, for (1)(pi,pi*) states, the hydrogen transfer alone is not sufficient to induce the quenching, and explain why fluorescence quenching induced

  18. Reversible energy quenching and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, S. G.; Burshtein, A. I.

    2010-05-01

    The kinetics of reversible energy transfer from photo-excited donors to energy acceptors is studied at arbitrary concentrations of both and any relationship between the decay-times of the reactants. The backward reaction of transfer products in a bulk is included in the consideration. Its contribution to delayed fluorescence, resulting from the energy conservation on the long-lived acceptors, is specified.

  19. Luminescence Spectroscopy and Bimolecular Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment in which a low cost spectrofluorimeter is used to carry out elementary emission measurements on a transition metal complex. The students measure uncorrected emission and excitation spectra, and determine the rate constant for an exceedingly fast bimolecular reaction, the deactivation of an…

  20. Luminescence Spectroscopy and Bimolecular Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment in which a low cost spectrofluorimeter is used to carry out elementary emission measurements on a transition metal complex. The students measure uncorrected emission and excitation spectra, and determine the rate constant for an exceedingly fast bimolecular reaction, the deactivation of an…

  1. Exciting Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  2. On the scaling properties of quenched QED

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, William A.; Love, Sherwin T.; Miransky, Vladimir A.

    1990-06-17

    Critical scaling laws are studied in quenched quantum electrodynamics with induced four-fermion interactions that drive the theory to criticality. The critical exponents are calculated in the quenched, planar model and the physical picture extracted is consistent with recent results from lattice simulations. Near criticality, a composite scalar state plays an essential role in the effective dynamics.

  3. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  4. Intense quenching of fluorescence intensity of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) molecules in presence of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, M.; Ram, S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the quenching of fluorescence intensity of 40 g/L poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) PVP molecules by varying the content of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from 1 to 5 μM in 1-butanol. A profound exponential decay of the emission band intensity in the π ← nπ* band of the PVP molecules at ~392 nm upon gradual addition of the GNPs demonstrates an existence of an excited state interaction of NPs with the PVP molecules in a gold colloid in 1-butanol. Such quenching is caused by the non-bonding electron transfer from the O-atom of carbonyl group of the PVP molecules to the surface of the GNP. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) study corroborates the spectroscopic results. A linear Stern-Volmer plot with a quenching constant of 2.23 × 106 M-1 reveals dynamic quenching in a non-aqueous NF. A mechanism of fluorescence quenching was proposed in support of XPS and images taken from hybrid nanostructure using transmission electron microscope. Study on quenching of fluorescence intensity of PVP fluorophore in the presence of GNPs is useful for optoelectronic devices and biosensors.

  5. QUENCH STUDIES AND PREHEATING ANALYSIS OF SEAMLESS

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli; Eremeev, Grigory

    2013-09-01

    One of the alternative manufacturing technologies for SRF cavities is hydroforming from seamless tubes. Although this technology has produced cavities with gradient and Q-values comparable to standard EBW/EP cavities, a few questions remain. One of these questions is whether the quench mechanism in hydroformed cavities is the same as in standard electron beam welded cavities. Towards this effort Jefferson Lab performed quench studies on 2 9 cell seamless hydroformed cavities. These cavities include DESY's - Z163 and Z164 nine-cell cavities hydroformed at DESY. Initial Rf test results Z163 were published in SRF2011. In this report we will present post JLAB surface re-treatment quench studies for each cavity. The data will include OST and T-mapping quench localization as well as quench location preheating analysis comparing them to the observations in standard electron beam welded cavities.

  6. A thermal equation for flame quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A E , Jr; Berlad, A I

    1956-01-01

    An approximate thermal equation was derived for quenching distance based on a previously proposed diffusional treatment. The quenching distance was expressed in terms of the thermal conductivity, the fuel mole fraction, the heat capacity, the rate of the rate-controlling chemical reaction, a constant that depends on the geometry of the quenching surface, and one empirical constant. The effect of pressure on quenching distance was shown to be inversely proportional to the pressure dependence of the flame reaction, with small correction necessitated by the effect of pressure on flame temperature. The equation was used with the Semenov equation for burning velocity to show that the quenching distance was inversely proportional to burning velocity and pressure at any given initial temperature and equivalence ratio.

  7. Luminescence quenching of a phosphorescent conjugated polyelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Haskins-Glusac, Ksenija; Pinto, Mauricio R; Tan, Chunyan; Schanze, Kirk S

    2004-11-17

    The photophysical and luminescence quenching properties of a platinum(II) acetylide-based conjugated polyelectrolyte, Pt-p, which features carboxylic acid solubilizing groups are reported. The Pt-acetylide polymer is water soluble, and it exhibits phosphorescence from a triplet pi,pi exciton based on the conjugated backbone. The phosphorescence from Pt-p is quenched by viologens with different charges (MV(+), MV(2+), and MV(4+)), and in each case the quenching is dominated by a dynamic (diffusional) mechanism. Comparison of the Stern-Volmer quenching properties of Pt-p with those of a structurally analogous fluorescent organic polyelectrolyte leads to the conclusion that the amplified quenching effect, which is commonly observed for fluorescent conjugated polyelectrolytes, is not important for the platinum acetylide phosphorescent conjugated polyelectrolyte.

  8. Quenching using air-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, R.A.; Garwood, R.; Ward, J.; Xia, Q.

    1996-12-31

    With the current trend toward reduced manufacturing cycle time there is considerable interest in minimizing heat treatment related distortion and the residual stresses that are present in components. There is therefore a need to optimize the quenching process for a particular part such that the desired cooling rate, and hence mechanical properties, are obtained while minimizing distortion. This paper describes work aimed at developing a system to provide heat transfer rates between those obtained for oil quenching and fan cooling. Tests are described in which quenching was carried out by spraying water into the stream of air exiting a fan cooling system. Data are also presented for air mist quenching using atomizing nozzles. Comparison of computer predicted cooling rates and residual stress levels in components are presented for oil quenching, fan cooling, fan plus water injection cooling and air-mist cooling.

  9. Work distributions for random sudden quantum quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łobejko, Marcin; Łuczka, Jerzy; Talkner, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The statistics of work performed on a system by a sudden random quench is investigated. Considering systems with finite dimensional Hilbert spaces we model a sudden random quench by randomly choosing elements from a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) consisting of Hermitian matrices with identically, Gaussian distributed matrix elements. A probability density function (pdf) of work in terms of initial and final energy distributions is derived and evaluated for a two-level system. Explicit results are obtained for quenches with a sharply given initial Hamiltonian, while the work pdfs for quenches between Hamiltonians from two independent GUEs can only be determined in explicit form in the limits of zero and infinite temperature. The same work distribution as for a sudden random quench is obtained for an adiabatic, i.e., infinitely slow, protocol connecting the same initial and final Hamiltonians.

  10. Quench propagation in the SSC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, G.; Snitchler, G.

    1990-09-01

    The effects of quench propagation are modeled in 40mm and 50mm diameter collider dipole magnet designs. A comparative study of the cold diode (passive) and quench heater (active) protection schemes will be presented. The SSCQ modeling program accurately simulates the axial quench velocity and uses phenomenological time delays for turn-to-turn transverse propagation. The axial quench velocity is field dependent and consequently, each conductor's quench profile is tracked separately. No symmetry constraints are employed and the distribution of the temperatures along the conductor differs from the adiabatic approximation. A single magnet has a wide margin of self protection which suggests that passive protection schemes must be considered. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fluorescent properties of a hybrid cadmium sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposite and its quenching with nitromethane.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno B; Algarra, Manuel; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2010-01-01

    A fluorescent hybrid cadmium sulphide quantum dots (QDs) dendrimer nanocomposite (DAB-CdS) synthesised in water and stable in aqueous solution is described. The dendrimer, DAB-G5 dendrimer (polypropylenimine tetrahexacontaamine) generation 5, a diaminobutene core with 64 amine terminal primary groups. The maximum of the excitation and emission spectra, Stokes' shift and the emission full width of half maximum of this nanocomposite are, respectively: 351, 535, 204 and 212 nm. The fluorescence time decay was complex and a four component decay time model originated a good fit (chi = 1.20) with the following lifetimes: tau (1) = 657 ps; tau (2) = 10.0 ns; tau (3) = 59.42 ns; and tau (4) = 265 ns. The fluorescence intensity of the nanocomposite is markedly quenched by the presence of nitromethane with a dynamic Stern-Volmer constant of 25 M(-1). The quenching profiles show that about 81% of the CdS QDs are located in the external layer of the dendrimer accessible to the quencher. PARAFAC analysis of the excitation emission matrices (EEM) acquired as function of the nitromethane concentration showed a trilinear data structure with only one linearly independent component describing the quenching which allows robust estimation of the excitation and emission spectra and of the quenching profiles. This water soluble and fluorescent nanocomposite shows a set of favourable properties to its use in sensor applications.

  12. Doubly heavy baryons and quark-diquark symmetry in quenched and partially quenched chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2006-07-17

    We extend the chiral Lagrangian with heavy quark-diquark symmetry to quenched and partially quenched theories. These theories are used to derive formulae for the chiral extrapolation of masses and hyperfine splittings of doubly heavy baryons in lattice QCD simulations. A quark-diquark symmetry prediction for the hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons is rather insensitive to chiral corrections in both quenched and partially quenched QCD. Extrapolation formulae for the doubly heavy baryon electromagnetic transition moments are also determined for the partially quenched theory.

  13. Quenching and anisotropy of hydromagnetic turbulent transport

    SciTech Connect

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Brandenburg, Axel; Rheinhardt, Matthias; Käpylä, Petri J.; Käpylä, Maarit J.

    2014-11-01

    Hydromagnetic turbulence affects the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields through mean-field effects like turbulent diffusion and the α effect. For stronger fields, these effects are usually suppressed or quenched, and additional anisotropies are introduced. Using different variants of the test-field method, we determine the quenching of the turbulent transport coefficients for the forced Roberts flow, isotropically forced non-helical turbulence, and rotating thermal convection. We see significant quenching only when the mean magnetic field is larger than the equipartition value of the turbulence. Expressing the magnetic field in terms of the equipartition value of the quenched flows, we obtain for the quenching exponents of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity about 1.3, 1.1, and 1.3 for Roberts flow, forced turbulence, and convection, respectively. However, when the magnetic field is expressed in terms of the equipartition value of the unquenched flows, these quenching exponents become about 4, 1.5, and 2.3, respectively. For the α effect, the exponent is about 1.3 for the Roberts flow and 2 for convection in the first case, but 4 and 3, respectively, in the second. In convection, the quenching of turbulent pumping follows the same power law as turbulent diffusion, while for the coefficient describing the Ω×J effect nearly the same quenching exponent is obtained as for α. For forced turbulence, turbulent diffusion proportional to the second derivative along the mean magnetic field is quenched much less, especially for larger values of the magnetic Reynolds number. However, we find that in corresponding axisymmetric mean-field dynamos with dominant toroidal field the quenched diffusion coefficients are the same for the poloidal and toroidal field constituents.

  14. Thermal Tb emission quenching in YAlO3 matrix embedded in porous anodic alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golacki, L. W.; Gaponenko, N. V.; Khoroshko, L. S.; Asharif, A. M.; Misiewicz, J.; Podhorodecki, A.

    2014-11-01

    Terbium doped YAlO3 composites were fabricated by the co-precipitation method in a porous anodic alumina (PAA) films grown on silicon at three different Tb concentrations: 0.23, 0.87 and 2.11 at.%. To investigate the emission thermal quenching for all samples, we measured the emission spectra as a function of temperature in the range from 10 up to 500 K at 266 and 488 nm excitation wavelengths. Based on obtained results we proposed the physical model explaining the mechanism of Tb3+ emission quenching in YAlO3 composites deposited into PAA film.

  15. Luminescence quenching of cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes by halogenide ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhalina, M. S.; Rodionova, O. A.; Puzyk, M. V.; Balashev, K. P.

    2009-04-01

    The luminescence quenching of [Pt(CΛN)En]ClO4 complexes ((CΛN)- = ppy-, tpy-, and bt- are deprotonated forms of 2-phenylpyridine, 2(2'-thienyl(pyridine), and 2-phenylbenzothiazole, respectively; En is ethylenediamine) by halogenide ions (Hal- = Cl-, Br-, I-) in ethanol solutions is studied. It is shown that the quenching has a dynamic character and its bimolecular rate constants are consistent with the enhancement of nonradiative deactivation of the excited state of {[Pt(CΛN)En]*...Hal} collision complexes with increasing spin-orbit interaction constant of the halogen.

  16. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Demas, James N.; Jones, Wesley M.; Keller, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequenices. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may reduced to tis unquenched value.

  17. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Demas, J.N.; Jones, W.M.; Keller, R.A.

    1987-06-26

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequencies. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may be reduced to its unquenched value. 3 figs.

  18. Accelerating slow excited state proton transfer

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, David J.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Brennaman, M. Kyle; Binstead, Robert A.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Visible light excitation of the ligand-bridged assembly [(bpy)2RuaII(L)RubII(bpy)(OH2)4+] (bpy is 2,2′-bipyridine; L is the bridging ligand, 4-phen-tpy) results in emission from the lowest energy, bridge-based metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state (L−•)RubIII-OH2 with an excited-state lifetime of 13 ± 1 ns. Near–diffusion-controlled quenching of the emission occurs with added HPO42− and partial quenching by added acetate anion (OAc−) in buffered solutions with pH control. A Stern–Volmer analysis of quenching by OAc− gave a quenching rate constant of kq = 4.1 × 108 M−1⋅s−1 and an estimated pKa* value of ∼5 ± 1 for the [(bpy)2RuaII(L•−)RubIII(bpy)(OH2)4+]* excited state. Following proton loss and rapid excited-state decay to give [(bpy)2RuaII(L)RubII(bpy)(OH)3+] in a H2PO4−/HPO42− buffer, back proton transfer occurs from H2PO4− to give [(bpy)2RuaII(L)Rub(bpy)(OH2)4+] with kPT,2 = 4.4 × 108 M−1⋅s−1. From the intercept of a plot of kobs vs. [H2PO4−], k = 2.1 × 106 s−1 for reprotonation by water providing a dramatic illustration of kinetically limiting, slow proton transfer for acids and bases with pKa values intermediate between pKa(H3O+) = −1.74 and pKa(H2O) = 15.7. PMID:23277551

  19. Quenching of the perylene fluorophore by stable nitroxide radical-containing macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Barbara K; Braunecker, Wade A; Ferguson, Andrew J; Kemper, Travis W; Larsen, Ross E; Gennett, Thomas

    2014-10-30

    Stable nitroxide radical bearing organic polymer materials are attracting much attention for their application as next generation energy storage materials. A greater understanding of the inherent charge transfer mechanisms in such systems will ultimately be paramount to further advancements in the understanding of both intrafilm and interfacial ion- and electron-transfer reactions. This work is focused on advancing the fundamental understanding of these dynamic charge transfer properties by exploiting the fact that these species are efficient fluorescence quenchers. We systematically incorporated fluorescent perylene dyes into solutions containing the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) radical and controlled their interaction by binding the TEMPO moiety into macromolecules with varying morphologies (e.g., chain length, density of radical pendant groups). In the case of the model compound, 4-oxo-TEMPO, quenching of the perylene excited state was found to be dominated by a dynamic (collisional) process, with a contribution from an apparent static process that is described by an ∼2 nm quenching sphere of action. When we incorporated the TEMPO unit into a macromolecule, the quenching behavior was altered significantly. The results can be described by using two models: (A) a collisional quenching process that becomes less efficient, presumably due to a reduction in the diffusion constant of the quenching entity, with a quenching sphere of action similar to 4-oxo-TEMPO or (B) a collisional quenching process that becomes more efficient as the radius of interaction grows larger with increasing oligomer length. This is the first study that definitively illustrates that fluorophore quenching by a polymer system cannot be explained using merely a classical Stern-Volmer approach but rather necessitates a more complex model.

  20. Quantum quenches in extended systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Cardy, John

    2007-06-01

    We study in general the time evolution of correlation functions in a extended quantum system after the quench of a parameter in the Hamiltonian. We show that correlation functions in d dimensions can be extracted using methods of boundary critical phenomena in d+1 dimensions. For d = 1 this allows us to use the powerful tools of conformal field theory in the case of critical evolution. Several results are obtained in generic dimension in the Gaussian (mean field) approximation. These predictions are checked against the real time evolution of some solvable models that allow us also to understand which features are valid beyond the critical evolution. All our findings may be explained in terms of a picture generally valid, whereby quasiparticles, entangled over regions of the order of the correlation length in the initial state, then propagate with a finite speed through the system. Furthermore we show that the long time results can be interpreted in terms of a generalized Gibbs ensemble. We discuss some open questions and possible future developments.

  1. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  2. Topological order following a quantum quench

    SciTech Connect

    Tsomokos, Dimitris I.; Hamma, Alioscia; Zhang Wen; Haas, Stephan; Fazio, Rosario

    2009-12-15

    We determine the conditions under which topological order survives a rapid quantum quench. Specifically, we consider the case where a quantum spin system is prepared in the ground state of the toric code model and, after the quench, it evolves with a Hamiltonian that does not support topological order. We provide analytical results supported by numerical evidence for a variety of quench Hamiltonians. The robustness of topological order under nonequilibrium situations is tested by studying the topological entropy and a dynamical measure, which makes use of the similarity between partial density matrices obtained from different topological sectors.

  3. Collisional quenching of OH radio emission from comet Hale-Bopp.

    PubMed

    Schloerb, F P; Devries, C H; Lovell, A J; Irvine, W M; Senay, M; Wootten, H A

    1997-01-01

    Observations of comets in the 18-cm OH transitions offer a means to probe gas production, kinematics, and OH excitation in comets. We present initial results of OH observations of comet Hale-Bopp obtained with the NRAO 43 m antenna located in Greenbank, WV. Maps of the emission provide strong constraints on the amount of quenching of the inversion of the OH ground state A-doublet in the coma. Analysis of the total radio OH flux and maps of its radial brightness distribution indicate a quenched region on the order of approximately 500,000 km during March and April 1997. This large value is generally consistent with previous observations of radio OH quenching in lower production rate comets when the high production rate of comet Hale-Bopp is considered.

  4. The action of oxygen on chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and absorption spectra in pea thylakoid membranes under the steady-state conditions.

    PubMed

    Garstka, Maciej; Nejman, Patrycja; Rosiak, Małgorzata

    2004-12-02

    weak electron acceptor from PQ pool and an insufficient non-photochemical quencher. The data indicate that mechanism of oxygen-induced Chl fluorescence quenching depends significantly on oxygen concentration and is related to both structural rearrangement of thylakoids and the direct oxygen reduction by photosynthetic complexes.

  5. Rapid quenching effects in PVC films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. D.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin films (with no additives, 30-100 micrometers thick), due to rapid quenching (approximately 300 C/sec) through the glass transition temperature, have been observed. The more severe the quench, the greater is the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC has also been studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements takes place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra have been applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching have been monitored by tensile creep and stress-strain to failure. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content, due to rapid quenching.

  6. Dynamical correlations after a quantum quench.

    PubMed

    Essler, Fabian H L; Evangelisti, Stefano; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2012-12-14

    We consider dynamic (non-equal-time) correlation functions of local observables after a quantum quench. We show that, in the absence of long-range interactions in the final Hamiltonian, the dynamics is determined by the same ensemble that describes static (equal-time) correlations. For many integrable models, static correlation functions of local observables after a quantum quench relax to stationary values, which are described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble. The same generalized Gibbs ensemble then determines dynamic correlation functions, and the basic form of the fluctuation dissipation theorem holds, although the absorption and emission spectra are not simply related as in the thermal case. For quenches in the transverse field Ising chain, we derive explicit expressions for the time evolution of dynamic order parameter correlators after a quench.

  7. Quenching gas for detectors of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1974-01-22

    Operation of detectors of charged particles such as wire counters and Geiger-Muller tubes is improved by filling the counters with a quenching-gas mixture of argon, isobutane and methylchloroform. (Official Gazette)

  8. Torus CLAS12-Superconducting Magnet Quench Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V. S.; Elouadhiri, L.; Ghoshal, P. K.; Kashy, D.; Makarov, A.; Pastor, O.; Quettier, L.; Velev, G.; Wiseman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The JLAB Torus magnet system consists of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a toroidal configuration. These coils are wound with SSC-36 Nb-Ti superconductor and have the peak magnetic field of 3.6 T. The first coil manufacturing based on the JLAB design began at FNAL. The large magnet system dimensions (8 m diameter and 14 MJ of stored energy) dictate the need for quench protection. Each coil is placed in an aluminum case mounted inside a cryostat and cooled by 4.6 K supercritical helium gas flowing through a copper tube attached to the coil ID. The large coil dimensions and small cryostat thickness drove the design to challenging technical solutions, suggesting that Lorentz forces due to transport currents and eddy currents during quench and various failure scenarios are analyzed. The paper covers the magnet system quench analysis using the OPERA3d Quench code.

  9. Rapid quenching effects in glassy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin film due to rapid quenching through the glass transition temperature were observed. The more severe the quench, the greater the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC was also studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements taking place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra were applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching were monitored by tensile creep stress-stran to failure rates. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content due to rapid quenching.

  10. Torus CLAS12-Superconducting Magnet Quench Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V S; Elouadhiri, L; Ghoshal, P K; Kashy, D; Makarov, A; Pastor, O; Quettier, L; Velev, G; Wiseman, M

    2014-06-01

    The JLAB Torus magnet system consists of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a toroidal configuration. These coils are wound with SSC-36 Nb-Ti superconductor and have the peak magnetic field of 3.6 T. The first coil manufacturing based on the JLAB design began at FNAL. The large magnet system dimensions (8 m diameter and 14 MJ of stored energy) dictate the need for quench protection. Each coil is placed in an aluminum case mounted inside a cryostat and cooled by 4.6 K supercritical helium gas flowing through a copper tube attached to the coil ID. The large coil dimensions and small cryostat thickness drove the design to challenging technical solutions, suggesting that Lorentz forces due to transport currents and eddy currents during quench and various failure scenarios are analyzed. The paper covers the magnet system quench analysis using the OPERA3d Quench code.

  11. Measurement of ethanol using fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Quantrill, Nigel Stuart Michael

    1994-06-01

    A new assay procedure for the measurement of ethanol concentrations is described is based on fluorescence quenching of an indicator. The method makes use of the photo reaction between a fluorophore (thionine) and NADH. The latter is generated during an enzymic reaction between ethanol and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) cofactor. An empirical relation is used to analyse the observed quenching, and a quenching constant of 27.2(±2.8)M -1 is obtained for the substrate induced quenching (SIQ) of thionine by ethanol. The reported method is suitable over a range of 0-40 mM with a detection limit of 0.15 mM. A theoretical model for the overall ethanol assay is developed, and its validity is shown by comparison with the experimental results. Various applications of the reactions are discussed, including its use to construct a fibre optic biosensor for ethanol.

  12. The Rate Constant for Fluorescence Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenza, Michael W.; Marzzacco, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that utilizes fluorescence intensity measurements from a Spectronic 20 to determine the rate constant for the fluorescence quenching of various aromatic hydrocarbons by carbon tetrachloride in an ethanol solvent. (MLH)

  13. The Rate Constant for Fluorescence Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenza, Michael W.; Marzzacco, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that utilizes fluorescence intensity measurements from a Spectronic 20 to determine the rate constant for the fluorescence quenching of various aromatic hydrocarbons by carbon tetrachloride in an ethanol solvent. (MLH)

  14. Binding phenomena and fluorescence quenching. I: Descriptive quantum principles of fluorescence quenching using a supermolecule approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callis, Patrik R.

    2014-12-01

    Principal aspects of fluorescence and quenching are placed on an equal footing consistent with microscopic quantum concepts familiar to all who use fluorescence in the study of association of ligands with proteins. Quenching of fluorophores involved in determination of ligand binding to proteins is described in terms of generic quantum principles using a framework in which the fluorophore and quencher are together considered a “supermolecule”. Quenching then becomes just another form of internal conversion, which in turn leads to new language for defining “dynamic” and “static” quenching, for which there exist disparate definitions. The benefit of casting quenching in this manner, and citing relevant literature, has been to expand the vocabulary and mental imagery associated with quenching.

  15. Regulation of the collisional self-quenching of fluorescence in clay/porphyrin complex by strong host-guest interaction.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yohei; Shimada, Tetsuya; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Inoue, Haruo; Takagi, Shinsuke

    2012-12-13

    This paper proposes a novel methodology to improve noncollisional photochemical reactions such as Förster resonance energy transfer on solid surfaces. Since an excited guest molecule densely adsorbed on the solid surfaces is quenched by an unfavorable interaction between guests in general, the photochemical reactions such as electron and energy transfers tend to be inefficient compared to those in homogeneous systems. In this work, the mechanism of unfavorable quenching process of dyes on the clay surface as a typical solid surface for the photochemical energy transfer was systematically investigated by using a series of porphyrin derivatives. As a result, it was found that the quenching rate constants of excited guest dye determined by the time-resolved fluorescence measurements correlated well with the strengths of coulombic interaction between host and guest. The strong coulombic interaction should suppress the mobility and collision frequency of guests on the clay surface; thus, the collision of guest molecules was revealed as the origin of unfavorable quenching for photochemical reactions on the clay surface. According to this principle, we will be able to construct efficient photochemical reaction systems without any quenching process, such as efficient energy transfers toward an artificial light-harvesting system. In fact, we have already realized almost 100% energy transfer by the suppression of quenching process on the clay surface (e.g., J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 14280-14286).

  16. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  17. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-11-08

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream. 1 fig.

  18. Numerical and experimental investigation of quench process

    SciTech Connect

    Guer, C.H.; Tekkaya, A.E.; Oeztuerk, T.

    1996-12-31

    Numerical and experimental studies have been carried out to investigate the evolution of residual stresses in quenched components induced by temperature gradient and phase transformations. In the numerical analysis, a finite element model is implemented for predicting the temperature field, phase changes with their associated internal stresses in axisymmetrical steel components. The model is verified by several comparisons with other known numerical results. Case studies are performed to investigate the effects of the quench bath temperature and the specimen geometry. Specimen geometry has been analyzed by introducing a hole in a cylinder and varying hole diameter and its eccentricity. Experiments include microstructural examination and X-ray diffraction measurements of surface residual stresses. QUENCHING is a common manufacturing process to produce parts with reliable service properties. Long parts with small cross sections, those with nonsymmetrical shapes, and those with holes, deep keyways or grooves are difficult to quench without distortion or cracking. Especially in quenching of construction steels, the quench cracking risks and great deformation is often encountered. On the other hand, most serious residual stresses are from the differential cooling and the volume increase due to the phase transformations.

  19. Coke quench car emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coke quench car emission control system includes a coke car and a filter car connected in tandem for joint movement on rails disposed adjacent a coke oven. A hood and recuperator are mounted on a third car disposed on auxiliary rails which extend longitudinally along the upper portions of both the quench car and the filter car and in end-wise alignment. The hood is adapted to be coupled to the coke oven for receiving coke during a pushing operation. The recuperation has an inlet coupled to the hood for receiving emissions and withdrawing heat therefrom. The recuperator also has an outlet which is disposed adjacent the inlet of a filter system mounted on the filter car, when the third car is positioned atop the quench car. The third car is sized so that it can be moved on the auxiliary rails from a position atop the quench car to a position atop the filter car whereby the quench car can be exposed for a quenching operation.

  20. Quench antenna studies of mechanical and quench performance in Fermilab interaction region quadrupoles for LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Feher, S.; Hocker, A.; Lamm, M.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As part of the US-LHC collaboration, Fermilab has built and tested seventeen high gradient quadrupole magnets, assembled into nine cryostats, for installation at the Large Hadron Collider Interaction Regions. Most of these magnets have only quarter coil voltage taps for quench characterization, but the magnetic measurement warm bore is instrumented with a quench antenna for localization and characterization. We report on studies using the quench antenna for pre-production prototype (with extensive voltage taps) and 17 production magnets. These include a summary of quench localization and development characteristics, as well as general features of flux changes observed during training ramps.

  1. Excited Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Asia; Ahern, Terence L.; Henderson, Sean O.

    2011-01-01

    Excited (or agitated) delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. PMID:21691475

  2. Quenching of spin matrix elements in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towner, I. S.

    1987-11-01

    Matrix elements of spin operators evaluated in a nuclear medium are systematically quenched compared to their values in free space. There are a number of contributing reasons for this. Foremost is the traditional nuclear structure difficulty of the inadequacy of the lowest-order shell-model wavefunctions. We use the Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory to correct for this, arguing that calculations must be carried through at least t o second order. This is a question of the appropriate effective interaction. We review the Landau-Migdal approach in which only RPA graphs are retained and discuss the strength of this interaction in the spin-isospin channel expressed in terms of the parameter g'. We also consider one-boson-exchange models and compare the two. The advantage of the OBEP models is that the two-nucleon meson-exchange current operators can be constructed to be consistent with the potential as required by the continuity equation for vector currents and the partial conservation (PCAC) equation for axial currents. We give a complete derivation of the MEC operators of heavy-meson range starting with the chiral Lagrangians used by Ivanov and Truhlik. Nonlocal terms are retained in the computations. We single out one class of MEC processes involving isobar excitation and demonstrate that in lowest order there is an equivalence between treating the isobar as an MEC correction and treating it as a nuclear constituent through the transition spin formalism. Differences occur in higher orders. There are a number of uncertainties in the isobar calculation involving the neglect of the isobar's natural width, the relativistic propagator being off the mass shell and the coupling constants not being known with any precision. We present a comprehensive calculation of core-polarisation, meson-exchange current and isobar-current corrections to low-energy M1 and Gamow-Teller transitions in closed-shell-plus-one nuclei (at LS and jj closed shells) expressing the results in

  3. Voiced Excitations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    for purposes of vocoding in high noise environments: Task 1: Estimation of voiced excitation functions using skin surface vibration...High Noise Environments. The work on “ Voiced Excitations” shows that the surface vibrations of neck skin, during voicing , carry a great deal of...5 in this report). For field use, it may be better to obtain data from another location on the neck or face. A pressure function of voiced speech is

  4. Excited baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  5. Electron donor-acceptor quenching and photoinduced electron transfer for coumarin dyes. Technical report, 1 January-31 October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. II; Griffin, S.F.; Choi, C.; Bergmark, W.R.

    1983-10-31

    The fluorescence of 7-aminocoumarins is quenched by a variety of organic electron donors or acceptors in acetonitrile. In general, donors with half-wave oxidation potentials less positive than 1.0 V vs SCE and acceptors with reduction potentials less negative than -1.5 V vs SCE are candidates for diffusion limited quenching of coumarin singlet states. Profiles of quenching rates are consistent with calculated free energies for electron transfer between excited coumarins and donors or acceptors. In flash photolysis experiments electron transfer for several dyes and quenchers (e.g., methyl viologen) is demonstrated. Relatively low yields of net electron transfer are consistently obtained due to inefficient ionic photodissociation via singlet quenching or a low yield of more photoactive coumarin triplets. Electrochemical properties of the coumarins have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry with the indications of reversible oxidation and irreversible reduction as important processes.

  6. Chemical quenching of singlet oxygen by carotenoids in plants.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Fanny; Birtic, Simona; Cuiné, Stéphan; Triantaphylidès, Christian; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Havaux, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Carotenoids are considered to be the first line of defense of plants against singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) toxicity because of their capacity to quench (1)O(2) as well as triplet chlorophylls through a physical mechanism involving transfer of excitation energy followed by thermal deactivation. Here, we show that leaf carotenoids are also able to quench (1)O(2) by a chemical mechanism involving their oxidation. In vitro oxidation of β-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin by (1)O(2) generated various aldehydes and endoperoxides. A search for those molecules in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves revealed the presence of (1)O(2)-specific endoperoxides in low-light-grown plants, indicating chronic oxidation of carotenoids by (1)O(2). β-Carotene endoperoxide, but not xanthophyll endoperoxide, rapidly accumulated during high-light stress, and this accumulation was correlated with the extent of photosystem (PS) II photoinhibition and the expression of various (1)O(2) marker genes. The selective accumulation of β-carotene endoperoxide points at the PSII reaction centers, rather than the PSII chlorophyll antennae, as a major site of (1)O(2) accumulation in plants under high-light stress. β-Carotene endoperoxide was found to have a relatively fast turnover, decaying in the dark with a half time of about 6 h. This carotenoid metabolite provides an early index of (1)O(2) production in leaves, the occurrence of which precedes the accumulation of fatty acid oxidation products.

  7. Universal behavior after a quantum quench in interacting field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Aditi

    The dynamics of an isolated quantum system represented by a field theory with O(N) symmetry, and in d>2 spatial dimensions, is investigated after a quantum quench from a disordered initial state to the critical point. A perturbative renormalization-group approach involving an expansion around d=4 is employed to study the time-evolution, and is supplemented by an exact solution of the Hartree-Fock equations in the large-N limit. The results show that the dynamics is characterized by a prethermal regime controlled by elastic dephasing where excitations propagate ballistically, and a light cone emerges in correlation functions in real space. The memory of the initial state, together with the absence of time-scales at the critical point, gives rise to universal power-law aging which is characterized by a new non-equilibrium short-time exponent. The dynamics of the entanglement following a quench is also explored, and reveals that while the time evolution of the entanglement entropy itself is not much different between a free bosonic theory and an interacting bosonic theory, the low-energy entanglement spectrum on the other hand shows clear signature of the non-equilibrium short-time exponent related to aging. This work was done in collaboration with Y. Lemonik (NYU), M. Tavora (NYU), A. Chiocchetta (SISSA), A. Maraga (SISSA), and A. Gambassi (SISSA). Supported by NSF-DMR 1303177.

  8. Temperature quenching of spontaneous emission in tunnel-injection nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaev, V. G. Novikov, B. V.; Cirlin, G. E.; Leipner, H. S.

    2015-11-15

    The spontaneous-emission spectra in the near-IR range (0.8–1.3 μm) from inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures are measured. These structures contain an InAs quantum-dot layer and an InGaAs quantum-well layer, separated by GaAs barrier spacer whose thickness varies in the range 3–9 nm. The temperature dependence of this emission in the range 5–295 K is investigated, both for optical excitation (photoluminescence) and for current injection in p–n junction (electroluminescence). At room temperature, current pumping proves more effective for inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures with a thin barrier (<6 nm), when the apexes of the quantum dots connect with the quantum well by narrow InGaAs straps (nanobridges). In that case, the quenching of the electroluminescence by heating from 5 to 295 K is slight. The quenching factor S{sub T} of the integrated intensity I is S{sub T} = I{sub 5}/I{sub 295} ≈ 3. The temperature stability of the emission from inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures is discussed on the basis of extended Arrhenius analysis.

  9. O2(a1Δ) Quenching In The O/O2/O3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Postell, D.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-10-01

    The development of discharge singlet oxygen generators (DSOG's) that can operate at high pressures is required for the power scaling of the discharge oxygen iodine laser. In order to achieve efficient high-pressure DSOG operation it is important to understand the mechanisms by which singlet oxygen (O2(a1Δ)) is quenched in these devices. It has been proposed that three-body deactivation processes of the type O2(a1Δ)+O+M→2O2+M provide significant energy loss channels. To further explore these reactions the physical and reactive quenching of O2(a1Δ) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a1Δ) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2a1Δ-X3∑ transition. Fast quenching of O2(a1Δ) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  10. Chlorpromazine interactions to sera albumins. A study by the quenching of fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Célia M.; Louro, Sônia R. W.

    2004-04-01

    Binding of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and hemin (Hmn) to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin was studied by fluorescence quenching technique. Intrinsic fluorescences of BSA and HSA were measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed by titration of both proteins with CPZ and Hmn. CPZ is a widely used anti-psychosis drug that causes severe side effects and strongly interacts with biomembranes, both in its lipidic and proteic regions. CPZ also interacts with blood components, influences bioavailability, and affects the function of several biomolecules. Albumin plays an important role in the transport and storage of hormones, ions, fatty acids and others substances, including CPZ, affecting the regulation of their plasmatic concentration. Hmn is an important ferric residue of hemoglobin that binds within the hydrophobic region of albumin with great specificity. Hmn added to HSA and BSA solutions at a molar ratio of 1:1 quenched about half of their fluorescence. Stern-Volmer plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25 and 35 °C showed the quenching of fluorescence of HSA and BSA by CPZ to be a collisional phenomenon. Hmn quenches fluorescence by a static process, which specifically indicates the formation of a complex. Our results suggest the prime binding site for CPZ and Hmn on both HSA and BSA to be near tryptophan residues.

  11. Control dynamics of interaction quenched ultracold bosons in periodically driven lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter; Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2016-05-01

    The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold bosons following an interaction quench upon a periodically driven optical lattice is investigated. It is shown that an interaction quench triggers the inter-well tunneling dynamics, while for the intra-well dynamics breathing and cradle-like processes can be generated. In particular, the occurrence of a resonance between the cradle and tunneling modes is revealed. On the other hand, the employed periodic driving enforces the bosons in the mirror wells to oscillate out-of-phase and to exhibit a dipole mode, while in the central well the cloud experiences a breathing mode. The dynamical behaviour of the system is investigated with respect to the driving frequency revealing a resonant behaviour of the intra-well dynamics. To drive the system in a highly non-equilibrium state an interaction quench upon the driving is performed giving rise to admixtures of excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. As a result of the quench the system experiences multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  12. The aeronomy of vibrationally excited ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Allen, J. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical calculations show that above 80 km in the earth's atmosphere the production of vibrationally excited ozone by chemical processes leads to number densities which are usually larger than those expected for local thermodynamic equilibrium. Quenching of highly excited molecules produced in O+O2+M, O3+M provided a significant source of the lower lying states above the mesopause while the 9.6 microns emission of O3 (0,0,1) was a major sink. Analysis of available laboratory results implied that reactions involving excited ozone play a significant role in the global ozone balance despite the relatively small abundance of the molecule. However, this effect is implicit in many of the rate coefficients currently used in stratospheric calculations. In the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, where the excited state populations differ from those for thermal equilibrium, published reaction rate data are not necessarily applicable to aeronomic calculations.

  13. Quench echo and work statistics in integrable quantum field theories.

    PubMed

    Pálmai, T; Sotiriadis, S

    2014-11-01

    We propose a boundary thermodynamic Bethe ansatz calculation technique to obtain the Loschmidt echo and the statistics of the work done when a global quantum quench is performed on an integrable quantum field theory. We derive an analytic expression for the lowest edge of the probability density function and find that it exhibits universal features, in the sense that its scaling form depends only on the statistics of excitations. We perform numerical calculations on the sinh-Gordon model, a deformation of the free boson theory, and we obtain that by turning on the interaction the density function develops fermionic properties. The calculations are facilitated by a previously unnoticed property of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz construction.

  14. Entanglement and thermodynamics after a quantum quench in integrable systems.

    PubMed

    Alba, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2017-07-25

    Entanglement and entropy are key concepts standing at the foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics. Recently, the study of quantum quenches revealed that these concepts are intricately intertwined. Although the unitary time evolution ensuing from a pure state maintains the system at zero entropy, local properties at long times are captured by a statistical ensemble with nonzero thermodynamic entropy, which is the entanglement accumulated during the dynamics. Therefore, understanding the entanglement evolution unveils how thermodynamics emerges in isolated systems. Alas, an exact computation of the entanglement dynamics was available so far only for noninteracting systems, whereas it was deemed unfeasible for interacting ones. Here, we show that the standard quasiparticle picture of the entanglement evolution, complemented with integrability-based knowledge of the steady state and its excitations, leads to a complete understanding of the entanglement dynamics in the space-time scaling limit. We thoroughly check our result for the paradigmatic Heisenberg chain.

  15. Secondary Heating Under Quenching Cooling of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukrov, S. L.; Ber, L. B.

    2017-07-01

    Variants of secondary heating of aluminum alloys are considered, i.e., under quenching of plates in a water tank or on a horizontal quenching unit with water jet cooling, under continuous quenching of strips, and under quenching of tubes in vertical furnaces. Recommendation are given for removal or substantial reduction of the intensity of secondary heating under industrial conditions.

  16. pH sensitivity of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching is determined by the detergent/protein ratio and the state of LHCII aggregation.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Katherina; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V

    2014-09-01

    Here we show how the protein environment in terms of detergent concentration/protein aggregation state, affects the sensitivity to pH of isolated, native LHCII, in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching. Three detergent concentrations (200, 20 and 6μM n-dodecyl β-d-maltoside) have been tested. It was found that at the detergent concentration of 6μM, low pH quenching of LHCII is close to the physiological response to lumen acidification possessing pK of 5.5. The analysis has been conducted both using arbitrary PAM fluorimetry measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime component analysis. The second led to the conclusion that the 3.5ns component lifetime corresponds to an unnatural state of LHCII, induced by the detergent used for solubilising the protein, whilst the 2ns component is rather the most representative lifetime component of the conformational state of LHCII in the natural thylakoid membrane environment when the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was absent. The 2ns component is related to a pre-aggregated LHCII that makes it more sensitive to pH than the trimeric LHCII with the dominating 3.5ns lifetime component. The pre-aggregated LHCII displayed both a faster response to protons and a shift in the pK for quenching to higher values, from 4.2 to 4.9. We concluded that environmental factors like lipids, zeaxanthin and PsbS protein that modulate NPQ in vivo could control the state of LHCII aggregation in the dark that makes it more or less sensitive to the lumen acidification. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Excited-state annihilation process involving a cyclometalated platinum(II) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Maestri, M.; Sandrini, D. ); von Zelewsky, A.; Deuschel-Cornioley, C. )

    1991-05-29

    The Pt(tpy)(ppz) complex exhibits strong luminescence with a relatively long excited-state lifetime (15.3 {mu}s) in deaerated acetonitrile solution, at room temperature and at low excitation intensity, and can be easily involved in excited-state quenching processes. The {sub 3}CT excited state is, in fact, quenched (1) by oxygen (k{sub q} {congruent} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), (2) by the ground-state complex (k{sub q} = 5.7 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), and (3) by another {sup 3}CT excited state in an annihilation process, which is practically diffusion controlled (k{sub 3} > 6 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). The ground-state quenching and the annihilation process most probably occur via an excimer formation mechanism. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Quench absorption coils: a quench protection concept for high-field superconducting accelerator magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentink, M.; Salmi, T.

    2017-06-01

    A quench protection concept based on coupled secondary coils is studied for inductively transferring energy out of a quenching superconducting dipole and thus limiting the peak hotspot temperature. So-called ‘quench absorption coils’ are placed in close proximity to the superconducting coils and are connected in series with a diode for the purpose of preventing current transformation during regular operation. During a quench, current is then transformed into the quench absorption coils so that a significant fraction of the stored magnetic energy is dissipated in the these coils. Numerical calculations are performed to determine the impact of such a concept and to evaluate the dimensions of the quench absorption coils needed to obtain significant benefits. A previously constructed 15 T Nb3Sn block coil is taken as a reference layout. Finite-element calculations are used to determine the combined inductive and thermal response of this system and these calculations are validated with a numerical model using an adiabatic approximation. The calculation results indicate that during a quench the presence of the quench absorption coils reduces the energy dissipated in the superconducting coils by 45% and reduces the hotspot temperature by over 100 K. In addition, the peak resistive voltage over the superconducting coils is significantly reduced. This suggests that this concept may prove useful for magnet designs in which the hotspot temperature is a design driver.

  19. Collisional energy transfer from excited nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, K.O.

    1991-05-01

    The radiative lifetimes of gaseous nitrogen dioxide excited by pulsed, tunable dye laser radiation are determined for excitation wavelengths ranging from 400 to 750 nm. When the data are expressed in the form of zero-pressure radiative rate constants (k{sub 0}/s{sup {minus}1}), they fit a linear equation with respect to excitation energy. This fit predicts a radiative lifetime of 64 {mu}s for 400 nm excitation and 102 {mu}s at 750 nm. The effects of pressure, observation delay time, and wavelength range of the fluorescence detection apparatus are determined for both radiative lifetime and quenching constant. Dispersed fluorescence spectra from excited nitrogen dioxide are analyzed into three-parameter functions that approximate the corresponding excited state population distributions. Energy transfer from nitrogen dioxide excited at 532 nm and colliding with thirteen buffer gases is studied by this population deconvolution method. The energy removal rate constants increase in the order Ne < Ar < Kr < Xe < He < CO < N{sub 2} < O{sub 2} < NO < NO{sub 2} < CO{sub 2} < SF{sub 6} < SO{sub 2}. The energy transfer rate constant is strongly correlated with the number of degrees of freedom of the buffer molecule and with low vibrational frequencies of the buffer molecule. Population deconvolution from excited nitrogen dioxide fluorescence spectra is again employed to find energy removal rate constants for the NO {sub 2}{sup *}-NO{sub 2} collisions, excited by dye laser at 475.34, 435.04, and 400.00 nm. The energy transfer rate constant increases with decreasing excitation wavelength. The energy removal rate constant between 400 and 532 nm excitation increases as the (3.6 {plus minus} 0.4) power of the excitation photon energy. 76 refs., 67 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Topological blocking in quantum quench dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kells, G.; Sen, D.; Slingerland, J. K.; Vishveshwara, S.

    2014-06-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of quenching through a quantum critical point in topological systems, focusing on one of their defining features: ground-state degeneracies and associated topological sectors. We present the notion of "topological blocking," experienced by the dynamics due to a mismatch in degeneracies between two phases, and we argue that the dynamic evolution of the quench depends strongly on the topological sector being probed. We demonstrate this interplay between quench and topology in models stemming from two extensively studied systems, the transverse Ising chain and the Kitaev honeycomb model. Through nonlocal maps of each of these systems, we effectively study spinless fermionic p-wave paired topological superconductors. Confining the systems to ring and toroidal geometries, respectively, enables us to cleanly address degeneracies, subtle issues of fermion occupation and parity, and mismatches between topological sectors. We show that various features of the quench, which are related to Kibble-Zurek physics, are sensitive to the topological sector being probed, in particular, the overlap between the time-evolved initial ground state and an appropriate low-energy state of the final Hamiltonian. While most of our study is confined to translationally invariant systems, where momentum is a convenient quantum number, we briefly consider the effect of disorder and illustrate how this can influence the quench in a qualitatively different way depending on the topological sector considered.

  1. Magnetic quench antenna for MQXF quadrupoles

    DOE PAGES

    Marchevsky, Maxim; Sabbi, GianLuca; Prestemon, Soren; ...

    2016-12-21

    High-field MQXF-series quadrupoles are presently under development by LARP and CERN for the upcoming LHC luminosity upgrade. Quench training and protection studies on MQXF prototypes require a capability to accurately localize quenches and measure their propagation velocity in the magnet coils. The voltage tap technique commonly used for such purposes is not a convenient option for the 4.2-m-long MQXF-A prototype, nor can it be implemented in the production model. We have developed and tested a modular inductive magnetic antenna for quench localization. The base element of our quench antenna is a round-shaped printed circuit board containing two orthogonal pairs ofmore » flat coils integrated with low-noise preamplifiers. The elements are aligned axially and spaced equidistantly in 8-element sections using a supporting rod structure. The sections are installed in the warm bore of the magnet, and can be stacked together to adapt for the magnet length. We discuss the design, operational characteristics and preliminary qualification of the antenna. Lastly, axial quench localization capability with an accuracy of better than 2 cm has been validated during training test campaign of the MQXF-S1 quadrupole.« less

  2. Magnetic quench antenna for MQXF quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Marchevsky, Maxim; Sabbi, GianLuca; Prestemon, Soren; Strauss, Thomas; Stoynev, Stoyan; Chlachidze, Guram

    2016-12-21

    High-field MQXF-series quadrupoles are presently under development by LARP and CERN for the upcoming LHC luminosity upgrade. Quench training and protection studies on MQXF prototypes require a capability to accurately localize quenches and measure their propagation velocity in the magnet coils. The voltage tap technique commonly used for such purposes is not a convenient option for the 4.2-m-long MQXF-A prototype, nor can it be implemented in the production model. We have developed and tested a modular inductive magnetic antenna for quench localization. The base element of our quench antenna is a round-shaped printed circuit board containing two orthogonal pairs of flat coils integrated with low-noise preamplifiers. The elements are aligned axially and spaced equidistantly in 8-element sections using a supporting rod structure. The sections are installed in the warm bore of the magnet, and can be stacked together to adapt for the magnet length. We discuss the design, operational characteristics and preliminary qualification of the antenna. Lastly, axial quench localization capability with an accuracy of better than 2 cm has been validated during training test campaign of the MQXF-S1 quadrupole.

  3. Ultrafast excited-state intramolecular proton transfer of aloesaponarin I.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Uno, Hidemitsu; Huppert, Dan

    2013-04-25

    Time-resolved emission of aloesaponarin I was studied with the fluorescence up-conversion and time-correlated single-photon-counting techniques. The rates of the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, of the solvent and molecular rearrangements, and of the decay from the excited proton-transferred species were determined and interpreted in the light of time-dependent density functional calculations. These results were discussed in conjunction with UV protection and singlet-oxygen quenching activity of aloe.

  4. Gain and Lasing in Nuclear Excited Excimer Laser Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-24

    sources. The most advantageous volumetric nuclear excitation source is UF If enriched UF could be used as a pump source, a self- critical NPL could be...3 lower laser state by nuclear excitation and gas heating or by quenching of the upper laser state by UF6 and other species. Most NPLs demonstrated...induced effects, the loss in power density may be more critical than any nuclear considerations.I * Direct nuclear pumping of XeF excimer lasers has been

  5. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  6. Quenching the firefly bioluminescence by various ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huateng; Bai, Haixiu; Jiang, Tianyu; Ma, Zhao; Cheng, Yanna; Zhou, Yubin; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2016-02-01

    The luciferase reporter gene assay system is broadly applied in various biomedical aspects, including signaling pathway dissection, transcriptional activity analysis, and genetic toxicity testing. It significantly improves the experimental accuracy and reduces the experimental error by the addition of an internal control. In the current research, we discovered some specific ions that could selectively inhibit firefly luciferase while having a negligible effect on renilla luciferase in vitro in the dual-reporter gene assay. We showed that these ionic compounds had a high potential of being utilized as quench-and-activate reagents in the dual-reporter assay. Furthermore, results from kinetic studies on ion-mediated quenching effects indicated that different ions have distinct inhibition modes. Our study is anticipated to guide a more affordable design of quench-and-activate reagents in biomedicine and pharmaceutical analysis.

  7. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Richard B.

    2007-05-01

    A fluorescent clock reaction is described that is based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but uses the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents. The reaction uses easily obtained household products. One variation illustrates the sequential steps and mechanisms of the reaction; other variations maximize the dramatic impact of the demonstration; and a variation that uses liquid detergent in the Briggs Rauscher reaction yields a striking oscillating luminescence. The iodine fluorescence quenching clock reaction can be used in the classroom to explore not only the principles of redox chemistry and reaction kinetics, but also the photophysics of fluorescent pH probes and optical quenching.

  8. Dynamics of Quenched Ultracold Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, John P.

    Recent advances in the tunability of ultracold atomic gases have created opportunities for studying interesting quantum many-body systems. Fano-Feshbach resonances, in particular, allow experimenters to freely adjust the scattering of atoms by controlling an external magnetic field. By rapidly changing this field near a resonance, it is possible to drive systems out of equilibrium towards novel quantum states where correlations between atoms change dynamically. In this thesis, we take a wave-function-based approach to theoretically examine the response of several interesting systems to suddenly-switched, or "quenched", interactions. We first calculate the time evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate that is quenched to the unitarity regime, where the scattering length a diverges. Working within the time-dependent variational formalism, we find that the condensate does not deplete as quickly as the usual Bogoliubov theory would suggest. We also make a quantitative prediction for the dynamics of short-range pair correlations, encoded in Tan's contact. We then consider the dynamics of these correlations for quenches to small a, and we find that bound states can cause high-contrast oscillations of the contact. These dynamics can be modeled quantitatively at short times by using a properly-chosen two-body model. Finally, we characterize the nonlocal correlation waves that are generated by an interaction quench in arbitrary dimensionality. Our analysis demonstrates that the large-momentum limit of the post-quench momentum distribution can sometimes include contributions from both the short range and the long range, depending on the quench protocol.

  9. Kinetics of luminol sonochemiluminescence quenched by purines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lai, Yongquan; Chen, Meili; Jiang, Zhou; Chen, Guonan

    2013-01-01

    A homogeneous chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was initiated by ultrasound irradiation. Luminol sonochemiluminescence (SCL) reaction kinetics were determined under pseudo-first-order conditions, and the reaction followed the model for simple rise-fall kinetics. In addition, SCL quenching reactions induced by purines were also investigated in which the interactions between luminol and purines were analysed using the Stern-Volmer (S-V) mechanism. The results implied that the high rate constant of luminol CL quenched by purines may be attributed to ground state interactions originating from hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Soliton splitting in quenched classical integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayun, O.; Semenyakin, M.

    2016-08-01

    We take a soliton solution of a classical non-linear integrable equation and quench (suddenly change) its non-linearity parameter. For that we multiply the amplitude or the width of a soliton by a numerical factor η and take the obtained profile as a new initial condition. We find the values of η for which the post-quench solution consists of only a finite number of solitons. The parameters of these solitons are found explicitly. Our approach is based on solving the direct scattering problem analytically. We demonstrate how it works for Korteweg-de Vries, sine-Gordon and non-linear Schrödinger integrable equations.

  11. Electrohydrodynamic quenching in polymer melt electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhmayev, Eduard; Cho, Daehwan; Lak Joo, Yong

    2011-07-01

    Infrared thermal measurements on polymer melt jets in electrospinning have revealed rapid quenching by ambient air, an order of magnitude faster than predicted by the classical Kase and Matsuo correlation. This drastic heat transfer enhancement can be linked to electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effects. Analysis of EHD-driven air flow was performed and included into a comprehensive model for polymer melt electrospinning. The analysis was validated by excellent agreement of both predicted jet radius and temperature profiles with experimental results for electrospinning of Nylon-6 (N6), polypropylene (PP), and polylactic acid (PLA) melts. Based on this analysis, several methods that can be used to inhibit or enhance the quenching are described.

  12. Quench and Transport Dynamics in Disordered Atomic Hubbard Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarco, Brian

    I will give an overview of our experiments using ultracold atom gases trapped in optical lattices to probe transport, dynamics, and relaxation in disordered Hubbard models. By introducing disorder to naturally clean optical lattices using focused optical speckle, we realize variants of the disordered Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard models. In these systems, the distribution of Hubbard parameters is fully known, and the ratio of characteristic energy scales is completely tunable. I will discuss two measurements. In the first, we observe localization via transport measurements in the metallic regime of the Fermi-Hubbard model. We observe three phenomena consistent with many-body localization: localization at non-zero temperature, localization across a range of temperatures, and interaction-induced delocalization. These measurements show agreement with a mean-field theory in a limited parameter regime. In a separate experiment using bosonic atoms, we measure excitations following a quantum quench of disorder. Via comparison to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo calculations that capture all aspects of the experiments--including all the particles--we show that the onset of excitations corresponds to the superfluid-Bose-glass transition. I will discuss how this behavior is reminiscent of the quantum Kibble-Zurek effect. This work is funded by the NSF and ARO.

  13. The impact of nanoperforation on persistent photoconductivity and optical quenching effects in suspended GaN nanomembranes

    SciTech Connect

    Volciuc, Olesea; Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Ebeling, Jakob; Aschenbrenner, Timo; Hommel, Detlef; Gutowski, Jürgen; Ursaki, Veaceslav

    2013-12-09

    We report on fabrication of suspended ∼15 nm thick GaN membranes nanoperforated in an ordered fashion using direct writing of negative charges by focused ion beam and subsequent photoelectrochemical etching of GaN epilayers. Both continuous and nanoperforated membranes exhibit persistent photoconductivity (PPC), which can be optically quenched under excitation by 546 nm radiation. Optical quenching of PPC occurs also under relatively intense intrinsic excitation of nanoperforated membranes by 355 nm radiation at T < 100 K. The proposed explanation is based on strong surface localization of charge carriers in nanoperforated membranes and UV-induced reactions occurring at surface states under intense intrinsic excitation.

  14. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  15. Calculating Quench Propagation with ANSYS(Registered)

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.; Hinkins, R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Prestemon, S.

    2002-08-01

    A commercial Finite-Element-Analysis program, ANSYS{reg_sign}, is widely used in structural and thermal analysis. With the program's ability to include non-linear material properties and import complex CAD files, one can generate coil geometries and simulate quench propagation in superconducting magnets. A 'proof-of-principle' finite element model was developed assuming a resistivity that increases linearly from zero to its normal value at a temperature consistent with the assumed B magnetic field. More sophisticated models could easily include finer-grained coil, cable, structural, and circuit details. A quench is provoked by raising the temperature of an arbitrary superconducting element above its T{sub c}. The time response to this perturbation is calculated using small time-steps to allow convergence between steps. Snapshots of the temperature and voltage distributions allow examination of longitudinal and turn-to-turn quench propagation, quench-front annihilation, and cryo-stability. Modeling details are discussed, and a computed voltage history was compared with measurements from a recent magnet test.

  16. A zero-thermal-quenching phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon Hwa; Arunkumar, Paulraj; Kim, Bo Young; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Kim, Eden; Moon, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jong-Sook; Im, Won Bin

    2017-05-01

    Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are efficient light sources used in lighting, high-tech displays, and electronic devices. One of the most significant challenges of pc-WLEDs is the thermal quenching, in which the phosphor suffers from emission loss with increasing temperature during high-power LED operation. Here, we report a blue-emitting Na3-2xSc2(PO4)3:xEu2+ phosphor (λem = 453 nm) that does not exhibit thermal quenching even up to 200 °C. This phenomenon of zero thermal quenching originates from the ability of the phosphor to compensate the emission losses and therefore sustain the luminescence with increasing temperature. The findings are explained by polymorphic modification and possible energy transfer from electron-hole pairs at the thermally activated defect levels to the Eu2+ 5d-band with increasing temperature. Our results could initiate the exploration of phosphors with zero thermal quenching for high-power LED applications.

  17. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  18. A zero-thermal-quenching phosphor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hwa; Arunkumar, Paulraj; Kim, Bo Young; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Kim, Eden; Moon, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jong-Sook; Im, Won Bin

    2017-02-13

    Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are efficient light sources used in lighting, high-tech displays, and electronic devices. One of the most significant challenges of pc-WLEDs is the thermal quenching, in which the phosphor suffers from emission loss with increasing temperature during high-power LED operation. Here, we report a blue-emitting Na3-2xSc2(PO4)3:xEu(2+) phosphor (λem = 453 nm) that does not exhibit thermal quenching even up to 200 °C. This phenomenon of zero thermal quenching originates from the ability of the phosphor to compensate the emission losses and therefore sustain the luminescence with increasing temperature. The findings are explained by polymorphic modification and possible energy transfer from electron-hole pairs at the thermally activated defect levels to the Eu(2+) 5d-band with increasing temperature. Our results could initiate the exploration of phosphors with zero thermal quenching for high-power LED applications.

  19. Ruthenium-phenothiazine electron transfer dyad with a photoswitchable dithienylethene bridge: flash-quench studies with methylviologen.

    PubMed

    He, Bice; Wenger, Oliver S

    2012-04-02

    A molecular ensemble composed of a phenothiazine (PTZ) electron donor, a photoisomerizable dithienylethene (DTE) bridge, and a Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) electron acceptor was synthesized and investigated by optical spectroscopic and electrochemical means. Our initial intention was to perform flash-quench transient absorption studies in which the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) unit is excited selectively ("flash") and its (3)MLCT excited state is quenched oxidatively ("quench") by excess methylviologen prior to intramolecular electron transfer from phenothiazine to Ru(III) across the dithienylethene bridge. However, after selective Ru(bpy)(3)(2+1)MLCT excitation of the dyad with the DTE bridge in its open form, (1)MLCT → (3)MLCT intersystem crossing on the metal complex is followed by triplet-triplet energy transfer to a (3)π-π* state localized on the DTE unit. This energy transfer process is faster than bimolecular oxidative quenching with methylviologen at the ruthenium site (Ru(III) is not observed); only the triplet-excited DTE then undergoes rapid (10 ns, instrumentally limited) bimolecular electron transfer with methylviologen. Subsequently, there is intramolecular electron transfer with PTZ. The time constant for formation of the phenothiazine radical cation via intramolecular electron transfer occurring over two p-xylene units is 41 ns. When the DTE bridge is photoisomerized to the closed form, PTZ(+) cannot be observed any more. Irrespective of the wavelength at which the closed isomer is irradiated, most of the excitation energy appears to be funneled rapidly into a DTE-localized singlet excited state from which photoisomerization to the open form occurs within picoseconds.

  20. Localized excitations from localized unitary operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Allic

    2017-06-01

    Localized unitary operators are basic probes of locality and causality in quantum systems: localized unitary operators create localized excitations in entangled states. Working with an explicit form, we explore properties of these operators in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. We show that, unlike unitary operators, local non-unitary operators generically create non-local excitations. We present a local picture for quantum systems in which localized experimentalists can only act through localized Hamiltonian deformations, and therefore localized unitary operators. We demonstrate that localized unitary operators model certain quantum quenches exactly. We show how the Reeh-Schlieder theorem follows intuitively from basic properties of entanglement, non-unitary operators, and the local picture. We show that a recent quasi-particle picture for excited-state entanglement entropy in conformal field theories is not universal for all local operators. We prove a causality relation for entanglement entropy and connect our results to the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  1. Fluorescent proteins as biosensors by quenching resonance energy transfer from endogenous tryptophan: detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Alexa; Sarette, Joseph; Shawler, Evan; Lee, Taeyoung; Freund, Steve; Holwitt, Eric; Hicks, Barry W

    2013-10-15

    Ensuring domestic safety from terrorist attack is a daunting challenge because of the wide array of chemical agents that must be screened. A panel of purified fluorescent protein isoforms (FPs) was screened for the ability to detect various explosives, explosive simulants, and toxic agents. In addition to their commonly used visible excitation wavelengths, essentially all FPs can be excited by UV light at 280 nm. Ultraviolet illumination excites electrons in endogenous tryptophan (W) residues, which then relax by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to the chromophore of the FP, and thus the FPs emit with their typical visible spectra. Taking advantage of the fact that tryptophan excitation can be quenched by numerous agents, including nitroaromatics like TNT and nitramines like RDX, it is demonstrated that quenching of visible fluorescence from UV illumination of FPs can be used as the basis for detecting these explosives and explosive degradation products. This work provides the foundation for production of an array of genetically-modified FPs for in vitro biosensors capable of rapid, simultaneous, sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of explosive or toxic agents. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Luminescence Quenching of the Tris(2,2’-bipyrazine) Ruthenium(II) Cation, and Its Monoprotonated Complex.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    rates corrected for ionic strength (I14 KCl) using Debye - Huckel expressions in the literature. 2 0 ,21 The lowest excited state of Ru(bpz)4 2 lies at...Ru(bpz) 3 2+ cation with amines and methoxybenzenes is reductive quenching. The theory of electron transfer quenching 13 , is based on the...R.A., and Sutin, N., 1975, 14, 213 and refs. therein. 20. (a) Debye , P., Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1942, 82, 265. (b) Noyes, R.M., Prog. React. Kinet

  3. Special Effect of Polystyrene on Quenching Pyrene in presence of Nitro-Aromatics Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrig, David; Jang, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hyun-Seok; van Zee, John W.; Nieh, Mu-Pingh

    2015-03-01

    The pyrene (Py) excimer fluorescence and its time-dependent quenching by 2,4-DNT in Py/polystyrene (PS) binary thin films are investigated regarding different architectures (i.e., linear, centipede and 4-arm star) and molecular weights (i.e., 2.5K, 35K, 192K, 350K and 900K) of PS. Both molecular architecture and molecular weight do not show significant effect on either Py excimer fluorescence or its quenching. However, the presence of PS in Py evidently enhances the excimer quenching efficiency under the exposure of nitroaromatic molecules (2,4 dinitrotoluene, DNT). The results of cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption suggest that PS can effectively reduce the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit (LUMO) level of Py/PS than that of Py alone and thus decrease the conduction band with 2,4-DNT -facilitating the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from Py/PS to 2,4-DNT for fluorescence quenching. This interaction between Py and PS in confirmed by Föster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) results in the enhanced S0 --> S2 excitation of Py in the range between 300 and 350 nm.

  4. Bioluminophore and Flavin Mononucleotide Fluorescence Quenching of Bacterial Bioluminescence-A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanling; Liu, Ya-Jun

    2016-11-02

    Bacterial bioluminescence with continuous glow has been applied to the fields of environmental toxin monitoring, drug screening, and in vivo imaging. Nonetheless, the chemical form of the bacterial bioluminophore is still a bone of contention. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), one of the light-emitting products, and 4a-hydroxy-5-hydro flavin mononucleotide (HFOH), an intermediate of the chemical reactions, have both been assumed candidates for the light emitter because they have similar molecular structures and fluorescence wavelengths. The latter is preferred in experiments and was assigned in our previous density functional study. HFOH displays weak fluorescence in solutions, but exhibits strong bioluminescence in the bacterial luciferase. FMN shows the opposite behavior; its fluorescence is quenched when it is bound to the luciferase. This is the first example of flavin fluorescence quenching observed in bioluminescent systems and is merely an observation, both the quenching mechanism and quencher are still unclear. Based on theoretical analysis of high-level quantum mechanics (QM), combined QM and molecular mechanics (QM/MM), and molecular dynamics (MD), this paper confirms that HFOH in its first singlet excited state is the bioluminophore of bacterial bioluminescence. More importantly, the computational results indicate that Tyr110 in the luciferase quenches the FMN fluorescence via an electron-transfer mechanism.

  5. Probing the Bose glass-superfluid transition using quantum quenches of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldgin, Carolyn; Ray, Ushnish; Russ, Philip; Chen, David; Ceperley, David M.; Demarco, Brian

    2016-07-01

    The disordered Bose-Hubbard model--a paradigm for strongly correlated and disordered bosonic systems--is central to our understanding of quantum phase transitions. Despite extensive theoretical work on the disordered Bose-Hubbard model, little is known about the impact of temperature, the dynamical behaviour of quantum phases, and how equilibrium is affected during quantum phase transitions. These issues are critically important to applications such as quantum annealing and electronics based on quantum phase transitions. Here, we use a quantum quench of disorder in an ultracold lattice gas to dynamically probe the superfluid-Bose glass quantum phase transition at non-zero temperature ( Fig. 1). By measuring excitations generated during the quench, we provide evidence for superfluid puddles in the Bose glass phase and produce a superfluid-Bose glass phase diagram consistent with completely constrained, finite temperature, and equilibrium quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The residual energy from the quench, which is an efficacy measure for optimization through quantum annealing, is unchanged for quench times spanning nearly a hundred tunnelling times.

  6. Studies on interactions between plant secondary metabolites and glutathione transferase using fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Cheng, Xinsheng; Wang, Chuanqin; Xue, Zechun; Yang, Liwen; Xi, Zheng

    2007-04-01

    The interactions between plant secondary metabolites (tannic acid, rutin, cinnamic acid and catechin) and glutathione transferase (GST) were investigated by fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Intrinsic fluorescence of GST was measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan (Trp) residues and quenching constants were determined using the Stern-Volmer equation. The binding affinity was found to be strongest for tannic acid and ranked in the order tannic acid>rutin>cinnamic acid>catechin. The pH values in the range of 6.7-7.9, except for tannic acid, did not affect significantly the affinity of rutin, cinnamic acid and catechin with GST. Results showed that the fluorescence quenching of GST was a static_quenching. Fluorescence quenching and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy suggested that only the tannic acid changed the microenvironment of the Trp residues. Furthermore, the number of binding sites and binding constants at different pH values showed that tannic acid had strongest affinity towards GST and hydrogen bonding played an important role in the affinity between GST and the metabolites.

  7. Spectrofluorimetric determination of 5-fluorouracil by fluorescence quenching of 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, M. S.; Bhattar, S. L.; Kolekar, G. B.; Patil, S. R.

    2010-09-01

    Photo-induced intermolecular electron transfer (PET) interaction between excited singlet (S 1) state of 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (9-ANCA) and DNA bases of pyrimidines as uracil and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been studied in water and ethanol solutions using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The intensity of all emission bands of 9-ANCA was quenched in presence of uracil and 5-FU by electron transfer reaction without formation of an exciplex. It was found that uracil and 5-fluorouracil acts as effective electron donors and simultaneously quench the fluorescence of electron-accepting sensitizer 9-ANCA. The quenching by diffusion-controlled rate coincides well with the dynamic Stern-Volmer correlation. The bimolecular quenching rate constant (kqss) and electron transfer rate constant ( ket) observed are seen to be much higher for 5-fluorouracil than those for uracil. The thermodynamic parameters estimated by using the Rehm-Weller equation were used to propose a suitable mechanism for PET occurring between uracils and 9-ANCA. The proposed method was used to determine 5-fluorouracil from pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results. The technique is more selective, sensitive and relatively free from coexisting substances.

  8. 1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Submerged Quench Incinerator, 3940 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 930 feet West of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xing Long; Xu, Feng Yu; Wang, Li; Green, Michael A.; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Liu, X.K.; Jia, Lin Xiang; Amm, Kathleen

    2008-08-02

    This paper describes the passive quench protection system selected for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) cooling channel coupling magnet. The MICE coupling magnet will employ two methods of quench protection simultaneously. The most important method of quench protection in the coupling magnet is the subdivision of the coil. Cold diodes and resistors are put across the subdivisions to reduce both the voltage to ground and the hot-spot temperature. The second method of quench protection is quench-back from the mandrel, which speeds up the spread of the normal region within the coils. Combining quench back with coil subdivision will reduce the hot spot temperature further. This paper explores the effect on the quench process of the number of coil sub-divisions, the quench propagation velocity within the magnet, and the shunt resistance.

  10. Mode coupling of interaction quenched ultracold few-boson ensembles in periodically driven lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, S. I.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-01-01

    The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of interaction quenched finite ultracold bosonic ensembles in periodically driven one-dimensional optical lattices is investigated. It is shown that periodic driving enforces the bosons in the outer wells of the finite lattice to exhibit out-of-phase dipolelike modes, while in the central well the atomic cloud experiences a local breathing mode. The dynamical behavior is investigated with varying driving frequencies, revealing resonantlike behavior of the intrawell dynamics. An interaction quench in the periodically driven lattice gives rise to admixtures of different excitations in the outer wells, enhanced breathing in the center, and amplification of the tunneling dynamics. We then observe multiple resonances between the inter- and the intrawell dynamics at different quench amplitudes, with the position of the resonances being tunable via the driving frequency. Our results pave the way for future investigations of the use of combined driving protocols in order to excite different inter- and intrawell modes and to subsequently control them.

  11. Excitation spectra of disordered dimer magnets near quantum criticality.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Matthias

    2013-08-30

    For coupled-dimer magnets with quenched disorder, we introduce a generalization of the bond-operator method, appropriate to describe both singlet and magnetically ordered phases. This allows for a numerical calculation of the magnetic excitations at all energies across the phase diagram, including the strongly inhomogeneous Griffiths regime near quantum criticality. We apply the method to the bilayer Heisenberg model with bond randomness and characterize both the broadening of excitations and the transfer of spectral weight induced by disorder. Inside the antiferromagnetic phase this model features the remarkable combination of sharp magnetic Bragg peaks and broad magnons, the latter arising from the tendency to localization of low-energy excitations.

  12. Evidence for an unidentified non-photochemical ground-level source of formaldehyde in the Po Valley with potential implications for ozone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.; Wolfe, G. M.; Bohn, B.; Broch, S.; Fuchs, H.; Ganzeveld, L. N.; Gomm, S.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Jäger, J.; Li, X.; Lohse, I.; Lu, K.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Rohrer, F.; Wegener, R.; Wolf, R.; Mentel, T. F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2015-02-01

    Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. We investigate the sources of HCHO in the Po Valley using vertical profile measurements acquired from the airship Zeppelin NT over an agricultural region during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. Using a 1-D model, the total VOC oxidation rate is examined and discussed in the context of formaldehyde and ozone production in the early morning. While model and measurement discrepancies in OH reactivity are small (on average 3.4 ± 13%), HCHO concentrations are underestimated by as much as 1.5 ppb (45%) in the convective mixed layer. A similar underestimate in HCHO was seen in the 2002-2003 FORMAT Po Valley measurements, though the additional source of HCHO was not identified. Oxidation of unmeasured VOC precursors cannot explain the missing HCHO source, as measured OH reactivity is explained by measured VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. We conclude that local direct emissions from agricultural land are the most likely source of missing HCHO. Model calculations demonstrate that radicals from degradation of this non-photochemical HCHO source increase model ozone production rates by as much as 0.6 ppb h-1 (12%) before noon.

  13. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  14. Unravelling the quenching mechanisms of a luminescent Ru(II) probe for Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Santos, André Ribeiro; Escudero, Daniel; González, Leticia; Orellana, Guillermo

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the photophysical and photochemical features of a luminescent heteroleptic Ru(II)-polypyridyl probe and of its corresponding Ru(II)-Cu(II) dinuclear complex formed upon the analyte binding through extensive density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. The molecular probe contains the tailored imidazo[4,5-f]-1,10-phenanthroline (IIP) ligand for simultaneously binding the Ru(II) core and the target metal ion in aqueous solution. We have rationalized the static photoluminescence quenching observed upon the Cu(II) coordination, on the grounds of distinct excited state deactivation mechanisms which are absent in the free Ru(II) complex probe. Additionally, the emission quenching found upon increasing the solution pH has also been investigated. When coordinated IIP deprotonates, the nature of the lowest excited state of its complex changes from (3)MLCT to (3)LLCT/(3)IL. The strong base-induced emission quenching can be understood in terms of both the energy-gap law, since the (3)LLCT/(3)IL states lie at a significantly lower energy than the (3)MLCT state increasing the contribution of non-radiative mechanisms, and the expected slower radiative rates from such (3)LLCT/(3)IL states. After Cu(II) binding, the lowest triplet excited state is similar to the analyte-free probe in both energy and electronic nature. However, Cu-centered non-radiative excited states, populated after photoinduced electron transfer and intersystem crossing processes, are responsible for the population drainage of the emissive state.

  15. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366 nm and 423 nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303 nm and 430 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0 μmol L- 1, with a limit of detection (3 σ/k) of 79.6 nmol L- 1. Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results.

  16. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-05

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366nm and 423nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303nm and 430nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0μmolL(-1), with a limit of detection (3σ/k) of 79.6nmolL(-1). Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Static and dynamic quenching of luminescent species in polymer media.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, P; Leiner, M J; Lippitsch, M E

    1994-12-01

    A method developed for quantitative determination of static and dynamic contributions to luminescence quenching is applied to Ru(II) complexes in polymer matrices (silica gel and polystyrene), quenched by oxygen. This method is based on both intensity and lifetime quenching experiments. The curvature of intensity Stern-Volmer plots is related to the results.

  18. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each new analyzer that has an ambient pressure or “soft vacuum” reaction chamber prior to initial use....

  19. Assessment of Excitation Mechanisms and Temporal Dependencies of Infrared Radiation from Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide and Ozone in EXCEDE Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-31

    2.2.2 Dissociative Excitation of Carbon Dioxide .. ..... .. 15 2.2.3 Vibrational Exchange with N2(v). .... ....... .. 18 2.2.4 Quenching of Metastable...Excitation of Carbon Dioxide As shown in Figures 1-2 and 2-2 the ambient CO2 concentration exceeds that of CO by about a factor of 3 at 100 kin, equals the...ASSESSEMENT OF EXCITATION MECHANSIMS AND TEMPORAL DEPENDENCIES OF INFRAREO RADIATION FROM VIBbRATIONALLY EXCITEO CARBON MONOXIDE AND OZONE IN EXCEDE

  20. Applications of partially quenched chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Golterman, M.F.; Leung, K.C.

    1998-05-01

    Partially quenched theories are theories in which the valence- and sea-quark masses are different. In this paper we calculate the nonanalytic one-loop corrections of some physical quantities: the chiral condensate, weak decay constants, Goldstone boson masses, B{sub K}, and the K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay amplitude, using partially quenched chiral perturbation theory. Our results for weak decay constants and masses agree with, and generalize, results of previous work by Sharpe. We compare B{sub K} and the K{sup +} decay amplitude with their real-world values in some examples. For the latter quantity, two other systematic effects that plague lattice computations, namely, finite-volume effects and unphysical values of the quark masses and pion external momenta, are also considered. We find that typical one-loop corrections can be substantial. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Energy upgrade as regards quench performance

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay, W.W.; Tepikian, S.

    2011-01-01

    Since the cross section for W production increases rapidly with energy, we consider the possibility of increasing the collision energy of polarized protons at RHIC. The limits of present hardware are examined with a particular emphasis on the quench training performance of magnets. Ignoring the limits of the DX magnets, the short-sample currents for the main arc (8 cm) dipoles could allow an increase of more than 30%, however we estimate 400 to 500 training quenches for the just 8 cm dipoles to reach this level. We propose that a 10% increase in energy might be achieved with the present hardware configuration. Raising the beam energy to 275 GeV ({radical}s = 550 GeV) should increase the W production rate by almost 50% from the 250 GeV level for the same optics with identical {beta}*'s at the collision points.

  2. Quenched pinning and collective dislocation dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ovaska, Markus; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-01-01

    Several experiments show that crystalline solids deform in a bursty and intermittent fashion. Power-law distributed strain bursts in compression experiments of micron-sized samples, and acoustic emission energies from larger-scale specimens, are the key signatures of the underlying critical-like collective dislocation dynamics - a phenomenon that has also been seen in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations. Here we show, by performing large-scale two-dimensional DDD simulations, that the character of the dislocation avalanche dynamics changes upon addition of sufficiently strong randomly distributed quenched pinning centres, present e.g. in many alloys as immobile solute atoms. For intermediate pinning strength, our results adhere to the scaling picture of depinning transitions, in contrast to pure systems where dislocation jamming dominates the avalanche dynamics. Still stronger disorder quenches the critical behaviour entirely. PMID:26024505

  3. Quench protection circuits for superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-12-31

    In developing a scheme for the quench protection of the Toroidal Field (TF) and Poloidal Field (PF) superconducting magnets of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), an extensive review was performed of the design options and their performance characteristics. The general results and conclusions of these studies are reported herein. For tokamak magnets which have low enthalpy compared to their stored energy, quench protection requires the discharge of the stored energy at location(s) external to the magnets, typically in discharge resistors. Such discharge requires the interruption of large DC currents and the insertion of resistors using suitable DC circuit breaking methods. Since protection of the magnets is a crucial function, the system must be ultra-reliable, and new techniques are necessary.

  4. Collapse and revival in holographic quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.

  5. Quantum quenches in a holographic Kondo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Flory, Mario; Newrzella, Max-Niklas; Strydom, Migael; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2017-04-01

    We study non-equilibrium dynamics and quantum quenches in a recent gauge/gravity duality model for a strongly coupled system interacting with a magnetic impurity with SU( N ) spin. At large N , it is convenient to write the impurity spin as a bilinear in Abrikosov fermions. The model describes an RG flow triggered by the marginally relevant Kondo operator. There is a phase transition at a critical temperature, below which an operator condenses which involves both an electron and an Abrikosov fermion field. This corresponds to a holographic superconductor in AdS2 and models the impurity screening. We quench the Kondo coupling either by a Gaussian pulse or by a hyperbolic tangent, the latter taking the system from the condensed to the uncondensed phase or vice-versa. We study the time dependence of the condensate induced by this quench. The timescale for equilibration is generically given by the leading quasinormal mode of the dual gravity model. This mode also governs the formation of the screening cloud, which is obtained as the decrease of impurity degrees of freedom with time. In the condensed phase, the leading quasinormal mode is imaginary and the relaxation of the condensate is over-damped. For quenches whose final state is close to the critical point of the large N phase transition, we study the critical slowing down and obtain the combination of critical exponents zν = 1. When the final state is exactly at the phase transition, we find that the exponential ringing of the quasinormal modes is replaced by a power-law behaviour of the form ˜ t - a sin( b log t). This indicates the emergence of a discrete scale invariance.

  6. BB Potentials in Quenched Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold; Kostas Orginos; Martin J. Savage

    2007-12-01

    The potentials between two B-mesons are computed in the heavy-quark limit using quenched lattice QCD at $m_\\pi\\sim 400~{\\rm MeV}$. Non-zero central potentials are clearly evident in all four spin-isospin channels, (I,s_l) = (0,0) , (0,1) , (1,0) , (1,1), where s_l is the total spin of the light degrees of freedom. At short distance, we find repulsion in the $I\

  7. Optical sensing of peroxide using ceria nanoparticles via fluorescence quenching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, N.; Samir, E.; Gaballah, S.

    2016-04-01

    This study introduces the application of small ceria nanoparticles (NPs) as optical sensor for peroxide using fluorescence quenching technique. Our synthesized ceria nanoparticles have the ability to adsorb peroxides via its oxygen vacancies. Ceria nanoparticles (NPs) solution with added variable concentrations of hydrogen peroxides is exposed through near UV excitation and the detected visible fluorescent emission is found to be at 520nm, with reduced peak intensity peaks with increasing the peroxide concentrations due to static fluorescence quenching technique. The relative intensity change of the visible fluorescent emission has been reduced to more than 50% at added peroxide concentrations up to 10 wt.%. This research work could be applied further in optical sensors of radicals in biomedical engineering and environmental monitoring.

  8. Nitrite in meat products determined by fluorescence quenching of p-aminobenzoate ion.

    PubMed

    Coppola, E D; Wickroski, A F; Hanna, J G

    1976-07-01

    A direct fluorometric method is presented for determining nitrites in meat products by means of quenching. The extracted sodium nitrite is consumed in a diazotization reaction with a measured excess of the fluorescent reagent p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in boiling water and at pH less than or equal to 1.4. The amount of decrease in fluorescence (quenching) of PABA, in alkaline medium (pH 11.0) with excitation at 265 nm and fluorescence at 339 nm, is directly related to the amount of nitrite present. The slope for that standard curve is 1% decrease in relative fluorescence intensity per 2.76 ppm NaNO2. Results obtained for a series of 20 meat samples analyzed by this fluorometric method are in good agreement with results obtained by a colorimetric method with an average difference of +/- 6.1 ppm NaNO2.

  9. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots based fluorescence quenching method for determination of paeonol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Shen, Huai-Bin; Liu, Xiu-Hua; Li, Ming-Jing; Li, Lin-Song

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-capped CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were used as fluorescence probes for paeonol determination. Based on the fluorescence quenching of aqueous CdSe/ZnS quantum dots caused by paeonol, a simple, sensitive and rapid method was developed. Under the optimal conditions, with excitation and emission wavelengths at 350 nm and 620 nm, respectively, the calibration plot of F0 - F with concentration of paeonol was linear in the range of 25.04-175.2 mg L -1 with correlation coefficient of 0.9986. The limit of detection was 0.017 mg L -1. The concentration of paeonol in paeonol ointment was determined by the proposed method and the result agreed with the claimed value. Furthermore, the possible fluorescence quenching mechanism was discussed.

  10. Optical sensing of peroxide using ceria nanoparticles via fluorescence quenching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, Nader; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Salah, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    This study introduces the application of ceria nanoparticles (NPs) as an optical sensor for peroxide using fluorescence quenching technique. Our synthesized ceria NPs have the ability to adsorb peroxides via its oxygen vacancies. Ceria NPs solution with added variable concentrations of hydrogen peroxides is exposed through near-UV excitation and the detected visible fluorescent emission is found to be at ˜520 nm. The fluorescent intensity peak is found to be reduced with increasing the peroxide concentrations due to static fluorescence quenching technique. The relative intensity change of the visible fluorescent emission has been reduced to more than 50% at added peroxide concentrations up to 10 wt. %. In order to increase ceria peroxides sensing sensitivity, lanthanide elements such as samarium (Sm) are used as ceria NPs dopant. This research work could be applied further in optical sensors of radicals in biomedical engineering and environmental monitoring.

  11. Fluorescence quenching and photocatalytic degradation of textile dyeing waste water by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S R; Umadevi, M; Janani, S R; Balakrishnan, T; Ramanibai, R

    2014-06-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes have been prepared by chemical reduction method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence spectral analysis showed that the quenching of fluorescence of textile dyeing waste water (TDW) has been found to decrease with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. Experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed TDW effectively. The fluorescence interaction between Ag NPs (acceptor) and TDW (donor) confirms the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism. Long range dipole-dipole interaction between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules is the dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer. Furthermore, photocatalytic degradation of TDW was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under UV light illumination. The kinetic study revealed that synthesized Ag NPs was found to be effective in degrading TDW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gamow-Teller Quenching to Pion Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, H.

    A pion condensation which might be realized in the neutron stars is a very fascinating phenomenon. The Landau-Migdal parameter g'{ NΔ } representing a short-range correlation in isospin-spin channel is fundamental parameter which determines a critical density ρc for the pion condensation. The g'{ NΔ } can be deduced by using a quenching factor of the Gamow-Teller strength in terms of the spin sum rule of Sβ- - Sβ+ = 3(N - Z). Tokyo group has derived the Sβ- through the 90Zr(p,n) measurement at 300 MeV and deduced the quenching factor of 0.9 which gives rise to g'{ NΔ } ˜ 0.2 and ρc 2ρρo. For a reliable estimation of ρc, a reduction of the systematic uncertainties regarding the quenching factor is essential. Since large part of systematic uncertainties comes from the Sβ+, the 90Zr(n,p) measurement at 300 MeV has been performed.

  13. Quantum quench with hard wall boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Garry; Andrei, Natan

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present analysis of a quench for the Lieb Liniger gas contained in a large box with hard wall boundary conditions. We study the time average of local correlation functions. We show that both the quench action logic and the GGE are applicable. We show that the time average of the system corresponds to an eigenstate of the Lieb Liniger Hamiltonian. We show that this eigenstate is related to an eigenstate of a Lieb Liniger Hamiltonian with periodic boundary conditions on an interval of twice the length and with twice as many particles (a doubled system). We further show that local operators with support far away from the boundaries of the hard wall Lieb Liniger gas have the same expectation values as corresponding operators for the doubled system. We present an example of a quench where the Lieb Liniger gas is initially confined in several traps and then released into a bigger container, an approximate description of the Newton cradle experiment. This research was supported by NSF Grant DMR 1006684 and Rutgers CMT fellowship.

  14. Event-by-event jet quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, R.J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez, E.

    2010-08-14

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient {cflx q} extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting {cflx q} to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  15. Speciation, Luminescence, and Alkaline Fluorescence Quenching of 4-(2-Methylbutyl)aminodipicolinic acid (H2MEBADPA)

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Andrew J.; Dunlap, Alexander G.; DiPietro, Richard; Muller, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    4-(2-methylbutyl)aminodipicolinic acid (H2MEBADPA) has been synthesized and fully characterized in terms of aqueous phase protonation 0constants (pKas) and photophysical measurements. The pKas were determined by spectrophotometric titrations, utilizing a fully sealed titration system. Photophysical measurements consisted of room temperature fluorescence and frozen solution phosphorescence as well as quantum yield determinations at various pH which showed that only fully deprotonated MEBADPA2− is appreciably emissive. The fluorescence of MEBADPA2− has been determined to be quenched by hydroxide and methoxide anions, most likely through base-catalyzed excited-state tautomerism or proton transfer. This quenching phenomenon has been quantitatively explored through steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Utilizing the determined pKas and quenching constants, the fluorescent intensity of MEBADPA2− has been successfully modeled as a function of pH. PMID:21630701

  16. Photophysical properties of sexi(3-methoxythiophene): evidence for energy migration in a conducting oligomer, based on fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed

    Aaron, J J; Fall, M

    2000-06-01

    The electronic absorption and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of poly(3-methoxythiophene) (PMOT), a soluble, electroactive oligomer mainly constituted of hexamer, were investigated in dimethylsulfoxide at room temperature. The study of PMOT photophysical properties suggests the existence of important pi-electronic delocalization in the oxidized and reduced form of the oligomer. A significant fluorescence quenching of PMOT takes place in the presence of various quenchers such as dimethylterephthalate, potassium iodide and thallium acetate. Quenching mechanisms implying a quencher-induced intersystem-crossing step are proposed. Modified Stern-Volmer relationships were obtained with large quenching bimolecular rate constants (2.7 x 10(9)-6.1 x 10(11) l mol(-1) s(-1)), which suggests electronic energy migration throughout the repeat units of the PMOT hexamer.

  17. Low-Distortion Quenching of Aluminum Alloys in Polymer Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senatorova, O. G.; Mikhailova, I. F.; Ivanov, A. L.; Mitasov, M. M.; Sidel'nikov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The cooling capacity of the Aqua-Quench 260 quenching medium with different concentrations of polyalkylene glycol (12, 15, 22 and 30%) is studied. Cooling curves and dependences of the cooling rate on the temperature of the polymer medium are plotted. The mechanical and corrosion properties of pilot pressings from the most widely used aluminum forging alloys V95pch, AK4-1ch, AK6ch and 1933 quenched in a solution of Aqua-Quench 260 with an additive of polyalkylene glycol are determined in comparison with quenching in hot and cold water.

  18. Cryogenic Quenching Process for Electronic Part Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; Cressler, John

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures (less than 100 C) for extreme environments is not well controlled or developed from a product quality and reliability point of view. This is in contrast to the very rigorous and well-documented procedures to qualify electronic parts for mission use in the 55 to 125 C temperature range. A similarly rigorous methodology for screening and evaluating electronic parts needs to be developed so that mission planners can expect the same level of high reliability performance for parts operated at cryogenic temperatures. A formal methodology for screening and qualifying electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures has been proposed. The methodology focuses on the base physics of failure of the devices at cryogenic temperatures. All electronic part reliability is based on the bathtub curve, high amounts of initial failures (infant mortals), a long period of normal use (random failures), and then an increasing number of failures (end of life). Unique to this is the development of custom screening procedures to eliminate early failures at cold temperatures. The ability to screen out defects will specifically impact reliability at cold temperatures. Cryogenic reliability is limited by electron trap creation in the oxide and defect sites at conductor interfaces. Non-uniform conduction processes due to process marginalities will be magnified at cryogenic temperatures. Carrier mobilities change by orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, significantly enhancing the effects of electric field. Marginal contacts, impurities in oxides, and defects in conductor/conductor interfaces can all be magnified at low temperatures. The novelty is the use of an ultra-low temperature, short-duration quenching process for defect screening. The quenching process is designed to identify those defects that will precisely (and negatively) affect long-term, cryogenic part operation. This quenching process occurs at a temperature that is at least

  19. Femtosecond Fluorescence Spectra of Tryptophan in Human γ-Crystallin Mutants: Site-Dependent Ultrafast Quenching

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Jiejin; Toptygin, Dmitri; Tcherkasskaya, Olga; Callis, Patrik; King, Jonathan; Brand, Ludwig; Knutson, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    The eye lens crystallin proteins are subject to UV irradiation throughout life, and the photochemistry of damage proceeds through the excited state; thus, their tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence lifetimes are physiologically important properties. The time resolved fluorescence spectra of single Trps in human γD- and γS-crystallins have been measured with both an upconversion spectrophotofluorometer on the 300fs to 100ps time scale, and a time correlated single photon counting apparatus on the 100ps to 10ns time scale, respectively. Three Trps in each wild type protein were replaced by phenylalanine, leading to single-Trp mutants: W68-only and W156-only of HγD- and W72-only and W162-only of HγS-crystallin. These proteins exhibit similar ultrafast signatures: positive definite decay associated spectra (DAS) for 50 – 65ps decay constants that indicate dominance of fast, heterogeneous quenching. The quenched population (judged by amplitude) of this DAS differs among mutants. Trps 68, 156 in human γD- and Trp72 in human γS-crystallin are buried, but water can reach amide oxygen and ring HE1 atoms through narrow channels. QM-MM simulations of quenching by electron transfer predict heterogeneous decay times from 50–500 ps that agree with our experimental results. Further analysis of apparent radiative lifetimes allow us to deduce that substantial subpopulations of Trp are fully quenched in even faster (sub-300 fs) processes for several of the mutants. The quenching of Trp fluorescence of human γD- and γS-crystallin may protect them from ambient light induced photo damage. PMID:19919143

  20. Competing ultrafast photoinduced quenching reactions in cinnamic acid : peptide blends.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Theo; Tuszynski, Wilfried; Lienau, Christoph

    2010-10-28

    This report focuses on the ultrafast photoinduced excited state dynamics of cinnamic acid : peptide blends, prototypical MALDI samples. We prepared thin homogeneous layers of closely spaced microcrystals using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (α-CHC) and sinapinic acid (SA) as cinnamic acid (CA) derivatives and Angiotensin II (Ang II) as peptide. We applied spectrally and temporally resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and identified in these blends different ultrafast and strongly competing PL quenching mechanisms. [2+2] Photodimerization is a known ultrafast solid-state photoreaction in CA crystals. We show that-after sufficient illumination times-it also governs the PL dynamics of CA : peptide blends. In addition, the peptide admixture induces a new PL quenching pathway, which proceeds most probably via photoisomerization or via energy transfer to stereoisomers at the CA : peptide interface, i.e., at disorder sites inside the microcrystals or at their surface. For α-CHC : Ang II blends, we find a photodimerization rate of (20 ps)(-1) and a quenching rate coefficient of 2.67 × 10(15) s(-1) mol(-1) cm(3) when adding the Ang II peptide. For SA : Ang II blends, the corresponding rates are even faster but the more remarkable feature is that the PL of the photoproduced stereoisomers is in turn quenched with increasing illumination time by the growing number of photodimers. Both photodimerization and peptide-induced quenching are obviously fast enough to compete with singlet-singlet annihilations even at typical MALDI fluences. We suggest that photoinduced ultrafast changes of the crystalline or molecular structure play a substantial role for the release of large molecular ions from MALDI substrates and are a common feature for UV-MALDI.

  1. Characterisation of dissolved organic matter fluorescence properties by PARAFAC analysis and thermal quenching.

    PubMed

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Baker, Andy; Bieroza, Magdalena; Reynolds, Darren M; Bridgeman, John

    2014-09-15

    The fluorescence intensity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aqueous samples is known to be highly influenced by temperature. Although several studies have demonstrated the effect of thermal quenching on the fluorescence of DOM, no research has been undertaken to assess the effects of temperature by combining fluorescence excitation - emission matrices (EEM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modelling. This study further extends previous research on thermal quenching by evaluating the impact of temperature on the fluorescence of DOM from a wide range of environmental samples, in the range 20 °C - 0 °C. Fluorescence intensity increased linearly with respect to temperature decrease at all temperatures down to 0 °C. Results showed that temperature affected the PARAFAC components associated with humic-like and tryptophan-like components of DOM differently, depending on the water type. The terrestrial humic-like components, C1 and C2 presented the highest thermal quenching in rural water samples and the lowest in urban water samples, while C3, the tryptophan-like component, and C4, a reprocessed humic-like component, showed opposite results. These results were attributed to the availability and abundance of the components or to the degree of exposure to the heat source. The variable thermal quenching of the humic-like components also indicated that although the PARAFAC model generated the same components across sites, the DOM composition of each component differed between them. This study has shown that thermal quenching can provide additional information on the characteristics and composition of DOM and highlighted the importance of correcting fluorescence data collected in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The mass dependence of dwarf satellite galaxy quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F. E-mail: ericbell@umich.edu

    2014-09-10

    We combine observations of the Local Group with data from the NASA-Sloan Atlas to show the variation in the quenched fraction of satellite galaxies from low-mass dwarf spheroidals and dwarf irregulars to more massive dwarfs similar to the Magellanic Clouds. While almost all of the low-mass (M {sub *} ≲ 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}) dwarfs are quenched, at higher masses the quenched fraction decreases to approximately 40%-50%. This change in the quenched fraction is large and suggests a sudden change in the effectiveness of quenching that correlates with satellite mass. We combine this observation with models of satellite infall and ram pressure stripping to show that the low-mass satellites must quench within 1-2 Gyr of pericenter passage to maintain a high quenched fraction, but that many more massive dwarfs must continue to form stars today even though they likely fell into their host >5 Gyr ago. We also characterize how the susceptibility of dwarfs to ram pressure must vary as a function of mass if it is to account for the change in quenched fractions. Though neither model predicts the quenching effectiveness a priori, this modeling illustrates the physical requirements that the observed quenched fractions place on possible quenching mechanisms.

  3. Radiative and Excited State Charmonium Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek

    2007-07-30

    Renewed interest in the spectroscopy of charmonium has arisen from recent unexpected observations at $e^+e^-$ colliders. Here we report on a series of works from the previous two years examining the radiative physics of charmonium states as well as the mass spectrum of states of higher spin and internal excitation. Using new techniques applied to Domain-Wall and Clover quark actions on quenched isotropic and anisotropic lattices, radiative transitions and two-photon decays are considered for the first time. Comparisons are made with experimental results and with model approaches. Forthcoming application to the light-quark sector of relevance to experiments like Jefferson Lab's GlueX is discussed.

  4. Superparamagnetic segmentation by excitable neural systems.

    PubMed

    Neirotti, Juan P; Kurcbart, Samuel M; Caticha, Nestor

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic modeling for clustering or segmentation purposes can either associate the image data to external quenched fields or to the interactions among a set of auxiliary variables. The latter gives rise to superparamagnetic segmentation and is usually done with Potts systems. We have used the superparamagnetic clustering technique to segment images, with the aid of different associated systems. Results using Potts model are comparable to those obtained using excitable FitzHugh-Nagumo and Morris-Lecar model neurons. Interactions between the associated system components are a function of the difference of luminosity on a gray scale of neighbor pixels and the difference of membrane potential.

  5. Pressure-induced Co2+ photoluminescence quenching in MgAl2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Lucie; Rodríguez, Fernando; Valiente, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    This work investigates the electronic structure and photoluminescence (PL) of Co2+-doped MgAl2O4 and their pressure dependence by time-resolved spectroscopy. The variations of the visible absorption band and its associated emission at 663 nm (τ = 130 ns at ambient conditions) with pressure/temperature can be explained on the basis of a configurational energy model. It provides an interpretation for both the electronic structure and the excited-state phenomena yielding photoluminescence emission and the subsequent quenching. We show that there is an excited-state crossover (ESCO) [4T1(P)↔2E(G)] at ambient pressure, which is responsible for the evolution of the emission spectrum from a broadband emission between 300 K and 100 K to a narrow-line emission at lower temperatures. Contrary to expectations from the Tanabe-Sugano diagram, instead of enhancing ESCO phenomena, pressure reduces PL and even suppresses it (PL quenching) above 6 GPa. We explain such variations in terms of pressure-induced nonradiative relaxation to lower excited states: 2E(G)→4T1(F). The variation of PL intensity and its associated lifetime with pressure supports the proposed interpretation.

  6. The effect of quenched disorder on dynamical transitions in systems of coupled cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinshan; Singh, Rajeev; Garnier, Nicolas B.; Sinha, Sitabhra; Pumir, Alain

    2013-09-01

    Non-equilibrium systems are characterized by a rich variety of dynamical behaviors, which may sensitively depend on control parameters. Here, we investigate and provide a quantitative analysis of the role of disorder on the transitions between different dynamical regimes in extended heterogeneous systems of excitable and passive cells, induced by varying the strength of the coupling between cells. The random distribution of passive cells provides a quenched disorder in important biological contexts, such as the appearance of contractions in the pregnant uterus. We observe a large variability between different realizations of the disorder (replicas) in a lattice of excitable cells, each cell being coupled to a random number of passive cells. The statistics of these large disorder-induced fluctuations are related to the properties of the coarse-grained distribution of passive cells, in particular, to its extreme values. We show that these fluctuations can be characterized by a simple scaling relation, involving the strength of the coupling between excitable cells, the mean passive cell density and the logarithm of the system size. Our results provide a quantitative understanding of the important effect of a quenched disorder in the transition between dynamical regimes in extended dynamical systems.

  7. Effects of thermal quenching on mechanical properties of pyroclasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ameeta; Manga, Michael; Carey, Rebecca J.; Degruyter, Wim

    2013-05-01

    Contact with water can promote magma fragmentation. Obsidian chips and glass spheres typically crack when quenched. Vesicular pyroclasts are made of glass, so thermal quenching by water may damage them. If water enters eruption columns, or if pyroclastic density currents interact with water, hot pumice can be quenched. We performed a set of experiments on air fall pumice from Medicine Lake, California. We made quenched samples by heating natural clasts to 600 °C, quenching them in water at 21 °C, drying them at 105 °C, and then cooling them to room temperature. We compare these samples with untreated air fall pumice from the same deposit, hereafter referred to as regular pumice. We tested whether quenched pumice would 1) shatter more easily in collisions and 2) abrade faster. We also tested whether individual clasts lose mass upon quenching, and whether they increase in effective wet density, two measurements which may help characterize the magnitude of clast damage during quenching. We also compare pre-quenching and post-quenching textures using X-ray microtomography (μXRT) images. Results from collision experiments show no clear difference between quenched pumice and regular pumice. Quenched pumice abraded faster than regular pumice. On average 0.3% of mass may have been lost during quenching. Effective wet density increased 1.5% on average, as measured after 5 minutes of immersion in water. Overall, we find modest differences between quenched pumice and regular pumice in experiments and measurements. The experimental results imply that quenching may damage small parts of a clast but tends not to cause cracks that propagate easily through the clast. Post-quenching μXRT imaging shows no obvious change in clast texture. This is in stark contrast to non-vesicular glass that develops large cracks on quenching. We present four factors that explain why pumice is resistant to damage from thermal quenching: thin glass films experience lower transient thermal

  8. Measured strain in Nb3Sn coils during excitation and quence

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Barlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D. R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S. A.; Hannaford, C. R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.

    2005-06-01

    The strain in a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a 'common coil' fashion capable of reaching 11 T at 4.2 K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench.

  9. The examination of berberine excited state by laser flash photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lingli; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Ping; Zhu, Hui; Zhu, Rongrong; Sun, Xiaoyu; Yao, Side; Wang, Shilong

    2009-07-01

    The property of the excited triplet state of berberine (BBR) was investigated by using time-resolved laser flash photolysis of 355 nm in acetonitrile. The transient absorption spectra of the excited triplet BBR were obtained in acetonitrile, which have an absorption maximum at 420 nm. And the ratio of excitation to ionization of BBR in acetonitrile solvent was calculated. The self-decay and self-quenching rate constants, and the absorption coefficient of 3BBR* were investigated and the excited state quantum yield was determined. Furthermore utilizing the benzophenone (BEN) as a triplet sensitizer, and the β-carotene (Car) as an excited energy transfer acceptor, the assignment of 3BBR* was further confirmed and the related energy transfer rate constants were also determined.

  10. Selective excitation of the yellow luminescence of GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, J.S.; Yu, P.Y.; Teo, K.L.; Weber, E.R.; Grzegory, I.; Uchida, K.

    1999-07-01

    The yellow luminescence of n-type GaN has been studied with selective excitation using a combination of Ar ion and dye lasers. Narrower structures whose peak energies follow the excitation photon energy over the width of the yellow luminescence have been observed. Unlike the yellow luminescence excited by above band gap excitations, these fine structures exhibits thermal activated quenching behavior. We propose that these fine structures are due to emission occurring at complexes of shallow donors and deep acceptors which can be resonantly excited by photons with energies below the band gap. The activation energy deduced from their intensity is that for delocalization of electrons out of the complexes. Our results therefore suggest that there is more than one recombination channel (usually assumed to be due to distant donor-acceptor pairs) to the yellow luminescence in GaN.

  11. QM/MM studies reveal pathways leading to the quenching of the formation of thymine dimer photoproduct by flanking bases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2015-04-21

    It is known that the formation of the photochemical product of thymine-thymine cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (TT-CPD) formed upon UV excitation in DNA is significantly affected by the nature of the flanking bases, and that the oxidation potential of the flanking base correlates with the quenching of TT-CPD formation. However, the electronic details of this correlation have remained controversial. The quenching of thymine dimer formation exerted by flanking bases was suggested to be driven by both conformational and electronic effects. In the present study, we examine both of these effects using umbrella sampling and a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach for selected model systems. Our results demonstrate that a charge transfer (CT) state between the flanking base and the adjacent thymine base can provide a decay pathway for the population to escape from dimer formation, which eventually leads to the formation of an exciplex. The QM/MM vertical excitation energies also reveal that the oxidation potential of flanking bases correlates with the energy level of the CT state, thereby determining whether the CT state intersects with the state that can lead to dimer formation. The consistency between these results and experimentally obtained dimer formation rates implies that the quenching of dimer formation is mainly attributed to the decay pathway via the CT state. The present results further underline the importance of the electronic effects in quenching.

  12. Compensation for PSII photoinactivation by regulated non-photochemical dissipation influences the impact of photoinactivation on electron transport and CO2 assimilation.

    PubMed

    Kornyeyev, Dmytro; Logan, Barry A; Tissue, David T; Allen, Randy D; Holaday, A Scott

    2006-04-01

    The extent to which PSII photoinactivation affects electron transport (PhiPSII) and CO2 assimilation remains controversial, in part because it frequently occurs alongside inactivation of other components of photosynthesis, such as PSI. By manipulating conditions (darkness versus low light) after a high light/low temperature treatment, we examined the influence of different levels of PSII inactivation at the same level of PSI inactivation on PhiPSII and CO2 assimilation for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we compared PhiPSII at high light and optimum temperature for wild-type Arabidopsis and a mutant (npq4-1) with impaired capacities for energy dissipation. Levels of PSII inactivation typical of natural conditions (< 50%) were not associated with decreases in PhiPSII and CO2 assimilation at photon flux densities (PFDs) above 150 micromol m(-2) s(-1). At higher PFDs, the light energy being absorbed was in excess of the energy that could be utilized by downstream processes. Arabidopsis plants downregulate PSII activity to dissipate such excess in accordance with the level of PSII photoinactivation that also serves to dissipate absorbed energy. Therefore, the overall levels of non-photochemical dissipation and the efficiency of photochemistry were not affected by PSII inactivation at high PFD. Under low PFD conditions, such compensation is not necessary, because the amount of light energy absorbed is not in excess of that needed for photochemistry, and inactive PSII complexes are dissipating energy. We conclude that moderate photoinactivation of PSII complexes will only affect plant performance when periods of high PFD are followed by periods of low PFD.

  13. Temperature dependence of electronic energy transfer and quenching in copolymer films of styrene and 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-vinylphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Donald B.; Scott, Gary W.; Coulter, Daniel R.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1991-01-01

    Quenching of the emission of both the polystyrene monomer and the excimer for a series of varying composition copolymer films of styrene and 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-vinylphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole is reported. The preponderance of quenching for both the monomer and excimer emissions is due to interception of the migrating excitation at the quencher site, although additional quenching results via long-range dipole-dipole energy transfer from the monomer and excimer traps to the quencher trap. The quenching of the monomer fluorescence and phosphorescence and that of the excimer fluorescence were found to be temperature independent over the ranges 14-58 and 191-296 K, respectively. Most significantly, it is concluded that the energy migration process is temperature independent over the range 14-296 K.

  14. Quiver-quenched optical-field-emission from carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chi; Zhou, Xu; Zhai, Feng; Li, Zhenjun; Yao, Fengrui; Qiao, Ruixi; Chen, Ke; Yu, Dapeng; Sun, Zhipei; Liu, Kaihui; Dai, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enable large electric field enhancement for an extremely broad bandwidth spanning from the optical domain down to static fields. This is due to their high aspect ratio, small tip radius, and high structural stability. CNTs therefore represent an ideal model-system for the investigation of nonlinear and strong-field phenomena. In this paper, we extend the range of optical-field-emission materials from metal nanostructures to CNTs. Quiver-quenched optical-field-emission (i.e., the transition to a sub-cycle regime) is observed for CNTs tips in a short-wavelength laser field of 820 nm that requires a mid-infrared excitation field of conventional metal tips emitters. This special property relies on the ultrasmall tips radius (˜1 nm) and the high optical-field enhancement (˜21.6) properties of CNTs. This study suggests that CNTs are excellent candidates for optically driven ultrafast electron sources with both high spatial and high temporal coherence. They also provide more freedom for the manipulation and control of electron dynamics at the attosecond timescale, which extends the bandwidth of light-wave electronic devices.

  15. Optical fiber sensor for nitroaromatic explosives based on fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fenghong

    2010-10-01

    The detection of explosives and related compounds is important in both forensic and environmental applications. In this paper, we report on the preparation of novel plastic optical fiber explosive sensor based on fluorescence quenching. A low priced LED light source and PIN detector were used in this sensor system, a U-shaped plastic optical fiber with high sensitivity act as sensor head. We use amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFP) MEH-PPV as fluorescence indictor. MEHPPV was dip coated on to the surface of the U-shaped plastic optical fiber. For the first time as far as we know we detected the fluorescence lifetime by the phase-fluorometry method to measure the concentration of TNT, which has a merit of immunity to fluctuation of the light source and is more reliable than measuring intensity alone. In the experimental set-up the phase shift between excitation light and fluorescence is calculated by correlation method. Two degree phase difference was measured when the sensor head was exposed to TNT vapor and air in primary experiments.

  16. Tunable nonequilibrium dynamics of field quenches in spin ice

    PubMed Central

    Mostame, Sarah; Castelnovo, Claudio; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji L.

    2014-01-01

    We present nonequilibrium physics in spin ice as a unique setting that combines kinematic constraints, emergent topological defects, and magnetic long-range Coulomb interactions. In spin ice, magnetic frustration leads to highly degenerate yet locally constrained ground states. Together, they form a highly unusual magnetic state—a “Coulomb phase”—whose excitations are point-like defects—magnetic monopoles—in the absence of which effectively no dynamics is possible. Hence, when they are sparse at low temperature, dynamics becomes very sluggish. When quenching the system from a monopole-rich to a monopole-poor state, a wealth of dynamical phenomena occur, the exposition of which is the subject of this article. Most notably, we find reaction diffusion behavior, slow dynamics owing to kinematic constraints, as well as a regime corresponding to the deposition of interacting dimers on a honeycomb lattice. We also identify potential avenues for detecting the magnetic monopoles in a regime of slow-moving monopoles. The interest in this model system is further enhanced by its large degree of tunability and the ease of probing it in experiment: With varying magnetic fields at different temperatures, geometric properties—including even the effective dimensionality of the system—can be varied. By monitoring magnetization, spin correlations or zero-field NMR, the dynamical properties of the system can be extracted in considerable detail. This establishes spin ice as a laboratory of choice for the study of tunable, slow dynamics. PMID:24379372

  17. Tunable nonequilibrium dynamics of field quenches in spin ice.

    PubMed

    Mostame, Sarah; Castelnovo, Claudio; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji L

    2014-01-14

    We present nonequilibrium physics in spin ice as a unique setting that combines kinematic constraints, emergent topological defects, and magnetic long-range Coulomb interactions. In spin ice, magnetic frustration leads to highly degenerate yet locally constrained ground states. Together, they form a highly unusual magnetic state--a "Coulomb phase"--whose excitations are point-like defects--magnetic monopoles--in the absence of which effectively no dynamics is possible. Hence, when they are sparse at low temperature, dynamics becomes very sluggish. When quenching the system from a monopole-rich to a monopole-poor state, a wealth of dynamical phenomena occur, the exposition of which is the subject of this article. Most notably, we find reaction diffusion behavior, slow dynamics owing to kinematic constraints, as well as a regime corresponding to the deposition of interacting dimers on a honeycomb lattice. We also identify potential avenues for detecting the magnetic monopoles in a regime of slow-moving monopoles. The interest in this model system is further enhanced by its large degree of tunability and the ease of probing it in experiment: With varying magnetic fields at different temperatures, geometric properties--including even the effective dimensionality of the system--can be varied. By monitoring magnetization, spin correlations or zero-field NMR, the dynamical properties of the system can be extracted in considerable detail. This establishes spin ice as a laboratory of choice for the study of tunable, slow dynamics.

  18. O2(a1Δ) quenching in O/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Postell, D.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-02-01

    The development of discharge singlet oxygen generators (DSOG's) that can operate at high pressures is required for the power scaling of the discharge oxygen iodine laser. In order to achieve efficient high-pressure DSOG operation it is important to understand the mechanisms by which singlet oxygen (O2(a1Δ)) is quenched in these devices. It has been proposed that three-body deactivation processes of the type O2(a1Δ))+O+M-->2O2+M provide significant energy loss channels. To further explore these reactions the physical and reactive quenching of O2(a1Δ)) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a1Δ)) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2 a1Δ-X3Ε transition. Fast quenching of O2(a1Δ)) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  19. Competition between solvent quenching and indole quenching of 9-fluorenone: a spectroscopic and computational study.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Crystal M; Poncheri, Adam J; Jennings, John T; Snyder, Deanna L; Worlinsky, Jill L; Basu, Swarna

    2010-02-01

    The interaction between 9-fluorenone, various indoles and solvents has been studied using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. It was determined that polar protic solvents such as methanol and ethanol significantly quenched the fluorescence of 9-fluorenone but various indoles reversed the solvent quenching. The effect of various solvents on the 9-fluorenone carbonyl vibration was investigated using infrared spectroscopy. Ab initio calculations using Gaussian03 were also carried out in order to determine the minimum energy conformations of these systems along with binding energies.

  20. Plasmon-Modulated Excitation-Dependent Fluorescence from Activated CTAB Molecules Strongly Coupled to Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Si-Jing; Nan, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Li; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Jie; Xu, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Excitation-dependent fluorophores (EDFs) have been attracted increasing attention owing to their high tunability of emissions and prospective applications ranging from multicolor patterning to bio-imaging. Here, we report tunable fluorescence with quenching dip induced by strong coupling of exciton and plasmon in the hybrid nanostructure of CTAB* EDFs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The quenching dip in the fluorescence spectrum is tuned by adjusting excitation wavelength as well as plasmon resonance and concentration of AuNPs. The observed excitation-dependent emission spectra with quenching dip are theoretically reproduced and revealed to be induced by resonant energy transfer from multilevel EDFs with wider width channels to plasmonic AuNPs. These findings provide a new approach to prepare EDF molecules and a strategy to modulate fluorescence spectrum via exciton-to-plasmon energy transfer. PMID:28266619

  1. Plasmon-Modulated Excitation-Dependent Fluorescence from Activated CTAB Molecules Strongly Coupled to Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ding, Si-Jing; Nan, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Li; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Jie; Xu, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2017-03-07

    Excitation-dependent fluorophores (EDFs) have been attracted increasing attention owing to their high tunability of emissions and prospective applications ranging from multicolor patterning to bio-imaging. Here, we report tunable fluorescence with quenching dip induced by strong coupling of exciton and plasmon in the hybrid nanostructure of CTAB* EDFs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The quenching dip in the fluorescence spectrum is tuned by adjusting excitation wavelength as well as plasmon resonance and concentration of AuNPs. The observed excitation-dependent emission spectra with quenching dip are theoretically reproduced and revealed to be induced by resonant energy transfer from multilevel EDFs with wider width channels to plasmonic AuNPs. These findings provide a new approach to prepare EDF molecules and a strategy to modulate fluorescence spectrum via exciton-to-plasmon energy transfer.

  2. Plasmon-Modulated Excitation-Dependent Fluorescence from Activated CTAB Molecules Strongly Coupled to Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Si-Jing; Nan, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Li; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Jie; Xu, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2017-03-01

    Excitation-dependent fluorophores (EDFs) have been attracted increasing attention owing to their high tunability of emissions and prospective applications ranging from multicolor patterning to bio-imaging. Here, we report tunable fluorescence with quenching dip induced by strong coupling of exciton and plasmon in the hybrid nanostructure of CTAB* EDFs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The quenching dip in the fluorescence spectrum is tuned by adjusting excitation wavelength as well as plasmon resonance and concentration of AuNPs. The observed excitation-dependent emission spectra with quenching dip are theoretically reproduced and revealed to be induced by resonant energy transfer from multilevel EDFs with wider width channels to plasmonic AuNPs. These findings provide a new approach to prepare EDF molecules and a strategy to modulate fluorescence spectrum via exciton-to-plasmon energy transfer.

  3. Transient Loschmidt Echo and Orthogonality Catastrophe in highly excited Quantum Ising Spin Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiro, Marco; Lupo, Carla

    We study the response to sudden local perturbations of highly excited Quantum Ising Spin Chains. The key quantity encoding this response is the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write as a transient Loschmidt echo. We compute the Echo perturbatively in the case of a weak local quench and study its asymptotics at long times, which contains crucial information about the structure of the highly excited non-equilibrium environment induced by the quench. Our results reveal that the Echo decays exponentially, rather than power law as in the low-energy Orthogonality Catastrophe, a further example of quench-induced decoherence. The emerging decoherence scale is set by the strenght of the local potential and the bulk excitation energy. In addition, the transient evolution features aging behavior at the Ising quantum critical point.

  4. Quenching and enhancement of fluorescence of fullerene molecules on gold particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian; Fang, Yan

    2006-04-01

    The fluorescence spectra of fullerene were first observed to change greatly in the system of C 60/C 70-pyridine-gold hydrosol, due to the adsorption of the fullerene molecules on the gold nanoparticles. The energy transfers between C 60 molecules and gold nanoparticles, leading to the quenching and enhancement of fluorescence bands centered at 450 and 700 nm, respectively. The fluorescence bands in the range from 550 to 800 nm of C 70 are enhanced, arising from the increased local field intensity through the excitation of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles.

  5. A simple holographic scenario for gapped quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Esperanza; del Bosch, Guillermo Milans

    2017-02-01

    We construct gravitational backgrounds dual to a family of field theories parameterized by a relevant coupling. They combine a non-trivial scalar field profile with a naked singularity. The naked singularity is necessary to preserve Lorentz invariance along the boundary directions. The singularity is however excised by introducing an infrared cutoff in the geometry. The holographic dictionary associated to the infrared boundary is developed. We implement quenches between two different values of the coupling. This requires considering time dependent boundary conditions for the scalar field both at the AdS boundary and the infrared wall.

  6. Jet Quenching Beyond the Energy Loss Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Grigory

    2015-02-01

    We study the jet quenching effect in heavy ion collisions, based on medium-induced splitting functions calculated from Soft Collinear Effective Theory with Glauber Gluons. Our method is formulated in the language of DGLAP evolution equations with medium-induced splitting functions. In the small-x soft gluon approximation we analytically solve the evolution equations and find an intuitive connection to the energy loss approach. For central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC we quantify the effect of finite-x corrections for the nuclear modification factor and compare to data.

  7. Resistance to Quorum-Quenching Compounds

    PubMed Central

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Maeda, Toshinari

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have the remarkable ability to communicate as a group in what has become known as quorum sensing (QS), and this trait has been associated with important bacterial phenotypes, such as virulence and biofilm formation. Bacteria also have an incredible ability to evolve resistance to all known antimicrobials. Hence, although inhibition of QS has been hailed as a means to reduce virulence in a manner that is impervious to bacterial resistance mechanisms, this approach is unlikely to be a panacea. Here we review the evidence that bacteria can evolve resistance to quorum-quenching compounds. PMID:24014536

  8. Missing and Quenched Gamow-Teller Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caurier, E.; Poves, A.; Zuker, A. P.

    1995-02-01

    Gamow-Teller strength functions in the resonance region are calculated in the full \\(pf\\)8 space. The observed profile is very sensitive to the level density and may become so diluted as to be confused with background. A model independent proof is given that standard quenching originates in nuclear correlations, and that some 30% of the total strength must be due to states outside the \\(pf\\)8 space. By combining this argument with the results of shell model calculations, comparison with the 48Ca\\(p,n\\)48Sc experimental data strongly suggest that most of the strength that is currently thought to be missing is actually observed.

  9. Counting defects in an instantaneous quench.

    PubMed

    Ibaceta, D; Calzetta, E

    1999-09-01

    We consider the formation of defects in a nonequilibrium second-order phase transition induced by an instantaneous quench to zero temperature in a type II superconductor. We perform a full nonlinear simulation where we follow the evolution in time of the local order parameter field. We determine how far into the phase transition theoretical estimates of the defect density based on the Gaussian approximation yield a reliable prediction for the actual density. We also characterize quantitatively some aspects of the out of equilibrium phase transition.

  10. The excitation of O2 in auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Newly measured electron impact cross sections for excitation of the a 1 Delta g and b 1 Sigma g+ electronic states of O2 were employed to predict the absolute volume emission rates from these states under auroral conditions. A secondary electron electron flux typical of an IBC II nighttime aurora was used and the most important quenching processes were included in the calculations. The new excitation cross sections for the a 1 Delta g and b 1 Sigma g+ states are more than an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates, and lead to correspondingly greater intensities in the atmospheric and IR-atmospheric band systems. The calculated intensity ratios of the volume emission rates of 7621 A and 1.27 microns to that for 3914 A are smaller than obtained from aircraft observations and recent rocket experiments.

  11. The excitation of O2 in auroras.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W.

    1972-01-01

    Newly measured electron impact cross sections for excitation of the a super 1 Delta sub g and b super 1 Sigma (plus) sub g electronic states of O2 have been employed to predict the absolute volume emission rates from these states under auroral conditions. A secondary electron flux typical of an IBC II nighttime aurora was used, and the most important quenching processes were included in the calculations. The new excitation cross sections for the a super 1 Delta sub g and b super 1 Sigma (plus) sub g states are more than an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates and lead to correspondingly greater intensities in the atmospheric and IR atmospheric band systems. The calculated intensity ratios of the volume emission rates of 7621 A and 1.27 micron to that for 3914 A are smaller than those obtained from aircraft observations and recent rocket experiments.

  12. Reevaluating the mechanism of excitation energy regulation in iron-starved cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Yuan S; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents spectroscopic investigations of IsiA, a chlorophyll a-binding membrane protein produced by cyanobacteria grown in iron-deficient environments. IsiA, if associated with photosystem I, supports photosystem I in light harvesting by efficiently transferring excitation energy. However, if separated from photosystem I, IsiA exhibits considerable excitation quenching observed as a substantial reduction of protein-bound chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime. Previous spectroscopic studies suggested that carotenoids are involved in excitation energy dissipation and in addition play a second role in this antenna complex by supporting chlorophyll a in light harvesting by absorbing in the spectral range inaccessible for chlorophyll a and transferring excitation to chlorophylls. However, this investigation does not support these proposed roles of carotenoids in this light harvesting protein. This study shows that carotenoids do not transfer excitation energy to chlorophyll a. In addition, our investigations do not support the hypothesis that carotenoids are quenchers of the excited state of chlorophyll a in this protein complex. We propose that quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence in IsiA is maintained by pigment-protein interaction via electron transfer from an excited chlorophyll a to a cysteine residue, an excitation quenching mechanism that was recently proposed to regulate the light harvesting capabilities of the bacteriochlorophyll a-containing Fenna-Mathews-Olson protein from green sulfur bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  14. Light quenching and dark states in colloidal solutions of semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. V.; Panfutova, A. S.; Shilov, V. B.; Belousova, I. M.; Ermolaeva, G. M.; Khrebtov, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The photodynamics of optical limiting in colloidal solutions of different-size CdSe/ZnS quantum dots is studied. The behavior of the dependences points to a multistage process that includes the bleaching and optical limiting stages. The limiting photodynamics is compared with luminescence dynamics of quantum dots under conditions of high-power excitation. It is shown that the optical limiting efficiency in such media is determined by the position of exciting radiation with respect to the main exciton absorption band of the quantum dot. The roles played by so-called dark states and light quenching in limiting photodynamics are discussed.

  15. Quench dynamics in SRF cavities: can we locate the quench origin with 2nd sound?

    SciTech Connect

    Maximenko, Yulia; Segatskov, Dmitri A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A newly developed method of locating quenches in SRF cavities by detecting second-sound waves has been gaining popularity in SRF laboratories. The technique is based on measurements of time delays between the quench as determined by the RF system and arrival of the second-sound wave to the multiple detectors placed around the cavity in superfluid helium. Unlike multi-channel temperature mapping, this approach requires only a few sensors and simple readout electronics; it can be used with SRF cavities of almost arbitrary shape. One of its drawbacks is that being an indirect method it requires one to solve an inverse problem to find the location of a quench. We tried to solve this inverse problem by using a parametric forward model. By analyzing the data we found that the approximation where the second-sound emitter is a near-singular source does not describe the physical system well enough. A time-dependent analysis of the quench process can help us to put forward a more adequate model. We present here our current algorithm to solve the inverse problem and discuss the experimental results.

  16. Investigating Galaxy Quenching With The Sdss: Stellar Metallicities As A Tracer Of Quenching Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trussler, James; Maiolino, Roberto; Goddard, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Peng, Yingjie

    2017-06-01

    Peng et al. (2015, Nature, 521, 192) analysed stellar metallicities of 26,000 SDSS galaxies and found that galaxies with stellar masses below 1011 solar masses are primarily quenched due to the halting of the supply of cold gas (strangulation). We take this analysis further by making use of the much larger spectroscopic sample of galaxies in SDSS DR7, analysing the stellar metallicities of 70,000 local galaxies. We compare the observed stellar metallicity difference between star-forming and passive galaxies with the predictions of simple models for galaxy evolution to put constraints on the possible quenching mechanisms and timescales. We find that the observed stellar metallicity differences are well reproduced by closed-box models, indicating that local galaxies quench primarily through strangulation over a mass-independent timescale of 2 Gyr. We also investigate the dependence of galaxy quenching on environment, in terms of both the central/satellite dichotomy and the local overdensity. We find that there is no strong dependence of the stellar metallicity difference on the overdensity, even over an overdensity range of 2 dex. This result further suggests that the environment cannot be solely responsible for galaxy strangulation.

  17. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions by SmI2 in THF: luminescence quenching studies and mechanistic investigations.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Edamana; Knettle, Brian W; Flowers, Robert A

    2005-05-06

    Photoluminescence quenching studies of SmI2 in dry THF were carried out in the presence of five different classes of compounds: ketone, alkyl chloride, nitrile, alkene and imine. The free energy change (DeltaG0) of the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) reactions was calculated from the redox potentials of the donor (SmI2) and acceptors. The bimolecular quenching constants (k(q)) derived from the Stern-Volmer experiments parallel the free energy changes of the PET processes. The observed quenching constants were compared with the theoretically derived electron transfer rate constants (k(et)) from Marcus theory and found to be in good agreement when a value of lambda = 167 kJ mol(-1) (40 kcal mol(-1)) was used for the reorganization energy of the system. A careful comparison of the excited state dynamics of SmII in the solid state to the results obtained in solution (THF) provides new insight in to the excited states of SmII in THF. The activation parameters determined for the PET reactions in SmI2/1-chlorobutane system are consistent with a less ordered transition state and high degree of bond reorganization in the activated complex compared to similar ground state reactions. Irradiation studies clearly show that SmI2 acts as a better reductant in the excited state and provides an alternative pathway for rate enhancement in known and novel functional group reductions.

  18. Holographic quenches towards a Lifshitz point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo, Giancarlo; Cuadros-Melgar, Bertha; Abdalla, Elcio

    2016-02-01

    We use the holographic duality to study quantum quenches of a strongly coupled CFT that drive the theory towards a non-relativistic fixed point with Lifshitz scaling. We consider the case of a Lifshitz dynamical exponent z close to unity, where the non-relativistic field theory can be understood as a specific deformation of the corresponding CFT and, hence, the standard holographic dictionary can be applied. On the gravity side this amounts to finding a dynamical bulk solution which interpolates between AdS and Lishitz spacetimes as time evolves. We show that an asymptotically Lifshitz black hole is always formed in the final state. This indicates that it is impossible to reach the vacuum state of the Lifshitz theory from the CFT vacuum as a result of the proposed quenching mechanism. The nonequilibrium dynamics following the breaking of the relativistic scaling symmetry is also probed using both local and non-local observables. In particular, we conclude that the equilibration process happens in a top-down manner, i.e., the symmetry is broken faster for UV modes.

  19. Heat transfer during quenching of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambraziavichius, A.

    Results of theoretical and experimental investigations of gas-side heat transfer of subsonic laminar or turbulent flows of diatomic gases (air or nitrogen) heated to 5000 K in cold-wall pipes are presented. While determining the mixing length, physical parameters which consider local temperatures of the boundary layer were adopted. Thus, the generalized fields of velocities and temperatures in the turbulent region of the boundary layer are identical for both moderate and high gas temperature ranges, and Pr-sub-t may be considered constant and approximately equal to 0.9. The temperature level of gases in turblent flow is shown to insignificantly affect heat transfer equations, provided the physical parameters in the similarity numbers are chosen according to the bulk flow temperature. A calculation technique is developed for heat transfer of dissociated diatomic gases in annular and rectangular channels, in slots, and over bundles of square tubes in cross flow. Also, a relation is shown between the heat transfer coefficient, quenching velocity, and nitrogen oxide concentration in the air exhaust of a nitrogen oxide quenching apparatus.

  20. Exotic mesons in quenched lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, C.; Hetrick, J.E.; DeGrand, T.A.; Wingate, M.; DeTar, C.; McNeile, C. |; Gottlieb, S.; Heller, U.M.; Rummukainen, K.; Sugar, B.; Toussaint, D. |

    1997-12-01

    Since gluons in QCD are interacting fundamental constituents just as quarks are, we expect that in addition to mesons made from a quark and an antiquark, there should also be glueballs and hybrids (bound states of quarks, antiquarks, and gluons). In general, these states would mix strongly with the conventional {bar q}q mesons. However, they can also have exotic quantum numbers inaccessible to {bar q}q mesons. Confirmation of such states would give information on the role of {open_quotes}dynamical{close_quotes} color in low energy QCD. In the quenched approximation we present a lattice calculation of the masses of mesons with exotic quantum numbers. These hybrid mesons can mix with four quark ({bar q}{bar q}qq) states. The quenched approximation partially suppresses this mixing. Nonetheless, our hybrid interpolating fields also couple to four quark states. Using a four-quark source operator, we demonstrate this mixing for the 1{sup {minus}+} meson. Using the conventional Wilson quark action, we calculate both at reasonably light quark masses, intending to extrapolate to small quark mass, and near the charmed quark mass, where we calculate the masses of some {bar c}cg hybrid mesons. The hybrid meson masses are large {emdash} over 4 GeV for charmonium and more than twice the vector meson mass at our smallest quark mass, which is near the strange quark mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Quench propagation delay due to copper wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; McInturff, A.D.; Hanft, R.W.; Mazur, P.O.

    1986-01-01

    The superconducting magnet design style selected for the SSC dipoles is 16.6 m long and incorporates copper wedges in the windings in order to achieve the required magnetic field uniformity. Recent studies of quench propagation in a 4 m model, SLN-012 at BNL, have been carried out in order to prove the feasibility of self-protection for these magnets in the event of a quench. This feature would dispense with an active protection system like the one used in the Fermilab Energy Saver. These studies, however, require the knowledge of how the copper wedges affect the transverse spreading of normal zones needed in the self-protecting scheme. It is not clear that such information can be obtained with the short (1 m long) prototypes about to be tested since the time for the normal zone to cross over a wedge might be of the order of or longer than the time it takes for it to reach the other side of the wedge by propagation along the cable. Well instrumented long prototype magnets are months away from availability. Calculations that take into account the effect of the Kapton insulation, helium in the interstices and other significant details do not exist or have not been tested. Therefore we have measured the delay that the copper wedges introduce in the transverse (azimuthal) propagation of the normal zone in an experimental simulation of these magnets.

  2. System and method for quench protection of a superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Xianrui; Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba Haran; Bray, James William; Ryan, David Thomas

    2008-03-11

    A system and method for protecting a superconductor from a quench condition. A quench protection system is provided to protect the superconductor from damage due to a quench condition. The quench protection system comprises a voltage detector operable to detect voltage across the superconductor. The system also comprises a frequency filter coupled to the voltage detector. The frequency filter is operable to couple voltage signals to a control circuit that are representative of a rise in superconductor voltage caused by a quench condition and to block voltage signals that are not. The system is operable to detect whether a quench condition exists in the superconductor based on the voltage signal received via the frequency filter and to initiate a protective action in response.

  3. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signalling Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kar-Wai; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing), others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching), thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes “signalling confusion”, a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching. PMID:22666051

  4. Non-self-averaging nucleation rate due to quenched disorder.

    PubMed

    Sear, Richard P

    2012-02-08

    We study the nucleation of a new thermodynamic phase in the presence of quenched disorder. The quenched disorder is a generic model of both impurities and disordered porous media; both are known to have large effects on nucleation. We find that the nucleation rate is non-self-averaging. This is in a simple Ising model with clusters of quenched spins. We also show that non-self-averaging behaviour is straightforward to detect in experiments, and may be rather common.

  5. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  6. Mechanism of phosphorescence quenching in photomagnetic molecules determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, A.; Naidu, S. V. N.

    1994-01-01

    Platinum Octaethyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state (T(sub 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen (O2) molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the (T(sub 1)-S(sub 0)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic S(sub n) singlet states, which feed T(sub 1) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be the magnetic T(sub 1) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of (S(sub n).02) complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the T(sub 1) states (i.e. quench phosphorescence). This is possible since higher triplet states in (Pt-OEP) are admixed with the S(sub n) states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are discussed in this paper.

  7. Mechanism of phosphorescence quenching in photomagnetic molecules determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, A.; Naidu, S. V. N.

    1994-01-01

    Platinum Octaethyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state (T(sub 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen (O2) molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the (T(sub 1) - S(sub 0)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic S(sub n) singlet states, which feed T(sub 1) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be the magnetic T(sub 1) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of (S(sub n) central dot O2) complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the T(sub 1) states (i.e. quench phosphorescence). This is possible since higher triplet states in (Pt.OEP) are admixed with the S(sub n) states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are discussed in this paper.

  8. Sudden and Slow Quenches into the Antiferromagnetic Phase of Ultracold Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojekhile, Monika; Höppner, Robert; Moritz, Henning; Mathey, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    We propose a method to reach the antiferromagnetic state of two-dimensional Fermi gases trapped in optical lattices: Independent subsystems are prepared in suitable initial states and then connected by a sudden or slow quench of the tunneling between the subsystems. Examples of suitable low-entropy subsystems are double wells or plaquettes, which can be experimentally realised in Mott insulating shells using optical super-lattices. We estimate the effective temperature T* of the system after the quench by calculating the distribution of excitations created using the spin wave approximation in a Heisenberg model. We investigate the effect of an initial staggered magnetic field and find that for an optimal polarisation of the initial state the effective temperature can be significantly reduced from T*≈1.7 Tc at zero polarisation to T*<0.65Tc, where Tc is the crossover temperature to the antiferromagnetic state. The temperature can be further reduced using a finite quench time. We also show that T* decreases logarithmically with the linear size of the subsystem.

  9. Flux quench in a system of interacting spinless fermions in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yuya O.; Misguich, Grégoire; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    We study a quantum quench in a one-dimensional spinless fermion model (equivalent to the XXZ spin chain), where a magnetic flux is suddenly switched off. This quench is equivalent to imposing a pulse of electric field and therefore generates an initial particle current. This current is not a conserved quantity in the presence of a lattice and interactions, and we investigate numerically its time evolution after the quench, using the infinite time-evolving block decimation method. For repulsive interactions or large initial flux, we find oscillations that are governed by excitations deep inside the Fermi sea. At long times we observe that the current remains nonvanishing in the gapless cases, whereas it decays to zero in the gapped cases. Although the linear response theory (valid for a weak flux) predicts the same long-time limit of the current for repulsive and attractive interactions (relation with the zero-temperature Drude weight), larger nonlinearities are observed in the case of repulsive interactions compared with that of the attractive case.

  10. Sr3Bi(PO4)3:Eu2+ Luminescence, Concentration Quenching and Crystallographic Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shao-Jie; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zi-Cai; Li, Pan-Lai; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Ping

    2014-07-01

    A blue emitting phosphor Sr3Bi(PO4)3:Eu2+ is synthesized by a high-temperature solid state method, and its luminescent property is investigated. Sr3Bi(PO4)3:Eu2+ can create blue emission under the 332 radiation excitation, and the prominent luminescence in blue (423 nm) due to the 4f 5d1 →4 f7 transition of the Eu2+ ion. The crystallographic sites of the Eu2+ ion in Sr3Bi(PO4)3 are analyzed, and the 420 and 440 nm emission peaks of the Eu2+ ion are assigned to the nine-coordination and eight-coordination, respectively. The emission intensity of Sr3Bi(PO4)3:Eu2+ is influenced by the Eu2+ doping content, and the concentration quenching effect is observed. The quenching mechanism is the dipole-dipole interaction, and the critical distance of energy transfer is calculated by the concentration quenching method to be approximately 1.72 nm.

  11. An Intelligent Optical Dissolved Oxygen Measurement Method Based on a Fluorescent Quenching Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengmei; Wei, Yaoguang; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Daoliang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-12-09

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key factor that influences the healthy growth of fishes in aquaculture. The DO content changes with the aquatic environment and should therefore be monitored online. However, traditional measurement methods, such as iodometry and other chemical analysis methods, are not suitable for online monitoring. The Clark method is not stable enough for extended periods of monitoring. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent DO measurement method based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The measurement system is composed of fluorescent quenching detection, signal conditioning, intelligent processing, and power supply modules. The optical probe adopts the fluorescent quenching mechanism to detect the DO content and solves the problem, whereas traditional chemical methods are easily influenced by the environment. The optical probe contains a thermistor and dual excitation sources to isolate visible parasitic light and execute a compensation strategy. The intelligent processing module adopts the IEEE 1451.2 standard and realizes intelligent compensation. Experimental results show that the optical measurement method is stable, accurate, and suitable for online DO monitoring in aquaculture applications.

  12. An Intelligent Optical Dissolved Oxygen Measurement Method Based on a Fluorescent Quenching Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengmei; Wei, Yaoguang; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Daoliang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key factor that influences the healthy growth of fishes in aquaculture. The DO content changes with the aquatic environment and should therefore be monitored online. However, traditional measurement methods, such as iodometry and other chemical analysis methods, are not suitable for online monitoring. The Clark method is not stable enough for extended periods of monitoring. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent DO measurement method based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The measurement system is composed of fluorescent quenching detection, signal conditioning, intelligent processing, and power supply modules. The optical probe adopts the fluorescent quenching mechanism to detect the DO content and solves the problem, whereas traditional chemical methods are easily influenced by the environment. The optical probe contains a thermistor and dual excitation sources to isolate visible parasitic light and execute a compensation strategy. The intelligent processing module adopts the IEEE 1451.2 standard and realizes intelligent compensation. Experimental results show that the optical measurement method is stable, accurate, and suitable for online DO monitoring in aquaculture applications. PMID:26690176

  13. Investigation of Oxygen-Induced Quenching of Phosphorescence in Photoexcited Aromatic Molecules by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1996-01-01

    Platinum OctaEthyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state P(T(Sup 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen O2 molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the P(T(Sup 1) approaches P(S(Sub O)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic singlet states P(S(Sub n)), which feed P(T(Sub 1)) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be only the magnetic P(T(Sub 1)) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of O2P(S(Sub n)), complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the P(T(Sub 1)) states (i.e., quench phosphorescence). This reduction is possible because higher triplet states in (Pt.OEP) are admixed with the P(S(Sub 1)), states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are presented in this paper.

  14. Accumulation of Zeaxanthin in Abscisic Acid-Deficient Mutants of Arabidopsis Does Not Affect Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching or Sensitivity to Photoinhibition in Vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Hurry, V.; Anderson, J. M.; Chow, W. S.; Osmond, C. B.

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis do not synthesize the epoxy-xanthophylls antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, or neoxanthin. However, thylakoid membranes from these mutants contain 3-fold more zeaxanthin than wild-type plants. This increase in zeaxanthin occurs as a stoichiometric replacement of the missing violaxanthin and neoxanthin within the pigment-protein complexes of both photosystem I and photosystem II (PSII). The retention of zeaxanthin in the dark by ABA-deficient mutants sensitizes the leaves to the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) during the first 2 to 4 min following a dark-light transition. However, the increase in pool size does not result in any increase in steady-state NPQ. When we exposed wild-type and ABA-deficient mutants leaves to twice growth irradiance, the mutants developed lower maximal NPQ but suffered similar photoinhibition to wildtype, measured both as a decline in the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence and as a loss of functional PSII centers from oxygen flash yield measurements. These results suggest that only a few of the zeaxanthin molecules present within the light-harvesting antenna of PSII may be involved in NPQ and neither the accumulation of a large pool of zeaxanthin within the antenna of PSII nor an increase in conversion of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin will necessarily enhance photoprotective energy dissipation. PMID:12223632

  15. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. Final report, August 4, 1986--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1997-12-31

    The techniques of continuous photolysis and pulsed laser flash photolysis, continuous and pulse radiolysis, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, and time-resolved fluorimetry have been used to examine intramolecular electron transfer within the solvent quenching cage, photodynamics of quenching of the excited states of transition-metal photosensitizers, the properties of excites states and one-electron reduced forms, ground- and excited-state interactions with solutes, and photoinduced oxidations of organic solutes in aqueous solution. The following specific areas were examined: (1) the parameters that govern the yields of redox products from excited-state electron-transfer quenching reactions; (2) the mediation of the properties of excited states and one-electron reduced forms by the ligands and the solution medium; (3) the effect of the interactions between the ground state of the complex and the solution components on the behavior of the excited state; (4) the yields of singlet oxygen from excited-state energy-transfer quenching by O{sub 2}; and (5) the oxidations of solutes by singlet oxygen, excited-state electron-transfer quenching, and free radicals. This report contains the abstracts of 50 publications describing the studies.

  16. Studies of quench propagation in a superconducting window frame magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Allinger, J.; Carroll, A.; Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Leonhardt, M.; Prodell, A.; Stoehr, R.

    1981-01-01

    During the testing of a meter long, superconducting window frame magnet, information from many spontaneously generated quenches have been recorded by an on-line computer system. Nearly every layer in an eleven layer dipole had a voltage tap and for some layers this subdivided into two halves. This allowed us to study development of the quenches in some detail. Knowledge of the resistances throughout the magnet also allowed the temperature distributions in the superconducting windings to be determined. A qualitative picture of the quench was developed and quantitative values of quench propagation velocities were compared to heat transfer calculations.

  17. Simulations of Cold Electroweak Baryogenesis: finding the optimal quench time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Zong-Gang; Saffin, Paul M.; Tranberg, Anders

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the numerical computation of the baryon asymmetry from Cold Electroweak Baryogenesis given the physical Higgs mass. We investigate the dependence of the asymmetry on the speed at which electroweak symmetry breaking takes place. The maximum asymmetry does not occur for arbitrarily fast quenches, but at quench times of about τ q ≃ 16 m H - 1 , with no asymmetry created for quenches slower than τ q > 30 m H - 1 . Curiously, we also find that the overall sign of the asymmetry depends on the quench time.

  18. Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base by two amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Selvarani, P.; Chenthamarai, S.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base (RhB) in DMF solution has been studied at different concentrations of the amine Triethyl amine (TEA) and n-butyl amine (NBA) at room temperature. It has been observed that the fluorescence intensity of RhB decrease with increase in the concentration of the TEA and NBA. It has been observed that the quenching due to amines proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The rate constants for the quenching process have been calculated using Stern-Volmer equation. Time resolved fluorescence study and 1H NMR spectral study have also been carried out and discussed.

  19. Intense electron-beam excitation of organic dye vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Marowsky, G.; Tittel, F.K.; Wilson, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies of electron-beam excitation of organic dye vapors of p-phenylene-bis-(5-phenyl-2-oxazole) POPOP and p-quaterphenyl have demonstrated short-duration high-gain and super-radiant laser behavior accompanied by severe fluorescence quenching due to dye fragmentation. This has been analyzed quantitatively by evaluation of the nitrogen fluorescence, originating from the complete breakdown of the POPOP structure.

  20. Excited states in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N

    2009-11-30

    A review of investigations of kinetic processes in active media oxygen - iodine lasers (OILs) performed in the last decade is presented. The mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited O{sub 2} and I{sub 2} molecules are considered, and dissociation mechanisms of I{sub 2} in the active medium of the OIL are analysed. The values of kinetic constants of processes proceeding in the active media of OILs are recommended. (review)

  1. Flavor-singlet baryons in the graded symmetry approach to partially quenched QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jonathan M. M.; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2016-11-01

    Progress in the calculation of the electromagnetic properties of baryon excitations in lattice QCD presents new challenges in the determination of sea-quark loop contributions to matrix elements. A reliable estimation of the sea-quark loop contributions represents a pressing issue in the accurate comparison of lattice QCD results with experiment. In this article, an extension of the graded symmetry approach to partially quenched QCD is presented, which builds on previous theory by explicitly including flavor-singlet baryons in its construction. The formalism takes into account the interactions among both octet and singlet baryons, octet mesons, and their ghost counterparts; the latter enables the isolation of the quark-flow disconnected sea-quark loop contributions. The introduction of flavor-singlet states enables systematic studies of the internal structure of Λ -baryon excitations in lattice QCD, including the topical Λ (1405 ).

  2. The Inductive Coupling of the Magnets in MICE and its Effect onQuench Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Witte, Holger

    2005-09-08

    The inductive coupling between various MICE magnet circuits is described. The consequences of this coupling on magnet charging and quenching are discussed. Magnet quench protection is achieved through the use of quench-back. Calculations of the quenching of a magnet due to quench-back resulting from circulating currents induced in the magnet mandrel due to quenching of an adjacent magnet are discussed. This report describes how the MICE magnet channel will react when magnets in that channel are quenched.

  3. Experimental methods for quenching structures in lunar-analog silicate melts: Variations as a function of quench media and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions analogous to lunar green, organge, and brown glasses were synthesized under consistent conditions, then quenched into a variety of different media when the samples were removed from the furnace. Iron valence and coordination are a direct function of quench media used, spanning the range from brine/ice (most effective quench), water, butyl phthalate, silicone oil, liquid nitrogen, highly reducing CO-CO2 gas, to air (least efficient quench). In the green and brown glasses, Fe(3+) in four-fold and six-fold coordination is observed in the slowest-quenched samples; Fe(2+) coordination varies directly with quench efficiency. Less pronounced changes were observed in the Ti-rich orange glass. Therefore the remote-sensed spectrum of a glass-bearing regolith on the Moon may be influenced by the process by which the glass cooled, and extreme caution must be used when comparing spectra of synthetic glass analogs with real lunar glasses.

  4. Experimental methods for quenching structures in lunar-analog silicate melts - Variations as a function of quench media and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Compositions analogous to lunar green, orange, and brown glasses were synthesized under consistent conditions, then quenched into a variety of different media when the samples were removed from the furnace. Iron valence and coordination are a direct function of quench media used, spanning the range from brine/ice (most effective quench), water, butyl phthalate, silicone oil, liquid nitrogen, highly reducing CO-CO2 gas, to air (least efficient quench). In the green and brown glasses, Fe(3+) in four-fold and six-fold coordination is observed in the slowest-quenched samples; Fe(2+) coordination varies directly with quench efficiency. Less pronounced changes were observed in the Ti-rich orange glass. Therefore the remote-sensed spectrum of a glass-bearing regolith on the moon may be influenced by the process by which the glass cooled, and extreme caution must be used when comparing spectra of synthetic glass analogs with real lunar glasses.

  5. Experimental methods for quenching structures in lunar-analog silicate melts - Variations as a function of quench media and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Compositions analogous to lunar green, orange, and brown glasses were synthesized under consistent conditions, then quenched into a variety of different media when the samples were removed from the furnace. Iron valence and coordination are a direct function of quench media used, spanning the range from brine/ice (most effective quench), water, butyl phthalate, silicone oil, liquid nitrogen, highly reducing CO-CO2 gas, to air (least efficient quench). In the green and brown glasses, Fe(3+) in four-fold and six-fold coordination is observed in the slowest-quenched samples; Fe(2+) coordination varies directly with quench efficiency. Less pronounced changes were observed in the Ti-rich orange glass. Therefore the remote-sensed spectrum of a glass-bearing regolith on the moon may be influenced by the process by which the glass cooled, and extreme caution must be used when comparing spectra of synthetic glass analogs with real lunar glasses.

  6. Experimental methods for quenching structures in lunar-analog silicate melts: Variations as a function of quench media and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions analogous to lunar green, organge, and brown glasses were synthesized under consistent conditions, then quenched into a variety of different media when the samples were removed from the furnace. Iron valence and coordination are a direct function of quench media used, spanning the range from brine/ice (most effective quench), water, butyl phthalate, silicone oil, liquid nitrogen, highly reducing CO-CO2 gas, to air (least efficient quench). In the green and brown glasses, Fe(3+) in four-fold and six-fold coordination is observed in the slowest-quenched samples; Fe(2+) coordination varies directly with quench efficiency. Less pronounced changes were observed in the Ti-rich orange glass. Therefore the remote-sensed spectrum of a glass-bearing regolith on the Moon may be influenced by the process by which the glass cooled, and extreme caution must be used when comparing spectra of synthetic glass analogs with real lunar glasses.

  7. Driving magnetic order in a manganite by ultrafast lattice excitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Forst, M.; Tobey, R. I.; Wall, S.; Bromberger, H.; Khanna, V.; Cavalieri, A. L.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, W. S.; Moore, R.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Krupin, O.; Trigo, M.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Hill, J. P.; Cavalleri, A.

    2011-01-01

    Femtosecond midinfrared pulses are used to directly excite the lattice of the single-layer manganite La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. Magnetic and orbital orders, as measured by femtosecond resonant soft x-ray diffraction with an x-ray free-electron laser, are reduced within a few picoseconds. This effect is interpreted as a displacive exchange quench, a prompt shift in the equilibrium value of the magnetic- and orbital-order parameters after the lattice has been distorted. Control of magnetism through ultrafast lattice excitation may be of use for high-speed optomagnetism.

  8. The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Long Solenoids with Coil Sub-division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Guo, XingLong; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong

    2009-10-19

    This paper describes how a passive quench protection system can be applied to long superconducting solenoid magnets. When a solenoid coil is long compared to its thickness, the magnet quench process will be dominated by the time needed for uench propagation along the magnet length. Quench-back will permit a long magnet to quench more rapidly in a passive way. Quenchback from a conductive (low resistivity) mandrel is essential for spreading the quench along the length of a magnet. The andrel must be inductively coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. Current induced in the mandrel by di/dt in the magnet produces heat in the mandrel, which in turn causes the superconducting coil wound on the mandrel to quench. Sub-divisions often employed to reduce the voltages to ground within the coil. This paper explores when it is possible for quench-back to be employed for passive quench protection. The role of sub-division of the coil is discussed for long magnets.

  9. An Artificial Ising System with Phononic Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Hamed; Griffith, W. Ashley; Benson, Philip; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems and problems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we report mapping collective phononic excitations from different sources of crystal vibrations to spin systems. The phononic excitations in our experiments are due to micro and nano cracking (yielding crackling noises due to lattice distortion). We develop real time mapping of the multi-array senores to a network-space and then mapping the excitation- networks to spin-like systems. We show that new mapped system satisfies the quench (impulsive) characteristics of the Ising model in 2D classical spin systems. In particular, we show that our artificial Ising system transits between two ground states and approaching the critical point accompanies with a very short time frozen regime, inducing formation of domains separated by kinks. For a cubic-test under a true triaxial test (3D case), we map the system to a 6-spin ring under a transversal-driving field where using functional multiplex networks, the vector components of the spin are inferred (i.e., XY model). By visualization of spin patterns of the ring per each event, we demonstrate that ``kinks'' (as defects) proliferate when system approach from above to its critical point. We support our observations with employing recorded acoustic excitations during distortion of crystal lattices in nano-indentation tests on different crystals (silicon and graphite), triaxial loading test on rock (poly-crystal) samples and a true 3D triaxial test.

  10. Dynamo quenching due to shear flow.

    PubMed

    Leprovost, Nicolas; Kim, Eun-jin

    2008-04-11

    We provide a theory of dynamo (alpha effect) and momentum transport in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. For the first time, we show that the alpha effect is reduced by the shear even in the absence of magnetic field. The alpha effect is further suppressed by magnetic fields well below equipartition (with the large-scale flow) with different scalings depending on the relative strength of shear and magnetic field. The turbulent viscosity is also found to be significantly reduced by shear and magnetic fields, with positive value. These results suggest a crucial effect of shear and magnetic field on dynamo quenching and momentum transport reduction, with important implications for laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, in particular, for the dynamics of the Sun.

  11. Physical metallurgy of direct-quenched steels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.A. ); Thompson, S.W. ); Fletcher, F.B. )

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held during November 2-4, 1992 in Chicago as part of Materials Week '92''. This symposium focused on the metallurgy of steels containing martensitic or bainitic microstructures formed from thermomechanically processed austenite, and builds upon two recent topical meetings on the related subject of ferritic accelerated cooled steels. Papers in the first section deal with thermodynamics and kinetics of austenite transformation, the morphology of austenite transformation products, and alloy carbide precipitation. Results of investigations of relationships between processing variables, microstructure, and mechanical properties are contained in the following section. Section III is devoted specifically to boron hardenability effects. papers in the final section are concerned with product development; included here is a comprehensive overview of industrial accelerated cooling/direct quenching technology by researchers from the Nippon Steel Corporation.

  12. Quench in superconducting magnets. 2: Analytic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shajii, A.; Freidberg, J. P.

    1994-09-01

    A set of analytic solutions for the Quencher model, as described in Part 1 (Shajii and Freidberg, 1994), is presented in this paper. These analytic solutions represent the first such results that remain valid for the long time scales of interest during a quench process. The assumptions and the resulting simplifications that lead to the analytic solutions are discussed, and the regimes of validity of the various approximations are specified. The predictions of the analytic results are shown to be in very good agreement with numerical as well as experimental results. Important analytic scaling relations are verified by such comparisons, and the consequences of some of these scalings on currently designed superconducting magnets are discussed.

  13. Tomography of Band Insulators from Quench Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Lewenstein, Maciej; Eckardt, André

    2014-07-01

    We propose a simple scheme for tomography of band-insulating states in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices with two sublattice states. In particular, the scheme maps out the Berry curvature in the entire Brillouin zone and extracts topological invariants such as the Chern number. The measurement relies on observing—via time-of-flight imaging—the time evolution of the momentum distribution following a sudden quench in the band structure. We consider two examples of experimental relevance: the Harper model with π flux and the Haldane model on a honeycomb lattice. Moreover, we illustrate the performance of the scheme in the presence of a parabolic trap, noise, and finite measurement resolution.

  14. Locality and Scaling of Quenched Overlap Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Terrence Draper; Nilmani Mathur; Jianbo Zhang; Andrei Alexandru; Ying Chen; Shao-Jing Dong; Ivan Horvath; Frank Lee; Sonali Tamhankar

    2005-07-01

    The overlap fermion offers the tremendous advantage of exact chiral symmetry on the lattice, but is numerically intensive. This can be made affordable while still providing large lattice volumes, by using coarse lattice spacing, given that good scaling and localization properties are established. Here, using overlap fermions on quenched Iwasaki gauge configurations, we demonstrate directly that the overlap Dirac operator's range is comfortably small in lattice units for each of the lattice spacings 0.20 fm, 0.17 fm, and 0.13 fm (and scales to zero in physical units in the continuum limit). In particular, our direct results contradict recent speculation that an inverse lattice spacing of 1 GeV is too low to have satisfactory localization. Furthermore, hadronic masses (available on the two coarser lattices) scale very well.

  15. Response functions after a quantum quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcuzzi, Matteo; Gambassi, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    The response of physical systems to external perturbations can be used to probe both their equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics. While response and correlation functions are related in equilibrium by fluctuation-dissipation theorems, out of equilibrium they provide complementary information on the dynamics. In the past years, a method has been devised to map the quantum dynamics of an isolated extended system after a quench onto a static theory with boundaries in imaginary time; up to now, however, the focus was entirely on symmetrized correlation functions. Here we provide a prescription which, in principle, allows one to retrieve the whole set of relevant dynamical quantities characterizing the evolution, including linear response functions. We illustrate this construction with some relevant examples, showing in the process the emergence of light-cone effects similar to those observed in correlation functions.

  16. Observation of the Molecular Quenching of μp(2S) Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, R.; Daniel, H.; Hartmann, F. J.; Hauser, P.; Liu, Y. W.; Kottmann, F.; Maierl, C.; Markushin, V. E.; Mühlbauer, M.; Petitjean, C.; Schott, W.; Taqqu, D.

    2001-12-01

    Kinetic energy distributions of muonic hydrogen atoms μp(1S) have been obtained by means of a time-of-flight technique for hydrogen gas pressures between 4 and 64 hPa. A high energy component of ˜900 eV observed in the data is interpreted as the signature of long-lived μp(2S) atoms, which are quenched in a non-radiative process leading to the observed high energy: the collision of a thermalized μp(2S) atom with a hydrogen molecule H2 results in the resonant formation of a {[(ppμ)+]*pee}* molecule. Then the (ppμ)+ complex undergoes Coulomb de-excitation and the ˜1.9 keV excitation energy is shared between a μp(1S) atom and one proton. The preliminary analysis of the time spectra gives a long-lived μp(2S) population of ˜1% of all stopped muons, and a quenching rate of ˜4ṡ1011 s-1.

  17. Picosecond Kinetics of Light Harvesting and Photoprotective Quenching in Wild-Type and Mutant Phycobilisomes Isolated from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lijin; Gwizdala, Michal; van Stokkum, Ivo H.M.; Koehorst, Rob B.M.; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    In high light conditions, cyanobacteria dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat in the light-harvesting phycobilisomes (PBs) to protect the photosynthetic system against photodamage. This process requires the binding of the red active form of the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCPr), which can effectively quench the excited state of one of the allophycocyanin bilins. Recently, an in vitro reconstitution system was developed using isolated OCP and isolated PBs from Synechocystis PCC 6803. Here we have used spectrally resolved picosecond fluorescence to study wild-type and two mutated PBs. The results demonstrate that the quenching for all types of PBs takes place on an allophycocyanin bilin emitting at 660 nm (APCQ660) with a molecular quenching rate that is faster than (1 ps)−1. Moreover, it is concluded that both the mechanism and the site of quenching are the same in vitro and in vivo. Thus, utilization of the in vitro system should make it possible in the future to elucidate whether the quenching is caused by charge transfer between APCQ660 and OCP or by excitation energy transfer from APCQ660 to the S1 state of the carotenoid—a distinction that is very hard, if not impossible, to make in vivo. PMID:22500770

  18. The impact of local structure variation on thermal quenching of luminescence in Ca3MoxW1-xO6:Eu3+ solid solution phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhao; Ye, Shi; Li, Ye; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2017-03-01

    Near-ultraviolet (NUV, 365-410 nm) excitable white light emitting diodes require intense absorption in the NUV region for the tri-color phosphors (red, green, and blue). Optional red phosphor Ca3MoO6:Eu3+ meets the requirement of NUV absorption but suffers from severe quenching, while Ca3WO6:Eu3+ has good resistance to thermal quenching but could not absorb NUV light efficiently. It is requisite to investigate the candidate Ca3MoxW1-xO6:Eu3+ to balance the both effects. Results indicate that thermal quenching turns to be worse with an increase in Mo contents in the solid solutions with inevitable distortions or defects, especially when exciting the charge transfer band of WO6 and MoO6 groups. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy is utilized to reveal the impact of structural variation in the quenching process since the variations influence the energy transfer between WO6/MoO6 groups and Eu3+ ions or among Eu3+ ions. Results show that the tilting or distortion of the Ca/W/MoO6 octahedral framework and weakened Eu3+-O bonds have large impacts on thermal quenching performance of Eu3+ luminescence in the solid solutions. The research would benefit the design of novel red phosphors.

  19. Portable vibration exciter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  20. Excited charmed mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.; Shukla, S.

    1995-05-01

    The experimental status of excited charmed mesons is reviewed and is compared to theoretical expectations. Six states have been observed and their properties are consistent with those predicted for excited charmed states with orbital angular momentum equal to one.